1 /*
   2  * Copyright (c) 1997, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
   3  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
   4  *
   5  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   6  * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
   7  * published by the Free Software Foundation.
   8  *
   9  * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  10  * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  11  * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  12  * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  13  * accompanied this code).
  14  *
  15  * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  16  * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  17  * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  18  *
  19  * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  20  * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  21  * questions.
  22  *
  23  */
  24 
  25 #include "precompiled.hpp"
  26 #include "classfile/javaAssertions.hpp"
  27 #include "classfile/symbolTable.hpp"
  28 #include "compiler/compilerOracle.hpp"
  29 #include "memory/allocation.inline.hpp"
  30 #include "memory/cardTableRS.hpp"
  31 #include "memory/referenceProcessor.hpp"
  32 #include "memory/universe.inline.hpp"
  33 #include "oops/oop.inline.hpp"
  34 #include "prims/jvmtiExport.hpp"
  35 #include "runtime/arguments.hpp"
  36 #include "runtime/globals_extension.hpp"
  37 #include "runtime/java.hpp"
  38 #include "services/management.hpp"
  39 #include "services/memTracker.hpp"
  40 #include "utilities/defaultStream.hpp"
  41 #include "utilities/macros.hpp"
  42 #include "utilities/taskqueue.hpp"
  43 #ifdef TARGET_OS_FAMILY_linux
  44 # include "os_linux.inline.hpp"
  45 #endif
  46 #ifdef TARGET_OS_FAMILY_solaris
  47 # include "os_solaris.inline.hpp"
  48 #endif
  49 #ifdef TARGET_OS_FAMILY_windows
  50 # include "os_windows.inline.hpp"
  51 #endif
  52 #ifdef TARGET_OS_FAMILY_bsd
  53 # include "os_bsd.inline.hpp"
  54 #endif
  55 #if INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
  56 #include "gc_implementation/concurrentMarkSweep/compactibleFreeListSpace.hpp"
  57 #endif // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
  58 
  59 // Note: This is a special bug reporting site for the JVM
  60 #define DEFAULT_VENDOR_URL_BUG "http://bugreport.sun.com/bugreport/crash.jsp"
  61 #define DEFAULT_JAVA_LAUNCHER  "generic"
  62 
  63 // Disable options not supported in this release, with a warning if they
  64 // were explicitly requested on the command-line
  65 #define UNSUPPORTED_OPTION(opt, description)                    \
  66 do {                                                            \
  67   if (opt) {                                                    \
  68     if (FLAG_IS_CMDLINE(opt)) {                                 \
  69       warning(description " is disabled in this release.");     \
  70     }                                                           \
  71     FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(opt, false);                               \
  72   }                                                             \
  73 } while(0)
  74 
  75 #define UNSUPPORTED_GC_OPTION(gc)                                     \
  76 do {                                                                  \
  77   if (gc) {                                                           \
  78     if (FLAG_IS_CMDLINE(gc)) {                                        \
  79       warning(#gc " is not supported in this VM.  Using Serial GC."); \
  80     }                                                                 \
  81     FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(gc, false);                                      \
  82   }                                                                   \
  83 } while(0)
  84 
  85 char**  Arguments::_jvm_flags_array             = NULL;
  86 int     Arguments::_num_jvm_flags               = 0;
  87 char**  Arguments::_jvm_args_array              = NULL;
  88 int     Arguments::_num_jvm_args                = 0;
  89 char*  Arguments::_java_command                 = NULL;
  90 SystemProperty* Arguments::_system_properties   = NULL;
  91 const char*  Arguments::_gc_log_filename        = NULL;
  92 bool   Arguments::_has_profile                  = false;
  93 uintx  Arguments::_min_heap_size                = 0;
  94 Arguments::Mode Arguments::_mode                = _mixed;
  95 bool   Arguments::_java_compiler                = false;
  96 bool   Arguments::_xdebug_mode                  = false;
  97 const char*  Arguments::_java_vendor_url_bug    = DEFAULT_VENDOR_URL_BUG;
  98 const char*  Arguments::_sun_java_launcher      = DEFAULT_JAVA_LAUNCHER;
  99 int    Arguments::_sun_java_launcher_pid        = -1;
 100 bool   Arguments::_created_by_gamma_launcher    = false;
 101 
 102 // These parameters are reset in method parse_vm_init_args(JavaVMInitArgs*)
 103 bool   Arguments::_AlwaysCompileLoopMethods     = AlwaysCompileLoopMethods;
 104 bool   Arguments::_UseOnStackReplacement        = UseOnStackReplacement;
 105 bool   Arguments::_BackgroundCompilation        = BackgroundCompilation;
 106 bool   Arguments::_ClipInlining                 = ClipInlining;
 107 
 108 char*  Arguments::SharedArchivePath             = NULL;
 109 
 110 AgentLibraryList Arguments::_libraryList;
 111 AgentLibraryList Arguments::_agentList;
 112 
 113 abort_hook_t     Arguments::_abort_hook         = NULL;
 114 exit_hook_t      Arguments::_exit_hook          = NULL;
 115 vfprintf_hook_t  Arguments::_vfprintf_hook      = NULL;
 116 
 117 
 118 SystemProperty *Arguments::_java_ext_dirs = NULL;
 119 SystemProperty *Arguments::_java_endorsed_dirs = NULL;
 120 SystemProperty *Arguments::_sun_boot_library_path = NULL;
 121 SystemProperty *Arguments::_java_library_path = NULL;
 122 SystemProperty *Arguments::_java_home = NULL;
 123 SystemProperty *Arguments::_java_class_path = NULL;
 124 SystemProperty *Arguments::_sun_boot_class_path = NULL;
 125 
 126 char* Arguments::_meta_index_path = NULL;
 127 char* Arguments::_meta_index_dir = NULL;
 128 
 129 // Check if head of 'option' matches 'name', and sets 'tail' remaining part of option string
 130 
 131 static bool match_option(const JavaVMOption *option, const char* name,
 132                          const char** tail) {
 133   int len = (int)strlen(name);
 134   if (strncmp(option->optionString, name, len) == 0) {
 135     *tail = option->optionString + len;
 136     return true;
 137   } else {
 138     return false;
 139   }
 140 }
 141 
 142 static void logOption(const char* opt) {
 143   if (PrintVMOptions) {
 144     jio_fprintf(defaultStream::output_stream(), "VM option '%s'\n", opt);
 145   }
 146 }
 147 
 148 // Process java launcher properties.
 149 void Arguments::process_sun_java_launcher_properties(JavaVMInitArgs* args) {
 150   // See if sun.java.launcher or sun.java.launcher.pid is defined.
 151   // Must do this before setting up other system properties,
 152   // as some of them may depend on launcher type.
 153   for (int index = 0; index < args->nOptions; index++) {
 154     const JavaVMOption* option = args->options + index;
 155     const char* tail;
 156 
 157     if (match_option(option, "-Dsun.java.launcher=", &tail)) {
 158       process_java_launcher_argument(tail, option->extraInfo);
 159       continue;
 160     }
 161     if (match_option(option, "-Dsun.java.launcher.pid=", &tail)) {
 162       _sun_java_launcher_pid = atoi(tail);
 163       continue;
 164     }
 165   }
 166 }
 167 
 168 // Initialize system properties key and value.
 169 void Arguments::init_system_properties() {
 170 
 171   PropertyList_add(&_system_properties, new SystemProperty("java.vm.specification.name",
 172                                                                  "Java Virtual Machine Specification",  false));
 173   PropertyList_add(&_system_properties, new SystemProperty("java.vm.version", VM_Version::vm_release(),  false));
 174   PropertyList_add(&_system_properties, new SystemProperty("java.vm.name", VM_Version::vm_name(),  false));
 175   PropertyList_add(&_system_properties, new SystemProperty("java.vm.info", VM_Version::vm_info_string(),  true));
 176 
 177   // following are JVMTI agent writeable properties.
 178   // Properties values are set to NULL and they are
 179   // os specific they are initialized in os::init_system_properties_values().
 180   _java_ext_dirs = new SystemProperty("java.ext.dirs", NULL,  true);
 181   _java_endorsed_dirs = new SystemProperty("java.endorsed.dirs", NULL,  true);
 182   _sun_boot_library_path = new SystemProperty("sun.boot.library.path", NULL,  true);
 183   _java_library_path = new SystemProperty("java.library.path", NULL,  true);
 184   _java_home =  new SystemProperty("java.home", NULL,  true);
 185   _sun_boot_class_path = new SystemProperty("sun.boot.class.path", NULL,  true);
 186 
 187   _java_class_path = new SystemProperty("java.class.path", "",  true);
 188 
 189   // Add to System Property list.
 190   PropertyList_add(&_system_properties, _java_ext_dirs);
 191   PropertyList_add(&_system_properties, _java_endorsed_dirs);
 192   PropertyList_add(&_system_properties, _sun_boot_library_path);
 193   PropertyList_add(&_system_properties, _java_library_path);
 194   PropertyList_add(&_system_properties, _java_home);
 195   PropertyList_add(&_system_properties, _java_class_path);
 196   PropertyList_add(&_system_properties, _sun_boot_class_path);
 197 
 198   // Set OS specific system properties values
 199   os::init_system_properties_values();
 200 }
 201 
 202 
 203   // Update/Initialize System properties after JDK version number is known
 204 void Arguments::init_version_specific_system_properties() {
 205   enum { bufsz = 16 };
 206   char buffer[bufsz];
 207   const char* spec_vendor = "Sun Microsystems Inc.";
 208   uint32_t spec_version = 0;
 209 
 210   if (JDK_Version::is_gte_jdk17x_version()) {
 211     spec_vendor = "Oracle Corporation";
 212     spec_version = JDK_Version::current().major_version();
 213   }
 214   jio_snprintf(buffer, bufsz, "1." UINT32_FORMAT, spec_version);
 215 
 216   PropertyList_add(&_system_properties,
 217       new SystemProperty("java.vm.specification.vendor",  spec_vendor, false));
 218   PropertyList_add(&_system_properties,
 219       new SystemProperty("java.vm.specification.version", buffer, false));
 220   PropertyList_add(&_system_properties,
 221       new SystemProperty("java.vm.vendor", VM_Version::vm_vendor(),  false));
 222 }
 223 
 224 /**
 225  * Provide a slightly more user-friendly way of eliminating -XX flags.
 226  * When a flag is eliminated, it can be added to this list in order to
 227  * continue accepting this flag on the command-line, while issuing a warning
 228  * and ignoring the value.  Once the JDK version reaches the 'accept_until'
 229  * limit, we flatly refuse to admit the existence of the flag.  This allows
 230  * a flag to die correctly over JDK releases using HSX.
 231  */
 232 typedef struct {
 233   const char* name;
 234   JDK_Version obsoleted_in; // when the flag went away
 235   JDK_Version accept_until; // which version to start denying the existence
 236 } ObsoleteFlag;
 237 
 238 static ObsoleteFlag obsolete_jvm_flags[] = {
 239   { "UseTrainGC",                    JDK_Version::jdk(5), JDK_Version::jdk(7) },
 240   { "UseSpecialLargeObjectHandling", JDK_Version::jdk(5), JDK_Version::jdk(7) },
 241   { "UseOversizedCarHandling",       JDK_Version::jdk(5), JDK_Version::jdk(7) },
 242   { "TraceCarAllocation",            JDK_Version::jdk(5), JDK_Version::jdk(7) },
 243   { "PrintTrainGCProcessingStats",   JDK_Version::jdk(5), JDK_Version::jdk(7) },
 244   { "LogOfCarSpaceSize",             JDK_Version::jdk(5), JDK_Version::jdk(7) },
 245   { "OversizedCarThreshold",         JDK_Version::jdk(5), JDK_Version::jdk(7) },
 246   { "MinTickInterval",               JDK_Version::jdk(5), JDK_Version::jdk(7) },
 247   { "DefaultTickInterval",           JDK_Version::jdk(5), JDK_Version::jdk(7) },
 248   { "MaxTickInterval",               JDK_Version::jdk(5), JDK_Version::jdk(7) },
 249   { "DelayTickAdjustment",           JDK_Version::jdk(5), JDK_Version::jdk(7) },
 250   { "ProcessingToTenuringRatio",     JDK_Version::jdk(5), JDK_Version::jdk(7) },
 251   { "MinTrainLength",                JDK_Version::jdk(5), JDK_Version::jdk(7) },
 252   { "AppendRatio",         JDK_Version::jdk_update(6,10), JDK_Version::jdk(7) },
 253   { "DefaultMaxRAM",       JDK_Version::jdk_update(6,18), JDK_Version::jdk(7) },
 254   { "DefaultInitialRAMFraction",
 255                            JDK_Version::jdk_update(6,18), JDK_Version::jdk(7) },
 256   { "UseDepthFirstScavengeOrder",
 257                            JDK_Version::jdk_update(6,22), JDK_Version::jdk(7) },
 258   { "HandlePromotionFailure",
 259                            JDK_Version::jdk_update(6,24), JDK_Version::jdk(8) },
 260   { "MaxLiveObjectEvacuationRatio",
 261                            JDK_Version::jdk_update(6,24), JDK_Version::jdk(8) },
 262   { "ForceSharedSpaces",   JDK_Version::jdk_update(6,25), JDK_Version::jdk(8) },
 263   { "UseParallelOldGCCompacting",
 264                            JDK_Version::jdk_update(6,27), JDK_Version::jdk(8) },
 265   { "UseParallelDensePrefixUpdate",
 266                            JDK_Version::jdk_update(6,27), JDK_Version::jdk(8) },
 267   { "UseParallelOldGCDensePrefix",
 268                            JDK_Version::jdk_update(6,27), JDK_Version::jdk(8) },
 269   { "AllowTransitionalJSR292",       JDK_Version::jdk(7), JDK_Version::jdk(8) },
 270   { "UseCompressedStrings",          JDK_Version::jdk(7), JDK_Version::jdk(8) },
 271   { "CMSPermGenPrecleaningEnabled", JDK_Version::jdk(8),  JDK_Version::jdk(9) },
 272   { "CMSTriggerPermRatio", JDK_Version::jdk(8),  JDK_Version::jdk(9) },
 273   { "CMSInitiatingPermOccupancyFraction", JDK_Version::jdk(8),  JDK_Version::jdk(9) },
 274   { "AdaptivePermSizeWeight", JDK_Version::jdk(8),  JDK_Version::jdk(9) },
 275   { "PermGenPadding", JDK_Version::jdk(8),  JDK_Version::jdk(9) },
 276   { "PermMarkSweepDeadRatio", JDK_Version::jdk(8),  JDK_Version::jdk(9) },
 277   { "PermSize", JDK_Version::jdk(8),  JDK_Version::jdk(9) },
 278   { "MaxPermSize", JDK_Version::jdk(8),  JDK_Version::jdk(9) },
 279   { "MinPermHeapExpansion", JDK_Version::jdk(8),  JDK_Version::jdk(9) },
 280   { "MaxPermHeapExpansion", JDK_Version::jdk(8),  JDK_Version::jdk(9) },
 281   { "CMSRevisitStackSize",           JDK_Version::jdk(8), JDK_Version::jdk(9) },
 282   { "PrintRevisitStats",             JDK_Version::jdk(8), JDK_Version::jdk(9) },
 283   { "UseVectoredExceptions",         JDK_Version::jdk(8), JDK_Version::jdk(9) },
 284   { "UseSplitVerifier",              JDK_Version::jdk(8), JDK_Version::jdk(9) },
 285   { "UseISM",                        JDK_Version::jdk(8), JDK_Version::jdk(9) },
 286   { "UsePermISM",                    JDK_Version::jdk(8), JDK_Version::jdk(9) },
 287   { "UseMPSS",                       JDK_Version::jdk(8), JDK_Version::jdk(9) },
 288   { "UseStringCache",                JDK_Version::jdk(8), JDK_Version::jdk(9) },
 289 #ifdef PRODUCT
 290   { "DesiredMethodLimit",
 291                            JDK_Version::jdk_update(7, 2), JDK_Version::jdk(8) },
 292 #endif // PRODUCT
 293   { NULL, JDK_Version(0), JDK_Version(0) }
 294 };
 295 
 296 // Returns true if the flag is obsolete and fits into the range specified
 297 // for being ignored.  In the case that the flag is ignored, the 'version'
 298 // value is filled in with the version number when the flag became
 299 // obsolete so that that value can be displayed to the user.
 300 bool Arguments::is_newly_obsolete(const char *s, JDK_Version* version) {
 301   int i = 0;
 302   assert(version != NULL, "Must provide a version buffer");
 303   while (obsolete_jvm_flags[i].name != NULL) {
 304     const ObsoleteFlag& flag_status = obsolete_jvm_flags[i];
 305     // <flag>=xxx form
 306     // [-|+]<flag> form
 307     if ((strncmp(flag_status.name, s, strlen(flag_status.name)) == 0) ||
 308         ((s[0] == '+' || s[0] == '-') &&
 309         (strncmp(flag_status.name, &s[1], strlen(flag_status.name)) == 0))) {
 310       if (JDK_Version::current().compare(flag_status.accept_until) == -1) {
 311           *version = flag_status.obsoleted_in;
 312           return true;
 313       }
 314     }
 315     i++;
 316   }
 317   return false;
 318 }
 319 
 320 // Constructs the system class path (aka boot class path) from the following
 321 // components, in order:
 322 //
 323 //     prefix           // from -Xbootclasspath/p:...
 324 //     endorsed         // the expansion of -Djava.endorsed.dirs=...
 325 //     base             // from os::get_system_properties() or -Xbootclasspath=
 326 //     suffix           // from -Xbootclasspath/a:...
 327 //
 328 // java.endorsed.dirs is a list of directories; any jar or zip files in the
 329 // directories are added to the sysclasspath just before the base.
 330 //
 331 // This could be AllStatic, but it isn't needed after argument processing is
 332 // complete.
 333 class SysClassPath: public StackObj {
 334 public:
 335   SysClassPath(const char* base);
 336   ~SysClassPath();
 337 
 338   inline void set_base(const char* base);
 339   inline void add_prefix(const char* prefix);
 340   inline void add_suffix_to_prefix(const char* suffix);
 341   inline void add_suffix(const char* suffix);
 342   inline void reset_path(const char* base);
 343 
 344   // Expand the jar/zip files in each directory listed by the java.endorsed.dirs
 345   // property.  Must be called after all command-line arguments have been
 346   // processed (in particular, -Djava.endorsed.dirs=...) and before calling
 347   // combined_path().
 348   void expand_endorsed();
 349 
 350   inline const char* get_base()     const { return _items[_scp_base]; }
 351   inline const char* get_prefix()   const { return _items[_scp_prefix]; }
 352   inline const char* get_suffix()   const { return _items[_scp_suffix]; }
 353   inline const char* get_endorsed() const { return _items[_scp_endorsed]; }
 354 
 355   // Combine all the components into a single c-heap-allocated string; caller
 356   // must free the string if/when no longer needed.
 357   char* combined_path();
 358 
 359 private:
 360   // Utility routines.
 361   static char* add_to_path(const char* path, const char* str, bool prepend);
 362   static char* add_jars_to_path(char* path, const char* directory);
 363 
 364   inline void reset_item_at(int index);
 365 
 366   // Array indices for the items that make up the sysclasspath.  All except the
 367   // base are allocated in the C heap and freed by this class.
 368   enum {
 369     _scp_prefix,        // from -Xbootclasspath/p:...
 370     _scp_endorsed,      // the expansion of -Djava.endorsed.dirs=...
 371     _scp_base,          // the default sysclasspath
 372     _scp_suffix,        // from -Xbootclasspath/a:...
 373     _scp_nitems         // the number of items, must be last.
 374   };
 375 
 376   const char* _items[_scp_nitems];
 377   DEBUG_ONLY(bool _expansion_done;)
 378 };
 379 
 380 SysClassPath::SysClassPath(const char* base) {
 381   memset(_items, 0, sizeof(_items));
 382   _items[_scp_base] = base;
 383   DEBUG_ONLY(_expansion_done = false;)
 384 }
 385 
 386 SysClassPath::~SysClassPath() {
 387   // Free everything except the base.
 388   for (int i = 0; i < _scp_nitems; ++i) {
 389     if (i != _scp_base) reset_item_at(i);
 390   }
 391   DEBUG_ONLY(_expansion_done = false;)
 392 }
 393 
 394 inline void SysClassPath::set_base(const char* base) {
 395   _items[_scp_base] = base;
 396 }
 397 
 398 inline void SysClassPath::add_prefix(const char* prefix) {
 399   _items[_scp_prefix] = add_to_path(_items[_scp_prefix], prefix, true);
 400 }
 401 
 402 inline void SysClassPath::add_suffix_to_prefix(const char* suffix) {
 403   _items[_scp_prefix] = add_to_path(_items[_scp_prefix], suffix, false);
 404 }
 405 
 406 inline void SysClassPath::add_suffix(const char* suffix) {
 407   _items[_scp_suffix] = add_to_path(_items[_scp_suffix], suffix, false);
 408 }
 409 
 410 inline void SysClassPath::reset_item_at(int index) {
 411   assert(index < _scp_nitems && index != _scp_base, "just checking");
 412   if (_items[index] != NULL) {
 413     FREE_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, _items[index], mtInternal);
 414     _items[index] = NULL;
 415   }
 416 }
 417 
 418 inline void SysClassPath::reset_path(const char* base) {
 419   // Clear the prefix and suffix.
 420   reset_item_at(_scp_prefix);
 421   reset_item_at(_scp_suffix);
 422   set_base(base);
 423 }
 424 
 425 //------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 426 
 427 void SysClassPath::expand_endorsed() {
 428   assert(_items[_scp_endorsed] == NULL, "can only be called once.");
 429 
 430   const char* path = Arguments::get_property("java.endorsed.dirs");
 431   if (path == NULL) {
 432     path = Arguments::get_endorsed_dir();
 433     assert(path != NULL, "no default for java.endorsed.dirs");
 434   }
 435 
 436   char* expanded_path = NULL;
 437   const char separator = *os::path_separator();
 438   const char* const end = path + strlen(path);
 439   while (path < end) {
 440     const char* tmp_end = strchr(path, separator);
 441     if (tmp_end == NULL) {
 442       expanded_path = add_jars_to_path(expanded_path, path);
 443       path = end;
 444     } else {
 445       char* dirpath = NEW_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, tmp_end - path + 1, mtInternal);
 446       memcpy(dirpath, path, tmp_end - path);
 447       dirpath[tmp_end - path] = '\0';
 448       expanded_path = add_jars_to_path(expanded_path, dirpath);
 449       FREE_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, dirpath, mtInternal);
 450       path = tmp_end + 1;
 451     }
 452   }
 453   _items[_scp_endorsed] = expanded_path;
 454   DEBUG_ONLY(_expansion_done = true;)
 455 }
 456 
 457 // Combine the bootclasspath elements, some of which may be null, into a single
 458 // c-heap-allocated string.
 459 char* SysClassPath::combined_path() {
 460   assert(_items[_scp_base] != NULL, "empty default sysclasspath");
 461   assert(_expansion_done, "must call expand_endorsed() first.");
 462 
 463   size_t lengths[_scp_nitems];
 464   size_t total_len = 0;
 465 
 466   const char separator = *os::path_separator();
 467 
 468   // Get the lengths.
 469   int i;
 470   for (i = 0; i < _scp_nitems; ++i) {
 471     if (_items[i] != NULL) {
 472       lengths[i] = strlen(_items[i]);
 473       // Include space for the separator char (or a NULL for the last item).
 474       total_len += lengths[i] + 1;
 475     }
 476   }
 477   assert(total_len > 0, "empty sysclasspath not allowed");
 478 
 479   // Copy the _items to a single string.
 480   char* cp = NEW_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, total_len, mtInternal);
 481   char* cp_tmp = cp;
 482   for (i = 0; i < _scp_nitems; ++i) {
 483     if (_items[i] != NULL) {
 484       memcpy(cp_tmp, _items[i], lengths[i]);
 485       cp_tmp += lengths[i];
 486       *cp_tmp++ = separator;
 487     }
 488   }
 489   *--cp_tmp = '\0';     // Replace the extra separator.
 490   return cp;
 491 }
 492 
 493 // Note:  path must be c-heap-allocated (or NULL); it is freed if non-null.
 494 char*
 495 SysClassPath::add_to_path(const char* path, const char* str, bool prepend) {
 496   char *cp;
 497 
 498   assert(str != NULL, "just checking");
 499   if (path == NULL) {
 500     size_t len = strlen(str) + 1;
 501     cp = NEW_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, len, mtInternal);
 502     memcpy(cp, str, len);                       // copy the trailing null
 503   } else {
 504     const char separator = *os::path_separator();
 505     size_t old_len = strlen(path);
 506     size_t str_len = strlen(str);
 507     size_t len = old_len + str_len + 2;
 508 
 509     if (prepend) {
 510       cp = NEW_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, len, mtInternal);
 511       char* cp_tmp = cp;
 512       memcpy(cp_tmp, str, str_len);
 513       cp_tmp += str_len;
 514       *cp_tmp = separator;
 515       memcpy(++cp_tmp, path, old_len + 1);      // copy the trailing null
 516       FREE_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, path, mtInternal);
 517     } else {
 518       cp = REALLOC_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, path, len, mtInternal);
 519       char* cp_tmp = cp + old_len;
 520       *cp_tmp = separator;
 521       memcpy(++cp_tmp, str, str_len + 1);       // copy the trailing null
 522     }
 523   }
 524   return cp;
 525 }
 526 
 527 // Scan the directory and append any jar or zip files found to path.
 528 // Note:  path must be c-heap-allocated (or NULL); it is freed if non-null.
 529 char* SysClassPath::add_jars_to_path(char* path, const char* directory) {
 530   DIR* dir = os::opendir(directory);
 531   if (dir == NULL) return path;
 532 
 533   char dir_sep[2] = { '\0', '\0' };
 534   size_t directory_len = strlen(directory);
 535   const char fileSep = *os::file_separator();
 536   if (directory[directory_len - 1] != fileSep) dir_sep[0] = fileSep;
 537 
 538   /* Scan the directory for jars/zips, appending them to path. */
 539   struct dirent *entry;
 540   char *dbuf = NEW_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, os::readdir_buf_size(directory), mtInternal);
 541   while ((entry = os::readdir(dir, (dirent *) dbuf)) != NULL) {
 542     const char* name = entry->d_name;
 543     const char* ext = name + strlen(name) - 4;
 544     bool isJarOrZip = ext > name &&
 545       (os::file_name_strcmp(ext, ".jar") == 0 ||
 546        os::file_name_strcmp(ext, ".zip") == 0);
 547     if (isJarOrZip) {
 548       char* jarpath = NEW_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, directory_len + 2 + strlen(name), mtInternal);
 549       sprintf(jarpath, "%s%s%s", directory, dir_sep, name);
 550       path = add_to_path(path, jarpath, false);
 551       FREE_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, jarpath, mtInternal);
 552     }
 553   }
 554   FREE_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, dbuf, mtInternal);
 555   os::closedir(dir);
 556   return path;
 557 }
 558 
 559 // Parses a memory size specification string.
 560 static bool atomull(const char *s, julong* result) {
 561   julong n = 0;
 562   int args_read = sscanf(s, JULONG_FORMAT, &n);
 563   if (args_read != 1) {
 564     return false;
 565   }
 566   while (*s != '\0' && isdigit(*s)) {
 567     s++;
 568   }
 569   // 4705540: illegal if more characters are found after the first non-digit
 570   if (strlen(s) > 1) {
 571     return false;
 572   }
 573   switch (*s) {
 574     case 'T': case 't':
 575       *result = n * G * K;
 576       // Check for overflow.
 577       if (*result/((julong)G * K) != n) return false;
 578       return true;
 579     case 'G': case 'g':
 580       *result = n * G;
 581       if (*result/G != n) return false;
 582       return true;
 583     case 'M': case 'm':
 584       *result = n * M;
 585       if (*result/M != n) return false;
 586       return true;
 587     case 'K': case 'k':
 588       *result = n * K;
 589       if (*result/K != n) return false;
 590       return true;
 591     case '\0':
 592       *result = n;
 593       return true;
 594     default:
 595       return false;
 596   }
 597 }
 598 
 599 Arguments::ArgsRange Arguments::check_memory_size(julong size, julong min_size) {
 600   if (size < min_size) return arg_too_small;
 601   // Check that size will fit in a size_t (only relevant on 32-bit)
 602   if (size > max_uintx) return arg_too_big;
 603   return arg_in_range;
 604 }
 605 
 606 // Describe an argument out of range error
 607 void Arguments::describe_range_error(ArgsRange errcode) {
 608   switch(errcode) {
 609   case arg_too_big:
 610     jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
 611                 "The specified size exceeds the maximum "
 612                 "representable size.\n");
 613     break;
 614   case arg_too_small:
 615   case arg_unreadable:
 616   case arg_in_range:
 617     // do nothing for now
 618     break;
 619   default:
 620     ShouldNotReachHere();
 621   }
 622 }
 623 
 624 static bool set_bool_flag(char* name, bool value, FlagValueOrigin origin) {
 625   return CommandLineFlags::boolAtPut(name, &value, origin);
 626 }
 627 
 628 static bool set_fp_numeric_flag(char* name, char* value, FlagValueOrigin origin) {
 629   double v;
 630   if (sscanf(value, "%lf", &v) != 1) {
 631     return false;
 632   }
 633 
 634   if (CommandLineFlags::doubleAtPut(name, &v, origin)) {
 635     return true;
 636   }
 637   return false;
 638 }
 639 
 640 static bool set_numeric_flag(char* name, char* value, FlagValueOrigin origin) {
 641   julong v;
 642   intx intx_v;
 643   bool is_neg = false;
 644   // Check the sign first since atomull() parses only unsigned values.
 645   if (*value == '-') {
 646     if (!CommandLineFlags::intxAt(name, &intx_v)) {
 647       return false;
 648     }
 649     value++;
 650     is_neg = true;
 651   }
 652   if (!atomull(value, &v)) {
 653     return false;
 654   }
 655   intx_v = (intx) v;
 656   if (is_neg) {
 657     intx_v = -intx_v;
 658   }
 659   if (CommandLineFlags::intxAtPut(name, &intx_v, origin)) {
 660     return true;
 661   }
 662   uintx uintx_v = (uintx) v;
 663   if (!is_neg && CommandLineFlags::uintxAtPut(name, &uintx_v, origin)) {
 664     return true;
 665   }
 666   uint64_t uint64_t_v = (uint64_t) v;
 667   if (!is_neg && CommandLineFlags::uint64_tAtPut(name, &uint64_t_v, origin)) {
 668     return true;
 669   }
 670   return false;
 671 }
 672 
 673 static bool set_string_flag(char* name, const char* value, FlagValueOrigin origin) {
 674   if (!CommandLineFlags::ccstrAtPut(name, &value, origin))  return false;
 675   // Contract:  CommandLineFlags always returns a pointer that needs freeing.
 676   FREE_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, value, mtInternal);
 677   return true;
 678 }
 679 
 680 static bool append_to_string_flag(char* name, const char* new_value, FlagValueOrigin origin) {
 681   const char* old_value = "";
 682   if (!CommandLineFlags::ccstrAt(name, &old_value))  return false;
 683   size_t old_len = old_value != NULL ? strlen(old_value) : 0;
 684   size_t new_len = strlen(new_value);
 685   const char* value;
 686   char* free_this_too = NULL;
 687   if (old_len == 0) {
 688     value = new_value;
 689   } else if (new_len == 0) {
 690     value = old_value;
 691   } else {
 692     char* buf = NEW_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, old_len + 1 + new_len + 1, mtInternal);
 693     // each new setting adds another LINE to the switch:
 694     sprintf(buf, "%s\n%s", old_value, new_value);
 695     value = buf;
 696     free_this_too = buf;
 697   }
 698   (void) CommandLineFlags::ccstrAtPut(name, &value, origin);
 699   // CommandLineFlags always returns a pointer that needs freeing.
 700   FREE_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, value, mtInternal);
 701   if (free_this_too != NULL) {
 702     // CommandLineFlags made its own copy, so I must delete my own temp. buffer.
 703     FREE_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, free_this_too, mtInternal);
 704   }
 705   return true;
 706 }
 707 
 708 bool Arguments::parse_argument(const char* arg, FlagValueOrigin origin) {
 709 
 710   // range of acceptable characters spelled out for portability reasons
 711 #define NAME_RANGE  "[abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0123456789_]"
 712 #define BUFLEN 255
 713   char name[BUFLEN+1];
 714   char dummy;
 715 
 716   if (sscanf(arg, "-%" XSTR(BUFLEN) NAME_RANGE "%c", name, &dummy) == 1) {
 717     return set_bool_flag(name, false, origin);
 718   }
 719   if (sscanf(arg, "+%" XSTR(BUFLEN) NAME_RANGE "%c", name, &dummy) == 1) {
 720     return set_bool_flag(name, true, origin);
 721   }
 722 
 723   char punct;
 724   if (sscanf(arg, "%" XSTR(BUFLEN) NAME_RANGE "%c", name, &punct) == 2 && punct == '=') {
 725     const char* value = strchr(arg, '=') + 1;
 726     Flag* flag = Flag::find_flag(name, strlen(name));
 727     if (flag != NULL && flag->is_ccstr()) {
 728       if (flag->ccstr_accumulates()) {
 729         return append_to_string_flag(name, value, origin);
 730       } else {
 731         if (value[0] == '\0') {
 732           value = NULL;
 733         }
 734         return set_string_flag(name, value, origin);
 735       }
 736     }
 737   }
 738 
 739   if (sscanf(arg, "%" XSTR(BUFLEN) NAME_RANGE ":%c", name, &punct) == 2 && punct == '=') {
 740     const char* value = strchr(arg, '=') + 1;
 741     // -XX:Foo:=xxx will reset the string flag to the given value.
 742     if (value[0] == '\0') {
 743       value = NULL;
 744     }
 745     return set_string_flag(name, value, origin);
 746   }
 747 
 748 #define SIGNED_FP_NUMBER_RANGE "[-0123456789.]"
 749 #define SIGNED_NUMBER_RANGE    "[-0123456789]"
 750 #define        NUMBER_RANGE    "[0123456789]"
 751   char value[BUFLEN + 1];
 752   char value2[BUFLEN + 1];
 753   if (sscanf(arg, "%" XSTR(BUFLEN) NAME_RANGE "=" "%" XSTR(BUFLEN) SIGNED_NUMBER_RANGE "." "%" XSTR(BUFLEN) NUMBER_RANGE "%c", name, value, value2, &dummy) == 3) {
 754     // Looks like a floating-point number -- try again with more lenient format string
 755     if (sscanf(arg, "%" XSTR(BUFLEN) NAME_RANGE "=" "%" XSTR(BUFLEN) SIGNED_FP_NUMBER_RANGE "%c", name, value, &dummy) == 2) {
 756       return set_fp_numeric_flag(name, value, origin);
 757     }
 758   }
 759 
 760 #define VALUE_RANGE "[-kmgtKMGT0123456789]"
 761   if (sscanf(arg, "%" XSTR(BUFLEN) NAME_RANGE "=" "%" XSTR(BUFLEN) VALUE_RANGE "%c", name, value, &dummy) == 2) {
 762     return set_numeric_flag(name, value, origin);
 763   }
 764 
 765   return false;
 766 }
 767 
 768 void Arguments::add_string(char*** bldarray, int* count, const char* arg) {
 769   assert(bldarray != NULL, "illegal argument");
 770 
 771   if (arg == NULL) {
 772     return;
 773   }
 774 
 775   int new_count = *count + 1;
 776 
 777   // expand the array and add arg to the last element
 778   if (*bldarray == NULL) {
 779     *bldarray = NEW_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char*, new_count, mtInternal);
 780   } else {
 781     *bldarray = REALLOC_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char*, *bldarray, new_count, mtInternal);
 782   }
 783   (*bldarray)[*count] = strdup(arg);
 784   *count = new_count;
 785 }
 786 
 787 void Arguments::build_jvm_args(const char* arg) {
 788   add_string(&_jvm_args_array, &_num_jvm_args, arg);
 789 }
 790 
 791 void Arguments::build_jvm_flags(const char* arg) {
 792   add_string(&_jvm_flags_array, &_num_jvm_flags, arg);
 793 }
 794 
 795 // utility function to return a string that concatenates all
 796 // strings in a given char** array
 797 const char* Arguments::build_resource_string(char** args, int count) {
 798   if (args == NULL || count == 0) {
 799     return NULL;
 800   }
 801   size_t length = strlen(args[0]) + 1; // add 1 for the null terminator
 802   for (int i = 1; i < count; i++) {
 803     length += strlen(args[i]) + 1; // add 1 for a space
 804   }
 805   char* s = NEW_RESOURCE_ARRAY(char, length);
 806   strcpy(s, args[0]);
 807   for (int j = 1; j < count; j++) {
 808     strcat(s, " ");
 809     strcat(s, args[j]);
 810   }
 811   return (const char*) s;
 812 }
 813 
 814 void Arguments::print_on(outputStream* st) {
 815   st->print_cr("VM Arguments:");
 816   if (num_jvm_flags() > 0) {
 817     st->print("jvm_flags: "); print_jvm_flags_on(st);
 818   }
 819   if (num_jvm_args() > 0) {
 820     st->print("jvm_args: "); print_jvm_args_on(st);
 821   }
 822   st->print_cr("java_command: %s", java_command() ? java_command() : "<unknown>");
 823   if (_java_class_path != NULL) {
 824     char* path = _java_class_path->value();
 825     st->print_cr("java_class_path (initial): %s", strlen(path) == 0 ? "<not set>" : path );
 826   }
 827   st->print_cr("Launcher Type: %s", _sun_java_launcher);
 828 }
 829 
 830 void Arguments::print_jvm_flags_on(outputStream* st) {
 831   if (_num_jvm_flags > 0) {
 832     for (int i=0; i < _num_jvm_flags; i++) {
 833       st->print("%s ", _jvm_flags_array[i]);
 834     }
 835     st->print_cr("");
 836   }
 837 }
 838 
 839 void Arguments::print_jvm_args_on(outputStream* st) {
 840   if (_num_jvm_args > 0) {
 841     for (int i=0; i < _num_jvm_args; i++) {
 842       st->print("%s ", _jvm_args_array[i]);
 843     }
 844     st->print_cr("");
 845   }
 846 }
 847 
 848 bool Arguments::process_argument(const char* arg,
 849     jboolean ignore_unrecognized, FlagValueOrigin origin) {
 850 
 851   JDK_Version since = JDK_Version();
 852 
 853   if (parse_argument(arg, origin) || ignore_unrecognized) {
 854     return true;
 855   }
 856 
 857   bool has_plus_minus = (*arg == '+' || *arg == '-');
 858   const char* const argname = has_plus_minus ? arg + 1 : arg;
 859   if (is_newly_obsolete(arg, &since)) {
 860     char version[256];
 861     since.to_string(version, sizeof(version));
 862     warning("ignoring option %s; support was removed in %s", argname, version);
 863     return true;
 864   }
 865 
 866   // For locked flags, report a custom error message if available.
 867   // Otherwise, report the standard unrecognized VM option.
 868 
 869   size_t arg_len;
 870   const char* equal_sign = strchr(argname, '=');
 871   if (equal_sign == NULL) {
 872     arg_len = strlen(argname);
 873   } else {
 874     arg_len = equal_sign - argname;
 875   }
 876 
 877   Flag* found_flag = Flag::find_flag((const char*)argname, arg_len, true);
 878   if (found_flag != NULL) {
 879     char locked_message_buf[BUFLEN];
 880     found_flag->get_locked_message(locked_message_buf, BUFLEN);
 881     if (strlen(locked_message_buf) == 0) {
 882       if (found_flag->is_bool() && !has_plus_minus) {
 883         jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
 884           "Missing +/- setting for VM option '%s'\n", argname);
 885       } else if (!found_flag->is_bool() && has_plus_minus) {
 886         jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
 887           "Unexpected +/- setting in VM option '%s'\n", argname);
 888       } else {
 889         jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
 890           "Improperly specified VM option '%s'\n", argname);
 891       }
 892     } else {
 893       jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(), "%s", locked_message_buf);
 894     }
 895   } else {
 896     jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
 897                 "Unrecognized VM option '%s'\n", argname);
 898     Flag* fuzzy_matched = Flag::fuzzy_match((const char*)argname, arg_len, true);
 899     if (fuzzy_matched != NULL) {
 900       jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
 901                   "Did you mean '%s%s%s'?\n",
 902                   (fuzzy_matched->is_bool()) ? "(+/-)" : "",
 903                   fuzzy_matched->name,
 904                   (fuzzy_matched->is_bool()) ? "" : "=<value>");
 905     }
 906   }
 907 
 908   // allow for commandline "commenting out" options like -XX:#+Verbose
 909   return arg[0] == '#';
 910 }
 911 
 912 bool Arguments::process_settings_file(const char* file_name, bool should_exist, jboolean ignore_unrecognized) {
 913   FILE* stream = fopen(file_name, "rb");
 914   if (stream == NULL) {
 915     if (should_exist) {
 916       jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
 917                   "Could not open settings file %s\n", file_name);
 918       return false;
 919     } else {
 920       return true;
 921     }
 922   }
 923 
 924   char token[1024];
 925   int  pos = 0;
 926 
 927   bool in_white_space = true;
 928   bool in_comment     = false;
 929   bool in_quote       = false;
 930   char quote_c        = 0;
 931   bool result         = true;
 932 
 933   int c = getc(stream);
 934   while(c != EOF && pos < (int)(sizeof(token)-1)) {
 935     if (in_white_space) {
 936       if (in_comment) {
 937         if (c == '\n') in_comment = false;
 938       } else {
 939         if (c == '#') in_comment = true;
 940         else if (!isspace(c)) {
 941           in_white_space = false;
 942           token[pos++] = c;
 943         }
 944       }
 945     } else {
 946       if (c == '\n' || (!in_quote && isspace(c))) {
 947         // token ends at newline, or at unquoted whitespace
 948         // this allows a way to include spaces in string-valued options
 949         token[pos] = '\0';
 950         logOption(token);
 951         result &= process_argument(token, ignore_unrecognized, CONFIG_FILE);
 952         build_jvm_flags(token);
 953         pos = 0;
 954         in_white_space = true;
 955         in_quote = false;
 956       } else if (!in_quote && (c == '\'' || c == '"')) {
 957         in_quote = true;
 958         quote_c = c;
 959       } else if (in_quote && (c == quote_c)) {
 960         in_quote = false;
 961       } else {
 962         token[pos++] = c;
 963       }
 964     }
 965     c = getc(stream);
 966   }
 967   if (pos > 0) {
 968     token[pos] = '\0';
 969     result &= process_argument(token, ignore_unrecognized, CONFIG_FILE);
 970     build_jvm_flags(token);
 971   }
 972   fclose(stream);
 973   return result;
 974 }
 975 
 976 //=============================================================================================================
 977 // Parsing of properties (-D)
 978 
 979 const char* Arguments::get_property(const char* key) {
 980   return PropertyList_get_value(system_properties(), key);
 981 }
 982 
 983 bool Arguments::add_property(const char* prop) {
 984   const char* eq = strchr(prop, '=');
 985   char* key;
 986   // ns must be static--its address may be stored in a SystemProperty object.
 987   const static char ns[1] = {0};
 988   char* value = (char *)ns;
 989 
 990   size_t key_len = (eq == NULL) ? strlen(prop) : (eq - prop);
 991   key = AllocateHeap(key_len + 1, mtInternal);
 992   strncpy(key, prop, key_len);
 993   key[key_len] = '\0';
 994 
 995   if (eq != NULL) {
 996     size_t value_len = strlen(prop) - key_len - 1;
 997     value = AllocateHeap(value_len + 1, mtInternal);
 998     strncpy(value, &prop[key_len + 1], value_len + 1);
 999   }
1000 
1001   if (strcmp(key, "java.compiler") == 0) {
1002     process_java_compiler_argument(value);
1003     FreeHeap(key);
1004     if (eq != NULL) {
1005       FreeHeap(value);
1006     }
1007     return true;
1008   } else if (strcmp(key, "sun.java.command") == 0) {
1009     _java_command = value;
1010 
1011     // Record value in Arguments, but let it get passed to Java.
1012   } else if (strcmp(key, "sun.java.launcher.pid") == 0) {
1013     // launcher.pid property is private and is processed
1014     // in process_sun_java_launcher_properties();
1015     // the sun.java.launcher property is passed on to the java application
1016     FreeHeap(key);
1017     if (eq != NULL) {
1018       FreeHeap(value);
1019     }
1020     return true;
1021   } else if (strcmp(key, "java.vendor.url.bug") == 0) {
1022     // save it in _java_vendor_url_bug, so JVM fatal error handler can access
1023     // its value without going through the property list or making a Java call.
1024     _java_vendor_url_bug = value;
1025   } else if (strcmp(key, "sun.boot.library.path") == 0) {
1026     PropertyList_unique_add(&_system_properties, key, value, true);
1027     return true;
1028   }
1029   // Create new property and add at the end of the list
1030   PropertyList_unique_add(&_system_properties, key, value);
1031   return true;
1032 }
1033 
1034 //===========================================================================================================
1035 // Setting int/mixed/comp mode flags
1036 
1037 void Arguments::set_mode_flags(Mode mode) {
1038   // Set up default values for all flags.
1039   // If you add a flag to any of the branches below,
1040   // add a default value for it here.
1041   set_java_compiler(false);
1042   _mode                      = mode;
1043 
1044   // Ensure Agent_OnLoad has the correct initial values.
1045   // This may not be the final mode; mode may change later in onload phase.
1046   PropertyList_unique_add(&_system_properties, "java.vm.info",
1047                           (char*)VM_Version::vm_info_string(), false);
1048 
1049   UseInterpreter             = true;
1050   UseCompiler                = true;
1051   UseLoopCounter             = true;
1052 
1053 #ifndef ZERO
1054   // Turn these off for mixed and comp.  Leave them on for Zero.
1055   if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(UseFastAccessorMethods)) {
1056     UseFastAccessorMethods = (mode == _int);
1057   }
1058   if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(UseFastEmptyMethods)) {
1059     UseFastEmptyMethods = (mode == _int);
1060   }
1061 #endif
1062 
1063   // Default values may be platform/compiler dependent -
1064   // use the saved values
1065   ClipInlining               = Arguments::_ClipInlining;
1066   AlwaysCompileLoopMethods   = Arguments::_AlwaysCompileLoopMethods;
1067   UseOnStackReplacement      = Arguments::_UseOnStackReplacement;
1068   BackgroundCompilation      = Arguments::_BackgroundCompilation;
1069 
1070   // Change from defaults based on mode
1071   switch (mode) {
1072   default:
1073     ShouldNotReachHere();
1074     break;
1075   case _int:
1076     UseCompiler              = false;
1077     UseLoopCounter           = false;
1078     AlwaysCompileLoopMethods = false;
1079     UseOnStackReplacement    = false;
1080     break;
1081   case _mixed:
1082     // same as default
1083     break;
1084   case _comp:
1085     UseInterpreter           = false;
1086     BackgroundCompilation    = false;
1087     ClipInlining             = false;
1088     // Be much more aggressive in tiered mode with -Xcomp and exercise C2 more.
1089     // We will first compile a level 3 version (C1 with full profiling), then do one invocation of it and
1090     // compile a level 4 (C2) and then continue executing it.
1091     if (TieredCompilation) {
1092       Tier3InvokeNotifyFreqLog = 0;
1093       Tier4InvocationThreshold = 0;
1094     }
1095     break;
1096   }
1097 }
1098 
1099 // Conflict: required to use shared spaces (-Xshare:on), but
1100 // incompatible command line options were chosen.
1101 
1102 static void no_shared_spaces() {
1103   if (RequireSharedSpaces) {
1104     jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
1105       "Class data sharing is inconsistent with other specified options.\n");
1106     vm_exit_during_initialization("Unable to use shared archive.", NULL);
1107   } else {
1108     FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseSharedSpaces, false);
1109   }
1110 }
1111 
1112 void Arguments::set_tiered_flags() {
1113   // With tiered, set default policy to AdvancedThresholdPolicy, which is 3.
1114   if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(CompilationPolicyChoice)) {
1115     FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(CompilationPolicyChoice, 3);
1116   }
1117   if (CompilationPolicyChoice < 2) {
1118     vm_exit_during_initialization(
1119       "Incompatible compilation policy selected", NULL);
1120   }
1121   // Increase the code cache size - tiered compiles a lot more.
1122   if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(ReservedCodeCacheSize)) {
1123     FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(ReservedCodeCacheSize, ReservedCodeCacheSize * 5);
1124   }
1125   if (!UseInterpreter) { // -Xcomp
1126     Tier3InvokeNotifyFreqLog = 0;
1127     Tier4InvocationThreshold = 0;
1128   }
1129   if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(NmethodSweepFraction)) {
1130     FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(NmethodSweepFraction, 1 + ReservedCodeCacheSize / (16 * M));
1131   }
1132 }
1133 
1134 #if INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
1135 static void disable_adaptive_size_policy(const char* collector_name) {
1136   if (UseAdaptiveSizePolicy) {
1137     if (FLAG_IS_CMDLINE(UseAdaptiveSizePolicy)) {
1138       warning("disabling UseAdaptiveSizePolicy; it is incompatible with %s.",
1139               collector_name);
1140     }
1141     FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseAdaptiveSizePolicy, false);
1142   }
1143 }
1144 
1145 void Arguments::set_parnew_gc_flags() {
1146   assert(!UseSerialGC && !UseParallelOldGC && !UseParallelGC && !UseG1GC,
1147          "control point invariant");
1148   assert(UseParNewGC, "Error");
1149 
1150   // Turn off AdaptiveSizePolicy for parnew until it is complete.
1151   disable_adaptive_size_policy("UseParNewGC");
1152 
1153   if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(ParallelGCThreads)) {
1154     FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(ParallelGCThreads, Abstract_VM_Version::parallel_worker_threads());
1155     assert(ParallelGCThreads > 0, "We should always have at least one thread by default");
1156   } else if (ParallelGCThreads == 0) {
1157     jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
1158         "The ParNew GC can not be combined with -XX:ParallelGCThreads=0\n");
1159     vm_exit(1);
1160   }
1161 
1162   // By default YoungPLABSize and OldPLABSize are set to 4096 and 1024 respectively,
1163   // these settings are default for Parallel Scavenger. For ParNew+Tenured configuration
1164   // we set them to 1024 and 1024.
1165   // See CR 6362902.
1166   if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(YoungPLABSize)) {
1167     FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(YoungPLABSize, (intx)1024);
1168   }
1169   if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(OldPLABSize)) {
1170     FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(OldPLABSize, (intx)1024);
1171   }
1172 
1173   // AlwaysTenure flag should make ParNew promote all at first collection.
1174   // See CR 6362902.
1175   if (AlwaysTenure) {
1176     FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(uintx, MaxTenuringThreshold, 0);
1177   }
1178   // When using compressed oops, we use local overflow stacks,
1179   // rather than using a global overflow list chained through
1180   // the klass word of the object's pre-image.
1181   if (UseCompressedOops && !ParGCUseLocalOverflow) {
1182     if (!FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(ParGCUseLocalOverflow)) {
1183       warning("Forcing +ParGCUseLocalOverflow: needed if using compressed references");
1184     }
1185     FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(ParGCUseLocalOverflow, true);
1186   }
1187   assert(ParGCUseLocalOverflow || !UseCompressedOops, "Error");
1188 }
1189 
1190 // Adjust some sizes to suit CMS and/or ParNew needs; these work well on
1191 // sparc/solaris for certain applications, but would gain from
1192 // further optimization and tuning efforts, and would almost
1193 // certainly gain from analysis of platform and environment.
1194 void Arguments::set_cms_and_parnew_gc_flags() {
1195   assert(!UseSerialGC && !UseParallelOldGC && !UseParallelGC, "Error");
1196   assert(UseConcMarkSweepGC, "CMS is expected to be on here");
1197 
1198   // If we are using CMS, we prefer to UseParNewGC,
1199   // unless explicitly forbidden.
1200   if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(UseParNewGC)) {
1201     FLAG_SET_ERGO(bool, UseParNewGC, true);
1202   }
1203 
1204   // Turn off AdaptiveSizePolicy by default for cms until it is complete.
1205   disable_adaptive_size_policy("UseConcMarkSweepGC");
1206 
1207   // In either case, adjust ParallelGCThreads and/or UseParNewGC
1208   // as needed.
1209   if (UseParNewGC) {
1210     set_parnew_gc_flags();
1211   }
1212 
1213   size_t max_heap = align_size_down(MaxHeapSize,
1214                                     CardTableRS::ct_max_alignment_constraint());
1215 
1216   // Now make adjustments for CMS
1217   intx   tenuring_default = (intx)6;
1218   size_t young_gen_per_worker = CMSYoungGenPerWorker;
1219 
1220   // Preferred young gen size for "short" pauses:
1221   // upper bound depends on # of threads and NewRatio.
1222   const uintx parallel_gc_threads =
1223     (ParallelGCThreads == 0 ? 1 : ParallelGCThreads);
1224   const size_t preferred_max_new_size_unaligned =
1225     MIN2(max_heap/(NewRatio+1), ScaleForWordSize(young_gen_per_worker * parallel_gc_threads));
1226   size_t preferred_max_new_size =
1227     align_size_up(preferred_max_new_size_unaligned, os::vm_page_size());
1228 
1229   // Unless explicitly requested otherwise, size young gen
1230   // for "short" pauses ~ CMSYoungGenPerWorker*ParallelGCThreads
1231 
1232   // If either MaxNewSize or NewRatio is set on the command line,
1233   // assume the user is trying to set the size of the young gen.
1234   if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(MaxNewSize) && FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(NewRatio)) {
1235 
1236     // Set MaxNewSize to our calculated preferred_max_new_size unless
1237     // NewSize was set on the command line and it is larger than
1238     // preferred_max_new_size.
1239     if (!FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(NewSize)) {   // NewSize explicitly set at command-line
1240       FLAG_SET_ERGO(uintx, MaxNewSize, MAX2(NewSize, preferred_max_new_size));
1241     } else {
1242       FLAG_SET_ERGO(uintx, MaxNewSize, preferred_max_new_size);
1243     }
1244     if (PrintGCDetails && Verbose) {
1245       // Too early to use gclog_or_tty
1246       tty->print_cr("CMS ergo set MaxNewSize: " SIZE_FORMAT, MaxNewSize);
1247     }
1248 
1249     // Code along this path potentially sets NewSize and OldSize
1250     if (PrintGCDetails && Verbose) {
1251       // Too early to use gclog_or_tty
1252       tty->print_cr("CMS set min_heap_size: " SIZE_FORMAT
1253            " initial_heap_size:  " SIZE_FORMAT
1254            " max_heap: " SIZE_FORMAT,
1255            min_heap_size(), InitialHeapSize, max_heap);
1256     }
1257     size_t min_new = preferred_max_new_size;
1258     if (FLAG_IS_CMDLINE(NewSize)) {
1259       min_new = NewSize;
1260     }
1261     if (max_heap > min_new && min_heap_size() > min_new) {
1262       // Unless explicitly requested otherwise, make young gen
1263       // at least min_new, and at most preferred_max_new_size.
1264       if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(NewSize)) {
1265         FLAG_SET_ERGO(uintx, NewSize, MAX2(NewSize, min_new));
1266         FLAG_SET_ERGO(uintx, NewSize, MIN2(preferred_max_new_size, NewSize));
1267         if (PrintGCDetails && Verbose) {
1268           // Too early to use gclog_or_tty
1269           tty->print_cr("CMS ergo set NewSize: " SIZE_FORMAT, NewSize);
1270         }
1271       }
1272       // Unless explicitly requested otherwise, size old gen
1273       // so it's NewRatio x of NewSize.
1274       if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(OldSize)) {
1275         if (max_heap > NewSize) {
1276           FLAG_SET_ERGO(uintx, OldSize, MIN2(NewRatio*NewSize, max_heap - NewSize));
1277           if (PrintGCDetails && Verbose) {
1278             // Too early to use gclog_or_tty
1279             tty->print_cr("CMS ergo set OldSize: " SIZE_FORMAT, OldSize);
1280           }
1281         }
1282       }
1283     }
1284   }
1285   // Unless explicitly requested otherwise, definitely
1286   // promote all objects surviving "tenuring_default" scavenges.
1287   if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(MaxTenuringThreshold) &&
1288       FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(SurvivorRatio)) {
1289     FLAG_SET_ERGO(uintx, MaxTenuringThreshold, tenuring_default);
1290   }
1291   // If we decided above (or user explicitly requested)
1292   // `promote all' (via MaxTenuringThreshold := 0),
1293   // prefer minuscule survivor spaces so as not to waste
1294   // space for (non-existent) survivors
1295   if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(SurvivorRatio) && MaxTenuringThreshold == 0) {
1296     FLAG_SET_ERGO(uintx, SurvivorRatio, MAX2((uintx)1024, SurvivorRatio));
1297   }
1298   // If OldPLABSize is set and CMSParPromoteBlocksToClaim is not,
1299   // set CMSParPromoteBlocksToClaim equal to OldPLABSize.
1300   // This is done in order to make ParNew+CMS configuration to work
1301   // with YoungPLABSize and OldPLABSize options.
1302   // See CR 6362902.
1303   if (!FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(OldPLABSize)) {
1304     if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(CMSParPromoteBlocksToClaim)) {
1305       // OldPLABSize is not the default value but CMSParPromoteBlocksToClaim
1306       // is.  In this situtation let CMSParPromoteBlocksToClaim follow
1307       // the value (either from the command line or ergonomics) of
1308       // OldPLABSize.  Following OldPLABSize is an ergonomics decision.
1309       FLAG_SET_ERGO(uintx, CMSParPromoteBlocksToClaim, OldPLABSize);
1310     } else {
1311       // OldPLABSize and CMSParPromoteBlocksToClaim are both set.
1312       // CMSParPromoteBlocksToClaim is a collector-specific flag, so
1313       // we'll let it to take precedence.
1314       jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
1315                   "Both OldPLABSize and CMSParPromoteBlocksToClaim"
1316                   " options are specified for the CMS collector."
1317                   " CMSParPromoteBlocksToClaim will take precedence.\n");
1318     }
1319   }
1320   if (!FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(ResizeOldPLAB) && !ResizeOldPLAB) {
1321     // OldPLAB sizing manually turned off: Use a larger default setting,
1322     // unless it was manually specified. This is because a too-low value
1323     // will slow down scavenges.
1324     if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(CMSParPromoteBlocksToClaim)) {
1325       FLAG_SET_ERGO(uintx, CMSParPromoteBlocksToClaim, 50); // default value before 6631166
1326     }
1327   }
1328   // Overwrite OldPLABSize which is the variable we will internally use everywhere.
1329   FLAG_SET_ERGO(uintx, OldPLABSize, CMSParPromoteBlocksToClaim);
1330   // If either of the static initialization defaults have changed, note this
1331   // modification.
1332   if (!FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(CMSParPromoteBlocksToClaim) || !FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(OldPLABWeight)) {
1333     CFLS_LAB::modify_initialization(OldPLABSize, OldPLABWeight);
1334   }
1335   if (PrintGCDetails && Verbose) {
1336     tty->print_cr("MarkStackSize: %uk  MarkStackSizeMax: %uk",
1337       MarkStackSize / K, MarkStackSizeMax / K);
1338     tty->print_cr("ConcGCThreads: %u", ConcGCThreads);
1339   }
1340 }
1341 #endif // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
1342 
1343 void set_object_alignment() {
1344   // Object alignment.
1345   assert(is_power_of_2(ObjectAlignmentInBytes), "ObjectAlignmentInBytes must be power of 2");
1346   MinObjAlignmentInBytes     = ObjectAlignmentInBytes;
1347   assert(MinObjAlignmentInBytes >= HeapWordsPerLong * HeapWordSize, "ObjectAlignmentInBytes value is too small");
1348   MinObjAlignment            = MinObjAlignmentInBytes / HeapWordSize;
1349   assert(MinObjAlignmentInBytes == MinObjAlignment * HeapWordSize, "ObjectAlignmentInBytes value is incorrect");
1350   MinObjAlignmentInBytesMask = MinObjAlignmentInBytes - 1;
1351 
1352   LogMinObjAlignmentInBytes  = exact_log2(ObjectAlignmentInBytes);
1353   LogMinObjAlignment         = LogMinObjAlignmentInBytes - LogHeapWordSize;
1354 
1355   // Oop encoding heap max
1356   OopEncodingHeapMax = (uint64_t(max_juint) + 1) << LogMinObjAlignmentInBytes;
1357 
1358 #if INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
1359   // Set CMS global values
1360   CompactibleFreeListSpace::set_cms_values();
1361 #endif // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
1362 }
1363 
1364 bool verify_object_alignment() {
1365   // Object alignment.
1366   if (!is_power_of_2(ObjectAlignmentInBytes)) {
1367     jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
1368                 "error: ObjectAlignmentInBytes=%d must be power of 2\n",
1369                 (int)ObjectAlignmentInBytes);
1370     return false;
1371   }
1372   if ((int)ObjectAlignmentInBytes < BytesPerLong) {
1373     jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
1374                 "error: ObjectAlignmentInBytes=%d must be greater or equal %d\n",
1375                 (int)ObjectAlignmentInBytes, BytesPerLong);
1376     return false;
1377   }
1378   // It does not make sense to have big object alignment
1379   // since a space lost due to alignment will be greater
1380   // then a saved space from compressed oops.
1381   if ((int)ObjectAlignmentInBytes > 256) {
1382     jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
1383                 "error: ObjectAlignmentInBytes=%d must not be greater than 256\n",
1384                 (int)ObjectAlignmentInBytes);
1385     return false;
1386   }
1387   // In case page size is very small.
1388   if ((int)ObjectAlignmentInBytes >= os::vm_page_size()) {
1389     jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
1390                 "error: ObjectAlignmentInBytes=%d must be less than page size %d\n",
1391                 (int)ObjectAlignmentInBytes, os::vm_page_size());
1392     return false;
1393   }
1394   return true;
1395 }
1396 
1397 inline uintx max_heap_for_compressed_oops() {
1398   // Avoid sign flip.
1399   assert(OopEncodingHeapMax > (uint64_t)os::vm_page_size(), "Unusual page size");
1400   LP64_ONLY(return OopEncodingHeapMax - os::vm_page_size());
1401   NOT_LP64(ShouldNotReachHere(); return 0);
1402 }
1403 
1404 bool Arguments::should_auto_select_low_pause_collector() {
1405   if (UseAutoGCSelectPolicy &&
1406       !FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(MaxGCPauseMillis) &&
1407       (MaxGCPauseMillis <= AutoGCSelectPauseMillis)) {
1408     if (PrintGCDetails) {
1409       // Cannot use gclog_or_tty yet.
1410       tty->print_cr("Automatic selection of the low pause collector"
1411        " based on pause goal of %d (ms)", MaxGCPauseMillis);
1412     }
1413     return true;
1414   }
1415   return false;
1416 }
1417 
1418 void Arguments::set_use_compressed_oops() {
1419 #ifndef ZERO
1420 #ifdef _LP64
1421   // MaxHeapSize is not set up properly at this point, but
1422   // the only value that can override MaxHeapSize if we are
1423   // to use UseCompressedOops is InitialHeapSize.
1424   size_t max_heap_size = MAX2(MaxHeapSize, InitialHeapSize);
1425 
1426   if (max_heap_size <= max_heap_for_compressed_oops()) {
1427 #if !defined(COMPILER1) || defined(TIERED)
1428     if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(UseCompressedOops)) {
1429       FLAG_SET_ERGO(bool, UseCompressedOops, true);
1430     }
1431 #endif
1432 #ifdef _WIN64
1433     if (UseLargePages && UseCompressedOops) {
1434       // Cannot allocate guard pages for implicit checks in indexed addressing
1435       // mode, when large pages are specified on windows.
1436       // This flag could be switched ON if narrow oop base address is set to 0,
1437       // see code in Universe::initialize_heap().
1438       Universe::set_narrow_oop_use_implicit_null_checks(false);
1439     }
1440 #endif //  _WIN64
1441   } else {
1442     if (UseCompressedOops && !FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(UseCompressedOops)) {
1443       warning("Max heap size too large for Compressed Oops");
1444       FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseCompressedOops, false);
1445       FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseCompressedKlassPointers, false);
1446     }
1447   }
1448 #endif // _LP64
1449 #endif // ZERO
1450 }
1451 
1452 
1453 // NOTE: set_use_compressed_klass_ptrs() must be called after calling
1454 // set_use_compressed_oops().
1455 void Arguments::set_use_compressed_klass_ptrs() {
1456 #ifndef ZERO
1457 #ifdef _LP64
1458   // UseCompressedOops must be on for UseCompressedKlassPointers to be on.
1459   if (!UseCompressedOops) {
1460     if (UseCompressedKlassPointers) {
1461       warning("UseCompressedKlassPointers requires UseCompressedOops");
1462     }
1463     FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseCompressedKlassPointers, false);
1464   } else {
1465     // Turn on UseCompressedKlassPointers too
1466     if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(UseCompressedKlassPointers)) {
1467       FLAG_SET_ERGO(bool, UseCompressedKlassPointers, true);
1468     }
1469     // Check the ClassMetaspaceSize to make sure we use compressed klass ptrs.
1470     if (UseCompressedKlassPointers) {
1471       if (ClassMetaspaceSize > KlassEncodingMetaspaceMax) {
1472         warning("Class metaspace size is too large for UseCompressedKlassPointers");
1473         FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseCompressedKlassPointers, false);
1474       }
1475     }
1476   }
1477 #endif // _LP64
1478 #endif // !ZERO
1479 }
1480 
1481 void Arguments::set_ergonomics_flags() {
1482 
1483   if (os::is_server_class_machine()) {
1484     // If no other collector is requested explicitly,
1485     // let the VM select the collector based on
1486     // machine class and automatic selection policy.
1487     if (!UseSerialGC &&
1488         !UseConcMarkSweepGC &&
1489         !UseG1GC &&
1490         !UseParNewGC &&
1491         FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(UseParallelGC)) {
1492       if (should_auto_select_low_pause_collector()) {
1493         FLAG_SET_ERGO(bool, UseConcMarkSweepGC, true);
1494       } else {
1495         FLAG_SET_ERGO(bool, UseParallelGC, true);
1496       }
1497     }
1498     // Shared spaces work fine with other GCs but causes bytecode rewriting
1499     // to be disabled, which hurts interpreter performance and decreases
1500     // server performance.   On server class machines, keep the default
1501     // off unless it is asked for.  Future work: either add bytecode rewriting
1502     // at link time, or rewrite bytecodes in non-shared methods.
1503     if (!DumpSharedSpaces && !RequireSharedSpaces &&
1504         (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(UseSharedSpaces) || !UseSharedSpaces)) {
1505       no_shared_spaces();
1506     }
1507   }
1508 
1509 #ifndef ZERO
1510 #ifdef _LP64
1511   set_use_compressed_oops();
1512 
1513   // set_use_compressed_klass_ptrs() must be called after calling
1514   // set_use_compressed_oops().
1515   set_use_compressed_klass_ptrs();
1516 
1517   // Also checks that certain machines are slower with compressed oops
1518   // in vm_version initialization code.
1519 #endif // _LP64
1520 #endif // !ZERO
1521 }
1522 
1523 void Arguments::set_parallel_gc_flags() {
1524   assert(UseParallelGC || UseParallelOldGC, "Error");
1525   // Enable ParallelOld unless it was explicitly disabled (cmd line or rc file).
1526   if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(UseParallelOldGC)) {
1527     FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseParallelOldGC, true);
1528   }
1529   FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseParallelGC, true);
1530 
1531   // If no heap maximum was requested explicitly, use some reasonable fraction
1532   // of the physical memory, up to a maximum of 1GB.
1533   FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(ParallelGCThreads,
1534                    Abstract_VM_Version::parallel_worker_threads());
1535   if (ParallelGCThreads == 0) {
1536     jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
1537         "The Parallel GC can not be combined with -XX:ParallelGCThreads=0\n");
1538     vm_exit(1);
1539   }
1540 
1541 
1542   // If InitialSurvivorRatio or MinSurvivorRatio were not specified, but the
1543   // SurvivorRatio has been set, reset their default values to SurvivorRatio +
1544   // 2.  By doing this we make SurvivorRatio also work for Parallel Scavenger.
1545   // See CR 6362902 for details.
1546   if (!FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(SurvivorRatio)) {
1547     if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(InitialSurvivorRatio)) {
1548        FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(InitialSurvivorRatio, SurvivorRatio + 2);
1549     }
1550     if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(MinSurvivorRatio)) {
1551       FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(MinSurvivorRatio, SurvivorRatio + 2);
1552     }
1553   }
1554 
1555   if (UseParallelOldGC) {
1556     // Par compact uses lower default values since they are treated as
1557     // minimums.  These are different defaults because of the different
1558     // interpretation and are not ergonomically set.
1559     if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(MarkSweepDeadRatio)) {
1560       FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(MarkSweepDeadRatio, 1);
1561     }
1562   }
1563 }
1564 
1565 void Arguments::set_g1_gc_flags() {
1566   assert(UseG1GC, "Error");
1567 #ifdef COMPILER1
1568   FastTLABRefill = false;
1569 #endif
1570   FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(ParallelGCThreads,
1571                      Abstract_VM_Version::parallel_worker_threads());
1572   if (ParallelGCThreads == 0) {
1573     FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(ParallelGCThreads,
1574                      Abstract_VM_Version::parallel_worker_threads());
1575   }
1576 
1577   // MarkStackSize will be set (if it hasn't been set by the user)
1578   // when concurrent marking is initialized.
1579   // Its value will be based upon the number of parallel marking threads.
1580   // But we do set the maximum mark stack size here.
1581   if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(MarkStackSizeMax)) {
1582     FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(MarkStackSizeMax, 128 * TASKQUEUE_SIZE);
1583   }
1584 
1585   if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(GCTimeRatio) || GCTimeRatio == 0) {
1586     // In G1, we want the default GC overhead goal to be higher than
1587     // say in PS. So we set it here to 10%. Otherwise the heap might
1588     // be expanded more aggressively than we would like it to. In
1589     // fact, even 10% seems to not be high enough in some cases
1590     // (especially small GC stress tests that the main thing they do
1591     // is allocation). We might consider increase it further.
1592     FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(GCTimeRatio, 9);
1593   }
1594 
1595   if (PrintGCDetails && Verbose) {
1596     tty->print_cr("MarkStackSize: %uk  MarkStackSizeMax: %uk",
1597       MarkStackSize / K, MarkStackSizeMax / K);
1598     tty->print_cr("ConcGCThreads: %u", ConcGCThreads);
1599   }
1600 }
1601 
1602 julong Arguments::limit_by_allocatable_memory(julong limit) {
1603   julong max_allocatable;
1604   julong result = limit;
1605   if (os::has_allocatable_memory_limit(&max_allocatable)) {
1606     result = MIN2(result, max_allocatable / MaxVirtMemFraction);
1607   }
1608   return result;
1609 }
1610 
1611 void Arguments::set_heap_base_min_address() {
1612   if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(HeapBaseMinAddress) && UseG1GC && HeapBaseMinAddress < 1*G) {
1613     // By default HeapBaseMinAddress is 2G on all platforms except Solaris x86.
1614     // G1 currently needs a lot of C-heap, so on Solaris we have to give G1
1615     // some extra space for the C-heap compared to other collectors.
1616     // Use FLAG_SET_DEFAULT here rather than FLAG_SET_ERGO to make sure that
1617     // code that checks for default values work correctly.
1618     FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(HeapBaseMinAddress, 1*G);
1619   }
1620 }
1621 
1622 void Arguments::set_heap_size() {
1623   if (!FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(DefaultMaxRAMFraction)) {
1624     // Deprecated flag
1625     FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(uintx, MaxRAMFraction, DefaultMaxRAMFraction);
1626   }
1627 
1628   const julong phys_mem =
1629     FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(MaxRAM) ? MIN2(os::physical_memory(), (julong)MaxRAM)
1630                             : (julong)MaxRAM;
1631 
1632   // If the maximum heap size has not been set with -Xmx,
1633   // then set it as fraction of the size of physical memory,
1634   // respecting the maximum and minimum sizes of the heap.
1635   if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(MaxHeapSize)) {
1636     julong reasonable_max = phys_mem / MaxRAMFraction;
1637 
1638     if (phys_mem <= MaxHeapSize * MinRAMFraction) {
1639       // Small physical memory, so use a minimum fraction of it for the heap
1640       reasonable_max = phys_mem / MinRAMFraction;
1641     } else {
1642       // Not-small physical memory, so require a heap at least
1643       // as large as MaxHeapSize
1644       reasonable_max = MAX2(reasonable_max, (julong)MaxHeapSize);
1645     }
1646     if (!FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(ErgoHeapSizeLimit) && ErgoHeapSizeLimit != 0) {
1647       // Limit the heap size to ErgoHeapSizeLimit
1648       reasonable_max = MIN2(reasonable_max, (julong)ErgoHeapSizeLimit);
1649     }
1650     if (UseCompressedOops) {
1651       // Limit the heap size to the maximum possible when using compressed oops
1652       julong max_coop_heap = (julong)max_heap_for_compressed_oops();
1653       if (HeapBaseMinAddress + MaxHeapSize < max_coop_heap) {
1654         // Heap should be above HeapBaseMinAddress to get zero based compressed oops
1655         // but it should be not less than default MaxHeapSize.
1656         max_coop_heap -= HeapBaseMinAddress;
1657       }
1658       reasonable_max = MIN2(reasonable_max, max_coop_heap);
1659     }
1660     reasonable_max = limit_by_allocatable_memory(reasonable_max);
1661 
1662     if (!FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(InitialHeapSize)) {
1663       // An initial heap size was specified on the command line,
1664       // so be sure that the maximum size is consistent.  Done
1665       // after call to limit_by_allocatable_memory because that
1666       // method might reduce the allocation size.
1667       reasonable_max = MAX2(reasonable_max, (julong)InitialHeapSize);
1668     }
1669 
1670     if (PrintGCDetails && Verbose) {
1671       // Cannot use gclog_or_tty yet.
1672       tty->print_cr("  Maximum heap size " SIZE_FORMAT, reasonable_max);
1673     }
1674     FLAG_SET_ERGO(uintx, MaxHeapSize, (uintx)reasonable_max);
1675   }
1676 
1677   // If the minimum or initial heap_size have not been set or requested to be set
1678   // ergonomically, set them accordingly.
1679   if (InitialHeapSize == 0 || min_heap_size() == 0) {
1680     julong reasonable_minimum = (julong)(OldSize + NewSize);
1681 
1682     reasonable_minimum = MIN2(reasonable_minimum, (julong)MaxHeapSize);
1683 
1684     reasonable_minimum = limit_by_allocatable_memory(reasonable_minimum);
1685 
1686     if (InitialHeapSize == 0) {
1687       julong reasonable_initial = phys_mem / InitialRAMFraction;
1688 
1689       reasonable_initial = MAX3(reasonable_initial, reasonable_minimum, (julong)min_heap_size());
1690       reasonable_initial = MIN2(reasonable_initial, (julong)MaxHeapSize);
1691 
1692       reasonable_initial = limit_by_allocatable_memory(reasonable_initial);
1693 
1694       if (PrintGCDetails && Verbose) {
1695         // Cannot use gclog_or_tty yet.
1696         tty->print_cr("  Initial heap size " SIZE_FORMAT, (uintx)reasonable_initial);
1697       }
1698       FLAG_SET_ERGO(uintx, InitialHeapSize, (uintx)reasonable_initial);
1699     }
1700     // If the minimum heap size has not been set (via -Xms),
1701     // synchronize with InitialHeapSize to avoid errors with the default value.
1702     if (min_heap_size() == 0) {
1703       set_min_heap_size(MIN2((uintx)reasonable_minimum, InitialHeapSize));
1704       if (PrintGCDetails && Verbose) {
1705         // Cannot use gclog_or_tty yet.
1706         tty->print_cr("  Minimum heap size " SIZE_FORMAT, min_heap_size());
1707       }
1708     }
1709   }
1710 }
1711 
1712 // This must be called after ergonomics because we want bytecode rewriting
1713 // if the server compiler is used, or if UseSharedSpaces is disabled.
1714 void Arguments::set_bytecode_flags() {
1715   // Better not attempt to store into a read-only space.
1716   if (UseSharedSpaces) {
1717     FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(RewriteBytecodes, false);
1718     FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(RewriteFrequentPairs, false);
1719   }
1720 
1721   if (!RewriteBytecodes) {
1722     FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(RewriteFrequentPairs, false);
1723   }
1724 }
1725 
1726 // Aggressive optimization flags  -XX:+AggressiveOpts
1727 void Arguments::set_aggressive_opts_flags() {
1728 #ifdef COMPILER2
1729   if (AggressiveUnboxing) {
1730     if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(EliminateAutoBox)) {
1731       FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(EliminateAutoBox, true);
1732     } else if (!EliminateAutoBox) {
1733       // warning("AggressiveUnboxing is disabled because EliminateAutoBox is disabled");
1734       AggressiveUnboxing = false;
1735     }
1736     if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(DoEscapeAnalysis)) {
1737       FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(DoEscapeAnalysis, true);
1738     } else if (!DoEscapeAnalysis) {
1739       // warning("AggressiveUnboxing is disabled because DoEscapeAnalysis is disabled");
1740       AggressiveUnboxing = false;
1741     }
1742   }
1743   if (AggressiveOpts || !FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(AutoBoxCacheMax)) {
1744     if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(EliminateAutoBox)) {
1745       FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(EliminateAutoBox, true);
1746     }
1747     if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(AutoBoxCacheMax)) {
1748       FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(AutoBoxCacheMax, 20000);
1749     }
1750 
1751     // Feed the cache size setting into the JDK
1752     char buffer[1024];
1753     sprintf(buffer, "java.lang.Integer.IntegerCache.high=" INTX_FORMAT, AutoBoxCacheMax);
1754     add_property(buffer);
1755   }
1756   if (AggressiveOpts && FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(BiasedLockingStartupDelay)) {
1757     FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(BiasedLockingStartupDelay, 500);
1758   }
1759 #endif
1760 
1761   if (AggressiveOpts) {
1762 // Sample flag setting code
1763 //    if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(EliminateZeroing)) {
1764 //      FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(EliminateZeroing, true);
1765 //    }
1766   }
1767 }
1768 
1769 //===========================================================================================================
1770 // Parsing of java.compiler property
1771 
1772 void Arguments::process_java_compiler_argument(char* arg) {
1773   // For backwards compatibility, Djava.compiler=NONE or ""
1774   // causes us to switch to -Xint mode UNLESS -Xdebug
1775   // is also specified.
1776   if (strlen(arg) == 0 || strcasecmp(arg, "NONE") == 0) {
1777     set_java_compiler(true);    // "-Djava.compiler[=...]" most recently seen.
1778   }
1779 }
1780 
1781 void Arguments::process_java_launcher_argument(const char* launcher, void* extra_info) {
1782   _sun_java_launcher = strdup(launcher);
1783   if (strcmp("gamma", _sun_java_launcher) == 0) {
1784     _created_by_gamma_launcher = true;
1785   }
1786 }
1787 
1788 bool Arguments::created_by_java_launcher() {
1789   assert(_sun_java_launcher != NULL, "property must have value");
1790   return strcmp(DEFAULT_JAVA_LAUNCHER, _sun_java_launcher) != 0;
1791 }
1792 
1793 bool Arguments::created_by_gamma_launcher() {
1794   return _created_by_gamma_launcher;
1795 }
1796 
1797 //===========================================================================================================
1798 // Parsing of main arguments
1799 
1800 bool Arguments::verify_interval(uintx val, uintx min,
1801                                 uintx max, const char* name) {
1802   // Returns true iff value is in the inclusive interval [min..max]
1803   // false, otherwise.
1804   if (val >= min && val <= max) {
1805     return true;
1806   }
1807   jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
1808               "%s of " UINTX_FORMAT " is invalid; must be between " UINTX_FORMAT
1809               " and " UINTX_FORMAT "\n",
1810               name, val, min, max);
1811   return false;
1812 }
1813 
1814 bool Arguments::verify_min_value(intx val, intx min, const char* name) {
1815   // Returns true if given value is at least specified min threshold
1816   // false, otherwise.
1817   if (val >= min ) {
1818       return true;
1819   }
1820   jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
1821               "%s of " INTX_FORMAT " is invalid; must be at least " INTX_FORMAT "\n",
1822               name, val, min);
1823   return false;
1824 }
1825 
1826 bool Arguments::verify_percentage(uintx value, const char* name) {
1827   if (value <= 100) {
1828     return true;
1829   }
1830   jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
1831               "%s of " UINTX_FORMAT " is invalid; must be between 0 and 100\n",
1832               name, value);
1833   return false;
1834 }
1835 
1836 #if !INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
1837 #ifdef ASSERT
1838 static bool verify_serial_gc_flags() {
1839   return (UseSerialGC &&
1840         !(UseParNewGC || (UseConcMarkSweepGC || CMSIncrementalMode) || UseG1GC ||
1841           UseParallelGC || UseParallelOldGC));
1842 }
1843 #endif // ASSERT
1844 #endif // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
1845 
1846 // check if do gclog rotation
1847 // +UseGCLogFileRotation is a must,
1848 // no gc log rotation when log file not supplied or
1849 // NumberOfGCLogFiles is 0, or GCLogFileSize is 0
1850 void check_gclog_consistency() {
1851   if (UseGCLogFileRotation) {
1852     if ((Arguments::gc_log_filename() == NULL) ||
1853         (NumberOfGCLogFiles == 0)  ||
1854         (GCLogFileSize == 0)) {
1855       jio_fprintf(defaultStream::output_stream(),
1856                   "To enable GC log rotation, use -Xloggc:<filename> -XX:+UseGCLogFileRotation -XX:NumberOfGCLogFiles=<num_of_files> -XX:GCLogFileSize=<num_of_size>\n"
1857                   "where num_of_file > 0 and num_of_size > 0\n"
1858                   "GC log rotation is turned off\n");
1859       UseGCLogFileRotation = false;
1860     }
1861   }
1862 
1863   if (UseGCLogFileRotation && GCLogFileSize < 8*K) {
1864         FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(uintx, GCLogFileSize, 8*K);
1865         jio_fprintf(defaultStream::output_stream(),
1866                     "GCLogFileSize changed to minimum 8K\n");
1867   }
1868 }
1869 
1870 // Check consistency of GC selection
1871 bool Arguments::check_gc_consistency() {
1872   check_gclog_consistency();
1873   bool status = true;
1874   // Ensure that the user has not selected conflicting sets
1875   // of collectors. [Note: this check is merely a user convenience;
1876   // collectors over-ride each other so that only a non-conflicting
1877   // set is selected; however what the user gets is not what they
1878   // may have expected from the combination they asked for. It's
1879   // better to reduce user confusion by not allowing them to
1880   // select conflicting combinations.
1881   uint i = 0;
1882   if (UseSerialGC)                       i++;
1883   if (UseConcMarkSweepGC || UseParNewGC) i++;
1884   if (UseParallelGC || UseParallelOldGC) i++;
1885   if (UseG1GC)                           i++;
1886   if (i > 1) {
1887     jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
1888                 "Conflicting collector combinations in option list; "
1889                 "please refer to the release notes for the combinations "
1890                 "allowed\n");
1891     status = false;
1892   } else if (ReservedCodeCacheSize > 2*G) {
1893     // Code cache size larger than MAXINT is not supported.
1894     jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
1895                 "Invalid ReservedCodeCacheSize=%dM. Must be at most %uM.\n", ReservedCodeCacheSize/M,
1896                 (2*G)/M);
1897     status = false;
1898   }
1899   return status;
1900 }
1901 
1902 void Arguments::check_deprecated_gcs() {
1903   if (UseConcMarkSweepGC && !UseParNewGC) {
1904     warning("Using the DefNew young collector with the CMS collector is deprecated "
1905         "and will likely be removed in a future release");
1906   }
1907 
1908   if (UseParNewGC && !UseConcMarkSweepGC) {
1909     // !UseConcMarkSweepGC means that we are using serial old gc. Unfortunately we don't
1910     // set up UseSerialGC properly, so that can't be used in the check here.
1911     warning("Using the ParNew young collector with the Serial old collector is deprecated "
1912         "and will likely be removed in a future release");
1913   }
1914 
1915   if (CMSIncrementalMode) {
1916     warning("Using incremental CMS is deprecated and will likely be removed in a future release");
1917   }
1918 }
1919 
1920 void Arguments::check_deprecated_gc_flags() {
1921   if (FLAG_IS_CMDLINE(MaxGCMinorPauseMillis)) {
1922     warning("Using MaxGCMinorPauseMillis as minor pause goal is deprecated"
1923             "and will likely be removed in future release");
1924   }
1925   if (FLAG_IS_CMDLINE(DefaultMaxRAMFraction)) {
1926     warning("DefaultMaxRAMFraction is deprecated and will likely be removed in a future release. "
1927         "Use MaxRAMFraction instead.");
1928   }
1929 }
1930 
1931 // Check stack pages settings
1932 bool Arguments::check_stack_pages()
1933 {
1934   bool status = true;
1935   status = status && verify_min_value(StackYellowPages, 1, "StackYellowPages");
1936   status = status && verify_min_value(StackRedPages, 1, "StackRedPages");
1937   // greater stack shadow pages can't generate instruction to bang stack
1938   status = status && verify_interval(StackShadowPages, 1, 50, "StackShadowPages");
1939   return status;
1940 }
1941 
1942 // Check the consistency of vm_init_args
1943 bool Arguments::check_vm_args_consistency() {
1944   // Method for adding checks for flag consistency.
1945   // The intent is to warn the user of all possible conflicts,
1946   // before returning an error.
1947   // Note: Needs platform-dependent factoring.
1948   bool status = true;
1949 
1950   // Allow both -XX:-UseStackBanging and -XX:-UseBoundThreads in non-product
1951   // builds so the cost of stack banging can be measured.
1952 #if (defined(PRODUCT) && defined(SOLARIS))
1953   if (!UseBoundThreads && !UseStackBanging) {
1954     jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
1955                 "-UseStackBanging conflicts with -UseBoundThreads\n");
1956 
1957      status = false;
1958   }
1959 #endif
1960 
1961   if (TLABRefillWasteFraction == 0) {
1962     jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
1963                 "TLABRefillWasteFraction should be a denominator, "
1964                 "not " SIZE_FORMAT "\n",
1965                 TLABRefillWasteFraction);
1966     status = false;
1967   }
1968 
1969   status = status && verify_interval(AdaptiveSizePolicyWeight, 0, 100,
1970                               "AdaptiveSizePolicyWeight");
1971   status = status && verify_percentage(ThresholdTolerance, "ThresholdTolerance");
1972   status = status && verify_percentage(MinHeapFreeRatio, "MinHeapFreeRatio");
1973   status = status && verify_percentage(MaxHeapFreeRatio, "MaxHeapFreeRatio");
1974 
1975   // Divide by bucket size to prevent a large size from causing rollover when
1976   // calculating amount of memory needed to be allocated for the String table.
1977   status = status && verify_interval(StringTableSize, minimumStringTableSize,
1978     (max_uintx / StringTable::bucket_size()), "StringTable size");
1979 
1980   if (MinHeapFreeRatio > MaxHeapFreeRatio) {
1981     jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
1982                 "MinHeapFreeRatio (" UINTX_FORMAT ") must be less than or "
1983                 "equal to MaxHeapFreeRatio (" UINTX_FORMAT ")\n",
1984                 MinHeapFreeRatio, MaxHeapFreeRatio);
1985     status = false;
1986   }
1987   // Keeping the heap 100% free is hard ;-) so limit it to 99%.
1988   MinHeapFreeRatio = MIN2(MinHeapFreeRatio, (uintx) 99);
1989 
1990   // Min/MaxMetaspaceFreeRatio
1991   status = status && verify_percentage(MinMetaspaceFreeRatio, "MinMetaspaceFreeRatio");
1992   status = status && verify_percentage(MaxMetaspaceFreeRatio, "MaxMetaspaceFreeRatio");
1993 
1994   if (MinMetaspaceFreeRatio > MaxMetaspaceFreeRatio) {
1995     jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
1996                 "MinMetaspaceFreeRatio (%s" UINTX_FORMAT ") must be less than or "
1997                 "equal to MaxMetaspaceFreeRatio (%s" UINTX_FORMAT ")\n",
1998                 FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(MinMetaspaceFreeRatio) ? "Default: " : "",
1999                 MinMetaspaceFreeRatio,
2000                 FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(MaxMetaspaceFreeRatio) ? "Default: " : "",
2001                 MaxMetaspaceFreeRatio);
2002     status = false;
2003   }
2004 
2005   // Trying to keep 100% free is not practical
2006   MinMetaspaceFreeRatio = MIN2(MinMetaspaceFreeRatio, (uintx) 99);
2007 
2008   if (FullGCALot && FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(MarkSweepAlwaysCompactCount)) {
2009     MarkSweepAlwaysCompactCount = 1;  // Move objects every gc.
2010   }
2011 
2012   if (UseParallelOldGC && ParallelOldGCSplitALot) {
2013     // Settings to encourage splitting.
2014     if (!FLAG_IS_CMDLINE(NewRatio)) {
2015       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(uintx, NewRatio, 2);
2016     }
2017     if (!FLAG_IS_CMDLINE(ScavengeBeforeFullGC)) {
2018       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, ScavengeBeforeFullGC, false);
2019     }
2020   }
2021 
2022   status = status && verify_percentage(GCHeapFreeLimit, "GCHeapFreeLimit");
2023   status = status && verify_percentage(GCTimeLimit, "GCTimeLimit");
2024   if (GCTimeLimit == 100) {
2025     // Turn off gc-overhead-limit-exceeded checks
2026     FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseGCOverheadLimit, false);
2027   }
2028 
2029   status = status && check_gc_consistency();
2030   status = status && check_stack_pages();
2031 
2032   if (CMSIncrementalMode) {
2033     if (!UseConcMarkSweepGC) {
2034       jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
2035                   "error:  invalid argument combination.\n"
2036                   "The CMS collector (-XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC) must be "
2037                   "selected in order\nto use CMSIncrementalMode.\n");
2038       status = false;
2039     } else {
2040       status = status && verify_percentage(CMSIncrementalDutyCycle,
2041                                   "CMSIncrementalDutyCycle");
2042       status = status && verify_percentage(CMSIncrementalDutyCycleMin,
2043                                   "CMSIncrementalDutyCycleMin");
2044       status = status && verify_percentage(CMSIncrementalSafetyFactor,
2045                                   "CMSIncrementalSafetyFactor");
2046       status = status && verify_percentage(CMSIncrementalOffset,
2047                                   "CMSIncrementalOffset");
2048       status = status && verify_percentage(CMSExpAvgFactor,
2049                                   "CMSExpAvgFactor");
2050       // If it was not set on the command line, set
2051       // CMSInitiatingOccupancyFraction to 1 so icms can initiate cycles early.
2052       if (CMSInitiatingOccupancyFraction < 0) {
2053         FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(CMSInitiatingOccupancyFraction, 1);
2054       }
2055     }
2056   }
2057 
2058   // CMS space iteration, which FLSVerifyAllHeapreferences entails,
2059   // insists that we hold the requisite locks so that the iteration is
2060   // MT-safe. For the verification at start-up and shut-down, we don't
2061   // yet have a good way of acquiring and releasing these locks,
2062   // which are not visible at the CollectedHeap level. We want to
2063   // be able to acquire these locks and then do the iteration rather
2064   // than just disable the lock verification. This will be fixed under
2065   // bug 4788986.
2066   if (UseConcMarkSweepGC && FLSVerifyAllHeapReferences) {
2067     if (VerifyDuringStartup) {
2068       warning("Heap verification at start-up disabled "
2069               "(due to current incompatibility with FLSVerifyAllHeapReferences)");
2070       VerifyDuringStartup = false; // Disable verification at start-up
2071     }
2072 
2073     if (VerifyBeforeExit) {
2074       warning("Heap verification at shutdown disabled "
2075               "(due to current incompatibility with FLSVerifyAllHeapReferences)");
2076       VerifyBeforeExit = false; // Disable verification at shutdown
2077     }
2078   }
2079 
2080   // Note: only executed in non-PRODUCT mode
2081   if (!UseAsyncConcMarkSweepGC &&
2082       (ExplicitGCInvokesConcurrent ||
2083        ExplicitGCInvokesConcurrentAndUnloadsClasses)) {
2084     jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
2085                 "error: +ExplicitGCInvokesConcurrent[AndUnloadsClasses] conflicts"
2086                 " with -UseAsyncConcMarkSweepGC");
2087     status = false;
2088   }
2089 
2090   status = status && verify_min_value(ParGCArrayScanChunk, 1, "ParGCArrayScanChunk");
2091 
2092 #if INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
2093   if (UseG1GC) {
2094     status = status && verify_percentage(InitiatingHeapOccupancyPercent,
2095                                          "InitiatingHeapOccupancyPercent");
2096     status = status && verify_min_value(G1RefProcDrainInterval, 1,
2097                                         "G1RefProcDrainInterval");
2098     status = status && verify_min_value((intx)G1ConcMarkStepDurationMillis, 1,
2099                                         "G1ConcMarkStepDurationMillis");
2100     status = status && verify_interval(G1ConcRSHotCardLimit, 0, max_jubyte,
2101                                        "G1ConcRSHotCardLimit");
2102     status = status && verify_interval(G1ConcRSLogCacheSize, 0, 31,
2103                                        "G1ConcRSLogCacheSize");
2104   }
2105   if (UseConcMarkSweepGC) {
2106     status = status && verify_min_value(CMSOldPLABNumRefills, 1, "CMSOldPLABNumRefills");
2107     status = status && verify_min_value(CMSOldPLABToleranceFactor, 1, "CMSOldPLABToleranceFactor");
2108     status = status && verify_min_value(CMSOldPLABMax, 1, "CMSOldPLABMax");
2109     status = status && verify_interval(CMSOldPLABMin, 1, CMSOldPLABMax, "CMSOldPLABMin");
2110 
2111     status = status && verify_min_value(CMSYoungGenPerWorker, 1, "CMSYoungGenPerWorker");
2112 
2113     status = status && verify_min_value(CMSSamplingGrain, 1, "CMSSamplingGrain");
2114     status = status && verify_interval(CMS_SweepWeight, 0, 100, "CMS_SweepWeight");
2115     status = status && verify_interval(CMS_FLSWeight, 0, 100, "CMS_FLSWeight");
2116 
2117     status = status && verify_interval(FLSCoalescePolicy, 0, 4, "FLSCoalescePolicy");
2118 
2119     status = status && verify_min_value(CMSRescanMultiple, 1, "CMSRescanMultiple");
2120     status = status && verify_min_value(CMSConcMarkMultiple, 1, "CMSConcMarkMultiple");
2121 
2122     status = status && verify_interval(CMSPrecleanIter, 0, 9, "CMSPrecleanIter");
2123     status = status && verify_min_value(CMSPrecleanDenominator, 1, "CMSPrecleanDenominator");
2124     status = status && verify_interval(CMSPrecleanNumerator, 0, CMSPrecleanDenominator - 1, "CMSPrecleanNumerator");
2125 
2126     status = status && verify_percentage(CMSBootstrapOccupancy, "CMSBootstrapOccupancy");
2127 
2128     status = status && verify_min_value(CMSPrecleanThreshold, 100, "CMSPrecleanThreshold");
2129 
2130     status = status && verify_percentage(CMSScheduleRemarkEdenPenetration, "CMSScheduleRemarkEdenPenetration");
2131     status = status && verify_min_value(CMSScheduleRemarkSamplingRatio, 1, "CMSScheduleRemarkSamplingRatio");
2132     status = status && verify_min_value(CMSBitMapYieldQuantum, 1, "CMSBitMapYieldQuantum");
2133     status = status && verify_percentage(CMSTriggerRatio, "CMSTriggerRatio");
2134     status = status && verify_percentage(CMSIsTooFullPercentage, "CMSIsTooFullPercentage");
2135   }
2136 
2137   if (UseParallelGC || UseParallelOldGC) {
2138     status = status && verify_interval(ParallelOldDeadWoodLimiterMean, 0, 100, "ParallelOldDeadWoodLimiterMean");
2139     status = status && verify_interval(ParallelOldDeadWoodLimiterStdDev, 0, 100, "ParallelOldDeadWoodLimiterStdDev");
2140 
2141     status = status && verify_percentage(YoungGenerationSizeIncrement, "YoungGenerationSizeIncrement");
2142     status = status && verify_percentage(TenuredGenerationSizeIncrement, "TenuredGenerationSizeIncrement");
2143 
2144     status = status && verify_min_value(YoungGenerationSizeSupplementDecay, 1, "YoungGenerationSizeSupplementDecay");
2145     status = status && verify_min_value(TenuredGenerationSizeSupplementDecay, 1, "TenuredGenerationSizeSupplementDecay");
2146 
2147     status = status && verify_min_value(ParGCCardsPerStrideChunk, 1, "ParGCCardsPerStrideChunk");
2148 
2149     status = status && verify_min_value(ParallelOldGCSplitInterval, 0, "ParallelOldGCSplitInterval");
2150   }
2151 #endif // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
2152 
2153   status = status && verify_interval(RefDiscoveryPolicy,
2154                                      ReferenceProcessor::DiscoveryPolicyMin,
2155                                      ReferenceProcessor::DiscoveryPolicyMax,
2156                                      "RefDiscoveryPolicy");
2157 
2158   // Limit the lower bound of this flag to 1 as it is used in a division
2159   // expression.
2160   status = status && verify_interval(TLABWasteTargetPercent,
2161                                      1, 100, "TLABWasteTargetPercent");
2162 
2163   status = status && verify_object_alignment();
2164 
2165   status = status && verify_interval(ClassMetaspaceSize, 1*M, 3*G,
2166                                       "ClassMetaspaceSize");
2167 
2168   status = status && verify_interval(MarkStackSizeMax,
2169                                   1, (max_jint - 1), "MarkStackSizeMax");
2170   status = status && verify_interval(NUMAChunkResizeWeight, 0, 100, "NUMAChunkResizeWeight");
2171 
2172   status = status && verify_min_value(LogEventsBufferEntries, 1, "LogEventsBufferEntries");
2173 
2174   status = status && verify_min_value(HeapSizePerGCThread, (uintx) os::vm_page_size(), "HeapSizePerGCThread");
2175 
2176   status = status && verify_min_value(GCTaskTimeStampEntries, 1, "GCTaskTimeStampEntries");
2177 
2178   status = status && verify_percentage(ParallelGCBufferWastePct, "ParallelGCBufferWastePct");
2179   status = status && verify_interval(TargetPLABWastePct, 1, 100, "TargetPLABWastePct");
2180 
2181   status = status && verify_min_value(ParGCStridesPerThread, 1, "ParGCStridesPerThread");
2182 
2183   status = status && verify_min_value(MinRAMFraction, 1, "MinRAMFraction");
2184   status = status && verify_min_value(InitialRAMFraction, 1, "InitialRAMFraction");
2185   status = status && verify_min_value(MaxRAMFraction, 1, "MaxRAMFraction");
2186   status = status && verify_min_value(DefaultMaxRAMFraction, 1, "DefaultMaxRAMFraction");
2187 
2188   status = status && verify_interval(AdaptiveTimeWeight, 0, 100, "AdaptiveTimeWeight");
2189   status = status && verify_min_value(AdaptiveSizeDecrementScaleFactor, 1, "AdaptiveSizeDecrementScaleFactor");
2190 
2191   status = status && verify_interval(TLABAllocationWeight, 0, 100, "TLABAllocationWeight");
2192   status = status && verify_min_value(MinTLABSize, 1, "MinTLABSize");
2193   status = status && verify_min_value(TLABRefillWasteFraction, 1, "TLABRefillWasteFraction");
2194 
2195   status = status && verify_percentage(YoungGenerationSizeSupplement, "YoungGenerationSizeSupplement");
2196   status = status && verify_percentage(TenuredGenerationSizeSupplement, "TenuredGenerationSizeSupplement");
2197 
2198   // the "age" field in the oop header is 4 bits; do not want to pull in markOop.hpp
2199   // just for that, so hardcode here.
2200   status = status && verify_interval(MaxTenuringThreshold, 0, 15, "MaxTenuringThreshold");
2201   status = status && verify_interval(InitialTenuringThreshold, 0, MaxTenuringThreshold, "MaxTenuringThreshold");
2202   status = status && verify_percentage(TargetSurvivorRatio, "TargetSurvivorRatio");
2203   status = status && verify_percentage(MarkSweepDeadRatio, "MarkSweepDeadRatio");
2204 
2205   status = status && verify_min_value(MarkSweepAlwaysCompactCount, 1, "MarkSweepAlwaysCompactCount");
2206 #ifdef SPARC
2207   if (UseConcMarkSweepGC || UseG1GC) {
2208     // Issue a stern warning if the user has explicitly set
2209     // UseMemSetInBOT (it is known to cause issues), but allow
2210     // use for experimentation and debugging.
2211     if (VM_Version::is_sun4v() && UseMemSetInBOT) {
2212       assert(!FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(UseMemSetInBOT), "Error");
2213       warning("Experimental flag -XX:+UseMemSetInBOT is known to cause instability"
2214           " on sun4v; please understand that you are using at your own risk!");
2215     }
2216   }
2217 #endif // SPARC
2218 
2219   if (PrintNMTStatistics) {
2220 #if INCLUDE_NMT
2221     if (MemTracker::tracking_level() == MemTracker::NMT_off) {
2222 #endif // INCLUDE_NMT
2223       warning("PrintNMTStatistics is disabled, because native memory tracking is not enabled");
2224       PrintNMTStatistics = false;
2225 #if INCLUDE_NMT
2226     }
2227 #endif
2228   }
2229 
2230   // Need to limit the extent of the padding to reasonable size.
2231   // 8K is well beyond the reasonable HW cache line size, even with the
2232   // aggressive prefetching, while still leaving the room for segregating
2233   // among the distinct pages.
2234   if (ContendedPaddingWidth < 0 || ContendedPaddingWidth > 8192) {
2235     jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
2236                 "ContendedPaddingWidth=" INTX_FORMAT " must be the between %d and %d\n",
2237                 ContendedPaddingWidth, 0, 8192);
2238     status = false;
2239   }
2240 
2241   // Need to enforce the padding not to break the existing field alignments.
2242   // It is sufficient to check against the largest type size.
2243   if ((ContendedPaddingWidth % BytesPerLong) != 0) {
2244     jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
2245                 "ContendedPaddingWidth=" INTX_FORMAT " must be the multiple of %d\n",
2246                 ContendedPaddingWidth, BytesPerLong);
2247     status = false;
2248   }
2249 
2250   // Check lower bounds of the code cache
2251   // Template Interpreter code is approximately 3X larger in debug builds.
2252   uint min_code_cache_size = (CodeCacheMinimumUseSpace DEBUG_ONLY(* 3)) + CodeCacheMinimumFreeSpace;
2253   if (InitialCodeCacheSize < (uintx)os::vm_page_size()) {
2254     jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
2255                 "Invalid InitialCodeCacheSize=%dK. Must be at least %dK.\n", InitialCodeCacheSize/K,
2256                 os::vm_page_size()/K);
2257     status = false;
2258   } else if (ReservedCodeCacheSize < InitialCodeCacheSize) {
2259     jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
2260                 "Invalid ReservedCodeCacheSize: %dK. Must be at least InitialCodeCacheSize=%dK.\n",
2261                 ReservedCodeCacheSize/K, InitialCodeCacheSize/K);
2262     status = false;
2263   } else if (ReservedCodeCacheSize < min_code_cache_size) {
2264     jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
2265                 "Invalid ReservedCodeCacheSize=%dK. Must be at least %uK.\n", ReservedCodeCacheSize/K,
2266                 min_code_cache_size/K);
2267     status = false;
2268   } else if (ReservedCodeCacheSize > 2*G) {
2269     // Code cache size larger than MAXINT is not supported.
2270     jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
2271                 "Invalid ReservedCodeCacheSize=%dM. Must be at most %uM.\n", ReservedCodeCacheSize/M,
2272                 (2*G)/M);
2273     status = false;
2274   }
2275   return status;
2276 }
2277 
2278 bool Arguments::is_bad_option(const JavaVMOption* option, jboolean ignore,
2279   const char* option_type) {
2280   if (ignore) return false;
2281 
2282   const char* spacer = " ";
2283   if (option_type == NULL) {
2284     option_type = ++spacer; // Set both to the empty string.
2285   }
2286 
2287   if (os::obsolete_option(option)) {
2288     jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
2289                 "Obsolete %s%soption: %s\n", option_type, spacer,
2290       option->optionString);
2291     return false;
2292   } else {
2293     jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
2294                 "Unrecognized %s%soption: %s\n", option_type, spacer,
2295       option->optionString);
2296     return true;
2297   }
2298 }
2299 
2300 static const char* user_assertion_options[] = {
2301   "-da", "-ea", "-disableassertions", "-enableassertions", 0
2302 };
2303 
2304 static const char* system_assertion_options[] = {
2305   "-dsa", "-esa", "-disablesystemassertions", "-enablesystemassertions", 0
2306 };
2307 
2308 // Return true if any of the strings in null-terminated array 'names' matches.
2309 // If tail_allowed is true, then the tail must begin with a colon; otherwise,
2310 // the option must match exactly.
2311 static bool match_option(const JavaVMOption* option, const char** names, const char** tail,
2312   bool tail_allowed) {
2313   for (/* empty */; *names != NULL; ++names) {
2314     if (match_option(option, *names, tail)) {
2315       if (**tail == '\0' || tail_allowed && **tail == ':') {
2316         return true;
2317       }
2318     }
2319   }
2320   return false;
2321 }
2322 
2323 bool Arguments::parse_uintx(const char* value,
2324                             uintx* uintx_arg,
2325                             uintx min_size) {
2326 
2327   // Check the sign first since atomull() parses only unsigned values.
2328   bool value_is_positive = !(*value == '-');
2329 
2330   if (value_is_positive) {
2331     julong n;
2332     bool good_return = atomull(value, &n);
2333     if (good_return) {
2334       bool above_minimum = n >= min_size;
2335       bool value_is_too_large = n > max_uintx;
2336 
2337       if (above_minimum && !value_is_too_large) {
2338         *uintx_arg = n;
2339         return true;
2340       }
2341     }
2342   }
2343   return false;
2344 }
2345 
2346 Arguments::ArgsRange Arguments::parse_memory_size(const char* s,
2347                                                   julong* long_arg,
2348                                                   julong min_size) {
2349   if (!atomull(s, long_arg)) return arg_unreadable;
2350   return check_memory_size(*long_arg, min_size);
2351 }
2352 
2353 // Parse JavaVMInitArgs structure
2354 
2355 jint Arguments::parse_vm_init_args(const JavaVMInitArgs* args) {
2356   // For components of the system classpath.
2357   SysClassPath scp(Arguments::get_sysclasspath());
2358   bool scp_assembly_required = false;
2359 
2360   // Save default settings for some mode flags
2361   Arguments::_AlwaysCompileLoopMethods = AlwaysCompileLoopMethods;
2362   Arguments::_UseOnStackReplacement    = UseOnStackReplacement;
2363   Arguments::_ClipInlining             = ClipInlining;
2364   Arguments::_BackgroundCompilation    = BackgroundCompilation;
2365 
2366   // Setup flags for mixed which is the default
2367   set_mode_flags(_mixed);
2368 
2369   // Parse JAVA_TOOL_OPTIONS environment variable (if present)
2370   jint result = parse_java_tool_options_environment_variable(&scp, &scp_assembly_required);
2371   if (result != JNI_OK) {
2372     return result;
2373   }
2374 
2375   // Parse JavaVMInitArgs structure passed in
2376   result = parse_each_vm_init_arg(args, &scp, &scp_assembly_required, COMMAND_LINE);
2377   if (result != JNI_OK) {
2378     return result;
2379   }
2380 
2381   if (AggressiveOpts) {
2382     // Insert alt-rt.jar between user-specified bootclasspath
2383     // prefix and the default bootclasspath.  os::set_boot_path()
2384     // uses meta_index_dir as the default bootclasspath directory.
2385     const char* altclasses_jar = "alt-rt.jar";
2386     size_t altclasses_path_len = strlen(get_meta_index_dir()) + 1 +
2387                                  strlen(altclasses_jar);
2388     char* altclasses_path = NEW_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, altclasses_path_len, mtInternal);
2389     strcpy(altclasses_path, get_meta_index_dir());
2390     strcat(altclasses_path, altclasses_jar);
2391     scp.add_suffix_to_prefix(altclasses_path);
2392     scp_assembly_required = true;
2393     FREE_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, altclasses_path, mtInternal);
2394   }
2395 
2396   // Parse _JAVA_OPTIONS environment variable (if present) (mimics classic VM)
2397   result = parse_java_options_environment_variable(&scp, &scp_assembly_required);
2398   if (result != JNI_OK) {
2399     return result;
2400   }
2401 
2402   // Do final processing now that all arguments have been parsed
2403   result = finalize_vm_init_args(&scp, scp_assembly_required);
2404   if (result != JNI_OK) {
2405     return result;
2406   }
2407 
2408   return JNI_OK;
2409 }
2410 
2411 // Checks if name in command-line argument -agent{lib,path}:name[=options]
2412 // represents a valid HPROF of JDWP agent.  is_path==true denotes that we
2413 // are dealing with -agentpath (case where name is a path), otherwise with
2414 // -agentlib
2415 bool valid_hprof_or_jdwp_agent(char *name, bool is_path) {
2416   char *_name;
2417   const char *_hprof = "hprof", *_jdwp = "jdwp";
2418   size_t _len_hprof, _len_jdwp, _len_prefix;
2419 
2420   if (is_path) {
2421     if ((_name = strrchr(name, (int) *os::file_separator())) == NULL) {
2422       return false;
2423     }
2424 
2425     _name++;  // skip past last path separator
2426     _len_prefix = strlen(JNI_LIB_PREFIX);
2427 
2428     if (strncmp(_name, JNI_LIB_PREFIX, _len_prefix) != 0) {
2429       return false;
2430     }
2431 
2432     _name += _len_prefix;
2433     _len_hprof = strlen(_hprof);
2434     _len_jdwp = strlen(_jdwp);
2435 
2436     if (strncmp(_name, _hprof, _len_hprof) == 0) {
2437       _name += _len_hprof;
2438     }
2439     else if (strncmp(_name, _jdwp, _len_jdwp) == 0) {
2440       _name += _len_jdwp;
2441     }
2442     else {
2443       return false;
2444     }
2445 
2446     if (strcmp(_name, JNI_LIB_SUFFIX) != 0) {
2447       return false;
2448     }
2449 
2450     return true;
2451   }
2452 
2453   if (strcmp(name, _hprof) == 0 || strcmp(name, _jdwp) == 0) {
2454     return true;
2455   }
2456 
2457   return false;
2458 }
2459 
2460 jint Arguments::parse_each_vm_init_arg(const JavaVMInitArgs* args,
2461                                        SysClassPath* scp_p,
2462                                        bool* scp_assembly_required_p,
2463                                        FlagValueOrigin origin) {
2464   // Remaining part of option string
2465   const char* tail;
2466 
2467   // iterate over arguments
2468   for (int index = 0; index < args->nOptions; index++) {
2469     bool is_absolute_path = false;  // for -agentpath vs -agentlib
2470 
2471     const JavaVMOption* option = args->options + index;
2472 
2473     if (!match_option(option, "-Djava.class.path", &tail) &&
2474         !match_option(option, "-Dsun.java.command", &tail) &&
2475         !match_option(option, "-Dsun.java.launcher", &tail)) {
2476 
2477         // add all jvm options to the jvm_args string. This string
2478         // is used later to set the java.vm.args PerfData string constant.
2479         // the -Djava.class.path and the -Dsun.java.command options are
2480         // omitted from jvm_args string as each have their own PerfData
2481         // string constant object.
2482         build_jvm_args(option->optionString);
2483     }
2484 
2485     // -verbose:[class/gc/jni]
2486     if (match_option(option, "-verbose", &tail)) {
2487       if (!strcmp(tail, ":class") || !strcmp(tail, "")) {
2488         FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, TraceClassLoading, true);
2489         FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, TraceClassUnloading, true);
2490       } else if (!strcmp(tail, ":gc")) {
2491         FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, PrintGC, true);
2492       } else if (!strcmp(tail, ":jni")) {
2493         FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, PrintJNIResolving, true);
2494       }
2495     // -da / -ea / -disableassertions / -enableassertions
2496     // These accept an optional class/package name separated by a colon, e.g.,
2497     // -da:java.lang.Thread.
2498     } else if (match_option(option, user_assertion_options, &tail, true)) {
2499       bool enable = option->optionString[1] == 'e';     // char after '-' is 'e'
2500       if (*tail == '\0') {
2501         JavaAssertions::setUserClassDefault(enable);
2502       } else {
2503         assert(*tail == ':', "bogus match by match_option()");
2504         JavaAssertions::addOption(tail + 1, enable);
2505       }
2506     // -dsa / -esa / -disablesystemassertions / -enablesystemassertions
2507     } else if (match_option(option, system_assertion_options, &tail, false)) {
2508       bool enable = option->optionString[1] == 'e';     // char after '-' is 'e'
2509       JavaAssertions::setSystemClassDefault(enable);
2510     // -bootclasspath:
2511     } else if (match_option(option, "-Xbootclasspath:", &tail)) {
2512       scp_p->reset_path(tail);
2513       *scp_assembly_required_p = true;
2514     // -bootclasspath/a:
2515     } else if (match_option(option, "-Xbootclasspath/a:", &tail)) {
2516       scp_p->add_suffix(tail);
2517       *scp_assembly_required_p = true;
2518     // -bootclasspath/p:
2519     } else if (match_option(option, "-Xbootclasspath/p:", &tail)) {
2520       scp_p->add_prefix(tail);
2521       *scp_assembly_required_p = true;
2522     // -Xrun
2523     } else if (match_option(option, "-Xrun", &tail)) {
2524       if (tail != NULL) {
2525         const char* pos = strchr(tail, ':');
2526         size_t len = (pos == NULL) ? strlen(tail) : pos - tail;
2527         char* name = (char*)memcpy(NEW_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, len + 1, mtInternal), tail, len);
2528         name[len] = '\0';
2529 
2530         char *options = NULL;
2531         if(pos != NULL) {
2532           size_t len2 = strlen(pos+1) + 1; // options start after ':'.  Final zero must be copied.
2533           options = (char*)memcpy(NEW_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, len2, mtInternal), pos+1, len2);
2534         }
2535 #if !INCLUDE_JVMTI
2536         if ((strcmp(name, "hprof") == 0) || (strcmp(name, "jdwp") == 0)) {
2537           jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
2538             "Profiling and debugging agents are not supported in this VM\n");
2539           return JNI_ERR;
2540         }
2541 #endif // !INCLUDE_JVMTI
2542         add_init_library(name, options);
2543       }
2544     // -agentlib and -agentpath
2545     } else if (match_option(option, "-agentlib:", &tail) ||
2546           (is_absolute_path = match_option(option, "-agentpath:", &tail))) {
2547       if(tail != NULL) {
2548         const char* pos = strchr(tail, '=');
2549         size_t len = (pos == NULL) ? strlen(tail) : pos - tail;
2550         char* name = strncpy(NEW_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, len + 1, mtInternal), tail, len);
2551         name[len] = '\0';
2552 
2553         char *options = NULL;
2554         if(pos != NULL) {
2555           options = strcpy(NEW_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, strlen(pos + 1) + 1, mtInternal), pos + 1);
2556         }
2557 #if !INCLUDE_JVMTI
2558         if (valid_hprof_or_jdwp_agent(name, is_absolute_path)) {
2559           jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
2560             "Profiling and debugging agents are not supported in this VM\n");
2561           return JNI_ERR;
2562         }
2563 #endif // !INCLUDE_JVMTI
2564         add_init_agent(name, options, is_absolute_path);
2565       }
2566     // -javaagent
2567     } else if (match_option(option, "-javaagent:", &tail)) {
2568 #if !INCLUDE_JVMTI
2569       jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
2570         "Instrumentation agents are not supported in this VM\n");
2571       return JNI_ERR;
2572 #else
2573       if(tail != NULL) {
2574         char *options = strcpy(NEW_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, strlen(tail) + 1, mtInternal), tail);
2575         add_init_agent("instrument", options, false);
2576       }
2577 #endif // !INCLUDE_JVMTI
2578     // -Xnoclassgc
2579     } else if (match_option(option, "-Xnoclassgc", &tail)) {
2580       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, ClassUnloading, false);
2581     // -Xincgc: i-CMS
2582     } else if (match_option(option, "-Xincgc", &tail)) {
2583       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, UseConcMarkSweepGC, true);
2584       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, CMSIncrementalMode, true);
2585     // -Xnoincgc: no i-CMS
2586     } else if (match_option(option, "-Xnoincgc", &tail)) {
2587       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, UseConcMarkSweepGC, false);
2588       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, CMSIncrementalMode, false);
2589     // -Xconcgc
2590     } else if (match_option(option, "-Xconcgc", &tail)) {
2591       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, UseConcMarkSweepGC, true);
2592     // -Xnoconcgc
2593     } else if (match_option(option, "-Xnoconcgc", &tail)) {
2594       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, UseConcMarkSweepGC, false);
2595     // -Xbatch
2596     } else if (match_option(option, "-Xbatch", &tail)) {
2597       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, BackgroundCompilation, false);
2598     // -Xmn for compatibility with other JVM vendors
2599     } else if (match_option(option, "-Xmn", &tail)) {
2600       julong long_initial_eden_size = 0;
2601       ArgsRange errcode = parse_memory_size(tail, &long_initial_eden_size, 1);
2602       if (errcode != arg_in_range) {
2603         jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
2604                     "Invalid initial eden size: %s\n", option->optionString);
2605         describe_range_error(errcode);
2606         return JNI_EINVAL;
2607       }
2608       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(uintx, MaxNewSize, (uintx)long_initial_eden_size);
2609       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(uintx, NewSize, (uintx)long_initial_eden_size);
2610     // -Xms
2611     } else if (match_option(option, "-Xms", &tail)) {
2612       julong long_initial_heap_size = 0;
2613       // an initial heap size of 0 means automatically determine
2614       ArgsRange errcode = parse_memory_size(tail, &long_initial_heap_size, 0);
2615       if (errcode != arg_in_range) {
2616         jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
2617                     "Invalid initial heap size: %s\n", option->optionString);
2618         describe_range_error(errcode);
2619         return JNI_EINVAL;
2620       }
2621       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(uintx, InitialHeapSize, (uintx)long_initial_heap_size);
2622       // Currently the minimum size and the initial heap sizes are the same.
2623       set_min_heap_size(InitialHeapSize);
2624     // -Xmx
2625     } else if (match_option(option, "-Xmx", &tail) || match_option(option, "-XX:MaxHeapSize=", &tail)) {
2626       julong long_max_heap_size = 0;
2627       ArgsRange errcode = parse_memory_size(tail, &long_max_heap_size, 1);
2628       if (errcode != arg_in_range) {
2629         jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
2630                     "Invalid maximum heap size: %s\n", option->optionString);
2631         describe_range_error(errcode);
2632         return JNI_EINVAL;
2633       }
2634       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(uintx, MaxHeapSize, (uintx)long_max_heap_size);
2635     // Xmaxf
2636     } else if (match_option(option, "-Xmaxf", &tail)) {
2637       int maxf = (int)(atof(tail) * 100);
2638       if (maxf < 0 || maxf > 100) {
2639         jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
2640                     "Bad max heap free percentage size: %s\n",
2641                     option->optionString);
2642         return JNI_EINVAL;
2643       } else {
2644         FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(uintx, MaxHeapFreeRatio, maxf);
2645       }
2646     // Xminf
2647     } else if (match_option(option, "-Xminf", &tail)) {
2648       int minf = (int)(atof(tail) * 100);
2649       if (minf < 0 || minf > 100) {
2650         jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
2651                     "Bad min heap free percentage size: %s\n",
2652                     option->optionString);
2653         return JNI_EINVAL;
2654       } else {
2655         FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(uintx, MinHeapFreeRatio, minf);
2656       }
2657     // -Xss
2658     } else if (match_option(option, "-Xss", &tail)) {
2659       julong long_ThreadStackSize = 0;
2660       ArgsRange errcode = parse_memory_size(tail, &long_ThreadStackSize, 1000);
2661       if (errcode != arg_in_range) {
2662         jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
2663                     "Invalid thread stack size: %s\n", option->optionString);
2664         describe_range_error(errcode);
2665         return JNI_EINVAL;
2666       }
2667       // Internally track ThreadStackSize in units of 1024 bytes.
2668       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(intx, ThreadStackSize,
2669                               round_to((int)long_ThreadStackSize, K) / K);
2670     // -Xoss
2671     } else if (match_option(option, "-Xoss", &tail)) {
2672           // HotSpot does not have separate native and Java stacks, ignore silently for compatibility
2673     } else if (match_option(option, "-XX:CodeCacheExpansionSize=", &tail)) {
2674       julong long_CodeCacheExpansionSize = 0;
2675       ArgsRange errcode = parse_memory_size(tail, &long_CodeCacheExpansionSize, os::vm_page_size());
2676       if (errcode != arg_in_range) {
2677         jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
2678                    "Invalid argument: %s. Must be at least %luK.\n", option->optionString,
2679                    os::vm_page_size()/K);
2680         return JNI_EINVAL;
2681       }
2682       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(uintx, CodeCacheExpansionSize, (uintx)long_CodeCacheExpansionSize);
2683     } else if (match_option(option, "-Xmaxjitcodesize", &tail) ||
2684                match_option(option, "-XX:ReservedCodeCacheSize=", &tail)) {
2685       julong long_ReservedCodeCacheSize = 0;
2686 
2687       ArgsRange errcode = parse_memory_size(tail, &long_ReservedCodeCacheSize, 1);
2688       if (errcode != arg_in_range) {
2689         jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
2690                     "Invalid maximum code cache size: %s.\n", option->optionString);
2691         return JNI_EINVAL;
2692       }
2693       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(uintx, ReservedCodeCacheSize, (uintx)long_ReservedCodeCacheSize);
2694       //-XX:IncreaseFirstTierCompileThresholdAt=
2695       } else if (match_option(option, "-XX:IncreaseFirstTierCompileThresholdAt=", &tail)) {
2696         uintx uint_IncreaseFirstTierCompileThresholdAt = 0;
2697         if (!parse_uintx(tail, &uint_IncreaseFirstTierCompileThresholdAt, 0) || uint_IncreaseFirstTierCompileThresholdAt > 99) {
2698           jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
2699                       "Invalid value for IncreaseFirstTierCompileThresholdAt: %s. Should be between 0 and 99.\n",
2700                       option->optionString);
2701           return JNI_EINVAL;
2702         }
2703         FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(uintx, IncreaseFirstTierCompileThresholdAt, (uintx)uint_IncreaseFirstTierCompileThresholdAt);
2704     // -green
2705     } else if (match_option(option, "-green", &tail)) {
2706       jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
2707                   "Green threads support not available\n");
2708           return JNI_EINVAL;
2709     // -native
2710     } else if (match_option(option, "-native", &tail)) {
2711           // HotSpot always uses native threads, ignore silently for compatibility
2712     // -Xsqnopause
2713     } else if (match_option(option, "-Xsqnopause", &tail)) {
2714           // EVM option, ignore silently for compatibility
2715     // -Xrs
2716     } else if (match_option(option, "-Xrs", &tail)) {
2717           // Classic/EVM option, new functionality
2718       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, ReduceSignalUsage, true);
2719     } else if (match_option(option, "-Xusealtsigs", &tail)) {
2720           // change default internal VM signals used - lower case for back compat
2721       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, UseAltSigs, true);
2722     // -Xoptimize
2723     } else if (match_option(option, "-Xoptimize", &tail)) {
2724           // EVM option, ignore silently for compatibility
2725     // -Xprof
2726     } else if (match_option(option, "-Xprof", &tail)) {
2727 #if INCLUDE_FPROF
2728       _has_profile = true;
2729 #else // INCLUDE_FPROF
2730       jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
2731         "Flat profiling is not supported in this VM.\n");
2732       return JNI_ERR;
2733 #endif // INCLUDE_FPROF
2734     // -Xconcurrentio
2735     } else if (match_option(option, "-Xconcurrentio", &tail)) {
2736       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, UseLWPSynchronization, true);
2737       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, BackgroundCompilation, false);
2738       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(intx, DeferThrSuspendLoopCount, 1);
2739       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, UseTLAB, false);
2740       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(uintx, NewSizeThreadIncrease, 16 * K);  // 20Kb per thread added to new generation
2741 
2742       // -Xinternalversion
2743     } else if (match_option(option, "-Xinternalversion", &tail)) {
2744       jio_fprintf(defaultStream::output_stream(), "%s\n",
2745                   VM_Version::internal_vm_info_string());
2746       vm_exit(0);
2747 #ifndef PRODUCT
2748     // -Xprintflags
2749     } else if (match_option(option, "-Xprintflags", &tail)) {
2750       CommandLineFlags::printFlags(tty, false);
2751       vm_exit(0);
2752 #endif
2753     // -D
2754     } else if (match_option(option, "-D", &tail)) {
2755       if (!add_property(tail)) {
2756         return JNI_ENOMEM;
2757       }
2758       // Out of the box management support
2759       if (match_option(option, "-Dcom.sun.management", &tail)) {
2760 #if INCLUDE_MANAGEMENT
2761         FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, ManagementServer, true);
2762 #else
2763         jio_fprintf(defaultStream::output_stream(),
2764           "-Dcom.sun.management is not supported in this VM.\n");
2765         return JNI_ERR;
2766 #endif
2767       }
2768     // -Xint
2769     } else if (match_option(option, "-Xint", &tail)) {
2770           set_mode_flags(_int);
2771     // -Xmixed
2772     } else if (match_option(option, "-Xmixed", &tail)) {
2773           set_mode_flags(_mixed);
2774     // -Xcomp
2775     } else if (match_option(option, "-Xcomp", &tail)) {
2776       // for testing the compiler; turn off all flags that inhibit compilation
2777           set_mode_flags(_comp);
2778     // -Xshare:dump
2779     } else if (match_option(option, "-Xshare:dump", &tail)) {
2780       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, DumpSharedSpaces, true);
2781       set_mode_flags(_int);     // Prevent compilation, which creates objects
2782     // -Xshare:on
2783     } else if (match_option(option, "-Xshare:on", &tail)) {
2784       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, UseSharedSpaces, true);
2785       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, RequireSharedSpaces, true);
2786     // -Xshare:auto
2787     } else if (match_option(option, "-Xshare:auto", &tail)) {
2788       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, UseSharedSpaces, true);
2789       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, RequireSharedSpaces, false);
2790     // -Xshare:off
2791     } else if (match_option(option, "-Xshare:off", &tail)) {
2792       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, UseSharedSpaces, false);
2793       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, RequireSharedSpaces, false);
2794     // -Xverify
2795     } else if (match_option(option, "-Xverify", &tail)) {
2796       if (strcmp(tail, ":all") == 0 || strcmp(tail, "") == 0) {
2797         FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, BytecodeVerificationLocal, true);
2798         FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, BytecodeVerificationRemote, true);
2799       } else if (strcmp(tail, ":remote") == 0) {
2800         FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, BytecodeVerificationLocal, false);
2801         FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, BytecodeVerificationRemote, true);
2802       } else if (strcmp(tail, ":none") == 0) {
2803         FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, BytecodeVerificationLocal, false);
2804         FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, BytecodeVerificationRemote, false);
2805       } else if (is_bad_option(option, args->ignoreUnrecognized, "verification")) {
2806         return JNI_EINVAL;
2807       }
2808     // -Xdebug
2809     } else if (match_option(option, "-Xdebug", &tail)) {
2810       // note this flag has been used, then ignore
2811       set_xdebug_mode(true);
2812     // -Xnoagent
2813     } else if (match_option(option, "-Xnoagent", &tail)) {
2814       // For compatibility with classic. HotSpot refuses to load the old style agent.dll.
2815     } else if (match_option(option, "-Xboundthreads", &tail)) {
2816       // Bind user level threads to kernel threads (Solaris only)
2817       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, UseBoundThreads, true);
2818     } else if (match_option(option, "-Xloggc:", &tail)) {
2819       // Redirect GC output to the file. -Xloggc:<filename>
2820       // ostream_init_log(), when called will use this filename
2821       // to initialize a fileStream.
2822       _gc_log_filename = strdup(tail);
2823       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, PrintGC, true);
2824       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, PrintGCTimeStamps, true);
2825 
2826     // JNI hooks
2827     } else if (match_option(option, "-Xcheck", &tail)) {
2828       if (!strcmp(tail, ":jni")) {
2829 #if !INCLUDE_JNI_CHECK
2830         warning("JNI CHECKING is not supported in this VM");
2831 #else
2832         CheckJNICalls = true;
2833 #endif // INCLUDE_JNI_CHECK
2834       } else if (is_bad_option(option, args->ignoreUnrecognized,
2835                                      "check")) {
2836         return JNI_EINVAL;
2837       }
2838     } else if (match_option(option, "vfprintf", &tail)) {
2839       _vfprintf_hook = CAST_TO_FN_PTR(vfprintf_hook_t, option->extraInfo);
2840     } else if (match_option(option, "exit", &tail)) {
2841       _exit_hook = CAST_TO_FN_PTR(exit_hook_t, option->extraInfo);
2842     } else if (match_option(option, "abort", &tail)) {
2843       _abort_hook = CAST_TO_FN_PTR(abort_hook_t, option->extraInfo);
2844     // -XX:+AggressiveHeap
2845     } else if (match_option(option, "-XX:+AggressiveHeap", &tail)) {
2846 
2847       // This option inspects the machine and attempts to set various
2848       // parameters to be optimal for long-running, memory allocation
2849       // intensive jobs.  It is intended for machines with large
2850       // amounts of cpu and memory.
2851 
2852       // initHeapSize is needed since _initial_heap_size is 4 bytes on a 32 bit
2853       // VM, but we may not be able to represent the total physical memory
2854       // available (like having 8gb of memory on a box but using a 32bit VM).
2855       // Thus, we need to make sure we're using a julong for intermediate
2856       // calculations.
2857       julong initHeapSize;
2858       julong total_memory = os::physical_memory();
2859 
2860       if (total_memory < (julong)256*M) {
2861         jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
2862                     "You need at least 256mb of memory to use -XX:+AggressiveHeap\n");
2863         vm_exit(1);
2864       }
2865 
2866       // The heap size is half of available memory, or (at most)
2867       // all of possible memory less 160mb (leaving room for the OS
2868       // when using ISM).  This is the maximum; because adaptive sizing
2869       // is turned on below, the actual space used may be smaller.
2870 
2871       initHeapSize = MIN2(total_memory / (julong)2,
2872                           total_memory - (julong)160*M);
2873 
2874       initHeapSize = limit_by_allocatable_memory(initHeapSize);
2875 
2876       if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(MaxHeapSize)) {
2877          FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(uintx, MaxHeapSize, initHeapSize);
2878          FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(uintx, InitialHeapSize, initHeapSize);
2879          // Currently the minimum size and the initial heap sizes are the same.
2880          set_min_heap_size(initHeapSize);
2881       }
2882       if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(NewSize)) {
2883          // Make the young generation 3/8ths of the total heap.
2884          FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(uintx, NewSize,
2885                                 ((julong)MaxHeapSize / (julong)8) * (julong)3);
2886          FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(uintx, MaxNewSize, NewSize);
2887       }
2888 
2889 #ifndef _ALLBSD_SOURCE  // UseLargePages is not yet supported on BSD.
2890       FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseLargePages, true);
2891 #endif
2892 
2893       // Increase some data structure sizes for efficiency
2894       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(uintx, BaseFootPrintEstimate, MaxHeapSize);
2895       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, ResizeTLAB, false);
2896       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(uintx, TLABSize, 256*K);
2897 
2898       // See the OldPLABSize comment below, but replace 'after promotion'
2899       // with 'after copying'.  YoungPLABSize is the size of the survivor
2900       // space per-gc-thread buffers.  The default is 4kw.
2901       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(uintx, YoungPLABSize, 256*K);      // Note: this is in words
2902 
2903       // OldPLABSize is the size of the buffers in the old gen that
2904       // UseParallelGC uses to promote live data that doesn't fit in the
2905       // survivor spaces.  At any given time, there's one for each gc thread.
2906       // The default size is 1kw. These buffers are rarely used, since the
2907       // survivor spaces are usually big enough.  For specjbb, however, there
2908       // are occasions when there's lots of live data in the young gen
2909       // and we end up promoting some of it.  We don't have a definite
2910       // explanation for why bumping OldPLABSize helps, but the theory
2911       // is that a bigger PLAB results in retaining something like the
2912       // original allocation order after promotion, which improves mutator
2913       // locality.  A minor effect may be that larger PLABs reduce the
2914       // number of PLAB allocation events during gc.  The value of 8kw
2915       // was arrived at by experimenting with specjbb.
2916       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(uintx, OldPLABSize, 8*K);  // Note: this is in words
2917 
2918       // Enable parallel GC and adaptive generation sizing
2919       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, UseParallelGC, true);
2920       FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(ParallelGCThreads,
2921                        Abstract_VM_Version::parallel_worker_threads());
2922 
2923       // Encourage steady state memory management
2924       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(uintx, ThresholdTolerance, 100);
2925 
2926       // This appears to improve mutator locality
2927       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, ScavengeBeforeFullGC, false);
2928 
2929       // Get around early Solaris scheduling bug
2930       // (affinity vs other jobs on system)
2931       // but disallow DR and offlining (5008695).
2932       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, BindGCTaskThreadsToCPUs, true);
2933 
2934     } else if (match_option(option, "-XX:+NeverTenure", &tail)) {
2935       // The last option must always win.
2936       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, AlwaysTenure, false);
2937       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, NeverTenure, true);
2938     } else if (match_option(option, "-XX:+AlwaysTenure", &tail)) {
2939       // The last option must always win.
2940       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, NeverTenure, false);
2941       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, AlwaysTenure, true);
2942     } else if (match_option(option, "-XX:+CMSPermGenSweepingEnabled", &tail) ||
2943                match_option(option, "-XX:-CMSPermGenSweepingEnabled", &tail)) {
2944       jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
2945         "Please use CMSClassUnloadingEnabled in place of "
2946         "CMSPermGenSweepingEnabled in the future\n");
2947     } else if (match_option(option, "-XX:+UseGCTimeLimit", &tail)) {
2948       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, UseGCOverheadLimit, true);
2949       jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
2950         "Please use -XX:+UseGCOverheadLimit in place of "
2951         "-XX:+UseGCTimeLimit in the future\n");
2952     } else if (match_option(option, "-XX:-UseGCTimeLimit", &tail)) {
2953       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, UseGCOverheadLimit, false);
2954       jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
2955         "Please use -XX:-UseGCOverheadLimit in place of "
2956         "-XX:-UseGCTimeLimit in the future\n");
2957     // The TLE options are for compatibility with 1.3 and will be
2958     // removed without notice in a future release.  These options
2959     // are not to be documented.
2960     } else if (match_option(option, "-XX:MaxTLERatio=", &tail)) {
2961       // No longer used.
2962     } else if (match_option(option, "-XX:+ResizeTLE", &tail)) {
2963       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, ResizeTLAB, true);
2964     } else if (match_option(option, "-XX:-ResizeTLE", &tail)) {
2965       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, ResizeTLAB, false);
2966     } else if (match_option(option, "-XX:+PrintTLE", &tail)) {
2967       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, PrintTLAB, true);
2968     } else if (match_option(option, "-XX:-PrintTLE", &tail)) {
2969       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, PrintTLAB, false);
2970     } else if (match_option(option, "-XX:TLEFragmentationRatio=", &tail)) {
2971       // No longer used.
2972     } else if (match_option(option, "-XX:TLESize=", &tail)) {
2973       julong long_tlab_size = 0;
2974       ArgsRange errcode = parse_memory_size(tail, &long_tlab_size, 1);
2975       if (errcode != arg_in_range) {
2976         jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
2977                     "Invalid TLAB size: %s\n", option->optionString);
2978         describe_range_error(errcode);
2979         return JNI_EINVAL;
2980       }
2981       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(uintx, TLABSize, long_tlab_size);
2982     } else if (match_option(option, "-XX:TLEThreadRatio=", &tail)) {
2983       // No longer used.
2984     } else if (match_option(option, "-XX:+UseTLE", &tail)) {
2985       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, UseTLAB, true);
2986     } else if (match_option(option, "-XX:-UseTLE", &tail)) {
2987       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, UseTLAB, false);
2988     } else if (match_option(option, "-XX:+DisplayVMOutputToStderr", &tail)) {
2989       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, DisplayVMOutputToStdout, false);
2990       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, DisplayVMOutputToStderr, true);
2991     } else if (match_option(option, "-XX:+DisplayVMOutputToStdout", &tail)) {
2992       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, DisplayVMOutputToStderr, false);
2993       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, DisplayVMOutputToStdout, true);
2994     } else if (match_option(option, "-XX:+ExtendedDTraceProbes", &tail)) {
2995 #if defined(DTRACE_ENABLED)
2996       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, ExtendedDTraceProbes, true);
2997       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, DTraceMethodProbes, true);
2998       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, DTraceAllocProbes, true);
2999       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, DTraceMonitorProbes, true);
3000 #else // defined(DTRACE_ENABLED)
3001       jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
3002                   "ExtendedDTraceProbes flag is not applicable for this configuration\n");
3003       return JNI_EINVAL;
3004 #endif // defined(DTRACE_ENABLED)
3005 #ifdef ASSERT
3006     } else if (match_option(option, "-XX:+FullGCALot", &tail)) {
3007       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, FullGCALot, true);
3008       // disable scavenge before parallel mark-compact
3009       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, ScavengeBeforeFullGC, false);
3010 #endif
3011     } else if (match_option(option, "-XX:CMSParPromoteBlocksToClaim=", &tail)) {
3012       julong cms_blocks_to_claim = (julong)atol(tail);
3013       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(uintx, CMSParPromoteBlocksToClaim, cms_blocks_to_claim);
3014       jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
3015         "Please use -XX:OldPLABSize in place of "
3016         "-XX:CMSParPromoteBlocksToClaim in the future\n");
3017     } else if (match_option(option, "-XX:ParCMSPromoteBlocksToClaim=", &tail)) {
3018       julong cms_blocks_to_claim = (julong)atol(tail);
3019       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(uintx, CMSParPromoteBlocksToClaim, cms_blocks_to_claim);
3020       jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
3021         "Please use -XX:OldPLABSize in place of "
3022         "-XX:ParCMSPromoteBlocksToClaim in the future\n");
3023     } else if (match_option(option, "-XX:ParallelGCOldGenAllocBufferSize=", &tail)) {
3024       julong old_plab_size = 0;
3025       ArgsRange errcode = parse_memory_size(tail, &old_plab_size, 1);
3026       if (errcode != arg_in_range) {
3027         jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
3028                     "Invalid old PLAB size: %s\n", option->optionString);
3029         describe_range_error(errcode);
3030         return JNI_EINVAL;
3031       }
3032       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(uintx, OldPLABSize, old_plab_size);
3033       jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
3034                   "Please use -XX:OldPLABSize in place of "
3035                   "-XX:ParallelGCOldGenAllocBufferSize in the future\n");
3036     } else if (match_option(option, "-XX:ParallelGCToSpaceAllocBufferSize=", &tail)) {
3037       julong young_plab_size = 0;
3038       ArgsRange errcode = parse_memory_size(tail, &young_plab_size, 1);
3039       if (errcode != arg_in_range) {
3040         jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
3041                     "Invalid young PLAB size: %s\n", option->optionString);
3042         describe_range_error(errcode);
3043         return JNI_EINVAL;
3044       }
3045       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(uintx, YoungPLABSize, young_plab_size);
3046       jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
3047                   "Please use -XX:YoungPLABSize in place of "
3048                   "-XX:ParallelGCToSpaceAllocBufferSize in the future\n");
3049     } else if (match_option(option, "-XX:CMSMarkStackSize=", &tail) ||
3050                match_option(option, "-XX:G1MarkStackSize=", &tail)) {
3051       julong stack_size = 0;
3052       ArgsRange errcode = parse_memory_size(tail, &stack_size, 1);
3053       if (errcode != arg_in_range) {
3054         jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
3055                     "Invalid mark stack size: %s\n", option->optionString);
3056         describe_range_error(errcode);
3057         return JNI_EINVAL;
3058       }
3059       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(uintx, MarkStackSize, stack_size);
3060     } else if (match_option(option, "-XX:CMSMarkStackSizeMax=", &tail)) {
3061       julong max_stack_size = 0;
3062       ArgsRange errcode = parse_memory_size(tail, &max_stack_size, 1);
3063       if (errcode != arg_in_range) {
3064         jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
3065                     "Invalid maximum mark stack size: %s\n",
3066                     option->optionString);
3067         describe_range_error(errcode);
3068         return JNI_EINVAL;
3069       }
3070       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(uintx, MarkStackSizeMax, max_stack_size);
3071     } else if (match_option(option, "-XX:ParallelMarkingThreads=", &tail) ||
3072                match_option(option, "-XX:ParallelCMSThreads=", &tail)) {
3073       uintx conc_threads = 0;
3074       if (!parse_uintx(tail, &conc_threads, 1)) {
3075         jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
3076                     "Invalid concurrent threads: %s\n", option->optionString);
3077         return JNI_EINVAL;
3078       }
3079       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(uintx, ConcGCThreads, conc_threads);
3080     } else if (match_option(option, "-XX:MaxDirectMemorySize=", &tail)) {
3081       julong max_direct_memory_size = 0;
3082       ArgsRange errcode = parse_memory_size(tail, &max_direct_memory_size, 0);
3083       if (errcode != arg_in_range) {
3084         jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
3085                     "Invalid maximum direct memory size: %s\n",
3086                     option->optionString);
3087         describe_range_error(errcode);
3088         return JNI_EINVAL;
3089       }
3090       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(uintx, MaxDirectMemorySize, max_direct_memory_size);
3091     } else if (match_option(option, "-XX:+UseVMInterruptibleIO", &tail)) {
3092       // NOTE! In JDK 9, the UseVMInterruptibleIO flag will completely go
3093       //       away and will cause VM initialization failures!
3094       warning("-XX:+UseVMInterruptibleIO is obsolete and will be removed in a future release.");
3095       FLAG_SET_CMDLINE(bool, UseVMInterruptibleIO, true);
3096 #if !INCLUDE_MANAGEMENT
3097     } else if (match_option(option, "-XX:+ManagementServer", &tail)) {
3098         jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
3099           "ManagementServer is not supported in this VM.\n");
3100         return JNI_ERR;
3101 #endif // INCLUDE_MANAGEMENT
3102     } else if (match_option(option, "-XX:", &tail)) { // -XX:xxxx
3103       // Skip -XX:Flags= since that case has already been handled
3104       if (strncmp(tail, "Flags=", strlen("Flags=")) != 0) {
3105         if (!process_argument(tail, args->ignoreUnrecognized, origin)) {
3106           return JNI_EINVAL;
3107         }
3108       }
3109     // Unknown option
3110     } else if (is_bad_option(option, args->ignoreUnrecognized)) {
3111       return JNI_ERR;
3112     }
3113   }
3114 
3115   // Change the default value for flags  which have different default values
3116   // when working with older JDKs.
3117 #ifdef LINUX
3118  if (JDK_Version::current().compare_major(6) <= 0 &&
3119       FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(UseLinuxPosixThreadCPUClocks)) {
3120     FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseLinuxPosixThreadCPUClocks, false);
3121   }
3122 #endif // LINUX
3123   return JNI_OK;
3124 }
3125 
3126 jint Arguments::finalize_vm_init_args(SysClassPath* scp_p, bool scp_assembly_required) {
3127   // This must be done after all -D arguments have been processed.
3128   scp_p->expand_endorsed();
3129 
3130   if (scp_assembly_required || scp_p->get_endorsed() != NULL) {
3131     // Assemble the bootclasspath elements into the final path.
3132     Arguments::set_sysclasspath(scp_p->combined_path());
3133   }
3134 
3135   // This must be done after all arguments have been processed.
3136   // java_compiler() true means set to "NONE" or empty.
3137   if (java_compiler() && !xdebug_mode()) {
3138     // For backwards compatibility, we switch to interpreted mode if
3139     // -Djava.compiler="NONE" or "" is specified AND "-Xdebug" was
3140     // not specified.
3141     set_mode_flags(_int);
3142   }
3143   if (CompileThreshold == 0) {
3144     set_mode_flags(_int);
3145   }
3146 
3147   // eventually fix up InitialTenuringThreshold if only MaxTenuringThreshold is set
3148   if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(InitialTenuringThreshold) && (InitialTenuringThreshold > MaxTenuringThreshold)) {
3149     FLAG_SET_ERGO(uintx, InitialTenuringThreshold, MaxTenuringThreshold);
3150   }
3151 
3152 #ifndef COMPILER2
3153   // Don't degrade server performance for footprint
3154   if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(UseLargePages) &&
3155       MaxHeapSize < LargePageHeapSizeThreshold) {
3156     // No need for large granularity pages w/small heaps.
3157     // Note that large pages are enabled/disabled for both the
3158     // Java heap and the code cache.
3159     FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseLargePages, false);
3160   }
3161 
3162 #else
3163   if (!FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(OptoLoopAlignment) && FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(MaxLoopPad)) {
3164     FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(MaxLoopPad, OptoLoopAlignment-1);
3165   }
3166 #endif
3167 
3168 #ifndef TIERED
3169   // Tiered compilation is undefined.
3170   UNSUPPORTED_OPTION(TieredCompilation, "TieredCompilation");
3171 #endif
3172 
3173   // If we are running in a headless jre, force java.awt.headless property
3174   // to be true unless the property has already been set.
3175   // Also allow the OS environment variable JAVA_AWT_HEADLESS to set headless state.
3176   if (os::is_headless_jre()) {
3177     const char* headless = Arguments::get_property("java.awt.headless");
3178     if (headless == NULL) {
3179       char envbuffer[128];
3180       if (!os::getenv("JAVA_AWT_HEADLESS", envbuffer, sizeof(envbuffer))) {
3181         if (!add_property("java.awt.headless=true")) {
3182           return JNI_ENOMEM;
3183         }
3184       } else {
3185         char buffer[256];
3186         strcpy(buffer, "java.awt.headless=");
3187         strcat(buffer, envbuffer);
3188         if (!add_property(buffer)) {
3189           return JNI_ENOMEM;
3190         }
3191       }
3192     }
3193   }
3194 
3195   if (!check_vm_args_consistency()) {
3196     return JNI_ERR;
3197   }
3198 
3199   return JNI_OK;
3200 }
3201 
3202 jint Arguments::parse_java_options_environment_variable(SysClassPath* scp_p, bool* scp_assembly_required_p) {
3203   return parse_options_environment_variable("_JAVA_OPTIONS", scp_p,
3204                                             scp_assembly_required_p);
3205 }
3206 
3207 jint Arguments::parse_java_tool_options_environment_variable(SysClassPath* scp_p, bool* scp_assembly_required_p) {
3208   return parse_options_environment_variable("JAVA_TOOL_OPTIONS", scp_p,
3209                                             scp_assembly_required_p);
3210 }
3211 
3212 jint Arguments::parse_options_environment_variable(const char* name, SysClassPath* scp_p, bool* scp_assembly_required_p) {
3213   const int N_MAX_OPTIONS = 64;
3214   const int OPTION_BUFFER_SIZE = 1024;
3215   char buffer[OPTION_BUFFER_SIZE];
3216 
3217   // The variable will be ignored if it exceeds the length of the buffer.
3218   // Don't check this variable if user has special privileges
3219   // (e.g. unix su command).
3220   if (os::getenv(name, buffer, sizeof(buffer)) &&
3221       !os::have_special_privileges()) {
3222     JavaVMOption options[N_MAX_OPTIONS];      // Construct option array
3223     jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
3224                 "Picked up %s: %s\n", name, buffer);
3225     char* rd = buffer;                        // pointer to the input string (rd)
3226     int i;
3227     for (i = 0; i < N_MAX_OPTIONS;) {         // repeat for all options in the input string
3228       while (isspace(*rd)) rd++;              // skip whitespace
3229       if (*rd == 0) break;                    // we re done when the input string is read completely
3230 
3231       // The output, option string, overwrites the input string.
3232       // Because of quoting, the pointer to the option string (wrt) may lag the pointer to
3233       // input string (rd).
3234       char* wrt = rd;
3235 
3236       options[i++].optionString = wrt;        // Fill in option
3237       while (*rd != 0 && !isspace(*rd)) {     // unquoted strings terminate with a space or NULL
3238         if (*rd == '\'' || *rd == '"') {      // handle a quoted string
3239           int quote = *rd;                    // matching quote to look for
3240           rd++;                               // don't copy open quote
3241           while (*rd != quote) {              // include everything (even spaces) up until quote
3242             if (*rd == 0) {                   // string termination means unmatched string
3243               jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
3244                           "Unmatched quote in %s\n", name);
3245               return JNI_ERR;
3246             }
3247             *wrt++ = *rd++;                   // copy to option string
3248           }
3249           rd++;                               // don't copy close quote
3250         } else {
3251           *wrt++ = *rd++;                     // copy to option string
3252         }
3253       }
3254       // Need to check if we're done before writing a NULL,
3255       // because the write could be to the byte that rd is pointing to.
3256       if (*rd++ == 0) {
3257         *wrt = 0;
3258         break;
3259       }
3260       *wrt = 0;                               // Zero terminate option
3261     }
3262     // Construct JavaVMInitArgs structure and parse as if it was part of the command line
3263     JavaVMInitArgs vm_args;
3264     vm_args.version = JNI_VERSION_1_2;
3265     vm_args.options = options;
3266     vm_args.nOptions = i;
3267     vm_args.ignoreUnrecognized = IgnoreUnrecognizedVMOptions;
3268 
3269     if (PrintVMOptions) {
3270       const char* tail;
3271       for (int i = 0; i < vm_args.nOptions; i++) {
3272         const JavaVMOption *option = vm_args.options + i;
3273         if (match_option(option, "-XX:", &tail)) {
3274           logOption(tail);
3275         }
3276       }
3277     }
3278 
3279     return(parse_each_vm_init_arg(&vm_args, scp_p, scp_assembly_required_p, ENVIRON_VAR));
3280   }
3281   return JNI_OK;
3282 }
3283 
3284 void Arguments::set_shared_spaces_flags() {
3285   if (DumpSharedSpaces) {
3286     if (RequireSharedSpaces) {
3287       warning("cannot dump shared archive while using shared archive");
3288     }
3289     UseSharedSpaces = false;
3290 #ifdef _LP64
3291     if (!UseCompressedOops || !UseCompressedKlassPointers) {
3292       vm_exit_during_initialization(
3293         "Cannot dump shared archive when UseCompressedOops or UseCompressedKlassPointers is off.", NULL);
3294     }
3295   } else {
3296     // UseCompressedOops and UseCompressedKlassPointers must be on for UseSharedSpaces.
3297     if (!UseCompressedOops || !UseCompressedKlassPointers) {
3298       no_shared_spaces();
3299     }
3300 #endif
3301   }
3302 }
3303 
3304 #if !INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
3305 static void force_serial_gc() {
3306   FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseSerialGC, true);
3307   FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(CMSIncrementalMode, false);  // special CMS suboption
3308   UNSUPPORTED_GC_OPTION(UseG1GC);
3309   UNSUPPORTED_GC_OPTION(UseParallelGC);
3310   UNSUPPORTED_GC_OPTION(UseParallelOldGC);
3311   UNSUPPORTED_GC_OPTION(UseConcMarkSweepGC);
3312   UNSUPPORTED_GC_OPTION(UseParNewGC);
3313 }
3314 #endif // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
3315 
3316 // Sharing support
3317 // Construct the path to the archive
3318 static char* get_shared_archive_path() {
3319   char *shared_archive_path;
3320   if (SharedArchiveFile == NULL) {
3321     char jvm_path[JVM_MAXPATHLEN];
3322     os::jvm_path(jvm_path, sizeof(jvm_path));
3323     char *end = strrchr(jvm_path, *os::file_separator());
3324     if (end != NULL) *end = '\0';
3325     size_t jvm_path_len = strlen(jvm_path);
3326     size_t file_sep_len = strlen(os::file_separator());
3327     shared_archive_path = NEW_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, jvm_path_len +
3328         file_sep_len + 20, mtInternal);
3329     if (shared_archive_path != NULL) {
3330       strncpy(shared_archive_path, jvm_path, jvm_path_len + 1);
3331       strncat(shared_archive_path, os::file_separator(), file_sep_len);
3332       strncat(shared_archive_path, "classes.jsa", 11);
3333     }
3334   } else {
3335     shared_archive_path = NEW_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, strlen(SharedArchiveFile) + 1, mtInternal);
3336     if (shared_archive_path != NULL) {
3337       strncpy(shared_archive_path, SharedArchiveFile, strlen(SharedArchiveFile) + 1);
3338     }
3339   }
3340   return shared_archive_path;
3341 }
3342 
3343 // Parse entry point called from JNI_CreateJavaVM
3344 
3345 jint Arguments::parse(const JavaVMInitArgs* args) {
3346 
3347   // Remaining part of option string
3348   const char* tail;
3349 
3350   // If flag "-XX:Flags=flags-file" is used it will be the first option to be processed.
3351   const char* hotspotrc = ".hotspotrc";
3352   bool settings_file_specified = false;
3353   bool needs_hotspotrc_warning = false;
3354 
3355   const char* flags_file;
3356   int index;
3357   for (index = 0; index < args->nOptions; index++) {
3358     const JavaVMOption *option = args->options + index;
3359     if (match_option(option, "-XX:Flags=", &tail)) {
3360       flags_file = tail;
3361       settings_file_specified = true;
3362     }
3363     if (match_option(option, "-XX:+PrintVMOptions", &tail)) {
3364       PrintVMOptions = true;
3365     }
3366     if (match_option(option, "-XX:-PrintVMOptions", &tail)) {
3367       PrintVMOptions = false;
3368     }
3369     if (match_option(option, "-XX:+IgnoreUnrecognizedVMOptions", &tail)) {
3370       IgnoreUnrecognizedVMOptions = true;
3371     }
3372     if (match_option(option, "-XX:-IgnoreUnrecognizedVMOptions", &tail)) {
3373       IgnoreUnrecognizedVMOptions = false;
3374     }
3375     if (match_option(option, "-XX:+PrintFlagsInitial", &tail)) {
3376       CommandLineFlags::printFlags(tty, false);
3377       vm_exit(0);
3378     }
3379     if (match_option(option, "-XX:NativeMemoryTracking", &tail)) {
3380 #if INCLUDE_NMT
3381       MemTracker::init_tracking_options(tail);
3382 #else
3383       jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
3384         "Native Memory Tracking is not supported in this VM\n");
3385       return JNI_ERR;
3386 #endif
3387     }
3388 
3389 
3390 #ifndef PRODUCT
3391     if (match_option(option, "-XX:+PrintFlagsWithComments", &tail)) {
3392       CommandLineFlags::printFlags(tty, true);
3393       vm_exit(0);
3394     }
3395 #endif
3396   }
3397 
3398   if (IgnoreUnrecognizedVMOptions) {
3399     // uncast const to modify the flag args->ignoreUnrecognized
3400     *(jboolean*)(&args->ignoreUnrecognized) = true;
3401   }
3402 
3403   // Parse specified settings file
3404   if (settings_file_specified) {
3405     if (!process_settings_file(flags_file, true, args->ignoreUnrecognized)) {
3406       return JNI_EINVAL;
3407     }
3408   } else {
3409 #ifdef ASSERT
3410     // Parse default .hotspotrc settings file
3411     if (!process_settings_file(".hotspotrc", false, args->ignoreUnrecognized)) {
3412       return JNI_EINVAL;
3413     }
3414 #else
3415     struct stat buf;
3416     if (os::stat(hotspotrc, &buf) == 0) {
3417       needs_hotspotrc_warning = true;
3418     }
3419 #endif
3420   }
3421 
3422   if (PrintVMOptions) {
3423     for (index = 0; index < args->nOptions; index++) {
3424       const JavaVMOption *option = args->options + index;
3425       if (match_option(option, "-XX:", &tail)) {
3426         logOption(tail);
3427       }
3428     }
3429   }
3430 
3431   // Parse JavaVMInitArgs structure passed in, as well as JAVA_TOOL_OPTIONS and _JAVA_OPTIONS
3432   jint result = parse_vm_init_args(args);
3433   if (result != JNI_OK) {
3434     return result;
3435   }
3436 
3437   // Call get_shared_archive_path() here, after possible SharedArchiveFile option got parsed.
3438   SharedArchivePath = get_shared_archive_path();
3439   if (SharedArchivePath == NULL) {
3440     return JNI_ENOMEM;
3441   }
3442 
3443   // Delay warning until here so that we've had a chance to process
3444   // the -XX:-PrintWarnings flag
3445   if (needs_hotspotrc_warning) {
3446     warning("%s file is present but has been ignored.  "
3447             "Run with -XX:Flags=%s to load the file.",
3448             hotspotrc, hotspotrc);
3449   }
3450 
3451 #ifdef _ALLBSD_SOURCE  // UseLargePages is not yet supported on BSD.
3452   UNSUPPORTED_OPTION(UseLargePages, "-XX:+UseLargePages");
3453 #endif
3454 
3455 #if INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
3456   #if (defined JAVASE_EMBEDDED || defined ARM)
3457     UNSUPPORTED_OPTION(UseG1GC, "G1 GC");
3458   #endif
3459 #endif
3460 
3461 #ifndef PRODUCT
3462   if (TraceBytecodesAt != 0) {
3463     TraceBytecodes = true;
3464   }
3465   if (CountCompiledCalls) {
3466     if (UseCounterDecay) {
3467       warning("UseCounterDecay disabled because CountCalls is set");
3468       UseCounterDecay = false;
3469     }
3470   }
3471 #endif // PRODUCT
3472 
3473   // JSR 292 is not supported before 1.7
3474   if (!JDK_Version::is_gte_jdk17x_version()) {
3475     if (EnableInvokeDynamic) {
3476       if (!FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(EnableInvokeDynamic)) {
3477         warning("JSR 292 is not supported before 1.7.  Disabling support.");
3478       }
3479       EnableInvokeDynamic = false;
3480     }
3481   }
3482 
3483   if (EnableInvokeDynamic && ScavengeRootsInCode == 0) {
3484     if (!FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(ScavengeRootsInCode)) {
3485       warning("forcing ScavengeRootsInCode non-zero because EnableInvokeDynamic is true");
3486     }
3487     ScavengeRootsInCode = 1;
3488   }
3489 
3490   if (PrintGCDetails) {
3491     // Turn on -verbose:gc options as well
3492     PrintGC = true;
3493   }
3494 
3495   if (!JDK_Version::is_gte_jdk18x_version()) {
3496     // To avoid changing the log format for 7 updates this flag is only
3497     // true by default in JDK8 and above.
3498     if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(PrintGCCause)) {
3499       FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(PrintGCCause, false);
3500     }
3501   }
3502 
3503   // Set object alignment values.
3504   set_object_alignment();
3505 
3506 #if !INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
3507   force_serial_gc();
3508 #endif // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
3509 #if !INCLUDE_CDS
3510   if (DumpSharedSpaces || RequireSharedSpaces) {
3511     jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
3512       "Shared spaces are not supported in this VM\n");
3513     return JNI_ERR;
3514   }
3515   if ((UseSharedSpaces && FLAG_IS_CMDLINE(UseSharedSpaces)) || PrintSharedSpaces) {
3516     warning("Shared spaces are not supported in this VM");
3517     FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseSharedSpaces, false);
3518     FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(PrintSharedSpaces, false);
3519   }
3520   no_shared_spaces();
3521 #endif // INCLUDE_CDS
3522 
3523   // Set flags based on ergonomics.
3524   set_ergonomics_flags();
3525 
3526   set_shared_spaces_flags();
3527 
3528   // Check the GC selections again.
3529   if (!check_gc_consistency()) {
3530     return JNI_EINVAL;
3531   }
3532 
3533   if (TieredCompilation) {
3534     set_tiered_flags();
3535   } else {
3536     // Check if the policy is valid. Policies 0 and 1 are valid for non-tiered setup.
3537     if (CompilationPolicyChoice >= 2) {
3538       vm_exit_during_initialization(
3539         "Incompatible compilation policy selected", NULL);
3540     }
3541   }
3542 
3543   set_heap_base_min_address();
3544 
3545   // Set heap size based on available physical memory
3546   set_heap_size();
3547 
3548 #if INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
3549   // Set per-collector flags
3550   if (UseParallelGC || UseParallelOldGC) {
3551     set_parallel_gc_flags();
3552   } else if (UseConcMarkSweepGC) { // should be done before ParNew check below
3553     set_cms_and_parnew_gc_flags();
3554   } else if (UseParNewGC) {  // skipped if CMS is set above
3555     set_parnew_gc_flags();
3556   } else if (UseG1GC) {
3557     set_g1_gc_flags();
3558   }
3559   check_deprecated_gcs();
3560   check_deprecated_gc_flags();
3561   if (AssumeMP && !UseSerialGC) {
3562     if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(ParallelGCThreads) && ParallelGCThreads == 1) {
3563       warning("If the number of processors is expected to increase from one, then"
3564               " you should configure the number of parallel GC threads appropriately"
3565               " using -XX:ParallelGCThreads=N");
3566     }
3567   }
3568 #else // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
3569   assert(verify_serial_gc_flags(), "SerialGC unset");
3570 #endif // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
3571 
3572   // Set bytecode rewriting flags
3573   set_bytecode_flags();
3574 
3575   // Set flags if Aggressive optimization flags (-XX:+AggressiveOpts) enabled.
3576   set_aggressive_opts_flags();
3577 
3578   // Turn off biased locking for locking debug mode flags,
3579   // which are subtlely different from each other but neither works with
3580   // biased locking.
3581   if (UseHeavyMonitors
3582 #ifdef COMPILER1
3583       || !UseFastLocking
3584 #endif // COMPILER1
3585     ) {
3586     if (!FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(UseBiasedLocking) && UseBiasedLocking) {
3587       // flag set to true on command line; warn the user that they
3588       // can't enable biased locking here
3589       warning("Biased Locking is not supported with locking debug flags"
3590               "; ignoring UseBiasedLocking flag." );
3591     }
3592     UseBiasedLocking = false;
3593   }
3594 
3595 #ifdef CC_INTERP
3596   // Clear flags not supported by the C++ interpreter
3597   FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(ProfileInterpreter, false);
3598   FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseBiasedLocking, false);
3599   LP64_ONLY(FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseCompressedOops, false));
3600   LP64_ONLY(FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseCompressedKlassPointers, false));
3601 #endif // CC_INTERP
3602 
3603 #ifdef COMPILER2
3604   if (!UseBiasedLocking || EmitSync != 0) {
3605     UseOptoBiasInlining = false;
3606   }
3607   if (!EliminateLocks) {
3608     EliminateNestedLocks = false;
3609   }
3610   if (!Inline) {
3611     IncrementalInline = false;
3612   }
3613 #ifndef PRODUCT
3614   if (!IncrementalInline) {
3615     AlwaysIncrementalInline = false;
3616   }
3617 #endif
3618   if (IncrementalInline && FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(MaxNodeLimit)) {
3619     // incremental inlining: bump MaxNodeLimit
3620     FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(MaxNodeLimit, (intx)75000);
3621   }
3622 #endif
3623 
3624   if (PrintAssembly && FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(DebugNonSafepoints)) {
3625     warning("PrintAssembly is enabled; turning on DebugNonSafepoints to gain additional output");
3626     DebugNonSafepoints = true;
3627   }
3628 
3629 #ifndef PRODUCT
3630   if (CompileTheWorld) {
3631     // Force NmethodSweeper to sweep whole CodeCache each time.
3632     if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(NmethodSweepFraction)) {
3633       NmethodSweepFraction = 1;
3634     }
3635   }
3636 #endif
3637 
3638   if (PrintCommandLineFlags) {
3639     CommandLineFlags::printSetFlags(tty);
3640   }
3641 
3642   // Apply CPU specific policy for the BiasedLocking
3643   if (UseBiasedLocking) {
3644     if (!VM_Version::use_biased_locking() &&
3645         !(FLAG_IS_CMDLINE(UseBiasedLocking))) {
3646       UseBiasedLocking = false;
3647     }
3648   }
3649 
3650   // set PauseAtExit if the gamma launcher was used and a debugger is attached
3651   // but only if not already set on the commandline
3652   if (Arguments::created_by_gamma_launcher() && os::is_debugger_attached()) {
3653     bool set = false;
3654     CommandLineFlags::wasSetOnCmdline("PauseAtExit", &set);
3655     if (!set) {
3656       FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(PauseAtExit, true);
3657     }
3658   }
3659 
3660   return JNI_OK;
3661 }
3662 
3663 jint Arguments::adjust_after_os() {
3664 #if INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
3665   if (UseParallelGC || UseParallelOldGC) {
3666     if (UseNUMA) {
3667       if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(MinHeapDeltaBytes)) {
3668         FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(MinHeapDeltaBytes, 64*M);
3669       }
3670       // For those collectors or operating systems (eg, Windows) that do
3671       // not support full UseNUMA, we will map to UseNUMAInterleaving for now
3672       UseNUMAInterleaving = true;
3673     }
3674   }
3675 #endif // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
3676   return JNI_OK;
3677 }
3678 
3679 int Arguments::PropertyList_count(SystemProperty* pl) {
3680   int count = 0;
3681   while(pl != NULL) {
3682     count++;
3683     pl = pl->next();
3684   }
3685   return count;
3686 }
3687 
3688 const char* Arguments::PropertyList_get_value(SystemProperty *pl, const char* key) {
3689   assert(key != NULL, "just checking");
3690   SystemProperty* prop;
3691   for (prop = pl; prop != NULL; prop = prop->next()) {
3692     if (strcmp(key, prop->key()) == 0) return prop->value();
3693   }
3694   return NULL;
3695 }
3696 
3697 const char* Arguments::PropertyList_get_key_at(SystemProperty *pl, int index) {
3698   int count = 0;
3699   const char* ret_val = NULL;
3700 
3701   while(pl != NULL) {
3702     if(count >= index) {
3703       ret_val = pl->key();
3704       break;
3705     }
3706     count++;
3707     pl = pl->next();
3708   }
3709 
3710   return ret_val;
3711 }
3712 
3713 char* Arguments::PropertyList_get_value_at(SystemProperty* pl, int index) {
3714   int count = 0;
3715   char* ret_val = NULL;
3716 
3717   while(pl != NULL) {
3718     if(count >= index) {
3719       ret_val = pl->value();
3720       break;
3721     }
3722     count++;
3723     pl = pl->next();
3724   }
3725 
3726   return ret_val;
3727 }
3728 
3729 void Arguments::PropertyList_add(SystemProperty** plist, SystemProperty *new_p) {
3730   SystemProperty* p = *plist;
3731   if (p == NULL) {
3732     *plist = new_p;
3733   } else {
3734     while (p->next() != NULL) {
3735       p = p->next();
3736     }
3737     p->set_next(new_p);
3738   }
3739 }
3740 
3741 void Arguments::PropertyList_add(SystemProperty** plist, const char* k, char* v) {
3742   if (plist == NULL)
3743     return;
3744 
3745   SystemProperty* new_p = new SystemProperty(k, v, true);
3746   PropertyList_add(plist, new_p);
3747 }
3748 
3749 // This add maintains unique property key in the list.
3750 void Arguments::PropertyList_unique_add(SystemProperty** plist, const char* k, char* v, jboolean append) {
3751   if (plist == NULL)
3752     return;
3753 
3754   // If property key exist then update with new value.
3755   SystemProperty* prop;
3756   for (prop = *plist; prop != NULL; prop = prop->next()) {
3757     if (strcmp(k, prop->key()) == 0) {
3758       if (append) {
3759         prop->append_value(v);
3760       } else {
3761         prop->set_value(v);
3762       }
3763       return;
3764     }
3765   }
3766 
3767   PropertyList_add(plist, k, v);
3768 }
3769 
3770 // Copies src into buf, replacing "%%" with "%" and "%p" with pid
3771 // Returns true if all of the source pointed by src has been copied over to
3772 // the destination buffer pointed by buf. Otherwise, returns false.
3773 // Notes:
3774 // 1. If the length (buflen) of the destination buffer excluding the
3775 // NULL terminator character is not long enough for holding the expanded
3776 // pid characters, it also returns false instead of returning the partially
3777 // expanded one.
3778 // 2. The passed in "buflen" should be large enough to hold the null terminator.
3779 bool Arguments::copy_expand_pid(const char* src, size_t srclen,
3780                                 char* buf, size_t buflen) {
3781   const char* p = src;
3782   char* b = buf;
3783   const char* src_end = &src[srclen];
3784   char* buf_end = &buf[buflen - 1];
3785 
3786   while (p < src_end && b < buf_end) {
3787     if (*p == '%') {
3788       switch (*(++p)) {
3789       case '%':         // "%%" ==> "%"
3790         *b++ = *p++;
3791         break;
3792       case 'p':  {       //  "%p" ==> current process id
3793         // buf_end points to the character before the last character so
3794         // that we could write '\0' to the end of the buffer.
3795         size_t buf_sz = buf_end - b + 1;
3796         int ret = jio_snprintf(b, buf_sz, "%d", os::current_process_id());
3797 
3798         // if jio_snprintf fails or the buffer is not long enough to hold
3799         // the expanded pid, returns false.
3800         if (ret < 0 || ret >= (int)buf_sz) {
3801           return false;
3802         } else {
3803           b += ret;
3804           assert(*b == '\0', "fail in copy_expand_pid");
3805           if (p == src_end && b == buf_end + 1) {
3806             // reach the end of the buffer.
3807             return true;
3808           }
3809         }
3810         p++;
3811         break;
3812       }
3813       default :
3814         *b++ = '%';
3815       }
3816     } else {
3817       *b++ = *p++;
3818     }
3819   }
3820   *b = '\0';
3821   return (p == src_end); // return false if not all of the source was copied
3822 }