1 /*
   2  * Copyright (c) 1997, 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
   3  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
   4  *
   5  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   6  * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
   7  * published by the Free Software Foundation.
   8  *
   9  * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  10  * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  11  * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  12  * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  13  * accompanied this code).
  14  *
  15  * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  16  * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  17  * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  18  *
  19  * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  20  * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  21  * questions.
  22  *
  23  */
  24 
  25 #include "precompiled.hpp"
  26 #include "classfile/classLoader.hpp"
  27 #include "classfile/classLoaderData.hpp"
  28 #include "classfile/javaClasses.hpp"
  29 #include "classfile/stringTable.hpp"
  30 #include "classfile/systemDictionary.hpp"
  31 #include "classfile/vmSymbols.hpp"
  32 #include "code/codeCache.hpp"
  33 #include "code/dependencies.hpp"
  34 #include "gc/shared/cardTableModRefBS.hpp"
  35 #include "gc/shared/collectedHeap.inline.hpp"
  36 #include "gc/shared/gcLocker.inline.hpp"
  37 #include "gc/shared/genCollectedHeap.hpp"
  38 #include "gc/shared/generation.hpp"
  39 #include "gc/shared/gcTraceTime.hpp"
  40 #include "gc/shared/space.hpp"
  41 #include "interpreter/interpreter.hpp"
  42 #include "logging/log.hpp"
  43 #include "memory/filemap.hpp"
  44 #include "memory/metadataFactory.hpp"
  45 #include "memory/metaspaceShared.hpp"
  46 #include "memory/oopFactory.hpp"
  47 #include "memory/universe.hpp"
  48 #include "memory/universe.inline.hpp"
  49 #include "oops/constantPool.hpp"
  50 #include "oops/instanceClassLoaderKlass.hpp"
  51 #include "oops/instanceKlass.hpp"
  52 #include "oops/instanceMirrorKlass.hpp"
  53 #include "oops/instanceRefKlass.hpp"
  54 #include "oops/objArrayOop.inline.hpp"
  55 #include "oops/oop.inline.hpp"
  56 #include "oops/typeArrayKlass.hpp"
  57 #include "prims/jvmtiRedefineClassesTrace.hpp"
  58 #include "runtime/arguments.hpp"
  59 #include "runtime/atomic.inline.hpp"
  60 #include "runtime/commandLineFlagConstraintList.hpp"
  61 #include "runtime/deoptimization.hpp"
  62 #include "runtime/fprofiler.hpp"
  63 #include "runtime/handles.inline.hpp"
  64 #include "runtime/init.hpp"
  65 #include "runtime/java.hpp"
  66 #include "runtime/javaCalls.hpp"
  67 #include "runtime/sharedRuntime.hpp"
  68 #include "runtime/synchronizer.hpp"
  69 #include "runtime/thread.inline.hpp"
  70 #include "runtime/timer.hpp"
  71 #include "runtime/vm_operations.hpp"
  72 #include "services/memoryService.hpp"
  73 #include "utilities/copy.hpp"
  74 #include "utilities/events.hpp"
  75 #include "utilities/hashtable.inline.hpp"
  76 #include "utilities/macros.hpp"
  77 #include "utilities/ostream.hpp"
  78 #include "utilities/preserveException.hpp"
  79 #if INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
  80 #include "gc/cms/cmsCollectorPolicy.hpp"
  81 #include "gc/g1/g1CollectedHeap.inline.hpp"
  82 #include "gc/g1/g1CollectorPolicy.hpp"
  83 #include "gc/parallel/parallelScavengeHeap.hpp"
  84 #include "gc/shared/adaptiveSizePolicy.hpp"
  85 #endif // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
  86 #if INCLUDE_CDS
  87 #include "classfile/sharedClassUtil.hpp"
  88 #endif
  89 
  90 // Known objects
  91 Klass* Universe::_boolArrayKlassObj                 = NULL;
  92 Klass* Universe::_byteArrayKlassObj                 = NULL;
  93 Klass* Universe::_charArrayKlassObj                 = NULL;
  94 Klass* Universe::_intArrayKlassObj                  = NULL;
  95 Klass* Universe::_shortArrayKlassObj                = NULL;
  96 Klass* Universe::_longArrayKlassObj                 = NULL;
  97 Klass* Universe::_singleArrayKlassObj               = NULL;
  98 Klass* Universe::_doubleArrayKlassObj               = NULL;
  99 Klass* Universe::_typeArrayKlassObjs[T_VOID+1]      = { NULL /*, NULL...*/ };
 100 Klass* Universe::_objectArrayKlassObj               = NULL;
 101 oop Universe::_int_mirror                             = NULL;
 102 oop Universe::_float_mirror                           = NULL;
 103 oop Universe::_double_mirror                          = NULL;
 104 oop Universe::_byte_mirror                            = NULL;
 105 oop Universe::_bool_mirror                            = NULL;
 106 oop Universe::_char_mirror                            = NULL;
 107 oop Universe::_long_mirror                            = NULL;
 108 oop Universe::_short_mirror                           = NULL;
 109 oop Universe::_void_mirror                            = NULL;
 110 oop Universe::_mirrors[T_VOID+1]                      = { NULL /*, NULL...*/ };
 111 oop Universe::_main_thread_group                      = NULL;
 112 oop Universe::_system_thread_group                    = NULL;
 113 objArrayOop Universe::_the_empty_class_klass_array    = NULL;
 114 Array<Klass*>* Universe::_the_array_interfaces_array = NULL;
 115 oop Universe::_the_null_string                        = NULL;
 116 oop Universe::_the_min_jint_string                   = NULL;
 117 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_finalizer_register_cache = NULL;
 118 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_loader_addClass_cache    = NULL;
 119 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_pd_implies_cache         = NULL;
 120 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_throw_illegal_access_error_cache = NULL;
 121 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap          = NULL;
 122 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace          = NULL;
 123 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace    = NULL;
 124 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size         = NULL;
 125 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit  = NULL;
 126 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects    = NULL;
 127 objArrayOop Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_array = NULL;
 128 volatile jint Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count = 0;
 129 bool Universe::_verify_in_progress                    = false;
 130 oop Universe::_null_ptr_exception_instance            = NULL;
 131 oop Universe::_arithmetic_exception_instance          = NULL;
 132 oop Universe::_virtual_machine_error_instance         = NULL;
 133 oop Universe::_vm_exception                           = NULL;
 134 oop Universe::_allocation_context_notification_obj    = NULL;
 135 
 136 Array<int>* Universe::_the_empty_int_array            = NULL;
 137 Array<u2>* Universe::_the_empty_short_array           = NULL;
 138 Array<Klass*>* Universe::_the_empty_klass_array     = NULL;
 139 Array<Method*>* Universe::_the_empty_method_array   = NULL;
 140 
 141 // These variables are guarded by FullGCALot_lock.
 142 debug_only(objArrayOop Universe::_fullgc_alot_dummy_array = NULL;)
 143 debug_only(int Universe::_fullgc_alot_dummy_next      = 0;)
 144 
 145 // Heap
 146 int             Universe::_verify_count = 0;
 147 
 148 // Oop verification (see MacroAssembler::verify_oop)
 149 uintptr_t       Universe::_verify_oop_mask = 0;
 150 uintptr_t       Universe::_verify_oop_bits = (uintptr_t) -1;
 151 
 152 int             Universe::_base_vtable_size = 0;
 153 bool            Universe::_bootstrapping = false;
 154 bool            Universe::_fully_initialized = false;
 155 
 156 size_t          Universe::_heap_capacity_at_last_gc;
 157 size_t          Universe::_heap_used_at_last_gc = 0;
 158 
 159 CollectedHeap*  Universe::_collectedHeap = NULL;
 160 
 161 NarrowPtrStruct Universe::_narrow_oop = { NULL, 0, true };
 162 NarrowPtrStruct Universe::_narrow_klass = { NULL, 0, true };
 163 address Universe::_narrow_ptrs_base;
 164 
 165 void Universe::basic_type_classes_do(void f(Klass*)) {
 166   f(boolArrayKlassObj());
 167   f(byteArrayKlassObj());
 168   f(charArrayKlassObj());
 169   f(intArrayKlassObj());
 170   f(shortArrayKlassObj());
 171   f(longArrayKlassObj());
 172   f(singleArrayKlassObj());
 173   f(doubleArrayKlassObj());
 174 }
 175 
 176 void Universe::oops_do(OopClosure* f, bool do_all) {
 177 
 178   f->do_oop((oop*) &_int_mirror);
 179   f->do_oop((oop*) &_float_mirror);
 180   f->do_oop((oop*) &_double_mirror);
 181   f->do_oop((oop*) &_byte_mirror);
 182   f->do_oop((oop*) &_bool_mirror);
 183   f->do_oop((oop*) &_char_mirror);
 184   f->do_oop((oop*) &_long_mirror);
 185   f->do_oop((oop*) &_short_mirror);
 186   f->do_oop((oop*) &_void_mirror);
 187 
 188   for (int i = T_BOOLEAN; i < T_VOID+1; i++) {
 189     f->do_oop((oop*) &_mirrors[i]);
 190   }
 191   assert(_mirrors[0] == NULL && _mirrors[T_BOOLEAN - 1] == NULL, "checking");
 192 
 193   f->do_oop((oop*)&_the_empty_class_klass_array);
 194   f->do_oop((oop*)&_the_null_string);
 195   f->do_oop((oop*)&_the_min_jint_string);
 196   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_java_heap);
 197   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_metaspace);
 198   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace);
 199   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_array_size);
 200   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit);
 201   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects);
 202     f->do_oop((oop*)&_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_array);
 203   f->do_oop((oop*)&_null_ptr_exception_instance);
 204   f->do_oop((oop*)&_arithmetic_exception_instance);
 205   f->do_oop((oop*)&_virtual_machine_error_instance);
 206   f->do_oop((oop*)&_main_thread_group);
 207   f->do_oop((oop*)&_system_thread_group);
 208   f->do_oop((oop*)&_vm_exception);
 209   f->do_oop((oop*)&_allocation_context_notification_obj);
 210   debug_only(f->do_oop((oop*)&_fullgc_alot_dummy_array);)
 211 }
 212 
 213 // Serialize metadata in and out of CDS archive, not oops.
 214 void Universe::serialize(SerializeClosure* f, bool do_all) {
 215 
 216   f->do_ptr((void**)&_boolArrayKlassObj);
 217   f->do_ptr((void**)&_byteArrayKlassObj);
 218   f->do_ptr((void**)&_charArrayKlassObj);
 219   f->do_ptr((void**)&_intArrayKlassObj);
 220   f->do_ptr((void**)&_shortArrayKlassObj);
 221   f->do_ptr((void**)&_longArrayKlassObj);
 222   f->do_ptr((void**)&_singleArrayKlassObj);
 223   f->do_ptr((void**)&_doubleArrayKlassObj);
 224   f->do_ptr((void**)&_objectArrayKlassObj);
 225 
 226   {
 227     for (int i = 0; i < T_VOID+1; i++) {
 228       if (_typeArrayKlassObjs[i] != NULL) {
 229         assert(i >= T_BOOLEAN, "checking");
 230         f->do_ptr((void**)&_typeArrayKlassObjs[i]);
 231       } else if (do_all) {
 232         f->do_ptr((void**)&_typeArrayKlassObjs[i]);
 233       }
 234     }
 235   }
 236 
 237   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_array_interfaces_array);
 238   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_int_array);
 239   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_short_array);
 240   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_method_array);
 241   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_klass_array);
 242   _finalizer_register_cache->serialize(f);
 243   _loader_addClass_cache->serialize(f);
 244   _pd_implies_cache->serialize(f);
 245   _throw_illegal_access_error_cache->serialize(f);
 246 }
 247 
 248 void Universe::check_alignment(uintx size, uintx alignment, const char* name) {
 249   if (size < alignment || size % alignment != 0) {
 250     vm_exit_during_initialization(
 251       err_msg("Size of %s (" UINTX_FORMAT " bytes) must be aligned to " UINTX_FORMAT " bytes", name, size, alignment));
 252   }
 253 }
 254 
 255 void initialize_basic_type_klass(Klass* k, TRAPS) {
 256   Klass* ok = SystemDictionary::Object_klass();
 257   if (UseSharedSpaces) {
 258     ClassLoaderData* loader_data = ClassLoaderData::the_null_class_loader_data();
 259     assert(k->super() == ok, "u3");
 260     k->restore_unshareable_info(loader_data, Handle(), CHECK);
 261   } else {
 262     k->initialize_supers(ok, CHECK);
 263   }
 264   k->append_to_sibling_list();
 265 }
 266 
 267 void Universe::genesis(TRAPS) {
 268   ResourceMark rm;
 269 
 270   { FlagSetting fs(_bootstrapping, true);
 271 
 272     { MutexLocker mc(Compile_lock);
 273 
 274       // determine base vtable size; without that we cannot create the array klasses
 275       compute_base_vtable_size();
 276 
 277       if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
 278         _boolArrayKlassObj      = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_BOOLEAN, sizeof(jboolean), CHECK);
 279         _charArrayKlassObj      = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_CHAR,    sizeof(jchar),    CHECK);
 280         _singleArrayKlassObj    = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_FLOAT,   sizeof(jfloat),   CHECK);
 281         _doubleArrayKlassObj    = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_DOUBLE,  sizeof(jdouble),  CHECK);
 282         _byteArrayKlassObj      = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_BYTE,    sizeof(jbyte),    CHECK);
 283         _shortArrayKlassObj     = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_SHORT,   sizeof(jshort),   CHECK);
 284         _intArrayKlassObj       = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_INT,     sizeof(jint),     CHECK);
 285         _longArrayKlassObj      = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_LONG,    sizeof(jlong),    CHECK);
 286 
 287         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_BOOLEAN] = _boolArrayKlassObj;
 288         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_CHAR]    = _charArrayKlassObj;
 289         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_FLOAT]   = _singleArrayKlassObj;
 290         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_DOUBLE]  = _doubleArrayKlassObj;
 291         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_BYTE]    = _byteArrayKlassObj;
 292         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_SHORT]   = _shortArrayKlassObj;
 293         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_INT]     = _intArrayKlassObj;
 294         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_LONG]    = _longArrayKlassObj;
 295 
 296         ClassLoaderData* null_cld = ClassLoaderData::the_null_class_loader_data();
 297 
 298         _the_array_interfaces_array = MetadataFactory::new_array<Klass*>(null_cld, 2, NULL, CHECK);
 299         _the_empty_int_array        = MetadataFactory::new_array<int>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 300         _the_empty_short_array      = MetadataFactory::new_array<u2>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 301         _the_empty_method_array     = MetadataFactory::new_array<Method*>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 302         _the_empty_klass_array      = MetadataFactory::new_array<Klass*>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 303       }
 304     }
 305 
 306     vmSymbols::initialize(CHECK);
 307 
 308     SystemDictionary::initialize(CHECK);
 309 
 310     Klass* ok = SystemDictionary::Object_klass();
 311 
 312     _the_null_string            = StringTable::intern("null", CHECK);
 313     _the_min_jint_string       = StringTable::intern("-2147483648", CHECK);
 314 
 315     if (UseSharedSpaces) {
 316       // Verify shared interfaces array.
 317       assert(_the_array_interfaces_array->at(0) ==
 318              SystemDictionary::Cloneable_klass(), "u3");
 319       assert(_the_array_interfaces_array->at(1) ==
 320              SystemDictionary::Serializable_klass(), "u3");
 321       MetaspaceShared::fixup_shared_string_regions();
 322     } else {
 323       // Set up shared interfaces array.  (Do this before supers are set up.)
 324       _the_array_interfaces_array->at_put(0, SystemDictionary::Cloneable_klass());
 325       _the_array_interfaces_array->at_put(1, SystemDictionary::Serializable_klass());
 326     }
 327 
 328     initialize_basic_type_klass(boolArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 329     initialize_basic_type_klass(charArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 330     initialize_basic_type_klass(singleArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 331     initialize_basic_type_klass(doubleArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 332     initialize_basic_type_klass(byteArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 333     initialize_basic_type_klass(shortArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 334     initialize_basic_type_klass(intArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 335     initialize_basic_type_klass(longArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 336   } // end of core bootstrapping
 337 
 338   // Maybe this could be lifted up now that object array can be initialized
 339   // during the bootstrapping.
 340 
 341   // OLD
 342   // Initialize _objectArrayKlass after core bootstraping to make
 343   // sure the super class is set up properly for _objectArrayKlass.
 344   // ---
 345   // NEW
 346   // Since some of the old system object arrays have been converted to
 347   // ordinary object arrays, _objectArrayKlass will be loaded when
 348   // SystemDictionary::initialize(CHECK); is run. See the extra check
 349   // for Object_klass_loaded in objArrayKlassKlass::allocate_objArray_klass_impl.
 350   _objectArrayKlassObj = InstanceKlass::
 351     cast(SystemDictionary::Object_klass())->array_klass(1, CHECK);
 352   // OLD
 353   // Add the class to the class hierarchy manually to make sure that
 354   // its vtable is initialized after core bootstrapping is completed.
 355   // ---
 356   // New
 357   // Have already been initialized.
 358   _objectArrayKlassObj->append_to_sibling_list();
 359 
 360   // Compute is_jdk version flags.
 361   // Only 1.3 or later has the java.lang.Shutdown class.
 362   // Only 1.4 or later has the java.lang.CharSequence interface.
 363   // Only 1.5 or later has the java.lang.management.MemoryUsage class.
 364   if (JDK_Version::is_partially_initialized()) {
 365     uint8_t jdk_version;
 366     Klass* k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_null(
 367         vmSymbols::java_lang_management_MemoryUsage(), THREAD);
 368     CLEAR_PENDING_EXCEPTION; // ignore exceptions
 369     if (k == NULL) {
 370       k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_null(
 371           vmSymbols::java_lang_CharSequence(), THREAD);
 372       CLEAR_PENDING_EXCEPTION; // ignore exceptions
 373       if (k == NULL) {
 374         k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_null(
 375             vmSymbols::java_lang_Shutdown(), THREAD);
 376         CLEAR_PENDING_EXCEPTION; // ignore exceptions
 377         if (k == NULL) {
 378           jdk_version = 2;
 379         } else {
 380           jdk_version = 3;
 381         }
 382       } else {
 383         jdk_version = 4;
 384       }
 385     } else {
 386       jdk_version = 5;
 387     }
 388     JDK_Version::fully_initialize(jdk_version);
 389   }
 390 
 391   #ifdef ASSERT
 392   if (FullGCALot) {
 393     // Allocate an array of dummy objects.
 394     // We'd like these to be at the bottom of the old generation,
 395     // so that when we free one and then collect,
 396     // (almost) the whole heap moves
 397     // and we find out if we actually update all the oops correctly.
 398     // But we can't allocate directly in the old generation,
 399     // so we allocate wherever, and hope that the first collection
 400     // moves these objects to the bottom of the old generation.
 401     // We can allocate directly in the permanent generation, so we do.
 402     int size;
 403     if (UseConcMarkSweepGC) {
 404       warning("Using +FullGCALot with concurrent mark sweep gc "
 405               "will not force all objects to relocate");
 406       size = FullGCALotDummies;
 407     } else {
 408       size = FullGCALotDummies * 2;
 409     }
 410     objArrayOop    naked_array = oopFactory::new_objArray(SystemDictionary::Object_klass(), size, CHECK);
 411     objArrayHandle dummy_array(THREAD, naked_array);
 412     int i = 0;
 413     while (i < size) {
 414         // Allocate dummy in old generation
 415       oop dummy = SystemDictionary::Object_klass()->allocate_instance(CHECK);
 416       dummy_array->obj_at_put(i++, dummy);
 417     }
 418     {
 419       // Only modify the global variable inside the mutex.
 420       // If we had a race to here, the other dummy_array instances
 421       // and their elements just get dropped on the floor, which is fine.
 422       MutexLocker ml(FullGCALot_lock);
 423       if (_fullgc_alot_dummy_array == NULL) {
 424         _fullgc_alot_dummy_array = dummy_array();
 425       }
 426     }
 427     assert(i == _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->length(), "just checking");
 428   }
 429   #endif
 430 
 431   // Initialize dependency array for null class loader
 432   ClassLoaderData::the_null_class_loader_data()->init_dependencies(CHECK);
 433 
 434 }
 435 
 436 // CDS support for patching vtables in metadata in the shared archive.
 437 // All types inherited from Metadata have vtables, but not types inherited
 438 // from MetaspaceObj, because the latter does not have virtual functions.
 439 // If the metadata type has a vtable, it cannot be shared in the read-only
 440 // section of the CDS archive, because the vtable pointer is patched.
 441 static inline void add_vtable(void** list, int* n, void* o, int count) {
 442   guarantee((*n) < count, "vtable list too small");
 443   void* vtable = dereference_vptr(o);
 444   assert(*(void**)(vtable) != NULL, "invalid vtable");
 445   list[(*n)++] = vtable;
 446 }
 447 
 448 void Universe::init_self_patching_vtbl_list(void** list, int count) {
 449   int n = 0;
 450   { InstanceKlass o;          add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 451   { InstanceClassLoaderKlass o; add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 452   { InstanceMirrorKlass o;    add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 453   { InstanceRefKlass o;       add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 454   { TypeArrayKlass o;         add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 455   { ObjArrayKlass o;          add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 456   { Method o;                 add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 457   { ConstantPool o;           add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 458 }
 459 
 460 void Universe::initialize_basic_type_mirrors(TRAPS) {
 461     assert(_int_mirror==NULL, "basic type mirrors already initialized");
 462     _int_mirror     =
 463       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("int",    T_INT, CHECK);
 464     _float_mirror   =
 465       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("float",  T_FLOAT,   CHECK);
 466     _double_mirror  =
 467       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("double", T_DOUBLE,  CHECK);
 468     _byte_mirror    =
 469       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("byte",   T_BYTE, CHECK);
 470     _bool_mirror    =
 471       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("boolean",T_BOOLEAN, CHECK);
 472     _char_mirror    =
 473       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("char",   T_CHAR, CHECK);
 474     _long_mirror    =
 475       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("long",   T_LONG, CHECK);
 476     _short_mirror   =
 477       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("short",  T_SHORT,   CHECK);
 478     _void_mirror    =
 479       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("void",   T_VOID, CHECK);
 480 
 481     _mirrors[T_INT]     = _int_mirror;
 482     _mirrors[T_FLOAT]   = _float_mirror;
 483     _mirrors[T_DOUBLE]  = _double_mirror;
 484     _mirrors[T_BYTE]    = _byte_mirror;
 485     _mirrors[T_BOOLEAN] = _bool_mirror;
 486     _mirrors[T_CHAR]    = _char_mirror;
 487     _mirrors[T_LONG]    = _long_mirror;
 488     _mirrors[T_SHORT]   = _short_mirror;
 489     _mirrors[T_VOID]    = _void_mirror;
 490   //_mirrors[T_OBJECT]  = _object_klass->java_mirror();
 491   //_mirrors[T_ARRAY]   = _object_klass->java_mirror();
 492 }
 493 
 494 void Universe::fixup_mirrors(TRAPS) {
 495   // Bootstrap problem: all classes gets a mirror (java.lang.Class instance) assigned eagerly,
 496   // but we cannot do that for classes created before java.lang.Class is loaded. Here we simply
 497   // walk over permanent objects created so far (mostly classes) and fixup their mirrors. Note
 498   // that the number of objects allocated at this point is very small.
 499   assert(SystemDictionary::Class_klass_loaded(), "java.lang.Class should be loaded");
 500   HandleMark hm(THREAD);
 501   // Cache the start of the static fields
 502   InstanceMirrorKlass::init_offset_of_static_fields();
 503 
 504   GrowableArray <Klass*>* list = java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror_list();
 505   int list_length = list->length();
 506   for (int i = 0; i < list_length; i++) {
 507     Klass* k = list->at(i);
 508     assert(k->is_klass(), "List should only hold classes");
 509     EXCEPTION_MARK;
 510     KlassHandle kh(THREAD, k);
 511     java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror(kh, CATCH);
 512 }
 513   delete java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror_list();
 514   java_lang_Class::set_fixup_mirror_list(NULL);
 515 }
 516 
 517 static bool has_run_finalizers_on_exit = false;
 518 
 519 void Universe::run_finalizers_on_exit() {
 520   if (has_run_finalizers_on_exit) return;
 521   has_run_finalizers_on_exit = true;
 522 
 523   // Called on VM exit. This ought to be run in a separate thread.
 524   log_trace(ref)("Callback to run finalizers on exit");
 525   {
 526     PRESERVE_EXCEPTION_MARK;
 527     KlassHandle finalizer_klass(THREAD, SystemDictionary::Finalizer_klass());
 528     JavaValue result(T_VOID);
 529     JavaCalls::call_static(
 530       &result,
 531       finalizer_klass,
 532       vmSymbols::run_finalizers_on_exit_name(),
 533       vmSymbols::void_method_signature(),
 534       THREAD
 535     );
 536     // Ignore any pending exceptions
 537     CLEAR_PENDING_EXCEPTION;
 538   }
 539 }
 540 
 541 
 542 // initialize_vtable could cause gc if
 543 // 1) we specified true to initialize_vtable and
 544 // 2) this ran after gc was enabled
 545 // In case those ever change we use handles for oops
 546 void Universe::reinitialize_vtable_of(KlassHandle k_h, TRAPS) {
 547   // init vtable of k and all subclasses
 548   Klass* ko = k_h();
 549   klassVtable* vt = ko->vtable();
 550   if (vt) vt->initialize_vtable(false, CHECK);
 551   if (ko->is_instance_klass()) {
 552     for (KlassHandle s_h(THREAD, ko->subklass());
 553          s_h() != NULL;
 554          s_h = KlassHandle(THREAD, s_h()->next_sibling())) {
 555       reinitialize_vtable_of(s_h, CHECK);
 556     }
 557   }
 558 }
 559 
 560 
 561 void initialize_itable_for_klass(Klass* k, TRAPS) {
 562   InstanceKlass::cast(k)->itable()->initialize_itable(false, CHECK);
 563 }
 564 
 565 
 566 void Universe::reinitialize_itables(TRAPS) {
 567   SystemDictionary::classes_do(initialize_itable_for_klass, CHECK);
 568 
 569 }
 570 
 571 
 572 bool Universe::on_page_boundary(void* addr) {
 573   return ((uintptr_t) addr) % os::vm_page_size() == 0;
 574 }
 575 
 576 
 577 bool Universe::should_fill_in_stack_trace(Handle throwable) {
 578   // never attempt to fill in the stack trace of preallocated errors that do not have
 579   // backtrace. These errors are kept alive forever and may be "re-used" when all
 580   // preallocated errors with backtrace have been consumed. Also need to avoid
 581   // a potential loop which could happen if an out of memory occurs when attempting
 582   // to allocate the backtrace.
 583   return ((throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap) &&
 584           (throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace)  &&
 585           (throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace)  &&
 586           (throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size) &&
 587           (throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit) &&
 588           (throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects));
 589 }
 590 
 591 
 592 oop Universe::gen_out_of_memory_error(oop default_err) {
 593   // generate an out of memory error:
 594   // - if there is a preallocated error with backtrace available then return it wth
 595   //   a filled in stack trace.
 596   // - if there are no preallocated errors with backtrace available then return
 597   //   an error without backtrace.
 598   int next;
 599   if (_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count > 0) {
 600     next = (int)Atomic::add(-1, &_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count);
 601     assert(next < (int)PreallocatedOutOfMemoryErrorCount, "avail count is corrupt");
 602   } else {
 603     next = -1;
 604   }
 605   if (next < 0) {
 606     // all preallocated errors have been used.
 607     // return default
 608     return default_err;
 609   } else {
 610     // get the error object at the slot and set set it to NULL so that the
 611     // array isn't keeping it alive anymore.
 612     oop exc = preallocated_out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at(next);
 613     assert(exc != NULL, "slot has been used already");
 614     preallocated_out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at_put(next, NULL);
 615 
 616     // use the message from the default error
 617     oop msg = java_lang_Throwable::message(default_err);
 618     assert(msg != NULL, "no message");
 619     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(exc, msg);
 620 
 621     // populate the stack trace and return it.
 622     java_lang_Throwable::fill_in_stack_trace_of_preallocated_backtrace(exc);
 623     return exc;
 624   }
 625 }
 626 
 627 intptr_t Universe::_non_oop_bits = 0;
 628 
 629 void* Universe::non_oop_word() {
 630   // Neither the high bits nor the low bits of this value is allowed
 631   // to look like (respectively) the high or low bits of a real oop.
 632   //
 633   // High and low are CPU-specific notions, but low always includes
 634   // the low-order bit.  Since oops are always aligned at least mod 4,
 635   // setting the low-order bit will ensure that the low half of the
 636   // word will never look like that of a real oop.
 637   //
 638   // Using the OS-supplied non-memory-address word (usually 0 or -1)
 639   // will take care of the high bits, however many there are.
 640 
 641   if (_non_oop_bits == 0) {
 642     _non_oop_bits = (intptr_t)os::non_memory_address_word() | 1;
 643   }
 644 
 645   return (void*)_non_oop_bits;
 646 }
 647 
 648 jint universe_init() {
 649   assert(!Universe::_fully_initialized, "called after initialize_vtables");
 650   guarantee(1 << LogHeapWordSize == sizeof(HeapWord),
 651          "LogHeapWordSize is incorrect.");
 652   guarantee(sizeof(oop) >= sizeof(HeapWord), "HeapWord larger than oop?");
 653   guarantee(sizeof(oop) % sizeof(HeapWord) == 0,
 654             "oop size is not not a multiple of HeapWord size");
 655   TraceTime timer("Genesis", TraceStartupTime);
 656   JavaClasses::compute_hard_coded_offsets();
 657 
 658   jint status = Universe::initialize_heap();
 659   if (status != JNI_OK) {
 660     return status;
 661   }
 662 
 663   Metaspace::global_initialize();
 664 
 665   // Checks 'AfterMemoryInit' constraints.
 666   if (!CommandLineFlagConstraintList::check_constraints(CommandLineFlagConstraint::AfterMemoryInit)) {
 667     return JNI_EINVAL;
 668   }
 669 
 670   // Create memory for metadata.  Must be after initializing heap for
 671   // DumpSharedSpaces.
 672   ClassLoaderData::init_null_class_loader_data();
 673 
 674   // We have a heap so create the Method* caches before
 675   // Metaspace::initialize_shared_spaces() tries to populate them.
 676   Universe::_finalizer_register_cache = new LatestMethodCache();
 677   Universe::_loader_addClass_cache    = new LatestMethodCache();
 678   Universe::_pd_implies_cache         = new LatestMethodCache();
 679   Universe::_throw_illegal_access_error_cache = new LatestMethodCache();
 680 
 681   if (UseSharedSpaces) {
 682     // Read the data structures supporting the shared spaces (shared
 683     // system dictionary, symbol table, etc.).  After that, access to
 684     // the file (other than the mapped regions) is no longer needed, and
 685     // the file is closed. Closing the file does not affect the
 686     // currently mapped regions.
 687     MetaspaceShared::initialize_shared_spaces();
 688     StringTable::create_table();
 689   } else {
 690     SymbolTable::create_table();
 691     StringTable::create_table();
 692     ClassLoader::create_package_info_table();
 693 
 694     if (DumpSharedSpaces) {
 695       MetaspaceShared::prepare_for_dumping();
 696     }
 697   }
 698 
 699   return JNI_OK;
 700 }
 701 
 702 CollectedHeap* Universe::create_heap() {
 703   assert(_collectedHeap == NULL, "Heap already created");
 704 #if !INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
 705   if (UseParallelGC) {
 706     fatal("UseParallelGC not supported in this VM.");
 707   } else if (UseG1GC) {
 708     fatal("UseG1GC not supported in this VM.");
 709   } else if (UseConcMarkSweepGC) {
 710     fatal("UseConcMarkSweepGC not supported in this VM.");
 711 #else
 712   if (UseParallelGC) {
 713     return Universe::create_heap_with_policy<ParallelScavengeHeap, GenerationSizer>();
 714   } else if (UseG1GC) {
 715     return Universe::create_heap_with_policy<G1CollectedHeap, G1CollectorPolicy>();
 716   } else if (UseConcMarkSweepGC) {
 717     return Universe::create_heap_with_policy<GenCollectedHeap, ConcurrentMarkSweepPolicy>();
 718 #endif
 719   } else if (UseSerialGC) {
 720     return Universe::create_heap_with_policy<GenCollectedHeap, MarkSweepPolicy>();
 721   }
 722 
 723   ShouldNotReachHere();
 724   return NULL;
 725 }
 726 
 727 // Choose the heap base address and oop encoding mode
 728 // when compressed oops are used:
 729 // Unscaled  - Use 32-bits oops without encoding when
 730 //     NarrowOopHeapBaseMin + heap_size < 4Gb
 731 // ZeroBased - Use zero based compressed oops with encoding when
 732 //     NarrowOopHeapBaseMin + heap_size < 32Gb
 733 // HeapBased - Use compressed oops with heap base + encoding.
 734 
 735 jint Universe::initialize_heap() {
 736   jint status = JNI_ERR;
 737 
 738   _collectedHeap = create_heap_ext();
 739   if (_collectedHeap == NULL) {
 740     _collectedHeap = create_heap();
 741   }
 742 
 743   status = _collectedHeap->initialize();
 744   if (status != JNI_OK) {
 745     return status;
 746   }
 747 
 748   ThreadLocalAllocBuffer::set_max_size(Universe::heap()->max_tlab_size());
 749 
 750 #ifdef _LP64
 751   if (UseCompressedOops) {
 752     // Subtract a page because something can get allocated at heap base.
 753     // This also makes implicit null checking work, because the
 754     // memory+1 page below heap_base needs to cause a signal.
 755     // See needs_explicit_null_check.
 756     // Only set the heap base for compressed oops because it indicates
 757     // compressed oops for pstack code.
 758     if ((uint64_t)Universe::heap()->reserved_region().end() > UnscaledOopHeapMax) {
 759       // Didn't reserve heap below 4Gb.  Must shift.
 760       Universe::set_narrow_oop_shift(LogMinObjAlignmentInBytes);
 761     }
 762     if ((uint64_t)Universe::heap()->reserved_region().end() <= OopEncodingHeapMax) {
 763       // Did reserve heap below 32Gb. Can use base == 0;
 764       Universe::set_narrow_oop_base(0);
 765     }
 766 
 767     Universe::set_narrow_ptrs_base(Universe::narrow_oop_base());
 768 
 769     if (PrintCompressedOopsMode || (PrintMiscellaneous && Verbose)) {
 770       Universe::print_compressed_oops_mode(tty);
 771     }
 772 
 773     // Tell tests in which mode we run.
 774     Arguments::PropertyList_add(new SystemProperty("java.vm.compressedOopsMode",
 775                                                    narrow_oop_mode_to_string(narrow_oop_mode()),
 776                                                    false));
 777   }
 778   // Universe::narrow_oop_base() is one page below the heap.
 779   assert((intptr_t)Universe::narrow_oop_base() <= (intptr_t)(Universe::heap()->base() -
 780          os::vm_page_size()) ||
 781          Universe::narrow_oop_base() == NULL, "invalid value");
 782   assert(Universe::narrow_oop_shift() == LogMinObjAlignmentInBytes ||
 783          Universe::narrow_oop_shift() == 0, "invalid value");
 784 #endif
 785 
 786   // We will never reach the CATCH below since Exceptions::_throw will cause
 787   // the VM to exit if an exception is thrown during initialization
 788 
 789   if (UseTLAB) {
 790     assert(Universe::heap()->supports_tlab_allocation(),
 791            "Should support thread-local allocation buffers");
 792     ThreadLocalAllocBuffer::startup_initialization();
 793   }
 794   return JNI_OK;
 795 }
 796 
 797 void Universe::print_compressed_oops_mode(outputStream* st) {
 798   st->print("heap address: " PTR_FORMAT ", size: " SIZE_FORMAT " MB",
 799               p2i(Universe::heap()->base()), Universe::heap()->reserved_region().byte_size()/M);
 800 
 801   st->print(", Compressed Oops mode: %s", narrow_oop_mode_to_string(narrow_oop_mode()));
 802 
 803   if (Universe::narrow_oop_base() != 0) {
 804     st->print(": " PTR_FORMAT, p2i(Universe::narrow_oop_base()));
 805   }
 806 
 807   if (Universe::narrow_oop_shift() != 0) {
 808     st->print(", Oop shift amount: %d", Universe::narrow_oop_shift());
 809   }
 810 
 811   if (!Universe::narrow_oop_use_implicit_null_checks()) {
 812     st->print(", no protected page in front of the heap");
 813   }
 814   st->cr();
 815 }
 816 
 817 ReservedSpace Universe::reserve_heap(size_t heap_size, size_t alignment) {
 818 
 819   assert(alignment <= Arguments::conservative_max_heap_alignment(),
 820          "actual alignment " SIZE_FORMAT " must be within maximum heap alignment " SIZE_FORMAT,
 821          alignment, Arguments::conservative_max_heap_alignment());
 822 
 823   size_t total_reserved = align_size_up(heap_size, alignment);
 824   assert(!UseCompressedOops || (total_reserved <= (OopEncodingHeapMax - os::vm_page_size())),
 825       "heap size is too big for compressed oops");
 826 
 827   bool use_large_pages = UseLargePages && is_size_aligned(alignment, os::large_page_size());
 828   assert(!UseLargePages
 829       || UseParallelGC
 830       || use_large_pages, "Wrong alignment to use large pages");
 831 
 832   // Now create the space.
 833   ReservedHeapSpace total_rs(total_reserved, alignment, use_large_pages);
 834 
 835   if (total_rs.is_reserved()) {
 836     assert((total_reserved == total_rs.size()) && ((uintptr_t)total_rs.base() % alignment == 0),
 837            "must be exactly of required size and alignment");
 838     // We are good.
 839 
 840     if (UseCompressedOops) {
 841       // Universe::initialize_heap() will reset this to NULL if unscaled
 842       // or zero-based narrow oops are actually used.
 843       // Else heap start and base MUST differ, so that NULL can be encoded nonambigous.
 844       Universe::set_narrow_oop_base((address)total_rs.compressed_oop_base());
 845     }
 846 
 847     return total_rs;
 848   }
 849 
 850   vm_exit_during_initialization(
 851     err_msg("Could not reserve enough space for " SIZE_FORMAT "KB object heap",
 852             total_reserved/K));
 853 
 854   // satisfy compiler
 855   ShouldNotReachHere();
 856   return ReservedHeapSpace(0, 0, false);
 857 }
 858 
 859 
 860 // It's the caller's responsibility to ensure glitch-freedom
 861 // (if required).
 862 void Universe::update_heap_info_at_gc() {
 863   _heap_capacity_at_last_gc = heap()->capacity();
 864   _heap_used_at_last_gc     = heap()->used();
 865 }
 866 
 867 
 868 const char* Universe::narrow_oop_mode_to_string(Universe::NARROW_OOP_MODE mode) {
 869   switch (mode) {
 870     case UnscaledNarrowOop:
 871       return "32-bit";
 872     case ZeroBasedNarrowOop:
 873       return "Zero based";
 874     case DisjointBaseNarrowOop:
 875       return "Non-zero disjoint base";
 876     case HeapBasedNarrowOop:
 877       return "Non-zero based";
 878   }
 879 
 880   ShouldNotReachHere();
 881   return "";
 882 }
 883 
 884 
 885 Universe::NARROW_OOP_MODE Universe::narrow_oop_mode() {
 886   if (narrow_oop_base_disjoint()) {
 887     return DisjointBaseNarrowOop;
 888   }
 889 
 890   if (narrow_oop_base() != 0) {
 891     return HeapBasedNarrowOop;
 892   }
 893 
 894   if (narrow_oop_shift() != 0) {
 895     return ZeroBasedNarrowOop;
 896   }
 897 
 898   return UnscaledNarrowOop;
 899 }
 900 
 901 
 902 void universe2_init() {
 903   EXCEPTION_MARK;
 904   Universe::genesis(CATCH);
 905 }
 906 
 907 
 908 bool universe_post_init() {
 909   assert(!is_init_completed(), "Error: initialization not yet completed!");
 910   Universe::_fully_initialized = true;
 911   EXCEPTION_MARK;
 912   { ResourceMark rm;
 913     Interpreter::initialize();      // needed for interpreter entry points
 914     if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
 915       HandleMark hm(THREAD);
 916       KlassHandle ok_h(THREAD, SystemDictionary::Object_klass());
 917       Universe::reinitialize_vtable_of(ok_h, CHECK_false);
 918       Universe::reinitialize_itables(CHECK_false);
 919     }
 920   }
 921 
 922   HandleMark hm(THREAD);
 923   Klass* k;
 924   instanceKlassHandle k_h;
 925     // Setup preallocated empty java.lang.Class array
 926     Universe::_the_empty_class_klass_array = oopFactory::new_objArray(SystemDictionary::Class_klass(), 0, CHECK_false);
 927 
 928     // Setup preallocated OutOfMemoryError errors
 929     k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(vmSymbols::java_lang_OutOfMemoryError(), true, CHECK_false);
 930     k_h = instanceKlassHandle(THREAD, k);
 931     Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap = k_h->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 932     Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace = k_h->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 933     Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace = k_h->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 934     Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size = k_h->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 935     Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit =
 936       k_h->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 937     Universe::_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects = k_h->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 938 
 939     // Setup preallocated NullPointerException
 940     // (this is currently used for a cheap & dirty solution in compiler exception handling)
 941     k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(vmSymbols::java_lang_NullPointerException(), true, CHECK_false);
 942     Universe::_null_ptr_exception_instance = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 943     // Setup preallocated ArithmeticException
 944     // (this is currently used for a cheap & dirty solution in compiler exception handling)
 945     k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(vmSymbols::java_lang_ArithmeticException(), true, CHECK_false);
 946     Universe::_arithmetic_exception_instance = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 947     // Virtual Machine Error for when we get into a situation we can't resolve
 948     k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(
 949       vmSymbols::java_lang_VirtualMachineError(), true, CHECK_false);
 950     bool linked = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->link_class_or_fail(CHECK_false);
 951     if (!linked) {
 952       tty->print_cr("Unable to link/verify VirtualMachineError class");
 953       return false; // initialization failed
 954     }
 955     Universe::_virtual_machine_error_instance =
 956       InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 957 
 958     Universe::_vm_exception = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 959 
 960   if (!DumpSharedSpaces) {
 961     // These are the only Java fields that are currently set during shared space dumping.
 962     // We prefer to not handle this generally, so we always reinitialize these detail messages.
 963     Handle msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Java heap space", CHECK_false);
 964     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap, msg());
 965 
 966     msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Metaspace", CHECK_false);
 967     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace, msg());
 968     msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Compressed class space", CHECK_false);
 969     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace, msg());
 970 
 971     msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Requested array size exceeds VM limit", CHECK_false);
 972     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size, msg());
 973 
 974     msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("GC overhead limit exceeded", CHECK_false);
 975     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit, msg());
 976 
 977     msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Java heap space: failed reallocation of scalar replaced objects", CHECK_false);
 978     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects, msg());
 979 
 980     msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("/ by zero", CHECK_false);
 981     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_arithmetic_exception_instance, msg());
 982 
 983     // Setup the array of errors that have preallocated backtrace
 984     k = Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap->klass();
 985     assert(k->name() == vmSymbols::java_lang_OutOfMemoryError(), "should be out of memory error");
 986     k_h = instanceKlassHandle(THREAD, k);
 987 
 988     int len = (StackTraceInThrowable) ? (int)PreallocatedOutOfMemoryErrorCount : 0;
 989     Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_array = oopFactory::new_objArray(k_h(), len, CHECK_false);
 990     for (int i=0; i<len; i++) {
 991       oop err = k_h->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 992       Handle err_h = Handle(THREAD, err);
 993       java_lang_Throwable::allocate_backtrace(err_h, CHECK_false);
 994       Universe::preallocated_out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at_put(i, err_h());
 995     }
 996     Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count = (jint)len;
 997   }
 998 
 999 
1000   // Setup static method for registering finalizers
1001   // The finalizer klass must be linked before looking up the method, in
1002   // case it needs to get rewritten.
1003   SystemDictionary::Finalizer_klass()->link_class(CHECK_false);
1004   Method* m = SystemDictionary::Finalizer_klass()->find_method(
1005                                   vmSymbols::register_method_name(),
1006                                   vmSymbols::register_method_signature());
1007   if (m == NULL || !m->is_static()) {
1008     tty->print_cr("Unable to link/verify Finalizer.register method");
1009     return false; // initialization failed (cannot throw exception yet)
1010   }
1011   Universe::_finalizer_register_cache->init(
1012     SystemDictionary::Finalizer_klass(), m);
1013 
1014   SystemDictionary::internal_Unsafe_klass()->link_class(CHECK_false);
1015   m = SystemDictionary::internal_Unsafe_klass()->find_method(
1016                                   vmSymbols::throwIllegalAccessError_name(),
1017                                   vmSymbols::void_method_signature());
1018   if (m != NULL && !m->is_static()) {
1019     // Note null is okay; this method is used in itables, and if it is null,
1020     // then AbstractMethodError is thrown instead.
1021     tty->print_cr("Unable to link/verify Unsafe.throwIllegalAccessError method");
1022     return false; // initialization failed (cannot throw exception yet)
1023   }
1024   Universe::_throw_illegal_access_error_cache->init(
1025     SystemDictionary::internal_Unsafe_klass(), m);
1026 
1027   // Setup method for registering loaded classes in class loader vector
1028   SystemDictionary::ClassLoader_klass()->link_class(CHECK_false);
1029   m = SystemDictionary::ClassLoader_klass()->find_method(vmSymbols::addClass_name(), vmSymbols::class_void_signature());
1030   if (m == NULL || m->is_static()) {
1031     tty->print_cr("Unable to link/verify ClassLoader.addClass method");
1032     return false; // initialization failed (cannot throw exception yet)
1033   }
1034   Universe::_loader_addClass_cache->init(
1035     SystemDictionary::ClassLoader_klass(), m);
1036 
1037   // Setup method for checking protection domain
1038   SystemDictionary::ProtectionDomain_klass()->link_class(CHECK_false);
1039   m = SystemDictionary::ProtectionDomain_klass()->
1040             find_method(vmSymbols::impliesCreateAccessControlContext_name(),
1041                         vmSymbols::void_boolean_signature());
1042   // Allow NULL which should only happen with bootstrapping.
1043   if (m != NULL) {
1044     if (m->is_static()) {
1045       // NoSuchMethodException doesn't actually work because it tries to run the
1046       // <init> function before java_lang_Class is linked. Print error and exit.
1047       tty->print_cr("ProtectionDomain.impliesCreateAccessControlContext() has the wrong linkage");
1048       return false; // initialization failed
1049     }
1050     Universe::_pd_implies_cache->init(
1051       SystemDictionary::ProtectionDomain_klass(), m);
1052   }
1053 
1054   // This needs to be done before the first scavenge/gc, since
1055   // it's an input to soft ref clearing policy.
1056   {
1057     MutexLocker x(Heap_lock);
1058     Universe::update_heap_info_at_gc();
1059   }
1060 
1061   // ("weak") refs processing infrastructure initialization
1062   Universe::heap()->post_initialize();
1063 
1064   // Initialize performance counters for metaspaces
1065   MetaspaceCounters::initialize_performance_counters();
1066   CompressedClassSpaceCounters::initialize_performance_counters();
1067 
1068   MemoryService::add_metaspace_memory_pools();
1069 
1070   MemoryService::set_universe_heap(Universe::heap());
1071 #if INCLUDE_CDS
1072   SharedClassUtil::initialize(CHECK_false);
1073 #endif
1074   return true;
1075 }
1076 
1077 
1078 void Universe::compute_base_vtable_size() {
1079   _base_vtable_size = ClassLoader::compute_Object_vtable();
1080 }
1081 
1082 void Universe::print_on(outputStream* st) {
1083   st->print_cr("Heap");
1084   heap()->print_on(st);
1085 }
1086 
1087 void Universe::print_heap_at_SIGBREAK() {
1088   if (PrintHeapAtSIGBREAK) {
1089     MutexLocker hl(Heap_lock);
1090     print_on(tty);
1091     tty->cr();
1092     tty->flush();
1093   }
1094 }
1095 
1096 void Universe::print_heap_before_gc() {
1097   LogHandle(gc, heap) log;
1098   if (log.is_trace()) {
1099     log.trace("Heap before GC invocations=%u (full %u):", heap()->total_collections(), heap()->total_full_collections());
1100     ResourceMark rm;
1101     heap()->print_on(log.trace_stream());
1102   }
1103 }
1104 
1105 void Universe::print_heap_after_gc() {
1106   LogHandle(gc, heap) log;
1107   if (log.is_trace()) {
1108     log.trace("Heap after GC invocations=%u (full %u):", heap()->total_collections(), heap()->total_full_collections());
1109     ResourceMark rm;
1110     heap()->print_on(log.trace_stream());
1111   }
1112 }
1113 
1114 void Universe::verify(VerifyOption option, const char* prefix) {
1115   // The use of _verify_in_progress is a temporary work around for
1116   // 6320749.  Don't bother with a creating a class to set and clear
1117   // it since it is only used in this method and the control flow is
1118   // straight forward.
1119   _verify_in_progress = true;
1120 
1121   COMPILER2_PRESENT(
1122     assert(!DerivedPointerTable::is_active(),
1123          "DPT should not be active during verification "
1124          "(of thread stacks below)");
1125   )
1126 
1127   ResourceMark rm;
1128   HandleMark hm;  // Handles created during verification can be zapped
1129   _verify_count++;
1130 
1131   FormatBuffer<> title("Verifying %s", prefix);
1132   GCTraceTime(Info, gc, verify) tm(title.buffer());
1133   log_debug(gc, verify)("Threads");
1134   Threads::verify();
1135   log_debug(gc, verify)("Heap");
1136   heap()->verify(option);
1137   log_debug(gc, verify)("SymbolTable");
1138   SymbolTable::verify();
1139   log_debug(gc, verify)("StringTable");
1140   StringTable::verify();
1141   {
1142     MutexLockerEx mu(CodeCache_lock, Mutex::_no_safepoint_check_flag);
1143     log_debug(gc, verify)("CodeCache");
1144     CodeCache::verify();
1145   }
1146   log_debug(gc, verify)("SystemDictionary");
1147   SystemDictionary::verify();
1148 #ifndef PRODUCT
1149   log_debug(gc, verify)("ClassLoaderDataGraph");
1150   ClassLoaderDataGraph::verify();
1151 #endif
1152   log_debug(gc, verify)("MetaspaceAux");
1153   MetaspaceAux::verify_free_chunks();
1154   log_debug(gc, verify)("JNIHandles");
1155   JNIHandles::verify();
1156   log_debug(gc, verify)("C-heap");
1157   os::check_heap();
1158   log_debug(gc, verify)("CodeCache Oops");
1159   CodeCache::verify_oops();
1160 
1161   _verify_in_progress = false;
1162 }
1163 
1164 
1165 #ifndef PRODUCT
1166 void Universe::calculate_verify_data(HeapWord* low_boundary, HeapWord* high_boundary) {
1167   assert(low_boundary < high_boundary, "bad interval");
1168 
1169   // decide which low-order bits we require to be clear:
1170   size_t alignSize = MinObjAlignmentInBytes;
1171   size_t min_object_size = CollectedHeap::min_fill_size();
1172 
1173   // make an inclusive limit:
1174   uintptr_t max = (uintptr_t)high_boundary - min_object_size*wordSize;
1175   uintptr_t min = (uintptr_t)low_boundary;
1176   assert(min < max, "bad interval");
1177   uintptr_t diff = max ^ min;
1178 
1179   // throw away enough low-order bits to make the diff vanish
1180   uintptr_t mask = (uintptr_t)(-1);
1181   while ((mask & diff) != 0)
1182     mask <<= 1;
1183   uintptr_t bits = (min & mask);
1184   assert(bits == (max & mask), "correct mask");
1185   // check an intermediate value between min and max, just to make sure:
1186   assert(bits == ((min + (max-min)/2) & mask), "correct mask");
1187 
1188   // require address alignment, too:
1189   mask |= (alignSize - 1);
1190 
1191   if (!(_verify_oop_mask == 0 && _verify_oop_bits == (uintptr_t)-1)) {
1192     assert(_verify_oop_mask == mask && _verify_oop_bits == bits, "mask stability");
1193   }
1194   _verify_oop_mask = mask;
1195   _verify_oop_bits = bits;
1196 }
1197 
1198 // Oop verification (see MacroAssembler::verify_oop)
1199 
1200 uintptr_t Universe::verify_oop_mask() {
1201   MemRegion m = heap()->reserved_region();
1202   calculate_verify_data(m.start(), m.end());
1203   return _verify_oop_mask;
1204 }
1205 
1206 uintptr_t Universe::verify_oop_bits() {
1207   MemRegion m = heap()->reserved_region();
1208   calculate_verify_data(m.start(), m.end());
1209   return _verify_oop_bits;
1210 }
1211 
1212 uintptr_t Universe::verify_mark_mask() {
1213   return markOopDesc::lock_mask_in_place;
1214 }
1215 
1216 uintptr_t Universe::verify_mark_bits() {
1217   intptr_t mask = verify_mark_mask();
1218   intptr_t bits = (intptr_t)markOopDesc::prototype();
1219   assert((bits & ~mask) == 0, "no stray header bits");
1220   return bits;
1221 }
1222 #endif // PRODUCT
1223 
1224 
1225 void Universe::compute_verify_oop_data() {
1226   verify_oop_mask();
1227   verify_oop_bits();
1228   verify_mark_mask();
1229   verify_mark_bits();
1230 }
1231 
1232 
1233 void LatestMethodCache::init(Klass* k, Method* m) {
1234   if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
1235     _klass = k;
1236   }
1237 #ifndef PRODUCT
1238   else {
1239     // sharing initilization should have already set up _klass
1240     assert(_klass != NULL, "just checking");
1241   }
1242 #endif
1243 
1244   _method_idnum = m->method_idnum();
1245   assert(_method_idnum >= 0, "sanity check");
1246 }
1247 
1248 
1249 Method* LatestMethodCache::get_method() {
1250   if (klass() == NULL) return NULL;
1251   InstanceKlass* ik = InstanceKlass::cast(klass());
1252   Method* m = ik->method_with_idnum(method_idnum());
1253   assert(m != NULL, "sanity check");
1254   return m;
1255 }
1256 
1257 
1258 #ifdef ASSERT
1259 // Release dummy object(s) at bottom of heap
1260 bool Universe::release_fullgc_alot_dummy() {
1261   MutexLocker ml(FullGCALot_lock);
1262   if (_fullgc_alot_dummy_array != NULL) {
1263     if (_fullgc_alot_dummy_next >= _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->length()) {
1264       // No more dummies to release, release entire array instead
1265       _fullgc_alot_dummy_array = NULL;
1266       return false;
1267     }
1268     if (!UseConcMarkSweepGC) {
1269       // Release dummy at bottom of old generation
1270       _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->obj_at_put(_fullgc_alot_dummy_next++, NULL);
1271     }
1272     // Release dummy at bottom of permanent generation
1273     _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->obj_at_put(_fullgc_alot_dummy_next++, NULL);
1274   }
1275   return true;
1276 }
1277 
1278 #endif // ASSERT