1 /*
   2  * Copyright (c) 1994, 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
   3  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
   4  *
   5  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   6  * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
   7  * published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
   8  * particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
   9  * by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
  10  *
  11  * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  12  * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  13  * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  14  * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  15  * accompanied this code).
  16  *
  17  * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  18  * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  19  * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  20  *
  21  * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  22  * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  23  * questions.
  24  */
  25 
  26 package java.lang;
  27 
  28 import java.lang.annotation.Annotation;
  29 import java.lang.constant.ClassDesc;
  30 import java.lang.invoke.TypeDescriptor;
  31 import java.lang.module.ModuleReader;
  32 import java.lang.ref.SoftReference;
  33 import java.io.IOException;
  34 import java.io.InputStream;
  35 import java.io.ObjectStreamField;
  36 import java.lang.reflect.AnnotatedElement;
  37 import java.lang.reflect.AnnotatedType;
  38 import java.lang.reflect.Array;
  39 import java.lang.reflect.Constructor;
  40 import java.lang.reflect.Executable;
  41 import java.lang.reflect.Field;
  42 import java.lang.reflect.GenericArrayType;
  43 import java.lang.reflect.GenericDeclaration;
  44 import java.lang.reflect.InvocationTargetException;
  45 import java.lang.reflect.Member;
  46 import java.lang.reflect.Method;
  47 import java.lang.reflect.Modifier;
  48 import java.lang.reflect.Proxy;
  49 import java.lang.reflect.RecordComponent;
  50 import java.lang.reflect.Type;
  51 import java.lang.reflect.TypeVariable;
  52 import java.lang.constant.Constable;
  53 import java.net.URL;
  54 import java.security.AccessController;
  55 import java.security.PrivilegedAction;
  56 import java.util.ArrayList;
  57 import java.util.Arrays;
  58 import java.util.Collection;
  59 import java.util.HashMap;
  60 import java.util.LinkedHashMap;
  61 import java.util.LinkedHashSet;
  62 import java.util.List;
  63 import java.util.Map;
  64 import java.util.Objects;
  65 import java.util.Optional;
  66 import java.util.StringJoiner;
  67 import java.util.stream.Stream;
  68 import java.util.stream.Collectors;
  69 
  70 import jdk.internal.HotSpotIntrinsicCandidate;
  71 import jdk.internal.loader.BootLoader;
  72 import jdk.internal.loader.BuiltinClassLoader;
  73 import jdk.internal.misc.Unsafe;
  74 import jdk.internal.module.Resources;
  75 import jdk.internal.reflect.CallerSensitive;
  76 import jdk.internal.reflect.ConstantPool;
  77 import jdk.internal.reflect.Reflection;
  78 import jdk.internal.reflect.ReflectionFactory;
  79 import jdk.internal.vm.annotation.ForceInline;
  80 import sun.invoke.util.Wrapper;
  81 import sun.reflect.generics.factory.CoreReflectionFactory;
  82 import sun.reflect.generics.factory.GenericsFactory;
  83 import sun.reflect.generics.repository.ClassRepository;
  84 import sun.reflect.generics.repository.MethodRepository;
  85 import sun.reflect.generics.repository.ConstructorRepository;
  86 import sun.reflect.generics.scope.ClassScope;
  87 import sun.security.util.SecurityConstants;
  88 import sun.reflect.annotation.*;
  89 import sun.reflect.misc.ReflectUtil;
  90 
  91 /**
  92  * Instances of the class {@code Class} represent classes and interfaces
  93  * in a running Java application. An enum type is a kind of class and an
  94  * annotation type is a kind of interface. Every array also
  95  * belongs to a class that is reflected as a {@code Class} object
  96  * that is shared by all arrays with the same element type and number
  97  * of dimensions.  The primitive Java types ({@code boolean},
  98  * {@code byte}, {@code char}, {@code short},
  99  * {@code int}, {@code long}, {@code float}, and
 100  * {@code double}), and the keyword {@code void} are also
 101  * represented as {@code Class} objects.
 102  *
 103  * <p> {@code Class} has no public constructor. Instead a {@code Class}
 104  * object is constructed automatically by the Java Virtual Machine
 105  * when a class loader invokes one of the
 106  * {@link ClassLoader#defineClass(String,byte[], int,int) defineClass} methods
 107  * and passes the bytes of a {@code class} file.
 108  *
 109  * <p> The methods of class {@code Class} expose many characteristics of a
 110  * class or interface. Most characteristics are derived from the {@code class}
 111  * file that the class loader passed to the Java Virtual Machine. A few
 112  * characteristics are determined by the class loading environment at run time,
 113  * such as the module returned by {@link #getModule() getModule()}.
 114  *
 115  * <p> Some methods of class {@code Class} expose whether the declaration of
 116  * a class or interface in Java source code was <em>enclosed</em> within
 117  * another declaration. Other methods describe how a class or interface
 118  * is situated in a <em>nest</em>. A <a id="nest">nest</a> is a set of
 119  * classes and interfaces, in the same run-time package, that
 120  * allow mutual access to their {@code private} members.
 121  * The classes and interfaces are known as <em>nestmates</em>.
 122  * One nestmate acts as the
 123  * <em>nest host</em>, and enumerates the other nestmates which
 124  * belong to the nest; each of them in turn records it as the nest host.
 125  * The classes and interfaces which belong to a nest, including its host, are
 126  * determined when
 127  * {@code class} files are generated, for example, a Java compiler
 128  * will typically record a top-level class as the host of a nest where the
 129  * other members are the classes and interfaces whose declarations are
 130  * enclosed within the top-level class declaration.
 131  *
 132  * <p> The following example uses a {@code Class} object to print the
 133  * class name of an object:
 134  *
 135  * <blockquote><pre>
 136  *     void printClassName(Object obj) {
 137  *         System.out.println("The class of " + obj +
 138  *                            " is " + obj.getClass().getName());
 139  *     }
 140  * </pre></blockquote>
 141  *
 142  * <p> It is also possible to get the {@code Class} object for a named
 143  * type (or for void) using a class literal.  See Section 15.8.2 of
 144  * <cite>The Java&trade; Language Specification</cite>.
 145  * For example:
 146  *
 147  * <blockquote>
 148  *     {@code System.out.println("The name of class Foo is: "+Foo.class.getName());}
 149  * </blockquote>
 150  *
 151  * @param <T> the type of the class modeled by this {@code Class}
 152  * object.  For example, the type of {@code String.class} is {@code
 153  * Class<String>}.  Use {@code Class<?>} if the class being modeled is
 154  * unknown.
 155  *
 156  * @author  unascribed
 157  * @see     java.lang.ClassLoader#defineClass(byte[], int, int)
 158  * @since   1.0
 159  */
 160 public final class Class<T> implements java.io.Serializable,
 161                               GenericDeclaration,
 162                               Type,
 163                               AnnotatedElement,
 164                               TypeDescriptor.OfField<Class<?>>,
 165                               Constable {
 166     private static final int ANNOTATION= 0x00002000;
 167     private static final int ENUM      = 0x00004000;
 168     private static final int SYNTHETIC = 0x00001000;
 169 
 170     private static native void registerNatives();
 171     static {
 172         registerNatives();
 173     }
 174 
 175     /*
 176      * Private constructor. Only the Java Virtual Machine creates Class objects.
 177      * This constructor is not used and prevents the default constructor being
 178      * generated.
 179      */
 180     private Class(ClassLoader loader, Class<?> arrayComponentType) {
 181         // Initialize final field for classLoader.  The initialization value of non-null
 182         // prevents future JIT optimizations from assuming this final field is null.
 183         classLoader = loader;
 184         componentType = arrayComponentType;
 185     }
 186 
 187     /**
 188      * Converts the object to a string. The string representation is the
 189      * string "class" or "interface", followed by a space, and then by the
 190      * fully qualified name of the class in the format returned by
 191      * {@code getName}.  If this {@code Class} object represents a
 192      * primitive type, this method returns the name of the primitive type.  If
 193      * this {@code Class} object represents void this method returns
 194      * "void". If this {@code Class} object represents an array type,
 195      * this method returns "class " followed by {@code getName}.
 196      *
 197      * @return a string representation of this class object.
 198      */
 199     public String toString() {
 200         return (isInterface() ? "interface " : (isPrimitive() ? "" : "class "))
 201             + getName();
 202     }
 203 
 204     /**
 205      * Returns a string describing this {@code Class}, including
 206      * information about modifiers and type parameters.
 207      *
 208      * The string is formatted as a list of type modifiers, if any,
 209      * followed by the kind of type (empty string for primitive types
 210      * and {@code class}, {@code enum}, {@code interface}, or
 211      * <code>@</code>{@code interface}, as appropriate), followed
 212      * by the type's name, followed by an angle-bracketed
 213      * comma-separated list of the type's type parameters, if any,
 214      * including informative bounds on the type parameters, if any.
 215      *
 216      * A space is used to separate modifiers from one another and to
 217      * separate any modifiers from the kind of type. The modifiers
 218      * occur in canonical order. If there are no type parameters, the
 219      * type parameter list is elided.
 220      *
 221      * For an array type, the string starts with the type name,
 222      * followed by an angle-bracketed comma-separated list of the
 223      * type's type parameters, if any, followed by a sequence of
 224      * {@code []} characters, one set of brackets per dimension of
 225      * the array.
 226      *
 227      * <p>Note that since information about the runtime representation
 228      * of a type is being generated, modifiers not present on the
 229      * originating source code or illegal on the originating source
 230      * code may be present.
 231      *
 232      * @return a string describing this {@code Class}, including
 233      * information about modifiers and type parameters
 234      *
 235      * @since 1.8
 236      */

 237     public String toGenericString() {
 238         if (isPrimitive()) {
 239             return toString();
 240         } else {
 241             StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
 242             Class<?> component = this;
 243             int arrayDepth = 0;
 244 
 245             if (isArray()) {
 246                 do {
 247                     arrayDepth++;
 248                     component = component.getComponentType();
 249                 } while (component.isArray());
 250                 sb.append(component.getName());
 251             } else {
 252                 // Class modifiers are a superset of interface modifiers
 253                 int modifiers = getModifiers() & Modifier.classModifiers();
 254                 if (modifiers != 0) {
 255                     sb.append(Modifier.toString(modifiers));
 256                     sb.append(' ');
 257                 }
 258 
 259                 if (isAnnotation()) {
 260                     sb.append('@');
 261                 }
 262                 if (isInterface()) { // Note: all annotation types are interfaces
 263                     sb.append("interface");
 264                 } else {
 265                     if (isEnum())
 266                         sb.append("enum");


 267                     else
 268                         sb.append("class");
 269                 }
 270                 sb.append(' ');
 271                 sb.append(getName());
 272             }
 273 
 274             TypeVariable<?>[] typeparms = component.getTypeParameters();
 275             if (typeparms.length > 0) {
 276                 sb.append(Arrays.stream(typeparms)
 277                           .map(Class::typeVarBounds)
 278                           .collect(Collectors.joining(",", "<", ">")));
 279             }
 280 
 281             if (arrayDepth > 0) sb.append("[]".repeat(arrayDepth));
 282 
 283             return sb.toString();
 284         }
 285     }
 286 
 287     static String typeVarBounds(TypeVariable<?> typeVar) {
 288         Type[] bounds = typeVar.getBounds();
 289         if (bounds.length == 1 && bounds[0].equals(Object.class)) {
 290             return typeVar.getName();
 291         } else {
 292             return typeVar.getName() + " extends " +
 293                 Arrays.stream(bounds)
 294                 .map(Type::getTypeName)
 295                 .collect(Collectors.joining(" & "));
 296         }
 297     }
 298 
 299     /**
 300      * Returns the {@code Class} object associated with the class or
 301      * interface with the given string name.  Invoking this method is
 302      * equivalent to:
 303      *
 304      * <blockquote>
 305      *  {@code Class.forName(className, true, currentLoader)}
 306      * </blockquote>
 307      *
 308      * where {@code currentLoader} denotes the defining class loader of
 309      * the current class.
 310      *
 311      * <p> For example, the following code fragment returns the
 312      * runtime {@code Class} descriptor for the class named
 313      * {@code java.lang.Thread}:
 314      *
 315      * <blockquote>
 316      *   {@code Class t = Class.forName("java.lang.Thread")}
 317      * </blockquote>
 318      * <p>
 319      * A call to {@code forName("X")} causes the class named
 320      * {@code X} to be initialized.
 321      *
 322      * @param      className   the fully qualified name of the desired class.
 323      * @return     the {@code Class} object for the class with the
 324      *             specified name.
 325      * @throws    LinkageError if the linkage fails
 326      * @throws    ExceptionInInitializerError if the initialization provoked
 327      *            by this method fails
 328      * @throws    ClassNotFoundException if the class cannot be located
 329      *
 330      * @jls 12.2 Loading of Classes and Interfaces
 331      * @jls 12.3 Linking of Classes and Interfaces
 332      * @jls 12.4 Initialization of Classes and Interfaces
 333      */
 334     @CallerSensitive
 335     public static Class<?> forName(String className)
 336                 throws ClassNotFoundException {
 337         Class<?> caller = Reflection.getCallerClass();
 338         return forName0(className, true, ClassLoader.getClassLoader(caller), caller);
 339     }
 340 
 341 
 342     /**
 343      * Returns the {@code Class} object associated with the class or
 344      * interface with the given string name, using the given class loader.
 345      * Given the fully qualified name for a class or interface (in the same
 346      * format returned by {@code getName}) this method attempts to
 347      * locate and load the class or interface.  The specified class
 348      * loader is used to load the class or interface.  If the parameter
 349      * {@code loader} is null, the class is loaded through the bootstrap
 350      * class loader.  The class is initialized only if the
 351      * {@code initialize} parameter is {@code true} and if it has
 352      * not been initialized earlier.
 353      *
 354      * <p> If {@code name} denotes a primitive type or void, an attempt
 355      * will be made to locate a user-defined class in the unnamed package whose
 356      * name is {@code name}. Therefore, this method cannot be used to
 357      * obtain any of the {@code Class} objects representing primitive
 358      * types or void.
 359      *
 360      * <p> If {@code name} denotes an array class, the component type of
 361      * the array class is loaded but not initialized.
 362      *
 363      * <p> For example, in an instance method the expression:
 364      *
 365      * <blockquote>
 366      *  {@code Class.forName("Foo")}
 367      * </blockquote>
 368      *
 369      * is equivalent to:
 370      *
 371      * <blockquote>
 372      *  {@code Class.forName("Foo", true, this.getClass().getClassLoader())}
 373      * </blockquote>
 374      *
 375      * Note that this method throws errors related to loading, linking or
 376      * initializing as specified in Sections 12.2, 12.3 and 12.4 of <em>The
 377      * Java Language Specification</em>.
 378      * Note that this method does not check whether the requested class
 379      * is accessible to its caller.
 380      *
 381      * @param name       fully qualified name of the desired class
 382      * @param initialize if {@code true} the class will be initialized (which implies linking).
 383      *                   See Section 12.4 of <em>The Java Language Specification</em>.
 384      * @param loader     class loader from which the class must be loaded
 385      * @return           class object representing the desired class
 386      *
 387      * @throws    LinkageError if the linkage fails
 388      * @throws    ExceptionInInitializerError if the initialization provoked
 389      *            by this method fails
 390      * @throws    ClassNotFoundException if the class cannot be located by
 391      *            the specified class loader
 392      * @throws    SecurityException
 393      *            if a security manager is present, and the {@code loader} is
 394      *            {@code null}, and the caller's class loader is not
 395      *            {@code null}, and the caller does not have the
 396      *            {@link RuntimePermission}{@code ("getClassLoader")}
 397      *
 398      * @see       java.lang.Class#forName(String)
 399      * @see       java.lang.ClassLoader
 400      *
 401      * @jls 12.2 Loading of Classes and Interfaces
 402      * @jls 12.3 Linking of Classes and Interfaces
 403      * @jls 12.4 Initialization of Classes and Interfaces
 404      * @since     1.2
 405      */
 406     @CallerSensitive
 407     public static Class<?> forName(String name, boolean initialize,
 408                                    ClassLoader loader)
 409         throws ClassNotFoundException
 410     {
 411         Class<?> caller = null;
 412         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
 413         if (sm != null) {
 414             // Reflective call to get caller class is only needed if a security manager
 415             // is present.  Avoid the overhead of making this call otherwise.
 416             caller = Reflection.getCallerClass();
 417             if (loader == null) {
 418                 ClassLoader ccl = ClassLoader.getClassLoader(caller);
 419                 if (ccl != null) {
 420                     sm.checkPermission(
 421                         SecurityConstants.GET_CLASSLOADER_PERMISSION);
 422                 }
 423             }
 424         }
 425         return forName0(name, initialize, loader, caller);
 426     }
 427 
 428     /** Called after security check for system loader access checks have been made. */
 429     private static native Class<?> forName0(String name, boolean initialize,
 430                                             ClassLoader loader,
 431                                             Class<?> caller)
 432         throws ClassNotFoundException;
 433 
 434 
 435     /**
 436      * Returns the {@code Class} with the given <a href="ClassLoader.html#binary-name">
 437      * binary name</a> in the given module.
 438      *
 439      * <p> This method attempts to locate and load the class or interface.
 440      * It does not link the class, and does not run the class initializer.
 441      * If the class is not found, this method returns {@code null}. </p>
 442      *
 443      * <p> If the class loader of the given module defines other modules and
 444      * the given name is a class defined in a different module, this method
 445      * returns {@code null} after the class is loaded. </p>
 446      *
 447      * <p> This method does not check whether the requested class is
 448      * accessible to its caller. </p>
 449      *
 450      * @apiNote
 451      * This method returns {@code null} on failure rather than
 452      * throwing a {@link ClassNotFoundException}, as is done by
 453      * the {@link #forName(String, boolean, ClassLoader)} method.
 454      * The security check is a stack-based permission check if the caller
 455      * loads a class in another module.
 456      *
 457      * @param  module   A module
 458      * @param  name     The <a href="ClassLoader.html#binary-name">binary name</a>
 459      *                  of the class
 460      * @return {@code Class} object of the given name defined in the given module;
 461      *         {@code null} if not found.
 462      *
 463      * @throws NullPointerException if the given module or name is {@code null}
 464      *
 465      * @throws LinkageError if the linkage fails
 466      *
 467      * @throws SecurityException
 468      *         <ul>
 469      *         <li> if the caller is not the specified module and
 470      *         {@code RuntimePermission("getClassLoader")} permission is denied; or</li>
 471      *         <li> access to the module content is denied. For example,
 472      *         permission check will be performed when a class loader calls
 473      *         {@link ModuleReader#open(String)} to read the bytes of a class file
 474      *         in a module.</li>
 475      *         </ul>
 476      *
 477      * @jls 12.2 Loading of Classes and Interfaces
 478      * @jls 12.3 Linking of Classes and Interfaces
 479      * @since 9
 480      * @spec JPMS
 481      */
 482     @CallerSensitive
 483     public static Class<?> forName(Module module, String name) {
 484         Objects.requireNonNull(module);
 485         Objects.requireNonNull(name);
 486 
 487         ClassLoader cl;
 488         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
 489         if (sm != null) {
 490             Class<?> caller = Reflection.getCallerClass();
 491             if (caller != null && caller.getModule() != module) {
 492                 // if caller is null, Class.forName is the last java frame on the stack.
 493                 // java.base has all permissions
 494                 sm.checkPermission(SecurityConstants.GET_CLASSLOADER_PERMISSION);
 495             }
 496             PrivilegedAction<ClassLoader> pa = module::getClassLoader;
 497             cl = AccessController.doPrivileged(pa);
 498         } else {
 499             cl = module.getClassLoader();
 500         }
 501 
 502         if (cl != null) {
 503             return cl.loadClass(module, name);
 504         } else {
 505             return BootLoader.loadClass(module, name);
 506         }
 507     }
 508 
 509     /**
 510      * Creates a new instance of the class represented by this {@code Class}
 511      * object.  The class is instantiated as if by a {@code new}
 512      * expression with an empty argument list.  The class is initialized if it
 513      * has not already been initialized.
 514      *
 515      * @deprecated This method propagates any exception thrown by the
 516      * nullary constructor, including a checked exception.  Use of
 517      * this method effectively bypasses the compile-time exception
 518      * checking that would otherwise be performed by the compiler.
 519      * The {@link
 520      * java.lang.reflect.Constructor#newInstance(java.lang.Object...)
 521      * Constructor.newInstance} method avoids this problem by wrapping
 522      * any exception thrown by the constructor in a (checked) {@link
 523      * java.lang.reflect.InvocationTargetException}.
 524      *
 525      * <p>The call
 526      *
 527      * <pre>{@code
 528      * clazz.newInstance()
 529      * }</pre>
 530      *
 531      * can be replaced by
 532      *
 533      * <pre>{@code
 534      * clazz.getDeclaredConstructor().newInstance()
 535      * }</pre>
 536      *
 537      * The latter sequence of calls is inferred to be able to throw
 538      * the additional exception types {@link
 539      * InvocationTargetException} and {@link
 540      * NoSuchMethodException}. Both of these exception types are
 541      * subclasses of {@link ReflectiveOperationException}.
 542      *
 543      * @return  a newly allocated instance of the class represented by this
 544      *          object.
 545      * @throws  IllegalAccessException  if the class or its nullary
 546      *          constructor is not accessible.
 547      * @throws  InstantiationException
 548      *          if this {@code Class} represents an abstract class,
 549      *          an interface, an array class, a primitive type, or void;
 550      *          or if the class has no nullary constructor;
 551      *          or if the instantiation fails for some other reason.
 552      * @throws  ExceptionInInitializerError if the initialization
 553      *          provoked by this method fails.
 554      * @throws  SecurityException
 555      *          If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and
 556      *          the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
 557      *          ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
 558      *          invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
 559      *          s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
 560      *          of this class.
 561      */
 562     @CallerSensitive
 563     @Deprecated(since="9")
 564     public T newInstance()
 565         throws InstantiationException, IllegalAccessException
 566     {
 567         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
 568         if (sm != null) {
 569             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.PUBLIC, Reflection.getCallerClass(), false);
 570         }
 571 
 572         // Constructor lookup
 573         Constructor<T> tmpConstructor = cachedConstructor;
 574         if (tmpConstructor == null) {
 575             if (this == Class.class) {
 576                 throw new IllegalAccessException(
 577                     "Can not call newInstance() on the Class for java.lang.Class"
 578                 );
 579             }
 580             try {
 581                 Class<?>[] empty = {};
 582                 final Constructor<T> c = getReflectionFactory().copyConstructor(
 583                     getConstructor0(empty, Member.DECLARED));
 584                 // Disable accessibility checks on the constructor
 585                 // access check is done with the true caller
 586                 java.security.AccessController.doPrivileged(
 587                     new java.security.PrivilegedAction<>() {
 588                         public Void run() {
 589                                 c.setAccessible(true);
 590                                 return null;
 591                             }
 592                         });
 593                 cachedConstructor = tmpConstructor = c;
 594             } catch (NoSuchMethodException e) {
 595                 throw (InstantiationException)
 596                     new InstantiationException(getName()).initCause(e);
 597             }
 598         }
 599 
 600         try {
 601             Class<?> caller = Reflection.getCallerClass();
 602             return getReflectionFactory().newInstance(tmpConstructor, null, caller);
 603         } catch (InvocationTargetException e) {
 604             Unsafe.getUnsafe().throwException(e.getTargetException());
 605             // Not reached
 606             return null;
 607         }
 608     }
 609 
 610     private transient volatile Constructor<T> cachedConstructor;
 611 
 612     /**
 613      * Determines if the specified {@code Object} is assignment-compatible
 614      * with the object represented by this {@code Class}.  This method is
 615      * the dynamic equivalent of the Java language {@code instanceof}
 616      * operator. The method returns {@code true} if the specified
 617      * {@code Object} argument is non-null and can be cast to the
 618      * reference type represented by this {@code Class} object without
 619      * raising a {@code ClassCastException.} It returns {@code false}
 620      * otherwise.
 621      *
 622      * <p> Specifically, if this {@code Class} object represents a
 623      * declared class, this method returns {@code true} if the specified
 624      * {@code Object} argument is an instance of the represented class (or
 625      * of any of its subclasses); it returns {@code false} otherwise. If
 626      * this {@code Class} object represents an array class, this method
 627      * returns {@code true} if the specified {@code Object} argument
 628      * can be converted to an object of the array class by an identity
 629      * conversion or by a widening reference conversion; it returns
 630      * {@code false} otherwise. If this {@code Class} object
 631      * represents an interface, this method returns {@code true} if the
 632      * class or any superclass of the specified {@code Object} argument
 633      * implements this interface; it returns {@code false} otherwise. If
 634      * this {@code Class} object represents a primitive type, this method
 635      * returns {@code false}.
 636      *
 637      * @param   obj the object to check
 638      * @return  true if {@code obj} is an instance of this class
 639      *
 640      * @since 1.1
 641      */
 642     @HotSpotIntrinsicCandidate
 643     public native boolean isInstance(Object obj);
 644 
 645 
 646     /**
 647      * Determines if the class or interface represented by this
 648      * {@code Class} object is either the same as, or is a superclass or
 649      * superinterface of, the class or interface represented by the specified
 650      * {@code Class} parameter. It returns {@code true} if so;
 651      * otherwise it returns {@code false}. If this {@code Class}
 652      * object represents a primitive type, this method returns
 653      * {@code true} if the specified {@code Class} parameter is
 654      * exactly this {@code Class} object; otherwise it returns
 655      * {@code false}.
 656      *
 657      * <p> Specifically, this method tests whether the type represented by the
 658      * specified {@code Class} parameter can be converted to the type
 659      * represented by this {@code Class} object via an identity conversion
 660      * or via a widening reference conversion. See <em>The Java Language
 661      * Specification</em>, sections 5.1.1 and 5.1.4 , for details.
 662      *
 663      * @param     cls the {@code Class} object to be checked
 664      * @return    the {@code boolean} value indicating whether objects of the
 665      *            type {@code cls} can be assigned to objects of this class
 666      * @throws    NullPointerException if the specified Class parameter is
 667      *            null.
 668      * @since     1.1
 669      */
 670     @HotSpotIntrinsicCandidate
 671     public native boolean isAssignableFrom(Class<?> cls);
 672 
 673 
 674     /**
 675      * Determines if the specified {@code Class} object represents an
 676      * interface type.
 677      *
 678      * @return  {@code true} if this object represents an interface;
 679      *          {@code false} otherwise.
 680      */
 681     @HotSpotIntrinsicCandidate
 682     public native boolean isInterface();
 683 
 684 
 685     /**
 686      * Determines if this {@code Class} object represents an array class.
 687      *
 688      * @return  {@code true} if this object represents an array class;
 689      *          {@code false} otherwise.
 690      * @since   1.1
 691      */
 692     @HotSpotIntrinsicCandidate
 693     public native boolean isArray();
 694 
 695 
 696     /**
 697      * Determines if the specified {@code Class} object represents a
 698      * primitive type.
 699      *
 700      * <p> There are nine predefined {@code Class} objects to represent
 701      * the eight primitive types and void.  These are created by the Java
 702      * Virtual Machine, and have the same names as the primitive types that
 703      * they represent, namely {@code boolean}, {@code byte},
 704      * {@code char}, {@code short}, {@code int},
 705      * {@code long}, {@code float}, and {@code double}.
 706      *
 707      * <p> These objects may only be accessed via the following public static
 708      * final variables, and are the only {@code Class} objects for which
 709      * this method returns {@code true}.
 710      *
 711      * @return true if and only if this class represents a primitive type
 712      *
 713      * @see     java.lang.Boolean#TYPE
 714      * @see     java.lang.Character#TYPE
 715      * @see     java.lang.Byte#TYPE
 716      * @see     java.lang.Short#TYPE
 717      * @see     java.lang.Integer#TYPE
 718      * @see     java.lang.Long#TYPE
 719      * @see     java.lang.Float#TYPE
 720      * @see     java.lang.Double#TYPE
 721      * @see     java.lang.Void#TYPE
 722      * @since 1.1
 723      */
 724     @HotSpotIntrinsicCandidate
 725     public native boolean isPrimitive();
 726 
 727     /**
 728      * Returns true if this {@code Class} object represents an annotation
 729      * type.  Note that if this method returns true, {@link #isInterface()}
 730      * would also return true, as all annotation types are also interfaces.
 731      *
 732      * @return {@code true} if this class object represents an annotation
 733      *      type; {@code false} otherwise
 734      * @since 1.5
 735      */
 736     public boolean isAnnotation() {
 737         return (getModifiers() & ANNOTATION) != 0;
 738     }
 739 
 740     /**
 741      * Returns {@code true} if this class is a synthetic class;
 742      * returns {@code false} otherwise.
 743      * @return {@code true} if and only if this class is a synthetic class as
 744      *         defined by the Java Language Specification.
 745      * @jls 13.1 The Form of a Binary
 746      * @since 1.5
 747      */
 748     public boolean isSynthetic() {
 749         return (getModifiers() & SYNTHETIC) != 0;
 750     }
 751 
 752     /**
 753      * Returns the  name of the entity (class, interface, array class,
 754      * primitive type, or void) represented by this {@code Class} object,
 755      * as a {@code String}.
 756      *
 757      * <p> If this class object represents a reference type that is not an
 758      * array type then the binary name of the class is returned, as specified
 759      * by
 760      * <cite>The Java&trade; Language Specification</cite>.
 761      *
 762      * <p> If this class object represents a primitive type or void, then the
 763      * name returned is a {@code String} equal to the Java language
 764      * keyword corresponding to the primitive type or void.
 765      *
 766      * <p> If this class object represents a class of arrays, then the internal
 767      * form of the name consists of the name of the element type preceded by
 768      * one or more '{@code [}' characters representing the depth of the array
 769      * nesting.  The encoding of element type names is as follows:
 770      *
 771      * <blockquote><table class="striped">
 772      * <caption style="display:none">Element types and encodings</caption>
 773      * <thead>
 774      * <tr><th scope="col"> Element Type <th scope="col"> Encoding
 775      * </thead>
 776      * <tbody style="text-align:left">
 777      * <tr><th scope="row"> boolean      <td style="text-align:center"> Z
 778      * <tr><th scope="row"> byte         <td style="text-align:center"> B
 779      * <tr><th scope="row"> char         <td style="text-align:center"> C
 780      * <tr><th scope="row"> class or interface
 781      *                                   <td style="text-align:center"> L<i>classname</i>;
 782      * <tr><th scope="row"> double       <td style="text-align:center"> D
 783      * <tr><th scope="row"> float        <td style="text-align:center"> F
 784      * <tr><th scope="row"> int          <td style="text-align:center"> I
 785      * <tr><th scope="row"> long         <td style="text-align:center"> J
 786      * <tr><th scope="row"> short        <td style="text-align:center"> S
 787      * </tbody>
 788      * </table></blockquote>
 789      *
 790      * <p> The class or interface name <i>classname</i> is the binary name of
 791      * the class specified above.
 792      *
 793      * <p> Examples:
 794      * <blockquote><pre>
 795      * String.class.getName()
 796      *     returns "java.lang.String"
 797      * byte.class.getName()
 798      *     returns "byte"
 799      * (new Object[3]).getClass().getName()
 800      *     returns "[Ljava.lang.Object;"
 801      * (new int[3][4][5][6][7][8][9]).getClass().getName()
 802      *     returns "[[[[[[[I"
 803      * </pre></blockquote>
 804      *
 805      * @return  the name of the class or interface
 806      *          represented by this object.
 807      */
 808     public String getName() {
 809         String name = this.name;
 810         return name != null ? name : initClassName();
 811     }
 812 
 813     // Cache the name to reduce the number of calls into the VM.
 814     // This field would be set by VM itself during initClassName call.
 815     private transient String name;
 816     private native String initClassName();
 817 
 818     /**
 819      * Returns the class loader for the class.  Some implementations may use
 820      * null to represent the bootstrap class loader. This method will return
 821      * null in such implementations if this class was loaded by the bootstrap
 822      * class loader.
 823      *
 824      * <p>If this object
 825      * represents a primitive type or void, null is returned.
 826      *
 827      * @return  the class loader that loaded the class or interface
 828      *          represented by this object.
 829      * @throws  SecurityException
 830      *          if a security manager is present, and the caller's class loader
 831      *          is not {@code null} and is not the same as or an ancestor of the
 832      *          class loader for the class whose class loader is requested,
 833      *          and the caller does not have the
 834      *          {@link RuntimePermission}{@code ("getClassLoader")}
 835      * @see java.lang.ClassLoader
 836      * @see SecurityManager#checkPermission
 837      * @see java.lang.RuntimePermission
 838      */
 839     @CallerSensitive
 840     @ForceInline // to ensure Reflection.getCallerClass optimization
 841     public ClassLoader getClassLoader() {
 842         ClassLoader cl = getClassLoader0();
 843         if (cl == null)
 844             return null;
 845         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
 846         if (sm != null) {
 847             ClassLoader.checkClassLoaderPermission(cl, Reflection.getCallerClass());
 848         }
 849         return cl;
 850     }
 851 
 852     // Package-private to allow ClassLoader access
 853     ClassLoader getClassLoader0() { return classLoader; }
 854 
 855     /**
 856      * Returns the module that this class or interface is a member of.
 857      *
 858      * If this class represents an array type then this method returns the
 859      * {@code Module} for the element type. If this class represents a
 860      * primitive type or void, then the {@code Module} object for the
 861      * {@code java.base} module is returned.
 862      *
 863      * If this class is in an unnamed module then the {@linkplain
 864      * ClassLoader#getUnnamedModule() unnamed} {@code Module} of the class
 865      * loader for this class is returned.
 866      *
 867      * @return the module that this class or interface is a member of
 868      *
 869      * @since 9
 870      * @spec JPMS
 871      */
 872     public Module getModule() {
 873         return module;
 874     }
 875 
 876     // set by VM
 877     private transient Module module;
 878 
 879     // Initialized in JVM not by private constructor
 880     // This field is filtered from reflection access, i.e. getDeclaredField
 881     // will throw NoSuchFieldException
 882     private final ClassLoader classLoader;
 883 
 884     /**
 885      * Returns an array of {@code TypeVariable} objects that represent the
 886      * type variables declared by the generic declaration represented by this
 887      * {@code GenericDeclaration} object, in declaration order.  Returns an
 888      * array of length 0 if the underlying generic declaration declares no type
 889      * variables.
 890      *
 891      * @return an array of {@code TypeVariable} objects that represent
 892      *     the type variables declared by this generic declaration
 893      * @throws java.lang.reflect.GenericSignatureFormatError if the generic
 894      *     signature of this generic declaration does not conform to
 895      *     the format specified in
 896      *     <cite>The Java&trade; Virtual Machine Specification</cite>
 897      * @since 1.5
 898      */
 899     @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
 900     public TypeVariable<Class<T>>[] getTypeParameters() {
 901         ClassRepository info = getGenericInfo();
 902         if (info != null)
 903             return (TypeVariable<Class<T>>[])info.getTypeParameters();
 904         else
 905             return (TypeVariable<Class<T>>[])new TypeVariable<?>[0];
 906     }
 907 
 908 
 909     /**
 910      * Returns the {@code Class} representing the direct superclass of the
 911      * entity (class, interface, primitive type or void) represented by
 912      * this {@code Class}.  If this {@code Class} represents either the
 913      * {@code Object} class, an interface, a primitive type, or void, then
 914      * null is returned.  If this object represents an array class then the
 915      * {@code Class} object representing the {@code Object} class is
 916      * returned.
 917      *
 918      * @return the direct superclass of the class represented by this object
 919      */
 920     @HotSpotIntrinsicCandidate
 921     public native Class<? super T> getSuperclass();
 922 
 923 
 924     /**
 925      * Returns the {@code Type} representing the direct superclass of
 926      * the entity (class, interface, primitive type or void) represented by
 927      * this {@code Class}.
 928      *
 929      * <p>If the superclass is a parameterized type, the {@code Type}
 930      * object returned must accurately reflect the actual type
 931      * arguments used in the source code. The parameterized type
 932      * representing the superclass is created if it had not been
 933      * created before. See the declaration of {@link
 934      * java.lang.reflect.ParameterizedType ParameterizedType} for the
 935      * semantics of the creation process for parameterized types.  If
 936      * this {@code Class} represents either the {@code Object}
 937      * class, an interface, a primitive type, or void, then null is
 938      * returned.  If this object represents an array class then the
 939      * {@code Class} object representing the {@code Object} class is
 940      * returned.
 941      *
 942      * @throws java.lang.reflect.GenericSignatureFormatError if the generic
 943      *     class signature does not conform to the format specified in
 944      *     <cite>The Java&trade; Virtual Machine Specification</cite>
 945      * @throws TypeNotPresentException if the generic superclass
 946      *     refers to a non-existent type declaration
 947      * @throws java.lang.reflect.MalformedParameterizedTypeException if the
 948      *     generic superclass refers to a parameterized type that cannot be
 949      *     instantiated  for any reason
 950      * @return the direct superclass of the class represented by this object
 951      * @since 1.5
 952      */
 953     public Type getGenericSuperclass() {
 954         ClassRepository info = getGenericInfo();
 955         if (info == null) {
 956             return getSuperclass();
 957         }
 958 
 959         // Historical irregularity:
 960         // Generic signature marks interfaces with superclass = Object
 961         // but this API returns null for interfaces
 962         if (isInterface()) {
 963             return null;
 964         }
 965 
 966         return info.getSuperclass();
 967     }
 968 
 969     /**
 970      * Gets the package of this class.
 971      *
 972      * <p>If this class represents an array type, a primitive type or void,
 973      * this method returns {@code null}.
 974      *
 975      * @return the package of this class.
 976      * @revised 9
 977      * @spec JPMS
 978      */
 979     public Package getPackage() {
 980         if (isPrimitive() || isArray()) {
 981             return null;
 982         }
 983         ClassLoader cl = getClassLoader0();
 984         return cl != null ? cl.definePackage(this)
 985                           : BootLoader.definePackage(this);
 986     }
 987 
 988     /**
 989      * Returns the fully qualified package name.
 990      *
 991      * <p> If this class is a top level class, then this method returns the fully
 992      * qualified name of the package that the class is a member of, or the
 993      * empty string if the class is in an unnamed package.
 994      *
 995      * <p> If this class is a member class, then this method is equivalent to
 996      * invoking {@code getPackageName()} on the {@linkplain #getEnclosingClass
 997      * enclosing class}.
 998      *
 999      * <p> If this class is a {@linkplain #isLocalClass local class} or an {@linkplain
1000      * #isAnonymousClass() anonymous class}, then this method is equivalent to
1001      * invoking {@code getPackageName()} on the {@linkplain #getDeclaringClass
1002      * declaring class} of the {@linkplain #getEnclosingMethod enclosing method} or
1003      * {@linkplain #getEnclosingConstructor enclosing constructor}.
1004      *
1005      * <p> If this class represents an array type then this method returns the
1006      * package name of the element type. If this class represents a primitive
1007      * type or void then the package name "{@code java.lang}" is returned.
1008      *
1009      * @return the fully qualified package name
1010      *
1011      * @since 9
1012      * @spec JPMS
1013      * @jls 6.7 Fully Qualified Names
1014      */
1015     public String getPackageName() {
1016         String pn = this.packageName;
1017         if (pn == null) {
1018             Class<?> c = this;
1019             while (c.isArray()) {
1020                 c = c.getComponentType();
1021             }
1022             if (c.isPrimitive()) {
1023                 pn = "java.lang";
1024             } else {
1025                 String cn = c.getName();
1026                 int dot = cn.lastIndexOf('.');
1027                 pn = (dot != -1) ? cn.substring(0, dot).intern() : "";
1028             }
1029             this.packageName = pn;
1030         }
1031         return pn;
1032     }
1033 
1034     // cached package name
1035     private transient String packageName;
1036 
1037     /**
1038      * Returns the interfaces directly implemented by the class or interface
1039      * represented by this object.
1040      *
1041      * <p>If this object represents a class, the return value is an array
1042      * containing objects representing all interfaces directly implemented by
1043      * the class.  The order of the interface objects in the array corresponds
1044      * to the order of the interface names in the {@code implements} clause of
1045      * the declaration of the class represented by this object.  For example,
1046      * given the declaration:
1047      * <blockquote>
1048      * {@code class Shimmer implements FloorWax, DessertTopping { ... }}
1049      * </blockquote>
1050      * suppose the value of {@code s} is an instance of
1051      * {@code Shimmer}; the value of the expression:
1052      * <blockquote>
1053      * {@code s.getClass().getInterfaces()[0]}
1054      * </blockquote>
1055      * is the {@code Class} object that represents interface
1056      * {@code FloorWax}; and the value of:
1057      * <blockquote>
1058      * {@code s.getClass().getInterfaces()[1]}
1059      * </blockquote>
1060      * is the {@code Class} object that represents interface
1061      * {@code DessertTopping}.
1062      *
1063      * <p>If this object represents an interface, the array contains objects
1064      * representing all interfaces directly extended by the interface.  The
1065      * order of the interface objects in the array corresponds to the order of
1066      * the interface names in the {@code extends} clause of the declaration of
1067      * the interface represented by this object.
1068      *
1069      * <p>If this object represents a class or interface that implements no
1070      * interfaces, the method returns an array of length 0.
1071      *
1072      * <p>If this object represents a primitive type or void, the method
1073      * returns an array of length 0.
1074      *
1075      * <p>If this {@code Class} object represents an array type, the
1076      * interfaces {@code Cloneable} and {@code java.io.Serializable} are
1077      * returned in that order.
1078      *
1079      * @return an array of interfaces directly implemented by this class
1080      */
1081     public Class<?>[] getInterfaces() {
1082         // defensively copy before handing over to user code
1083         return getInterfaces(true);
1084     }
1085 
1086     private Class<?>[] getInterfaces(boolean cloneArray) {
1087         ReflectionData<T> rd = reflectionData();
1088         if (rd == null) {
1089             // no cloning required
1090             return getInterfaces0();
1091         } else {
1092             Class<?>[] interfaces = rd.interfaces;
1093             if (interfaces == null) {
1094                 interfaces = getInterfaces0();
1095                 rd.interfaces = interfaces;
1096             }
1097             // defensively copy if requested
1098             return cloneArray ? interfaces.clone() : interfaces;
1099         }
1100     }
1101 
1102     private native Class<?>[] getInterfaces0();
1103 
1104     /**
1105      * Returns the {@code Type}s representing the interfaces
1106      * directly implemented by the class or interface represented by
1107      * this object.
1108      *
1109      * <p>If a superinterface is a parameterized type, the
1110      * {@code Type} object returned for it must accurately reflect
1111      * the actual type arguments used in the source code. The
1112      * parameterized type representing each superinterface is created
1113      * if it had not been created before. See the declaration of
1114      * {@link java.lang.reflect.ParameterizedType ParameterizedType}
1115      * for the semantics of the creation process for parameterized
1116      * types.
1117      *
1118      * <p>If this object represents a class, the return value is an array
1119      * containing objects representing all interfaces directly implemented by
1120      * the class.  The order of the interface objects in the array corresponds
1121      * to the order of the interface names in the {@code implements} clause of
1122      * the declaration of the class represented by this object.
1123      *
1124      * <p>If this object represents an interface, the array contains objects
1125      * representing all interfaces directly extended by the interface.  The
1126      * order of the interface objects in the array corresponds to the order of
1127      * the interface names in the {@code extends} clause of the declaration of
1128      * the interface represented by this object.
1129      *
1130      * <p>If this object represents a class or interface that implements no
1131      * interfaces, the method returns an array of length 0.
1132      *
1133      * <p>If this object represents a primitive type or void, the method
1134      * returns an array of length 0.
1135      *
1136      * <p>If this {@code Class} object represents an array type, the
1137      * interfaces {@code Cloneable} and {@code java.io.Serializable} are
1138      * returned in that order.
1139      *
1140      * @throws java.lang.reflect.GenericSignatureFormatError
1141      *     if the generic class signature does not conform to the format
1142      *     specified in
1143      *     <cite>The Java&trade; Virtual Machine Specification</cite>
1144      * @throws TypeNotPresentException if any of the generic
1145      *     superinterfaces refers to a non-existent type declaration
1146      * @throws java.lang.reflect.MalformedParameterizedTypeException
1147      *     if any of the generic superinterfaces refer to a parameterized
1148      *     type that cannot be instantiated for any reason
1149      * @return an array of interfaces directly implemented by this class
1150      * @since 1.5
1151      */
1152     public Type[] getGenericInterfaces() {
1153         ClassRepository info = getGenericInfo();
1154         return (info == null) ?  getInterfaces() : info.getSuperInterfaces();
1155     }
1156 
1157 
1158     /**
1159      * Returns the {@code Class} representing the component type of an
1160      * array.  If this class does not represent an array class this method
1161      * returns null.
1162      *
1163      * @return the {@code Class} representing the component type of this
1164      * class if this class is an array
1165      * @see     java.lang.reflect.Array
1166      * @since 1.1
1167      */
1168     public Class<?> getComponentType() {
1169         // Only return for array types. Storage may be reused for Class for instance types.
1170         if (isArray()) {
1171             return componentType;
1172         } else {
1173             return null;
1174         }
1175     }
1176 
1177     private final Class<?> componentType;
1178 
1179 
1180     /**
1181      * Returns the Java language modifiers for this class or interface, encoded
1182      * in an integer. The modifiers consist of the Java Virtual Machine's
1183      * constants for {@code public}, {@code protected},
1184      * {@code private}, {@code final}, {@code static},
1185      * {@code abstract} and {@code interface}; they should be decoded
1186      * using the methods of class {@code Modifier}.
1187      *
1188      * <p> If the underlying class is an array class, then its
1189      * {@code public}, {@code private} and {@code protected}
1190      * modifiers are the same as those of its component type.  If this
1191      * {@code Class} represents a primitive type or void, its
1192      * {@code public} modifier is always {@code true}, and its
1193      * {@code protected} and {@code private} modifiers are always
1194      * {@code false}. If this object represents an array class, a
1195      * primitive type or void, then its {@code final} modifier is always
1196      * {@code true} and its interface modifier is always
1197      * {@code false}. The values of its other modifiers are not determined
1198      * by this specification.
1199      *
1200      * <p> The modifier encodings are defined in <em>The Java Virtual Machine
1201      * Specification</em>, table 4.1.
1202      *
1203      * @return the {@code int} representing the modifiers for this class
1204      * @see     java.lang.reflect.Modifier
1205      * @since 1.1
1206      */
1207     @HotSpotIntrinsicCandidate
1208     public native int getModifiers();
1209 
1210 
1211     /**
1212      * Gets the signers of this class.
1213      *
1214      * @return  the signers of this class, or null if there are no signers.  In
1215      *          particular, this method returns null if this object represents
1216      *          a primitive type or void.
1217      * @since   1.1
1218      */
1219     public native Object[] getSigners();
1220 
1221 
1222     /**
1223      * Set the signers of this class.
1224      */
1225     native void setSigners(Object[] signers);
1226 
1227 
1228     /**
1229      * If this {@code Class} object represents a local or anonymous
1230      * class within a method, returns a {@link
1231      * java.lang.reflect.Method Method} object representing the
1232      * immediately enclosing method of the underlying class. Returns
1233      * {@code null} otherwise.
1234      *
1235      * In particular, this method returns {@code null} if the underlying
1236      * class is a local or anonymous class immediately enclosed by a type
1237      * declaration, instance initializer or static initializer.
1238      *
1239      * @return the immediately enclosing method of the underlying class, if
1240      *     that class is a local or anonymous class; otherwise {@code null}.
1241      *
1242      * @throws SecurityException
1243      *         If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and any of the
1244      *         following conditions is met:
1245      *
1246      *         <ul>
1247      *
1248      *         <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as the
1249      *         class loader of the enclosing class and invocation of
1250      *         {@link SecurityManager#checkPermission
1251      *         s.checkPermission} method with
1252      *         {@code RuntimePermission("accessDeclaredMembers")}
1253      *         denies access to the methods within the enclosing class
1254      *
1255      *         <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
1256      *         ancestor of the class loader for the enclosing class and
1257      *         invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
1258      *         s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
1259      *         of the enclosing class
1260      *
1261      *         </ul>
1262      * @since 1.5
1263      */
1264     @CallerSensitive
1265     public Method getEnclosingMethod() throws SecurityException {
1266         EnclosingMethodInfo enclosingInfo = getEnclosingMethodInfo();
1267 
1268         if (enclosingInfo == null)
1269             return null;
1270         else {
1271             if (!enclosingInfo.isMethod())
1272                 return null;
1273 
1274             MethodRepository typeInfo = MethodRepository.make(enclosingInfo.getDescriptor(),
1275                                                               getFactory());
1276             Class<?>   returnType       = toClass(typeInfo.getReturnType());
1277             Type []    parameterTypes   = typeInfo.getParameterTypes();
1278             Class<?>[] parameterClasses = new Class<?>[parameterTypes.length];
1279 
1280             // Convert Types to Classes; returned types *should*
1281             // be class objects since the methodDescriptor's used
1282             // don't have generics information
1283             for(int i = 0; i < parameterClasses.length; i++)
1284                 parameterClasses[i] = toClass(parameterTypes[i]);
1285 
1286             // Perform access check
1287             final Class<?> enclosingCandidate = enclosingInfo.getEnclosingClass();
1288             SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
1289             if (sm != null) {
1290                 enclosingCandidate.checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.DECLARED,
1291                                                      Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
1292             }
1293             Method[] candidates = enclosingCandidate.privateGetDeclaredMethods(false);
1294 
1295             /*
1296              * Loop over all declared methods; match method name,
1297              * number of and type of parameters, *and* return
1298              * type.  Matching return type is also necessary
1299              * because of covariant returns, etc.
1300              */
1301             ReflectionFactory fact = getReflectionFactory();
1302             for (Method m : candidates) {
1303                 if (m.getName().equals(enclosingInfo.getName()) &&
1304                     arrayContentsEq(parameterClasses,
1305                                     fact.getExecutableSharedParameterTypes(m))) {
1306                     // finally, check return type
1307                     if (m.getReturnType().equals(returnType)) {
1308                         return fact.copyMethod(m);
1309                     }
1310                 }
1311             }
1312 
1313             throw new InternalError("Enclosing method not found");
1314         }
1315     }
1316 
1317     private native Object[] getEnclosingMethod0();
1318 
1319     private EnclosingMethodInfo getEnclosingMethodInfo() {
1320         Object[] enclosingInfo = getEnclosingMethod0();
1321         if (enclosingInfo == null)
1322             return null;
1323         else {
1324             return new EnclosingMethodInfo(enclosingInfo);
1325         }
1326     }
1327 
1328     private static final class EnclosingMethodInfo {
1329         private final Class<?> enclosingClass;
1330         private final String name;
1331         private final String descriptor;
1332 
1333         static void validate(Object[] enclosingInfo) {
1334             if (enclosingInfo.length != 3)
1335                 throw new InternalError("Malformed enclosing method information");
1336             try {
1337                 // The array is expected to have three elements:
1338 
1339                 // the immediately enclosing class
1340                 Class<?> enclosingClass = (Class<?>)enclosingInfo[0];
1341                 assert(enclosingClass != null);
1342 
1343                 // the immediately enclosing method or constructor's
1344                 // name (can be null).
1345                 String name = (String)enclosingInfo[1];
1346 
1347                 // the immediately enclosing method or constructor's
1348                 // descriptor (null iff name is).
1349                 String descriptor = (String)enclosingInfo[2];
1350                 assert((name != null && descriptor != null) || name == descriptor);
1351             } catch (ClassCastException cce) {
1352                 throw new InternalError("Invalid type in enclosing method information", cce);
1353             }
1354         }
1355 
1356         EnclosingMethodInfo(Object[] enclosingInfo) {
1357             validate(enclosingInfo);
1358             this.enclosingClass = (Class<?>)enclosingInfo[0];
1359             this.name = (String)enclosingInfo[1];
1360             this.descriptor = (String)enclosingInfo[2];
1361         }
1362 
1363         boolean isPartial() {
1364             return enclosingClass == null || name == null || descriptor == null;
1365         }
1366 
1367         boolean isConstructor() { return !isPartial() && "<init>".equals(name); }
1368 
1369         boolean isMethod() { return !isPartial() && !isConstructor() && !"<clinit>".equals(name); }
1370 
1371         Class<?> getEnclosingClass() { return enclosingClass; }
1372 
1373         String getName() { return name; }
1374 
1375         String getDescriptor() { return descriptor; }
1376 
1377     }
1378 
1379     private static Class<?> toClass(Type o) {
1380         if (o instanceof GenericArrayType)
1381             return Array.newInstance(toClass(((GenericArrayType)o).getGenericComponentType()),
1382                                      0)
1383                 .getClass();
1384         return (Class<?>)o;
1385      }
1386 
1387     /**
1388      * If this {@code Class} object represents a local or anonymous
1389      * class within a constructor, returns a {@link
1390      * java.lang.reflect.Constructor Constructor} object representing
1391      * the immediately enclosing constructor of the underlying
1392      * class. Returns {@code null} otherwise.  In particular, this
1393      * method returns {@code null} if the underlying class is a local
1394      * or anonymous class immediately enclosed by a type declaration,
1395      * instance initializer or static initializer.
1396      *
1397      * @return the immediately enclosing constructor of the underlying class, if
1398      *     that class is a local or anonymous class; otherwise {@code null}.
1399      * @throws SecurityException
1400      *         If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and any of the
1401      *         following conditions is met:
1402      *
1403      *         <ul>
1404      *
1405      *         <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as the
1406      *         class loader of the enclosing class and invocation of
1407      *         {@link SecurityManager#checkPermission
1408      *         s.checkPermission} method with
1409      *         {@code RuntimePermission("accessDeclaredMembers")}
1410      *         denies access to the constructors within the enclosing class
1411      *
1412      *         <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
1413      *         ancestor of the class loader for the enclosing class and
1414      *         invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
1415      *         s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
1416      *         of the enclosing class
1417      *
1418      *         </ul>
1419      * @since 1.5
1420      */
1421     @CallerSensitive
1422     public Constructor<?> getEnclosingConstructor() throws SecurityException {
1423         EnclosingMethodInfo enclosingInfo = getEnclosingMethodInfo();
1424 
1425         if (enclosingInfo == null)
1426             return null;
1427         else {
1428             if (!enclosingInfo.isConstructor())
1429                 return null;
1430 
1431             ConstructorRepository typeInfo = ConstructorRepository.make(enclosingInfo.getDescriptor(),
1432                                                                         getFactory());
1433             Type []    parameterTypes   = typeInfo.getParameterTypes();
1434             Class<?>[] parameterClasses = new Class<?>[parameterTypes.length];
1435 
1436             // Convert Types to Classes; returned types *should*
1437             // be class objects since the methodDescriptor's used
1438             // don't have generics information
1439             for(int i = 0; i < parameterClasses.length; i++)
1440                 parameterClasses[i] = toClass(parameterTypes[i]);
1441 
1442             // Perform access check
1443             final Class<?> enclosingCandidate = enclosingInfo.getEnclosingClass();
1444             SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
1445             if (sm != null) {
1446                 enclosingCandidate.checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.DECLARED,
1447                                                      Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
1448             }
1449 
1450             Constructor<?>[] candidates = enclosingCandidate
1451                     .privateGetDeclaredConstructors(false);
1452             /*
1453              * Loop over all declared constructors; match number
1454              * of and type of parameters.
1455              */
1456             ReflectionFactory fact = getReflectionFactory();
1457             for (Constructor<?> c : candidates) {
1458                 if (arrayContentsEq(parameterClasses,
1459                                     fact.getExecutableSharedParameterTypes(c))) {
1460                     return fact.copyConstructor(c);
1461                 }
1462             }
1463 
1464             throw new InternalError("Enclosing constructor not found");
1465         }
1466     }
1467 
1468 
1469     /**
1470      * If the class or interface represented by this {@code Class} object
1471      * is a member of another class, returns the {@code Class} object
1472      * representing the class in which it was declared.  This method returns
1473      * null if this class or interface is not a member of any other class.  If
1474      * this {@code Class} object represents an array class, a primitive
1475      * type, or void,then this method returns null.
1476      *
1477      * @return the declaring class for this class
1478      * @throws SecurityException
1479      *         If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and the caller's
1480      *         class loader is not the same as or an ancestor of the class
1481      *         loader for the declaring class and invocation of {@link
1482      *         SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess s.checkPackageAccess()}
1483      *         denies access to the package of the declaring class
1484      * @since 1.1
1485      */
1486     @CallerSensitive
1487     public Class<?> getDeclaringClass() throws SecurityException {
1488         final Class<?> candidate = getDeclaringClass0();
1489 
1490         if (candidate != null) {
1491             SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
1492             if (sm != null) {
1493                 candidate.checkPackageAccess(sm,
1494                     ClassLoader.getClassLoader(Reflection.getCallerClass()), true);
1495             }
1496         }
1497         return candidate;
1498     }
1499 
1500     private native Class<?> getDeclaringClass0();
1501 
1502 
1503     /**
1504      * Returns the immediately enclosing class of the underlying
1505      * class.  If the underlying class is a top level class this
1506      * method returns {@code null}.
1507      * @return the immediately enclosing class of the underlying class
1508      * @throws     SecurityException
1509      *             If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and the caller's
1510      *             class loader is not the same as or an ancestor of the class
1511      *             loader for the enclosing class and invocation of {@link
1512      *             SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess s.checkPackageAccess()}
1513      *             denies access to the package of the enclosing class
1514      * @since 1.5
1515      */
1516     @CallerSensitive
1517     public Class<?> getEnclosingClass() throws SecurityException {
1518         // There are five kinds of classes (or interfaces):
1519         // a) Top level classes
1520         // b) Nested classes (static member classes)
1521         // c) Inner classes (non-static member classes)
1522         // d) Local classes (named classes declared within a method)
1523         // e) Anonymous classes
1524 
1525 
1526         // JVM Spec 4.7.7: A class must have an EnclosingMethod
1527         // attribute if and only if it is a local class or an
1528         // anonymous class.
1529         EnclosingMethodInfo enclosingInfo = getEnclosingMethodInfo();
1530         Class<?> enclosingCandidate;
1531 
1532         if (enclosingInfo == null) {
1533             // This is a top level or a nested class or an inner class (a, b, or c)
1534             enclosingCandidate = getDeclaringClass0();
1535         } else {
1536             Class<?> enclosingClass = enclosingInfo.getEnclosingClass();
1537             // This is a local class or an anonymous class (d or e)
1538             if (enclosingClass == this || enclosingClass == null)
1539                 throw new InternalError("Malformed enclosing method information");
1540             else
1541                 enclosingCandidate = enclosingClass;
1542         }
1543 
1544         if (enclosingCandidate != null) {
1545             SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
1546             if (sm != null) {
1547                 enclosingCandidate.checkPackageAccess(sm,
1548                     ClassLoader.getClassLoader(Reflection.getCallerClass()), true);
1549             }
1550         }
1551         return enclosingCandidate;
1552     }
1553 
1554     /**
1555      * Returns the simple name of the underlying class as given in the
1556      * source code. Returns an empty string if the underlying class is
1557      * anonymous.
1558      *
1559      * <p>The simple name of an array is the simple name of the
1560      * component type with "[]" appended.  In particular the simple
1561      * name of an array whose component type is anonymous is "[]".
1562      *
1563      * @return the simple name of the underlying class
1564      * @since 1.5
1565      */
1566     public String getSimpleName() {
1567         ReflectionData<T> rd = reflectionData();
1568         String simpleName = rd.simpleName;
1569         if (simpleName == null) {
1570             rd.simpleName = simpleName = getSimpleName0();
1571         }
1572         return simpleName;
1573     }
1574 
1575     private String getSimpleName0() {
1576         if (isArray()) {
1577             return getComponentType().getSimpleName() + "[]";
1578         }
1579         String simpleName = getSimpleBinaryName();
1580         if (simpleName == null) { // top level class
1581             simpleName = getName();
1582             simpleName = simpleName.substring(simpleName.lastIndexOf('.') + 1); // strip the package name
1583         }
1584         return simpleName;
1585     }
1586 
1587     /**
1588      * Return an informative string for the name of this type.
1589      *
1590      * @return an informative string for the name of this type
1591      * @since 1.8
1592      */
1593     public String getTypeName() {
1594         if (isArray()) {
1595             try {
1596                 Class<?> cl = this;
1597                 int dimensions = 0;
1598                 do {
1599                     dimensions++;
1600                     cl = cl.getComponentType();
1601                 } while (cl.isArray());
1602                 return cl.getName() + "[]".repeat(dimensions);
1603             } catch (Throwable e) { /*FALLTHRU*/ }
1604         }
1605         return getName();
1606     }
1607 
1608     /**
1609      * Returns the canonical name of the underlying class as
1610      * defined by the Java Language Specification.  Returns null if
1611      * the underlying class does not have a canonical name (i.e., if
1612      * it is a local or anonymous class or an array whose component
1613      * type does not have a canonical name).
1614      * @return the canonical name of the underlying class if it exists, and
1615      * {@code null} otherwise.
1616      * @since 1.5
1617      */
1618     public String getCanonicalName() {
1619         ReflectionData<T> rd = reflectionData();
1620         String canonicalName = rd.canonicalName;
1621         if (canonicalName == null) {
1622             rd.canonicalName = canonicalName = getCanonicalName0();
1623         }
1624         return canonicalName == ReflectionData.NULL_SENTINEL? null : canonicalName;
1625     }
1626 
1627     private String getCanonicalName0() {
1628         if (isArray()) {
1629             String canonicalName = getComponentType().getCanonicalName();
1630             if (canonicalName != null)
1631                 return canonicalName + "[]";
1632             else
1633                 return ReflectionData.NULL_SENTINEL;
1634         }
1635         if (isLocalOrAnonymousClass())
1636             return ReflectionData.NULL_SENTINEL;
1637         Class<?> enclosingClass = getEnclosingClass();
1638         if (enclosingClass == null) { // top level class
1639             return getName();
1640         } else {
1641             String enclosingName = enclosingClass.getCanonicalName();
1642             if (enclosingName == null)
1643                 return ReflectionData.NULL_SENTINEL;
1644             return enclosingName + "." + getSimpleName();
1645         }
1646     }
1647 
1648     /**
1649      * Returns {@code true} if and only if the underlying class
1650      * is an anonymous class.
1651      *
1652      * @return {@code true} if and only if this class is an anonymous class.
1653      * @since 1.5
1654      */
1655     public boolean isAnonymousClass() {
1656         return !isArray() && isLocalOrAnonymousClass() &&
1657                 getSimpleBinaryName0() == null;
1658     }
1659 
1660     /**
1661      * Returns {@code true} if and only if the underlying class
1662      * is a local class.
1663      *
1664      * @return {@code true} if and only if this class is a local class.
1665      * @since 1.5
1666      */
1667     public boolean isLocalClass() {
1668         return isLocalOrAnonymousClass() &&
1669                 (isArray() || getSimpleBinaryName0() != null);
1670     }
1671 
1672     /**
1673      * Returns {@code true} if and only if the underlying class
1674      * is a member class.
1675      *
1676      * @return {@code true} if and only if this class is a member class.
1677      * @since 1.5
1678      */
1679     public boolean isMemberClass() {
1680         return !isLocalOrAnonymousClass() && getDeclaringClass0() != null;
1681     }
1682 
1683     /**
1684      * Returns the "simple binary name" of the underlying class, i.e.,
1685      * the binary name without the leading enclosing class name.
1686      * Returns {@code null} if the underlying class is a top level
1687      * class.
1688      */
1689     private String getSimpleBinaryName() {
1690         if (isTopLevelClass())
1691             return null;
1692         String name = getSimpleBinaryName0();
1693         if (name == null) // anonymous class
1694             return "";
1695         return name;
1696     }
1697 
1698     private native String getSimpleBinaryName0();
1699 
1700     /**
1701      * Returns {@code true} if this is a top level class.  Returns {@code false}
1702      * otherwise.
1703      */
1704     private boolean isTopLevelClass() {
1705         return !isLocalOrAnonymousClass() && getDeclaringClass0() == null;
1706     }
1707 
1708     /**
1709      * Returns {@code true} if this is a local class or an anonymous
1710      * class.  Returns {@code false} otherwise.
1711      */
1712     private boolean isLocalOrAnonymousClass() {
1713         // JVM Spec 4.7.7: A class must have an EnclosingMethod
1714         // attribute if and only if it is a local class or an
1715         // anonymous class.
1716         return hasEnclosingMethodInfo();
1717     }
1718 
1719     private boolean hasEnclosingMethodInfo() {
1720         Object[] enclosingInfo = getEnclosingMethod0();
1721         if (enclosingInfo != null) {
1722             EnclosingMethodInfo.validate(enclosingInfo);
1723             return true;
1724         }
1725         return false;
1726     }
1727 
1728     /**
1729      * Returns an array containing {@code Class} objects representing all
1730      * the public classes and interfaces that are members of the class
1731      * represented by this {@code Class} object.  This includes public
1732      * class and interface members inherited from superclasses and public class
1733      * and interface members declared by the class.  This method returns an
1734      * array of length 0 if this {@code Class} object has no public member
1735      * classes or interfaces.  This method also returns an array of length 0 if
1736      * this {@code Class} object represents a primitive type, an array
1737      * class, or void.
1738      *
1739      * @return the array of {@code Class} objects representing the public
1740      *         members of this class
1741      * @throws SecurityException
1742      *         If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and
1743      *         the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
1744      *         ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
1745      *         invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
1746      *         s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
1747      *         of this class.
1748      *
1749      * @since 1.1
1750      */
1751     @CallerSensitive
1752     public Class<?>[] getClasses() {
1753         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
1754         if (sm != null) {
1755             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.PUBLIC, Reflection.getCallerClass(), false);
1756         }
1757 
1758         // Privileged so this implementation can look at DECLARED classes,
1759         // something the caller might not have privilege to do.  The code here
1760         // is allowed to look at DECLARED classes because (1) it does not hand
1761         // out anything other than public members and (2) public member access
1762         // has already been ok'd by the SecurityManager.
1763 
1764         return java.security.AccessController.doPrivileged(
1765             new java.security.PrivilegedAction<>() {
1766                 public Class<?>[] run() {
1767                     List<Class<?>> list = new ArrayList<>();
1768                     Class<?> currentClass = Class.this;
1769                     while (currentClass != null) {
1770                         for (Class<?> m : currentClass.getDeclaredClasses()) {
1771                             if (Modifier.isPublic(m.getModifiers())) {
1772                                 list.add(m);
1773                             }
1774                         }
1775                         currentClass = currentClass.getSuperclass();
1776                     }
1777                     return list.toArray(new Class<?>[0]);
1778                 }
1779             });
1780     }
1781 
1782 
1783     /**
1784      * Returns an array containing {@code Field} objects reflecting all
1785      * the accessible public fields of the class or interface represented by
1786      * this {@code Class} object.
1787      *
1788      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents a class or interface with
1789      * no accessible public fields, then this method returns an array of length
1790      * 0.
1791      *
1792      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents a class, then this method
1793      * returns the public fields of the class and of all its superclasses and
1794      * superinterfaces.
1795      *
1796      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents an interface, then this
1797      * method returns the fields of the interface and of all its
1798      * superinterfaces.
1799      *
1800      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents an array type, a primitive
1801      * type, or void, then this method returns an array of length 0.
1802      *
1803      * <p> The elements in the returned array are not sorted and are not in any
1804      * particular order.
1805      *
1806      * @return the array of {@code Field} objects representing the
1807      *         public fields
1808      * @throws SecurityException
1809      *         If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and
1810      *         the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
1811      *         ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
1812      *         invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
1813      *         s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
1814      *         of this class.
1815      *
1816      * @since 1.1
1817      * @jls 8.2 Class Members
1818      * @jls 8.3 Field Declarations
1819      */
1820     @CallerSensitive
1821     public Field[] getFields() throws SecurityException {
1822         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
1823         if (sm != null) {
1824             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.PUBLIC, Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
1825         }
1826         return copyFields(privateGetPublicFields());
1827     }
1828 
1829 
1830     /**
1831      * Returns an array containing {@code Method} objects reflecting all the
1832      * public methods of the class or interface represented by this {@code
1833      * Class} object, including those declared by the class or interface and
1834      * those inherited from superclasses and superinterfaces.
1835      *
1836      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents an array type, then the
1837      * returned array has a {@code Method} object for each of the public
1838      * methods inherited by the array type from {@code Object}. It does not
1839      * contain a {@code Method} object for {@code clone()}.
1840      *
1841      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents an interface then the
1842      * returned array does not contain any implicitly declared methods from
1843      * {@code Object}. Therefore, if no methods are explicitly declared in
1844      * this interface or any of its superinterfaces then the returned array
1845      * has length 0. (Note that a {@code Class} object which represents a class
1846      * always has public methods, inherited from {@code Object}.)
1847      *
1848      * <p> The returned array never contains methods with names "{@code <init>}"
1849      * or "{@code <clinit>}".
1850      *
1851      * <p> The elements in the returned array are not sorted and are not in any
1852      * particular order.
1853      *
1854      * <p> Generally, the result is computed as with the following 4 step algorithm.
1855      * Let C be the class or interface represented by this {@code Class} object:
1856      * <ol>
1857      * <li> A union of methods is composed of:
1858      *   <ol type="a">
1859      *   <li> C's declared public instance and static methods as returned by
1860      *        {@link #getDeclaredMethods()} and filtered to include only public
1861      *        methods.</li>
1862      *   <li> If C is a class other than {@code Object}, then include the result
1863      *        of invoking this algorithm recursively on the superclass of C.</li>
1864      *   <li> Include the results of invoking this algorithm recursively on all
1865      *        direct superinterfaces of C, but include only instance methods.</li>
1866      *   </ol></li>
1867      * <li> Union from step 1 is partitioned into subsets of methods with same
1868      *      signature (name, parameter types) and return type.</li>
1869      * <li> Within each such subset only the most specific methods are selected.
1870      *      Let method M be a method from a set of methods with same signature
1871      *      and return type. M is most specific if there is no such method
1872      *      N != M from the same set, such that N is more specific than M.
1873      *      N is more specific than M if:
1874      *   <ol type="a">
1875      *   <li> N is declared by a class and M is declared by an interface; or</li>
1876      *   <li> N and M are both declared by classes or both by interfaces and
1877      *        N's declaring type is the same as or a subtype of M's declaring type
1878      *        (clearly, if M's and N's declaring types are the same type, then
1879      *        M and N are the same method).</li>
1880      *   </ol></li>
1881      * <li> The result of this algorithm is the union of all selected methods from
1882      *      step 3.</li>
1883      * </ol>
1884      *
1885      * @apiNote There may be more than one method with a particular name
1886      * and parameter types in a class because while the Java language forbids a
1887      * class to declare multiple methods with the same signature but different
1888      * return types, the Java virtual machine does not.  This
1889      * increased flexibility in the virtual machine can be used to
1890      * implement various language features.  For example, covariant
1891      * returns can be implemented with {@linkplain
1892      * java.lang.reflect.Method#isBridge bridge methods}; the bridge
1893      * method and the overriding method would have the same
1894      * signature but different return types.
1895      *
1896      * @return the array of {@code Method} objects representing the
1897      *         public methods of this class
1898      * @throws SecurityException
1899      *         If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and
1900      *         the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
1901      *         ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
1902      *         invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
1903      *         s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
1904      *         of this class.
1905      *
1906      * @jls 8.2 Class Members
1907      * @jls 8.4 Method Declarations
1908      * @since 1.1
1909      */
1910     @CallerSensitive
1911     public Method[] getMethods() throws SecurityException {
1912         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
1913         if (sm != null) {
1914             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.PUBLIC, Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
1915         }
1916         return copyMethods(privateGetPublicMethods());
1917     }
1918 
1919 
1920     /**
1921      * Returns an array containing {@code Constructor} objects reflecting
1922      * all the public constructors of the class represented by this
1923      * {@code Class} object.  An array of length 0 is returned if the
1924      * class has no public constructors, or if the class is an array class, or
1925      * if the class reflects a primitive type or void.
1926      *
1927      * Note that while this method returns an array of {@code
1928      * Constructor<T>} objects (that is an array of constructors from
1929      * this class), the return type of this method is {@code
1930      * Constructor<?>[]} and <em>not</em> {@code Constructor<T>[]} as
1931      * might be expected.  This less informative return type is
1932      * necessary since after being returned from this method, the
1933      * array could be modified to hold {@code Constructor} objects for
1934      * different classes, which would violate the type guarantees of
1935      * {@code Constructor<T>[]}.
1936      *
1937      * @return the array of {@code Constructor} objects representing the
1938      *         public constructors of this class
1939      * @throws SecurityException
1940      *         If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and
1941      *         the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
1942      *         ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
1943      *         invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
1944      *         s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
1945      *         of this class.
1946      *
1947      * @since 1.1
1948      */
1949     @CallerSensitive
1950     public Constructor<?>[] getConstructors() throws SecurityException {
1951         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
1952         if (sm != null) {
1953             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.PUBLIC, Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
1954         }
1955         return copyConstructors(privateGetDeclaredConstructors(true));
1956     }
1957 
1958 
1959     /**
1960      * Returns a {@code Field} object that reflects the specified public member
1961      * field of the class or interface represented by this {@code Class}
1962      * object. The {@code name} parameter is a {@code String} specifying the
1963      * simple name of the desired field.
1964      *
1965      * <p> The field to be reflected is determined by the algorithm that
1966      * follows.  Let C be the class or interface represented by this object:
1967      *
1968      * <OL>
1969      * <LI> If C declares a public field with the name specified, that is the
1970      *      field to be reflected.</LI>
1971      * <LI> If no field was found in step 1 above, this algorithm is applied
1972      *      recursively to each direct superinterface of C. The direct
1973      *      superinterfaces are searched in the order they were declared.</LI>
1974      * <LI> If no field was found in steps 1 and 2 above, and C has a
1975      *      superclass S, then this algorithm is invoked recursively upon S.
1976      *      If C has no superclass, then a {@code NoSuchFieldException}
1977      *      is thrown.</LI>
1978      * </OL>
1979      *
1980      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents an array type, then this
1981      * method does not find the {@code length} field of the array type.
1982      *
1983      * @param name the field name
1984      * @return the {@code Field} object of this class specified by
1985      *         {@code name}
1986      * @throws NoSuchFieldException if a field with the specified name is
1987      *         not found.
1988      * @throws NullPointerException if {@code name} is {@code null}
1989      * @throws SecurityException
1990      *         If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and
1991      *         the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
1992      *         ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
1993      *         invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
1994      *         s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
1995      *         of this class.
1996      *
1997      * @since 1.1
1998      * @jls 8.2 Class Members
1999      * @jls 8.3 Field Declarations
2000      */
2001     @CallerSensitive
2002     public Field getField(String name)
2003         throws NoSuchFieldException, SecurityException {
2004         Objects.requireNonNull(name);
2005         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
2006         if (sm != null) {
2007             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.PUBLIC, Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
2008         }
2009         Field field = getField0(name);
2010         if (field == null) {
2011             throw new NoSuchFieldException(name);
2012         }
2013         return getReflectionFactory().copyField(field);
2014     }
2015 
2016 
2017     /**
2018      * Returns a {@code Method} object that reflects the specified public
2019      * member method of the class or interface represented by this
2020      * {@code Class} object. The {@code name} parameter is a
2021      * {@code String} specifying the simple name of the desired method. The
2022      * {@code parameterTypes} parameter is an array of {@code Class}
2023      * objects that identify the method's formal parameter types, in declared
2024      * order. If {@code parameterTypes} is {@code null}, it is
2025      * treated as if it were an empty array.
2026      *
2027      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents an array type, then this
2028      * method finds any public method inherited by the array type from
2029      * {@code Object} except method {@code clone()}.
2030      *
2031      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents an interface then this
2032      * method does not find any implicitly declared method from
2033      * {@code Object}. Therefore, if no methods are explicitly declared in
2034      * this interface or any of its superinterfaces, then this method does not
2035      * find any method.
2036      *
2037      * <p> This method does not find any method with name "{@code <init>}" or
2038      * "{@code <clinit>}".
2039      *
2040      * <p> Generally, the method to be reflected is determined by the 4 step
2041      * algorithm that follows.
2042      * Let C be the class or interface represented by this {@code Class} object:
2043      * <ol>
2044      * <li> A union of methods is composed of:
2045      *   <ol type="a">
2046      *   <li> C's declared public instance and static methods as returned by
2047      *        {@link #getDeclaredMethods()} and filtered to include only public
2048      *        methods that match given {@code name} and {@code parameterTypes}</li>
2049      *   <li> If C is a class other than {@code Object}, then include the result
2050      *        of invoking this algorithm recursively on the superclass of C.</li>
2051      *   <li> Include the results of invoking this algorithm recursively on all
2052      *        direct superinterfaces of C, but include only instance methods.</li>
2053      *   </ol></li>
2054      * <li> This union is partitioned into subsets of methods with same
2055      *      return type (the selection of methods from step 1 also guarantees that
2056      *      they have the same method name and parameter types).</li>
2057      * <li> Within each such subset only the most specific methods are selected.
2058      *      Let method M be a method from a set of methods with same VM
2059      *      signature (return type, name, parameter types).
2060      *      M is most specific if there is no such method N != M from the same
2061      *      set, such that N is more specific than M. N is more specific than M
2062      *      if:
2063      *   <ol type="a">
2064      *   <li> N is declared by a class and M is declared by an interface; or</li>
2065      *   <li> N and M are both declared by classes or both by interfaces and
2066      *        N's declaring type is the same as or a subtype of M's declaring type
2067      *        (clearly, if M's and N's declaring types are the same type, then
2068      *        M and N are the same method).</li>
2069      *   </ol></li>
2070      * <li> The result of this algorithm is chosen arbitrarily from the methods
2071      *      with most specific return type among all selected methods from step 3.
2072      *      Let R be a return type of a method M from the set of all selected methods
2073      *      from step 3. M is a method with most specific return type if there is
2074      *      no such method N != M from the same set, having return type S != R,
2075      *      such that S is a subtype of R as determined by
2076      *      R.class.{@link #isAssignableFrom}(S.class).
2077      * </ol>
2078      *
2079      * @apiNote There may be more than one method with matching name and
2080      * parameter types in a class because while the Java language forbids a
2081      * class to declare multiple methods with the same signature but different
2082      * return types, the Java virtual machine does not.  This
2083      * increased flexibility in the virtual machine can be used to
2084      * implement various language features.  For example, covariant
2085      * returns can be implemented with {@linkplain
2086      * java.lang.reflect.Method#isBridge bridge methods}; the bridge
2087      * method and the overriding method would have the same
2088      * signature but different return types. This method would return the
2089      * overriding method as it would have a more specific return type.
2090      *
2091      * @param name the name of the method
2092      * @param parameterTypes the list of parameters
2093      * @return the {@code Method} object that matches the specified
2094      *         {@code name} and {@code parameterTypes}
2095      * @throws NoSuchMethodException if a matching method is not found
2096      *         or if the name is "&lt;init&gt;"or "&lt;clinit&gt;".
2097      * @throws NullPointerException if {@code name} is {@code null}
2098      * @throws SecurityException
2099      *         If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and
2100      *         the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
2101      *         ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
2102      *         invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
2103      *         s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
2104      *         of this class.
2105      *
2106      * @jls 8.2 Class Members
2107      * @jls 8.4 Method Declarations
2108      * @since 1.1
2109      */
2110     @CallerSensitive
2111     public Method getMethod(String name, Class<?>... parameterTypes)
2112         throws NoSuchMethodException, SecurityException {
2113         Objects.requireNonNull(name);
2114         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
2115         if (sm != null) {
2116             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.PUBLIC, Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
2117         }
2118         Method method = getMethod0(name, parameterTypes);
2119         if (method == null) {
2120             throw new NoSuchMethodException(methodToString(name, parameterTypes));
2121         }
2122         return getReflectionFactory().copyMethod(method);
2123     }
2124 
2125     /**
2126      * Returns a {@code Constructor} object that reflects the specified
2127      * public constructor of the class represented by this {@code Class}
2128      * object. The {@code parameterTypes} parameter is an array of
2129      * {@code Class} objects that identify the constructor's formal
2130      * parameter types, in declared order.
2131      *
2132      * If this {@code Class} object represents an inner class
2133      * declared in a non-static context, the formal parameter types
2134      * include the explicit enclosing instance as the first parameter.
2135      *
2136      * <p> The constructor to reflect is the public constructor of the class
2137      * represented by this {@code Class} object whose formal parameter
2138      * types match those specified by {@code parameterTypes}.
2139      *
2140      * @param parameterTypes the parameter array
2141      * @return the {@code Constructor} object of the public constructor that
2142      *         matches the specified {@code parameterTypes}
2143      * @throws NoSuchMethodException if a matching method is not found.
2144      * @throws SecurityException
2145      *         If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and
2146      *         the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
2147      *         ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
2148      *         invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
2149      *         s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
2150      *         of this class.
2151      *
2152      * @since 1.1
2153      */
2154     @CallerSensitive
2155     public Constructor<T> getConstructor(Class<?>... parameterTypes)
2156         throws NoSuchMethodException, SecurityException
2157     {
2158         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
2159         if (sm != null) {
2160             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.PUBLIC, Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
2161         }
2162         return getReflectionFactory().copyConstructor(
2163             getConstructor0(parameterTypes, Member.PUBLIC));
2164     }
2165 
2166 
2167     /**
2168      * Returns an array of {@code Class} objects reflecting all the
2169      * classes and interfaces declared as members of the class represented by
2170      * this {@code Class} object. This includes public, protected, default
2171      * (package) access, and private classes and interfaces declared by the
2172      * class, but excludes inherited classes and interfaces.  This method
2173      * returns an array of length 0 if the class declares no classes or
2174      * interfaces as members, or if this {@code Class} object represents a
2175      * primitive type, an array class, or void.
2176      *
2177      * @return the array of {@code Class} objects representing all the
2178      *         declared members of this class
2179      * @throws SecurityException
2180      *         If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and any of the
2181      *         following conditions is met:
2182      *
2183      *         <ul>
2184      *
2185      *         <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as the
2186      *         class loader of this class and invocation of
2187      *         {@link SecurityManager#checkPermission
2188      *         s.checkPermission} method with
2189      *         {@code RuntimePermission("accessDeclaredMembers")}
2190      *         denies access to the declared classes within this class
2191      *
2192      *         <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
2193      *         ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
2194      *         invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
2195      *         s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
2196      *         of this class
2197      *
2198      *         </ul>
2199      *
2200      * @since 1.1
2201      */
2202     @CallerSensitive
2203     public Class<?>[] getDeclaredClasses() throws SecurityException {
2204         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
2205         if (sm != null) {
2206             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.DECLARED, Reflection.getCallerClass(), false);
2207         }
2208         return getDeclaredClasses0();
2209     }
2210 
2211 
2212     /**
2213      * Returns an array of {@code Field} objects reflecting all the fields
2214      * declared by the class or interface represented by this
2215      * {@code Class} object. This includes public, protected, default
2216      * (package) access, and private fields, but excludes inherited fields.
2217      *
2218      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents a class or interface with no
2219      * declared fields, then this method returns an array of length 0.
2220      *
2221      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents an array type, a primitive
2222      * type, or void, then this method returns an array of length 0.
2223      *
2224      * <p> The elements in the returned array are not sorted and are not in any
2225      * particular order.
2226      *
2227      * @return  the array of {@code Field} objects representing all the
2228      *          declared fields of this class
2229      * @throws  SecurityException
2230      *          If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and any of the
2231      *          following conditions is met:
2232      *
2233      *          <ul>
2234      *
2235      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as the
2236      *          class loader of this class and invocation of
2237      *          {@link SecurityManager#checkPermission
2238      *          s.checkPermission} method with
2239      *          {@code RuntimePermission("accessDeclaredMembers")}
2240      *          denies access to the declared fields within this class
2241      *
2242      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
2243      *          ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
2244      *          invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
2245      *          s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
2246      *          of this class
2247      *
2248      *          </ul>
2249      *
2250      * @since 1.1
2251      * @jls 8.2 Class Members
2252      * @jls 8.3 Field Declarations
2253      */
2254     @CallerSensitive
2255     public Field[] getDeclaredFields() throws SecurityException {
2256         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
2257         if (sm != null) {
2258             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.DECLARED, Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
2259         }
2260         return copyFields(privateGetDeclaredFields(false));
2261     }
2262 
2263     /**
2264      * {@preview Associated with records, a preview feature of the Java language.
2265      *
2266      *           This method is associated with <i>records</i>, a preview
2267      *           feature of the Java language. Preview features
2268      *           may be removed in a future release, or upgraded to permanent
2269      *           features of the Java language.}
2270      *
2271      * Returns an array containing {@code RecordComponent} objects reflecting all the
2272      * declared record components of the record represented by this {@code Class} object.
2273      * The components are returned in the same order that they are declared in the
2274      * record header.
2275      *
2276      * @return  The array of {@code RecordComponent} objects representing all the
2277      *          record components of this record. The array is empty if this class
2278      *          is not a record, or if this class is a record with no components.
2279      * @throws  SecurityException
2280      *          If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and any of the
2281      *          following conditions is met:
2282      *
2283      *          <ul>
2284      *
2285      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as the
2286      *          class loader of this class and invocation of
2287      *          {@link SecurityManager#checkPermission
2288      *          s.checkPermission} method with
2289      *          {@code RuntimePermission("accessDeclaredMembers")}
2290      *          denies access to the declared methods within this class
2291      *
2292      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
2293      *          ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
2294      *          invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
2295      *          s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
2296      *          of this class
2297      *
2298      *          </ul>
2299      *
2300      * @jls 8.10 Record Types
2301      * @since 14
2302      */
2303     @jdk.internal.PreviewFeature(feature=jdk.internal.PreviewFeature.Feature.RECORDS,
2304                                  essentialAPI=false)
2305     @SuppressWarnings("preview")
2306     @CallerSensitive
2307     public RecordComponent[] getRecordComponents() {
2308         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
2309         if (sm != null) {
2310             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.DECLARED, Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
2311         }
2312         if (isPrimitive() || isArray()) {
2313             return new RecordComponent[0];
2314         }
2315         Object[] recordComponents = getRecordComponents0();
2316         if (recordComponents == null || recordComponents.length == 0) {
2317             return new RecordComponent[0];
2318         }
2319         RecordComponent[] result = new RecordComponent[recordComponents.length];
2320         for (int i = 0; i < recordComponents.length; i++) {
2321             result[i] = (RecordComponent)recordComponents[i];
2322         }
2323         return result;
2324     }
2325 
2326     /**
2327      * Returns an array containing {@code Method} objects reflecting all the
2328      * declared methods of the class or interface represented by this {@code
2329      * Class} object, including public, protected, default (package)
2330      * access, and private methods, but excluding inherited methods.
2331      *
2332      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents a type that has multiple
2333      * declared methods with the same name and parameter types, but different
2334      * return types, then the returned array has a {@code Method} object for
2335      * each such method.
2336      *
2337      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents a type that has a class
2338      * initialization method {@code <clinit>}, then the returned array does
2339      * <em>not</em> have a corresponding {@code Method} object.
2340      *
2341      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents a class or interface with no
2342      * declared methods, then the returned array has length 0.
2343      *
2344      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents an array type, a primitive
2345      * type, or void, then the returned array has length 0.
2346      *
2347      * <p> The elements in the returned array are not sorted and are not in any
2348      * particular order.
2349      *
2350      * @return  the array of {@code Method} objects representing all the
2351      *          declared methods of this class
2352      * @throws  SecurityException
2353      *          If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and any of the
2354      *          following conditions is met:
2355      *
2356      *          <ul>
2357      *
2358      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as the
2359      *          class loader of this class and invocation of
2360      *          {@link SecurityManager#checkPermission
2361      *          s.checkPermission} method with
2362      *          {@code RuntimePermission("accessDeclaredMembers")}
2363      *          denies access to the declared methods within this class
2364      *
2365      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
2366      *          ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
2367      *          invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
2368      *          s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
2369      *          of this class
2370      *
2371      *          </ul>
2372      *
2373      * @jls 8.2 Class Members
2374      * @jls 8.4 Method Declarations
2375      * @since 1.1
2376      */
2377     @CallerSensitive
2378     public Method[] getDeclaredMethods() throws SecurityException {
2379         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
2380         if (sm != null) {
2381             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.DECLARED, Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
2382         }
2383         return copyMethods(privateGetDeclaredMethods(false));
2384     }
2385 
2386 
2387     /**
2388      * Returns an array of {@code Constructor} objects reflecting all the
2389      * constructors declared by the class represented by this
2390      * {@code Class} object. These are public, protected, default
2391      * (package) access, and private constructors.  The elements in the array
2392      * returned are not sorted and are not in any particular order.  If the
2393      * class has a default constructor, it is included in the returned array.
2394      * This method returns an array of length 0 if this {@code Class}
2395      * object represents an interface, a primitive type, an array class, or
2396      * void.
2397      *
2398      * <p> See <em>The Java Language Specification</em>, section 8.2.
2399      *
2400      * @return  the array of {@code Constructor} objects representing all the
2401      *          declared constructors of this class
2402      * @throws  SecurityException
2403      *          If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and any of the
2404      *          following conditions is met:
2405      *
2406      *          <ul>
2407      *
2408      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as the
2409      *          class loader of this class and invocation of
2410      *          {@link SecurityManager#checkPermission
2411      *          s.checkPermission} method with
2412      *          {@code RuntimePermission("accessDeclaredMembers")}
2413      *          denies access to the declared constructors within this class
2414      *
2415      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
2416      *          ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
2417      *          invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
2418      *          s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
2419      *          of this class
2420      *
2421      *          </ul>
2422      *
2423      * @since 1.1
2424      */
2425     @CallerSensitive
2426     public Constructor<?>[] getDeclaredConstructors() throws SecurityException {
2427         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
2428         if (sm != null) {
2429             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.DECLARED, Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
2430         }
2431         return copyConstructors(privateGetDeclaredConstructors(false));
2432     }
2433 
2434 
2435     /**
2436      * Returns a {@code Field} object that reflects the specified declared
2437      * field of the class or interface represented by this {@code Class}
2438      * object. The {@code name} parameter is a {@code String} that specifies
2439      * the simple name of the desired field.
2440      *
2441      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents an array type, then this
2442      * method does not find the {@code length} field of the array type.
2443      *
2444      * @param name the name of the field
2445      * @return  the {@code Field} object for the specified field in this
2446      *          class
2447      * @throws  NoSuchFieldException if a field with the specified name is
2448      *          not found.
2449      * @throws  NullPointerException if {@code name} is {@code null}
2450      * @throws  SecurityException
2451      *          If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and any of the
2452      *          following conditions is met:
2453      *
2454      *          <ul>
2455      *
2456      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as the
2457      *          class loader of this class and invocation of
2458      *          {@link SecurityManager#checkPermission
2459      *          s.checkPermission} method with
2460      *          {@code RuntimePermission("accessDeclaredMembers")}
2461      *          denies access to the declared field
2462      *
2463      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
2464      *          ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
2465      *          invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
2466      *          s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
2467      *          of this class
2468      *
2469      *          </ul>
2470      *
2471      * @since 1.1
2472      * @jls 8.2 Class Members
2473      * @jls 8.3 Field Declarations
2474      */
2475     @CallerSensitive
2476     public Field getDeclaredField(String name)
2477         throws NoSuchFieldException, SecurityException {
2478         Objects.requireNonNull(name);
2479         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
2480         if (sm != null) {
2481             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.DECLARED, Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
2482         }
2483         Field field = searchFields(privateGetDeclaredFields(false), name);
2484         if (field == null) {
2485             throw new NoSuchFieldException(name);
2486         }
2487         return getReflectionFactory().copyField(field);
2488     }
2489 
2490 
2491     /**
2492      * Returns a {@code Method} object that reflects the specified
2493      * declared method of the class or interface represented by this
2494      * {@code Class} object. The {@code name} parameter is a
2495      * {@code String} that specifies the simple name of the desired
2496      * method, and the {@code parameterTypes} parameter is an array of
2497      * {@code Class} objects that identify the method's formal parameter
2498      * types, in declared order.  If more than one method with the same
2499      * parameter types is declared in a class, and one of these methods has a
2500      * return type that is more specific than any of the others, that method is
2501      * returned; otherwise one of the methods is chosen arbitrarily.  If the
2502      * name is "&lt;init&gt;"or "&lt;clinit&gt;" a {@code NoSuchMethodException}
2503      * is raised.
2504      *
2505      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents an array type, then this
2506      * method does not find the {@code clone()} method.
2507      *
2508      * @param name the name of the method
2509      * @param parameterTypes the parameter array
2510      * @return  the {@code Method} object for the method of this class
2511      *          matching the specified name and parameters
2512      * @throws  NoSuchMethodException if a matching method is not found.
2513      * @throws  NullPointerException if {@code name} is {@code null}
2514      * @throws  SecurityException
2515      *          If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and any of the
2516      *          following conditions is met:
2517      *
2518      *          <ul>
2519      *
2520      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as the
2521      *          class loader of this class and invocation of
2522      *          {@link SecurityManager#checkPermission
2523      *          s.checkPermission} method with
2524      *          {@code RuntimePermission("accessDeclaredMembers")}
2525      *          denies access to the declared method
2526      *
2527      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
2528      *          ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
2529      *          invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
2530      *          s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
2531      *          of this class
2532      *
2533      *          </ul>
2534      *
2535      * @jls 8.2 Class Members
2536      * @jls 8.4 Method Declarations
2537      * @since 1.1
2538      */
2539     @CallerSensitive
2540     public Method getDeclaredMethod(String name, Class<?>... parameterTypes)
2541         throws NoSuchMethodException, SecurityException {
2542         Objects.requireNonNull(name);
2543         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
2544         if (sm != null) {
2545             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.DECLARED, Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
2546         }
2547         Method method = searchMethods(privateGetDeclaredMethods(false), name, parameterTypes);
2548         if (method == null) {
2549             throw new NoSuchMethodException(methodToString(name, parameterTypes));
2550         }
2551         return getReflectionFactory().copyMethod(method);
2552     }
2553 
2554     /**
2555      * Returns the list of {@code Method} objects for the declared public
2556      * methods of this class or interface that have the specified method name
2557      * and parameter types.
2558      *
2559      * @param name the name of the method
2560      * @param parameterTypes the parameter array
2561      * @return the list of {@code Method} objects for the public methods of
2562      *         this class matching the specified name and parameters
2563      */
2564     List<Method> getDeclaredPublicMethods(String name, Class<?>... parameterTypes) {
2565         Method[] methods = privateGetDeclaredMethods(/* publicOnly */ true);
2566         ReflectionFactory factory = getReflectionFactory();
2567         List<Method> result = new ArrayList<>();
2568         for (Method method : methods) {
2569             if (method.getName().equals(name)
2570                 && Arrays.equals(
2571                     factory.getExecutableSharedParameterTypes(method),
2572                     parameterTypes)) {
2573                 result.add(factory.copyMethod(method));
2574             }
2575         }
2576         return result;
2577     }
2578 
2579     /**
2580      * Returns a {@code Constructor} object that reflects the specified
2581      * constructor of the class or interface represented by this
2582      * {@code Class} object.  The {@code parameterTypes} parameter is
2583      * an array of {@code Class} objects that identify the constructor's
2584      * formal parameter types, in declared order.
2585      *
2586      * If this {@code Class} object represents an inner class
2587      * declared in a non-static context, the formal parameter types
2588      * include the explicit enclosing instance as the first parameter.
2589      *
2590      * @param parameterTypes the parameter array
2591      * @return  The {@code Constructor} object for the constructor with the
2592      *          specified parameter list
2593      * @throws  NoSuchMethodException if a matching method is not found.
2594      * @throws  SecurityException
2595      *          If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and any of the
2596      *          following conditions is met:
2597      *
2598      *          <ul>
2599      *
2600      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as the
2601      *          class loader of this class and invocation of
2602      *          {@link SecurityManager#checkPermission
2603      *          s.checkPermission} method with
2604      *          {@code RuntimePermission("accessDeclaredMembers")}
2605      *          denies access to the declared constructor
2606      *
2607      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
2608      *          ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
2609      *          invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
2610      *          s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
2611      *          of this class
2612      *
2613      *          </ul>
2614      *
2615      * @since 1.1
2616      */
2617     @CallerSensitive
2618     public Constructor<T> getDeclaredConstructor(Class<?>... parameterTypes)
2619         throws NoSuchMethodException, SecurityException
2620     {
2621         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
2622         if (sm != null) {
2623             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.DECLARED, Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
2624         }
2625 
2626         return getReflectionFactory().copyConstructor(
2627             getConstructor0(parameterTypes, Member.DECLARED));
2628     }
2629 
2630     /**
2631      * Finds a resource with a given name.
2632      *
2633      * <p> If this class is in a named {@link Module Module} then this method
2634      * will attempt to find the resource in the module. This is done by
2635      * delegating to the module's class loader {@link
2636      * ClassLoader#findResource(String,String) findResource(String,String)}
2637      * method, invoking it with the module name and the absolute name of the
2638      * resource. Resources in named modules are subject to the rules for
2639      * encapsulation specified in the {@code Module} {@link
2640      * Module#getResourceAsStream getResourceAsStream} method and so this
2641      * method returns {@code null} when the resource is a
2642      * non-"{@code .class}" resource in a package that is not open to the
2643      * caller's module.
2644      *
2645      * <p> Otherwise, if this class is not in a named module then the rules for
2646      * searching resources associated with a given class are implemented by the
2647      * defining {@linkplain ClassLoader class loader} of the class.  This method
2648      * delegates to this object's class loader.  If this object was loaded by
2649      * the bootstrap class loader, the method delegates to {@link
2650      * ClassLoader#getSystemResourceAsStream}.
2651      *
2652      * <p> Before delegation, an absolute resource name is constructed from the
2653      * given resource name using this algorithm:
2654      *
2655      * <ul>
2656      *
2657      * <li> If the {@code name} begins with a {@code '/'}
2658      * (<code>'\u002f'</code>), then the absolute name of the resource is the
2659      * portion of the {@code name} following the {@code '/'}.
2660      *
2661      * <li> Otherwise, the absolute name is of the following form:
2662      *
2663      * <blockquote>
2664      *   {@code modified_package_name/name}
2665      * </blockquote>
2666      *
2667      * <p> Where the {@code modified_package_name} is the package name of this
2668      * object with {@code '/'} substituted for {@code '.'}
2669      * (<code>'\u002e'</code>).
2670      *
2671      * </ul>
2672      *
2673      * @param  name name of the desired resource
2674      * @return  A {@link java.io.InputStream} object; {@code null} if no
2675      *          resource with this name is found, the resource is in a package
2676      *          that is not {@linkplain Module#isOpen(String, Module) open} to at
2677      *          least the caller module, or access to the resource is denied
2678      *          by the security manager.
2679      * @throws  NullPointerException If {@code name} is {@code null}
2680      *
2681      * @see Module#getResourceAsStream(String)
2682      * @since  1.1
2683      * @revised 9
2684      * @spec JPMS
2685      */
2686     @CallerSensitive
2687     public InputStream getResourceAsStream(String name) {
2688         name = resolveName(name);
2689 
2690         Module thisModule = getModule();
2691         if (thisModule.isNamed()) {
2692             // check if resource can be located by caller
2693             if (Resources.canEncapsulate(name)
2694                 && !isOpenToCaller(name, Reflection.getCallerClass())) {
2695                 return null;
2696             }
2697 
2698             // resource not encapsulated or in package open to caller
2699             String mn = thisModule.getName();
2700             ClassLoader cl = getClassLoader0();
2701             try {
2702 
2703                 // special-case built-in class loaders to avoid the
2704                 // need for a URL connection
2705                 if (cl == null) {
2706                     return BootLoader.findResourceAsStream(mn, name);
2707                 } else if (cl instanceof BuiltinClassLoader) {
2708                     return ((BuiltinClassLoader) cl).findResourceAsStream(mn, name);
2709                 } else {
2710                     URL url = cl.findResource(mn, name);
2711                     return (url != null) ? url.openStream() : null;
2712                 }
2713 
2714             } catch (IOException | SecurityException e) {
2715                 return null;
2716             }
2717         }
2718 
2719         // unnamed module
2720         ClassLoader cl = getClassLoader0();
2721         if (cl == null) {
2722             return ClassLoader.getSystemResourceAsStream(name);
2723         } else {
2724             return cl.getResourceAsStream(name);
2725         }
2726     }
2727 
2728     /**
2729      * Finds a resource with a given name.
2730      *
2731      * <p> If this class is in a named {@link Module Module} then this method
2732      * will attempt to find the resource in the module. This is done by
2733      * delegating to the module's class loader {@link
2734      * ClassLoader#findResource(String,String) findResource(String,String)}
2735      * method, invoking it with the module name and the absolute name of the
2736      * resource. Resources in named modules are subject to the rules for
2737      * encapsulation specified in the {@code Module} {@link
2738      * Module#getResourceAsStream getResourceAsStream} method and so this
2739      * method returns {@code null} when the resource is a
2740      * non-"{@code .class}" resource in a package that is not open to the
2741      * caller's module.
2742      *
2743      * <p> Otherwise, if this class is not in a named module then the rules for
2744      * searching resources associated with a given class are implemented by the
2745      * defining {@linkplain ClassLoader class loader} of the class.  This method
2746      * delegates to this object's class loader. If this object was loaded by
2747      * the bootstrap class loader, the method delegates to {@link
2748      * ClassLoader#getSystemResource}.
2749      *
2750      * <p> Before delegation, an absolute resource name is constructed from the
2751      * given resource name using this algorithm:
2752      *
2753      * <ul>
2754      *
2755      * <li> If the {@code name} begins with a {@code '/'}
2756      * (<code>'\u002f'</code>), then the absolute name of the resource is the
2757      * portion of the {@code name} following the {@code '/'}.
2758      *
2759      * <li> Otherwise, the absolute name is of the following form:
2760      *
2761      * <blockquote>
2762      *   {@code modified_package_name/name}
2763      * </blockquote>
2764      *
2765      * <p> Where the {@code modified_package_name} is the package name of this
2766      * object with {@code '/'} substituted for {@code '.'}
2767      * (<code>'\u002e'</code>).
2768      *
2769      * </ul>
2770      *
2771      * @param  name name of the desired resource
2772      * @return A {@link java.net.URL} object; {@code null} if no resource with
2773      *         this name is found, the resource cannot be located by a URL, the
2774      *         resource is in a package that is not
2775      *         {@linkplain Module#isOpen(String, Module) open} to at least the caller
2776      *         module, or access to the resource is denied by the security
2777      *         manager.
2778      * @throws NullPointerException If {@code name} is {@code null}
2779      * @since  1.1
2780      * @revised 9
2781      * @spec JPMS
2782      */
2783     @CallerSensitive
2784     public URL getResource(String name) {
2785         name = resolveName(name);
2786 
2787         Module thisModule = getModule();
2788         if (thisModule.isNamed()) {
2789             // check if resource can be located by caller
2790             if (Resources.canEncapsulate(name)
2791                 && !isOpenToCaller(name, Reflection.getCallerClass())) {
2792                 return null;
2793             }
2794 
2795             // resource not encapsulated or in package open to caller
2796             String mn = thisModule.getName();
2797             ClassLoader cl = getClassLoader0();
2798             try {
2799                 if (cl == null) {
2800                     return BootLoader.findResource(mn, name);
2801                 } else {
2802                     return cl.findResource(mn, name);
2803                 }
2804             } catch (IOException ioe) {
2805                 return null;
2806             }
2807         }
2808 
2809         // unnamed module
2810         ClassLoader cl = getClassLoader0();
2811         if (cl == null) {
2812             return ClassLoader.getSystemResource(name);
2813         } else {
2814             return cl.getResource(name);
2815         }
2816     }
2817 
2818     /**
2819      * Returns true if a resource with the given name can be located by the
2820      * given caller. All resources in a module can be located by code in
2821      * the module. For other callers, then the package needs to be open to
2822      * the caller.
2823      */
2824     private boolean isOpenToCaller(String name, Class<?> caller) {
2825         // assert getModule().isNamed();
2826         Module thisModule = getModule();
2827         Module callerModule = (caller != null) ? caller.getModule() : null;
2828         if (callerModule != thisModule) {
2829             String pn = Resources.toPackageName(name);
2830             if (thisModule.getDescriptor().packages().contains(pn)) {
2831                 if (callerModule == null && !thisModule.isOpen(pn)) {
2832                     // no caller, package not open
2833                     return false;
2834                 }
2835                 if (!thisModule.isOpen(pn, callerModule)) {
2836                     // package not open to caller
2837                     return false;
2838                 }
2839             }
2840         }
2841         return true;
2842     }
2843 
2844 
2845     /** protection domain returned when the internal domain is null */
2846     private static java.security.ProtectionDomain allPermDomain;
2847 
2848     /**
2849      * Returns the {@code ProtectionDomain} of this class.  If there is a
2850      * security manager installed, this method first calls the security
2851      * manager's {@code checkPermission} method with a
2852      * {@code RuntimePermission("getProtectionDomain")} permission to
2853      * ensure it's ok to get the
2854      * {@code ProtectionDomain}.
2855      *
2856      * @return the ProtectionDomain of this class
2857      *
2858      * @throws SecurityException
2859      *        if a security manager exists and its
2860      *        {@code checkPermission} method doesn't allow
2861      *        getting the ProtectionDomain.
2862      *
2863      * @see java.security.ProtectionDomain
2864      * @see SecurityManager#checkPermission
2865      * @see java.lang.RuntimePermission
2866      * @since 1.2
2867      */
2868     public java.security.ProtectionDomain getProtectionDomain() {
2869         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
2870         if (sm != null) {
2871             sm.checkPermission(SecurityConstants.GET_PD_PERMISSION);
2872         }
2873         java.security.ProtectionDomain pd = getProtectionDomain0();
2874         if (pd == null) {
2875             if (allPermDomain == null) {
2876                 java.security.Permissions perms =
2877                     new java.security.Permissions();
2878                 perms.add(SecurityConstants.ALL_PERMISSION);
2879                 allPermDomain =
2880                     new java.security.ProtectionDomain(null, perms);
2881             }
2882             pd = allPermDomain;
2883         }
2884         return pd;
2885     }
2886 
2887 
2888     /**
2889      * Returns the ProtectionDomain of this class.
2890      */
2891     private native java.security.ProtectionDomain getProtectionDomain0();
2892 
2893     /*
2894      * Return the Virtual Machine's Class object for the named
2895      * primitive type.
2896      */
2897     static native Class<?> getPrimitiveClass(String name);
2898 
2899     /*
2900      * Check if client is allowed to access members.  If access is denied,
2901      * throw a SecurityException.
2902      *
2903      * This method also enforces package access.
2904      *
2905      * <p> Default policy: allow all clients access with normal Java access
2906      * control.
2907      *
2908      * <p> NOTE: should only be called if a SecurityManager is installed
2909      */
2910     private void checkMemberAccess(SecurityManager sm, int which,
2911                                    Class<?> caller, boolean checkProxyInterfaces) {
2912         /* Default policy allows access to all {@link Member#PUBLIC} members,
2913          * as well as access to classes that have the same class loader as the caller.
2914          * In all other cases, it requires RuntimePermission("accessDeclaredMembers")
2915          * permission.
2916          */
2917         final ClassLoader ccl = ClassLoader.getClassLoader(caller);
2918         if (which != Member.PUBLIC) {
2919             final ClassLoader cl = getClassLoader0();
2920             if (ccl != cl) {
2921                 sm.checkPermission(SecurityConstants.CHECK_MEMBER_ACCESS_PERMISSION);
2922             }
2923         }
2924         this.checkPackageAccess(sm, ccl, checkProxyInterfaces);
2925     }
2926 
2927     /*
2928      * Checks if a client loaded in ClassLoader ccl is allowed to access this
2929      * class under the current package access policy. If access is denied,
2930      * throw a SecurityException.
2931      *
2932      * NOTE: this method should only be called if a SecurityManager is active
2933      */
2934     private void checkPackageAccess(SecurityManager sm, final ClassLoader ccl,
2935                                     boolean checkProxyInterfaces) {
2936         final ClassLoader cl = getClassLoader0();
2937 
2938         if (ReflectUtil.needsPackageAccessCheck(ccl, cl)) {
2939             String pkg = this.getPackageName();
2940             if (pkg != null && !pkg.isEmpty()) {
2941                 // skip the package access check on a proxy class in default proxy package
2942                 if (!Proxy.isProxyClass(this) || ReflectUtil.isNonPublicProxyClass(this)) {
2943                     sm.checkPackageAccess(pkg);
2944                 }
2945             }
2946         }
2947         // check package access on the proxy interfaces
2948         if (checkProxyInterfaces && Proxy.isProxyClass(this)) {
2949             ReflectUtil.checkProxyPackageAccess(ccl, this.getInterfaces());
2950         }
2951     }
2952 
2953     /**
2954      * Add a package name prefix if the name is not absolute Remove leading "/"
2955      * if name is absolute
2956      */
2957     private String resolveName(String name) {
2958         if (!name.startsWith("/")) {
2959             Class<?> c = this;
2960             while (c.isArray()) {
2961                 c = c.getComponentType();
2962             }
2963             String baseName = c.getPackageName();
2964             if (baseName != null && !baseName.isEmpty()) {
2965                 name = baseName.replace('.', '/') + "/" + name;
2966             }
2967         } else {
2968             name = name.substring(1);
2969         }
2970         return name;
2971     }
2972 
2973     /**
2974      * Atomic operations support.
2975      */
2976     private static class Atomic {
2977         // initialize Unsafe machinery here, since we need to call Class.class instance method
2978         // and have to avoid calling it in the static initializer of the Class class...
2979         private static final Unsafe unsafe = Unsafe.getUnsafe();
2980         // offset of Class.reflectionData instance field
2981         private static final long reflectionDataOffset
2982                 = unsafe.objectFieldOffset(Class.class, "reflectionData");
2983         // offset of Class.annotationType instance field
2984         private static final long annotationTypeOffset
2985                 = unsafe.objectFieldOffset(Class.class, "annotationType");
2986         // offset of Class.annotationData instance field
2987         private static final long annotationDataOffset
2988                 = unsafe.objectFieldOffset(Class.class, "annotationData");
2989 
2990         static <T> boolean casReflectionData(Class<?> clazz,
2991                                              SoftReference<ReflectionData<T>> oldData,
2992                                              SoftReference<ReflectionData<T>> newData) {
2993             return unsafe.compareAndSetReference(clazz, reflectionDataOffset, oldData, newData);
2994         }
2995 
2996         static <T> boolean casAnnotationType(Class<?> clazz,
2997                                              AnnotationType oldType,
2998                                              AnnotationType newType) {
2999             return unsafe.compareAndSetReference(clazz, annotationTypeOffset, oldType, newType);
3000         }
3001 
3002         static <T> boolean casAnnotationData(Class<?> clazz,
3003                                              AnnotationData oldData,
3004                                              AnnotationData newData) {
3005             return unsafe.compareAndSetReference(clazz, annotationDataOffset, oldData, newData);
3006         }
3007     }
3008 
3009     /**
3010      * Reflection support.
3011      */
3012 
3013     // Reflection data caches various derived names and reflective members. Cached
3014     // values may be invalidated when JVM TI RedefineClasses() is called
3015     private static class ReflectionData<T> {
3016         volatile Field[] declaredFields;
3017         volatile Field[] publicFields;
3018         volatile Method[] declaredMethods;
3019         volatile Method[] publicMethods;
3020         volatile Constructor<T>[] declaredConstructors;
3021         volatile Constructor<T>[] publicConstructors;
3022         // Intermediate results for getFields and getMethods
3023         volatile Field[] declaredPublicFields;
3024         volatile Method[] declaredPublicMethods;
3025         volatile Class<?>[] interfaces;
3026 
3027         // Cached names
3028         String simpleName;
3029         String canonicalName;
3030         static final String NULL_SENTINEL = new String();
3031 
3032         // Value of classRedefinedCount when we created this ReflectionData instance
3033         final int redefinedCount;
3034 
3035         ReflectionData(int redefinedCount) {
3036             this.redefinedCount = redefinedCount;
3037         }
3038     }
3039 
3040     private transient volatile SoftReference<ReflectionData<T>> reflectionData;
3041 
3042     // Incremented by the VM on each call to JVM TI RedefineClasses()
3043     // that redefines this class or a superclass.
3044     private transient volatile int classRedefinedCount;
3045 
3046     // Lazily create and cache ReflectionData
3047     private ReflectionData<T> reflectionData() {
3048         SoftReference<ReflectionData<T>> reflectionData = this.reflectionData;
3049         int classRedefinedCount = this.classRedefinedCount;
3050         ReflectionData<T> rd;
3051         if (reflectionData != null &&
3052             (rd = reflectionData.get()) != null &&
3053             rd.redefinedCount == classRedefinedCount) {
3054             return rd;
3055         }
3056         // else no SoftReference or cleared SoftReference or stale ReflectionData
3057         // -> create and replace new instance
3058         return newReflectionData(reflectionData, classRedefinedCount);
3059     }
3060 
3061     private ReflectionData<T> newReflectionData(SoftReference<ReflectionData<T>> oldReflectionData,
3062                                                 int classRedefinedCount) {
3063         while (true) {
3064             ReflectionData<T> rd = new ReflectionData<>(classRedefinedCount);
3065             // try to CAS it...
3066             if (Atomic.casReflectionData(this, oldReflectionData, new SoftReference<>(rd))) {
3067                 return rd;
3068             }
3069             // else retry
3070             oldReflectionData = this.reflectionData;
3071             classRedefinedCount = this.classRedefinedCount;
3072             if (oldReflectionData != null &&
3073                 (rd = oldReflectionData.get()) != null &&
3074                 rd.redefinedCount == classRedefinedCount) {
3075                 return rd;
3076             }
3077         }
3078     }
3079 
3080     // Generic signature handling
3081     private native String getGenericSignature0();
3082 
3083     // Generic info repository; lazily initialized
3084     private transient volatile ClassRepository genericInfo;
3085 
3086     // accessor for factory
3087     private GenericsFactory getFactory() {
3088         // create scope and factory
3089         return CoreReflectionFactory.make(this, ClassScope.make(this));
3090     }
3091 
3092     // accessor for generic info repository;
3093     // generic info is lazily initialized
3094     private ClassRepository getGenericInfo() {
3095         ClassRepository genericInfo = this.genericInfo;
3096         if (genericInfo == null) {
3097             String signature = getGenericSignature0();
3098             if (signature == null) {
3099                 genericInfo = ClassRepository.NONE;
3100             } else {
3101                 genericInfo = ClassRepository.make(signature, getFactory());
3102             }
3103             this.genericInfo = genericInfo;
3104         }
3105         return (genericInfo != ClassRepository.NONE) ? genericInfo : null;
3106     }
3107 
3108     // Annotations handling
3109     native byte[] getRawAnnotations();
3110     // Since 1.8
3111     native byte[] getRawTypeAnnotations();
3112     static byte[] getExecutableTypeAnnotationBytes(Executable ex) {
3113         return getReflectionFactory().getExecutableTypeAnnotationBytes(ex);
3114     }
3115 
3116     native ConstantPool getConstantPool();
3117 
3118     //
3119     //
3120     // java.lang.reflect.Field handling
3121     //
3122     //
3123 
3124     // Returns an array of "root" fields. These Field objects must NOT
3125     // be propagated to the outside world, but must instead be copied
3126     // via ReflectionFactory.copyField.
3127     private Field[] privateGetDeclaredFields(boolean publicOnly) {
3128         Field[] res;
3129         ReflectionData<T> rd = reflectionData();
3130         if (rd != null) {
3131             res = publicOnly ? rd.declaredPublicFields : rd.declaredFields;
3132             if (res != null) return res;
3133         }
3134         // No cached value available; request value from VM
3135         res = Reflection.filterFields(this, getDeclaredFields0(publicOnly));
3136         if (rd != null) {
3137             if (publicOnly) {
3138                 rd.declaredPublicFields = res;
3139             } else {
3140                 rd.declaredFields = res;
3141             }
3142         }
3143         return res;
3144     }
3145 
3146     // Returns an array of "root" fields. These Field objects must NOT
3147     // be propagated to the outside world, but must instead be copied
3148     // via ReflectionFactory.copyField.
3149     private Field[] privateGetPublicFields() {
3150         Field[] res;
3151         ReflectionData<T> rd = reflectionData();
3152         if (rd != null) {
3153             res = rd.publicFields;
3154             if (res != null) return res;
3155         }
3156 
3157         // Use a linked hash set to ensure order is preserved and
3158         // fields from common super interfaces are not duplicated
3159         LinkedHashSet<Field> fields = new LinkedHashSet<>();
3160 
3161         // Local fields
3162         addAll(fields, privateGetDeclaredFields(true));
3163 
3164         // Direct superinterfaces, recursively
3165         for (Class<?> si : getInterfaces()) {
3166             addAll(fields, si.privateGetPublicFields());
3167         }
3168 
3169         // Direct superclass, recursively
3170         Class<?> sc = getSuperclass();
3171         if (sc != null) {
3172             addAll(fields, sc.privateGetPublicFields());
3173         }
3174 
3175         res = fields.toArray(new Field[0]);
3176         if (rd != null) {
3177             rd.publicFields = res;
3178         }
3179         return res;
3180     }
3181 
3182     private static void addAll(Collection<Field> c, Field[] o) {
3183         for (Field f : o) {
3184             c.add(f);
3185         }
3186     }
3187 
3188 
3189     //
3190     //
3191     // java.lang.reflect.Constructor handling
3192     //
3193     //
3194 
3195     // Returns an array of "root" constructors. These Constructor
3196     // objects must NOT be propagated to the outside world, but must
3197     // instead be copied via ReflectionFactory.copyConstructor.
3198     private Constructor<T>[] privateGetDeclaredConstructors(boolean publicOnly) {
3199         Constructor<T>[] res;
3200         ReflectionData<T> rd = reflectionData();
3201         if (rd != null) {
3202             res = publicOnly ? rd.publicConstructors : rd.declaredConstructors;
3203             if (res != null) return res;
3204         }
3205         // No cached value available; request value from VM
3206         if (isInterface()) {
3207             @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
3208             Constructor<T>[] temporaryRes = (Constructor<T>[]) new Constructor<?>[0];
3209             res = temporaryRes;
3210         } else {
3211             res = getDeclaredConstructors0(publicOnly);
3212         }
3213         if (rd != null) {
3214             if (publicOnly) {
3215                 rd.publicConstructors = res;
3216             } else {
3217                 rd.declaredConstructors = res;
3218             }
3219         }
3220         return res;
3221     }
3222 
3223     //
3224     //
3225     // java.lang.reflect.Method handling
3226     //
3227     //
3228 
3229     // Returns an array of "root" methods. These Method objects must NOT
3230     // be propagated to the outside world, but must instead be copied
3231     // via ReflectionFactory.copyMethod.
3232     private Method[] privateGetDeclaredMethods(boolean publicOnly) {
3233         Method[] res;
3234         ReflectionData<T> rd = reflectionData();
3235         if (rd != null) {
3236             res = publicOnly ? rd.declaredPublicMethods : rd.declaredMethods;
3237             if (res != null) return res;
3238         }
3239         // No cached value available; request value from VM
3240         res = Reflection.filterMethods(this, getDeclaredMethods0(publicOnly));
3241         if (rd != null) {
3242             if (publicOnly) {
3243                 rd.declaredPublicMethods = res;
3244             } else {
3245                 rd.declaredMethods = res;
3246             }
3247         }
3248         return res;
3249     }
3250 
3251     // Returns an array of "root" methods. These Method objects must NOT
3252     // be propagated to the outside world, but must instead be copied
3253     // via ReflectionFactory.copyMethod.
3254     private Method[] privateGetPublicMethods() {
3255         Method[] res;
3256         ReflectionData<T> rd = reflectionData();
3257         if (rd != null) {
3258             res = rd.publicMethods;
3259             if (res != null) return res;
3260         }
3261 
3262         // No cached value available; compute value recursively.
3263         // Start by fetching public declared methods...
3264         PublicMethods pms = new PublicMethods();
3265         for (Method m : privateGetDeclaredMethods(/* publicOnly */ true)) {
3266             pms.merge(m);
3267         }
3268         // ...then recur over superclass methods...
3269         Class<?> sc = getSuperclass();
3270         if (sc != null) {
3271             for (Method m : sc.privateGetPublicMethods()) {
3272                 pms.merge(m);
3273             }
3274         }
3275         // ...and finally over direct superinterfaces.
3276         for (Class<?> intf : getInterfaces(/* cloneArray */ false)) {
3277             for (Method m : intf.privateGetPublicMethods()) {
3278                 // static interface methods are not inherited
3279                 if (!Modifier.isStatic(m.getModifiers())) {
3280                     pms.merge(m);
3281                 }
3282             }
3283         }
3284 
3285         res = pms.toArray();
3286         if (rd != null) {
3287             rd.publicMethods = res;
3288         }
3289         return res;
3290     }
3291 
3292 
3293     //
3294     // Helpers for fetchers of one field, method, or constructor
3295     //
3296 
3297     // This method does not copy the returned Field object!
3298     private static Field searchFields(Field[] fields, String name) {
3299         for (Field field : fields) {
3300             if (field.getName().equals(name)) {
3301                 return field;
3302             }
3303         }
3304         return null;
3305     }
3306 
3307     // Returns a "root" Field object. This Field object must NOT
3308     // be propagated to the outside world, but must instead be copied
3309     // via ReflectionFactory.copyField.
3310     private Field getField0(String name) {
3311         // Note: the intent is that the search algorithm this routine
3312         // uses be equivalent to the ordering imposed by
3313         // privateGetPublicFields(). It fetches only the declared
3314         // public fields for each class, however, to reduce the number
3315         // of Field objects which have to be created for the common
3316         // case where the field being requested is declared in the
3317         // class which is being queried.
3318         Field res;
3319         // Search declared public fields
3320         if ((res = searchFields(privateGetDeclaredFields(true), name)) != null) {
3321             return res;
3322         }
3323         // Direct superinterfaces, recursively
3324         Class<?>[] interfaces = getInterfaces(/* cloneArray */ false);
3325         for (Class<?> c : interfaces) {
3326             if ((res = c.getField0(name)) != null) {
3327                 return res;
3328             }
3329         }
3330         // Direct superclass, recursively
3331         if (!isInterface()) {
3332             Class<?> c = getSuperclass();
3333             if (c != null) {
3334                 if ((res = c.getField0(name)) != null) {
3335                     return res;
3336                 }
3337             }
3338         }
3339         return null;
3340     }
3341 
3342     // This method does not copy the returned Method object!
3343     private static Method searchMethods(Method[] methods,
3344                                         String name,
3345                                         Class<?>[] parameterTypes)
3346     {
3347         ReflectionFactory fact = getReflectionFactory();
3348         Method res = null;
3349         for (Method m : methods) {
3350             if (m.getName().equals(name)
3351                 && arrayContentsEq(parameterTypes,
3352                                    fact.getExecutableSharedParameterTypes(m))
3353                 && (res == null
3354                     || (res.getReturnType() != m.getReturnType()
3355                         && res.getReturnType().isAssignableFrom(m.getReturnType()))))
3356                 res = m;
3357         }
3358         return res;
3359     }
3360 
3361     private static final Class<?>[] EMPTY_CLASS_ARRAY = new Class<?>[0];
3362 
3363     // Returns a "root" Method object. This Method object must NOT
3364     // be propagated to the outside world, but must instead be copied
3365     // via ReflectionFactory.copyMethod.
3366     private Method getMethod0(String name, Class<?>[] parameterTypes) {
3367         PublicMethods.MethodList res = getMethodsRecursive(
3368             name,
3369             parameterTypes == null ? EMPTY_CLASS_ARRAY : parameterTypes,
3370             /* includeStatic */ true);
3371         return res == null ? null : res.getMostSpecific();
3372     }
3373 
3374     // Returns a list of "root" Method objects. These Method objects must NOT
3375     // be propagated to the outside world, but must instead be copied
3376     // via ReflectionFactory.copyMethod.
3377     private PublicMethods.MethodList getMethodsRecursive(String name,
3378                                                          Class<?>[] parameterTypes,
3379                                                          boolean includeStatic) {
3380         // 1st check declared public methods
3381         Method[] methods = privateGetDeclaredMethods(/* publicOnly */ true);
3382         PublicMethods.MethodList res = PublicMethods.MethodList
3383             .filter(methods, name, parameterTypes, includeStatic);
3384         // if there is at least one match among declared methods, we need not
3385         // search any further as such match surely overrides matching methods
3386         // declared in superclass(es) or interface(s).
3387         if (res != null) {
3388             return res;
3389         }
3390 
3391         // if there was no match among declared methods,
3392         // we must consult the superclass (if any) recursively...
3393         Class<?> sc = getSuperclass();
3394         if (sc != null) {
3395             res = sc.getMethodsRecursive(name, parameterTypes, includeStatic);
3396         }
3397 
3398         // ...and coalesce the superclass methods with methods obtained
3399         // from directly implemented interfaces excluding static methods...
3400         for (Class<?> intf : getInterfaces(/* cloneArray */ false)) {
3401             res = PublicMethods.MethodList.merge(
3402                 res, intf.getMethodsRecursive(name, parameterTypes,
3403                                               /* includeStatic */ false));
3404         }
3405 
3406         return res;
3407     }
3408 
3409     // Returns a "root" Constructor object. This Constructor object must NOT
3410     // be propagated to the outside world, but must instead be copied
3411     // via ReflectionFactory.copyConstructor.
3412     private Constructor<T> getConstructor0(Class<?>[] parameterTypes,
3413                                         int which) throws NoSuchMethodException
3414     {
3415         ReflectionFactory fact = getReflectionFactory();
3416         Constructor<T>[] constructors = privateGetDeclaredConstructors((which == Member.PUBLIC));
3417         for (Constructor<T> constructor : constructors) {
3418             if (arrayContentsEq(parameterTypes,
3419                                 fact.getExecutableSharedParameterTypes(constructor))) {
3420                 return constructor;
3421             }
3422         }
3423         throw new NoSuchMethodException(methodToString("<init>", parameterTypes));
3424     }
3425 
3426     //
3427     // Other helpers and base implementation
3428     //
3429 
3430     private static boolean arrayContentsEq(Object[] a1, Object[] a2) {
3431         if (a1 == null) {
3432             return a2 == null || a2.length == 0;
3433         }
3434 
3435         if (a2 == null) {
3436             return a1.length == 0;
3437         }
3438 
3439         if (a1.length != a2.length) {
3440             return false;
3441         }
3442 
3443         for (int i = 0; i < a1.length; i++) {
3444             if (a1[i] != a2[i]) {
3445                 return false;
3446             }
3447         }
3448 
3449         return true;
3450     }
3451 
3452     private static Field[] copyFields(Field[] arg) {
3453         Field[] out = new Field[arg.length];
3454         ReflectionFactory fact = getReflectionFactory();
3455         for (int i = 0; i < arg.length; i++) {
3456             out[i] = fact.copyField(arg[i]);
3457         }
3458         return out;
3459     }
3460 
3461     private static Method[] copyMethods(Method[] arg) {
3462         Method[] out = new Method[arg.length];
3463         ReflectionFactory fact = getReflectionFactory();
3464         for (int i = 0; i < arg.length; i++) {
3465             out[i] = fact.copyMethod(arg[i]);
3466         }
3467         return out;
3468     }
3469 
3470     private static <U> Constructor<U>[] copyConstructors(Constructor<U>[] arg) {
3471         Constructor<U>[] out = arg.clone();
3472         ReflectionFactory fact = getReflectionFactory();
3473         for (int i = 0; i < out.length; i++) {
3474             out[i] = fact.copyConstructor(out[i]);
3475         }
3476         return out;
3477     }
3478 
3479     private native Field[]       getDeclaredFields0(boolean publicOnly);
3480     private native Method[]      getDeclaredMethods0(boolean publicOnly);
3481     private native Constructor<T>[] getDeclaredConstructors0(boolean publicOnly);
3482     private native Class<?>[]   getDeclaredClasses0();
3483     private native Object[]     getRecordComponents0();
3484     private native boolean      isRecord0();
3485 
3486     /**
3487      * Helper method to get the method name from arguments.
3488      */
3489     private String methodToString(String name, Class<?>[] argTypes) {
3490         return getName() + '.' + name +
3491                 ((argTypes == null || argTypes.length == 0) ?
3492                 "()" :
3493                 Arrays.stream(argTypes)
3494                         .map(c -> c == null ? "null" : c.getName())
3495                         .collect(Collectors.joining(",", "(", ")")));
3496     }
3497 
3498     /** use serialVersionUID from JDK 1.1 for interoperability */
3499     @java.io.Serial
3500     private static final long serialVersionUID = 3206093459760846163L;
3501 
3502 
3503     /**
3504      * Class Class is special cased within the Serialization Stream Protocol.
3505      *
3506      * A Class instance is written initially into an ObjectOutputStream in the
3507      * following format:
3508      * <pre>
3509      *      {@code TC_CLASS} ClassDescriptor
3510      *      A ClassDescriptor is a special cased serialization of
3511      *      a {@code java.io.ObjectStreamClass} instance.
3512      * </pre>
3513      * A new handle is generated for the initial time the class descriptor
3514      * is written into the stream. Future references to the class descriptor
3515      * are written as references to the initial class descriptor instance.
3516      *
3517      * @see java.io.ObjectStreamClass
3518      */
3519     @java.io.Serial
3520     private static final ObjectStreamField[] serialPersistentFields =
3521         new ObjectStreamField[0];
3522 
3523 
3524     /**
3525      * Returns the assertion status that would be assigned to this
3526      * class if it were to be initialized at the time this method is invoked.
3527      * If this class has had its assertion status set, the most recent
3528      * setting will be returned; otherwise, if any package default assertion
3529      * status pertains to this class, the most recent setting for the most
3530      * specific pertinent package default assertion status is returned;
3531      * otherwise, if this class is not a system class (i.e., it has a
3532      * class loader) its class loader's default assertion status is returned;
3533      * otherwise, the system class default assertion status is returned.
3534      * <p>
3535      * Few programmers will have any need for this method; it is provided
3536      * for the benefit of the JRE itself.  (It allows a class to determine at
3537      * the time that it is initialized whether assertions should be enabled.)
3538      * Note that this method is not guaranteed to return the actual
3539      * assertion status that was (or will be) associated with the specified
3540      * class when it was (or will be) initialized.
3541      *
3542      * @return the desired assertion status of the specified class.
3543      * @see    java.lang.ClassLoader#setClassAssertionStatus
3544      * @see    java.lang.ClassLoader#setPackageAssertionStatus
3545      * @see    java.lang.ClassLoader#setDefaultAssertionStatus
3546      * @since  1.4
3547      */
3548     public boolean desiredAssertionStatus() {
3549         ClassLoader loader = getClassLoader0();
3550         // If the loader is null this is a system class, so ask the VM
3551         if (loader == null)
3552             return desiredAssertionStatus0(this);
3553 
3554         // If the classloader has been initialized with the assertion
3555         // directives, ask it. Otherwise, ask the VM.
3556         synchronized(loader.assertionLock) {
3557             if (loader.classAssertionStatus != null) {
3558                 return loader.desiredAssertionStatus(getName());
3559             }
3560         }
3561         return desiredAssertionStatus0(this);
3562     }
3563 
3564     // Retrieves the desired assertion status of this class from the VM
3565     private static native boolean desiredAssertionStatus0(Class<?> clazz);
3566 
3567     /**
3568      * Returns true if and only if this class was declared as an enum in the
3569      * source code.
3570      *
3571      * Note that {@link java.lang.Enum} is not itself an enum type.
3572      *
3573      * Also note that if an enum constant is declared with a class body,
3574      * the class of that enum constant object is an anonymous class
3575      * and <em>not</em> the class of the declaring enum type. The
3576      * {@link Enum#getDeclaringClass} method of an enum constant can
3577      * be used to get the class of the enum type declaring the
3578      * constant.
3579      *
3580      * @return true if and only if this class was declared as an enum in the
3581      *     source code
3582      * @since 1.5
3583      * @jls 8.9.1 Enum Constants
3584      */
3585     public boolean isEnum() {
3586         // An enum must both directly extend java.lang.Enum and have
3587         // the ENUM bit set; classes for specialized enum constants
3588         // don't do the former.
3589         return (this.getModifiers() & ENUM) != 0 &&
3590         this.getSuperclass() == java.lang.Enum.class;
3591     }
3592 
3593     /**
3594      * {@preview Associated with records, a preview feature of the Java language.
3595      *
3596      *           This method is associated with <i>records</i>, a preview
3597      *           feature of the Java language. Preview features
3598      *           may be removed in a future release, or upgraded to permanent
3599      *           features of the Java language.}
3600      *
3601      * Returns {@code true} if and only if this class is a record class.
3602      * It returns {@code false} otherwise. Note that class {@link Record} is not a
3603      * record type and thus invoking this method on class {@link java.lang.Record}
3604      * returns {@code false}.
3605      *
3606      * @return true if and only if this class is a record class
3607      * @jls 8.10 Record Types
3608      * @since 14
3609      */
3610     @jdk.internal.PreviewFeature(feature=jdk.internal.PreviewFeature.Feature.RECORDS,
3611                                  essentialAPI=false)
3612     public boolean isRecord() {
3613         return isRecord0();
3614     }
3615 
3616     // Fetches the factory for reflective objects
3617     private static ReflectionFactory getReflectionFactory() {
3618         if (reflectionFactory == null) {
3619             reflectionFactory =
3620                 java.security.AccessController.doPrivileged
3621                     (new ReflectionFactory.GetReflectionFactoryAction());
3622         }
3623         return reflectionFactory;
3624     }
3625     private static ReflectionFactory reflectionFactory;
3626 
3627     /**
3628      * Returns the elements of this enum class or null if this
3629      * Class object does not represent an enum type.
3630      *
3631      * @return an array containing the values comprising the enum class
3632      *     represented by this Class object in the order they're
3633      *     declared, or null if this Class object does not
3634      *     represent an enum type
3635      * @since 1.5
3636      */
3637     public T[] getEnumConstants() {
3638         T[] values = getEnumConstantsShared();
3639         return (values != null) ? values.clone() : null;
3640     }
3641 
3642     /**
3643      * Returns the elements of this enum class or null if this
3644      * Class object does not represent an enum type;
3645      * identical to getEnumConstants except that the result is
3646      * uncloned, cached, and shared by all callers.
3647      */
3648     T[] getEnumConstantsShared() {
3649         T[] constants = enumConstants;
3650         if (constants == null) {
3651             if (!isEnum()) return null;
3652             try {
3653                 final Method values = getMethod("values");
3654                 java.security.AccessController.doPrivileged(
3655                     new java.security.PrivilegedAction<>() {
3656                         public Void run() {
3657                                 values.setAccessible(true);
3658                                 return null;
3659                             }
3660                         });
3661                 @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
3662                 T[] temporaryConstants = (T[])values.invoke(null);
3663                 enumConstants = constants = temporaryConstants;
3664             }
3665             // These can happen when users concoct enum-like classes
3666             // that don't comply with the enum spec.
3667             catch (InvocationTargetException | NoSuchMethodException |
3668                    IllegalAccessException ex) { return null; }
3669         }
3670         return constants;
3671     }
3672     private transient volatile T[] enumConstants;
3673 
3674     /**
3675      * Returns a map from simple name to enum constant.  This package-private
3676      * method is used internally by Enum to implement
3677      * {@code public static <T extends Enum<T>> T valueOf(Class<T>, String)}
3678      * efficiently.  Note that the map is returned by this method is
3679      * created lazily on first use.  Typically it won't ever get created.
3680      */
3681     Map<String, T> enumConstantDirectory() {
3682         Map<String, T> directory = enumConstantDirectory;
3683         if (directory == null) {
3684             T[] universe = getEnumConstantsShared();
3685             if (universe == null)
3686                 throw new IllegalArgumentException(
3687                     getName() + " is not an enum type");
3688             directory = new HashMap<>((int)(universe.length / 0.75f) + 1);
3689             for (T constant : universe) {
3690                 directory.put(((Enum<?>)constant).name(), constant);
3691             }
3692             enumConstantDirectory = directory;
3693         }
3694         return directory;
3695     }
3696     private transient volatile Map<String, T> enumConstantDirectory;
3697 
3698     /**
3699      * Casts an object to the class or interface represented
3700      * by this {@code Class} object.
3701      *
3702      * @param obj the object to be cast
3703      * @return the object after casting, or null if obj is null
3704      *
3705      * @throws ClassCastException if the object is not
3706      * null and is not assignable to the type T.
3707      *
3708      * @since 1.5
3709      */
3710     @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
3711     @HotSpotIntrinsicCandidate
3712     public T cast(Object obj) {
3713         if (obj != null && !isInstance(obj))
3714             throw new ClassCastException(cannotCastMsg(obj));
3715         return (T) obj;
3716     }
3717 
3718     private String cannotCastMsg(Object obj) {
3719         return "Cannot cast " + obj.getClass().getName() + " to " + getName();
3720     }
3721 
3722     /**
3723      * Casts this {@code Class} object to represent a subclass of the class
3724      * represented by the specified class object.  Checks that the cast
3725      * is valid, and throws a {@code ClassCastException} if it is not.  If
3726      * this method succeeds, it always returns a reference to this class object.
3727      *
3728      * <p>This method is useful when a client needs to "narrow" the type of
3729      * a {@code Class} object to pass it to an API that restricts the
3730      * {@code Class} objects that it is willing to accept.  A cast would
3731      * generate a compile-time warning, as the correctness of the cast
3732      * could not be checked at runtime (because generic types are implemented
3733      * by erasure).
3734      *
3735      * @param <U> the type to cast this class object to
3736      * @param clazz the class of the type to cast this class object to
3737      * @return this {@code Class} object, cast to represent a subclass of
3738      *    the specified class object.
3739      * @throws ClassCastException if this {@code Class} object does not
3740      *    represent a subclass of the specified class (here "subclass" includes
3741      *    the class itself).
3742      * @since 1.5
3743      */
3744     @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
3745     public <U> Class<? extends U> asSubclass(Class<U> clazz) {
3746         if (clazz.isAssignableFrom(this))
3747             return (Class<? extends U>) this;
3748         else
3749             throw new ClassCastException(this.toString());
3750     }
3751 
3752     /**
3753      * @throws NullPointerException {@inheritDoc}
3754      * @since 1.5
3755      */
3756     @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
3757     public <A extends Annotation> A getAnnotation(Class<A> annotationClass) {
3758         Objects.requireNonNull(annotationClass);
3759 
3760         return (A) annotationData().annotations.get(annotationClass);
3761     }
3762 
3763     /**
3764      * {@inheritDoc}
3765      * @throws NullPointerException {@inheritDoc}
3766      * @since 1.5
3767      */
3768     @Override
3769     public boolean isAnnotationPresent(Class<? extends Annotation> annotationClass) {
3770         return GenericDeclaration.super.isAnnotationPresent(annotationClass);
3771     }
3772 
3773     /**
3774      * @throws NullPointerException {@inheritDoc}
3775      * @since 1.8
3776      */
3777     @Override
3778     public <A extends Annotation> A[] getAnnotationsByType(Class<A> annotationClass) {
3779         Objects.requireNonNull(annotationClass);
3780 
3781         AnnotationData annotationData = annotationData();
3782         return AnnotationSupport.getAssociatedAnnotations(annotationData.declaredAnnotations,
3783                                                           this,
3784                                                           annotationClass);
3785     }
3786 
3787     /**
3788      * @since 1.5
3789      */
3790     public Annotation[] getAnnotations() {
3791         return AnnotationParser.toArray(annotationData().annotations);
3792     }
3793 
3794     /**
3795      * @throws NullPointerException {@inheritDoc}
3796      * @since 1.8
3797      */
3798     @Override
3799     @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
3800     public <A extends Annotation> A getDeclaredAnnotation(Class<A> annotationClass) {
3801         Objects.requireNonNull(annotationClass);
3802 
3803         return (A) annotationData().declaredAnnotations.get(annotationClass);
3804     }
3805 
3806     /**
3807      * @throws NullPointerException {@inheritDoc}
3808      * @since 1.8
3809      */
3810     @Override
3811     public <A extends Annotation> A[] getDeclaredAnnotationsByType(Class<A> annotationClass) {
3812         Objects.requireNonNull(annotationClass);
3813 
3814         return AnnotationSupport.getDirectlyAndIndirectlyPresent(annotationData().declaredAnnotations,
3815                                                                  annotationClass);
3816     }
3817 
3818     /**
3819      * @since 1.5
3820      */
3821     public Annotation[] getDeclaredAnnotations()  {
3822         return AnnotationParser.toArray(annotationData().declaredAnnotations);
3823     }
3824 
3825     // annotation data that might get invalidated when JVM TI RedefineClasses() is called
3826     private static class AnnotationData {
3827         final Map<Class<? extends Annotation>, Annotation> annotations;
3828         final Map<Class<? extends Annotation>, Annotation> declaredAnnotations;
3829 
3830         // Value of classRedefinedCount when we created this AnnotationData instance
3831         final int redefinedCount;
3832 
3833         AnnotationData(Map<Class<? extends Annotation>, Annotation> annotations,
3834                        Map<Class<? extends Annotation>, Annotation> declaredAnnotations,
3835                        int redefinedCount) {
3836             this.annotations = annotations;
3837             this.declaredAnnotations = declaredAnnotations;
3838             this.redefinedCount = redefinedCount;
3839         }
3840     }
3841 
3842     // Annotations cache
3843     @SuppressWarnings("UnusedDeclaration")
3844     private transient volatile AnnotationData annotationData;
3845 
3846     private AnnotationData annotationData() {
3847         while (true) { // retry loop
3848             AnnotationData annotationData = this.annotationData;
3849             int classRedefinedCount = this.classRedefinedCount;
3850             if (annotationData != null &&
3851                 annotationData.redefinedCount == classRedefinedCount) {
3852                 return annotationData;
3853             }
3854             // null or stale annotationData -> optimistically create new instance
3855             AnnotationData newAnnotationData = createAnnotationData(classRedefinedCount);
3856             // try to install it
3857             if (Atomic.casAnnotationData(this, annotationData, newAnnotationData)) {
3858                 // successfully installed new AnnotationData
3859                 return newAnnotationData;
3860             }
3861         }
3862     }
3863 
3864     private AnnotationData createAnnotationData(int classRedefinedCount) {
3865         Map<Class<? extends Annotation>, Annotation> declaredAnnotations =
3866             AnnotationParser.parseAnnotations(getRawAnnotations(), getConstantPool(), this);
3867         Class<?> superClass = getSuperclass();
3868         Map<Class<? extends Annotation>, Annotation> annotations = null;
3869         if (superClass != null) {
3870             Map<Class<? extends Annotation>, Annotation> superAnnotations =
3871                 superClass.annotationData().annotations;
3872             for (Map.Entry<Class<? extends Annotation>, Annotation> e : superAnnotations.entrySet()) {
3873                 Class<? extends Annotation> annotationClass = e.getKey();
3874                 if (AnnotationType.getInstance(annotationClass).isInherited()) {
3875                     if (annotations == null) { // lazy construction
3876                         annotations = new LinkedHashMap<>((Math.max(
3877                                 declaredAnnotations.size(),
3878                                 Math.min(12, declaredAnnotations.size() + superAnnotations.size())
3879                             ) * 4 + 2) / 3
3880                         );
3881                     }
3882                     annotations.put(annotationClass, e.getValue());
3883                 }
3884             }
3885         }
3886         if (annotations == null) {
3887             // no inherited annotations -> share the Map with declaredAnnotations
3888             annotations = declaredAnnotations;
3889         } else {
3890             // at least one inherited annotation -> declared may override inherited
3891             annotations.putAll(declaredAnnotations);
3892         }
3893         return new AnnotationData(annotations, declaredAnnotations, classRedefinedCount);
3894     }
3895 
3896     // Annotation types cache their internal (AnnotationType) form
3897 
3898     @SuppressWarnings("UnusedDeclaration")
3899     private transient volatile AnnotationType annotationType;
3900 
3901     boolean casAnnotationType(AnnotationType oldType, AnnotationType newType) {
3902         return Atomic.casAnnotationType(this, oldType, newType);
3903     }
3904 
3905     AnnotationType getAnnotationType() {
3906         return annotationType;
3907     }
3908 
3909     Map<Class<? extends Annotation>, Annotation> getDeclaredAnnotationMap() {
3910         return annotationData().declaredAnnotations;
3911     }
3912 
3913     /* Backing store of user-defined values pertaining to this class.
3914      * Maintained by the ClassValue class.
3915      */
3916     transient ClassValue.ClassValueMap classValueMap;
3917 
3918     /**
3919      * Returns an {@code AnnotatedType} object that represents the use of a
3920      * type to specify the superclass of the entity represented by this {@code
3921      * Class} object. (The <em>use</em> of type Foo to specify the superclass
3922      * in '...  extends Foo' is distinct from the <em>declaration</em> of type
3923      * Foo.)
3924      *
3925      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents a type whose declaration
3926      * does not explicitly indicate an annotated superclass, then the return
3927      * value is an {@code AnnotatedType} object representing an element with no
3928      * annotations.
3929      *
3930      * <p> If this {@code Class} represents either the {@code Object} class, an
3931      * interface type, an array type, a primitive type, or void, the return
3932      * value is {@code null}.
3933      *
3934      * @return an object representing the superclass
3935      * @since 1.8
3936      */
3937     public AnnotatedType getAnnotatedSuperclass() {
3938         if (this == Object.class ||
3939                 isInterface() ||
3940                 isArray() ||
3941                 isPrimitive() ||
3942                 this == Void.TYPE) {
3943             return null;
3944         }
3945 
3946         return TypeAnnotationParser.buildAnnotatedSuperclass(getRawTypeAnnotations(), getConstantPool(), this);
3947     }
3948 
3949     /**
3950      * Returns an array of {@code AnnotatedType} objects that represent the use
3951      * of types to specify superinterfaces of the entity represented by this
3952      * {@code Class} object. (The <em>use</em> of type Foo to specify a
3953      * superinterface in '... implements Foo' is distinct from the
3954      * <em>declaration</em> of type Foo.)
3955      *
3956      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents a class, the return value is
3957      * an array containing objects representing the uses of interface types to
3958      * specify interfaces implemented by the class. The order of the objects in
3959      * the array corresponds to the order of the interface types used in the
3960      * 'implements' clause of the declaration of this {@code Class} object.
3961      *
3962      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents an interface, the return
3963      * value is an array containing objects representing the uses of interface
3964      * types to specify interfaces directly extended by the interface. The
3965      * order of the objects in the array corresponds to the order of the
3966      * interface types used in the 'extends' clause of the declaration of this
3967      * {@code Class} object.
3968      *
3969      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents a class or interface whose
3970      * declaration does not explicitly indicate any annotated superinterfaces,
3971      * the return value is an array of length 0.
3972      *
3973      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents either the {@code Object}
3974      * class, an array type, a primitive type, or void, the return value is an
3975      * array of length 0.
3976      *
3977      * @return an array representing the superinterfaces
3978      * @since 1.8
3979      */
3980     public AnnotatedType[] getAnnotatedInterfaces() {
3981          return TypeAnnotationParser.buildAnnotatedInterfaces(getRawTypeAnnotations(), getConstantPool(), this);
3982     }
3983 
3984     private native Class<?> getNestHost0();
3985 
3986     /**
3987      * Returns the nest host of the <a href=#nest>nest</a> to which the class
3988      * or interface represented by this {@code Class} object belongs.
3989      * Every class and interface is a member of exactly one nest.
3990      * A class or interface that is not recorded as belonging to a nest
3991      * belongs to the nest consisting only of itself, and is the nest
3992      * host.
3993      *
3994      * <p>Each of the {@code Class} objects representing array types,
3995      * primitive types, and {@code void} returns {@code this} to indicate
3996      * that the represented entity belongs to the nest consisting only of
3997      * itself, and is the nest host.
3998      *
3999      * <p>If there is a {@linkplain LinkageError linkage error} accessing
4000      * the nest host, or if this class or interface is not enumerated as
4001      * a member of the nest by the nest host, then it is considered to belong
4002      * to its own nest and {@code this} is returned as the host.
4003      *
4004      * @apiNote A {@code class} file of version 55.0 or greater may record the
4005      * host of the nest to which it belongs by using the {@code NestHost}
4006      * attribute (JVMS 4.7.28). Alternatively, a {@code class} file of
4007      * version 55.0 or greater may act as a nest host by enumerating the nest's
4008      * other members with the
4009      * {@code NestMembers} attribute (JVMS 4.7.29).
4010      * A {@code class} file of version 54.0 or lower does not use these
4011      * attributes.
4012      *
4013      * @return the nest host of this class or interface
4014      *
4015      * @throws SecurityException
4016      *         If the returned class is not the current class, and
4017      *         if a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and the caller's
4018      *         class loader is not the same as or an ancestor of the class
4019      *         loader for the returned class and invocation of {@link
4020      *         SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess s.checkPackageAccess()}
4021      *         denies access to the package of the returned class
4022      * @since 11
4023      * @jvms 4.7.28 The {@code NestHost} Attribute
4024      * @jvms 4.7.29 The {@code NestMembers} Attribute
4025      * @jvms 5.4.4 Access Control
4026      */
4027     @CallerSensitive
4028     public Class<?> getNestHost() {
4029         if (isPrimitive() || isArray()) {
4030             return this;
4031         }
4032         Class<?> host;
4033         try {
4034             host = getNestHost0();
4035         } catch (LinkageError e) {
4036             // if we couldn't load our nest-host then we
4037             // act as-if we have no nest-host attribute
4038             return this;
4039         }
4040         // if null then nest membership validation failed, so we
4041         // act as-if we have no nest-host attribute
4042         if (host == null || host == this) {
4043             return this;
4044         }
4045         // returning a different class requires a security check
4046         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
4047         if (sm != null) {
4048             checkPackageAccess(sm,
4049                                ClassLoader.getClassLoader(Reflection.getCallerClass()), true);
4050         }
4051         return host;
4052     }
4053 
4054     /**
4055      * Determines if the given {@code Class} is a nestmate of the
4056      * class or interface represented by this {@code Class} object.
4057      * Two classes or interfaces are nestmates
4058      * if they have the same {@linkplain #getNestHost() nest host}.
4059      *
4060      * @param c the class to check
4061      * @return {@code true} if this class and {@code c} are members of
4062      * the same nest; and {@code false} otherwise.
4063      *
4064      * @since 11
4065      */
4066     public boolean isNestmateOf(Class<?> c) {
4067         if (this == c) {
4068             return true;
4069         }
4070         if (isPrimitive() || isArray() ||
4071             c.isPrimitive() || c.isArray()) {
4072             return false;
4073         }
4074         try {
4075             return getNestHost0() == c.getNestHost0();
4076         } catch (LinkageError e) {
4077             return false;
4078         }
4079     }
4080 
4081     private native Class<?>[] getNestMembers0();
4082 
4083     /**
4084      * Returns an array containing {@code Class} objects representing all the
4085      * classes and interfaces that are members of the nest to which the class
4086      * or interface represented by this {@code Class} object belongs.
4087      * The {@linkplain #getNestHost() nest host} of that nest is the zeroth
4088      * element of the array. Subsequent elements represent any classes or
4089      * interfaces that are recorded by the nest host as being members of
4090      * the nest; the order of such elements is unspecified. Duplicates are
4091      * permitted.
4092      * If the nest host of that nest does not enumerate any members, then the
4093      * array has a single element containing {@code this}.
4094      *
4095      * <p>Each of the {@code Class} objects representing array types,
4096      * primitive types, and {@code void} returns an array containing only
4097      * {@code this}.
4098      *
4099      * <p>This method validates that, for each class or interface which is
4100      * recorded as a member of the nest by the nest host, that class or
4101      * interface records itself as a member of that same nest. Any exceptions
4102      * that occur during this validation are rethrown by this method.
4103      *
4104      * @return an array of all classes and interfaces in the same nest as
4105      * this class
4106      *
4107      * @throws LinkageError
4108      *         If there is any problem loading or validating a nest member or
4109      *         its nest host
4110      * @throws SecurityException
4111      *         If any returned class is not the current class, and
4112      *         if a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and the caller's
4113      *         class loader is not the same as or an ancestor of the class
4114      *         loader for that returned class and invocation of {@link
4115      *         SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess s.checkPackageAccess()}
4116      *         denies access to the package of that returned class
4117      *
4118      * @since 11
4119      * @see #getNestHost()
4120      */
4121     @CallerSensitive
4122     public Class<?>[] getNestMembers() {
4123         if (isPrimitive() || isArray()) {
4124             return new Class<?>[] { this };
4125         }
4126         Class<?>[] members = getNestMembers0();
4127         // Can't actually enable this due to bootstrapping issues
4128         // assert(members.length != 1 || members[0] == this); // expected invariant from VM
4129 
4130         if (members.length > 1) {
4131             // If we return anything other than the current class we need
4132             // a security check
4133             SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
4134             if (sm != null) {
4135                 checkPackageAccess(sm,
4136                                    ClassLoader.getClassLoader(Reflection.getCallerClass()), true);
4137             }
4138         }
4139         return members;
4140     }
4141 
4142     /**
4143      * Returns the type descriptor string for this class.
4144      * <p>
4145      * Note that this is not a strict inverse of {@link #forName};
4146      * distinct classes which share a common name but have different class loaders
4147      * will have identical descriptor strings.
4148      *
4149      * @return the type descriptor representation
4150      * @jvms 4.3.2 Field Descriptors
4151      * @since 12
4152      */
4153     @Override
4154     public String descriptorString() {
4155         if (isPrimitive())
4156             return Wrapper.forPrimitiveType(this).basicTypeString();
4157         else if (isArray()) {
4158             return "[" + componentType.descriptorString();
4159         }
4160         else {
4161             return "L" + getName().replace('.', '/') + ";";
4162         }
4163     }
4164 
4165     /**
4166      * Returns the component type of this {@code Class}, if it describes
4167      * an array type, or {@code null} otherwise.
4168      *
4169      * @implSpec
4170      * Equivalent to {@link Class#getComponentType()}.
4171      *
4172      * @return a {@code Class} describing the component type, or {@code null}
4173      * if this {@code Class} does not describe an array type
4174      * @since 12
4175      */
4176     @Override
4177     public Class<?> componentType() {
4178         return isArray() ? componentType : null;
4179     }
4180 
4181     /**
4182      * Returns a {@code Class} for an array type whose component type
4183      * is described by this {@linkplain Class}.
4184      *
4185      * @return a {@code Class} describing the array type
4186      * @since 12
4187      */
4188     @Override
4189     public Class<?> arrayType() {
4190         return Array.newInstance(this, 0).getClass();
4191     }
4192 
4193     /**
4194      * Returns a nominal descriptor for this instance, if one can be
4195      * constructed, or an empty {@link Optional} if one cannot be.
4196      *
4197      * @return An {@link Optional} containing the resulting nominal descriptor,
4198      * or an empty {@link Optional} if one cannot be constructed.
4199      * @since 12
4200      */
4201     @Override
4202     public Optional<ClassDesc> describeConstable() {
4203         return Optional.of(ClassDesc.ofDescriptor(descriptorString()));
4204     }
4205 }
--- EOF ---