rev 59275 : [mq]: v1

   1 /*
   2  * Copyright (c) 1994, 2020, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
   3  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
   4  *
   5  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   6  * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
   7  * published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
   8  * particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
   9  * by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
  10  *
  11  * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  12  * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  13  * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  14  * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  15  * accompanied this code).
  16  *
  17  * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  18  * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  19  * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  20  *
  21  * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  22  * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  23  * questions.
  24  */
  25 
  26 package java.lang;
  27 
  28 import java.lang.annotation.Annotation;
  29 import java.lang.constant.ClassDesc;
  30 import java.lang.invoke.TypeDescriptor;
  31 import java.lang.invoke.MethodHandles;
  32 import java.lang.module.ModuleReader;
  33 import java.lang.ref.SoftReference;
  34 import java.io.IOException;
  35 import java.io.InputStream;
  36 import java.io.ObjectStreamField;
  37 import java.lang.reflect.AnnotatedElement;
  38 import java.lang.reflect.AnnotatedType;
  39 import java.lang.reflect.Array;
  40 import java.lang.reflect.Constructor;
  41 import java.lang.reflect.Executable;
  42 import java.lang.reflect.Field;
  43 import java.lang.reflect.GenericArrayType;
  44 import java.lang.reflect.GenericDeclaration;
  45 import java.lang.reflect.InvocationTargetException;
  46 import java.lang.reflect.Member;
  47 import java.lang.reflect.Method;
  48 import java.lang.reflect.Modifier;
  49 import java.lang.reflect.Proxy;
  50 import java.lang.reflect.RecordComponent;
  51 import java.lang.reflect.Type;
  52 import java.lang.reflect.TypeVariable;
  53 import java.lang.constant.Constable;
  54 import java.net.URL;
  55 import java.security.AccessController;
  56 import java.security.PrivilegedAction;
  57 import java.util.ArrayList;
  58 import java.util.Arrays;
  59 import java.util.Collection;
  60 import java.util.HashMap;
  61 import java.util.LinkedHashMap;
  62 import java.util.LinkedHashSet;
  63 import java.util.List;
  64 import java.util.Map;
  65 import java.util.Objects;
  66 import java.util.Optional;
  67 import java.util.stream.Collectors;
  68 
  69 import jdk.internal.HotSpotIntrinsicCandidate;
  70 import jdk.internal.loader.BootLoader;
  71 import jdk.internal.loader.BuiltinClassLoader;
  72 import jdk.internal.misc.Unsafe;
  73 import jdk.internal.module.Resources;
  74 import jdk.internal.reflect.CallerSensitive;
  75 import jdk.internal.reflect.ConstantPool;
  76 import jdk.internal.reflect.Reflection;
  77 import jdk.internal.reflect.ReflectionFactory;
  78 import jdk.internal.vm.annotation.ForceInline;
  79 import sun.invoke.util.Wrapper;
  80 import sun.reflect.generics.factory.CoreReflectionFactory;
  81 import sun.reflect.generics.factory.GenericsFactory;
  82 import sun.reflect.generics.repository.ClassRepository;
  83 import sun.reflect.generics.repository.MethodRepository;
  84 import sun.reflect.generics.repository.ConstructorRepository;
  85 import sun.reflect.generics.scope.ClassScope;
  86 import sun.security.util.SecurityConstants;
  87 import sun.reflect.annotation.*;
  88 import sun.reflect.misc.ReflectUtil;
  89 
  90 /**
  91  * Instances of the class {@code Class} represent classes and
  92  * interfaces in a running Java application. An enum type and a record
  93  * type are kinds of class; an annotation type is a kind of
  94  * interface. Every array also belongs to a class that is reflected as
  95  * a {@code Class} object that is shared by all arrays with the same
  96  * element type and number of dimensions.  The primitive Java types
  97  * ({@code boolean}, {@code byte}, {@code char}, {@code short}, {@code
  98  * int}, {@code long}, {@code float}, and {@code double}), and the
  99  * keyword {@code void} are also represented as {@code Class} objects.
 100  *
 101  * <p> {@code Class} has no public constructor. Instead a {@code Class}
 102  * object is constructed automatically by the Java Virtual Machine
 103  * when a class loader invokes one of the
 104  * {@link ClassLoader#defineClass(String,byte[], int,int) defineClass} methods
 105  * and passes the bytes of a {@code class} file.
 106  *
 107  * <p> The methods of class {@code Class} expose many characteristics of a
 108  * class or interface. Most characteristics are derived from the {@code class}
 109  * file that the class loader passed to the Java Virtual Machine. A few
 110  * characteristics are determined by the class loading environment at run time,
 111  * such as the module returned by {@link #getModule() getModule()}.
 112  *
 113  * <p> Some methods of class {@code Class} expose whether the declaration of
 114  * a class or interface in Java source code was <em>enclosed</em> within
 115  * another declaration. Other methods describe how a class or interface
 116  * is situated in a <em>nest</em>. A <a id="nest">nest</a> is a set of
 117  * classes and interfaces, in the same run-time package, that
 118  * allow mutual access to their {@code private} members.
 119  * The classes and interfaces are known as <em>nestmates</em>.
 120  * One nestmate acts as the
 121  * <em>nest host</em>, and enumerates the other nestmates which
 122  * belong to the nest; each of them in turn records it as the nest host.
 123  * The classes and interfaces which belong to a nest, including its host, are
 124  * determined when
 125  * {@code class} files are generated, for example, a Java compiler
 126  * will typically record a top-level class as the host of a nest where the
 127  * other members are the classes and interfaces whose declarations are
 128  * enclosed within the top-level class declaration.
 129  *
 130  * <p> Some methods of class {@code Class} expose some characteristics of
 131  * <em>hidden classes</em>.  Hidden classes are created by calling
 132  * {@link java.lang.invoke.MethodHandles.Lookup#defineHiddenClass(byte[], boolean, MethodHandles.Lookup.ClassOption...)
 133  * Lookup::defineHiddenClass}.
 134  *
 135  * <p> The following example uses a {@code Class} object to print the
 136  * class name of an object:
 137  *
 138  * <blockquote><pre>
 139  *     void printClassName(Object obj) {
 140  *         System.out.println("The class of " + obj +
 141  *                            " is " + obj.getClass().getName());
 142  *     }
 143  * </pre></blockquote>
 144  *
 145  * <p> It is also possible to get the {@code Class} object for a named
 146  * type (or for void) using a class literal.  See Section 15.8.2 of
 147  * <cite>The Java&trade; Language Specification</cite>.
 148  * For example:
 149  *
 150  * <blockquote>
 151  *     {@code System.out.println("The name of class Foo is: "+Foo.class.getName());}
 152  * </blockquote>
 153  *
 154  * @param <T> the type of the class modeled by this {@code Class}
 155  * object.  For example, the type of {@code String.class} is {@code
 156  * Class<String>}.  Use {@code Class<?>} if the class being modeled is
 157  * unknown.
 158  *
 159  * @author  unascribed
 160  * @see     java.lang.ClassLoader#defineClass(byte[], int, int)
 161  * @since   1.0
 162  */
 163 public final class Class<T> implements java.io.Serializable,
 164                               GenericDeclaration,
 165                               Type,
 166                               AnnotatedElement,
 167                               TypeDescriptor.OfField<Class<?>>,
 168                               Constable {
 169     private static final int ANNOTATION= 0x00002000;
 170     private static final int ENUM      = 0x00004000;
 171     private static final int SYNTHETIC = 0x00001000;
 172 
 173     private static native void registerNatives();
 174     static {
 175         registerNatives();
 176     }
 177 
 178     /*
 179      * Private constructor. Only the Java Virtual Machine creates Class objects.
 180      * This constructor is not used and prevents the default constructor being
 181      * generated.
 182      */
 183     private Class(ClassLoader loader, Class<?> arrayComponentType) {
 184         // Initialize final field for classLoader.  The initialization value of non-null
 185         // prevents future JIT optimizations from assuming this final field is null.
 186         classLoader = loader;
 187         componentType = arrayComponentType;
 188     }
 189 
 190     /**
 191      * Converts the object to a string. The string representation is the
 192      * string "class" or "interface", followed by a space, and then by the
 193      * fully qualified name of the class in the format returned by
 194      * {@code getName}.  If this {@code Class} object represents a
 195      * primitive type, this method returns the name of the primitive type.  If
 196      * this {@code Class} object represents void this method returns
 197      * "void". If this {@code Class} object represents an array type,
 198      * this method returns "class " followed by {@code getName}.
 199      *
 200      * @return a string representation of this class object.
 201      */
 202     public String toString() {
 203         return (isInterface() ? "interface " : (isPrimitive() ? "" : "class "))
 204             + getName();
 205     }
 206 
 207     /**
 208      * Returns a string describing this {@code Class}, including
 209      * information about modifiers and type parameters.
 210      *
 211      * The string is formatted as a list of type modifiers, if any,
 212      * followed by the kind of type (empty string for primitive types
 213      * and {@code class}, {@code enum}, {@code interface},
 214      * <code>@</code>{@code interface}, or {@code record} as appropriate), followed
 215      * by the type's name, followed by an angle-bracketed
 216      * comma-separated list of the type's type parameters, if any,
 217      * including informative bounds on the type parameters, if any.
 218      *
 219      * A space is used to separate modifiers from one another and to
 220      * separate any modifiers from the kind of type. The modifiers
 221      * occur in canonical order. If there are no type parameters, the
 222      * type parameter list is elided.
 223      *
 224      * For an array type, the string starts with the type name,
 225      * followed by an angle-bracketed comma-separated list of the
 226      * type's type parameters, if any, followed by a sequence of
 227      * {@code []} characters, one set of brackets per dimension of
 228      * the array.
 229      *
 230      * <p>Note that since information about the runtime representation
 231      * of a type is being generated, modifiers not present on the
 232      * originating source code or illegal on the originating source
 233      * code may be present.
 234      *
 235      * @return a string describing this {@code Class}, including
 236      * information about modifiers and type parameters
 237      *
 238      * @since 1.8
 239      */
 240     @SuppressWarnings("preview")
 241     public String toGenericString() {
 242         if (isPrimitive()) {
 243             return toString();
 244         } else {
 245             StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
 246             Class<?> component = this;
 247             int arrayDepth = 0;
 248 
 249             if (isArray()) {
 250                 do {
 251                     arrayDepth++;
 252                     component = component.getComponentType();
 253                 } while (component.isArray());
 254                 sb.append(component.getName());
 255             } else {
 256                 // Class modifiers are a superset of interface modifiers
 257                 int modifiers = getModifiers() & Modifier.classModifiers();
 258                 if (modifiers != 0) {
 259                     sb.append(Modifier.toString(modifiers));
 260                     sb.append(' ');
 261                 }
 262 
 263                 if (isAnnotation()) {
 264                     sb.append('@');
 265                 }
 266                 if (isInterface()) { // Note: all annotation types are interfaces
 267                     sb.append("interface");
 268                 } else {
 269                     if (isEnum())
 270                         sb.append("enum");
 271                     else if (isRecord())
 272                         sb.append("record");
 273                     else
 274                         sb.append("class");
 275                 }
 276                 sb.append(' ');
 277                 sb.append(getName());
 278             }
 279 
 280             TypeVariable<?>[] typeparms = component.getTypeParameters();
 281             if (typeparms.length > 0) {
 282                 sb.append(Arrays.stream(typeparms)
 283                           .map(Class::typeVarBounds)
 284                           .collect(Collectors.joining(",", "<", ">")));
 285             }
 286 
 287             if (arrayDepth > 0) sb.append("[]".repeat(arrayDepth));
 288 
 289             return sb.toString();
 290         }
 291     }
 292 
 293     static String typeVarBounds(TypeVariable<?> typeVar) {
 294         Type[] bounds = typeVar.getBounds();
 295         if (bounds.length == 1 && bounds[0].equals(Object.class)) {
 296             return typeVar.getName();
 297         } else {
 298             return typeVar.getName() + " extends " +
 299                 Arrays.stream(bounds)
 300                 .map(Type::getTypeName)
 301                 .collect(Collectors.joining(" & "));
 302         }
 303     }
 304 
 305     /**
 306      * Returns the {@code Class} object associated with the class or
 307      * interface with the given string name.  Invoking this method is
 308      * equivalent to:
 309      *
 310      * <blockquote>
 311      *  {@code Class.forName(className, true, currentLoader)}
 312      * </blockquote>
 313      *
 314      * where {@code currentLoader} denotes the defining class loader of
 315      * the current class.
 316      *
 317      * <p> For example, the following code fragment returns the
 318      * runtime {@code Class} descriptor for the class named
 319      * {@code java.lang.Thread}:
 320      *
 321      * <blockquote>
 322      *   {@code Class t = Class.forName("java.lang.Thread")}
 323      * </blockquote>
 324      * <p>
 325      * A call to {@code forName("X")} causes the class named
 326      * {@code X} to be initialized.
 327      *
 328      * @param      className   the fully qualified name of the desired class.
 329      * @return     the {@code Class} object for the class with the
 330      *             specified name.
 331      * @throws    LinkageError if the linkage fails
 332      * @throws    ExceptionInInitializerError if the initialization provoked
 333      *            by this method fails
 334      * @throws    ClassNotFoundException if the class cannot be located
 335      *
 336      * @jls 12.2 Loading of Classes and Interfaces
 337      * @jls 12.3 Linking of Classes and Interfaces
 338      * @jls 12.4 Initialization of Classes and Interfaces
 339      */
 340     @CallerSensitive
 341     public static Class<?> forName(String className)
 342                 throws ClassNotFoundException {
 343         Class<?> caller = Reflection.getCallerClass();
 344         return forName0(className, true, ClassLoader.getClassLoader(caller), caller);
 345     }
 346 
 347 
 348     /**
 349      * Returns the {@code Class} object associated with the class or
 350      * interface with the given string name, using the given class loader.
 351      * Given the fully qualified name for a class or interface (in the same
 352      * format returned by {@code getName}) this method attempts to
 353      * locate and load the class or interface.  The specified class
 354      * loader is used to load the class or interface.  If the parameter
 355      * {@code loader} is null, the class is loaded through the bootstrap
 356      * class loader.  The class is initialized only if the
 357      * {@code initialize} parameter is {@code true} and if it has
 358      * not been initialized earlier.
 359      *
 360      * <p> If {@code name} denotes a primitive type or void, an attempt
 361      * will be made to locate a user-defined class in the unnamed package whose
 362      * name is {@code name}. Therefore, this method cannot be used to
 363      * obtain any of the {@code Class} objects representing primitive
 364      * types or void.
 365      *
 366      * <p> If {@code name} denotes an array class, the component type of
 367      * the array class is loaded but not initialized.
 368      *
 369      * <p> For example, in an instance method the expression:
 370      *
 371      * <blockquote>
 372      *  {@code Class.forName("Foo")}
 373      * </blockquote>
 374      *
 375      * is equivalent to:
 376      *
 377      * <blockquote>
 378      *  {@code Class.forName("Foo", true, this.getClass().getClassLoader())}
 379      * </blockquote>
 380      *
 381      * Note that this method throws errors related to loading, linking
 382      * or initializing as specified in Sections {@jls 12.2}, {@jls
 383      * 12.3}, and {@jls 12.4} of <em>The Java Language
 384      * Specification</em>.
 385      * Note that this method does not check whether the requested class
 386      * is accessible to its caller.
 387      *
 388      * @param name       fully qualified name of the desired class
 389      * @param initialize if {@code true} the class will be initialized (which implies linking).
 390      *                   See Section {@jls 12.4} of <em>The Java Language Specification</em>.
 391      * @param loader     class loader from which the class must be loaded
 392      * @return           class object representing the desired class
 393      *
 394      * @throws    LinkageError if the linkage fails
 395      * @throws    ExceptionInInitializerError if the initialization provoked
 396      *            by this method fails
 397      * @throws    ClassNotFoundException if the class cannot be located by
 398      *            the specified class loader
 399      * @throws    SecurityException
 400      *            if a security manager is present, and the {@code loader} is
 401      *            {@code null}, and the caller's class loader is not
 402      *            {@code null}, and the caller does not have the
 403      *            {@link RuntimePermission}{@code ("getClassLoader")}
 404      *
 405      * @see       java.lang.Class#forName(String)
 406      * @see       java.lang.ClassLoader
 407      *
 408      * @jls 12.2 Loading of Classes and Interfaces
 409      * @jls 12.3 Linking of Classes and Interfaces
 410      * @jls 12.4 Initialization of Classes and Interfaces
 411      * @since     1.2
 412      */
 413     @CallerSensitive
 414     public static Class<?> forName(String name, boolean initialize,
 415                                    ClassLoader loader)
 416         throws ClassNotFoundException
 417     {
 418         Class<?> caller = null;
 419         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
 420         if (sm != null) {
 421             // Reflective call to get caller class is only needed if a security manager
 422             // is present.  Avoid the overhead of making this call otherwise.
 423             caller = Reflection.getCallerClass();
 424             if (loader == null) {
 425                 ClassLoader ccl = ClassLoader.getClassLoader(caller);
 426                 if (ccl != null) {
 427                     sm.checkPermission(
 428                         SecurityConstants.GET_CLASSLOADER_PERMISSION);
 429                 }
 430             }
 431         }
 432         return forName0(name, initialize, loader, caller);
 433     }
 434 
 435     /** Called after security check for system loader access checks have been made. */
 436     private static native Class<?> forName0(String name, boolean initialize,
 437                                             ClassLoader loader,
 438                                             Class<?> caller)
 439         throws ClassNotFoundException;
 440 
 441 
 442     /**
 443      * Returns the {@code Class} with the given <a href="ClassLoader.html#binary-name">
 444      * binary name</a> in the given module.
 445      *
 446      * <p> This method attempts to locate and load the class or interface.
 447      * It does not link the class, and does not run the class initializer.
 448      * If the class is not found, this method returns {@code null}. </p>
 449      *
 450      * <p> If the class loader of the given module defines other modules and
 451      * the given name is a class defined in a different module, this method
 452      * returns {@code null} after the class is loaded. </p>
 453      *
 454      * <p> This method does not check whether the requested class is
 455      * accessible to its caller. </p>
 456      *
 457      * @apiNote
 458      * This method returns {@code null} on failure rather than
 459      * throwing a {@link ClassNotFoundException}, as is done by
 460      * the {@link #forName(String, boolean, ClassLoader)} method.
 461      * The security check is a stack-based permission check if the caller
 462      * loads a class in another module.
 463      *
 464      * @param  module   A module
 465      * @param  name     The <a href="ClassLoader.html#binary-name">binary name</a>
 466      *                  of the class
 467      * @return {@code Class} object of the given name defined in the given module;
 468      *         {@code null} if not found.
 469      *
 470      * @throws NullPointerException if the given module or name is {@code null}
 471      *
 472      * @throws LinkageError if the linkage fails
 473      *
 474      * @throws SecurityException
 475      *         <ul>
 476      *         <li> if the caller is not the specified module and
 477      *         {@code RuntimePermission("getClassLoader")} permission is denied; or</li>
 478      *         <li> access to the module content is denied. For example,
 479      *         permission check will be performed when a class loader calls
 480      *         {@link ModuleReader#open(String)} to read the bytes of a class file
 481      *         in a module.</li>
 482      *         </ul>
 483      *
 484      * @jls 12.2 Loading of Classes and Interfaces
 485      * @jls 12.3 Linking of Classes and Interfaces
 486      * @since 9
 487      * @spec JPMS
 488      */
 489     @CallerSensitive
 490     public static Class<?> forName(Module module, String name) {
 491         Objects.requireNonNull(module);
 492         Objects.requireNonNull(name);
 493 
 494         ClassLoader cl;
 495         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
 496         if (sm != null) {
 497             Class<?> caller = Reflection.getCallerClass();
 498             if (caller != null && caller.getModule() != module) {
 499                 // if caller is null, Class.forName is the last java frame on the stack.
 500                 // java.base has all permissions
 501                 sm.checkPermission(SecurityConstants.GET_CLASSLOADER_PERMISSION);
 502             }
 503             PrivilegedAction<ClassLoader> pa = module::getClassLoader;
 504             cl = AccessController.doPrivileged(pa);
 505         } else {
 506             cl = module.getClassLoader();
 507         }
 508 
 509         if (cl != null) {
 510             return cl.loadClass(module, name);
 511         } else {
 512             return BootLoader.loadClass(module, name);
 513         }
 514     }
 515 
 516     /**
 517      * Creates a new instance of the class represented by this {@code Class}
 518      * object.  The class is instantiated as if by a {@code new}
 519      * expression with an empty argument list.  The class is initialized if it
 520      * has not already been initialized.
 521      *
 522      * @deprecated This method propagates any exception thrown by the
 523      * nullary constructor, including a checked exception.  Use of
 524      * this method effectively bypasses the compile-time exception
 525      * checking that would otherwise be performed by the compiler.
 526      * The {@link
 527      * java.lang.reflect.Constructor#newInstance(java.lang.Object...)
 528      * Constructor.newInstance} method avoids this problem by wrapping
 529      * any exception thrown by the constructor in a (checked) {@link
 530      * java.lang.reflect.InvocationTargetException}.
 531      *
 532      * <p>The call
 533      *
 534      * <pre>{@code
 535      * clazz.newInstance()
 536      * }</pre>
 537      *
 538      * can be replaced by
 539      *
 540      * <pre>{@code
 541      * clazz.getDeclaredConstructor().newInstance()
 542      * }</pre>
 543      *
 544      * The latter sequence of calls is inferred to be able to throw
 545      * the additional exception types {@link
 546      * InvocationTargetException} and {@link
 547      * NoSuchMethodException}. Both of these exception types are
 548      * subclasses of {@link ReflectiveOperationException}.
 549      *
 550      * @return  a newly allocated instance of the class represented by this
 551      *          object.
 552      * @throws  IllegalAccessException  if the class or its nullary
 553      *          constructor is not accessible.
 554      * @throws  InstantiationException
 555      *          if this {@code Class} represents an abstract class,
 556      *          an interface, an array class, a primitive type, or void;
 557      *          or if the class has no nullary constructor;
 558      *          or if the instantiation fails for some other reason.
 559      * @throws  ExceptionInInitializerError if the initialization
 560      *          provoked by this method fails.
 561      * @throws  SecurityException
 562      *          If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and
 563      *          the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
 564      *          ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
 565      *          invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
 566      *          s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
 567      *          of this class.
 568      */
 569     @CallerSensitive
 570     @Deprecated(since="9")
 571     public T newInstance()
 572         throws InstantiationException, IllegalAccessException
 573     {
 574         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
 575         if (sm != null) {
 576             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.PUBLIC, Reflection.getCallerClass(), false);
 577         }
 578 
 579         // Constructor lookup
 580         Constructor<T> tmpConstructor = cachedConstructor;
 581         if (tmpConstructor == null) {
 582             if (this == Class.class) {
 583                 throw new IllegalAccessException(
 584                     "Can not call newInstance() on the Class for java.lang.Class"
 585                 );
 586             }
 587             try {
 588                 Class<?>[] empty = {};
 589                 final Constructor<T> c = getReflectionFactory().copyConstructor(
 590                     getConstructor0(empty, Member.DECLARED));
 591                 // Disable accessibility checks on the constructor
 592                 // access check is done with the true caller
 593                 java.security.AccessController.doPrivileged(
 594                     new java.security.PrivilegedAction<>() {
 595                         public Void run() {
 596                                 c.setAccessible(true);
 597                                 return null;
 598                             }
 599                         });
 600                 cachedConstructor = tmpConstructor = c;
 601             } catch (NoSuchMethodException e) {
 602                 throw (InstantiationException)
 603                     new InstantiationException(getName()).initCause(e);
 604             }
 605         }
 606 
 607         try {
 608             Class<?> caller = Reflection.getCallerClass();
 609             return getReflectionFactory().newInstance(tmpConstructor, null, caller);
 610         } catch (InvocationTargetException e) {
 611             Unsafe.getUnsafe().throwException(e.getTargetException());
 612             // Not reached
 613             return null;
 614         }
 615     }
 616 
 617     private transient volatile Constructor<T> cachedConstructor;
 618 
 619     /**
 620      * Determines if the specified {@code Object} is assignment-compatible
 621      * with the object represented by this {@code Class}.  This method is
 622      * the dynamic equivalent of the Java language {@code instanceof}
 623      * operator. The method returns {@code true} if the specified
 624      * {@code Object} argument is non-null and can be cast to the
 625      * reference type represented by this {@code Class} object without
 626      * raising a {@code ClassCastException.} It returns {@code false}
 627      * otherwise.
 628      *
 629      * <p> Specifically, if this {@code Class} object represents a
 630      * declared class, this method returns {@code true} if the specified
 631      * {@code Object} argument is an instance of the represented class (or
 632      * of any of its subclasses); it returns {@code false} otherwise. If
 633      * this {@code Class} object represents an array class, this method
 634      * returns {@code true} if the specified {@code Object} argument
 635      * can be converted to an object of the array class by an identity
 636      * conversion or by a widening reference conversion; it returns
 637      * {@code false} otherwise. If this {@code Class} object
 638      * represents an interface, this method returns {@code true} if the
 639      * class or any superclass of the specified {@code Object} argument
 640      * implements this interface; it returns {@code false} otherwise. If
 641      * this {@code Class} object represents a primitive type, this method
 642      * returns {@code false}.
 643      *
 644      * @param   obj the object to check
 645      * @return  true if {@code obj} is an instance of this class
 646      *
 647      * @since 1.1
 648      */
 649     @HotSpotIntrinsicCandidate
 650     public native boolean isInstance(Object obj);
 651 
 652 
 653     /**
 654      * Determines if the class or interface represented by this
 655      * {@code Class} object is either the same as, or is a superclass or
 656      * superinterface of, the class or interface represented by the specified
 657      * {@code Class} parameter. It returns {@code true} if so;
 658      * otherwise it returns {@code false}. If this {@code Class}
 659      * object represents a primitive type, this method returns
 660      * {@code true} if the specified {@code Class} parameter is
 661      * exactly this {@code Class} object; otherwise it returns
 662      * {@code false}.
 663      *
 664      * <p> Specifically, this method tests whether the type represented by the
 665      * specified {@code Class} parameter can be converted to the type
 666      * represented by this {@code Class} object via an identity conversion
 667      * or via a widening reference conversion. See <em>The Java Language
 668      * Specification</em>, sections {@jls 5.1.1} and {@jls 5.1.4},
 669      * for details.
 670      *
 671      * @param     cls the {@code Class} object to be checked
 672      * @return    the {@code boolean} value indicating whether objects of the
 673      *            type {@code cls} can be assigned to objects of this class
 674      * @throws    NullPointerException if the specified Class parameter is
 675      *            null.
 676      * @since     1.1
 677      */
 678     @HotSpotIntrinsicCandidate
 679     public native boolean isAssignableFrom(Class<?> cls);
 680 
 681 
 682     /**
 683      * Determines if the specified {@code Class} object represents an
 684      * interface type.
 685      *
 686      * @return  {@code true} if this object represents an interface;
 687      *          {@code false} otherwise.
 688      */
 689     @HotSpotIntrinsicCandidate
 690     public native boolean isInterface();
 691 
 692 
 693     /**
 694      * Determines if this {@code Class} object represents an array class.
 695      *
 696      * @return  {@code true} if this object represents an array class;
 697      *          {@code false} otherwise.
 698      * @since   1.1
 699      */
 700     @HotSpotIntrinsicCandidate
 701     public native boolean isArray();
 702 
 703 
 704     /**
 705      * Determines if the specified {@code Class} object represents a
 706      * primitive type.
 707      *
 708      * <p> There are nine predefined {@code Class} objects to represent
 709      * the eight primitive types and void.  These are created by the Java
 710      * Virtual Machine, and have the same names as the primitive types that
 711      * they represent, namely {@code boolean}, {@code byte},
 712      * {@code char}, {@code short}, {@code int},
 713      * {@code long}, {@code float}, and {@code double}.
 714      *
 715      * <p> These objects may only be accessed via the following public static
 716      * final variables, and are the only {@code Class} objects for which
 717      * this method returns {@code true}.
 718      *
 719      * @return true if and only if this class represents a primitive type
 720      *
 721      * @see     java.lang.Boolean#TYPE
 722      * @see     java.lang.Character#TYPE
 723      * @see     java.lang.Byte#TYPE
 724      * @see     java.lang.Short#TYPE
 725      * @see     java.lang.Integer#TYPE
 726      * @see     java.lang.Long#TYPE
 727      * @see     java.lang.Float#TYPE
 728      * @see     java.lang.Double#TYPE
 729      * @see     java.lang.Void#TYPE
 730      * @since 1.1
 731      */
 732     @HotSpotIntrinsicCandidate
 733     public native boolean isPrimitive();
 734 
 735     /**
 736      * Returns true if this {@code Class} object represents an annotation
 737      * type.  Note that if this method returns true, {@link #isInterface()}
 738      * would also return true, as all annotation types are also interfaces.
 739      *
 740      * @return {@code true} if this class object represents an annotation
 741      *      type; {@code false} otherwise
 742      * @since 1.5
 743      */
 744     public boolean isAnnotation() {
 745         return (getModifiers() & ANNOTATION) != 0;
 746     }
 747 
 748     /**
 749      * Returns {@code true} if this class is a synthetic class;
 750      * returns {@code false} otherwise.
 751      * @return {@code true} if and only if this class is a synthetic class as
 752      *         defined by the Java Language Specification.
 753      * @jls 13.1 The Form of a Binary
 754      * @since 1.5
 755      */
 756     public boolean isSynthetic() {
 757         return (getModifiers() & SYNTHETIC) != 0;
 758     }
 759 
 760     /**
 761      * Returns the  name of the entity (class, interface, array class,
 762      * primitive type, or void) represented by this {@code Class} object,
 763      * as a {@code String}.
 764      *
 765      * <p> If this class object represents a reference type that is not an
 766      * array type then the binary name of the class is returned, as specified
 767      * by
 768      * <cite>The Java&trade; Language Specification</cite>.
 769      *
 770      * <p> If this class object represents a primitive type or void, then the
 771      * name returned is a {@code String} equal to the Java language
 772      * keyword corresponding to the primitive type or void.
 773      *
 774      * <p> If this class object represents a class of arrays, then the internal
 775      * form of the name consists of the name of the element type preceded by
 776      * one or more '{@code [}' characters representing the depth of the array
 777      * nesting.  The encoding of element type names is as follows:
 778      *
 779      * <blockquote><table class="striped">
 780      * <caption style="display:none">Element types and encodings</caption>
 781      * <thead>
 782      * <tr><th scope="col"> Element Type <th scope="col"> Encoding
 783      * </thead>
 784      * <tbody style="text-align:left">
 785      * <tr><th scope="row"> boolean      <td style="text-align:center"> Z
 786      * <tr><th scope="row"> byte         <td style="text-align:center"> B
 787      * <tr><th scope="row"> char         <td style="text-align:center"> C
 788      * <tr><th scope="row"> class or interface
 789      *                                   <td style="text-align:center"> L<i>classname</i>;
 790      * <tr><th scope="row"> double       <td style="text-align:center"> D
 791      * <tr><th scope="row"> float        <td style="text-align:center"> F
 792      * <tr><th scope="row"> int          <td style="text-align:center"> I
 793      * <tr><th scope="row"> long         <td style="text-align:center"> J
 794      * <tr><th scope="row"> short        <td style="text-align:center"> S
 795      * </tbody>
 796      * </table></blockquote>
 797      *
 798      * <p> The class or interface name <i>classname</i> is the binary name of
 799      * the class specified above.
 800      *
 801      * <p> Examples:
 802      * <blockquote><pre>
 803      * String.class.getName()
 804      *     returns "java.lang.String"
 805      * byte.class.getName()
 806      *     returns "byte"
 807      * (new Object[3]).getClass().getName()
 808      *     returns "[Ljava.lang.Object;"
 809      * (new int[3][4][5][6][7][8][9]).getClass().getName()
 810      *     returns "[[[[[[[I"
 811      * </pre></blockquote>
 812      *
 813      * <p> If this class object represents a {@linkplain #isHiddenClass() hidden class},
 814      * then the name of a hidden class is not a binary name and contains
 815      * a ASCII {@code '/'} character.
 816      *
 817      * @return  the name of the class or interface
 818      *          represented by this object.
 819      */
 820     public String getName() {
 821         String name = this.name;
 822         return name != null ? name : initClassName();
 823     }
 824 
 825     // Cache the name to reduce the number of calls into the VM.
 826     // This field would be set by VM itself during initClassName call.
 827     private transient String name;
 828     private native String initClassName();
 829 
 830     /**
 831      * Returns the class loader for the class.  Some implementations may use
 832      * null to represent the bootstrap class loader. This method will return
 833      * null in such implementations if this class was loaded by the bootstrap
 834      * class loader.
 835      *
 836      * <p>If this object
 837      * represents a primitive type or void, null is returned.
 838      *
 839      * @return  the class loader that loaded the class or interface
 840      *          represented by this object.
 841      * @throws  SecurityException
 842      *          if a security manager is present, and the caller's class loader
 843      *          is not {@code null} and is not the same as or an ancestor of the
 844      *          class loader for the class whose class loader is requested,
 845      *          and the caller does not have the
 846      *          {@link RuntimePermission}{@code ("getClassLoader")}
 847      * @see java.lang.ClassLoader
 848      * @see SecurityManager#checkPermission
 849      * @see java.lang.RuntimePermission
 850      */
 851     @CallerSensitive
 852     @ForceInline // to ensure Reflection.getCallerClass optimization
 853     public ClassLoader getClassLoader() {
 854         ClassLoader cl = getClassLoader0();
 855         if (cl == null)
 856             return null;
 857         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
 858         if (sm != null) {
 859             ClassLoader.checkClassLoaderPermission(cl, Reflection.getCallerClass());
 860         }
 861         return cl;
 862     }
 863 
 864     // Package-private to allow ClassLoader access
 865     ClassLoader getClassLoader0() { return classLoader; }
 866 
 867     /**
 868      * Returns the module that this class or interface is a member of.
 869      *
 870      * If this class represents an array type then this method returns the
 871      * {@code Module} for the element type. If this class represents a
 872      * primitive type or void, then the {@code Module} object for the
 873      * {@code java.base} module is returned.
 874      *
 875      * If this class is in an unnamed module then the {@linkplain
 876      * ClassLoader#getUnnamedModule() unnamed} {@code Module} of the class
 877      * loader for this class is returned.
 878      *
 879      * @return the module that this class or interface is a member of
 880      *
 881      * @since 9
 882      * @spec JPMS
 883      */
 884     public Module getModule() {
 885         return module;
 886     }
 887 
 888     // set by VM
 889     private transient Module module;
 890 
 891     // Initialized in JVM not by private constructor
 892     // This field is filtered from reflection access, i.e. getDeclaredField
 893     // will throw NoSuchFieldException
 894     private final ClassLoader classLoader;
 895 
 896     /**
 897      * Returns an array of {@code TypeVariable} objects that represent the
 898      * type variables declared by the generic declaration represented by this
 899      * {@code GenericDeclaration} object, in declaration order.  Returns an
 900      * array of length 0 if the underlying generic declaration declares no type
 901      * variables.
 902      *
 903      * @return an array of {@code TypeVariable} objects that represent
 904      *     the type variables declared by this generic declaration
 905      * @throws java.lang.reflect.GenericSignatureFormatError if the generic
 906      *     signature of this generic declaration does not conform to
 907      *     the format specified in
 908      *     <cite>The Java&trade; Virtual Machine Specification</cite>
 909      * @since 1.5
 910      */
 911     @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
 912     public TypeVariable<Class<T>>[] getTypeParameters() {
 913         ClassRepository info = getGenericInfo();
 914         if (info != null)
 915             return (TypeVariable<Class<T>>[])info.getTypeParameters();
 916         else
 917             return (TypeVariable<Class<T>>[])new TypeVariable<?>[0];
 918     }
 919 
 920 
 921     /**
 922      * Returns the {@code Class} representing the direct superclass of the
 923      * entity (class, interface, primitive type or void) represented by
 924      * this {@code Class}.  If this {@code Class} represents either the
 925      * {@code Object} class, an interface, a primitive type, or void, then
 926      * null is returned.  If this object represents an array class then the
 927      * {@code Class} object representing the {@code Object} class is
 928      * returned.
 929      *
 930      * @return the direct superclass of the class represented by this object
 931      */
 932     @HotSpotIntrinsicCandidate
 933     public native Class<? super T> getSuperclass();
 934 
 935 
 936     /**
 937      * Returns the {@code Type} representing the direct superclass of
 938      * the entity (class, interface, primitive type or void) represented by
 939      * this {@code Class}.
 940      *
 941      * <p>If the superclass is a parameterized type, the {@code Type}
 942      * object returned must accurately reflect the actual type
 943      * arguments used in the source code. The parameterized type
 944      * representing the superclass is created if it had not been
 945      * created before. See the declaration of {@link
 946      * java.lang.reflect.ParameterizedType ParameterizedType} for the
 947      * semantics of the creation process for parameterized types.  If
 948      * this {@code Class} represents either the {@code Object}
 949      * class, an interface, a primitive type, or void, then null is
 950      * returned.  If this object represents an array class then the
 951      * {@code Class} object representing the {@code Object} class is
 952      * returned.
 953      *
 954      * @throws java.lang.reflect.GenericSignatureFormatError if the generic
 955      *     class signature does not conform to the format specified in
 956      *     <cite>The Java&trade; Virtual Machine Specification</cite>
 957      * @throws TypeNotPresentException if the generic superclass
 958      *     refers to a non-existent type declaration
 959      * @throws java.lang.reflect.MalformedParameterizedTypeException if the
 960      *     generic superclass refers to a parameterized type that cannot be
 961      *     instantiated  for any reason
 962      * @return the direct superclass of the class represented by this object
 963      * @since 1.5
 964      */
 965     public Type getGenericSuperclass() {
 966         ClassRepository info = getGenericInfo();
 967         if (info == null) {
 968             return getSuperclass();
 969         }
 970 
 971         // Historical irregularity:
 972         // Generic signature marks interfaces with superclass = Object
 973         // but this API returns null for interfaces
 974         if (isInterface()) {
 975             return null;
 976         }
 977 
 978         return info.getSuperclass();
 979     }
 980 
 981     /**
 982      * Gets the package of this class.
 983      *
 984      * <p>If this class represents an array type, a primitive type or void,
 985      * this method returns {@code null}.
 986      *
 987      * @return the package of this class.
 988      * @revised 9
 989      * @spec JPMS
 990      */
 991     public Package getPackage() {
 992         if (isPrimitive() || isArray()) {
 993             return null;
 994         }
 995         ClassLoader cl = getClassLoader0();
 996         return cl != null ? cl.definePackage(this)
 997                           : BootLoader.definePackage(this);
 998     }
 999 
1000     /**
1001      * Returns the fully qualified package name.
1002      *
1003      * <p> If this class is a top level class, then this method returns the fully
1004      * qualified name of the package that the class is a member of, or the
1005      * empty string if the class is in an unnamed package.
1006      *
1007      * <p> If this class is a member class, then this method is equivalent to
1008      * invoking {@code getPackageName()} on the {@linkplain #getEnclosingClass
1009      * enclosing class}.
1010      *
1011      * <p> If this class is a {@linkplain #isLocalClass local class} or an {@linkplain
1012      * #isAnonymousClass() anonymous class}, then this method is equivalent to
1013      * invoking {@code getPackageName()} on the {@linkplain #getDeclaringClass
1014      * declaring class} of the {@linkplain #getEnclosingMethod enclosing method} or
1015      * {@linkplain #getEnclosingConstructor enclosing constructor}.
1016      *
1017      * <p> If this class represents an array type then this method returns the
1018      * package name of the element type. If this class represents a primitive
1019      * type or void then the package name "{@code java.lang}" is returned.
1020      *
1021      * @return the fully qualified package name
1022      *
1023      * @since 9
1024      * @spec JPMS
1025      * @jls 6.7 Fully Qualified Names
1026      */
1027     public String getPackageName() {
1028         String pn = this.packageName;
1029         if (pn == null) {
1030             Class<?> c = this;
1031             while (c.isArray()) {
1032                 c = c.getComponentType();
1033             }
1034             if (c.isPrimitive()) {
1035                 pn = "java.lang";
1036             } else {
1037                 String cn = c.getName();
1038                 int dot = cn.lastIndexOf('.');
1039                 pn = (dot != -1) ? cn.substring(0, dot).intern() : "";
1040             }
1041             this.packageName = pn;
1042         }
1043         return pn;
1044     }
1045 
1046     // cached package name
1047     private transient String packageName;
1048 
1049     /**
1050      * Returns the interfaces directly implemented by the class or interface
1051      * represented by this object.
1052      *
1053      * <p>If this object represents a class, the return value is an array
1054      * containing objects representing all interfaces directly implemented by
1055      * the class.  The order of the interface objects in the array corresponds
1056      * to the order of the interface names in the {@code implements} clause of
1057      * the declaration of the class represented by this object.  For example,
1058      * given the declaration:
1059      * <blockquote>
1060      * {@code class Shimmer implements FloorWax, DessertTopping { ... }}
1061      * </blockquote>
1062      * suppose the value of {@code s} is an instance of
1063      * {@code Shimmer}; the value of the expression:
1064      * <blockquote>
1065      * {@code s.getClass().getInterfaces()[0]}
1066      * </blockquote>
1067      * is the {@code Class} object that represents interface
1068      * {@code FloorWax}; and the value of:
1069      * <blockquote>
1070      * {@code s.getClass().getInterfaces()[1]}
1071      * </blockquote>
1072      * is the {@code Class} object that represents interface
1073      * {@code DessertTopping}.
1074      *
1075      * <p>If this object represents an interface, the array contains objects
1076      * representing all interfaces directly extended by the interface.  The
1077      * order of the interface objects in the array corresponds to the order of
1078      * the interface names in the {@code extends} clause of the declaration of
1079      * the interface represented by this object.
1080      *
1081      * <p>If this object represents a class or interface that implements no
1082      * interfaces, the method returns an array of length 0.
1083      *
1084      * <p>If this object represents a primitive type or void, the method
1085      * returns an array of length 0.
1086      *
1087      * <p>If this {@code Class} object represents an array type, the
1088      * interfaces {@code Cloneable} and {@code java.io.Serializable} are
1089      * returned in that order.
1090      *
1091      * @return an array of interfaces directly implemented by this class
1092      */
1093     public Class<?>[] getInterfaces() {
1094         // defensively copy before handing over to user code
1095         return getInterfaces(true);
1096     }
1097 
1098     private Class<?>[] getInterfaces(boolean cloneArray) {
1099         ReflectionData<T> rd = reflectionData();
1100         if (rd == null) {
1101             // no cloning required
1102             return getInterfaces0();
1103         } else {
1104             Class<?>[] interfaces = rd.interfaces;
1105             if (interfaces == null) {
1106                 interfaces = getInterfaces0();
1107                 rd.interfaces = interfaces;
1108             }
1109             // defensively copy if requested
1110             return cloneArray ? interfaces.clone() : interfaces;
1111         }
1112     }
1113 
1114     private native Class<?>[] getInterfaces0();
1115 
1116     /**
1117      * Returns the {@code Type}s representing the interfaces
1118      * directly implemented by the class or interface represented by
1119      * this object.
1120      *
1121      * <p>If a superinterface is a parameterized type, the
1122      * {@code Type} object returned for it must accurately reflect
1123      * the actual type arguments used in the source code. The
1124      * parameterized type representing each superinterface is created
1125      * if it had not been created before. See the declaration of
1126      * {@link java.lang.reflect.ParameterizedType ParameterizedType}
1127      * for the semantics of the creation process for parameterized
1128      * types.
1129      *
1130      * <p>If this object represents a class, the return value is an array
1131      * containing objects representing all interfaces directly implemented by
1132      * the class.  The order of the interface objects in the array corresponds
1133      * to the order of the interface names in the {@code implements} clause of
1134      * the declaration of the class represented by this object.
1135      *
1136      * <p>If this object represents an interface, the array contains objects
1137      * representing all interfaces directly extended by the interface.  The
1138      * order of the interface objects in the array corresponds to the order of
1139      * the interface names in the {@code extends} clause of the declaration of
1140      * the interface represented by this object.
1141      *
1142      * <p>If this object represents a class or interface that implements no
1143      * interfaces, the method returns an array of length 0.
1144      *
1145      * <p>If this object represents a primitive type or void, the method
1146      * returns an array of length 0.
1147      *
1148      * <p>If this {@code Class} object represents an array type, the
1149      * interfaces {@code Cloneable} and {@code java.io.Serializable} are
1150      * returned in that order.
1151      *
1152      * @throws java.lang.reflect.GenericSignatureFormatError
1153      *     if the generic class signature does not conform to the format
1154      *     specified in
1155      *     <cite>The Java&trade; Virtual Machine Specification</cite>
1156      * @throws TypeNotPresentException if any of the generic
1157      *     superinterfaces refers to a non-existent type declaration
1158      * @throws java.lang.reflect.MalformedParameterizedTypeException
1159      *     if any of the generic superinterfaces refer to a parameterized
1160      *     type that cannot be instantiated for any reason
1161      * @return an array of interfaces directly implemented by this class
1162      * @since 1.5
1163      */
1164     public Type[] getGenericInterfaces() {
1165         ClassRepository info = getGenericInfo();
1166         return (info == null) ?  getInterfaces() : info.getSuperInterfaces();
1167     }
1168 
1169 
1170     /**
1171      * Returns the {@code Class} representing the component type of an
1172      * array.  If this class does not represent an array class this method
1173      * returns null.
1174      *
1175      * @return the {@code Class} representing the component type of this
1176      * class if this class is an array
1177      * @see     java.lang.reflect.Array
1178      * @since 1.1
1179      */
1180     public Class<?> getComponentType() {
1181         // Only return for array types. Storage may be reused for Class for instance types.
1182         if (isArray()) {
1183             return componentType;
1184         } else {
1185             return null;
1186         }
1187     }
1188 
1189     private final Class<?> componentType;
1190 
1191 
1192     /**
1193      * Returns the Java language modifiers for this class or interface, encoded
1194      * in an integer. The modifiers consist of the Java Virtual Machine's
1195      * constants for {@code public}, {@code protected},
1196      * {@code private}, {@code final}, {@code static},
1197      * {@code abstract} and {@code interface}; they should be decoded
1198      * using the methods of class {@code Modifier}.
1199      *
1200      * <p> If the underlying class is an array class, then its
1201      * {@code public}, {@code private} and {@code protected}
1202      * modifiers are the same as those of its component type.  If this
1203      * {@code Class} represents a primitive type or void, its
1204      * {@code public} modifier is always {@code true}, and its
1205      * {@code protected} and {@code private} modifiers are always
1206      * {@code false}. If this object represents an array class, a
1207      * primitive type or void, then its {@code final} modifier is always
1208      * {@code true} and its interface modifier is always
1209      * {@code false}. The values of its other modifiers are not determined
1210      * by this specification.
1211      *
1212      * <p> The modifier encodings are defined in <em>The Java Virtual Machine
1213      * Specification</em>, table 4.1.
1214      *
1215      * @return the {@code int} representing the modifiers for this class
1216      * @see     java.lang.reflect.Modifier
1217      * @since 1.1
1218      */
1219     @HotSpotIntrinsicCandidate
1220     public native int getModifiers();
1221 
1222 
1223     /**
1224      * Gets the signers of this class.
1225      *
1226      * @return  the signers of this class, or null if there are no signers.  In
1227      *          particular, this method returns null if this object represents
1228      *          a primitive type or void.
1229      * @since   1.1
1230      */
1231     public native Object[] getSigners();
1232 
1233 
1234     /**
1235      * Set the signers of this class.
1236      */
1237     native void setSigners(Object[] signers);
1238 
1239 
1240     /**
1241      * If this {@code Class} object represents a local or anonymous
1242      * class within a method, returns a {@link
1243      * java.lang.reflect.Method Method} object representing the
1244      * immediately enclosing method of the underlying class. Returns
1245      * {@code null} otherwise.
1246      *
1247      * In particular, this method returns {@code null} if the underlying
1248      * class is a local or anonymous class immediately enclosed by a type
1249      * declaration, instance initializer or static initializer.
1250      *
1251      * @return the immediately enclosing method of the underlying class, if
1252      *     that class is a local or anonymous class; otherwise {@code null}.
1253      *
1254      * @throws SecurityException
1255      *         If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and any of the
1256      *         following conditions is met:
1257      *
1258      *         <ul>
1259      *
1260      *         <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as the
1261      *         class loader of the enclosing class and invocation of
1262      *         {@link SecurityManager#checkPermission
1263      *         s.checkPermission} method with
1264      *         {@code RuntimePermission("accessDeclaredMembers")}
1265      *         denies access to the methods within the enclosing class
1266      *
1267      *         <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
1268      *         ancestor of the class loader for the enclosing class and
1269      *         invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
1270      *         s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
1271      *         of the enclosing class
1272      *
1273      *         </ul>
1274      * @since 1.5
1275      */
1276     @CallerSensitive
1277     public Method getEnclosingMethod() throws SecurityException {
1278         EnclosingMethodInfo enclosingInfo = getEnclosingMethodInfo();
1279 
1280         if (enclosingInfo == null)
1281             return null;
1282         else {
1283             if (!enclosingInfo.isMethod())
1284                 return null;
1285 
1286             MethodRepository typeInfo = MethodRepository.make(enclosingInfo.getDescriptor(),
1287                                                               getFactory());
1288             Class<?>   returnType       = toClass(typeInfo.getReturnType());
1289             Type []    parameterTypes   = typeInfo.getParameterTypes();
1290             Class<?>[] parameterClasses = new Class<?>[parameterTypes.length];
1291 
1292             // Convert Types to Classes; returned types *should*
1293             // be class objects since the methodDescriptor's used
1294             // don't have generics information
1295             for(int i = 0; i < parameterClasses.length; i++)
1296                 parameterClasses[i] = toClass(parameterTypes[i]);
1297 
1298             // Perform access check
1299             final Class<?> enclosingCandidate = enclosingInfo.getEnclosingClass();
1300             SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
1301             if (sm != null) {
1302                 enclosingCandidate.checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.DECLARED,
1303                                                      Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
1304             }
1305             Method[] candidates = enclosingCandidate.privateGetDeclaredMethods(false);
1306 
1307             /*
1308              * Loop over all declared methods; match method name,
1309              * number of and type of parameters, *and* return
1310              * type.  Matching return type is also necessary
1311              * because of covariant returns, etc.
1312              */
1313             ReflectionFactory fact = getReflectionFactory();
1314             for (Method m : candidates) {
1315                 if (m.getName().equals(enclosingInfo.getName()) &&
1316                     arrayContentsEq(parameterClasses,
1317                                     fact.getExecutableSharedParameterTypes(m))) {
1318                     // finally, check return type
1319                     if (m.getReturnType().equals(returnType)) {
1320                         return fact.copyMethod(m);
1321                     }
1322                 }
1323             }
1324 
1325             throw new InternalError("Enclosing method not found");
1326         }
1327     }
1328 
1329     private native Object[] getEnclosingMethod0();
1330 
1331     private EnclosingMethodInfo getEnclosingMethodInfo() {
1332         Object[] enclosingInfo = getEnclosingMethod0();
1333         if (enclosingInfo == null)
1334             return null;
1335         else {
1336             return new EnclosingMethodInfo(enclosingInfo);
1337         }
1338     }
1339 
1340     private static final class EnclosingMethodInfo {
1341         private final Class<?> enclosingClass;
1342         private final String name;
1343         private final String descriptor;
1344 
1345         static void validate(Object[] enclosingInfo) {
1346             if (enclosingInfo.length != 3)
1347                 throw new InternalError("Malformed enclosing method information");
1348             try {
1349                 // The array is expected to have three elements:
1350 
1351                 // the immediately enclosing class
1352                 Class<?> enclosingClass = (Class<?>)enclosingInfo[0];
1353                 assert(enclosingClass != null);
1354 
1355                 // the immediately enclosing method or constructor's
1356                 // name (can be null).
1357                 String name = (String)enclosingInfo[1];
1358 
1359                 // the immediately enclosing method or constructor's
1360                 // descriptor (null iff name is).
1361                 String descriptor = (String)enclosingInfo[2];
1362                 assert((name != null && descriptor != null) || name == descriptor);
1363             } catch (ClassCastException cce) {
1364                 throw new InternalError("Invalid type in enclosing method information", cce);
1365             }
1366         }
1367 
1368         EnclosingMethodInfo(Object[] enclosingInfo) {
1369             validate(enclosingInfo);
1370             this.enclosingClass = (Class<?>)enclosingInfo[0];
1371             this.name = (String)enclosingInfo[1];
1372             this.descriptor = (String)enclosingInfo[2];
1373         }
1374 
1375         boolean isPartial() {
1376             return enclosingClass == null || name == null || descriptor == null;
1377         }
1378 
1379         boolean isConstructor() { return !isPartial() && "<init>".equals(name); }
1380 
1381         boolean isMethod() { return !isPartial() && !isConstructor() && !"<clinit>".equals(name); }
1382 
1383         Class<?> getEnclosingClass() { return enclosingClass; }
1384 
1385         String getName() { return name; }
1386 
1387         String getDescriptor() { return descriptor; }
1388 
1389     }
1390 
1391     private static Class<?> toClass(Type o) {
1392         if (o instanceof GenericArrayType)
1393             return Array.newInstance(toClass(((GenericArrayType)o).getGenericComponentType()),
1394                                      0)
1395                 .getClass();
1396         return (Class<?>)o;
1397      }
1398 
1399     /**
1400      * If this {@code Class} object represents a local or anonymous
1401      * class within a constructor, returns a {@link
1402      * java.lang.reflect.Constructor Constructor} object representing
1403      * the immediately enclosing constructor of the underlying
1404      * class. Returns {@code null} otherwise.  In particular, this
1405      * method returns {@code null} if the underlying class is a local
1406      * or anonymous class immediately enclosed by a type declaration,
1407      * instance initializer or static initializer.
1408      *
1409      * @return the immediately enclosing constructor of the underlying class, if
1410      *     that class is a local or anonymous class; otherwise {@code null}.
1411      * @throws SecurityException
1412      *         If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and any of the
1413      *         following conditions is met:
1414      *
1415      *         <ul>
1416      *
1417      *         <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as the
1418      *         class loader of the enclosing class and invocation of
1419      *         {@link SecurityManager#checkPermission
1420      *         s.checkPermission} method with
1421      *         {@code RuntimePermission("accessDeclaredMembers")}
1422      *         denies access to the constructors within the enclosing class
1423      *
1424      *         <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
1425      *         ancestor of the class loader for the enclosing class and
1426      *         invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
1427      *         s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
1428      *         of the enclosing class
1429      *
1430      *         </ul>
1431      * @since 1.5
1432      */
1433     @CallerSensitive
1434     public Constructor<?> getEnclosingConstructor() throws SecurityException {
1435         EnclosingMethodInfo enclosingInfo = getEnclosingMethodInfo();
1436 
1437         if (enclosingInfo == null)
1438             return null;
1439         else {
1440             if (!enclosingInfo.isConstructor())
1441                 return null;
1442 
1443             ConstructorRepository typeInfo = ConstructorRepository.make(enclosingInfo.getDescriptor(),
1444                                                                         getFactory());
1445             Type []    parameterTypes   = typeInfo.getParameterTypes();
1446             Class<?>[] parameterClasses = new Class<?>[parameterTypes.length];
1447 
1448             // Convert Types to Classes; returned types *should*
1449             // be class objects since the methodDescriptor's used
1450             // don't have generics information
1451             for(int i = 0; i < parameterClasses.length; i++)
1452                 parameterClasses[i] = toClass(parameterTypes[i]);
1453 
1454             // Perform access check
1455             final Class<?> enclosingCandidate = enclosingInfo.getEnclosingClass();
1456             SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
1457             if (sm != null) {
1458                 enclosingCandidate.checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.DECLARED,
1459                                                      Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
1460             }
1461 
1462             Constructor<?>[] candidates = enclosingCandidate
1463                     .privateGetDeclaredConstructors(false);
1464             /*
1465              * Loop over all declared constructors; match number
1466              * of and type of parameters.
1467              */
1468             ReflectionFactory fact = getReflectionFactory();
1469             for (Constructor<?> c : candidates) {
1470                 if (arrayContentsEq(parameterClasses,
1471                                     fact.getExecutableSharedParameterTypes(c))) {
1472                     return fact.copyConstructor(c);
1473                 }
1474             }
1475 
1476             throw new InternalError("Enclosing constructor not found");
1477         }
1478     }
1479 
1480 
1481     /**
1482      * If the class or interface represented by this {@code Class} object
1483      * is a member of another class, returns the {@code Class} object
1484      * representing the class in which it was declared.  This method returns
1485      * null if this class or interface is not a member of any other class.  If
1486      * this {@code Class} object represents an array class, a primitive
1487      * type, or void,then this method returns null.
1488      *
1489      * @return the declaring class for this class
1490      * @throws SecurityException
1491      *         If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and the caller's
1492      *         class loader is not the same as or an ancestor of the class
1493      *         loader for the declaring class and invocation of {@link
1494      *         SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess s.checkPackageAccess()}
1495      *         denies access to the package of the declaring class
1496      * @since 1.1
1497      */
1498     @CallerSensitive
1499     public Class<?> getDeclaringClass() throws SecurityException {
1500         final Class<?> candidate = getDeclaringClass0();
1501 
1502         if (candidate != null) {
1503             SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
1504             if (sm != null) {
1505                 candidate.checkPackageAccess(sm,
1506                     ClassLoader.getClassLoader(Reflection.getCallerClass()), true);
1507             }
1508         }
1509         return candidate;
1510     }
1511 
1512     private native Class<?> getDeclaringClass0();
1513 
1514 
1515     /**
1516      * Returns the immediately enclosing class of the underlying
1517      * class.  If the underlying class is a top level class this
1518      * method returns {@code null}.
1519      * @return the immediately enclosing class of the underlying class
1520      * @throws     SecurityException
1521      *             If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and the caller's
1522      *             class loader is not the same as or an ancestor of the class
1523      *             loader for the enclosing class and invocation of {@link
1524      *             SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess s.checkPackageAccess()}
1525      *             denies access to the package of the enclosing class
1526      * @since 1.5
1527      */
1528     @CallerSensitive
1529     public Class<?> getEnclosingClass() throws SecurityException {
1530         // There are five kinds of classes (or interfaces):
1531         // a) Top level classes
1532         // b) Nested classes (static member classes)
1533         // c) Inner classes (non-static member classes)
1534         // d) Local classes (named classes declared within a method)
1535         // e) Anonymous classes
1536 
1537 
1538         // JVM Spec 4.7.7: A class must have an EnclosingMethod
1539         // attribute if and only if it is a local class or an
1540         // anonymous class.
1541         EnclosingMethodInfo enclosingInfo = getEnclosingMethodInfo();
1542         Class<?> enclosingCandidate;
1543 
1544         if (enclosingInfo == null) {
1545             // This is a top level or a nested class or an inner class (a, b, or c)
1546             enclosingCandidate = getDeclaringClass0();
1547         } else {
1548             Class<?> enclosingClass = enclosingInfo.getEnclosingClass();
1549             // This is a local class or an anonymous class (d or e)
1550             if (enclosingClass == this || enclosingClass == null)
1551                 throw new InternalError("Malformed enclosing method information");
1552             else
1553                 enclosingCandidate = enclosingClass;
1554         }
1555 
1556         if (enclosingCandidate != null) {
1557             SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
1558             if (sm != null) {
1559                 enclosingCandidate.checkPackageAccess(sm,
1560                     ClassLoader.getClassLoader(Reflection.getCallerClass()), true);
1561             }
1562         }
1563         return enclosingCandidate;
1564     }
1565 
1566     /**
1567      * Returns the simple name of the underlying class as given in the
1568      * source code. Returns an empty string if the underlying class is
1569      * anonymous.
1570      *
1571      * <p>The simple name of an array is the simple name of the
1572      * component type with "[]" appended.  In particular the simple
1573      * name of an array whose component type is anonymous is "[]".
1574      *
1575      * @return the simple name of the underlying class
1576      * @since 1.5
1577      */
1578     public String getSimpleName() {
1579         ReflectionData<T> rd = reflectionData();
1580         String simpleName = rd.simpleName;
1581         if (simpleName == null) {
1582             rd.simpleName = simpleName = getSimpleName0();
1583         }
1584         return simpleName;
1585     }
1586 
1587     private String getSimpleName0() {
1588         if (isArray()) {
1589             return getComponentType().getSimpleName() + "[]";
1590         }
1591         String simpleName = getSimpleBinaryName();
1592         if (simpleName == null) { // top level class
1593             simpleName = getName();
1594             simpleName = simpleName.substring(simpleName.lastIndexOf('.') + 1); // strip the package name
1595         }
1596         return simpleName;
1597     }
1598 
1599     /**
1600      * Return an informative string for the name of this type.
1601      *
1602      * @return an informative string for the name of this type
1603      * @since 1.8
1604      */
1605     public String getTypeName() {
1606         if (isArray()) {
1607             try {
1608                 Class<?> cl = this;
1609                 int dimensions = 0;
1610                 do {
1611                     dimensions++;
1612                     cl = cl.getComponentType();
1613                 } while (cl.isArray());
1614                 return cl.getName() + "[]".repeat(dimensions);
1615             } catch (Throwable e) { /*FALLTHRU*/ }
1616         }
1617         return getName();
1618     }
1619 
1620     /**
1621      * Returns the canonical name of the underlying class as
1622      * defined by the Java Language Specification.  Returns null if
1623      * the underlying class does not have a canonical name (i.e., if
1624      * it is a local or anonymous class or an array whose component
1625      * type does not have a canonical name).
1626      * @return the canonical name of the underlying class if it exists, and
1627      * {@code null} otherwise.
1628      * @since 1.5
1629      */
1630     public String getCanonicalName() {
1631         ReflectionData<T> rd = reflectionData();
1632         String canonicalName = rd.canonicalName;
1633         if (canonicalName == null) {
1634             rd.canonicalName = canonicalName = getCanonicalName0();
1635         }
1636         return canonicalName == ReflectionData.NULL_SENTINEL? null : canonicalName;
1637     }
1638 
1639     private String getCanonicalName0() {
1640         if (isArray()) {
1641             String canonicalName = getComponentType().getCanonicalName();
1642             if (canonicalName != null)
1643                 return canonicalName + "[]";
1644             else
1645                 return ReflectionData.NULL_SENTINEL;
1646         }
1647         if (isHiddenClass() || isLocalOrAnonymousClass())
1648             return ReflectionData.NULL_SENTINEL;
1649         Class<?> enclosingClass = getEnclosingClass();
1650         if (enclosingClass == null) { // top level class
1651             return getName();
1652         } else {
1653             String enclosingName = enclosingClass.getCanonicalName();
1654             if (enclosingName == null)
1655                 return ReflectionData.NULL_SENTINEL;
1656             return enclosingName + "." + getSimpleName();
1657         }
1658     }
1659 
1660     /**
1661      * Returns {@code true} if and only if the underlying class
1662      * is an anonymous class.  An anonymous class is not a
1663      * {@linkplain #isHiddenClass() hidden class}.
1664      *
1665      * @return {@code true} if and only if this class is an anonymous class.
1666      * @since 1.5
1667      */
1668     public boolean isAnonymousClass() {
1669         return !isArray() && isLocalOrAnonymousClass() &&
1670                 getSimpleBinaryName0() == null;
1671     }
1672 
1673     /**
1674      * Returns {@code true} if and only if the underlying class
1675      * is a local class.
1676      *
1677      * @return {@code true} if and only if this class is a local class.
1678      * @since 1.5
1679      */
1680     public boolean isLocalClass() {
1681         return isLocalOrAnonymousClass() &&
1682                 (isArray() || getSimpleBinaryName0() != null);
1683     }
1684 
1685     /**
1686      * Returns {@code true} if and only if the underlying class
1687      * is a member class.
1688      *
1689      * @return {@code true} if and only if this class is a member class.
1690      * @since 1.5
1691      */
1692     public boolean isMemberClass() {
1693         return !isLocalOrAnonymousClass() && getDeclaringClass0() != null;
1694     }
1695 
1696     /**
1697      * Returns the "simple binary name" of the underlying class, i.e.,
1698      * the binary name without the leading enclosing class name.
1699      * Returns {@code null} if the underlying class is a top level
1700      * class.
1701      */
1702     private String getSimpleBinaryName() {
1703         if (isTopLevelClass())
1704             return null;
1705         String name = getSimpleBinaryName0();
1706         if (name == null) // anonymous class
1707             return "";
1708         return name;
1709     }
1710 
1711     private native String getSimpleBinaryName0();
1712 
1713     /**
1714      * Returns {@code true} if this is a top level class.  Returns {@code false}
1715      * otherwise.
1716      */
1717     private boolean isTopLevelClass() {
1718         return !isLocalOrAnonymousClass() && getDeclaringClass0() == null;
1719     }
1720 
1721     /**
1722      * Returns {@code true} if this is a local class or an anonymous
1723      * class.  Returns {@code false} otherwise.
1724      */
1725     private boolean isLocalOrAnonymousClass() {
1726         // JVM Spec 4.7.7: A class must have an EnclosingMethod
1727         // attribute if and only if it is a local class or an
1728         // anonymous class.
1729         return hasEnclosingMethodInfo();
1730     }
1731 
1732     private boolean hasEnclosingMethodInfo() {
1733         Object[] enclosingInfo = getEnclosingMethod0();
1734         if (enclosingInfo != null) {
1735             EnclosingMethodInfo.validate(enclosingInfo);
1736             return true;
1737         }
1738         return false;
1739     }
1740 
1741     /**
1742      * Returns an array containing {@code Class} objects representing all
1743      * the public classes and interfaces that are members of the class
1744      * represented by this {@code Class} object.  This includes public
1745      * class and interface members inherited from superclasses and public class
1746      * and interface members declared by the class.  This method returns an
1747      * array of length 0 if this {@code Class} object has no public member
1748      * classes or interfaces.  This method also returns an array of length 0 if
1749      * this {@code Class} object represents a primitive type, an array
1750      * class, or void.
1751      *
1752      * @return the array of {@code Class} objects representing the public
1753      *         members of this class
1754      * @throws SecurityException
1755      *         If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and
1756      *         the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
1757      *         ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
1758      *         invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
1759      *         s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
1760      *         of this class.
1761      *
1762      * @since 1.1
1763      */
1764     @CallerSensitive
1765     public Class<?>[] getClasses() {
1766         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
1767         if (sm != null) {
1768             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.PUBLIC, Reflection.getCallerClass(), false);
1769         }
1770 
1771         // Privileged so this implementation can look at DECLARED classes,
1772         // something the caller might not have privilege to do.  The code here
1773         // is allowed to look at DECLARED classes because (1) it does not hand
1774         // out anything other than public members and (2) public member access
1775         // has already been ok'd by the SecurityManager.
1776 
1777         return java.security.AccessController.doPrivileged(
1778             new java.security.PrivilegedAction<>() {
1779                 public Class<?>[] run() {
1780                     List<Class<?>> list = new ArrayList<>();
1781                     Class<?> currentClass = Class.this;
1782                     while (currentClass != null) {
1783                         for (Class<?> m : currentClass.getDeclaredClasses()) {
1784                             if (Modifier.isPublic(m.getModifiers())) {
1785                                 list.add(m);
1786                             }
1787                         }
1788                         currentClass = currentClass.getSuperclass();
1789                     }
1790                     return list.toArray(new Class<?>[0]);
1791                 }
1792             });
1793     }
1794 
1795 
1796     /**
1797      * Returns an array containing {@code Field} objects reflecting all
1798      * the accessible public fields of the class or interface represented by
1799      * this {@code Class} object.
1800      *
1801      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents a class or interface with
1802      * no accessible public fields, then this method returns an array of length
1803      * 0.
1804      *
1805      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents a class, then this method
1806      * returns the public fields of the class and of all its superclasses and
1807      * superinterfaces.
1808      *
1809      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents an interface, then this
1810      * method returns the fields of the interface and of all its
1811      * superinterfaces.
1812      *
1813      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents an array type, a primitive
1814      * type, or void, then this method returns an array of length 0.
1815      *
1816      * <p> The elements in the returned array are not sorted and are not in any
1817      * particular order.
1818      *
1819      * @return the array of {@code Field} objects representing the
1820      *         public fields
1821      * @throws SecurityException
1822      *         If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and
1823      *         the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
1824      *         ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
1825      *         invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
1826      *         s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
1827      *         of this class.
1828      *
1829      * @since 1.1
1830      * @jls 8.2 Class Members
1831      * @jls 8.3 Field Declarations
1832      */
1833     @CallerSensitive
1834     public Field[] getFields() throws SecurityException {
1835         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
1836         if (sm != null) {
1837             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.PUBLIC, Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
1838         }
1839         return copyFields(privateGetPublicFields());
1840     }
1841 
1842 
1843     /**
1844      * Returns an array containing {@code Method} objects reflecting all the
1845      * public methods of the class or interface represented by this {@code
1846      * Class} object, including those declared by the class or interface and
1847      * those inherited from superclasses and superinterfaces.
1848      *
1849      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents an array type, then the
1850      * returned array has a {@code Method} object for each of the public
1851      * methods inherited by the array type from {@code Object}. It does not
1852      * contain a {@code Method} object for {@code clone()}.
1853      *
1854      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents an interface then the
1855      * returned array does not contain any implicitly declared methods from
1856      * {@code Object}. Therefore, if no methods are explicitly declared in
1857      * this interface or any of its superinterfaces then the returned array
1858      * has length 0. (Note that a {@code Class} object which represents a class
1859      * always has public methods, inherited from {@code Object}.)
1860      *
1861      * <p> The returned array never contains methods with names "{@code <init>}"
1862      * or "{@code <clinit>}".
1863      *
1864      * <p> The elements in the returned array are not sorted and are not in any
1865      * particular order.
1866      *
1867      * <p> Generally, the result is computed as with the following 4 step algorithm.
1868      * Let C be the class or interface represented by this {@code Class} object:
1869      * <ol>
1870      * <li> A union of methods is composed of:
1871      *   <ol type="a">
1872      *   <li> C's declared public instance and static methods as returned by
1873      *        {@link #getDeclaredMethods()} and filtered to include only public
1874      *        methods.</li>
1875      *   <li> If C is a class other than {@code Object}, then include the result
1876      *        of invoking this algorithm recursively on the superclass of C.</li>
1877      *   <li> Include the results of invoking this algorithm recursively on all
1878      *        direct superinterfaces of C, but include only instance methods.</li>
1879      *   </ol></li>
1880      * <li> Union from step 1 is partitioned into subsets of methods with same
1881      *      signature (name, parameter types) and return type.</li>
1882      * <li> Within each such subset only the most specific methods are selected.
1883      *      Let method M be a method from a set of methods with same signature
1884      *      and return type. M is most specific if there is no such method
1885      *      N != M from the same set, such that N is more specific than M.
1886      *      N is more specific than M if:
1887      *   <ol type="a">
1888      *   <li> N is declared by a class and M is declared by an interface; or</li>
1889      *   <li> N and M are both declared by classes or both by interfaces and
1890      *        N's declaring type is the same as or a subtype of M's declaring type
1891      *        (clearly, if M's and N's declaring types are the same type, then
1892      *        M and N are the same method).</li>
1893      *   </ol></li>
1894      * <li> The result of this algorithm is the union of all selected methods from
1895      *      step 3.</li>
1896      * </ol>
1897      *
1898      * @apiNote There may be more than one method with a particular name
1899      * and parameter types in a class because while the Java language forbids a
1900      * class to declare multiple methods with the same signature but different
1901      * return types, the Java virtual machine does not.  This
1902      * increased flexibility in the virtual machine can be used to
1903      * implement various language features.  For example, covariant
1904      * returns can be implemented with {@linkplain
1905      * java.lang.reflect.Method#isBridge bridge methods}; the bridge
1906      * method and the overriding method would have the same
1907      * signature but different return types.
1908      *
1909      * @return the array of {@code Method} objects representing the
1910      *         public methods of this class
1911      * @throws SecurityException
1912      *         If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and
1913      *         the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
1914      *         ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
1915      *         invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
1916      *         s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
1917      *         of this class.
1918      *
1919      * @jls 8.2 Class Members
1920      * @jls 8.4 Method Declarations
1921      * @since 1.1
1922      */
1923     @CallerSensitive
1924     public Method[] getMethods() throws SecurityException {
1925         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
1926         if (sm != null) {
1927             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.PUBLIC, Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
1928         }
1929         return copyMethods(privateGetPublicMethods());
1930     }
1931 
1932 
1933     /**
1934      * Returns an array containing {@code Constructor} objects reflecting
1935      * all the public constructors of the class represented by this
1936      * {@code Class} object.  An array of length 0 is returned if the
1937      * class has no public constructors, or if the class is an array class, or
1938      * if the class reflects a primitive type or void.
1939      *
1940      * Note that while this method returns an array of {@code
1941      * Constructor<T>} objects (that is an array of constructors from
1942      * this class), the return type of this method is {@code
1943      * Constructor<?>[]} and <em>not</em> {@code Constructor<T>[]} as
1944      * might be expected.  This less informative return type is
1945      * necessary since after being returned from this method, the
1946      * array could be modified to hold {@code Constructor} objects for
1947      * different classes, which would violate the type guarantees of
1948      * {@code Constructor<T>[]}.
1949      *
1950      * @return the array of {@code Constructor} objects representing the
1951      *         public constructors of this class
1952      * @throws SecurityException
1953      *         If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and
1954      *         the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
1955      *         ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
1956      *         invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
1957      *         s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
1958      *         of this class.
1959      *
1960      * @since 1.1
1961      */
1962     @CallerSensitive
1963     public Constructor<?>[] getConstructors() throws SecurityException {
1964         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
1965         if (sm != null) {
1966             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.PUBLIC, Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
1967         }
1968         return copyConstructors(privateGetDeclaredConstructors(true));
1969     }
1970 
1971 
1972     /**
1973      * Returns a {@code Field} object that reflects the specified public member
1974      * field of the class or interface represented by this {@code Class}
1975      * object. The {@code name} parameter is a {@code String} specifying the
1976      * simple name of the desired field.
1977      *
1978      * <p> The field to be reflected is determined by the algorithm that
1979      * follows.  Let C be the class or interface represented by this object:
1980      *
1981      * <OL>
1982      * <LI> If C declares a public field with the name specified, that is the
1983      *      field to be reflected.</LI>
1984      * <LI> If no field was found in step 1 above, this algorithm is applied
1985      *      recursively to each direct superinterface of C. The direct
1986      *      superinterfaces are searched in the order they were declared.</LI>
1987      * <LI> If no field was found in steps 1 and 2 above, and C has a
1988      *      superclass S, then this algorithm is invoked recursively upon S.
1989      *      If C has no superclass, then a {@code NoSuchFieldException}
1990      *      is thrown.</LI>
1991      * </OL>
1992      *
1993      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents an array type, then this
1994      * method does not find the {@code length} field of the array type.
1995      *
1996      * @param name the field name
1997      * @return the {@code Field} object of this class specified by
1998      *         {@code name}
1999      * @throws NoSuchFieldException if a field with the specified name is
2000      *         not found.
2001      * @throws NullPointerException if {@code name} is {@code null}
2002      * @throws SecurityException
2003      *         If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and
2004      *         the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
2005      *         ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
2006      *         invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
2007      *         s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
2008      *         of this class.
2009      *
2010      * @since 1.1
2011      * @jls 8.2 Class Members
2012      * @jls 8.3 Field Declarations
2013      */
2014     @CallerSensitive
2015     public Field getField(String name)
2016         throws NoSuchFieldException, SecurityException {
2017         Objects.requireNonNull(name);
2018         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
2019         if (sm != null) {
2020             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.PUBLIC, Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
2021         }
2022         Field field = getField0(name);
2023         if (field == null) {
2024             throw new NoSuchFieldException(name);
2025         }
2026         return getReflectionFactory().copyField(field);
2027     }
2028 
2029 
2030     /**
2031      * Returns a {@code Method} object that reflects the specified public
2032      * member method of the class or interface represented by this
2033      * {@code Class} object. The {@code name} parameter is a
2034      * {@code String} specifying the simple name of the desired method. The
2035      * {@code parameterTypes} parameter is an array of {@code Class}
2036      * objects that identify the method's formal parameter types, in declared
2037      * order. If {@code parameterTypes} is {@code null}, it is
2038      * treated as if it were an empty array.
2039      *
2040      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents an array type, then this
2041      * method finds any public method inherited by the array type from
2042      * {@code Object} except method {@code clone()}.
2043      *
2044      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents an interface then this
2045      * method does not find any implicitly declared method from
2046      * {@code Object}. Therefore, if no methods are explicitly declared in
2047      * this interface or any of its superinterfaces, then this method does not
2048      * find any method.
2049      *
2050      * <p> This method does not find any method with name "{@code <init>}" or
2051      * "{@code <clinit>}".
2052      *
2053      * <p> Generally, the method to be reflected is determined by the 4 step
2054      * algorithm that follows.
2055      * Let C be the class or interface represented by this {@code Class} object:
2056      * <ol>
2057      * <li> A union of methods is composed of:
2058      *   <ol type="a">
2059      *   <li> C's declared public instance and static methods as returned by
2060      *        {@link #getDeclaredMethods()} and filtered to include only public
2061      *        methods that match given {@code name} and {@code parameterTypes}</li>
2062      *   <li> If C is a class other than {@code Object}, then include the result
2063      *        of invoking this algorithm recursively on the superclass of C.</li>
2064      *   <li> Include the results of invoking this algorithm recursively on all
2065      *        direct superinterfaces of C, but include only instance methods.</li>
2066      *   </ol></li>
2067      * <li> This union is partitioned into subsets of methods with same
2068      *      return type (the selection of methods from step 1 also guarantees that
2069      *      they have the same method name and parameter types).</li>
2070      * <li> Within each such subset only the most specific methods are selected.
2071      *      Let method M be a method from a set of methods with same VM
2072      *      signature (return type, name, parameter types).
2073      *      M is most specific if there is no such method N != M from the same
2074      *      set, such that N is more specific than M. N is more specific than M
2075      *      if:
2076      *   <ol type="a">
2077      *   <li> N is declared by a class and M is declared by an interface; or</li>
2078      *   <li> N and M are both declared by classes or both by interfaces and
2079      *        N's declaring type is the same as or a subtype of M's declaring type
2080      *        (clearly, if M's and N's declaring types are the same type, then
2081      *        M and N are the same method).</li>
2082      *   </ol></li>
2083      * <li> The result of this algorithm is chosen arbitrarily from the methods
2084      *      with most specific return type among all selected methods from step 3.
2085      *      Let R be a return type of a method M from the set of all selected methods
2086      *      from step 3. M is a method with most specific return type if there is
2087      *      no such method N != M from the same set, having return type S != R,
2088      *      such that S is a subtype of R as determined by
2089      *      R.class.{@link #isAssignableFrom}(S.class).
2090      * </ol>
2091      *
2092      * @apiNote There may be more than one method with matching name and
2093      * parameter types in a class because while the Java language forbids a
2094      * class to declare multiple methods with the same signature but different
2095      * return types, the Java virtual machine does not.  This
2096      * increased flexibility in the virtual machine can be used to
2097      * implement various language features.  For example, covariant
2098      * returns can be implemented with {@linkplain
2099      * java.lang.reflect.Method#isBridge bridge methods}; the bridge
2100      * method and the overriding method would have the same
2101      * signature but different return types. This method would return the
2102      * overriding method as it would have a more specific return type.
2103      *
2104      * @param name the name of the method
2105      * @param parameterTypes the list of parameters
2106      * @return the {@code Method} object that matches the specified
2107      *         {@code name} and {@code parameterTypes}
2108      * @throws NoSuchMethodException if a matching method is not found
2109      *         or if the name is "&lt;init&gt;"or "&lt;clinit&gt;".
2110      * @throws NullPointerException if {@code name} is {@code null}
2111      * @throws SecurityException
2112      *         If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and
2113      *         the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
2114      *         ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
2115      *         invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
2116      *         s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
2117      *         of this class.
2118      *
2119      * @jls 8.2 Class Members
2120      * @jls 8.4 Method Declarations
2121      * @since 1.1
2122      */
2123     @CallerSensitive
2124     public Method getMethod(String name, Class<?>... parameterTypes)
2125         throws NoSuchMethodException, SecurityException {
2126         Objects.requireNonNull(name);
2127         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
2128         if (sm != null) {
2129             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.PUBLIC, Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
2130         }
2131         Method method = getMethod0(name, parameterTypes);
2132         if (method == null) {
2133             throw new NoSuchMethodException(methodToString(name, parameterTypes));
2134         }
2135         return getReflectionFactory().copyMethod(method);
2136     }
2137 
2138     /**
2139      * Returns a {@code Constructor} object that reflects the specified
2140      * public constructor of the class represented by this {@code Class}
2141      * object. The {@code parameterTypes} parameter is an array of
2142      * {@code Class} objects that identify the constructor's formal
2143      * parameter types, in declared order.
2144      *
2145      * If this {@code Class} object represents an inner class
2146      * declared in a non-static context, the formal parameter types
2147      * include the explicit enclosing instance as the first parameter.
2148      *
2149      * <p> The constructor to reflect is the public constructor of the class
2150      * represented by this {@code Class} object whose formal parameter
2151      * types match those specified by {@code parameterTypes}.
2152      *
2153      * @param parameterTypes the parameter array
2154      * @return the {@code Constructor} object of the public constructor that
2155      *         matches the specified {@code parameterTypes}
2156      * @throws NoSuchMethodException if a matching method is not found.
2157      * @throws SecurityException
2158      *         If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and
2159      *         the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
2160      *         ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
2161      *         invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
2162      *         s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
2163      *         of this class.
2164      *
2165      * @since 1.1
2166      */
2167     @CallerSensitive
2168     public Constructor<T> getConstructor(Class<?>... parameterTypes)
2169         throws NoSuchMethodException, SecurityException
2170     {
2171         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
2172         if (sm != null) {
2173             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.PUBLIC, Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
2174         }
2175         return getReflectionFactory().copyConstructor(
2176             getConstructor0(parameterTypes, Member.PUBLIC));
2177     }
2178 
2179 
2180     /**
2181      * Returns an array of {@code Class} objects reflecting all the
2182      * classes and interfaces declared as members of the class represented by
2183      * this {@code Class} object. This includes public, protected, default
2184      * (package) access, and private classes and interfaces declared by the
2185      * class, but excludes inherited classes and interfaces.  This method
2186      * returns an array of length 0 if the class declares no classes or
2187      * interfaces as members, or if this {@code Class} object represents a
2188      * primitive type, an array class, or void.
2189      *
2190      * @return the array of {@code Class} objects representing all the
2191      *         declared members of this class
2192      * @throws SecurityException
2193      *         If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and any of the
2194      *         following conditions is met:
2195      *
2196      *         <ul>
2197      *
2198      *         <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as the
2199      *         class loader of this class and invocation of
2200      *         {@link SecurityManager#checkPermission
2201      *         s.checkPermission} method with
2202      *         {@code RuntimePermission("accessDeclaredMembers")}
2203      *         denies access to the declared classes within this class
2204      *
2205      *         <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
2206      *         ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
2207      *         invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
2208      *         s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
2209      *         of this class
2210      *
2211      *         </ul>
2212      *
2213      * @since 1.1
2214      */
2215     @CallerSensitive
2216     public Class<?>[] getDeclaredClasses() throws SecurityException {
2217         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
2218         if (sm != null) {
2219             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.DECLARED, Reflection.getCallerClass(), false);
2220         }
2221         return getDeclaredClasses0();
2222     }
2223 
2224 
2225     /**
2226      * Returns an array of {@code Field} objects reflecting all the fields
2227      * declared by the class or interface represented by this
2228      * {@code Class} object. This includes public, protected, default
2229      * (package) access, and private fields, but excludes inherited fields.
2230      *
2231      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents a class or interface with no
2232      * declared fields, then this method returns an array of length 0.
2233      *
2234      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents an array type, a primitive
2235      * type, or void, then this method returns an array of length 0.
2236      *
2237      * <p> The elements in the returned array are not sorted and are not in any
2238      * particular order.
2239      *
2240      * @return  the array of {@code Field} objects representing all the
2241      *          declared fields of this class
2242      * @throws  SecurityException
2243      *          If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and any of the
2244      *          following conditions is met:
2245      *
2246      *          <ul>
2247      *
2248      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as the
2249      *          class loader of this class and invocation of
2250      *          {@link SecurityManager#checkPermission
2251      *          s.checkPermission} method with
2252      *          {@code RuntimePermission("accessDeclaredMembers")}
2253      *          denies access to the declared fields within this class
2254      *
2255      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
2256      *          ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
2257      *          invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
2258      *          s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
2259      *          of this class
2260      *
2261      *          </ul>
2262      *
2263      * @since 1.1
2264      * @jls 8.2 Class Members
2265      * @jls 8.3 Field Declarations
2266      */
2267     @CallerSensitive
2268     public Field[] getDeclaredFields() throws SecurityException {
2269         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
2270         if (sm != null) {
2271             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.DECLARED, Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
2272         }
2273         return copyFields(privateGetDeclaredFields(false));
2274     }
2275 
2276     /**
2277      * {@preview Associated with records, a preview feature of the Java language.
2278      *
2279      *           This method is associated with <i>records</i>, a preview
2280      *           feature of the Java language. Preview features
2281      *           may be removed in a future release, or upgraded to permanent
2282      *           features of the Java language.}
2283      *
2284      * Returns an array of {@code RecordComponent} objects representing all the
2285      * record components of this record class, or {@code null} if this class is
2286      * not a record class.
2287      *
2288      * <p> The components are returned in the same order that they are declared
2289      * in the record header. The array is empty if this record class has no
2290      * components. If the class is not a record class, that is {@link
2291      * #isRecord()} returns {@code false}, then this method returns {@code null}.
2292      * Conversely, if {@link #isRecord()} returns {@code true}, then this method
2293      * returns a non-null value.
2294      *
2295      * @return  An array of {@code RecordComponent} objects representing all the
2296      *          record components of this record class, or {@code null} if this
2297      *          class is not a record class
2298      * @throws  SecurityException
2299      *          If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and any of the
2300      *          following conditions is met:
2301      *
2302      *          <ul>
2303      *
2304      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as the
2305      *          class loader of this class and invocation of
2306      *          {@link SecurityManager#checkPermission
2307      *          s.checkPermission} method with
2308      *          {@code RuntimePermission("accessDeclaredMembers")}
2309      *          denies access to the declared methods within this class
2310      *
2311      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
2312      *          ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
2313      *          invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
2314      *          s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
2315      *          of this class
2316      *
2317      *          </ul>
2318      *
2319      * @jls 8.10 Record Types
2320      * @since 14
2321      */
2322     @jdk.internal.PreviewFeature(feature=jdk.internal.PreviewFeature.Feature.RECORDS,
2323                                  essentialAPI=false)
2324     @SuppressWarnings("preview")
2325     @CallerSensitive
2326     public RecordComponent[] getRecordComponents() {
2327         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
2328         if (sm != null) {
2329             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.DECLARED, Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
2330         }
2331         if (!isRecord()) {
2332             return null;
2333         }
2334         RecordComponent[] recordComponents = getRecordComponents0();
2335         if (recordComponents == null) {
2336             return new RecordComponent[0];
2337         }
2338         return recordComponents;
2339     }
2340 
2341     /**
2342      * Returns an array containing {@code Method} objects reflecting all the
2343      * declared methods of the class or interface represented by this {@code
2344      * Class} object, including public, protected, default (package)
2345      * access, and private methods, but excluding inherited methods.
2346      *
2347      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents a type that has multiple
2348      * declared methods with the same name and parameter types, but different
2349      * return types, then the returned array has a {@code Method} object for
2350      * each such method.
2351      *
2352      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents a type that has a class
2353      * initialization method {@code <clinit>}, then the returned array does
2354      * <em>not</em> have a corresponding {@code Method} object.
2355      *
2356      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents a class or interface with no
2357      * declared methods, then the returned array has length 0.
2358      *
2359      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents an array type, a primitive
2360      * type, or void, then the returned array has length 0.
2361      *
2362      * <p> The elements in the returned array are not sorted and are not in any
2363      * particular order.
2364      *
2365      * @return  the array of {@code Method} objects representing all the
2366      *          declared methods of this class
2367      * @throws  SecurityException
2368      *          If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and any of the
2369      *          following conditions is met:
2370      *
2371      *          <ul>
2372      *
2373      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as the
2374      *          class loader of this class and invocation of
2375      *          {@link SecurityManager#checkPermission
2376      *          s.checkPermission} method with
2377      *          {@code RuntimePermission("accessDeclaredMembers")}
2378      *          denies access to the declared methods within this class
2379      *
2380      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
2381      *          ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
2382      *          invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
2383      *          s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
2384      *          of this class
2385      *
2386      *          </ul>
2387      *
2388      * @jls 8.2 Class Members
2389      * @jls 8.4 Method Declarations
2390      * @since 1.1
2391      */
2392     @CallerSensitive
2393     public Method[] getDeclaredMethods() throws SecurityException {
2394         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
2395         if (sm != null) {
2396             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.DECLARED, Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
2397         }
2398         return copyMethods(privateGetDeclaredMethods(false));
2399     }
2400 
2401 
2402     /**
2403      * Returns an array of {@code Constructor} objects reflecting all the
2404      * constructors declared by the class represented by this
2405      * {@code Class} object. These are public, protected, default
2406      * (package) access, and private constructors.  The elements in the array
2407      * returned are not sorted and are not in any particular order.  If the
2408      * class has a default constructor, it is included in the returned array.
2409      * This method returns an array of length 0 if this {@code Class}
2410      * object represents an interface, a primitive type, an array class, or
2411      * void.
2412      *
2413      * <p> See <em>The Java Language Specification</em>, section {@jls 8.2}.
2414      *
2415      * @return  the array of {@code Constructor} objects representing all the
2416      *          declared constructors of this class
2417      * @throws  SecurityException
2418      *          If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and any of the
2419      *          following conditions is met:
2420      *
2421      *          <ul>
2422      *
2423      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as the
2424      *          class loader of this class and invocation of
2425      *          {@link SecurityManager#checkPermission
2426      *          s.checkPermission} method with
2427      *          {@code RuntimePermission("accessDeclaredMembers")}
2428      *          denies access to the declared constructors within this class
2429      *
2430      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
2431      *          ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
2432      *          invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
2433      *          s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
2434      *          of this class
2435      *
2436      *          </ul>
2437      *
2438      * @since 1.1
2439      */
2440     @CallerSensitive
2441     public Constructor<?>[] getDeclaredConstructors() throws SecurityException {
2442         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
2443         if (sm != null) {
2444             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.DECLARED, Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
2445         }
2446         return copyConstructors(privateGetDeclaredConstructors(false));
2447     }
2448 
2449 
2450     /**
2451      * Returns a {@code Field} object that reflects the specified declared
2452      * field of the class or interface represented by this {@code Class}
2453      * object. The {@code name} parameter is a {@code String} that specifies
2454      * the simple name of the desired field.
2455      *
2456      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents an array type, then this
2457      * method does not find the {@code length} field of the array type.
2458      *
2459      * @param name the name of the field
2460      * @return  the {@code Field} object for the specified field in this
2461      *          class
2462      * @throws  NoSuchFieldException if a field with the specified name is
2463      *          not found.
2464      * @throws  NullPointerException if {@code name} is {@code null}
2465      * @throws  SecurityException
2466      *          If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and any of the
2467      *          following conditions is met:
2468      *
2469      *          <ul>
2470      *
2471      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as the
2472      *          class loader of this class and invocation of
2473      *          {@link SecurityManager#checkPermission
2474      *          s.checkPermission} method with
2475      *          {@code RuntimePermission("accessDeclaredMembers")}
2476      *          denies access to the declared field
2477      *
2478      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
2479      *          ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
2480      *          invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
2481      *          s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
2482      *          of this class
2483      *
2484      *          </ul>
2485      *
2486      * @since 1.1
2487      * @jls 8.2 Class Members
2488      * @jls 8.3 Field Declarations
2489      */
2490     @CallerSensitive
2491     public Field getDeclaredField(String name)
2492         throws NoSuchFieldException, SecurityException {
2493         Objects.requireNonNull(name);
2494         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
2495         if (sm != null) {
2496             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.DECLARED, Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
2497         }
2498         Field field = searchFields(privateGetDeclaredFields(false), name);
2499         if (field == null) {
2500             throw new NoSuchFieldException(name);
2501         }
2502         return getReflectionFactory().copyField(field);
2503     }
2504 
2505 
2506     /**
2507      * Returns a {@code Method} object that reflects the specified
2508      * declared method of the class or interface represented by this
2509      * {@code Class} object. The {@code name} parameter is a
2510      * {@code String} that specifies the simple name of the desired
2511      * method, and the {@code parameterTypes} parameter is an array of
2512      * {@code Class} objects that identify the method's formal parameter
2513      * types, in declared order.  If more than one method with the same
2514      * parameter types is declared in a class, and one of these methods has a
2515      * return type that is more specific than any of the others, that method is
2516      * returned; otherwise one of the methods is chosen arbitrarily.  If the
2517      * name is "&lt;init&gt;"or "&lt;clinit&gt;" a {@code NoSuchMethodException}
2518      * is raised.
2519      *
2520      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents an array type, then this
2521      * method does not find the {@code clone()} method.
2522      *
2523      * @param name the name of the method
2524      * @param parameterTypes the parameter array
2525      * @return  the {@code Method} object for the method of this class
2526      *          matching the specified name and parameters
2527      * @throws  NoSuchMethodException if a matching method is not found.
2528      * @throws  NullPointerException if {@code name} is {@code null}
2529      * @throws  SecurityException
2530      *          If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and any of the
2531      *          following conditions is met:
2532      *
2533      *          <ul>
2534      *
2535      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as the
2536      *          class loader of this class and invocation of
2537      *          {@link SecurityManager#checkPermission
2538      *          s.checkPermission} method with
2539      *          {@code RuntimePermission("accessDeclaredMembers")}
2540      *          denies access to the declared method
2541      *
2542      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
2543      *          ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
2544      *          invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
2545      *          s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
2546      *          of this class
2547      *
2548      *          </ul>
2549      *
2550      * @jls 8.2 Class Members
2551      * @jls 8.4 Method Declarations
2552      * @since 1.1
2553      */
2554     @CallerSensitive
2555     public Method getDeclaredMethod(String name, Class<?>... parameterTypes)
2556         throws NoSuchMethodException, SecurityException {
2557         Objects.requireNonNull(name);
2558         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
2559         if (sm != null) {
2560             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.DECLARED, Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
2561         }
2562         Method method = searchMethods(privateGetDeclaredMethods(false), name, parameterTypes);
2563         if (method == null) {
2564             throw new NoSuchMethodException(methodToString(name, parameterTypes));
2565         }
2566         return getReflectionFactory().copyMethod(method);
2567     }
2568 
2569     /**
2570      * Returns the list of {@code Method} objects for the declared public
2571      * methods of this class or interface that have the specified method name
2572      * and parameter types.
2573      *
2574      * @param name the name of the method
2575      * @param parameterTypes the parameter array
2576      * @return the list of {@code Method} objects for the public methods of
2577      *         this class matching the specified name and parameters
2578      */
2579     List<Method> getDeclaredPublicMethods(String name, Class<?>... parameterTypes) {
2580         Method[] methods = privateGetDeclaredMethods(/* publicOnly */ true);
2581         ReflectionFactory factory = getReflectionFactory();
2582         List<Method> result = new ArrayList<>();
2583         for (Method method : methods) {
2584             if (method.getName().equals(name)
2585                 && Arrays.equals(
2586                     factory.getExecutableSharedParameterTypes(method),
2587                     parameterTypes)) {
2588                 result.add(factory.copyMethod(method));
2589             }
2590         }
2591         return result;
2592     }
2593 
2594     /**
2595      * Returns a {@code Constructor} object that reflects the specified
2596      * constructor of the class or interface represented by this
2597      * {@code Class} object.  The {@code parameterTypes} parameter is
2598      * an array of {@code Class} objects that identify the constructor's
2599      * formal parameter types, in declared order.
2600      *
2601      * If this {@code Class} object represents an inner class
2602      * declared in a non-static context, the formal parameter types
2603      * include the explicit enclosing instance as the first parameter.
2604      *
2605      * @param parameterTypes the parameter array
2606      * @return  The {@code Constructor} object for the constructor with the
2607      *          specified parameter list
2608      * @throws  NoSuchMethodException if a matching method is not found.
2609      * @throws  SecurityException
2610      *          If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and any of the
2611      *          following conditions is met:
2612      *
2613      *          <ul>
2614      *
2615      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as the
2616      *          class loader of this class and invocation of
2617      *          {@link SecurityManager#checkPermission
2618      *          s.checkPermission} method with
2619      *          {@code RuntimePermission("accessDeclaredMembers")}
2620      *          denies access to the declared constructor
2621      *
2622      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
2623      *          ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
2624      *          invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
2625      *          s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
2626      *          of this class
2627      *
2628      *          </ul>
2629      *
2630      * @since 1.1
2631      */
2632     @CallerSensitive
2633     public Constructor<T> getDeclaredConstructor(Class<?>... parameterTypes)
2634         throws NoSuchMethodException, SecurityException
2635     {
2636         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
2637         if (sm != null) {
2638             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.DECLARED, Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
2639         }
2640 
2641         return getReflectionFactory().copyConstructor(
2642             getConstructor0(parameterTypes, Member.DECLARED));
2643     }
2644 
2645     /**
2646      * Finds a resource with a given name.
2647      *
2648      * <p> If this class is in a named {@link Module Module} then this method
2649      * will attempt to find the resource in the module. This is done by
2650      * delegating to the module's class loader {@link
2651      * ClassLoader#findResource(String,String) findResource(String,String)}
2652      * method, invoking it with the module name and the absolute name of the
2653      * resource. Resources in named modules are subject to the rules for
2654      * encapsulation specified in the {@code Module} {@link
2655      * Module#getResourceAsStream getResourceAsStream} method and so this
2656      * method returns {@code null} when the resource is a
2657      * non-"{@code .class}" resource in a package that is not open to the
2658      * caller's module.
2659      *
2660      * <p> Otherwise, if this class is not in a named module then the rules for
2661      * searching resources associated with a given class are implemented by the
2662      * defining {@linkplain ClassLoader class loader} of the class.  This method
2663      * delegates to this object's class loader.  If this object was loaded by
2664      * the bootstrap class loader, the method delegates to {@link
2665      * ClassLoader#getSystemResourceAsStream}.
2666      *
2667      * <p> Before delegation, an absolute resource name is constructed from the
2668      * given resource name using this algorithm:
2669      *
2670      * <ul>
2671      *
2672      * <li> If the {@code name} begins with a {@code '/'}
2673      * (<code>'\u002f'</code>), then the absolute name of the resource is the
2674      * portion of the {@code name} following the {@code '/'}.
2675      *
2676      * <li> Otherwise, the absolute name is of the following form:
2677      *
2678      * <blockquote>
2679      *   {@code modified_package_name/name}
2680      * </blockquote>
2681      *
2682      * <p> Where the {@code modified_package_name} is the package name of this
2683      * object with {@code '/'} substituted for {@code '.'}
2684      * (<code>'\u002e'</code>).
2685      *
2686      * </ul>
2687      *
2688      * @param  name name of the desired resource
2689      * @return  A {@link java.io.InputStream} object; {@code null} if no
2690      *          resource with this name is found, the resource is in a package
2691      *          that is not {@linkplain Module#isOpen(String, Module) open} to at
2692      *          least the caller module, or access to the resource is denied
2693      *          by the security manager.
2694      * @throws  NullPointerException If {@code name} is {@code null}
2695      *
2696      * @see Module#getResourceAsStream(String)
2697      * @since  1.1
2698      * @revised 9
2699      * @spec JPMS
2700      */
2701     @CallerSensitive
2702     public InputStream getResourceAsStream(String name) {
2703         name = resolveName(name);
2704 
2705         Module thisModule = getModule();
2706         if (thisModule.isNamed()) {
2707             // check if resource can be located by caller
2708             if (Resources.canEncapsulate(name)
2709                 && !isOpenToCaller(name, Reflection.getCallerClass())) {
2710                 return null;
2711             }
2712 
2713             // resource not encapsulated or in package open to caller
2714             String mn = thisModule.getName();
2715             ClassLoader cl = getClassLoader0();
2716             try {
2717 
2718                 // special-case built-in class loaders to avoid the
2719                 // need for a URL connection
2720                 if (cl == null) {
2721                     return BootLoader.findResourceAsStream(mn, name);
2722                 } else if (cl instanceof BuiltinClassLoader) {
2723                     return ((BuiltinClassLoader) cl).findResourceAsStream(mn, name);
2724                 } else {
2725                     URL url = cl.findResource(mn, name);
2726                     return (url != null) ? url.openStream() : null;
2727                 }
2728 
2729             } catch (IOException | SecurityException e) {
2730                 return null;
2731             }
2732         }
2733 
2734         // unnamed module
2735         ClassLoader cl = getClassLoader0();
2736         if (cl == null) {
2737             return ClassLoader.getSystemResourceAsStream(name);
2738         } else {
2739             return cl.getResourceAsStream(name);
2740         }
2741     }
2742 
2743     /**
2744      * Finds a resource with a given name.
2745      *
2746      * <p> If this class is in a named {@link Module Module} then this method
2747      * will attempt to find the resource in the module. This is done by
2748      * delegating to the module's class loader {@link
2749      * ClassLoader#findResource(String,String) findResource(String,String)}
2750      * method, invoking it with the module name and the absolute name of the
2751      * resource. Resources in named modules are subject to the rules for
2752      * encapsulation specified in the {@code Module} {@link
2753      * Module#getResourceAsStream getResourceAsStream} method and so this
2754      * method returns {@code null} when the resource is a
2755      * non-"{@code .class}" resource in a package that is not open to the
2756      * caller's module.
2757      *
2758      * <p> Otherwise, if this class is not in a named module then the rules for
2759      * searching resources associated with a given class are implemented by the
2760      * defining {@linkplain ClassLoader class loader} of the class.  This method
2761      * delegates to this object's class loader. If this object was loaded by
2762      * the bootstrap class loader, the method delegates to {@link
2763      * ClassLoader#getSystemResource}.
2764      *
2765      * <p> Before delegation, an absolute resource name is constructed from the
2766      * given resource name using this algorithm:
2767      *
2768      * <ul>
2769      *
2770      * <li> If the {@code name} begins with a {@code '/'}
2771      * (<code>'\u002f'</code>), then the absolute name of the resource is the
2772      * portion of the {@code name} following the {@code '/'}.
2773      *
2774      * <li> Otherwise, the absolute name is of the following form:
2775      *
2776      * <blockquote>
2777      *   {@code modified_package_name/name}
2778      * </blockquote>
2779      *
2780      * <p> Where the {@code modified_package_name} is the package name of this
2781      * object with {@code '/'} substituted for {@code '.'}
2782      * (<code>'\u002e'</code>).
2783      *
2784      * </ul>
2785      *
2786      * @param  name name of the desired resource
2787      * @return A {@link java.net.URL} object; {@code null} if no resource with
2788      *         this name is found, the resource cannot be located by a URL, the
2789      *         resource is in a package that is not
2790      *         {@linkplain Module#isOpen(String, Module) open} to at least the caller
2791      *         module, or access to the resource is denied by the security
2792      *         manager.
2793      * @throws NullPointerException If {@code name} is {@code null}
2794      * @since  1.1
2795      * @revised 9
2796      * @spec JPMS
2797      */
2798     @CallerSensitive
2799     public URL getResource(String name) {
2800         name = resolveName(name);
2801 
2802         Module thisModule = getModule();
2803         if (thisModule.isNamed()) {
2804             // check if resource can be located by caller
2805             if (Resources.canEncapsulate(name)
2806                 && !isOpenToCaller(name, Reflection.getCallerClass())) {
2807                 return null;
2808             }
2809 
2810             // resource not encapsulated or in package open to caller
2811             String mn = thisModule.getName();
2812             ClassLoader cl = getClassLoader0();
2813             try {
2814                 if (cl == null) {
2815                     return BootLoader.findResource(mn, name);
2816                 } else {
2817                     return cl.findResource(mn, name);
2818                 }
2819             } catch (IOException ioe) {
2820                 return null;
2821             }
2822         }
2823 
2824         // unnamed module
2825         ClassLoader cl = getClassLoader0();
2826         if (cl == null) {
2827             return ClassLoader.getSystemResource(name);
2828         } else {
2829             return cl.getResource(name);
2830         }
2831     }
2832 
2833     /**
2834      * Returns true if a resource with the given name can be located by the
2835      * given caller. All resources in a module can be located by code in
2836      * the module. For other callers, then the package needs to be open to
2837      * the caller.
2838      */
2839     private boolean isOpenToCaller(String name, Class<?> caller) {
2840         // assert getModule().isNamed();
2841         Module thisModule = getModule();
2842         Module callerModule = (caller != null) ? caller.getModule() : null;
2843         if (callerModule != thisModule) {
2844             String pn = Resources.toPackageName(name);
2845             if (thisModule.getDescriptor().packages().contains(pn)) {
2846                 if (callerModule == null && !thisModule.isOpen(pn)) {
2847                     // no caller, package not open
2848                     return false;
2849                 }
2850                 if (!thisModule.isOpen(pn, callerModule)) {
2851                     // package not open to caller
2852                     return false;
2853                 }
2854             }
2855         }
2856         return true;
2857     }
2858 
2859 
2860     /** protection domain returned when the internal domain is null */
2861     private static java.security.ProtectionDomain allPermDomain;
2862 
2863     /**
2864      * Returns the {@code ProtectionDomain} of this class.  If there is a
2865      * security manager installed, this method first calls the security
2866      * manager's {@code checkPermission} method with a
2867      * {@code RuntimePermission("getProtectionDomain")} permission to
2868      * ensure it's ok to get the
2869      * {@code ProtectionDomain}.
2870      *
2871      * @return the ProtectionDomain of this class
2872      *
2873      * @throws SecurityException
2874      *        if a security manager exists and its
2875      *        {@code checkPermission} method doesn't allow
2876      *        getting the ProtectionDomain.
2877      *
2878      * @see java.security.ProtectionDomain
2879      * @see SecurityManager#checkPermission
2880      * @see java.lang.RuntimePermission
2881      * @since 1.2
2882      */
2883     public java.security.ProtectionDomain getProtectionDomain() {
2884         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
2885         if (sm != null) {
2886             sm.checkPermission(SecurityConstants.GET_PD_PERMISSION);
2887         }
2888         return protectionDomain();
2889     }
2890 
2891     // package-private
2892     java.security.ProtectionDomain protectionDomain() {
2893         java.security.ProtectionDomain pd = getProtectionDomain0();
2894         if (pd == null) {
2895             if (allPermDomain == null) {
2896                 java.security.Permissions perms =
2897                     new java.security.Permissions();
2898                 perms.add(SecurityConstants.ALL_PERMISSION);
2899                 allPermDomain =
2900                     new java.security.ProtectionDomain(null, perms);
2901             }
2902             pd = allPermDomain;
2903         }
2904         return pd;
2905     }
2906 
2907     /**
2908      * Returns the ProtectionDomain of this class.
2909      */
2910     private native java.security.ProtectionDomain getProtectionDomain0();
2911 
2912     /*
2913      * Return the Virtual Machine's Class object for the named
2914      * primitive type.
2915      */
2916     static native Class<?> getPrimitiveClass(String name);
2917 
2918     /*
2919      * Check if client is allowed to access members.  If access is denied,
2920      * throw a SecurityException.
2921      *
2922      * This method also enforces package access.
2923      *
2924      * <p> Default policy: allow all clients access with normal Java access
2925      * control.
2926      *
2927      * <p> NOTE: should only be called if a SecurityManager is installed
2928      */
2929     private void checkMemberAccess(SecurityManager sm, int which,
2930                                    Class<?> caller, boolean checkProxyInterfaces) {
2931         /* Default policy allows access to all {@link Member#PUBLIC} members,
2932          * as well as access to classes that have the same class loader as the caller.
2933          * In all other cases, it requires RuntimePermission("accessDeclaredMembers")
2934          * permission.
2935          */
2936         final ClassLoader ccl = ClassLoader.getClassLoader(caller);
2937         if (which != Member.PUBLIC) {
2938             final ClassLoader cl = getClassLoader0();
2939             if (ccl != cl) {
2940                 sm.checkPermission(SecurityConstants.CHECK_MEMBER_ACCESS_PERMISSION);
2941             }
2942         }
2943         this.checkPackageAccess(sm, ccl, checkProxyInterfaces);
2944     }
2945 
2946     /*
2947      * Checks if a client loaded in ClassLoader ccl is allowed to access this
2948      * class under the current package access policy. If access is denied,
2949      * throw a SecurityException.
2950      *
2951      * NOTE: this method should only be called if a SecurityManager is active
2952      */
2953     private void checkPackageAccess(SecurityManager sm, final ClassLoader ccl,
2954                                     boolean checkProxyInterfaces) {
2955         final ClassLoader cl = getClassLoader0();
2956 
2957         if (ReflectUtil.needsPackageAccessCheck(ccl, cl)) {
2958             String pkg = this.getPackageName();
2959             if (pkg != null && !pkg.isEmpty()) {
2960                 // skip the package access check on a proxy class in default proxy package
2961                 if (!Proxy.isProxyClass(this) || ReflectUtil.isNonPublicProxyClass(this)) {
2962                     sm.checkPackageAccess(pkg);
2963                 }
2964             }
2965         }
2966         // check package access on the proxy interfaces
2967         if (checkProxyInterfaces && Proxy.isProxyClass(this)) {
2968             ReflectUtil.checkProxyPackageAccess(ccl, this.getInterfaces());
2969         }
2970     }
2971 
2972     /**
2973      * Add a package name prefix if the name is not absolute Remove leading "/"
2974      * if name is absolute
2975      */
2976     private String resolveName(String name) {
2977         if (!name.startsWith("/")) {
2978             Class<?> c = this;
2979             while (c.isArray()) {
2980                 c = c.getComponentType();
2981             }
2982             String baseName = c.getPackageName();
2983             if (baseName != null && !baseName.isEmpty()) {
2984                 name = baseName.replace('.', '/') + "/" + name;
2985             }
2986         } else {
2987             name = name.substring(1);
2988         }
2989         return name;
2990     }
2991 
2992     /**
2993      * Atomic operations support.
2994      */
2995     private static class Atomic {
2996         // initialize Unsafe machinery here, since we need to call Class.class instance method
2997         // and have to avoid calling it in the static initializer of the Class class...
2998         private static final Unsafe unsafe = Unsafe.getUnsafe();
2999         // offset of Class.reflectionData instance field
3000         private static final long reflectionDataOffset
3001                 = unsafe.objectFieldOffset(Class.class, "reflectionData");
3002         // offset of Class.annotationType instance field
3003         private static final long annotationTypeOffset
3004                 = unsafe.objectFieldOffset(Class.class, "annotationType");
3005         // offset of Class.annotationData instance field
3006         private static final long annotationDataOffset
3007                 = unsafe.objectFieldOffset(Class.class, "annotationData");
3008 
3009         static <T> boolean casReflectionData(Class<?> clazz,
3010                                              SoftReference<ReflectionData<T>> oldData,
3011                                              SoftReference<ReflectionData<T>> newData) {
3012             return unsafe.compareAndSetReference(clazz, reflectionDataOffset, oldData, newData);
3013         }
3014 
3015         static <T> boolean casAnnotationType(Class<?> clazz,
3016                                              AnnotationType oldType,
3017                                              AnnotationType newType) {
3018             return unsafe.compareAndSetReference(clazz, annotationTypeOffset, oldType, newType);
3019         }
3020 
3021         static <T> boolean casAnnotationData(Class<?> clazz,
3022                                              AnnotationData oldData,
3023                                              AnnotationData newData) {
3024             return unsafe.compareAndSetReference(clazz, annotationDataOffset, oldData, newData);
3025         }
3026     }
3027 
3028     /**
3029      * Reflection support.
3030      */
3031 
3032     // Reflection data caches various derived names and reflective members. Cached
3033     // values may be invalidated when JVM TI RedefineClasses() is called
3034     private static class ReflectionData<T> {
3035         volatile Field[] declaredFields;
3036         volatile Field[] publicFields;
3037         volatile Method[] declaredMethods;
3038         volatile Method[] publicMethods;
3039         volatile Constructor<T>[] declaredConstructors;
3040         volatile Constructor<T>[] publicConstructors;
3041         // Intermediate results for getFields and getMethods
3042         volatile Field[] declaredPublicFields;
3043         volatile Method[] declaredPublicMethods;
3044         volatile Class<?>[] interfaces;
3045 
3046         // Cached names
3047         String simpleName;
3048         String canonicalName;
3049         static final String NULL_SENTINEL = new String();
3050 
3051         // Value of classRedefinedCount when we created this ReflectionData instance
3052         final int redefinedCount;
3053 
3054         ReflectionData(int redefinedCount) {
3055             this.redefinedCount = redefinedCount;
3056         }
3057     }
3058 
3059     private transient volatile SoftReference<ReflectionData<T>> reflectionData;
3060 
3061     // Incremented by the VM on each call to JVM TI RedefineClasses()
3062     // that redefines this class or a superclass.
3063     private transient volatile int classRedefinedCount;
3064 
3065     // Lazily create and cache ReflectionData
3066     private ReflectionData<T> reflectionData() {
3067         SoftReference<ReflectionData<T>> reflectionData = this.reflectionData;
3068         int classRedefinedCount = this.classRedefinedCount;
3069         ReflectionData<T> rd;
3070         if (reflectionData != null &&
3071             (rd = reflectionData.get()) != null &&
3072             rd.redefinedCount == classRedefinedCount) {
3073             return rd;
3074         }
3075         // else no SoftReference or cleared SoftReference or stale ReflectionData
3076         // -> create and replace new instance
3077         return newReflectionData(reflectionData, classRedefinedCount);
3078     }
3079 
3080     private ReflectionData<T> newReflectionData(SoftReference<ReflectionData<T>> oldReflectionData,
3081                                                 int classRedefinedCount) {
3082         while (true) {
3083             ReflectionData<T> rd = new ReflectionData<>(classRedefinedCount);
3084             // try to CAS it...
3085             if (Atomic.casReflectionData(this, oldReflectionData, new SoftReference<>(rd))) {
3086                 return rd;
3087             }
3088             // else retry
3089             oldReflectionData = this.reflectionData;
3090             classRedefinedCount = this.classRedefinedCount;
3091             if (oldReflectionData != null &&
3092                 (rd = oldReflectionData.get()) != null &&
3093                 rd.redefinedCount == classRedefinedCount) {
3094                 return rd;
3095             }
3096         }
3097     }
3098 
3099     // Generic signature handling
3100     private native String getGenericSignature0();
3101 
3102     // Generic info repository; lazily initialized
3103     private transient volatile ClassRepository genericInfo;
3104 
3105     // accessor for factory
3106     private GenericsFactory getFactory() {
3107         // create scope and factory
3108         return CoreReflectionFactory.make(this, ClassScope.make(this));
3109     }
3110 
3111     // accessor for generic info repository;
3112     // generic info is lazily initialized
3113     private ClassRepository getGenericInfo() {
3114         ClassRepository genericInfo = this.genericInfo;
3115         if (genericInfo == null) {
3116             String signature = getGenericSignature0();
3117             if (signature == null) {
3118                 genericInfo = ClassRepository.NONE;
3119             } else {
3120                 genericInfo = ClassRepository.make(signature, getFactory());
3121             }
3122             this.genericInfo = genericInfo;
3123         }
3124         return (genericInfo != ClassRepository.NONE) ? genericInfo : null;
3125     }
3126 
3127     // Annotations handling
3128     native byte[] getRawAnnotations();
3129     // Since 1.8
3130     native byte[] getRawTypeAnnotations();
3131     static byte[] getExecutableTypeAnnotationBytes(Executable ex) {
3132         return getReflectionFactory().getExecutableTypeAnnotationBytes(ex);
3133     }
3134 
3135     native ConstantPool getConstantPool();
3136 
3137     //
3138     //
3139     // java.lang.reflect.Field handling
3140     //
3141     //
3142 
3143     // Returns an array of "root" fields. These Field objects must NOT
3144     // be propagated to the outside world, but must instead be copied
3145     // via ReflectionFactory.copyField.
3146     private Field[] privateGetDeclaredFields(boolean publicOnly) {
3147         Field[] res;
3148         ReflectionData<T> rd = reflectionData();
3149         if (rd != null) {
3150             res = publicOnly ? rd.declaredPublicFields : rd.declaredFields;
3151             if (res != null) return res;
3152         }
3153         // No cached value available; request value from VM
3154         res = Reflection.filterFields(this, getDeclaredFields0(publicOnly));
3155         if (rd != null) {
3156             if (publicOnly) {
3157                 rd.declaredPublicFields = res;
3158             } else {
3159                 rd.declaredFields = res;
3160             }
3161         }
3162         return res;
3163     }
3164 
3165     // Returns an array of "root" fields. These Field objects must NOT
3166     // be propagated to the outside world, but must instead be copied
3167     // via ReflectionFactory.copyField.
3168     private Field[] privateGetPublicFields() {
3169         Field[] res;
3170         ReflectionData<T> rd = reflectionData();
3171         if (rd != null) {
3172             res = rd.publicFields;
3173             if (res != null) return res;
3174         }
3175 
3176         // Use a linked hash set to ensure order is preserved and
3177         // fields from common super interfaces are not duplicated
3178         LinkedHashSet<Field> fields = new LinkedHashSet<>();
3179 
3180         // Local fields
3181         addAll(fields, privateGetDeclaredFields(true));
3182 
3183         // Direct superinterfaces, recursively
3184         for (Class<?> si : getInterfaces()) {
3185             addAll(fields, si.privateGetPublicFields());
3186         }
3187 
3188         // Direct superclass, recursively
3189         Class<?> sc = getSuperclass();
3190         if (sc != null) {
3191             addAll(fields, sc.privateGetPublicFields());
3192         }
3193 
3194         res = fields.toArray(new Field[0]);
3195         if (rd != null) {
3196             rd.publicFields = res;
3197         }
3198         return res;
3199     }
3200 
3201     private static void addAll(Collection<Field> c, Field[] o) {
3202         for (Field f : o) {
3203             c.add(f);
3204         }
3205     }
3206 
3207 
3208     //
3209     //
3210     // java.lang.reflect.Constructor handling
3211     //
3212     //
3213 
3214     // Returns an array of "root" constructors. These Constructor
3215     // objects must NOT be propagated to the outside world, but must
3216     // instead be copied via ReflectionFactory.copyConstructor.
3217     private Constructor<T>[] privateGetDeclaredConstructors(boolean publicOnly) {
3218         Constructor<T>[] res;
3219         ReflectionData<T> rd = reflectionData();
3220         if (rd != null) {
3221             res = publicOnly ? rd.publicConstructors : rd.declaredConstructors;
3222             if (res != null) return res;
3223         }
3224         // No cached value available; request value from VM
3225         if (isInterface()) {
3226             @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
3227             Constructor<T>[] temporaryRes = (Constructor<T>[]) new Constructor<?>[0];
3228             res = temporaryRes;
3229         } else {
3230             res = getDeclaredConstructors0(publicOnly);
3231         }
3232         if (rd != null) {
3233             if (publicOnly) {
3234                 rd.publicConstructors = res;
3235             } else {
3236                 rd.declaredConstructors = res;
3237             }
3238         }
3239         return res;
3240     }
3241 
3242     //
3243     //
3244     // java.lang.reflect.Method handling
3245     //
3246     //
3247 
3248     // Returns an array of "root" methods. These Method objects must NOT
3249     // be propagated to the outside world, but must instead be copied
3250     // via ReflectionFactory.copyMethod.
3251     private Method[] privateGetDeclaredMethods(boolean publicOnly) {
3252         Method[] res;
3253         ReflectionData<T> rd = reflectionData();
3254         if (rd != null) {
3255             res = publicOnly ? rd.declaredPublicMethods : rd.declaredMethods;
3256             if (res != null) return res;
3257         }
3258         // No cached value available; request value from VM
3259         res = Reflection.filterMethods(this, getDeclaredMethods0(publicOnly));
3260         if (rd != null) {
3261             if (publicOnly) {
3262                 rd.declaredPublicMethods = res;
3263             } else {
3264                 rd.declaredMethods = res;
3265             }
3266         }
3267         return res;
3268     }
3269 
3270     // Returns an array of "root" methods. These Method objects must NOT
3271     // be propagated to the outside world, but must instead be copied
3272     // via ReflectionFactory.copyMethod.
3273     private Method[] privateGetPublicMethods() {
3274         Method[] res;
3275         ReflectionData<T> rd = reflectionData();
3276         if (rd != null) {
3277             res = rd.publicMethods;
3278             if (res != null) return res;
3279         }
3280 
3281         // No cached value available; compute value recursively.
3282         // Start by fetching public declared methods...
3283         PublicMethods pms = new PublicMethods();
3284         for (Method m : privateGetDeclaredMethods(/* publicOnly */ true)) {
3285             pms.merge(m);
3286         }
3287         // ...then recur over superclass methods...
3288         Class<?> sc = getSuperclass();
3289         if (sc != null) {
3290             for (Method m : sc.privateGetPublicMethods()) {
3291                 pms.merge(m);
3292             }
3293         }
3294         // ...and finally over direct superinterfaces.
3295         for (Class<?> intf : getInterfaces(/* cloneArray */ false)) {
3296             for (Method m : intf.privateGetPublicMethods()) {
3297                 // static interface methods are not inherited
3298                 if (!Modifier.isStatic(m.getModifiers())) {
3299                     pms.merge(m);
3300                 }
3301             }
3302         }
3303 
3304         res = pms.toArray();
3305         if (rd != null) {
3306             rd.publicMethods = res;
3307         }
3308         return res;
3309     }
3310 
3311 
3312     //
3313     // Helpers for fetchers of one field, method, or constructor
3314     //
3315 
3316     // This method does not copy the returned Field object!
3317     private static Field searchFields(Field[] fields, String name) {
3318         for (Field field : fields) {
3319             if (field.getName().equals(name)) {
3320                 return field;
3321             }
3322         }
3323         return null;
3324     }
3325 
3326     // Returns a "root" Field object. This Field object must NOT
3327     // be propagated to the outside world, but must instead be copied
3328     // via ReflectionFactory.copyField.
3329     private Field getField0(String name) {
3330         // Note: the intent is that the search algorithm this routine
3331         // uses be equivalent to the ordering imposed by
3332         // privateGetPublicFields(). It fetches only the declared
3333         // public fields for each class, however, to reduce the number
3334         // of Field objects which have to be created for the common
3335         // case where the field being requested is declared in the
3336         // class which is being queried.
3337         Field res;
3338         // Search declared public fields
3339         if ((res = searchFields(privateGetDeclaredFields(true), name)) != null) {
3340             return res;
3341         }
3342         // Direct superinterfaces, recursively
3343         Class<?>[] interfaces = getInterfaces(/* cloneArray */ false);
3344         for (Class<?> c : interfaces) {
3345             if ((res = c.getField0(name)) != null) {
3346                 return res;
3347             }
3348         }
3349         // Direct superclass, recursively
3350         if (!isInterface()) {
3351             Class<?> c = getSuperclass();
3352             if (c != null) {
3353                 if ((res = c.getField0(name)) != null) {
3354                     return res;
3355                 }
3356             }
3357         }
3358         return null;
3359     }
3360 
3361     // This method does not copy the returned Method object!
3362     private static Method searchMethods(Method[] methods,
3363                                         String name,
3364                                         Class<?>[] parameterTypes)
3365     {
3366         ReflectionFactory fact = getReflectionFactory();
3367         Method res = null;
3368         for (Method m : methods) {
3369             if (m.getName().equals(name)
3370                 && arrayContentsEq(parameterTypes,
3371                                    fact.getExecutableSharedParameterTypes(m))
3372                 && (res == null
3373                     || (res.getReturnType() != m.getReturnType()
3374                         && res.getReturnType().isAssignableFrom(m.getReturnType()))))
3375                 res = m;
3376         }
3377         return res;
3378     }
3379 
3380     private static final Class<?>[] EMPTY_CLASS_ARRAY = new Class<?>[0];
3381 
3382     // Returns a "root" Method object. This Method object must NOT
3383     // be propagated to the outside world, but must instead be copied
3384     // via ReflectionFactory.copyMethod.
3385     private Method getMethod0(String name, Class<?>[] parameterTypes) {
3386         PublicMethods.MethodList res = getMethodsRecursive(
3387             name,
3388             parameterTypes == null ? EMPTY_CLASS_ARRAY : parameterTypes,
3389             /* includeStatic */ true);
3390         return res == null ? null : res.getMostSpecific();
3391     }
3392 
3393     // Returns a list of "root" Method objects. These Method objects must NOT
3394     // be propagated to the outside world, but must instead be copied
3395     // via ReflectionFactory.copyMethod.
3396     private PublicMethods.MethodList getMethodsRecursive(String name,
3397                                                          Class<?>[] parameterTypes,
3398                                                          boolean includeStatic) {
3399         // 1st check declared public methods
3400         Method[] methods = privateGetDeclaredMethods(/* publicOnly */ true);
3401         PublicMethods.MethodList res = PublicMethods.MethodList
3402             .filter(methods, name, parameterTypes, includeStatic);
3403         // if there is at least one match among declared methods, we need not
3404         // search any further as such match surely overrides matching methods
3405         // declared in superclass(es) or interface(s).
3406         if (res != null) {
3407             return res;
3408         }
3409 
3410         // if there was no match among declared methods,
3411         // we must consult the superclass (if any) recursively...
3412         Class<?> sc = getSuperclass();
3413         if (sc != null) {
3414             res = sc.getMethodsRecursive(name, parameterTypes, includeStatic);
3415         }
3416 
3417         // ...and coalesce the superclass methods with methods obtained
3418         // from directly implemented interfaces excluding static methods...
3419         for (Class<?> intf : getInterfaces(/* cloneArray */ false)) {
3420             res = PublicMethods.MethodList.merge(
3421                 res, intf.getMethodsRecursive(name, parameterTypes,
3422                                               /* includeStatic */ false));
3423         }
3424 
3425         return res;
3426     }
3427 
3428     // Returns a "root" Constructor object. This Constructor object must NOT
3429     // be propagated to the outside world, but must instead be copied
3430     // via ReflectionFactory.copyConstructor.
3431     private Constructor<T> getConstructor0(Class<?>[] parameterTypes,
3432                                         int which) throws NoSuchMethodException
3433     {
3434         ReflectionFactory fact = getReflectionFactory();
3435         Constructor<T>[] constructors = privateGetDeclaredConstructors((which == Member.PUBLIC));
3436         for (Constructor<T> constructor : constructors) {
3437             if (arrayContentsEq(parameterTypes,
3438                                 fact.getExecutableSharedParameterTypes(constructor))) {
3439                 return constructor;
3440             }
3441         }
3442         throw new NoSuchMethodException(methodToString("<init>", parameterTypes));
3443     }
3444 
3445     //
3446     // Other helpers and base implementation
3447     //
3448 
3449     private static boolean arrayContentsEq(Object[] a1, Object[] a2) {
3450         if (a1 == null) {
3451             return a2 == null || a2.length == 0;
3452         }
3453 
3454         if (a2 == null) {
3455             return a1.length == 0;
3456         }
3457 
3458         if (a1.length != a2.length) {
3459             return false;
3460         }
3461 
3462         for (int i = 0; i < a1.length; i++) {
3463             if (a1[i] != a2[i]) {
3464                 return false;
3465             }
3466         }
3467 
3468         return true;
3469     }
3470 
3471     private static Field[] copyFields(Field[] arg) {
3472         Field[] out = new Field[arg.length];
3473         ReflectionFactory fact = getReflectionFactory();
3474         for (int i = 0; i < arg.length; i++) {
3475             out[i] = fact.copyField(arg[i]);
3476         }
3477         return out;
3478     }
3479 
3480     private static Method[] copyMethods(Method[] arg) {
3481         Method[] out = new Method[arg.length];
3482         ReflectionFactory fact = getReflectionFactory();
3483         for (int i = 0; i < arg.length; i++) {
3484             out[i] = fact.copyMethod(arg[i]);
3485         }
3486         return out;
3487     }
3488 
3489     private static <U> Constructor<U>[] copyConstructors(Constructor<U>[] arg) {
3490         Constructor<U>[] out = arg.clone();
3491         ReflectionFactory fact = getReflectionFactory();
3492         for (int i = 0; i < out.length; i++) {
3493             out[i] = fact.copyConstructor(out[i]);
3494         }
3495         return out;
3496     }
3497 
3498     private native Field[]       getDeclaredFields0(boolean publicOnly);
3499     private native Method[]      getDeclaredMethods0(boolean publicOnly);
3500     private native Constructor<T>[] getDeclaredConstructors0(boolean publicOnly);
3501     private native Class<?>[]   getDeclaredClasses0();
3502     @SuppressWarnings("preview")
3503     private native RecordComponent[] getRecordComponents0();
3504     private native boolean      isRecord0();
3505 
3506     /**
3507      * Helper method to get the method name from arguments.
3508      */
3509     private String methodToString(String name, Class<?>[] argTypes) {
3510         return getName() + '.' + name +
3511                 ((argTypes == null || argTypes.length == 0) ?
3512                 "()" :
3513                 Arrays.stream(argTypes)
3514                         .map(c -> c == null ? "null" : c.getName())
3515                         .collect(Collectors.joining(",", "(", ")")));
3516     }
3517 
3518     /** use serialVersionUID from JDK 1.1 for interoperability */
3519     @java.io.Serial
3520     private static final long serialVersionUID = 3206093459760846163L;
3521 
3522 
3523     /**
3524      * Class Class is special cased within the Serialization Stream Protocol.
3525      *
3526      * A Class instance is written initially into an ObjectOutputStream in the
3527      * following format:
3528      * <pre>
3529      *      {@code TC_CLASS} ClassDescriptor
3530      *      A ClassDescriptor is a special cased serialization of
3531      *      a {@code java.io.ObjectStreamClass} instance.
3532      * </pre>
3533      * A new handle is generated for the initial time the class descriptor
3534      * is written into the stream. Future references to the class descriptor
3535      * are written as references to the initial class descriptor instance.
3536      *
3537      * @see java.io.ObjectStreamClass
3538      */
3539     @java.io.Serial
3540     private static final ObjectStreamField[] serialPersistentFields =
3541         new ObjectStreamField[0];
3542 
3543 
3544     /**
3545      * Returns the assertion status that would be assigned to this
3546      * class if it were to be initialized at the time this method is invoked.
3547      * If this class has had its assertion status set, the most recent
3548      * setting will be returned; otherwise, if any package default assertion
3549      * status pertains to this class, the most recent setting for the most
3550      * specific pertinent package default assertion status is returned;
3551      * otherwise, if this class is not a system class (i.e., it has a
3552      * class loader) its class loader's default assertion status is returned;
3553      * otherwise, the system class default assertion status is returned.
3554      * <p>
3555      * Few programmers will have any need for this method; it is provided
3556      * for the benefit of the JRE itself.  (It allows a class to determine at
3557      * the time that it is initialized whether assertions should be enabled.)
3558      * Note that this method is not guaranteed to return the actual
3559      * assertion status that was (or will be) associated with the specified
3560      * class when it was (or will be) initialized.
3561      *
3562      * @return the desired assertion status of the specified class.
3563      * @see    java.lang.ClassLoader#setClassAssertionStatus
3564      * @see    java.lang.ClassLoader#setPackageAssertionStatus
3565      * @see    java.lang.ClassLoader#setDefaultAssertionStatus
3566      * @since  1.4
3567      */
3568     public boolean desiredAssertionStatus() {
3569         ClassLoader loader = getClassLoader0();
3570         // If the loader is null this is a system class, so ask the VM
3571         if (loader == null)
3572             return desiredAssertionStatus0(this);
3573 
3574         // If the classloader has been initialized with the assertion
3575         // directives, ask it. Otherwise, ask the VM.
3576         synchronized(loader.assertionLock) {
3577             if (loader.classAssertionStatus != null) {
3578                 return loader.desiredAssertionStatus(getName());
3579             }
3580         }
3581         return desiredAssertionStatus0(this);
3582     }
3583 
3584     // Retrieves the desired assertion status of this class from the VM
3585     private static native boolean desiredAssertionStatus0(Class<?> clazz);
3586 
3587     /**
3588      * Returns true if and only if this class was declared as an enum in the
3589      * source code.
3590      *
3591      * Note that {@link java.lang.Enum} is not itself an enum type.
3592      *
3593      * Also note that if an enum constant is declared with a class body,
3594      * the class of that enum constant object is an anonymous class
3595      * and <em>not</em> the class of the declaring enum type. The
3596      * {@link Enum#getDeclaringClass} method of an enum constant can
3597      * be used to get the class of the enum type declaring the
3598      * constant.
3599      *
3600      * @return true if and only if this class was declared as an enum in the
3601      *     source code
3602      * @since 1.5
3603      * @jls 8.9.1 Enum Constants
3604      */
3605     public boolean isEnum() {
3606         // An enum must both directly extend java.lang.Enum and have
3607         // the ENUM bit set; classes for specialized enum constants
3608         // don't do the former.
3609         return (this.getModifiers() & ENUM) != 0 &&
3610         this.getSuperclass() == java.lang.Enum.class;
3611     }
3612 
3613     /** java.lang.Record.class */
3614     private static final Class<?> JAVA_LANG_RECORD_CLASS = javaLangRecordClass();
3615     private static Class<?> javaLangRecordClass() {
3616         try {
3617             return Class.forName0("java.lang.Record", false, null, null);
3618         } catch (ClassNotFoundException e) {
3619             throw new InternalError("should not reach here", e);
3620         }
3621     }
3622 
3623     /**
3624      * {@preview Associated with records, a preview feature of the Java language.
3625      *
3626      *           This method is associated with <i>records</i>, a preview
3627      *           feature of the Java language. Preview features
3628      *           may be removed in a future release, or upgraded to permanent
3629      *           features of the Java language.}
3630      *
3631      * Returns {@code true} if and only if this class is a record class.
3632      *
3633      * <p> The {@linkplain #getSuperclass() direct superclass} of a record
3634      * class is {@code java.lang.Record}. A record class has (possibly zero)
3635      * record components, that is, {@link #getRecordComponents()} returns a
3636      * non-null value.
3637      *
3638      * <p> Note that class {@link Record} is not a record type and thus invoking
3639      * this method on class {@code Record} returns {@code false}.
3640      *
3641      * @return true if and only if this class is a record class, otherwise false
3642      * @jls 8.10 Record Types
3643      * @since 14
3644      */
3645     @jdk.internal.PreviewFeature(feature=jdk.internal.PreviewFeature.Feature.RECORDS,
3646                                  essentialAPI=false)
3647     public boolean isRecord() {
3648         return getSuperclass() == JAVA_LANG_RECORD_CLASS && isRecord0();
3649     }
3650 
3651     // Fetches the factory for reflective objects
3652     private static ReflectionFactory getReflectionFactory() {
3653         if (reflectionFactory == null) {
3654             reflectionFactory =
3655                 java.security.AccessController.doPrivileged
3656                     (new ReflectionFactory.GetReflectionFactoryAction());
3657         }
3658         return reflectionFactory;
3659     }
3660     private static ReflectionFactory reflectionFactory;
3661 
3662     /**
3663      * Returns the elements of this enum class or null if this
3664      * Class object does not represent an enum type.
3665      *
3666      * @return an array containing the values comprising the enum class
3667      *     represented by this Class object in the order they're
3668      *     declared, or null if this Class object does not
3669      *     represent an enum type
3670      * @since 1.5
3671      */
3672     public T[] getEnumConstants() {
3673         T[] values = getEnumConstantsShared();
3674         return (values != null) ? values.clone() : null;
3675     }
3676 
3677     /**
3678      * Returns the elements of this enum class or null if this
3679      * Class object does not represent an enum type;
3680      * identical to getEnumConstants except that the result is
3681      * uncloned, cached, and shared by all callers.
3682      */
3683     T[] getEnumConstantsShared() {
3684         T[] constants = enumConstants;
3685         if (constants == null) {
3686             if (!isEnum()) return null;
3687             try {
3688                 final Method values = getMethod("values");
3689                 java.security.AccessController.doPrivileged(
3690                     new java.security.PrivilegedAction<>() {
3691                         public Void run() {
3692                                 values.setAccessible(true);
3693                                 return null;
3694                             }
3695                         });
3696                 @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
3697                 T[] temporaryConstants = (T[])values.invoke(null);
3698                 enumConstants = constants = temporaryConstants;
3699             }
3700             // These can happen when users concoct enum-like classes
3701             // that don't comply with the enum spec.
3702             catch (InvocationTargetException | NoSuchMethodException |
3703                    IllegalAccessException ex) { return null; }
3704         }
3705         return constants;
3706     }
3707     private transient volatile T[] enumConstants;
3708 
3709     /**
3710      * Returns a map from simple name to enum constant.  This package-private
3711      * method is used internally by Enum to implement
3712      * {@code public static <T extends Enum<T>> T valueOf(Class<T>, String)}
3713      * efficiently.  Note that the map is returned by this method is
3714      * created lazily on first use.  Typically it won't ever get created.
3715      */
3716     Map<String, T> enumConstantDirectory() {
3717         Map<String, T> directory = enumConstantDirectory;
3718         if (directory == null) {
3719             T[] universe = getEnumConstantsShared();
3720             if (universe == null)
3721                 throw new IllegalArgumentException(
3722                     getName() + " is not an enum type");
3723             directory = new HashMap<>((int)(universe.length / 0.75f) + 1);
3724             for (T constant : universe) {
3725                 directory.put(((Enum<?>)constant).name(), constant);
3726             }
3727             enumConstantDirectory = directory;
3728         }
3729         return directory;
3730     }
3731     private transient volatile Map<String, T> enumConstantDirectory;
3732 
3733     /**
3734      * Casts an object to the class or interface represented
3735      * by this {@code Class} object.
3736      *
3737      * @param obj the object to be cast
3738      * @return the object after casting, or null if obj is null
3739      *
3740      * @throws ClassCastException if the object is not
3741      * null and is not assignable to the type T.
3742      *
3743      * @since 1.5
3744      */
3745     @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
3746     @HotSpotIntrinsicCandidate
3747     public T cast(Object obj) {
3748         if (obj != null && !isInstance(obj))
3749             throw new ClassCastException(cannotCastMsg(obj));
3750         return (T) obj;
3751     }
3752 
3753     private String cannotCastMsg(Object obj) {
3754         return "Cannot cast " + obj.getClass().getName() + " to " + getName();
3755     }
3756 
3757     /**
3758      * Casts this {@code Class} object to represent a subclass of the class
3759      * represented by the specified class object.  Checks that the cast
3760      * is valid, and throws a {@code ClassCastException} if it is not.  If
3761      * this method succeeds, it always returns a reference to this class object.
3762      *
3763      * <p>This method is useful when a client needs to "narrow" the type of
3764      * a {@code Class} object to pass it to an API that restricts the
3765      * {@code Class} objects that it is willing to accept.  A cast would
3766      * generate a compile-time warning, as the correctness of the cast
3767      * could not be checked at runtime (because generic types are implemented
3768      * by erasure).
3769      *
3770      * @param <U> the type to cast this class object to
3771      * @param clazz the class of the type to cast this class object to
3772      * @return this {@code Class} object, cast to represent a subclass of
3773      *    the specified class object.
3774      * @throws ClassCastException if this {@code Class} object does not
3775      *    represent a subclass of the specified class (here "subclass" includes
3776      *    the class itself).
3777      * @since 1.5
3778      */
3779     @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
3780     public <U> Class<? extends U> asSubclass(Class<U> clazz) {
3781         if (clazz.isAssignableFrom(this))
3782             return (Class<? extends U>) this;
3783         else
3784             throw new ClassCastException(this.toString());
3785     }
3786 
3787     /**
3788      * @throws NullPointerException {@inheritDoc}
3789      * @since 1.5
3790      */
3791     @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
3792     public <A extends Annotation> A getAnnotation(Class<A> annotationClass) {
3793         Objects.requireNonNull(annotationClass);
3794 
3795         return (A) annotationData().annotations.get(annotationClass);
3796     }
3797 
3798     /**
3799      * {@inheritDoc}
3800      * @throws NullPointerException {@inheritDoc}
3801      * @since 1.5
3802      */
3803     @Override
3804     public boolean isAnnotationPresent(Class<? extends Annotation> annotationClass) {
3805         return GenericDeclaration.super.isAnnotationPresent(annotationClass);
3806     }
3807 
3808     /**
3809      * @throws NullPointerException {@inheritDoc}
3810      * @since 1.8
3811      */
3812     @Override
3813     public <A extends Annotation> A[] getAnnotationsByType(Class<A> annotationClass) {
3814         Objects.requireNonNull(annotationClass);
3815 
3816         AnnotationData annotationData = annotationData();
3817         return AnnotationSupport.getAssociatedAnnotations(annotationData.declaredAnnotations,
3818                                                           this,
3819                                                           annotationClass);
3820     }
3821 
3822     /**
3823      * @since 1.5
3824      */
3825     public Annotation[] getAnnotations() {
3826         return AnnotationParser.toArray(annotationData().annotations);
3827     }
3828 
3829     /**
3830      * @throws NullPointerException {@inheritDoc}
3831      * @since 1.8
3832      */
3833     @Override
3834     @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
3835     public <A extends Annotation> A getDeclaredAnnotation(Class<A> annotationClass) {
3836         Objects.requireNonNull(annotationClass);
3837 
3838         return (A) annotationData().declaredAnnotations.get(annotationClass);
3839     }
3840 
3841     /**
3842      * @throws NullPointerException {@inheritDoc}
3843      * @since 1.8
3844      */
3845     @Override
3846     public <A extends Annotation> A[] getDeclaredAnnotationsByType(Class<A> annotationClass) {
3847         Objects.requireNonNull(annotationClass);
3848 
3849         return AnnotationSupport.getDirectlyAndIndirectlyPresent(annotationData().declaredAnnotations,
3850                                                                  annotationClass);
3851     }
3852 
3853     /**
3854      * @since 1.5
3855      */
3856     public Annotation[] getDeclaredAnnotations()  {
3857         return AnnotationParser.toArray(annotationData().declaredAnnotations);
3858     }
3859 
3860     // annotation data that might get invalidated when JVM TI RedefineClasses() is called
3861     private static class AnnotationData {
3862         final Map<Class<? extends Annotation>, Annotation> annotations;
3863         final Map<Class<? extends Annotation>, Annotation> declaredAnnotations;
3864 
3865         // Value of classRedefinedCount when we created this AnnotationData instance
3866         final int redefinedCount;
3867 
3868         AnnotationData(Map<Class<? extends Annotation>, Annotation> annotations,
3869                        Map<Class<? extends Annotation>, Annotation> declaredAnnotations,
3870                        int redefinedCount) {
3871             this.annotations = annotations;
3872             this.declaredAnnotations = declaredAnnotations;
3873             this.redefinedCount = redefinedCount;
3874         }
3875     }
3876 
3877     // Annotations cache
3878     @SuppressWarnings("UnusedDeclaration")
3879     private transient volatile AnnotationData annotationData;
3880 
3881     private AnnotationData annotationData() {
3882         while (true) { // retry loop
3883             AnnotationData annotationData = this.annotationData;
3884             int classRedefinedCount = this.classRedefinedCount;
3885             if (annotationData != null &&
3886                 annotationData.redefinedCount == classRedefinedCount) {
3887                 return annotationData;
3888             }
3889             // null or stale annotationData -> optimistically create new instance
3890             AnnotationData newAnnotationData = createAnnotationData(classRedefinedCount);
3891             // try to install it
3892             if (Atomic.casAnnotationData(this, annotationData, newAnnotationData)) {
3893                 // successfully installed new AnnotationData
3894                 return newAnnotationData;
3895             }
3896         }
3897     }
3898 
3899     private AnnotationData createAnnotationData(int classRedefinedCount) {
3900         Map<Class<? extends Annotation>, Annotation> declaredAnnotations =
3901             AnnotationParser.parseAnnotations(getRawAnnotations(), getConstantPool(), this);
3902         Class<?> superClass = getSuperclass();
3903         Map<Class<? extends Annotation>, Annotation> annotations = null;
3904         if (superClass != null) {
3905             Map<Class<? extends Annotation>, Annotation> superAnnotations =
3906                 superClass.annotationData().annotations;
3907             for (Map.Entry<Class<? extends Annotation>, Annotation> e : superAnnotations.entrySet()) {
3908                 Class<? extends Annotation> annotationClass = e.getKey();
3909                 if (AnnotationType.getInstance(annotationClass).isInherited()) {
3910                     if (annotations == null) { // lazy construction
3911                         annotations = new LinkedHashMap<>((Math.max(
3912                                 declaredAnnotations.size(),
3913                                 Math.min(12, declaredAnnotations.size() + superAnnotations.size())
3914                             ) * 4 + 2) / 3
3915                         );
3916                     }
3917                     annotations.put(annotationClass, e.getValue());
3918                 }
3919             }
3920         }
3921         if (annotations == null) {
3922             // no inherited annotations -> share the Map with declaredAnnotations
3923             annotations = declaredAnnotations;
3924         } else {
3925             // at least one inherited annotation -> declared may override inherited
3926             annotations.putAll(declaredAnnotations);
3927         }
3928         return new AnnotationData(annotations, declaredAnnotations, classRedefinedCount);
3929     }
3930 
3931     // Annotation types cache their internal (AnnotationType) form
3932 
3933     @SuppressWarnings("UnusedDeclaration")
3934     private transient volatile AnnotationType annotationType;
3935 
3936     boolean casAnnotationType(AnnotationType oldType, AnnotationType newType) {
3937         return Atomic.casAnnotationType(this, oldType, newType);
3938     }
3939 
3940     AnnotationType getAnnotationType() {
3941         return annotationType;
3942     }
3943 
3944     Map<Class<? extends Annotation>, Annotation> getDeclaredAnnotationMap() {
3945         return annotationData().declaredAnnotations;
3946     }
3947 
3948     /* Backing store of user-defined values pertaining to this class.
3949      * Maintained by the ClassValue class.
3950      */
3951     transient ClassValue.ClassValueMap classValueMap;
3952 
3953     /**
3954      * Returns an {@code AnnotatedType} object that represents the use of a
3955      * type to specify the superclass of the entity represented by this {@code
3956      * Class} object. (The <em>use</em> of type Foo to specify the superclass
3957      * in '...  extends Foo' is distinct from the <em>declaration</em> of type
3958      * Foo.)
3959      *
3960      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents a type whose declaration
3961      * does not explicitly indicate an annotated superclass, then the return
3962      * value is an {@code AnnotatedType} object representing an element with no
3963      * annotations.
3964      *
3965      * <p> If this {@code Class} represents either the {@code Object} class, an
3966      * interface type, an array type, a primitive type, or void, the return
3967      * value is {@code null}.
3968      *
3969      * @return an object representing the superclass
3970      * @since 1.8
3971      */
3972     public AnnotatedType getAnnotatedSuperclass() {
3973         if (this == Object.class ||
3974                 isInterface() ||
3975                 isArray() ||
3976                 isPrimitive() ||
3977                 this == Void.TYPE) {
3978             return null;
3979         }
3980 
3981         return TypeAnnotationParser.buildAnnotatedSuperclass(getRawTypeAnnotations(), getConstantPool(), this);
3982     }
3983 
3984     /**
3985      * Returns an array of {@code AnnotatedType} objects that represent the use
3986      * of types to specify superinterfaces of the entity represented by this
3987      * {@code Class} object. (The <em>use</em> of type Foo to specify a
3988      * superinterface in '... implements Foo' is distinct from the
3989      * <em>declaration</em> of type Foo.)
3990      *
3991      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents a class, the return value is
3992      * an array containing objects representing the uses of interface types to
3993      * specify interfaces implemented by the class. The order of the objects in
3994      * the array corresponds to the order of the interface types used in the
3995      * 'implements' clause of the declaration of this {@code Class} object.
3996      *
3997      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents an interface, the return
3998      * value is an array containing objects representing the uses of interface
3999      * types to specify interfaces directly extended by the interface. The
4000      * order of the objects in the array corresponds to the order of the
4001      * interface types used in the 'extends' clause of the declaration of this
4002      * {@code Class} object.
4003      *
4004      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents a class or interface whose
4005      * declaration does not explicitly indicate any annotated superinterfaces,
4006      * the return value is an array of length 0.
4007      *
4008      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents either the {@code Object}
4009      * class, an array type, a primitive type, or void, the return value is an
4010      * array of length 0.
4011      *
4012      * @return an array representing the superinterfaces
4013      * @since 1.8
4014      */
4015     public AnnotatedType[] getAnnotatedInterfaces() {
4016          return TypeAnnotationParser.buildAnnotatedInterfaces(getRawTypeAnnotations(), getConstantPool(), this);
4017     }
4018 
4019     private native Class<?> getNestHost0();
4020 
4021     /**
4022      * Returns the nest host of the <a href=#nest>nest</a> to which the class
4023      * or interface represented by this {@code Class} object belongs.
4024      * Every class and interface is a member of exactly one nest.
4025      * A class or interface that is not recorded as belonging to a nest
4026      * belongs to the nest consisting only of itself, and is the nest
4027      * host.
4028      *
4029      * <p>Each of the {@code Class} objects representing array types,
4030      * primitive types, and {@code void} returns {@code this} to indicate
4031      * that the represented entity belongs to the nest consisting only of
4032      * itself, and is the nest host.
4033      *
4034      * <p>If there is a {@linkplain LinkageError linkage error} accessing
4035      * the nest host, or if this class or interface is not enumerated as
4036      * a member of the nest by the nest host, then it is considered to belong
4037      * to its own nest and {@code this} is returned as the host.
4038      *
4039      * <p>If this class is a {@linkplain Class#isHiddenClass() hidden class}
4040      * created by calling
4041      * {@link MethodHandles.Lookup#defineHiddenClass(byte[], boolean, MethodHandles.Lookup.ClassOption...)
4042      * Lookup::defineHiddenClass} with {@link MethodHandles.Lookup.ClassOption#NESTMATE
4043      * NESTMATE} option, then the hidden class is added as a member to
4044      * the nest of a {@linkplain MethodHandles.Lookup#lookupClass() lookup class}
4045      * dynamically and it has the same nest host as the lookup class.
4046      *
4047      * @apiNote A {@code class} file of version 55.0 or greater may record the
4048      * host of the nest to which it belongs by using the {@code NestHost}
4049      * attribute (JVMS 4.7.28). Alternatively, a {@code class} file of
4050      * version 55.0 or greater may act as a nest host by enumerating the nest's
4051      * other members with the
4052      * {@code NestMembers} attribute (JVMS 4.7.29).
4053      * A {@code class} file of version 54.0 or lower does not use these
4054      * attributes.
4055      *
4056      * @return the nest host of this class or interface
4057      *
4058      * @throws SecurityException
4059      *         If the returned class is not the current class, and
4060      *         if a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and the caller's
4061      *         class loader is not the same as or an ancestor of the class
4062      *         loader for the returned class and invocation of {@link
4063      *         SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess s.checkPackageAccess()}
4064      *         denies access to the package of the returned class
4065      * @since 11
4066      * @jvms 4.7.28 The {@code NestHost} Attribute
4067      * @jvms 4.7.29 The {@code NestMembers} Attribute
4068      * @jvms 5.4.4 Access Control
4069      */
4070     @CallerSensitive
4071     public Class<?> getNestHost() {
4072         if (isPrimitive() || isArray()) {
4073             return this;
4074         }
4075 
4076         Class<?> host = this.nest;
4077         if (host == null) {
4078             host = getNestHost0();
4079             // if null then nest membership validation failed, so we
4080             // act as-if we have no nest-host attribute
4081             if (host == null || host == this) {
4082                 return this.nest = this;
4083             }
4084             this.nest = host;
4085         }
4086         // returning a different class requires a security check
4087         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
4088         if (sm != null) {
4089             checkPackageAccess(sm,
4090                                ClassLoader.getClassLoader(Reflection.getCallerClass()), true);
4091         }
4092         return host;
4093     }
4094 
4095     // keep a strong reference to the nest host
4096     private transient Class<?> nest;
4097 
4098     /**
4099      * Determines if the given {@code Class} is a nestmate of the
4100      * class or interface represented by this {@code Class} object.
4101      * Two classes or interfaces are nestmates
4102      * if they have the same {@linkplain #getNestHost() nest host}.
4103      *
4104      * @param c the class to check
4105      * @return {@code true} if this class and {@code c} are members of
4106      * the same nest; and {@code false} otherwise.
4107      *
4108      * @since 11
4109      */
4110     public boolean isNestmateOf(Class<?> c) {
4111         if (this == c) {
4112             return true;
4113         }
4114         if (isPrimitive() || isArray() ||
4115             c.isPrimitive() || c.isArray()) {
4116             return false;
4117         }
4118 
4119         return getNestHost() == c.getNestHost();
4120     }
4121 
4122     private native Class<?>[] getNestMembers0();
4123 
4124     /**
4125      * Returns an array containing {@code Class} objects representing all the
4126      * classes and interfaces that are members of the nest to which the class
4127      * or interface represented by this {@code Class} object belongs.
4128      * The {@linkplain #getNestHost() nest host} of that nest is the zeroth
4129      * element of the array. Subsequent elements represent any classes or
4130      * interfaces that are recorded by the nest host as being members of
4131      * the nest; the order of such elements is unspecified. Duplicates are
4132      * permitted.
4133      * If the nest host of that nest does not enumerate any members, then the
4134      * array has a single element containing {@code this}.
4135      *
4136      * <p>Each of the {@code Class} objects representing array types,
4137      * primitive types, and {@code void} returns an array containing only
4138      * {@code this}.









4139      *
4140      * <p>This method validates that, for each class or interface which is
4141      * recorded as a member of the nest by the nest host, that class or
4142      * interface records itself as a member of that same nest. Any exceptions
4143      * that occur during this validation are rethrown by this method.
4144      *
4145      * @apiNote
4146      * This method returns the nest members listed in the {@code NestMembers}
4147      * attribute.  The returned array does not include any hidden class that
4148      * were added to the nest of this class via
4149      * {@link MethodHandles.Lookup#defineHiddenClass(byte[], boolean, MethodHandles.Lookup.ClassOption...)
4150      * Lookup::defineHiddenClass}.
4151      *
4152      * @return an array of all classes and interfaces in the same nest as
4153      * this class
4154      *
4155      * @throws LinkageError
4156      *         If there is any problem loading or validating a nest member or
4157      *         its nest host
4158      * @throws SecurityException
4159      *         If any returned class is not the current class, and
4160      *         if a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and the caller's
4161      *         class loader is not the same as or an ancestor of the class
4162      *         loader for that returned class and invocation of {@link
4163      *         SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess s.checkPackageAccess()}
4164      *         denies access to the package of that returned class
4165      *
4166      * @since 11
4167      * @see #getNestHost()


4168      */
4169     @CallerSensitive
4170     public Class<?>[] getNestMembers() {
4171         if (isPrimitive() || isArray()) {
4172             return new Class<?>[] { this };
4173         }
4174         Class<?>[] members = getNestMembers0();
4175         // Can't actually enable this due to bootstrapping issues
4176         // assert(members.length != 1 || members[0] == this); // expected invariant from VM
4177 
4178         if (members.length > 1) {
4179             // If we return anything other than the current class we need
4180             // a security check
4181             SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
4182             if (sm != null) {
4183                 checkPackageAccess(sm,
4184                                    ClassLoader.getClassLoader(Reflection.getCallerClass()), true);
4185             }
4186         }
4187         return members;
4188     }
4189 
4190     /**
4191      * Returns the type descriptor string for this class.
4192      * <p>
4193      * Note that this is not a strict inverse of {@link #forName};
4194      * distinct classes which share a common name but have different class loaders
4195      * will have identical descriptor strings.
4196      *
4197      * @return the type descriptor representation
4198      * @jvms 4.3.2 Field Descriptors
4199      * @since 12
4200      */
4201     @Override
4202     public String descriptorString() {
4203         if (isPrimitive())
4204             return Wrapper.forPrimitiveType(this).basicTypeString();
4205         else if (isArray()) {
4206             return "[" + componentType.descriptorString();
4207         }
4208         else {
4209             return "L" + getName().replace('.', '/') + ";";
4210         }
4211     }
4212 
4213     /**
4214      * Returns the component type of this {@code Class}, if it describes
4215      * an array type, or {@code null} otherwise.
4216      *
4217      * @implSpec
4218      * Equivalent to {@link Class#getComponentType()}.
4219      *
4220      * @return a {@code Class} describing the component type, or {@code null}
4221      * if this {@code Class} does not describe an array type
4222      * @since 12
4223      */
4224     @Override
4225     public Class<?> componentType() {
4226         return isArray() ? componentType : null;
4227     }
4228 
4229     /**
4230      * Returns a {@code Class} for an array type whose component type
4231      * is described by this {@linkplain Class}.
4232      *
4233      * @return a {@code Class} describing the array type
4234      * @since 12
4235      */
4236     @Override
4237     public Class<?> arrayType() {
4238         return Array.newInstance(this, 0).getClass();
4239     }
4240 
4241     /**
4242      * Returns a nominal descriptor for this instance, if one can be
4243      * constructed, or an empty {@link Optional} if one cannot be.
4244      *
4245      * @return An {@link Optional} containing the resulting nominal descriptor,
4246      * or an empty {@link Optional} if one cannot be constructed.
4247      * @since 12
4248      */
4249     @Override
4250     public Optional<ClassDesc> describeConstable() {
4251         return Optional.of(ClassDesc.ofDescriptor(descriptorString()));
4252    }
4253 
4254     /**
4255      * Returns {@code true} if and only if the underlying class is a hidden class.
4256      *
4257      * <p> A <em>hidden class</em> is created by calling
4258      * {@link MethodHandles.Lookup#defineHiddenClass(byte[], boolean, MethodHandles.Lookup.ClassOption...)
4259      * Lookup::defineHiddenClass}.   A hidden class is non-discoverable
4260      * by name via {@link Class#forName(String) Class::forName},
4261      * {@link ClassLoader#loadClass(String) ClassLoader::loadClass}, and bytecode linkage.
4262      *
4263      * @return {@code true} if and only if this class is a hidden class.
4264      *
4265      * @since 15
4266      * @see MethodHandles.Lookup#defineHiddenClass
4267      */
4268     @HotSpotIntrinsicCandidate
4269     public native boolean isHiddenClass();
4270 
4271 }
--- EOF ---