1 /*
   2  * Copyright (c) 1997, 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
   3  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
   4  *
   5  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   6  * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
   7  * published by the Free Software Foundation.
   8  *
   9  * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  10  * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  11  * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  12  * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  13  * accompanied this code).
  14  *
  15  * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  16  * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  17  * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  18  *
  19  * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  20  * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  21  * questions.
  22  *
  23  */
  24 
  25 #include "precompiled.hpp"
  26 #include "aot/aotLoader.hpp"
  27 #include "classfile/classLoader.hpp"
  28 #include "classfile/classLoaderData.hpp"
  29 #include "classfile/javaClasses.hpp"
  30 #include "classfile/stringTable.hpp"
  31 #include "classfile/systemDictionary.hpp"
  32 #include "classfile/vmSymbols.hpp"
  33 #include "code/codeCache.hpp"
  34 #include "code/dependencies.hpp"
  35 #include "gc/shared/collectedHeap.inline.hpp"
  36 #include "gc/shared/gcArguments.hpp"
  37 #include "gc/shared/gcConfig.hpp"
  38 #include "gc/shared/gcTraceTime.inline.hpp"
  39 #include "interpreter/interpreter.hpp"
  40 #include "logging/log.hpp"
  41 #include "logging/logStream.hpp"
  42 #include "memory/filemap.hpp"
  43 #include "memory/metadataFactory.hpp"
  44 #include "memory/metaspaceClosure.hpp"
  45 #include "memory/metaspaceCounters.hpp"
  46 #include "memory/metaspaceShared.hpp"
  47 #include "memory/oopFactory.hpp"
  48 #include "memory/resourceArea.hpp"
  49 #include "memory/universe.hpp"
  50 #include "memory/universe.hpp"
  51 #include "memory/vtBuffer.hpp"
  52 #include "oops/constantPool.hpp"
  53 #include "oops/instanceClassLoaderKlass.hpp"
  54 #include "oops/instanceKlass.hpp"
  55 #include "oops/instanceMirrorKlass.hpp"
  56 #include "oops/instanceRefKlass.hpp"
  57 #include "oops/objArrayOop.inline.hpp"
  58 #include "oops/oop.inline.hpp"
  59 #include "oops/typeArrayKlass.hpp"
  60 #include "prims/resolvedMethodTable.hpp"
  61 #include "runtime/arguments.hpp"
  62 #include "runtime/atomic.hpp"
  63 #include "runtime/flags/flagSetting.hpp"
  64 #include "runtime/flags/jvmFlagConstraintList.hpp"
  65 #include "runtime/deoptimization.hpp"
  66 #include "runtime/handles.inline.hpp"
  67 #include "runtime/init.hpp"
  68 #include "runtime/java.hpp"
  69 #include "runtime/javaCalls.hpp"
  70 #include "runtime/sharedRuntime.hpp"
  71 #include "runtime/synchronizer.hpp"
  72 #include "runtime/thread.inline.hpp"
  73 #include "runtime/timerTrace.hpp"
  74 #include "runtime/vm_operations.hpp"
  75 #include "services/memoryService.hpp"
  76 #include "utilities/align.hpp"
  77 #include "utilities/copy.hpp"
  78 #include "utilities/debug.hpp"
  79 #include "utilities/events.hpp"
  80 #include "utilities/formatBuffer.hpp"
  81 #include "utilities/hashtable.inline.hpp"
  82 #include "utilities/macros.hpp"
  83 #include "utilities/ostream.hpp"
  84 #include "utilities/preserveException.hpp"
  85 
  86 // Known objects
  87 Klass* Universe::_typeArrayKlassObjs[T_LONG+1]        = { NULL /*, NULL...*/ };
  88 Klass* Universe::_objectArrayKlassObj                 = NULL;
  89 oop Universe::_int_mirror                             = NULL;
  90 oop Universe::_float_mirror                           = NULL;
  91 oop Universe::_double_mirror                          = NULL;
  92 oop Universe::_byte_mirror                            = NULL;
  93 oop Universe::_bool_mirror                            = NULL;
  94 oop Universe::_char_mirror                            = NULL;
  95 oop Universe::_long_mirror                            = NULL;
  96 oop Universe::_short_mirror                           = NULL;
  97 oop Universe::_void_mirror                            = NULL;
  98 oop Universe::_mirrors[T_VOID+1]                      = { NULL /*, NULL...*/ };
  99 oop Universe::_main_thread_group                      = NULL;
 100 oop Universe::_system_thread_group                    = NULL;
 101 objArrayOop Universe::_the_empty_class_klass_array    = NULL;
 102 Array<Klass*>* Universe::_the_array_interfaces_array = NULL;
 103 oop Universe::_the_null_sentinel                      = NULL;
 104 oop Universe::_the_null_string                        = NULL;
 105 oop Universe::_the_min_jint_string                   = NULL;
 106 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_finalizer_register_cache = NULL;
 107 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_loader_addClass_cache    = NULL;
 108 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_pd_implies_cache         = NULL;
 109 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_throw_illegal_access_error_cache = NULL;
 110 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_do_stack_walk_cache     = NULL;
 111 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap          = NULL;
 112 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace          = NULL;
 113 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace    = NULL;
 114 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size         = NULL;
 115 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit  = NULL;
 116 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects    = NULL;
 117 oop Universe::_delayed_stack_overflow_error_message   = NULL;
 118 objArrayOop Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_array = NULL;
 119 volatile jint Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count = 0;
 120 bool Universe::_verify_in_progress                    = false;
 121 long Universe::verify_flags                           = Universe::Verify_All;
 122 oop Universe::_null_ptr_exception_instance            = NULL;
 123 oop Universe::_arithmetic_exception_instance          = NULL;
 124 oop Universe::_virtual_machine_error_instance         = NULL;
 125 oop Universe::_vm_exception                           = NULL;
 126 oop Universe::_reference_pending_list                 = NULL;
 127 
 128 Array<int>* Universe::_the_empty_int_array            = NULL;
 129 Array<u2>* Universe::_the_empty_short_array           = NULL;
 130 Array<Klass*>* Universe::_the_empty_klass_array     = NULL;
 131 Array<InstanceKlass*>* Universe::_the_empty_instance_klass_array  = NULL;
 132 Array<Method*>* Universe::_the_empty_method_array   = NULL;
 133 
 134 // These variables are guarded by FullGCALot_lock.
 135 debug_only(objArrayOop Universe::_fullgc_alot_dummy_array = NULL;)
 136 debug_only(int Universe::_fullgc_alot_dummy_next      = 0;)
 137 
 138 // Heap
 139 int             Universe::_verify_count = 0;
 140 
 141 // Oop verification (see MacroAssembler::verify_oop)
 142 uintptr_t       Universe::_verify_oop_mask = 0;
 143 uintptr_t       Universe::_verify_oop_bits = (uintptr_t) -1;
 144 
 145 int             Universe::_base_vtable_size = 0;
 146 bool            Universe::_bootstrapping = false;
 147 bool            Universe::_module_initialized = false;
 148 bool            Universe::_fully_initialized = false;
 149 
 150 size_t          Universe::_heap_capacity_at_last_gc;
 151 size_t          Universe::_heap_used_at_last_gc = 0;
 152 
 153 CollectedHeap*  Universe::_collectedHeap = NULL;
 154 
 155 NarrowPtrStruct Universe::_narrow_oop = { NULL, 0, true };
 156 NarrowPtrStruct Universe::_narrow_klass = { NULL, 0, true };
 157 address Universe::_narrow_ptrs_base;
 158 uint64_t Universe::_narrow_klass_range = (uint64_t(max_juint)+1);
 159 
 160 void Universe::basic_type_classes_do(void f(Klass*)) {
 161   for (int i = T_BOOLEAN; i < T_LONG+1; i++) {
 162     f(_typeArrayKlassObjs[i]);
 163   }
 164 }
 165 
 166 void Universe::basic_type_classes_do(KlassClosure *closure) {
 167   for (int i = T_BOOLEAN; i < T_LONG+1; i++) {
 168     closure->do_klass(_typeArrayKlassObjs[i]);
 169   }
 170 }
 171 
 172 void Universe::oops_do(OopClosure* f) {
 173 
 174   f->do_oop((oop*) &_int_mirror);
 175   f->do_oop((oop*) &_float_mirror);
 176   f->do_oop((oop*) &_double_mirror);
 177   f->do_oop((oop*) &_byte_mirror);
 178   f->do_oop((oop*) &_bool_mirror);
 179   f->do_oop((oop*) &_char_mirror);
 180   f->do_oop((oop*) &_long_mirror);
 181   f->do_oop((oop*) &_short_mirror);
 182   f->do_oop((oop*) &_void_mirror);
 183 
 184   for (int i = T_BOOLEAN; i < T_VOID+1; i++) {
 185     f->do_oop((oop*) &_mirrors[i]);
 186   }
 187   assert(_mirrors[0] == NULL && _mirrors[T_BOOLEAN - 1] == NULL, "checking");
 188 
 189   f->do_oop((oop*)&_the_empty_class_klass_array);
 190   f->do_oop((oop*)&_the_null_sentinel);
 191   f->do_oop((oop*)&_the_null_string);
 192   f->do_oop((oop*)&_the_min_jint_string);
 193   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_java_heap);
 194   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_metaspace);
 195   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace);
 196   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_array_size);
 197   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit);
 198   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects);
 199   f->do_oop((oop*)&_delayed_stack_overflow_error_message);
 200   f->do_oop((oop*)&_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_array);
 201   f->do_oop((oop*)&_null_ptr_exception_instance);
 202   f->do_oop((oop*)&_arithmetic_exception_instance);
 203   f->do_oop((oop*)&_virtual_machine_error_instance);
 204   f->do_oop((oop*)&_main_thread_group);
 205   f->do_oop((oop*)&_system_thread_group);
 206   f->do_oop((oop*)&_vm_exception);
 207   f->do_oop((oop*)&_reference_pending_list);
 208   debug_only(f->do_oop((oop*)&_fullgc_alot_dummy_array);)
 209 }
 210 
 211 void LatestMethodCache::metaspace_pointers_do(MetaspaceClosure* it) {
 212   it->push(&_klass);
 213 }
 214 
 215 void Universe::metaspace_pointers_do(MetaspaceClosure* it) {
 216   for (int i = 0; i < T_LONG+1; i++) {
 217     it->push(&_typeArrayKlassObjs[i]);
 218   }
 219   it->push(&_objectArrayKlassObj);
 220 
 221   it->push(&_the_empty_int_array);
 222   it->push(&_the_empty_short_array);
 223   it->push(&_the_empty_klass_array);
 224   it->push(&_the_empty_instance_klass_array);
 225   it->push(&_the_empty_method_array);
 226   it->push(&_the_array_interfaces_array);
 227 
 228   _finalizer_register_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 229   _loader_addClass_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 230   _pd_implies_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 231   _throw_illegal_access_error_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 232   _do_stack_walk_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 233 }
 234 
 235 // Serialize metadata and pointers to primitive type mirrors in and out of CDS archive
 236 void Universe::serialize(SerializeClosure* f) {
 237 
 238   for (int i = 0; i < T_LONG+1; i++) {
 239     f->do_ptr((void**)&_typeArrayKlassObjs[i]);
 240   }
 241 
 242   f->do_ptr((void**)&_objectArrayKlassObj);
 243 #if INCLUDE_CDS_JAVA_HEAP
 244   // The mirrors are NULL if MetaspaceShared::is_heap_object_archiving_allowed
 245   // is false.
 246   f->do_oop(&_int_mirror);
 247   f->do_oop(&_float_mirror);
 248   f->do_oop(&_double_mirror);
 249   f->do_oop(&_byte_mirror);
 250   f->do_oop(&_bool_mirror);
 251   f->do_oop(&_char_mirror);
 252   f->do_oop(&_long_mirror);
 253   f->do_oop(&_short_mirror);
 254   f->do_oop(&_void_mirror);
 255 #endif
 256 
 257   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_array_interfaces_array);
 258   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_int_array);
 259   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_short_array);
 260   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_method_array);
 261   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_klass_array);
 262   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_instance_klass_array);
 263   _finalizer_register_cache->serialize(f);
 264   _loader_addClass_cache->serialize(f);
 265   _pd_implies_cache->serialize(f);
 266   _throw_illegal_access_error_cache->serialize(f);
 267   _do_stack_walk_cache->serialize(f);
 268 }
 269 
 270 void Universe::check_alignment(uintx size, uintx alignment, const char* name) {
 271   if (size < alignment || size % alignment != 0) {
 272     vm_exit_during_initialization(
 273       err_msg("Size of %s (" UINTX_FORMAT " bytes) must be aligned to " UINTX_FORMAT " bytes", name, size, alignment));
 274   }
 275 }
 276 
 277 void initialize_basic_type_klass(Klass* k, TRAPS) {
 278   Klass* ok = SystemDictionary::Object_klass();
 279 #if INCLUDE_CDS
 280   if (UseSharedSpaces) {
 281     ClassLoaderData* loader_data = ClassLoaderData::the_null_class_loader_data();
 282     assert(k->super() == ok, "u3");
 283     k->restore_unshareable_info(loader_data, Handle(), CHECK);
 284   } else
 285 #endif
 286   {
 287     k->initialize_supers(ok, NULL, CHECK);
 288   }
 289   k->append_to_sibling_list();
 290 }
 291 
 292 void Universe::genesis(TRAPS) {
 293   ResourceMark rm;
 294 
 295   { FlagSetting fs(_bootstrapping, true);
 296 
 297     { MutexLocker mc(Compile_lock);
 298 
 299       java_lang_Class::allocate_fixup_lists();
 300 
 301       // determine base vtable size; without that we cannot create the array klasses
 302       compute_base_vtable_size();
 303 
 304       if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
 305         for (int i = T_BOOLEAN; i < T_LONG+1; i++) {
 306           _typeArrayKlassObjs[i] = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass((BasicType)i, CHECK);
 307         }
 308 
 309         ClassLoaderData* null_cld = ClassLoaderData::the_null_class_loader_data();
 310 
 311         _the_array_interfaces_array     = MetadataFactory::new_array<Klass*>(null_cld, 2, NULL, CHECK);
 312         _the_empty_int_array            = MetadataFactory::new_array<int>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 313         _the_empty_short_array          = MetadataFactory::new_array<u2>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 314         _the_empty_method_array         = MetadataFactory::new_array<Method*>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 315         _the_empty_klass_array          = MetadataFactory::new_array<Klass*>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 316         _the_empty_instance_klass_array = MetadataFactory::new_array<InstanceKlass*>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 317       }
 318     }
 319 
 320     vmSymbols::initialize(CHECK);
 321 
 322     SystemDictionary::initialize(CHECK);
 323 
 324     Klass* ok = SystemDictionary::Object_klass();
 325 
 326     _the_null_string            = StringTable::intern("null", CHECK);
 327     _the_min_jint_string       = StringTable::intern("-2147483648", CHECK);
 328 
 329 #if INCLUDE_CDS
 330     if (UseSharedSpaces) {
 331       // Verify shared interfaces array.
 332       assert(_the_array_interfaces_array->at(0) ==
 333              SystemDictionary::Cloneable_klass(), "u3");
 334       assert(_the_array_interfaces_array->at(1) ==
 335              SystemDictionary::Serializable_klass(), "u3");
 336       MetaspaceShared::fixup_mapped_heap_regions();
 337     } else
 338 #endif
 339     {
 340       // Set up shared interfaces array.  (Do this before supers are set up.)
 341       _the_array_interfaces_array->at_put(0, SystemDictionary::Cloneable_klass());
 342       _the_array_interfaces_array->at_put(1, SystemDictionary::Serializable_klass());
 343     }
 344 
 345     initialize_basic_type_klass(boolArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 346     initialize_basic_type_klass(charArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 347     initialize_basic_type_klass(floatArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 348     initialize_basic_type_klass(doubleArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 349     initialize_basic_type_klass(byteArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 350     initialize_basic_type_klass(shortArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 351     initialize_basic_type_klass(intArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 352     initialize_basic_type_klass(longArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 353   } // end of core bootstrapping
 354 
 355   {
 356     Handle tns = java_lang_String::create_from_str("<null_sentinel>", CHECK);
 357     _the_null_sentinel = tns();
 358   }
 359 
 360   // Maybe this could be lifted up now that object array can be initialized
 361   // during the bootstrapping.
 362 
 363   // OLD
 364   // Initialize _objectArrayKlass after core bootstraping to make
 365   // sure the super class is set up properly for _objectArrayKlass.
 366   // ---
 367   // NEW
 368   // Since some of the old system object arrays have been converted to
 369   // ordinary object arrays, _objectArrayKlass will be loaded when
 370   // SystemDictionary::initialize(CHECK); is run. See the extra check
 371   // for Object_klass_loaded in objArrayKlassKlass::allocate_objArray_klass_impl.
 372   _objectArrayKlassObj = InstanceKlass::
 373     cast(SystemDictionary::Object_klass())->array_klass(1, CHECK);
 374   // OLD
 375   // Add the class to the class hierarchy manually to make sure that
 376   // its vtable is initialized after core bootstrapping is completed.
 377   // ---
 378   // New
 379   // Have already been initialized.
 380   _objectArrayKlassObj->append_to_sibling_list();
 381 
 382   #ifdef ASSERT
 383   if (FullGCALot) {
 384     // Allocate an array of dummy objects.
 385     // We'd like these to be at the bottom of the old generation,
 386     // so that when we free one and then collect,
 387     // (almost) the whole heap moves
 388     // and we find out if we actually update all the oops correctly.
 389     // But we can't allocate directly in the old generation,
 390     // so we allocate wherever, and hope that the first collection
 391     // moves these objects to the bottom of the old generation.
 392     // We can allocate directly in the permanent generation, so we do.
 393     int size;
 394     if (UseConcMarkSweepGC) {
 395       log_warning(gc)("Using +FullGCALot with concurrent mark sweep gc will not force all objects to relocate");
 396       size = FullGCALotDummies;
 397     } else {
 398       size = FullGCALotDummies * 2;
 399     }
 400     objArrayOop    naked_array = oopFactory::new_objArray(SystemDictionary::Object_klass(), size, CHECK);
 401     objArrayHandle dummy_array(THREAD, naked_array);
 402     int i = 0;
 403     while (i < size) {
 404         // Allocate dummy in old generation
 405       oop dummy = SystemDictionary::Object_klass()->allocate_instance(CHECK);
 406       dummy_array->obj_at_put(i++, dummy);
 407     }
 408     {
 409       // Only modify the global variable inside the mutex.
 410       // If we had a race to here, the other dummy_array instances
 411       // and their elements just get dropped on the floor, which is fine.
 412       MutexLocker ml(FullGCALot_lock);
 413       if (_fullgc_alot_dummy_array == NULL) {
 414         _fullgc_alot_dummy_array = dummy_array();
 415       }
 416     }
 417     assert(i == _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->length(), "just checking");
 418   }
 419   #endif
 420 }
 421 
 422 void Universe::initialize_basic_type_mirrors(TRAPS) {
 423 #if INCLUDE_CDS_JAVA_HEAP
 424     if (UseSharedSpaces &&
 425         MetaspaceShared::open_archive_heap_region_mapped() &&
 426         _int_mirror != NULL) {
 427       assert(MetaspaceShared::is_heap_object_archiving_allowed(), "Sanity");
 428       assert(_float_mirror != NULL && _double_mirror != NULL &&
 429              _byte_mirror  != NULL && _byte_mirror   != NULL &&
 430              _bool_mirror  != NULL && _char_mirror   != NULL &&
 431              _long_mirror  != NULL && _short_mirror  != NULL &&
 432              _void_mirror  != NULL, "Sanity");
 433     } else
 434 #endif
 435     {
 436       _int_mirror     =
 437         java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("int",    T_INT, CHECK);
 438       _float_mirror   =
 439         java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("float",  T_FLOAT,   CHECK);
 440       _double_mirror  =
 441         java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("double", T_DOUBLE,  CHECK);
 442       _byte_mirror    =
 443         java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("byte",   T_BYTE, CHECK);
 444       _bool_mirror    =
 445         java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("boolean",T_BOOLEAN, CHECK);
 446       _char_mirror    =
 447         java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("char",   T_CHAR, CHECK);
 448       _long_mirror    =
 449         java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("long",   T_LONG, CHECK);
 450       _short_mirror   =
 451         java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("short",  T_SHORT,   CHECK);
 452       _void_mirror    =
 453         java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("void",   T_VOID, CHECK);
 454     }
 455 
 456     _mirrors[T_INT]     = _int_mirror;
 457     _mirrors[T_FLOAT]   = _float_mirror;
 458     _mirrors[T_DOUBLE]  = _double_mirror;
 459     _mirrors[T_BYTE]    = _byte_mirror;
 460     _mirrors[T_BOOLEAN] = _bool_mirror;
 461     _mirrors[T_CHAR]    = _char_mirror;
 462     _mirrors[T_LONG]    = _long_mirror;
 463     _mirrors[T_SHORT]   = _short_mirror;
 464     _mirrors[T_VOID]    = _void_mirror;
 465   //_mirrors[T_OBJECT]  = _object_klass->java_mirror();
 466   //_mirrors[T_ARRAY]   = _object_klass->java_mirror();
 467 }
 468 
 469 void Universe::fixup_mirrors(TRAPS) {
 470   // Bootstrap problem: all classes gets a mirror (java.lang.Class instance) assigned eagerly,
 471   // but we cannot do that for classes created before java.lang.Class is loaded. Here we simply
 472   // walk over permanent objects created so far (mostly classes) and fixup their mirrors. Note
 473   // that the number of objects allocated at this point is very small.
 474   assert(SystemDictionary::Class_klass_loaded(), "java.lang.Class should be loaded");
 475   HandleMark hm(THREAD);
 476 
 477   if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
 478     // Cache the start of the static fields
 479     InstanceMirrorKlass::init_offset_of_static_fields();
 480   }
 481 
 482   GrowableArray <Klass*>* list = java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror_list();
 483   int list_length = list->length();
 484   for (int i = 0; i < list_length; i++) {
 485     Klass* k = list->at(i);
 486     assert(k->is_klass(), "List should only hold classes");
 487     EXCEPTION_MARK;
 488     java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror(k, CATCH);
 489   }
 490   delete java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror_list();
 491   java_lang_Class::set_fixup_mirror_list(NULL);
 492 }
 493 
 494 #define assert_pll_locked(test) \
 495   assert(Heap_lock->test(), "Reference pending list access requires lock")
 496 
 497 #define assert_pll_ownership() assert_pll_locked(owned_by_self)
 498 
 499 oop Universe::reference_pending_list() {
 500   if (Thread::current()->is_VM_thread()) {
 501     assert_pll_locked(is_locked);
 502   } else {
 503     assert_pll_ownership();
 504   }
 505   return _reference_pending_list;
 506 }
 507 
 508 void Universe::set_reference_pending_list(oop list) {
 509   assert_pll_ownership();
 510   _reference_pending_list = list;
 511 }
 512 
 513 bool Universe::has_reference_pending_list() {
 514   assert_pll_ownership();
 515   return _reference_pending_list != NULL;
 516 }
 517 
 518 oop Universe::swap_reference_pending_list(oop list) {
 519   assert_pll_locked(is_locked);
 520   return Atomic::xchg(list, &_reference_pending_list);
 521 }
 522 
 523 #undef assert_pll_locked
 524 #undef assert_pll_ownership
 525 
 526 // initialize_vtable could cause gc if
 527 // 1) we specified true to initialize_vtable and
 528 // 2) this ran after gc was enabled
 529 // In case those ever change we use handles for oops
 530 void Universe::reinitialize_vtable_of(Klass* ko, TRAPS) {
 531   // init vtable of k and all subclasses
 532   ko->vtable().initialize_vtable(false, CHECK);
 533   if (ko->is_instance_klass()) {
 534     for (Klass* sk = ko->subklass();
 535          sk != NULL;
 536          sk = sk->next_sibling()) {
 537       reinitialize_vtable_of(sk, CHECK);
 538     }
 539   }
 540 }
 541 
 542 
 543 void initialize_itable_for_klass(InstanceKlass* k, TRAPS) {
 544   k->itable().initialize_itable(false, CHECK);
 545 }
 546 
 547 
 548 void Universe::reinitialize_itables(TRAPS) {
 549   MutexLocker mcld(ClassLoaderDataGraph_lock);
 550   ClassLoaderDataGraph::dictionary_classes_do(initialize_itable_for_klass, CHECK);
 551 }
 552 
 553 
 554 bool Universe::on_page_boundary(void* addr) {
 555   return is_aligned(addr, os::vm_page_size());
 556 }
 557 
 558 
 559 bool Universe::should_fill_in_stack_trace(Handle throwable) {
 560   // never attempt to fill in the stack trace of preallocated errors that do not have
 561   // backtrace. These errors are kept alive forever and may be "re-used" when all
 562   // preallocated errors with backtrace have been consumed. Also need to avoid
 563   // a potential loop which could happen if an out of memory occurs when attempting
 564   // to allocate the backtrace.
 565   return ((!oopDesc::equals(throwable(), Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap)) &&
 566           (!oopDesc::equals(throwable(), Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace))  &&
 567           (!oopDesc::equals(throwable(), Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace))  &&
 568           (!oopDesc::equals(throwable(), Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size)) &&
 569           (!oopDesc::equals(throwable(), Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit)) &&
 570           (!oopDesc::equals(throwable(), Universe::_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects)));
 571 }
 572 
 573 
 574 oop Universe::gen_out_of_memory_error(oop default_err) {
 575   // generate an out of memory error:
 576   // - if there is a preallocated error and stack traces are available
 577   //   (j.l.Throwable is initialized), then return the preallocated
 578   //   error with a filled in stack trace, and with the message
 579   //   provided by the default error.
 580   // - otherwise, return the default error, without a stack trace.
 581   int next;
 582   if ((_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count > 0) &&
 583       SystemDictionary::Throwable_klass()->is_initialized()) {
 584     next = (int)Atomic::add(-1, &_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count);
 585     assert(next < (int)PreallocatedOutOfMemoryErrorCount, "avail count is corrupt");
 586   } else {
 587     next = -1;
 588   }
 589   if (next < 0) {
 590     // all preallocated errors have been used.
 591     // return default
 592     return default_err;
 593   } else {
 594     Thread* THREAD = Thread::current();
 595     Handle default_err_h(THREAD, default_err);
 596     // get the error object at the slot and set set it to NULL so that the
 597     // array isn't keeping it alive anymore.
 598     Handle exc(THREAD, preallocated_out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at(next));
 599     assert(exc() != NULL, "slot has been used already");
 600     preallocated_out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at_put(next, NULL);
 601 
 602     // use the message from the default error
 603     oop msg = java_lang_Throwable::message(default_err_h());
 604     assert(msg != NULL, "no message");
 605     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(exc(), msg);
 606 
 607     // populate the stack trace and return it.
 608     java_lang_Throwable::fill_in_stack_trace_of_preallocated_backtrace(exc);
 609     return exc();
 610   }
 611 }
 612 
 613 intptr_t Universe::_non_oop_bits = 0;
 614 
 615 void* Universe::non_oop_word() {
 616   // Neither the high bits nor the low bits of this value is allowed
 617   // to look like (respectively) the high or low bits of a real oop.
 618   //
 619   // High and low are CPU-specific notions, but low always includes
 620   // the low-order bit.  Since oops are always aligned at least mod 4,
 621   // setting the low-order bit will ensure that the low half of the
 622   // word will never look like that of a real oop.
 623   //
 624   // Using the OS-supplied non-memory-address word (usually 0 or -1)
 625   // will take care of the high bits, however many there are.
 626 
 627   if (_non_oop_bits == 0) {
 628     _non_oop_bits = (intptr_t)os::non_memory_address_word() | 1;
 629   }
 630 
 631   return (void*)_non_oop_bits;
 632 }
 633 
 634 jint universe_init() {
 635   assert(!Universe::_fully_initialized, "called after initialize_vtables");
 636   guarantee(1 << LogHeapWordSize == sizeof(HeapWord),
 637          "LogHeapWordSize is incorrect.");
 638   guarantee(sizeof(oop) >= sizeof(HeapWord), "HeapWord larger than oop?");
 639   guarantee(sizeof(oop) % sizeof(HeapWord) == 0,
 640             "oop size is not not a multiple of HeapWord size");
 641 
 642   TraceTime timer("Genesis", TRACETIME_LOG(Info, startuptime));
 643 
 644   JavaClasses::compute_hard_coded_offsets();
 645 
 646   jint status = Universe::initialize_heap();
 647   if (status != JNI_OK) {
 648     return status;
 649   }
 650 
 651   SystemDictionary::initialize_oop_storage();
 652 
 653   Metaspace::global_initialize();
 654   VTBuffer::init();
 655   // Initialize performance counters for metaspaces
 656   MetaspaceCounters::initialize_performance_counters();
 657   CompressedClassSpaceCounters::initialize_performance_counters();
 658 
 659   AOTLoader::universe_init();
 660 
 661   // Checks 'AfterMemoryInit' constraints.
 662   if (!JVMFlagConstraintList::check_constraints(JVMFlagConstraint::AfterMemoryInit)) {
 663     return JNI_EINVAL;
 664   }
 665 
 666   // Create memory for metadata.  Must be after initializing heap for
 667   // DumpSharedSpaces.
 668   ClassLoaderData::init_null_class_loader_data();
 669 
 670   // We have a heap so create the Method* caches before
 671   // Metaspace::initialize_shared_spaces() tries to populate them.
 672   Universe::_finalizer_register_cache = new LatestMethodCache();
 673   Universe::_loader_addClass_cache    = new LatestMethodCache();
 674   Universe::_pd_implies_cache         = new LatestMethodCache();
 675   Universe::_throw_illegal_access_error_cache = new LatestMethodCache();
 676   Universe::_do_stack_walk_cache = new LatestMethodCache();
 677 
 678 #if INCLUDE_CDS
 679   if (UseSharedSpaces) {
 680     // Read the data structures supporting the shared spaces (shared
 681     // system dictionary, symbol table, etc.).  After that, access to
 682     // the file (other than the mapped regions) is no longer needed, and
 683     // the file is closed. Closing the file does not affect the
 684     // currently mapped regions.
 685     MetaspaceShared::initialize_shared_spaces();
 686     StringTable::create_table();
 687   } else
 688 #endif
 689   {
 690     SymbolTable::create_table();
 691     StringTable::create_table();
 692 
 693 #if INCLUDE_CDS
 694     if (DumpSharedSpaces) {
 695       MetaspaceShared::prepare_for_dumping();
 696     }
 697 #endif
 698   }
 699   if (strlen(VerifySubSet) > 0) {
 700     Universe::initialize_verify_flags();
 701   }
 702 
 703   ResolvedMethodTable::create_table();
 704 
 705   return JNI_OK;
 706 }
 707 
 708 CollectedHeap* Universe::create_heap() {
 709   assert(_collectedHeap == NULL, "Heap already created");
 710   return GCConfig::arguments()->create_heap();
 711 }
 712 
 713 // Choose the heap base address and oop encoding mode
 714 // when compressed oops are used:
 715 // Unscaled  - Use 32-bits oops without encoding when
 716 //     NarrowOopHeapBaseMin + heap_size < 4Gb
 717 // ZeroBased - Use zero based compressed oops with encoding when
 718 //     NarrowOopHeapBaseMin + heap_size < 32Gb
 719 // HeapBased - Use compressed oops with heap base + encoding.
 720 
 721 jint Universe::initialize_heap() {
 722   _collectedHeap = create_heap();
 723   jint status = _collectedHeap->initialize();
 724   if (status != JNI_OK) {
 725     return status;
 726   }
 727   log_info(gc)("Using %s", _collectedHeap->name());
 728 
 729   ThreadLocalAllocBuffer::set_max_size(Universe::heap()->max_tlab_size());
 730 
 731 #ifdef _LP64
 732   if (UseCompressedOops) {
 733     // Subtract a page because something can get allocated at heap base.
 734     // This also makes implicit null checking work, because the
 735     // memory+1 page below heap_base needs to cause a signal.
 736     // See needs_explicit_null_check.
 737     // Only set the heap base for compressed oops because it indicates
 738     // compressed oops for pstack code.
 739     if ((uint64_t)Universe::heap()->reserved_region().end() > UnscaledOopHeapMax) {
 740       // Didn't reserve heap below 4Gb.  Must shift.
 741       Universe::set_narrow_oop_shift(LogMinObjAlignmentInBytes);
 742     }
 743     if ((uint64_t)Universe::heap()->reserved_region().end() <= OopEncodingHeapMax) {
 744       // Did reserve heap below 32Gb. Can use base == 0;
 745       Universe::set_narrow_oop_base(0);
 746     }
 747     AOTLoader::set_narrow_oop_shift();
 748 
 749     Universe::set_narrow_ptrs_base(Universe::narrow_oop_base());
 750 
 751     LogTarget(Info, gc, heap, coops) lt;
 752     if (lt.is_enabled()) {
 753       ResourceMark rm;
 754       LogStream ls(lt);
 755       Universe::print_compressed_oops_mode(&ls);
 756     }
 757 
 758     // Tell tests in which mode we run.
 759     Arguments::PropertyList_add(new SystemProperty("java.vm.compressedOopsMode",
 760                                                    narrow_oop_mode_to_string(narrow_oop_mode()),
 761                                                    false));
 762   }
 763   // Universe::narrow_oop_base() is one page below the heap.
 764   assert((intptr_t)Universe::narrow_oop_base() <= (intptr_t)(Universe::heap()->base() -
 765          os::vm_page_size()) ||
 766          Universe::narrow_oop_base() == NULL, "invalid value");
 767   assert(Universe::narrow_oop_shift() == LogMinObjAlignmentInBytes ||
 768          Universe::narrow_oop_shift() == 0, "invalid value");
 769 #endif
 770 
 771   // We will never reach the CATCH below since Exceptions::_throw will cause
 772   // the VM to exit if an exception is thrown during initialization
 773 
 774   if (UseTLAB) {
 775     assert(Universe::heap()->supports_tlab_allocation(),
 776            "Should support thread-local allocation buffers");
 777     ThreadLocalAllocBuffer::startup_initialization();
 778   }
 779   return JNI_OK;
 780 }
 781 
 782 void Universe::print_compressed_oops_mode(outputStream* st) {
 783   st->print("Heap address: " PTR_FORMAT ", size: " SIZE_FORMAT " MB",
 784             p2i(Universe::heap()->base()), Universe::heap()->reserved_region().byte_size()/M);
 785 
 786   st->print(", Compressed Oops mode: %s", narrow_oop_mode_to_string(narrow_oop_mode()));
 787 
 788   if (Universe::narrow_oop_base() != 0) {
 789     st->print(": " PTR_FORMAT, p2i(Universe::narrow_oop_base()));
 790   }
 791 
 792   if (Universe::narrow_oop_shift() != 0) {
 793     st->print(", Oop shift amount: %d", Universe::narrow_oop_shift());
 794   }
 795 
 796   if (!Universe::narrow_oop_use_implicit_null_checks()) {
 797     st->print(", no protected page in front of the heap");
 798   }
 799   st->cr();
 800 }
 801 
 802 ReservedSpace Universe::reserve_heap(size_t heap_size, size_t alignment) {
 803 
 804   assert(alignment <= Arguments::conservative_max_heap_alignment(),
 805          "actual alignment " SIZE_FORMAT " must be within maximum heap alignment " SIZE_FORMAT,
 806          alignment, Arguments::conservative_max_heap_alignment());
 807 
 808   size_t total_reserved = align_up(heap_size, alignment);
 809   assert(!UseCompressedOops || (total_reserved <= (OopEncodingHeapMax - os::vm_page_size())),
 810       "heap size is too big for compressed oops");
 811 
 812   bool use_large_pages = UseLargePages && is_aligned(alignment, os::large_page_size());
 813   assert(!UseLargePages
 814       || UseParallelGC
 815       || use_large_pages, "Wrong alignment to use large pages");
 816 
 817   // Now create the space.
 818   ReservedHeapSpace total_rs(total_reserved, alignment, use_large_pages, AllocateHeapAt);
 819 
 820   if (total_rs.is_reserved()) {
 821     assert((total_reserved == total_rs.size()) && ((uintptr_t)total_rs.base() % alignment == 0),
 822            "must be exactly of required size and alignment");
 823     // We are good.
 824 
 825     if (UseCompressedOops) {
 826       // Universe::initialize_heap() will reset this to NULL if unscaled
 827       // or zero-based narrow oops are actually used.
 828       // Else heap start and base MUST differ, so that NULL can be encoded nonambigous.
 829       Universe::set_narrow_oop_base((address)total_rs.compressed_oop_base());
 830     }
 831 
 832     if (AllocateHeapAt != NULL) {
 833       log_info(gc,heap)("Successfully allocated Java heap at location %s", AllocateHeapAt);
 834     }
 835     return total_rs;
 836   }
 837 
 838   vm_exit_during_initialization(
 839     err_msg("Could not reserve enough space for " SIZE_FORMAT "KB object heap",
 840             total_reserved/K));
 841 
 842   // satisfy compiler
 843   ShouldNotReachHere();
 844   return ReservedHeapSpace(0, 0, false);
 845 }
 846 
 847 
 848 // It's the caller's responsibility to ensure glitch-freedom
 849 // (if required).
 850 void Universe::update_heap_info_at_gc() {
 851   _heap_capacity_at_last_gc = heap()->capacity();
 852   _heap_used_at_last_gc     = heap()->used();
 853 }
 854 
 855 
 856 const char* Universe::narrow_oop_mode_to_string(Universe::NARROW_OOP_MODE mode) {
 857   switch (mode) {
 858     case UnscaledNarrowOop:
 859       return "32-bit";
 860     case ZeroBasedNarrowOop:
 861       return "Zero based";
 862     case DisjointBaseNarrowOop:
 863       return "Non-zero disjoint base";
 864     case HeapBasedNarrowOop:
 865       return "Non-zero based";
 866     default:
 867       ShouldNotReachHere();
 868       return "";
 869   }
 870 }
 871 
 872 
 873 Universe::NARROW_OOP_MODE Universe::narrow_oop_mode() {
 874   if (narrow_oop_base_disjoint()) {
 875     return DisjointBaseNarrowOop;
 876   }
 877 
 878   if (narrow_oop_base() != 0) {
 879     return HeapBasedNarrowOop;
 880   }
 881 
 882   if (narrow_oop_shift() != 0) {
 883     return ZeroBasedNarrowOop;
 884   }
 885 
 886   return UnscaledNarrowOop;
 887 }
 888 
 889 void initialize_known_method(LatestMethodCache* method_cache,
 890                              InstanceKlass* ik,
 891                              const char* method,
 892                              Symbol* signature,
 893                              bool is_static, TRAPS)
 894 {
 895   TempNewSymbol name = SymbolTable::new_symbol(method, CHECK);
 896   Method* m = NULL;
 897   // The klass must be linked before looking up the method.
 898   if (!ik->link_class_or_fail(THREAD) ||
 899       ((m = ik->find_method(name, signature)) == NULL) ||
 900       is_static != m->is_static()) {
 901     ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
 902     // NoSuchMethodException doesn't actually work because it tries to run the
 903     // <init> function before java_lang_Class is linked. Print error and exit.
 904     vm_exit_during_initialization(err_msg("Unable to link/verify %s.%s method",
 905                                  ik->name()->as_C_string(), method));
 906   }
 907   method_cache->init(ik, m);
 908 }
 909 
 910 void Universe::initialize_known_methods(TRAPS) {
 911   // Set up static method for registering finalizers
 912   initialize_known_method(_finalizer_register_cache,
 913                           SystemDictionary::Finalizer_klass(),
 914                           "register",
 915                           vmSymbols::object_void_signature(), true, CHECK);
 916 
 917   initialize_known_method(_throw_illegal_access_error_cache,
 918                           SystemDictionary::internal_Unsafe_klass(),
 919                           "throwIllegalAccessError",
 920                           vmSymbols::void_method_signature(), true, CHECK);
 921 
 922   // Set up method for registering loaded classes in class loader vector
 923   initialize_known_method(_loader_addClass_cache,
 924                           SystemDictionary::ClassLoader_klass(),
 925                           "addClass",
 926                           vmSymbols::class_void_signature(), false, CHECK);
 927 
 928   // Set up method for checking protection domain
 929   initialize_known_method(_pd_implies_cache,
 930                           SystemDictionary::ProtectionDomain_klass(),
 931                           "impliesCreateAccessControlContext",
 932                           vmSymbols::void_boolean_signature(), false, CHECK);
 933 
 934   // Set up method for stack walking
 935   initialize_known_method(_do_stack_walk_cache,
 936                           SystemDictionary::AbstractStackWalker_klass(),
 937                           "doStackWalk",
 938                           vmSymbols::doStackWalk_signature(), false, CHECK);
 939 }
 940 
 941 void universe2_init() {
 942   EXCEPTION_MARK;
 943   Universe::genesis(CATCH);
 944 }
 945 
 946 // Set after initialization of the module runtime, call_initModuleRuntime
 947 void universe_post_module_init() {
 948   Universe::_module_initialized = true;
 949 }
 950 
 951 bool universe_post_init() {
 952   assert(!is_init_completed(), "Error: initialization not yet completed!");
 953   Universe::_fully_initialized = true;
 954   EXCEPTION_MARK;
 955   { ResourceMark rm;
 956     Interpreter::initialize();      // needed for interpreter entry points
 957     if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
 958       HandleMark hm(THREAD);
 959       Klass* ok = SystemDictionary::Object_klass();
 960       Universe::reinitialize_vtable_of(ok, CHECK_false);
 961       Universe::reinitialize_itables(CHECK_false);
 962     }
 963   }
 964 
 965   HandleMark hm(THREAD);
 966   // Setup preallocated empty java.lang.Class array
 967   Universe::_the_empty_class_klass_array = oopFactory::new_objArray(SystemDictionary::Class_klass(), 0, CHECK_false);
 968 
 969   // Setup preallocated OutOfMemoryError errors
 970   Klass* k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(vmSymbols::java_lang_OutOfMemoryError(), true, CHECK_false);
 971   InstanceKlass* ik = InstanceKlass::cast(k);
 972   Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap = ik->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 973   Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace = ik->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 974   Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace = ik->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 975   Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size = ik->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 976   Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit =
 977     ik->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 978   Universe::_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects = ik->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 979 
 980   // Setup preallocated cause message for delayed StackOverflowError
 981   if (StackReservedPages > 0) {
 982     Universe::_delayed_stack_overflow_error_message =
 983       java_lang_String::create_oop_from_str("Delayed StackOverflowError due to ReservedStackAccess annotated method", CHECK_false);
 984   }
 985 
 986   // Setup preallocated NullPointerException
 987   // (this is currently used for a cheap & dirty solution in compiler exception handling)
 988   k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(vmSymbols::java_lang_NullPointerException(), true, CHECK_false);
 989   Universe::_null_ptr_exception_instance = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 990   // Setup preallocated ArithmeticException
 991   // (this is currently used for a cheap & dirty solution in compiler exception handling)
 992   k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(vmSymbols::java_lang_ArithmeticException(), true, CHECK_false);
 993   Universe::_arithmetic_exception_instance = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 994   // Virtual Machine Error for when we get into a situation we can't resolve
 995   k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(
 996     vmSymbols::java_lang_VirtualMachineError(), true, CHECK_false);
 997   bool linked = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->link_class_or_fail(CHECK_false);
 998   if (!linked) {
 999      tty->print_cr("Unable to link/verify VirtualMachineError class");
1000      return false; // initialization failed
1001   }
1002   Universe::_virtual_machine_error_instance =
1003     InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1004 
1005   Universe::_vm_exception = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1006 
1007   Handle msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Java heap space", CHECK_false);
1008   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap, msg());
1009 
1010   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Metaspace", CHECK_false);
1011   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace, msg());
1012   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Compressed class space", CHECK_false);
1013   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace, msg());
1014 
1015   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Requested array size exceeds VM limit", CHECK_false);
1016   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size, msg());
1017 
1018   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("GC overhead limit exceeded", CHECK_false);
1019   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit, msg());
1020 
1021   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Java heap space: failed reallocation of scalar replaced objects", CHECK_false);
1022   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects, msg());
1023 
1024   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("/ by zero", CHECK_false);
1025   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_arithmetic_exception_instance, msg());
1026 
1027   // Setup the array of errors that have preallocated backtrace
1028   k = Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap->klass();
1029   assert(k->name() == vmSymbols::java_lang_OutOfMemoryError(), "should be out of memory error");
1030   ik = InstanceKlass::cast(k);
1031 
1032   int len = (StackTraceInThrowable) ? (int)PreallocatedOutOfMemoryErrorCount : 0;
1033   Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_array = oopFactory::new_objArray(ik, len, CHECK_false);
1034   for (int i=0; i<len; i++) {
1035     oop err = ik->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1036     Handle err_h = Handle(THREAD, err);
1037     java_lang_Throwable::allocate_backtrace(err_h, CHECK_false);
1038     Universe::preallocated_out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at_put(i, err_h());
1039   }
1040   Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count = (jint)len;
1041 
1042   Universe::initialize_known_methods(CHECK_false);
1043 
1044   // This needs to be done before the first scavenge/gc, since
1045   // it's an input to soft ref clearing policy.
1046   {
1047     MutexLocker x(Heap_lock);
1048     Universe::update_heap_info_at_gc();
1049   }
1050 
1051   // ("weak") refs processing infrastructure initialization
1052   Universe::heap()->post_initialize();
1053 
1054   MemoryService::add_metaspace_memory_pools();
1055 
1056   MemoryService::set_universe_heap(Universe::heap());
1057 #if INCLUDE_CDS
1058   MetaspaceShared::post_initialize(CHECK_false);
1059 #endif
1060   return true;
1061 }
1062 
1063 
1064 void Universe::compute_base_vtable_size() {
1065   _base_vtable_size = ClassLoader::compute_Object_vtable();
1066 }
1067 
1068 void Universe::print_on(outputStream* st) {
1069   GCMutexLocker hl(Heap_lock); // Heap_lock might be locked by caller thread.
1070   st->print_cr("Heap");
1071   heap()->print_on(st);
1072 }
1073 
1074 void Universe::print_heap_at_SIGBREAK() {
1075   if (PrintHeapAtSIGBREAK) {
1076     print_on(tty);
1077     tty->cr();
1078     tty->flush();
1079   }
1080 }
1081 
1082 void Universe::print_heap_before_gc() {
1083   LogTarget(Debug, gc, heap) lt;
1084   if (lt.is_enabled()) {
1085     LogStream ls(lt);
1086     ls.print("Heap before GC invocations=%u (full %u):", heap()->total_collections(), heap()->total_full_collections());
1087     ResourceMark rm;
1088     heap()->print_on(&ls);
1089   }
1090 }
1091 
1092 void Universe::print_heap_after_gc() {
1093   LogTarget(Debug, gc, heap) lt;
1094   if (lt.is_enabled()) {
1095     LogStream ls(lt);
1096     ls.print("Heap after GC invocations=%u (full %u):", heap()->total_collections(), heap()->total_full_collections());
1097     ResourceMark rm;
1098     heap()->print_on(&ls);
1099   }
1100 }
1101 
1102 void Universe::initialize_verify_flags() {
1103   verify_flags = 0;
1104   const char delimiter[] = " ,";
1105 
1106   size_t length = strlen(VerifySubSet);
1107   char* subset_list = NEW_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, length + 1, mtInternal);
1108   strncpy(subset_list, VerifySubSet, length + 1);
1109 
1110   char* token = strtok(subset_list, delimiter);
1111   while (token != NULL) {
1112     if (strcmp(token, "threads") == 0) {
1113       verify_flags |= Verify_Threads;
1114     } else if (strcmp(token, "heap") == 0) {
1115       verify_flags |= Verify_Heap;
1116     } else if (strcmp(token, "symbol_table") == 0) {
1117       verify_flags |= Verify_SymbolTable;
1118     } else if (strcmp(token, "string_table") == 0) {
1119       verify_flags |= Verify_StringTable;
1120     } else if (strcmp(token, "codecache") == 0) {
1121       verify_flags |= Verify_CodeCache;
1122     } else if (strcmp(token, "dictionary") == 0) {
1123       verify_flags |= Verify_SystemDictionary;
1124     } else if (strcmp(token, "classloader_data_graph") == 0) {
1125       verify_flags |= Verify_ClassLoaderDataGraph;
1126     } else if (strcmp(token, "metaspace") == 0) {
1127       verify_flags |= Verify_MetaspaceUtils;
1128     } else if (strcmp(token, "jni_handles") == 0) {
1129       verify_flags |= Verify_JNIHandles;
1130     } else if (strcmp(token, "codecache_oops") == 0) {
1131       verify_flags |= Verify_CodeCacheOops;
1132     } else {
1133       vm_exit_during_initialization(err_msg("VerifySubSet: \'%s\' memory sub-system is unknown, please correct it", token));
1134     }
1135     token = strtok(NULL, delimiter);
1136   }
1137   FREE_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, subset_list);
1138 }
1139 
1140 bool Universe::should_verify_subset(uint subset) {
1141   if (verify_flags & subset) {
1142     return true;
1143   }
1144   return false;
1145 }
1146 
1147 void Universe::verify(VerifyOption option, const char* prefix) {
1148   // The use of _verify_in_progress is a temporary work around for
1149   // 6320749.  Don't bother with a creating a class to set and clear
1150   // it since it is only used in this method and the control flow is
1151   // straight forward.
1152   _verify_in_progress = true;
1153 
1154   COMPILER2_PRESENT(
1155     assert(!DerivedPointerTable::is_active(),
1156          "DPT should not be active during verification "
1157          "(of thread stacks below)");
1158   )
1159 
1160   ResourceMark rm;
1161   HandleMark hm;  // Handles created during verification can be zapped
1162   _verify_count++;
1163 
1164   FormatBuffer<> title("Verifying %s", prefix);
1165   GCTraceTime(Info, gc, verify) tm(title.buffer());
1166   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_Threads)) {
1167     log_debug(gc, verify)("Threads");
1168     Threads::verify();
1169   }
1170   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_Heap)) {
1171     log_debug(gc, verify)("Heap");
1172     heap()->verify(option);
1173   }
1174   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_SymbolTable)) {
1175     log_debug(gc, verify)("SymbolTable");
1176     SymbolTable::verify();
1177   }
1178   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_StringTable)) {
1179     log_debug(gc, verify)("StringTable");
1180     StringTable::verify();
1181   }
1182   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_CodeCache)) {
1183   {
1184     MutexLockerEx mu(CodeCache_lock, Mutex::_no_safepoint_check_flag);
1185     log_debug(gc, verify)("CodeCache");
1186     CodeCache::verify();
1187   }
1188   }
1189   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_SystemDictionary)) {
1190     log_debug(gc, verify)("SystemDictionary");
1191     SystemDictionary::verify();
1192   }
1193 #ifndef PRODUCT
1194   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_ClassLoaderDataGraph)) {
1195     log_debug(gc, verify)("ClassLoaderDataGraph");
1196     ClassLoaderDataGraph::verify();
1197   }
1198 #endif
1199   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_MetaspaceUtils)) {
1200     log_debug(gc, verify)("MetaspaceUtils");
1201     MetaspaceUtils::verify_free_chunks();
1202   }
1203   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_JNIHandles)) {
1204     log_debug(gc, verify)("JNIHandles");
1205     JNIHandles::verify();
1206   }
1207   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_CodeCacheOops)) {
1208     log_debug(gc, verify)("CodeCache Oops");
1209     CodeCache::verify_oops();
1210   }
1211 
1212   _verify_in_progress = false;
1213 }
1214 
1215 
1216 #ifndef PRODUCT
1217 void Universe::calculate_verify_data(HeapWord* low_boundary, HeapWord* high_boundary) {
1218   assert(low_boundary < high_boundary, "bad interval");
1219 
1220   // decide which low-order bits we require to be clear:
1221   size_t alignSize = MinObjAlignmentInBytes;
1222   size_t min_object_size = CollectedHeap::min_fill_size();
1223 
1224   // make an inclusive limit:
1225   uintptr_t max = (uintptr_t)high_boundary - min_object_size*wordSize;
1226   uintptr_t min = (uintptr_t)low_boundary;
1227   assert(min < max, "bad interval");
1228   uintptr_t diff = max ^ min;
1229 
1230   // throw away enough low-order bits to make the diff vanish
1231   uintptr_t mask = (uintptr_t)(-1);
1232   while ((mask & diff) != 0)
1233     mask <<= 1;
1234   uintptr_t bits = (min & mask);
1235   assert(bits == (max & mask), "correct mask");
1236   // check an intermediate value between min and max, just to make sure:
1237   assert(bits == ((min + (max-min)/2) & mask), "correct mask");
1238 
1239   // require address alignment, too:
1240   mask |= (alignSize - 1);
1241 
1242   if (!(_verify_oop_mask == 0 && _verify_oop_bits == (uintptr_t)-1)) {
1243     assert(_verify_oop_mask == mask && _verify_oop_bits == bits, "mask stability");
1244   }
1245   _verify_oop_mask = mask;
1246   _verify_oop_bits = bits;
1247 }
1248 
1249 // Oop verification (see MacroAssembler::verify_oop)
1250 
1251 uintptr_t Universe::verify_oop_mask() {
1252   MemRegion m = heap()->reserved_region();
1253   calculate_verify_data(m.start(), m.end());
1254   return _verify_oop_mask;
1255 }
1256 
1257 uintptr_t Universe::verify_oop_bits() {
1258   MemRegion m = heap()->reserved_region();
1259   calculate_verify_data(m.start(), m.end());
1260   return _verify_oop_bits;
1261 }
1262 
1263 uintptr_t Universe::verify_mark_mask() {
1264   return markOopDesc::lock_mask_in_place;
1265 }
1266 
1267 uintptr_t Universe::verify_mark_bits() {
1268   intptr_t mask = verify_mark_mask();
1269   intptr_t bits = (intptr_t)markOopDesc::prototype();
1270   assert((bits & ~mask) == 0, "no stray header bits");
1271   return bits;
1272 }
1273 #endif // PRODUCT
1274 
1275 
1276 void Universe::compute_verify_oop_data() {
1277   verify_oop_mask();
1278   verify_oop_bits();
1279   verify_mark_mask();
1280   verify_mark_bits();
1281 }
1282 
1283 
1284 void LatestMethodCache::init(Klass* k, Method* m) {
1285   if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
1286     _klass = k;
1287   }
1288 #ifndef PRODUCT
1289   else {
1290     // sharing initilization should have already set up _klass
1291     assert(_klass != NULL, "just checking");
1292   }
1293 #endif
1294 
1295   _method_idnum = m->method_idnum();
1296   assert(_method_idnum >= 0, "sanity check");
1297 }
1298 
1299 
1300 Method* LatestMethodCache::get_method() {
1301   if (klass() == NULL) return NULL;
1302   InstanceKlass* ik = InstanceKlass::cast(klass());
1303   Method* m = ik->method_with_idnum(method_idnum());
1304   assert(m != NULL, "sanity check");
1305   return m;
1306 }
1307 
1308 
1309 #ifdef ASSERT
1310 // Release dummy object(s) at bottom of heap
1311 bool Universe::release_fullgc_alot_dummy() {
1312   MutexLocker ml(FullGCALot_lock);
1313   if (_fullgc_alot_dummy_array != NULL) {
1314     if (_fullgc_alot_dummy_next >= _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->length()) {
1315       // No more dummies to release, release entire array instead
1316       _fullgc_alot_dummy_array = NULL;
1317       return false;
1318     }
1319     if (!UseConcMarkSweepGC) {
1320       // Release dummy at bottom of old generation
1321       _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->obj_at_put(_fullgc_alot_dummy_next++, NULL);
1322     }
1323     // Release dummy at bottom of permanent generation
1324     _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->obj_at_put(_fullgc_alot_dummy_next++, NULL);
1325   }
1326   return true;
1327 }
1328 
1329 #endif // ASSERT