1 /*
   2  * Copyright (c) 1997, 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
   3  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
   4  *
   5  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   6  * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
   7  * published by the Free Software Foundation.
   8  *
   9  * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  10  * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  11  * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  12  * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  13  * accompanied this code).
  14  *
  15  * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  16  * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  17  * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  18  *
  19  * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  20  * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  21  * questions.
  22  *
  23  */
  24 
  25 #include "precompiled.hpp"
  26 #include "aot/aotLoader.hpp"
  27 #include "classfile/classLoader.hpp"
  28 #include "classfile/classLoaderData.hpp"
  29 #include "classfile/javaClasses.hpp"
  30 #include "classfile/stringTable.hpp"
  31 #include "classfile/systemDictionary.hpp"
  32 #include "classfile/vmSymbols.hpp"
  33 #include "code/codeCache.hpp"
  34 #include "code/dependencies.hpp"
  35 #include "gc/shared/collectedHeap.inline.hpp"
  36 #include "gc/shared/gcArguments.hpp"
  37 #include "gc/shared/gcConfig.hpp"
  38 #include "gc/shared/gcTraceTime.inline.hpp"
  39 #include "interpreter/interpreter.hpp"
  40 #include "logging/log.hpp"
  41 #include "logging/logStream.hpp"
  42 #include "memory/filemap.hpp"
  43 #include "memory/metadataFactory.hpp"
  44 #include "memory/metaspaceClosure.hpp"
  45 #include "memory/metaspaceCounters.hpp"
  46 #include "memory/metaspaceShared.hpp"
  47 #include "memory/oopFactory.hpp"
  48 #include "memory/resourceArea.hpp"
  49 #include "memory/universe.hpp"
  50 #include "memory/universe.hpp"
  51 #include "oops/constantPool.hpp"
  52 #include "oops/instanceClassLoaderKlass.hpp"
  53 #include "oops/instanceKlass.hpp"
  54 #include "oops/instanceMirrorKlass.hpp"
  55 #include "oops/instanceRefKlass.hpp"
  56 #include "oops/objArrayOop.inline.hpp"
  57 #include "oops/oop.inline.hpp"
  58 #include "oops/typeArrayKlass.hpp"
  59 #include "prims/resolvedMethodTable.hpp"
  60 #include "runtime/arguments.hpp"
  61 #include "runtime/atomic.hpp"
  62 #include "runtime/flags/flagSetting.hpp"
  63 #include "runtime/flags/jvmFlagConstraintList.hpp"
  64 #include "runtime/deoptimization.hpp"
  65 #include "runtime/handles.inline.hpp"
  66 #include "runtime/init.hpp"
  67 #include "runtime/java.hpp"
  68 #include "runtime/javaCalls.hpp"
  69 #include "runtime/sharedRuntime.hpp"
  70 #include "runtime/synchronizer.hpp"
  71 #include "runtime/thread.inline.hpp"
  72 #include "runtime/timerTrace.hpp"
  73 #include "runtime/vm_operations.hpp"
  74 #include "services/memoryService.hpp"
  75 #include "utilities/align.hpp"
  76 #include "utilities/copy.hpp"
  77 #include "utilities/debug.hpp"
  78 #include "utilities/events.hpp"
  79 #include "utilities/formatBuffer.hpp"
  80 #include "utilities/hashtable.inline.hpp"
  81 #include "utilities/macros.hpp"
  82 #include "utilities/ostream.hpp"
  83 #include "utilities/preserveException.hpp"
  84 
  85 // Known objects
  86 Klass* Universe::_typeArrayKlassObjs[T_LONG+1]        = { NULL /*, NULL...*/ };
  87 Klass* Universe::_objectArrayKlassObj                 = NULL;
  88 oop Universe::_int_mirror                             = NULL;
  89 oop Universe::_float_mirror                           = NULL;
  90 oop Universe::_double_mirror                          = NULL;
  91 oop Universe::_byte_mirror                            = NULL;
  92 oop Universe::_bool_mirror                            = NULL;
  93 oop Universe::_char_mirror                            = NULL;
  94 oop Universe::_long_mirror                            = NULL;
  95 oop Universe::_short_mirror                           = NULL;
  96 oop Universe::_void_mirror                            = NULL;
  97 oop Universe::_mirrors[T_VOID+1]                      = { NULL /*, NULL...*/ };
  98 oop Universe::_main_thread_group                      = NULL;
  99 oop Universe::_system_thread_group                    = NULL;
 100 objArrayOop Universe::_the_empty_class_klass_array    = NULL;
 101 Array<Klass*>* Universe::_the_array_interfaces_array = NULL;
 102 oop Universe::_the_null_sentinel                      = NULL;
 103 oop Universe::_the_null_string                        = NULL;
 104 oop Universe::_the_min_jint_string                   = NULL;
 105 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_finalizer_register_cache = NULL;
 106 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_loader_addClass_cache    = NULL;
 107 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_pd_implies_cache         = NULL;
 108 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_throw_illegal_access_error_cache = NULL;
 109 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_do_stack_walk_cache     = NULL;
 110 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap          = NULL;
 111 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace          = NULL;
 112 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace    = NULL;
 113 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size         = NULL;
 114 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit  = NULL;
 115 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects    = NULL;
 116 oop Universe::_delayed_stack_overflow_error_message   = NULL;
 117 objArrayOop Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_array = NULL;
 118 volatile jint Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count = 0;
 119 bool Universe::_verify_in_progress                    = false;
 120 long Universe::verify_flags                           = Universe::Verify_All;
 121 oop Universe::_null_ptr_exception_instance            = NULL;
 122 oop Universe::_arithmetic_exception_instance          = NULL;
 123 oop Universe::_virtual_machine_error_instance         = NULL;
 124 oop Universe::_vm_exception                           = NULL;
 125 oop Universe::_reference_pending_list                 = NULL;
 126 
 127 Array<int>* Universe::_the_empty_int_array            = NULL;
 128 Array<u2>* Universe::_the_empty_short_array           = NULL;
 129 Array<Klass*>* Universe::_the_empty_klass_array     = NULL;
 130 Array<InstanceKlass*>* Universe::_the_empty_instance_klass_array  = NULL;
 131 Array<Method*>* Universe::_the_empty_method_array   = NULL;
 132 
 133 // These variables are guarded by FullGCALot_lock.
 134 debug_only(objArrayOop Universe::_fullgc_alot_dummy_array = NULL;)
 135 debug_only(int Universe::_fullgc_alot_dummy_next      = 0;)
 136 
 137 // Heap
 138 int             Universe::_verify_count = 0;
 139 
 140 // Oop verification (see MacroAssembler::verify_oop)
 141 uintptr_t       Universe::_verify_oop_mask = 0;
 142 uintptr_t       Universe::_verify_oop_bits = (uintptr_t) -1;
 143 
 144 int             Universe::_base_vtable_size = 0;
 145 bool            Universe::_bootstrapping = false;
 146 bool            Universe::_module_initialized = false;
 147 bool            Universe::_fully_initialized = false;
 148 
 149 size_t          Universe::_heap_capacity_at_last_gc;
 150 size_t          Universe::_heap_used_at_last_gc = 0;
 151 
 152 CollectedHeap*  Universe::_collectedHeap = NULL;
 153 
 154 NarrowPtrStruct Universe::_narrow_oop = { NULL, 0, true };
 155 NarrowPtrStruct Universe::_narrow_klass = { NULL, 0, true };
 156 address Universe::_narrow_ptrs_base;
 157 uint64_t Universe::_narrow_klass_range = (uint64_t(max_juint)+1);
 158 
 159 void Universe::basic_type_classes_do(void f(Klass*)) {
 160   for (int i = T_BOOLEAN; i < T_LONG+1; i++) {
 161     f(_typeArrayKlassObjs[i]);
 162   }
 163 }
 164 
 165 void Universe::basic_type_classes_do(KlassClosure *closure) {
 166   for (int i = T_BOOLEAN; i < T_LONG+1; i++) {
 167     closure->do_klass(_typeArrayKlassObjs[i]);
 168   }
 169 }
 170 
 171 void Universe::oops_do(OopClosure* f) {
 172 
 173   f->do_oop((oop*) &_int_mirror);
 174   f->do_oop((oop*) &_float_mirror);
 175   f->do_oop((oop*) &_double_mirror);
 176   f->do_oop((oop*) &_byte_mirror);
 177   f->do_oop((oop*) &_bool_mirror);
 178   f->do_oop((oop*) &_char_mirror);
 179   f->do_oop((oop*) &_long_mirror);
 180   f->do_oop((oop*) &_short_mirror);
 181   f->do_oop((oop*) &_void_mirror);
 182 
 183   for (int i = T_BOOLEAN; i < T_VOID+1; i++) {
 184     f->do_oop((oop*) &_mirrors[i]);
 185   }
 186   assert(_mirrors[0] == NULL && _mirrors[T_BOOLEAN - 1] == NULL, "checking");
 187 
 188   f->do_oop((oop*)&_the_empty_class_klass_array);
 189   f->do_oop((oop*)&_the_null_sentinel);
 190   f->do_oop((oop*)&_the_null_string);
 191   f->do_oop((oop*)&_the_min_jint_string);
 192   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_java_heap);
 193   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_metaspace);
 194   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace);
 195   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_array_size);
 196   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit);
 197   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects);
 198   f->do_oop((oop*)&_delayed_stack_overflow_error_message);
 199   f->do_oop((oop*)&_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_array);
 200   f->do_oop((oop*)&_null_ptr_exception_instance);
 201   f->do_oop((oop*)&_arithmetic_exception_instance);
 202   f->do_oop((oop*)&_virtual_machine_error_instance);
 203   f->do_oop((oop*)&_main_thread_group);
 204   f->do_oop((oop*)&_system_thread_group);
 205   f->do_oop((oop*)&_vm_exception);
 206   f->do_oop((oop*)&_reference_pending_list);
 207   debug_only(f->do_oop((oop*)&_fullgc_alot_dummy_array);)
 208 }
 209 
 210 void LatestMethodCache::metaspace_pointers_do(MetaspaceClosure* it) {
 211   it->push(&_klass);
 212 }
 213 
 214 void Universe::metaspace_pointers_do(MetaspaceClosure* it) {
 215   for (int i = 0; i < T_LONG+1; i++) {
 216     it->push(&_typeArrayKlassObjs[i]);
 217   }
 218   it->push(&_objectArrayKlassObj);
 219 
 220   it->push(&_the_empty_int_array);
 221   it->push(&_the_empty_short_array);
 222   it->push(&_the_empty_klass_array);
 223   it->push(&_the_empty_instance_klass_array);
 224   it->push(&_the_empty_method_array);
 225   it->push(&_the_array_interfaces_array);
 226 
 227   _finalizer_register_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 228   _loader_addClass_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 229   _pd_implies_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 230   _throw_illegal_access_error_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 231   _do_stack_walk_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 232 }
 233 
 234 // Serialize metadata and pointers to primitive type mirrors in and out of CDS archive
 235 void Universe::serialize(SerializeClosure* f) {
 236 
 237   for (int i = 0; i < T_LONG+1; i++) {
 238     f->do_ptr((void**)&_typeArrayKlassObjs[i]);
 239   }
 240 
 241   f->do_ptr((void**)&_objectArrayKlassObj);
 242 #if INCLUDE_CDS_JAVA_HEAP
 243   // The mirrors are NULL if MetaspaceShared::is_heap_object_archiving_allowed
 244   // is false.
 245   f->do_oop(&_int_mirror);
 246   f->do_oop(&_float_mirror);
 247   f->do_oop(&_double_mirror);
 248   f->do_oop(&_byte_mirror);
 249   f->do_oop(&_bool_mirror);
 250   f->do_oop(&_char_mirror);
 251   f->do_oop(&_long_mirror);
 252   f->do_oop(&_short_mirror);
 253   f->do_oop(&_void_mirror);
 254 #endif
 255 
 256   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_array_interfaces_array);
 257   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_int_array);
 258   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_short_array);
 259   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_method_array);
 260   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_klass_array);
 261   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_instance_klass_array);
 262   _finalizer_register_cache->serialize(f);
 263   _loader_addClass_cache->serialize(f);
 264   _pd_implies_cache->serialize(f);
 265   _throw_illegal_access_error_cache->serialize(f);
 266   _do_stack_walk_cache->serialize(f);
 267 }
 268 
 269 void Universe::check_alignment(uintx size, uintx alignment, const char* name) {
 270   if (size < alignment || size % alignment != 0) {
 271     vm_exit_during_initialization(
 272       err_msg("Size of %s (" UINTX_FORMAT " bytes) must be aligned to " UINTX_FORMAT " bytes", name, size, alignment));
 273   }
 274 }
 275 
 276 void initialize_basic_type_klass(Klass* k, TRAPS) {
 277   Klass* ok = SystemDictionary::Object_klass();
 278 #if INCLUDE_CDS
 279   if (UseSharedSpaces) {
 280     ClassLoaderData* loader_data = ClassLoaderData::the_null_class_loader_data();
 281     assert(k->super() == ok, "u3");
 282     k->restore_unshareable_info(loader_data, Handle(), CHECK);
 283   } else
 284 #endif
 285   {
 286     k->initialize_supers(ok, NULL, CHECK);
 287   }
 288   k->append_to_sibling_list();
 289 }
 290 
 291 void Universe::genesis(TRAPS) {
 292   ResourceMark rm;
 293 
 294   { FlagSetting fs(_bootstrapping, true);
 295 
 296     { MutexLocker mc(Compile_lock);
 297 
 298       java_lang_Class::allocate_fixup_lists();
 299 
 300       // determine base vtable size; without that we cannot create the array klasses
 301       compute_base_vtable_size();
 302 
 303       if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
 304         for (int i = T_BOOLEAN; i < T_LONG+1; i++) {
 305           _typeArrayKlassObjs[i] = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass((BasicType)i, CHECK);
 306         }
 307 
 308         ClassLoaderData* null_cld = ClassLoaderData::the_null_class_loader_data();
 309 
 310         _the_array_interfaces_array     = MetadataFactory::new_array<Klass*>(null_cld, 2, NULL, CHECK);
 311         _the_empty_int_array            = MetadataFactory::new_array<int>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 312         _the_empty_short_array          = MetadataFactory::new_array<u2>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 313         _the_empty_method_array         = MetadataFactory::new_array<Method*>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 314         _the_empty_klass_array          = MetadataFactory::new_array<Klass*>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 315         _the_empty_instance_klass_array = MetadataFactory::new_array<InstanceKlass*>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 316       }
 317     }
 318 
 319     vmSymbols::initialize(CHECK);
 320 
 321     SystemDictionary::initialize(CHECK);
 322 
 323     Klass* ok = SystemDictionary::Object_klass();
 324 
 325     _the_null_string            = StringTable::intern("null", CHECK);
 326     _the_min_jint_string       = StringTable::intern("-2147483648", CHECK);
 327 
 328 #if INCLUDE_CDS
 329     if (UseSharedSpaces) {
 330       // Verify shared interfaces array.
 331       assert(_the_array_interfaces_array->at(0) ==
 332              SystemDictionary::Cloneable_klass(), "u3");
 333       assert(_the_array_interfaces_array->at(1) ==
 334              SystemDictionary::Serializable_klass(), "u3");
 335       MetaspaceShared::fixup_mapped_heap_regions();
 336     } else
 337 #endif
 338     {
 339       // Set up shared interfaces array.  (Do this before supers are set up.)
 340       _the_array_interfaces_array->at_put(0, SystemDictionary::Cloneable_klass());
 341       _the_array_interfaces_array->at_put(1, SystemDictionary::Serializable_klass());
 342     }
 343 
 344     initialize_basic_type_klass(boolArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 345     initialize_basic_type_klass(charArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 346     initialize_basic_type_klass(floatArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 347     initialize_basic_type_klass(doubleArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 348     initialize_basic_type_klass(byteArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 349     initialize_basic_type_klass(shortArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 350     initialize_basic_type_klass(intArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 351     initialize_basic_type_klass(longArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 352   } // end of core bootstrapping
 353 
 354   {
 355     Handle tns = java_lang_String::create_from_str("<null_sentinel>", CHECK);
 356     _the_null_sentinel = tns();
 357   }
 358 
 359   // Maybe this could be lifted up now that object array can be initialized
 360   // during the bootstrapping.
 361 
 362   // OLD
 363   // Initialize _objectArrayKlass after core bootstraping to make
 364   // sure the super class is set up properly for _objectArrayKlass.
 365   // ---
 366   // NEW
 367   // Since some of the old system object arrays have been converted to
 368   // ordinary object arrays, _objectArrayKlass will be loaded when
 369   // SystemDictionary::initialize(CHECK); is run. See the extra check
 370   // for Object_klass_loaded in objArrayKlassKlass::allocate_objArray_klass_impl.
 371   _objectArrayKlassObj = InstanceKlass::
 372     cast(SystemDictionary::Object_klass())->array_klass(1, CHECK);
 373   // OLD
 374   // Add the class to the class hierarchy manually to make sure that
 375   // its vtable is initialized after core bootstrapping is completed.
 376   // ---
 377   // New
 378   // Have already been initialized.
 379   _objectArrayKlassObj->append_to_sibling_list();
 380 
 381   #ifdef ASSERT
 382   if (FullGCALot) {
 383     // Allocate an array of dummy objects.
 384     // We'd like these to be at the bottom of the old generation,
 385     // so that when we free one and then collect,
 386     // (almost) the whole heap moves
 387     // and we find out if we actually update all the oops correctly.
 388     // But we can't allocate directly in the old generation,
 389     // so we allocate wherever, and hope that the first collection
 390     // moves these objects to the bottom of the old generation.
 391     // We can allocate directly in the permanent generation, so we do.
 392     int size;
 393     if (UseConcMarkSweepGC) {
 394       log_warning(gc)("Using +FullGCALot with concurrent mark sweep gc will not force all objects to relocate");
 395       size = FullGCALotDummies;
 396     } else {
 397       size = FullGCALotDummies * 2;
 398     }
 399     objArrayOop    naked_array = oopFactory::new_objArray(SystemDictionary::Object_klass(), size, CHECK);
 400     objArrayHandle dummy_array(THREAD, naked_array);
 401     int i = 0;
 402     while (i < size) {
 403         // Allocate dummy in old generation
 404       oop dummy = SystemDictionary::Object_klass()->allocate_instance(CHECK);
 405       dummy_array->obj_at_put(i++, dummy);
 406     }
 407     {
 408       // Only modify the global variable inside the mutex.
 409       // If we had a race to here, the other dummy_array instances
 410       // and their elements just get dropped on the floor, which is fine.
 411       MutexLocker ml(FullGCALot_lock);
 412       if (_fullgc_alot_dummy_array == NULL) {
 413         _fullgc_alot_dummy_array = dummy_array();
 414       }
 415     }
 416     assert(i == _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->length(), "just checking");
 417   }
 418   #endif
 419 }
 420 
 421 void Universe::initialize_basic_type_mirrors(TRAPS) {
 422 #if INCLUDE_CDS_JAVA_HEAP
 423     if (UseSharedSpaces &&
 424         MetaspaceShared::open_archive_heap_region_mapped() &&
 425         _int_mirror != NULL) {
 426       assert(MetaspaceShared::is_heap_object_archiving_allowed(), "Sanity");
 427       assert(_float_mirror != NULL && _double_mirror != NULL &&
 428              _byte_mirror  != NULL && _byte_mirror   != NULL &&
 429              _bool_mirror  != NULL && _char_mirror   != NULL &&
 430              _long_mirror  != NULL && _short_mirror  != NULL &&
 431              _void_mirror  != NULL, "Sanity");
 432     } else
 433 #endif
 434     {
 435       _int_mirror     =
 436         java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("int",    T_INT, CHECK);
 437       _float_mirror   =
 438         java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("float",  T_FLOAT,   CHECK);
 439       _double_mirror  =
 440         java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("double", T_DOUBLE,  CHECK);
 441       _byte_mirror    =
 442         java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("byte",   T_BYTE, CHECK);
 443       _bool_mirror    =
 444         java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("boolean",T_BOOLEAN, CHECK);
 445       _char_mirror    =
 446         java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("char",   T_CHAR, CHECK);
 447       _long_mirror    =
 448         java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("long",   T_LONG, CHECK);
 449       _short_mirror   =
 450         java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("short",  T_SHORT,   CHECK);
 451       _void_mirror    =
 452         java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("void",   T_VOID, CHECK);
 453     }
 454 
 455     _mirrors[T_INT]     = _int_mirror;
 456     _mirrors[T_FLOAT]   = _float_mirror;
 457     _mirrors[T_DOUBLE]  = _double_mirror;
 458     _mirrors[T_BYTE]    = _byte_mirror;
 459     _mirrors[T_BOOLEAN] = _bool_mirror;
 460     _mirrors[T_CHAR]    = _char_mirror;
 461     _mirrors[T_LONG]    = _long_mirror;
 462     _mirrors[T_SHORT]   = _short_mirror;
 463     _mirrors[T_VOID]    = _void_mirror;
 464   //_mirrors[T_OBJECT]  = _object_klass->java_mirror();
 465   //_mirrors[T_ARRAY]   = _object_klass->java_mirror();
 466 }
 467 
 468 void Universe::fixup_mirrors(TRAPS) {
 469   // Bootstrap problem: all classes gets a mirror (java.lang.Class instance) assigned eagerly,
 470   // but we cannot do that for classes created before java.lang.Class is loaded. Here we simply
 471   // walk over permanent objects created so far (mostly classes) and fixup their mirrors. Note
 472   // that the number of objects allocated at this point is very small.
 473   assert(SystemDictionary::Class_klass_loaded(), "java.lang.Class should be loaded");
 474   HandleMark hm(THREAD);
 475 
 476   if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
 477     // Cache the start of the static fields
 478     InstanceMirrorKlass::init_offset_of_static_fields();
 479   }
 480 
 481   GrowableArray <Klass*>* list = java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror_list();
 482   int list_length = list->length();
 483   for (int i = 0; i < list_length; i++) {
 484     Klass* k = list->at(i);
 485     assert(k->is_klass(), "List should only hold classes");
 486     EXCEPTION_MARK;
 487     java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror(k, CATCH);
 488   }
 489   delete java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror_list();
 490   java_lang_Class::set_fixup_mirror_list(NULL);
 491 }
 492 
 493 #define assert_pll_locked(test) \
 494   assert(Heap_lock->test(), "Reference pending list access requires lock")
 495 
 496 #define assert_pll_ownership() assert_pll_locked(owned_by_self)
 497 
 498 oop Universe::reference_pending_list() {
 499   if (Thread::current()->is_VM_thread()) {
 500     assert_pll_locked(is_locked);
 501   } else {
 502     assert_pll_ownership();
 503   }
 504   return _reference_pending_list;
 505 }
 506 
 507 void Universe::set_reference_pending_list(oop list) {
 508   assert_pll_ownership();
 509   _reference_pending_list = list;
 510 }
 511 
 512 bool Universe::has_reference_pending_list() {
 513   assert_pll_ownership();
 514   return _reference_pending_list != NULL;
 515 }
 516 
 517 oop Universe::swap_reference_pending_list(oop list) {
 518   assert_pll_locked(is_locked);
 519   return Atomic::xchg(list, &_reference_pending_list);
 520 }
 521 
 522 #undef assert_pll_locked
 523 #undef assert_pll_ownership
 524 
 525 // initialize_vtable could cause gc if
 526 // 1) we specified true to initialize_vtable and
 527 // 2) this ran after gc was enabled
 528 // In case those ever change we use handles for oops
 529 void Universe::reinitialize_vtable_of(Klass* ko, TRAPS) {
 530   // init vtable of k and all subclasses
 531   ko->vtable().initialize_vtable(false, CHECK);
 532   if (ko->is_instance_klass()) {
 533     for (Klass* sk = ko->subklass();
 534          sk != NULL;
 535          sk = sk->next_sibling()) {
 536       reinitialize_vtable_of(sk, CHECK);
 537     }
 538   }
 539 }
 540 
 541 
 542 void initialize_itable_for_klass(InstanceKlass* k, TRAPS) {
 543   k->itable().initialize_itable(false, CHECK);
 544 }
 545 
 546 
 547 void Universe::reinitialize_itables(TRAPS) {
 548   MutexLocker mcld(ClassLoaderDataGraph_lock);
 549   ClassLoaderDataGraph::dictionary_classes_do(initialize_itable_for_klass, CHECK);
 550 }
 551 
 552 
 553 bool Universe::on_page_boundary(void* addr) {
 554   return is_aligned(addr, os::vm_page_size());
 555 }
 556 
 557 
 558 bool Universe::should_fill_in_stack_trace(Handle throwable) {
 559   // never attempt to fill in the stack trace of preallocated errors that do not have
 560   // backtrace. These errors are kept alive forever and may be "re-used" when all
 561   // preallocated errors with backtrace have been consumed. Also need to avoid
 562   // a potential loop which could happen if an out of memory occurs when attempting
 563   // to allocate the backtrace.
 564   return ((!oopDesc::equals(throwable(), Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap)) &&
 565           (!oopDesc::equals(throwable(), Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace))  &&
 566           (!oopDesc::equals(throwable(), Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace))  &&
 567           (!oopDesc::equals(throwable(), Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size)) &&
 568           (!oopDesc::equals(throwable(), Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit)) &&
 569           (!oopDesc::equals(throwable(), Universe::_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects)));
 570 }
 571 
 572 
 573 oop Universe::gen_out_of_memory_error(oop default_err) {
 574   // generate an out of memory error:
 575   // - if there is a preallocated error and stack traces are available
 576   //   (j.l.Throwable is initialized), then return the preallocated
 577   //   error with a filled in stack trace, and with the message
 578   //   provided by the default error.
 579   // - otherwise, return the default error, without a stack trace.
 580   int next;
 581   if ((_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count > 0) &&
 582       SystemDictionary::Throwable_klass()->is_initialized()) {
 583     next = (int)Atomic::add(-1, &_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count);
 584     assert(next < (int)PreallocatedOutOfMemoryErrorCount, "avail count is corrupt");
 585   } else {
 586     next = -1;
 587   }
 588   if (next < 0) {
 589     // all preallocated errors have been used.
 590     // return default
 591     return default_err;
 592   } else {
 593     Thread* THREAD = Thread::current();
 594     Handle default_err_h(THREAD, default_err);
 595     // get the error object at the slot and set set it to NULL so that the
 596     // array isn't keeping it alive anymore.
 597     Handle exc(THREAD, preallocated_out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at(next));
 598     assert(exc() != NULL, "slot has been used already");
 599     preallocated_out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at_put(next, NULL);
 600 
 601     // use the message from the default error
 602     oop msg = java_lang_Throwable::message(default_err_h());
 603     assert(msg != NULL, "no message");
 604     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(exc(), msg);
 605 
 606     // populate the stack trace and return it.
 607     java_lang_Throwable::fill_in_stack_trace_of_preallocated_backtrace(exc);
 608     return exc();
 609   }
 610 }
 611 
 612 intptr_t Universe::_non_oop_bits = 0;
 613 
 614 void* Universe::non_oop_word() {
 615   // Neither the high bits nor the low bits of this value is allowed
 616   // to look like (respectively) the high or low bits of a real oop.
 617   //
 618   // High and low are CPU-specific notions, but low always includes
 619   // the low-order bit.  Since oops are always aligned at least mod 4,
 620   // setting the low-order bit will ensure that the low half of the
 621   // word will never look like that of a real oop.
 622   //
 623   // Using the OS-supplied non-memory-address word (usually 0 or -1)
 624   // will take care of the high bits, however many there are.
 625 
 626   if (_non_oop_bits == 0) {
 627     _non_oop_bits = (intptr_t)os::non_memory_address_word() | 1;
 628   }
 629 
 630   return (void*)_non_oop_bits;
 631 }
 632 
 633 jint universe_init() {
 634   assert(!Universe::_fully_initialized, "called after initialize_vtables");
 635   guarantee(1 << LogHeapWordSize == sizeof(HeapWord),
 636          "LogHeapWordSize is incorrect.");
 637   guarantee(sizeof(oop) >= sizeof(HeapWord), "HeapWord larger than oop?");
 638   guarantee(sizeof(oop) % sizeof(HeapWord) == 0,
 639             "oop size is not not a multiple of HeapWord size");
 640 
 641   TraceTime timer("Genesis", TRACETIME_LOG(Info, startuptime));
 642 
 643   JavaClasses::compute_hard_coded_offsets();
 644 
 645   jint status = Universe::initialize_heap();
 646   if (status != JNI_OK) {
 647     return status;
 648   }
 649 
 650   SystemDictionary::initialize_oop_storage();
 651 
 652   Metaspace::global_initialize();
 653   // Initialize performance counters for metaspaces
 654   MetaspaceCounters::initialize_performance_counters();
 655   CompressedClassSpaceCounters::initialize_performance_counters();
 656 
 657   AOTLoader::universe_init();
 658 
 659   // Checks 'AfterMemoryInit' constraints.
 660   if (!JVMFlagConstraintList::check_constraints(JVMFlagConstraint::AfterMemoryInit)) {
 661     return JNI_EINVAL;
 662   }
 663 
 664   // Create memory for metadata.  Must be after initializing heap for
 665   // DumpSharedSpaces.
 666   ClassLoaderData::init_null_class_loader_data();
 667 
 668   // We have a heap so create the Method* caches before
 669   // Metaspace::initialize_shared_spaces() tries to populate them.
 670   Universe::_finalizer_register_cache = new LatestMethodCache();
 671   Universe::_loader_addClass_cache    = new LatestMethodCache();
 672   Universe::_pd_implies_cache         = new LatestMethodCache();
 673   Universe::_throw_illegal_access_error_cache = new LatestMethodCache();
 674   Universe::_do_stack_walk_cache = new LatestMethodCache();
 675 
 676 #if INCLUDE_CDS
 677   if (UseSharedSpaces) {
 678     // Read the data structures supporting the shared spaces (shared
 679     // system dictionary, symbol table, etc.).  After that, access to
 680     // the file (other than the mapped regions) is no longer needed, and
 681     // the file is closed. Closing the file does not affect the
 682     // currently mapped regions.
 683     MetaspaceShared::initialize_shared_spaces();
 684     StringTable::create_table();
 685   } else
 686 #endif
 687   {
 688     SymbolTable::create_table();
 689     StringTable::create_table();
 690 
 691 #if INCLUDE_CDS
 692     if (DumpSharedSpaces) {
 693       MetaspaceShared::prepare_for_dumping();
 694     }
 695 #endif
 696   }
 697   if (strlen(VerifySubSet) > 0) {
 698     Universe::initialize_verify_flags();
 699   }
 700 
 701   ResolvedMethodTable::create_table();
 702 
 703   return JNI_OK;
 704 }
 705 
 706 CollectedHeap* Universe::create_heap() {
 707   assert(_collectedHeap == NULL, "Heap already created");
 708   return GCConfig::arguments()->create_heap();
 709 }
 710 
 711 // Choose the heap base address and oop encoding mode
 712 // when compressed oops are used:
 713 // Unscaled  - Use 32-bits oops without encoding when
 714 //     NarrowOopHeapBaseMin + heap_size < 4Gb
 715 // ZeroBased - Use zero based compressed oops with encoding when
 716 //     NarrowOopHeapBaseMin + heap_size < 32Gb
 717 // HeapBased - Use compressed oops with heap base + encoding.
 718 
 719 jint Universe::initialize_heap() {
 720   _collectedHeap = create_heap();
 721   jint status = _collectedHeap->initialize();
 722   if (status != JNI_OK) {
 723     return status;
 724   }
 725   log_info(gc)("Using %s", _collectedHeap->name());
 726 
 727   ThreadLocalAllocBuffer::set_max_size(Universe::heap()->max_tlab_size());
 728 
 729 #ifdef _LP64
 730   if (UseCompressedOops) {
 731     // Subtract a page because something can get allocated at heap base.
 732     // This also makes implicit null checking work, because the
 733     // memory+1 page below heap_base needs to cause a signal.
 734     // See needs_explicit_null_check.
 735     // Only set the heap base for compressed oops because it indicates
 736     // compressed oops for pstack code.
 737     if ((uint64_t)Universe::heap()->reserved_region().end() > UnscaledOopHeapMax) {
 738       // Didn't reserve heap below 4Gb.  Must shift.
 739       Universe::set_narrow_oop_shift(LogMinObjAlignmentInBytes);
 740     }
 741     if ((uint64_t)Universe::heap()->reserved_region().end() <= OopEncodingHeapMax) {
 742       // Did reserve heap below 32Gb. Can use base == 0;
 743       Universe::set_narrow_oop_base(0);
 744     }
 745     AOTLoader::set_narrow_oop_shift();
 746 
 747     Universe::set_narrow_ptrs_base(Universe::narrow_oop_base());
 748 
 749     LogTarget(Info, gc, heap, coops) lt;
 750     if (lt.is_enabled()) {
 751       ResourceMark rm;
 752       LogStream ls(lt);
 753       Universe::print_compressed_oops_mode(&ls);
 754     }
 755 
 756     // Tell tests in which mode we run.
 757     Arguments::PropertyList_add(new SystemProperty("java.vm.compressedOopsMode",
 758                                                    narrow_oop_mode_to_string(narrow_oop_mode()),
 759                                                    false));
 760   }
 761   // Universe::narrow_oop_base() is one page below the heap.
 762   assert((intptr_t)Universe::narrow_oop_base() <= (intptr_t)(Universe::heap()->base() -
 763          os::vm_page_size()) ||
 764          Universe::narrow_oop_base() == NULL, "invalid value");
 765   assert(Universe::narrow_oop_shift() == LogMinObjAlignmentInBytes ||
 766          Universe::narrow_oop_shift() == 0, "invalid value");
 767 #endif
 768 
 769   // We will never reach the CATCH below since Exceptions::_throw will cause
 770   // the VM to exit if an exception is thrown during initialization
 771 
 772   if (UseTLAB) {
 773     assert(Universe::heap()->supports_tlab_allocation(),
 774            "Should support thread-local allocation buffers");
 775     ThreadLocalAllocBuffer::startup_initialization();
 776   }
 777   return JNI_OK;
 778 }
 779 
 780 void Universe::print_compressed_oops_mode(outputStream* st) {
 781   st->print("Heap address: " PTR_FORMAT ", size: " SIZE_FORMAT " MB",
 782             p2i(Universe::heap()->base()), Universe::heap()->reserved_region().byte_size()/M);
 783 
 784   st->print(", Compressed Oops mode: %s", narrow_oop_mode_to_string(narrow_oop_mode()));
 785 
 786   if (Universe::narrow_oop_base() != 0) {
 787     st->print(": " PTR_FORMAT, p2i(Universe::narrow_oop_base()));
 788   }
 789 
 790   if (Universe::narrow_oop_shift() != 0) {
 791     st->print(", Oop shift amount: %d", Universe::narrow_oop_shift());
 792   }
 793 
 794   if (!Universe::narrow_oop_use_implicit_null_checks()) {
 795     st->print(", no protected page in front of the heap");
 796   }
 797   st->cr();
 798 }
 799 
 800 ReservedSpace Universe::reserve_heap(size_t heap_size, size_t alignment) {
 801 
 802   assert(alignment <= Arguments::conservative_max_heap_alignment(),
 803          "actual alignment " SIZE_FORMAT " must be within maximum heap alignment " SIZE_FORMAT,
 804          alignment, Arguments::conservative_max_heap_alignment());
 805 
 806   size_t total_reserved = align_up(heap_size, alignment);
 807   assert(!UseCompressedOops || (total_reserved <= (OopEncodingHeapMax - os::vm_page_size())),
 808       "heap size is too big for compressed oops");
 809 
 810   bool use_large_pages = UseLargePages && is_aligned(alignment, os::large_page_size());
 811   assert(!UseLargePages
 812       || UseParallelGC
 813       || use_large_pages, "Wrong alignment to use large pages");
 814 
 815   // Now create the space.
 816   ReservedHeapSpace total_rs(total_reserved, alignment, use_large_pages, AllocateHeapAt);
 817 
 818   if (total_rs.is_reserved()) {
 819     assert((total_reserved == total_rs.size()) && ((uintptr_t)total_rs.base() % alignment == 0),
 820            "must be exactly of required size and alignment");
 821     // We are good.
 822 
 823     if (UseCompressedOops) {
 824       // Universe::initialize_heap() will reset this to NULL if unscaled
 825       // or zero-based narrow oops are actually used.
 826       // Else heap start and base MUST differ, so that NULL can be encoded nonambigous.
 827       Universe::set_narrow_oop_base((address)total_rs.compressed_oop_base());
 828     }
 829 
 830     if (AllocateHeapAt != NULL) {
 831       log_info(gc,heap)("Successfully allocated Java heap at location %s", AllocateHeapAt);
 832     }
 833     return total_rs;
 834   }
 835 
 836   vm_exit_during_initialization(
 837     err_msg("Could not reserve enough space for " SIZE_FORMAT "KB object heap",
 838             total_reserved/K));
 839 
 840   // satisfy compiler
 841   ShouldNotReachHere();
 842   return ReservedHeapSpace(0, 0, false);
 843 }
 844 
 845 
 846 // It's the caller's responsibility to ensure glitch-freedom
 847 // (if required).
 848 void Universe::update_heap_info_at_gc() {
 849   _heap_capacity_at_last_gc = heap()->capacity();
 850   _heap_used_at_last_gc     = heap()->used();
 851 }
 852 
 853 
 854 const char* Universe::narrow_oop_mode_to_string(Universe::NARROW_OOP_MODE mode) {
 855   switch (mode) {
 856     case UnscaledNarrowOop:
 857       return "32-bit";
 858     case ZeroBasedNarrowOop:
 859       return "Zero based";
 860     case DisjointBaseNarrowOop:
 861       return "Non-zero disjoint base";
 862     case HeapBasedNarrowOop:
 863       return "Non-zero based";
 864     default:
 865       ShouldNotReachHere();
 866       return "";
 867   }
 868 }
 869 
 870 
 871 Universe::NARROW_OOP_MODE Universe::narrow_oop_mode() {
 872   if (narrow_oop_base_disjoint()) {
 873     return DisjointBaseNarrowOop;
 874   }
 875 
 876   if (narrow_oop_base() != 0) {
 877     return HeapBasedNarrowOop;
 878   }
 879 
 880   if (narrow_oop_shift() != 0) {
 881     return ZeroBasedNarrowOop;
 882   }
 883 
 884   return UnscaledNarrowOop;
 885 }
 886 
 887 void initialize_known_method(LatestMethodCache* method_cache,
 888                              InstanceKlass* ik,
 889                              const char* method,
 890                              Symbol* signature,
 891                              bool is_static, TRAPS)
 892 {
 893   TempNewSymbol name = SymbolTable::new_symbol(method, CHECK);
 894   Method* m = NULL;
 895   // The klass must be linked before looking up the method.
 896   if (!ik->link_class_or_fail(THREAD) ||
 897       ((m = ik->find_method(name, signature)) == NULL) ||
 898       is_static != m->is_static()) {
 899     ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
 900     // NoSuchMethodException doesn't actually work because it tries to run the
 901     // <init> function before java_lang_Class is linked. Print error and exit.
 902     vm_exit_during_initialization(err_msg("Unable to link/verify %s.%s method",
 903                                  ik->name()->as_C_string(), method));
 904   }
 905   method_cache->init(ik, m);
 906 }
 907 
 908 void Universe::initialize_known_methods(TRAPS) {
 909   // Set up static method for registering finalizers
 910   initialize_known_method(_finalizer_register_cache,
 911                           SystemDictionary::Finalizer_klass(),
 912                           "register",
 913                           vmSymbols::object_void_signature(), true, CHECK);
 914 
 915   initialize_known_method(_throw_illegal_access_error_cache,
 916                           SystemDictionary::internal_Unsafe_klass(),
 917                           "throwIllegalAccessError",
 918                           vmSymbols::void_method_signature(), true, CHECK);
 919 
 920   // Set up method for registering loaded classes in class loader vector
 921   initialize_known_method(_loader_addClass_cache,
 922                           SystemDictionary::ClassLoader_klass(),
 923                           "addClass",
 924                           vmSymbols::class_void_signature(), false, CHECK);
 925 
 926   // Set up method for checking protection domain
 927   initialize_known_method(_pd_implies_cache,
 928                           SystemDictionary::ProtectionDomain_klass(),
 929                           "impliesCreateAccessControlContext",
 930                           vmSymbols::void_boolean_signature(), false, CHECK);
 931 
 932   // Set up method for stack walking
 933   initialize_known_method(_do_stack_walk_cache,
 934                           SystemDictionary::AbstractStackWalker_klass(),
 935                           "doStackWalk",
 936                           vmSymbols::doStackWalk_signature(), false, CHECK);
 937 }
 938 
 939 void universe2_init() {
 940   EXCEPTION_MARK;
 941   Universe::genesis(CATCH);
 942 }
 943 
 944 // Set after initialization of the module runtime, call_initModuleRuntime
 945 void universe_post_module_init() {
 946   Universe::_module_initialized = true;
 947 }
 948 
 949 bool universe_post_init() {
 950   assert(!is_init_completed(), "Error: initialization not yet completed!");
 951   Universe::_fully_initialized = true;
 952   EXCEPTION_MARK;
 953   { ResourceMark rm;
 954     Interpreter::initialize();      // needed for interpreter entry points
 955     if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
 956       HandleMark hm(THREAD);
 957       Klass* ok = SystemDictionary::Object_klass();
 958       Universe::reinitialize_vtable_of(ok, CHECK_false);
 959       Universe::reinitialize_itables(CHECK_false);
 960     }
 961   }
 962 
 963   HandleMark hm(THREAD);
 964   // Setup preallocated empty java.lang.Class array
 965   Universe::_the_empty_class_klass_array = oopFactory::new_objArray(SystemDictionary::Class_klass(), 0, CHECK_false);
 966 
 967   // Setup preallocated OutOfMemoryError errors
 968   Klass* k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(vmSymbols::java_lang_OutOfMemoryError(), true, CHECK_false);
 969   InstanceKlass* ik = InstanceKlass::cast(k);
 970   Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap = ik->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 971   Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace = ik->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 972   Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace = ik->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 973   Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size = ik->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 974   Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit =
 975     ik->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 976   Universe::_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects = ik->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 977 
 978   // Setup preallocated cause message for delayed StackOverflowError
 979   if (StackReservedPages > 0) {
 980     Universe::_delayed_stack_overflow_error_message =
 981       java_lang_String::create_oop_from_str("Delayed StackOverflowError due to ReservedStackAccess annotated method", CHECK_false);
 982   }
 983 
 984   // Setup preallocated NullPointerException
 985   // (this is currently used for a cheap & dirty solution in compiler exception handling)
 986   k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(vmSymbols::java_lang_NullPointerException(), true, CHECK_false);
 987   Universe::_null_ptr_exception_instance = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 988   // Setup preallocated ArithmeticException
 989   // (this is currently used for a cheap & dirty solution in compiler exception handling)
 990   k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(vmSymbols::java_lang_ArithmeticException(), true, CHECK_false);
 991   Universe::_arithmetic_exception_instance = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 992   // Virtual Machine Error for when we get into a situation we can't resolve
 993   k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(
 994     vmSymbols::java_lang_VirtualMachineError(), true, CHECK_false);
 995   bool linked = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->link_class_or_fail(CHECK_false);
 996   if (!linked) {
 997      tty->print_cr("Unable to link/verify VirtualMachineError class");
 998      return false; // initialization failed
 999   }
1000   Universe::_virtual_machine_error_instance =
1001     InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1002 
1003   Universe::_vm_exception = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1004 
1005   Handle msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Java heap space", CHECK_false);
1006   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap, msg());
1007 
1008   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Metaspace", CHECK_false);
1009   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace, msg());
1010   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Compressed class space", CHECK_false);
1011   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace, msg());
1012 
1013   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Requested array size exceeds VM limit", CHECK_false);
1014   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size, msg());
1015 
1016   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("GC overhead limit exceeded", CHECK_false);
1017   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit, msg());
1018 
1019   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Java heap space: failed reallocation of scalar replaced objects", CHECK_false);
1020   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects, msg());
1021 
1022   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("/ by zero", CHECK_false);
1023   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_arithmetic_exception_instance, msg());
1024 
1025   // Setup the array of errors that have preallocated backtrace
1026   k = Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap->klass();
1027   assert(k->name() == vmSymbols::java_lang_OutOfMemoryError(), "should be out of memory error");
1028   ik = InstanceKlass::cast(k);
1029 
1030   int len = (StackTraceInThrowable) ? (int)PreallocatedOutOfMemoryErrorCount : 0;
1031   Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_array = oopFactory::new_objArray(ik, len, CHECK_false);
1032   for (int i=0; i<len; i++) {
1033     oop err = ik->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1034     Handle err_h = Handle(THREAD, err);
1035     java_lang_Throwable::allocate_backtrace(err_h, CHECK_false);
1036     Universe::preallocated_out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at_put(i, err_h());
1037   }
1038   Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count = (jint)len;
1039 
1040   Universe::initialize_known_methods(CHECK_false);
1041 
1042   // This needs to be done before the first scavenge/gc, since
1043   // it's an input to soft ref clearing policy.
1044   {
1045     MutexLocker x(Heap_lock);
1046     Universe::update_heap_info_at_gc();
1047   }
1048 
1049   // ("weak") refs processing infrastructure initialization
1050   Universe::heap()->post_initialize();
1051 
1052   MemoryService::add_metaspace_memory_pools();
1053 
1054   MemoryService::set_universe_heap(Universe::heap());
1055 #if INCLUDE_CDS
1056   MetaspaceShared::post_initialize(CHECK_false);
1057 #endif
1058   return true;
1059 }
1060 
1061 
1062 void Universe::compute_base_vtable_size() {
1063   _base_vtable_size = ClassLoader::compute_Object_vtable();
1064 }
1065 
1066 void Universe::print_on(outputStream* st) {
1067   GCMutexLocker hl(Heap_lock); // Heap_lock might be locked by caller thread.
1068   st->print_cr("Heap");
1069   heap()->print_on(st);
1070 }
1071 
1072 void Universe::print_heap_at_SIGBREAK() {
1073   if (PrintHeapAtSIGBREAK) {
1074     print_on(tty);
1075     tty->cr();
1076     tty->flush();
1077   }
1078 }
1079 
1080 void Universe::print_heap_before_gc() {
1081   LogTarget(Debug, gc, heap) lt;
1082   if (lt.is_enabled()) {
1083     LogStream ls(lt);
1084     ls.print("Heap before GC invocations=%u (full %u):", heap()->total_collections(), heap()->total_full_collections());
1085     ResourceMark rm;
1086     heap()->print_on(&ls);
1087   }
1088 }
1089 
1090 void Universe::print_heap_after_gc() {
1091   LogTarget(Debug, gc, heap) lt;
1092   if (lt.is_enabled()) {
1093     LogStream ls(lt);
1094     ls.print("Heap after GC invocations=%u (full %u):", heap()->total_collections(), heap()->total_full_collections());
1095     ResourceMark rm;
1096     heap()->print_on(&ls);
1097   }
1098 }
1099 
1100 void Universe::initialize_verify_flags() {
1101   verify_flags = 0;
1102   const char delimiter[] = " ,";
1103 
1104   size_t length = strlen(VerifySubSet);
1105   char* subset_list = NEW_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, length + 1, mtInternal);
1106   strncpy(subset_list, VerifySubSet, length + 1);
1107 
1108   char* token = strtok(subset_list, delimiter);
1109   while (token != NULL) {
1110     if (strcmp(token, "threads") == 0) {
1111       verify_flags |= Verify_Threads;
1112     } else if (strcmp(token, "heap") == 0) {
1113       verify_flags |= Verify_Heap;
1114     } else if (strcmp(token, "symbol_table") == 0) {
1115       verify_flags |= Verify_SymbolTable;
1116     } else if (strcmp(token, "string_table") == 0) {
1117       verify_flags |= Verify_StringTable;
1118     } else if (strcmp(token, "codecache") == 0) {
1119       verify_flags |= Verify_CodeCache;
1120     } else if (strcmp(token, "dictionary") == 0) {
1121       verify_flags |= Verify_SystemDictionary;
1122     } else if (strcmp(token, "classloader_data_graph") == 0) {
1123       verify_flags |= Verify_ClassLoaderDataGraph;
1124     } else if (strcmp(token, "metaspace") == 0) {
1125       verify_flags |= Verify_MetaspaceUtils;
1126     } else if (strcmp(token, "jni_handles") == 0) {
1127       verify_flags |= Verify_JNIHandles;
1128     } else if (strcmp(token, "codecache_oops") == 0) {
1129       verify_flags |= Verify_CodeCacheOops;
1130     } else {
1131       vm_exit_during_initialization(err_msg("VerifySubSet: \'%s\' memory sub-system is unknown, please correct it", token));
1132     }
1133     token = strtok(NULL, delimiter);
1134   }
1135   FREE_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, subset_list);
1136 }
1137 
1138 bool Universe::should_verify_subset(uint subset) {
1139   if (verify_flags & subset) {
1140     return true;
1141   }
1142   return false;
1143 }
1144 
1145 void Universe::verify(VerifyOption option, const char* prefix) {
1146   // The use of _verify_in_progress is a temporary work around for
1147   // 6320749.  Don't bother with a creating a class to set and clear
1148   // it since it is only used in this method and the control flow is
1149   // straight forward.
1150   _verify_in_progress = true;
1151 
1152   COMPILER2_PRESENT(
1153     assert(!DerivedPointerTable::is_active(),
1154          "DPT should not be active during verification "
1155          "(of thread stacks below)");
1156   )
1157 
1158   ResourceMark rm;
1159   HandleMark hm;  // Handles created during verification can be zapped
1160   _verify_count++;
1161 
1162   FormatBuffer<> title("Verifying %s", prefix);
1163   GCTraceTime(Info, gc, verify) tm(title.buffer());
1164   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_Threads)) {
1165     log_debug(gc, verify)("Threads");
1166     Threads::verify();
1167   }
1168   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_Heap)) {
1169     log_debug(gc, verify)("Heap");
1170     heap()->verify(option);
1171   }
1172   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_SymbolTable)) {
1173     log_debug(gc, verify)("SymbolTable");
1174     SymbolTable::verify();
1175   }
1176   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_StringTable)) {
1177     log_debug(gc, verify)("StringTable");
1178     StringTable::verify();
1179   }
1180   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_CodeCache)) {
1181   {
1182     MutexLockerEx mu(CodeCache_lock, Mutex::_no_safepoint_check_flag);
1183     log_debug(gc, verify)("CodeCache");
1184     CodeCache::verify();
1185   }
1186   }
1187   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_SystemDictionary)) {
1188     log_debug(gc, verify)("SystemDictionary");
1189     SystemDictionary::verify();
1190   }
1191 #ifndef PRODUCT
1192   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_ClassLoaderDataGraph)) {
1193     log_debug(gc, verify)("ClassLoaderDataGraph");
1194     ClassLoaderDataGraph::verify();
1195   }
1196 #endif
1197   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_MetaspaceUtils)) {
1198     log_debug(gc, verify)("MetaspaceUtils");
1199     MetaspaceUtils::verify_free_chunks();
1200   }
1201   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_JNIHandles)) {
1202     log_debug(gc, verify)("JNIHandles");
1203     JNIHandles::verify();
1204   }
1205   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_CodeCacheOops)) {
1206     log_debug(gc, verify)("CodeCache Oops");
1207     CodeCache::verify_oops();
1208   }
1209 
1210   _verify_in_progress = false;
1211 }
1212 
1213 
1214 #ifndef PRODUCT
1215 void Universe::calculate_verify_data(HeapWord* low_boundary, HeapWord* high_boundary) {
1216   assert(low_boundary < high_boundary, "bad interval");
1217 
1218   // decide which low-order bits we require to be clear:
1219   size_t alignSize = MinObjAlignmentInBytes;
1220   size_t min_object_size = CollectedHeap::min_fill_size();
1221 
1222   // make an inclusive limit:
1223   uintptr_t max = (uintptr_t)high_boundary - min_object_size*wordSize;
1224   uintptr_t min = (uintptr_t)low_boundary;
1225   assert(min < max, "bad interval");
1226   uintptr_t diff = max ^ min;
1227 
1228   // throw away enough low-order bits to make the diff vanish
1229   uintptr_t mask = (uintptr_t)(-1);
1230   while ((mask & diff) != 0)
1231     mask <<= 1;
1232   uintptr_t bits = (min & mask);
1233   assert(bits == (max & mask), "correct mask");
1234   // check an intermediate value between min and max, just to make sure:
1235   assert(bits == ((min + (max-min)/2) & mask), "correct mask");
1236 
1237   // require address alignment, too:
1238   mask |= (alignSize - 1);
1239 
1240   if (!(_verify_oop_mask == 0 && _verify_oop_bits == (uintptr_t)-1)) {
1241     assert(_verify_oop_mask == mask && _verify_oop_bits == bits, "mask stability");
1242   }
1243   _verify_oop_mask = mask;
1244   _verify_oop_bits = bits;
1245 }
1246 
1247 // Oop verification (see MacroAssembler::verify_oop)
1248 
1249 uintptr_t Universe::verify_oop_mask() {
1250   MemRegion m = heap()->reserved_region();
1251   calculate_verify_data(m.start(), m.end());
1252   return _verify_oop_mask;
1253 }
1254 
1255 uintptr_t Universe::verify_oop_bits() {
1256   MemRegion m = heap()->reserved_region();
1257   calculate_verify_data(m.start(), m.end());
1258   return _verify_oop_bits;
1259 }
1260 
1261 uintptr_t Universe::verify_mark_mask() {
1262   return markOopDesc::lock_mask_in_place;
1263 }
1264 
1265 uintptr_t Universe::verify_mark_bits() {
1266   intptr_t mask = verify_mark_mask();
1267   intptr_t bits = (intptr_t)markOopDesc::prototype();
1268   assert((bits & ~mask) == 0, "no stray header bits");
1269   return bits;
1270 }
1271 #endif // PRODUCT
1272 
1273 
1274 void Universe::compute_verify_oop_data() {
1275   verify_oop_mask();
1276   verify_oop_bits();
1277   verify_mark_mask();
1278   verify_mark_bits();
1279 }
1280 
1281 
1282 void LatestMethodCache::init(Klass* k, Method* m) {
1283   if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
1284     _klass = k;
1285   }
1286 #ifndef PRODUCT
1287   else {
1288     // sharing initilization should have already set up _klass
1289     assert(_klass != NULL, "just checking");
1290   }
1291 #endif
1292 
1293   _method_idnum = m->method_idnum();
1294   assert(_method_idnum >= 0, "sanity check");
1295 }
1296 
1297 
1298 Method* LatestMethodCache::get_method() {
1299   if (klass() == NULL) return NULL;
1300   InstanceKlass* ik = InstanceKlass::cast(klass());
1301   Method* m = ik->method_with_idnum(method_idnum());
1302   assert(m != NULL, "sanity check");
1303   return m;
1304 }
1305 
1306 
1307 #ifdef ASSERT
1308 // Release dummy object(s) at bottom of heap
1309 bool Universe::release_fullgc_alot_dummy() {
1310   MutexLocker ml(FullGCALot_lock);
1311   if (_fullgc_alot_dummy_array != NULL) {
1312     if (_fullgc_alot_dummy_next >= _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->length()) {
1313       // No more dummies to release, release entire array instead
1314       _fullgc_alot_dummy_array = NULL;
1315       return false;
1316     }
1317     if (!UseConcMarkSweepGC) {
1318       // Release dummy at bottom of old generation
1319       _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->obj_at_put(_fullgc_alot_dummy_next++, NULL);
1320     }
1321     // Release dummy at bottom of permanent generation
1322     _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->obj_at_put(_fullgc_alot_dummy_next++, NULL);
1323   }
1324   return true;
1325 }
1326 
1327 #endif // ASSERT