TIFF Metadata Format Specification and Usage Notes

Reading Images Writing Images
Native Stream Metadata Format
Native Image Metadata Format

Reading Images

TIFF images are read by an ImageReader which may be controlled by its public interface as well as via a supplied TIFFImageReadParam.

Color Conversion

If the source image data have photometric type CIE L*a*b* or YCbCr, and the destination color space type is RGB, then the source image data will be automatically converted to RGB using an internal color converter.

Color Spaces

The raw color space assigned by default, i.e., in the absence of a user-supplied ImageTypeSpecifier, will be the first among the following which applies:

The normalized color coordinate transformations used for the default CMYK color space are defined as follows:

The generic color space used when no other color space can be inferred is provided merely to enable the data to be loaded. It is not intended to provide accurate conversions of any kind.

If the data are known to be in a color space not correctly handled by the foregoing, then an ImageTypeSpecifier should be supplied to the reader and should be derived from a color space which is correct for the data in question.

ICC Profiles

If an ICC profile is contained in the image metadata ( BaselineTIFFTagSet.TAG_ICC_PROFILE, tag number 34675), an attempt will be made to use it to create the color space of the loaded image. It will be used if the data layout is of component type and the number of samples per pixel equals or is one greater than the number of components described by the ICC profile. If the ICC profile is not used then the color space will be inferred in one of the subsequent steps described above.

If for some reason the embedded ICC profile is not used automatically, then it may be used manually by following this procedure:

  1. Obtain the image metadata from ImageReader.getImageMetadata
  2. Extract the ICC profile field and its value.
  3. Create an ICC_ColorSpace from an ICC_Profile created from the ICC profile field data using ICC_Profile.getInstance(byte[]).
  4. Create an ImageTypeSpecifier from the new color space using one of its factory methods which accepts an ICC_ColorSpace.
  5. Create a compatible ImageReadParam and set the ImageTypeSpecifier using ImageReadParam.setDestinationType.
  6. Pass the parameter object to the appropriate read method.

If the inferred color space not based on the ICC Profile field is compatible with the ICC profile-based color space, then a second ImageTypeSpecifier derived from this inferred color space will be included in the Iterator returned by ImageReader.getImageTypes. If the iterator contains more than one type, the first one will be based on the ICC profile and the second on the inferred color space.

Metadata Issues

By default all recognized fields in the TIFF image file directory (IFD) are loaded into the native image metadata object. Which fields are loaded may be controlled by setting which TIFF tags the reader is allowed to recognize, whether to read fields with unrecognized tags, and whether to ignore all metadata. The reader is informed to disregard all metadata as usual via the ignoreMetadata parameter of ImageReader.setInput(Object,boolean,boolean). It is informed of which TIFFTags to recognize or not to recognize via TIFFImageReadParam.addAllowedTagSet(TIFFTagSet) and TIFFImageReadParam.removeAllowedTagSet(TIFFTagSet). If ignoreMetadata is true, then only metadata essential to reading the image will be loaded into the native image metadata object. If ignoreMetadata is false, then the reader will by default load into the native image metadata object only those fields which are either essential to reading the image or have a TIFFTag contained in the one of the allowed TIFFTagSets. Reading of fields with tags not in the allowed TIFFTagSets may be forced by passing in a TIFFImageReadParam on which TIFFImageReadParam.setReadUnknownTags(boolean) has been invoked with parameter true.

Use of a TIFFDirectory object may simplify gaining access to metadata values. An instance of TIFFDirectory may be created from the IIOMetadata object returned by the TIFF reader using the TIFFDirectory.createFromMetadata method.

Mapping of TIFF Native Image Metadata to the Standard Metadata Format
The derivation of standard metadata format javax_imageio_1.0 elements from TIFF native image metadata is given in the following table.
Standard Metadata Element Derivation from TIFF Fields
/Chroma/ColorSpaceType@name PhotometricInterpretation: WhiteIsZero, BlackIsZero, TransparencyMask = "GRAY"; RGB, PaletteColor => "RGB"; CMYK => "CMYK"; YCbCr => "YCbCr"; CIELab, ICCLab => "Lab".
/Chroma/NumChannels@value SamplesPerPixel
/Chroma/BlackIsZero@value "TRUE" <=> PhotometricInterpretation => WhiteIsZero
/Chroma/Palette ColorMap
/Compression/CompressionTypeName@value Compression: Uncompressed => "none"; CCITT 1D => "CCITT RLE"; Group 3 Fax => "CCITT T.4"; Group 4 Fax => "CCITT T.6"; LZW => "LZW"; JPEG => "Old JPEG"; New JPEG => "JPEG"; Zlib =>> "ZLib"; PackBits => "PackBits"; Deflate => "Deflate"; Exif JPEG => "JPEG".
/Compression/Lossless@value Compression: JPEG or New JPEG => "FALSE"; otherwise "TRUE".
/Data/PlanarConfiguration@value Chunky => "PixelInterleaved"; Planar => "PlaneInterleaved".
/Data/SampleFormat@value PhotometricInterpretation PaletteColor => "Index"; SampleFormat unsigned integer data => "UnsignedIntegral"; SampleFormat two's complement signed integer data => "SignedIntegral"; SampleFormat IEEE floating point data => "Real"; otherwise element not emitted.
/Data/BitsPerSample@value BitsPerSample as a space-separated list.
/Data/SampleMSB@value FillOrder: left-to-right => space-separated list of BitsPerSample-1; right-to-left => space-separated list of 0s.
/Dimension/PixelAspectRatio@value (1/XResolution)/(1/YResolution)
/Dimension/ImageOrientation@value Orientation
/Dimension/HorizontalPixelSize@value 1/XResolution in millimeters if ResolutionUnit is not None.
/Dimension/VerticalPixelSize@value 1/YResolution in millimeters if ResolutionUnit is not None.
/Dimension/HorizontalPosition@value XPosition in millimeters if ResolutionUnit is not None.
/Dimension/VerticalPosition@value YPosition in millimeters if ResolutionUnit is not None.
/Document/FormatVersion@value 6.0
/Document/SubimageInterpretation@value NewSubFileType: transparency => "TransparencyMask"; reduced-resolution => "ReducedResolution"; single page => "SinglePage".
/Document/ImageCreationTime@value DateTime
/Text/TextEntry DocumentName, ImageDescription, Make, Model, PageName, Software, Artist, HostComputer, InkNames, Copyright: /Text/TextEntry@keyword = field name, /Text/TextEntry@value = field value.
Example: TIFF Software field => /Text/TextEntry@keyword = "Software", /Text/TextEntry@value = Name and version number of the software package(s) used to create the image.
/Transparency/Alpha@value ExtraSamples: associated alpha => "premultiplied"; unassociated alpha => "nonpremultiplied".

Reading Exif Images

The TIFF reader may be used to read an uncompressed Exif image or the contents of the APP1 marker segment of a compressed Exif image.
Reading Uncompressed Exif Images
An uncompressed Exif image is a one- or two-page uncompressed TIFF image with a specific ordering of its IFD and image data content. Each pixel has three 8-bit samples with photometric interpretation RGB or YCbCr. The image stream must contain a single primary image and may contain a single thumbnail which if present must also be uncompressed. The usual ImageReader methods may be used to read the image data and metadata:

    ImageInputStream input;
    ImageReader tiffReader;
    ImageReadParam tiffReadParam;

    tiffReader.setInput(input);

    // Read primary image and IFD.
    BufferedImage image = tiffReader.read(0, tiffReadParam);
    IIOMetadata primaryIFD = tiffReader.getImageMetadata(0);

    // Read thumbnail if present.
    BufferedImage thumbnail = null;
    if (tiffReader.getNumImages(true) > 1) {
        thumbnail = tiffReader.read(1, tiffReadParam);
    }
Note that the Exif thumbnail is treated as a separate page in the TIFF stream and not as a thumbnail, i.e., tiffReader.hasThumbnails(0) will return false.
Reading Compressed Exif Images
A compressed Exif image is a 3-band ISO/IEC 10918-1 baseline DCT JPEG stream with an inserted APP1 marker segment. The parameters of the marker segment after the length are the 6-byte sequence {'E', 'x', 'i', 'f', 0x00, 0x00} followed by a complete TIFF stream. The embedded TIFF stream contains a primary IFD describing the JPEG image optionally followed by a thumbnail IFD and compressed or uncompressed thumbnail image data. Note that the embedded TIFF stream does not contain any image data associated with the primary IFD nor any descriptive fields which duplicate information found in the JPEG stream itself.

The parameter content of the APP1 marker segment may be obtained from the user object of the associated Node in a javax_imageio_jpeg_image_1.0 native image metadata tree extracted from the image metadata object returned by the JPEG reader. This APP1 Exif node will be a child of the node named "markerSequence" and will have name unknown and an attribute named MarkerTag with integral value 0xE1 (String value "225"). The user object of this node will be a byte array which starts with the six bytes {'E', 'x', 'i', 'f', '0', '0'}. The primary IFD and the thumbnail IFD and image may be read from the user object by the usual ImageReader methods:


    ImageReader jpegReader;
    ImageReader tiffReader;

    // Obtain the APP1 Exif marker data from the JPEG image metadata.
    IIOMetadata jpegImageMetadata = jpegReader.getImageMetadata(0);
    String nativeFormat = jpegImageMetadata.getNativeMetadataFormatName();
    Node jpegImageMetadataTree = jpegImageMetadata.getAsTree(nativeFormat);

    // getExifMarkerData() returns the byte array which is the user object
    // of the APP1 Exif marker node.
    byte[] app1Params = getExifMarkerData(jpegImageMetadataTree);
    if (app1Params == null) {
        throw new IIOException("APP1 Exif marker not found.");
    }

    // Set up input, skipping Exif ID 6-byte sequence.
    MemoryCacheImageInputStream app1ExifInput
        = new MemoryCacheImageInputStream
            (new ByteArrayInputStream(app1Params, 6, app1Params.length - 6));
    tiffReader.setInput(app1ExifInput);

    // Read primary IFD.
    IIOMetadata primaryIFD = tiffReader.getImageMetadata(0);

    // Read thumbnail if present.
    BufferedImage thumbnail = null;
    if (tiffReader.getNumImages(true) > 1) {
        thumbnail = tiffReader.read(1, tiffReadParam);
    }

    // Read the primary image.
    BufferedImage image = jpegReader.read(0);
Note that tiffReader.getNumImages(true) returns the number of IFDs in the embedded TIFF stream including those corresponding to empty images. Calling tiffReader.read(0, readParam) will throw an exception as the primary image in the embedded TIFF stream is always empty; the primary image should be obtained using the JPEG reader itself.

Writing Images

TIFF images are written by a ImageWriter which may be controlled by its public interface as well as via a supplied ImageWriteParam. For an ImageWriteParam returned by the getDefaultWriteParam() method of the TIFF ImageWriter, the canWriteTiles() and canWriteCompressed() methods will return true; the canOffsetTiles() and canWriteProgressive() methods will return false. The TIFF writer supports many optional capabilities including writing tiled images, inserting images, writing or inserting empty images, and replacing image data. Pixels may be replaced in either empty or non-empty images but if and only if the data are not compressed.

If tiles are being written, then each of their dimensions will be rounded to the nearest multiple of 16 per the TIFF specification. If JPEG-in-TIFF compression is being used, and tiles are being written each tile dimension will be rounded to the nearest multiple of 8 times the JPEG minimum coded unit (MCU) in that dimension. If JPEG-in-TIFF compression is being used and strips are being written, the number of rows per strip is rounded to a multiple of 8 times the maximum MCU over both dimensions.

Compression

The compression type may be set via the setCompressionType() method of the ImageWriteParam after setting the compression mode to MODE_EXPLICIT. The set of innately supported compression types is listed in the following table:
Supported Compression Types
Compression Type Description Reference
CCITT RLE Modified Huffman compression TIFF 6.0 Specification, Section 10
CCITT T.4 CCITT T.4 bilevel encoding/Group 3 facsimile compression TIFF 6.0 Specification, Section 11
CCITT T.6 CCITT T.6 bilevel encoding/Group 4 facsimile compression TIFF 6.0 Specification, Section 11
LZW LZW compression TIFF 6.0 Specification, Section 13
JPEG "New" JPEG-in-TIFF compression TIFF Technical Note #2
ZLib "Deflate/Inflate" compression (see note following this table)
PackBits Byte-oriented, run length compression TIFF 6.0 Specification, Section 9
Deflate "Zip-in-TIFF" compression (see note following this table) ZLIB Compressed Data Format Specification, DEFLATE Compressed Data Format Specification
Exif JPEG Exif-specific JPEG compression (see note following this table) Exif 2.2 Specification (PDF), section 4.5.5, "Basic Structure of Thumbnail Data"

Old-style JPEG compression as described in section 22 of the TIFF 6.0 Specification is not supported.

The CCITT compression types are applicable to bilevel (1-bit) images only. The JPEG compression type is applicable to byte grayscale (1-band) and RGB (3-band) images only.

ZLib and Deflate compression are identical except for the value of the TIFF Compression field: for ZLib the Compression field has value 8 whereas for Deflate it has value 32946 (0x80b2). In both cases each image segment (strip or tile) is written as a single complete zlib data stream.

"Exif JPEG" is a compression type used when writing the contents of an APP1 Exif marker segment for inclusion in a JPEG native image metadata tree. The contents appended to the output when this compression type is used are a function of whether an empty or non-empty image is written. If the image is empty, then a TIFF IFD adhering to the specification of a compressed Exif primary IFD is appended. If the image is non-empty, then a complete IFD and image adhering to the specification of a compressed Exif thumbnail IFD and image are appended. Note that the data of the empty image may not later be appended using the pixel replacement capability of the TIFF writer.

If ZLib/Deflate or JPEG compression is used, the compression quality may be set. For ZLib/Deflate the supplied floating point quality value is rescaled to the range [1, 9] and truncated to an integer to derive the Deflate compression level. For JPEG the floating point quality value is passed directly to the JPEG writer plug-in which interprets it in the usual way.

Color Conversion

If the source image data color space type is RGB, and the destination photometric type is CIE L*a*b* or YCbCr, then the source image data will be automatically converted from RGB using an internal color converter.

ICC Profiles

An ICC Profile field will be written if either:

Metadata Issues

Some behavior of the writer is affected by or may affect the contents of the image metadata which may be supplied by the user.

For bilevel images, the FillOrder, and T4Options fields affect the output data. The data will be filled right-to-left if FillOrder is present with a value of 2 (BaselineTIFFTagSet.FILL_ORDER_RIGHT_TO_LEFT) and will be filled left-to-right otherwise. The value of T4Options specifies whether the data should be 1D- or 2D-encoded and whether EOL padding should be used.

For all images the value of the RowsPerStrip field is used to the set the number of rows per strip if the image is not tiled. The default number of rows per strip is either 8 or the number of rows which would fill no more than 8 kilobytes, whichever is larger.

For all images the tile dimensions may be set using the TileWidth and TileLength field values if the tiling mode is ImageWriteParam.MODE_COPY_FROM_METADATA. If this mode is set but the fields are not, their respective default values are the image width and height.

When using JPEG-in-TIFF compression, a JPEGTables field will be written to the IFD and abbreviated JPEG streams to each strip or tile if and only if a JPEGTables field is contained in the metadata object provided to the writer. If the contents of the JPEGTables field is a valid tables-only JPEG stream, then it will be used; otherwise the contents of the field will be replaced with default visually lossless tables. If no such JPEGTables field is present in the metadata, then no JPEGTables field will be written to the output and each strip or tile will be written as a separate, self-contained JPEG stream.

When using Deflate/ZLib or LZW compression, if the image has 8 bits per sample, a horizontal differencing predictor will be used if the Predictor field is present with a value of 2 (BaselineTIFFTagSet.PREDICTOR_HORIZONTAL_DIFFERENCING). If prediction is so requested but the image does not have 8 bits per sample the field will be reset to have the value 1 (BaselineTIFFTagSet.PREDICTOR_NONE).

Some fields may be added or modified:

Some fields may be removed:

Other fields present in the supplied metadata are uninterpreted and will be written as supplied.

If an Exif image is being written, the set of fields present and their values will be modified such that the result is in accord with the Exif 2.2 specification.

Setting up the image metadata to write to a TIFF stream may be simplified by using the TIFFDirectory class which represents a TIFF IFD. A field in a TIFF IFD is represented by an instance of TIFFField. For each field to be written a TIFFField may be added to the TIFFDirectory and the latter converted to an IIOMetadata object by invoking TIFFDirectory.getAsMetadata. The IIOMetadata object so obtained may then be passed to the TIFF writer.

Mapping of the Standard Metadata Format to TIFF Native Image Metadata
The derivation of TIFF native image metadata elements from the standard metadata format javax_imageio_1.0 is given in the following table.
TIFF Field Derivation from Standard Metadata Elements
PhotometricInterpretation /Chroma/ColorSpaceType@name: "GRAY" and /Chroma/BlackIsZero@value = "FALSE" => WhiteIsZero; "GRAY" and /Document/SubimageInterpretation@value = "TransparencyMask" => TransparencyMask; "RGB" and /Chroma/Palette present => PaletteColor; "GRAY" => BlackIsZero; "RGB" => RGB; "YCbCr" => YCbCr; "CMYK" => CMYK; "Lab" => CIELab.
SamplesPerPixel /Chroma/NumChannels@value
ColorMap /Chroma/Palette
Compression /Compression/CompressionTypeName@value: "none" => Uncompressed; "CCITT RLE" => CCITT 1D; "CCITT T.4" => Group 3 Fax; "CCITT T.6" => Group 4 Fax; "LZW" => LZW; "Old JPEG" => JPEG; "JPEG" => New JPEG; "ZLib" => ZLib; "PackBits" => PackBits; "Deflate" => Deflate.
PlanarConfiguration /Data/PlanarConfiguration@value: "PixelInterleaved" => Chunky; "PlaneInterleaved" => Planar.
SampleFormat /Data/SampleFormat@value: "SignedIntegral" => two's complement signed integer data; "UnsignedIntegral" => unsigned integer data; "Real" => IEEE floating point data; "Index" => unsigned integer data.
BitsPerSample /Data/BitsPerSample@value: space-separated list parsed to char array.
FillOrder /Data/SampleMSB@value: if all values in space-separated list are 0s => right-to-left; otherwise => left-to-right.
XResolution (10 / /Dimension/HorizontalPixelSize@value) or (10 / (/Dimension/VerticalPixelSize@value * /Dimension/PixelAspectRatio@value))
YResolution (10 / /Dimension/VerticalPixelSize@value) or (10 / (/Dimension/HorizontalPixelSize@value / /Dimension/PixelAspectRatio@value))
ResolutionUnit Centimeter if XResolution or YResolution set; otherwise None.
Orientation /Dimension/ImageOrientation@value
XPosition /Dimension/HorizontalPosition@value / 10
YPosition /Dimension/VerticalPosition@value / 10
NewSubFileType /Document/SubimageInterpretation@value: "TransparencyMask" => transparency mask; "ReducedResolution" => reduced-resolution; "SinglePage" => single page.
DateTime /Document/ImageCreationTime@value
DocumentName, ImageDescription, Make, Model, PageName, Software, Artist, HostComputer, InkNames, Copyright /Text/TextEntry: if /Text/TextEntry@keyword is the name of any of the TIFF Fields, e.g., "Software", then the field is added with content /Text/TextEntry@value and count 1.
ExtraSamples /Transparency/Alpha@value: "premultiplied" => associated alpha, count 1; "nonpremultiplied" => unassociated alpha, count 1.

Writing Exif Images

The TIFF writer may be used to write an uncompressed Exif image or the contents of the APP1 marker segment of a compressed Exif image.
Writing Uncompressed Exif Images
When writing a sequence of images each image is normally recorded as {IFD, IFD Value, Image Data}. The Exif specification requires that an uncompressed Exif image be structured as follows:
  1. Image File Header
  2. Primary IFD
  3. Primary IFD Value
  4. Thumbnail IFD
  5. Thumbnail IFD Value
  6. Thumbnail Image Data
  7. Primary Image Data
To meet the requirement of the primary image data being recorded last, the primary image must be written initially as an empty image and have its data added via pixel replacement after the thumbnail IFD and image data have been written:

    ImageWriter tiffWriter;
    ImageWriteParam tiffWriteParam;
    IIOMetadata tiffStreamMetadata;
    IIOMetadata primaryIFD;
    BufferedImage image;
    BufferedImage thumbnail;

    // Specify uncompressed output.
    tiffWriteParam.setCompressionMode(ImageWriteParam.MODE_DISABLED);

    if (thumbnail != null) {
        // Write the TIFF header.
        tiffWriter.prepareWriteSequence(tiffStreamMetadata);

        // Append the primary IFD.
        tiffWriter.prepareInsertEmpty(-1, // append
                new ImageTypeSpecifier(image),
                image.getWidth(),
                image.getHeight(),
                primaryIFD,
                null, // thumbnails
                tiffWriteParam);
        tiffWriter.endInsertEmpty();

        // Append the thumbnail image data.
        tiffWriter.writeToSequence(new IIOImage(thumbnail, null, null),
                tiffWriteParam);

        // Insert the primary image data.
        tiffWriter.prepareReplacePixels(0, new Rectangle(image.getWidth(),
                image.getHeight()));
        tiffWriter.replacePixels(image, tiffWriteParam);
        tiffWriter.endReplacePixels();

        // End writing.
        tiffWriter.endWriteSequence();
    } else {
        // Write only the primary IFD and image data.
        tiffWriter.write(tiffStreamMetadata,
                new IIOImage(image, null, primaryIFD),
                tiffWriteParam);
    }
Writing Compressed Exif Images
The structure of the embedded TIFF stream in the APP1 segment of a compressed Exif image is identical to the uncompressed Exif image structure except that there are no primary image data, i.e., the primary IFD does not refer to any image data.

    ImageWriter tiffWriter;
    ImageWriteParam tiffWriteParam;
    IIOMetadata tiffStreamMetadata;
    BufferedImage image;
    BufferedImage thumbnail;
    IIOMetadata primaryIFD;
    ImageOutputStream output;

    // Set up an output to contain the APP1 Exif TIFF stream.
    ByteArrayOutputStream baos = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
    MemoryCacheImageOutputStream app1ExifOutput =
        new MemoryCacheImageOutputStream(baos);
    tiffWriter.setOutput(app1ExifOutput);

    // Set compression for the thumbnail.
    tiffWriteParam.setCompressionMode(ImageWriteParam.MODE_EXPLICIT);
    tiffWriteParam.setCompressionType("Exif JPEG");

    // Write the APP1 Exif TIFF stream.
    if (thumbnail != null) {
        // Write the TIFF header.
        tiffWriter.prepareWriteSequence(tiffStreamMetadata);

        // Append the primary IFD.
        tiffWriter.prepareInsertEmpty(-1, // append
                new ImageTypeSpecifier(image),
                image.getWidth(),
                image.getHeight(),
                primaryIFD,
                null, // thumbnails
                tiffWriteParam);
        tiffWriter.endInsertEmpty();

        // Append the thumbnail IFD and image data.
        tiffWriter.writeToSequence(new IIOImage(thumbnail, null,
                null), tiffWriteParam);

        // End writing.
        tiffWriter.endWriteSequence();
    } else {
        // Write only the primary IFD.
        tiffWriter.prepareWriteEmpty(tiffStreamMetadata,
                new ImageTypeSpecifier(image),
                image.getWidth(),
                image.getHeight(),
                primaryIFD,
                null, // thumbnails
                tiffWriteParam);
        tiffWriter.endWriteEmpty();
    }

    // Flush data into byte stream.
    app1ExifOutput.flush();

    // Create APP1 parameter array.
    byte[] app1Parameters = new byte[6 + baos.size()];

    // Add APP1 Exif ID bytes.
    app1Parameters[0] = (byte) 'E';
    app1Parameters[1] = (byte) 'x';
    app1Parameters[2] = (byte) 'i';
    app1Parameters[3] = (byte) 'f';
    app1Parameters[4] = app1Parameters[5] = (byte) 0;

    // Append TIFF stream to APP1 parameters.
    System.arraycopy(baos.toByteArray(), 0, app1Parameters, 6, baos.size());

    // Create the APP1 Exif node to be added to native JPEG image metadata.
    IIOMetadataNode app1Node = new IIOMetadataNode("unknown");
    app1Node.setAttribute("MarkerTag", String.valueOf(0xE1));
    app1Node.setUserObject(app1Parameters);

    // Append the APP1 Exif marker to the "markerSequence" node.
    IIOMetadata jpegImageMetadata =
        jpegWriter.getDefaultImageMetadata(new ImageTypeSpecifier(image),
            jpegWriteParam);
    String nativeFormat = jpegImageMetadata.getNativeMetadataFormatName();
    Node tree = jpegImageMetadata.getAsTree(nativeFormat);
    NodeList children = tree.getChildNodes();
    int numChildren = children.getLength();
    for (int i = 0; i < numChildren; i++) {
        Node child = children.item(i);
        if (child.getNodeName().equals("markerSequence")) {
            child.appendChild(app1Node);
            break;
        }
    }
    jpegImageMetadata.setFromTree(nativeFormat, tree);

    // Write the JPEG image data including the APP1 Exif marker.
    jpegWriter.setOutput(output);
    jpegWriter.write(new IIOImage(image, null, jpegImageMetadata));
The "unknown" node created above would be appended to the "markerSequence" node of the native JPEG image metadata and written to the JPEG stream when the primary image is written using the JPEG writer.

Stream Metadata

The DTD for the TIFF native stream metadata format is as follows:
<!DOCTYPE "javax_imageio_tiff_stream_1.0" [

  <!ELEMENT "javax_imageio_tiff_stream_1.0" (ByteOrder)>

    <!ELEMENT "ByteOrder" EMPTY>
      <!-- The stream byte order -->
      <!ATTLIST "ByteOrder" "value" #CDATA #REQUIRED>
        <!-- One of "BIG_ENDIAN" or "LITTLE_ENDIAN" -->
        <!-- Data type: String -->
]>

Image Metadata

The DTD for the TIFF native image metadata format is as follows:
<!DOCTYPE "javax_imageio_tiff_image_1.0" [

  <!ELEMENT "javax_imageio_tiff_image_1.0" (TIFFIFD)*>

    <!ELEMENT "TIFFIFD" (TIFFField | TIFFIFD)*>
      <!-- An IFD (directory) containing fields -->
      <!ATTLIST "TIFFIFD" "tagSets" #CDATA #REQUIRED>
        <!-- Data type: String -->
      <!ATTLIST "TIFFIFD" "parentTagNumber" #CDATA #IMPLIED>
        <!-- The tag number of the field pointing to this IFD -->
        <!-- Data type: Integer -->
      <!ATTLIST "TIFFIFD" "parentTagName" #CDATA #IMPLIED>
        <!-- A mnemonic name for the field pointing to this IFD, if known
             -->
        <!-- Data type: String -->

      <!ELEMENT "TIFFField" (TIFFBytes | TIFFAsciis |
        TIFFShorts | TIFFSShorts | TIFFLongs | TIFFSLongs |
        TIFFRationals | TIFFSRationals |
        TIFFFloats | TIFFDoubles | TIFFUndefined)>
        <!-- A field containing data -->
        <!ATTLIST "TIFFField" "number" #CDATA #REQUIRED>
          <!-- The tag number asociated with the field -->
          <!-- Data type: String -->
        <!ATTLIST "TIFFField" "name" #CDATA #IMPLIED>
          <!-- A mnemonic name associated with the field, if known -->
          <!-- Data type: String -->

        <!ELEMENT "TIFFBytes" (TIFFByte)*>
          <!-- A sequence of TIFFByte nodes -->

          <!ELEMENT "TIFFByte" EMPTY>
            <!-- An integral value between 0 and 255 -->
            <!ATTLIST "TIFFByte" "value" #CDATA #IMPLIED>
              <!-- The value -->
              <!-- Data type: String -->
            <!ATTLIST "TIFFByte" "description" #CDATA #IMPLIED>
              <!-- A description, if available -->
              <!-- Data type: String -->

        <!ELEMENT "TIFFAsciis" (TIFFAscii)*>
          <!-- A sequence of TIFFAscii nodes -->

          <!ELEMENT "TIFFAscii" EMPTY>
            <!-- A String value -->
            <!ATTLIST "TIFFAscii" "value" #CDATA #IMPLIED>
              <!-- The value -->
              <!-- Data type: String -->

        <!ELEMENT "TIFFShorts" (TIFFShort)*>
          <!-- A sequence of TIFFShort nodes -->

          <!ELEMENT "TIFFShort" EMPTY>
            <!-- An integral value between 0 and 65535 -->
            <!ATTLIST "TIFFShort" "value" #CDATA #IMPLIED>
              <!-- The value -->
              <!-- Data type: String -->
            <!ATTLIST "TIFFShort" "description" #CDATA #IMPLIED>
              <!-- A description, if available -->
              <!-- Data type: String -->

        <!ELEMENT "TIFFSShorts" (TIFFSShort)*>
          <!-- A sequence of TIFFSShort nodes -->

          <!ELEMENT "TIFFSShort" EMPTY>
            <!-- An integral value between -32768 and 32767 -->
            <!ATTLIST "TIFFSShort" "value" #CDATA #IMPLIED>
              <!-- The value -->
              <!-- Data type: String -->
            <!ATTLIST "TIFFSShort" "description" #CDATA #IMPLIED>
              <!-- A description, if available -->
              <!-- Data type: String -->

        <!ELEMENT "TIFFLongs" (TIFFLong)*>
          <!-- A sequence of TIFFLong nodes -->

          <!ELEMENT "TIFFLong" EMPTY>
            <!-- An integral value between 0 and 4294967295 -->
            <!ATTLIST "TIFFLong" "value" #CDATA #IMPLIED>
              <!-- The value -->
              <!-- Data type: String -->
            <!ATTLIST "TIFFLong" "description" #CDATA #IMPLIED>
              <!-- A description, if available -->
              <!-- Data type: String -->

        <!ELEMENT "TIFFSLongs" (TIFFSLong)*>
          <!-- A sequence of TIFFSLong nodes -->

          <!ELEMENT "TIFFSLong" EMPTY>
            <!-- An integral value between -2147483648 and 2147482647 -->
            <!ATTLIST "TIFFSLong" "value" #CDATA #IMPLIED>
              <!-- The value -->
              <!-- Data type: String -->
            <!ATTLIST "TIFFSLong" "description" #CDATA #IMPLIED>
              <!-- A description, if available -->
              <!-- Data type: String -->

        <!ELEMENT "TIFFRationals" (TIFFRational)*>
          <!-- A sequence of TIFFRational nodes -->

          <!ELEMENT "TIFFRational" EMPTY>
            <!-- A rational value consisting of an unsigned numerator and
                 denominator -->
            <!ATTLIST "TIFFRational" "value" #CDATA #IMPLIED>
              <!-- The numerator and denominator, separated by a slash -->
              <!-- Data type: String -->

        <!ELEMENT "TIFFSRationals" (TIFFSRational)*>
          <!-- A sequence of TIFFSRational nodes -->

          <!ELEMENT "TIFFSRational" EMPTY>
            <!-- A rational value consisting of a signed numerator and
                 denominator -->
            <!ATTLIST "TIFFSRational" "value" #CDATA #IMPLIED>
              <!-- The numerator and denominator, separated by a slash -->
              <!-- Data type: String -->

        <!ELEMENT "TIFFFloats" (TIFFFloat)*>
          <!-- A sequence of TIFFFloat nodes -->

          <!ELEMENT "TIFFFloat" EMPTY>
            <!-- A single-precision floating-point value -->
            <!ATTLIST "TIFFFloat" "value" #CDATA #IMPLIED>
              <!-- The value -->
              <!-- Data type: String -->

        <!ELEMENT "TIFFDoubles" (TIFFDouble)*>
          <!-- A sequence of TIFFDouble nodes -->

          <!ELEMENT "TIFFDouble" EMPTY>
            <!-- A double-precision floating-point value -->
            <!ATTLIST "TIFFDouble" "value" #CDATA #IMPLIED>
              <!-- The value -->
              <!-- Data type: String -->

        <!ELEMENT "TIFFUndefined" EMPTY>
          <!-- Uninterpreted byte data -->
          <!ATTLIST "TIFFUndefined" "value" #CDATA #IMPLIED>
            <!-- A list of comma-separated byte values -->
            <!-- Data type: String -->
]>
Since:
9

Report a bug or suggest an enhancement
For further API reference and developer documentation see the Java SE Documentation, which contains more detailed, developer-targeted descriptions with conceptual overviews, definitions of terms, workarounds, and working code examples.
Java is a trademark or registered trademark of Oracle and/or its affiliates in the US and other countries.
Copyright © 1993, 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA.
All rights reserved. Use is subject to license terms and the documentation redistribution policy.
DRAFT 11-ea+1