1 /*
   2  * Copyright (c) 1997, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
   3  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
   4  *
   5  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   6  * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
   7  * published by the Free Software Foundation.
   8  *
   9  * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  10  * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  11  * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  12  * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  13  * accompanied this code).
  14  *
  15  * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  16  * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  17  * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  18  *
  19  * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  20  * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  21  * questions.
  22  *
  23  */
  24 
  25 #include "precompiled.hpp"
  26 #include "classfile/classLoader.hpp"
  27 #include "classfile/classLoaderData.hpp"
  28 #include "classfile/javaClasses.hpp"
  29 #include "classfile/stringTable.hpp"
  30 #include "classfile/systemDictionary.hpp"
  31 #include "classfile/vmSymbols.hpp"
  32 #include "code/codeCache.hpp"
  33 #include "code/dependencies.hpp"
  34 #include "gc/shared/cardTableModRefBS.hpp"
  35 #include "gc/shared/collectedHeap.inline.hpp"
  36 #include "gc/shared/gcLocker.inline.hpp"
  37 #include "gc/shared/genCollectedHeap.hpp"
  38 #include "gc/shared/generation.hpp"
  39 #include "gc/shared/gcTraceTime.inline.hpp"
  40 #include "gc/shared/space.hpp"
  41 #include "interpreter/interpreter.hpp"
  42 #include "logging/log.hpp"
  43 #include "memory/filemap.hpp"
  44 #include "memory/metadataFactory.hpp"
  45 #include "memory/metaspaceShared.hpp"
  46 #include "memory/oopFactory.hpp"
  47 #include "memory/universe.hpp"
  48 #include "memory/universe.inline.hpp"
  49 #include "oops/constantPool.hpp"
  50 #include "oops/instanceClassLoaderKlass.hpp"
  51 #include "oops/instanceKlass.hpp"
  52 #include "oops/instanceMirrorKlass.hpp"
  53 #include "oops/instanceRefKlass.hpp"
  54 #include "oops/objArrayOop.inline.hpp"
  55 #include "oops/oop.inline.hpp"
  56 #include "oops/typeArrayKlass.hpp"
  57 #include "prims/jvmtiRedefineClassesTrace.hpp"
  58 #include "runtime/arguments.hpp"
  59 #include "runtime/atomic.inline.hpp"
  60 #include "runtime/commandLineFlagConstraintList.hpp"
  61 #include "runtime/deoptimization.hpp"
  62 #include "runtime/fprofiler.hpp"
  63 #include "runtime/handles.inline.hpp"
  64 #include "runtime/init.hpp"
  65 #include "runtime/java.hpp"
  66 #include "runtime/javaCalls.hpp"
  67 #include "runtime/logTimer.hpp"
  68 #include "runtime/sharedRuntime.hpp"
  69 #include "runtime/synchronizer.hpp"
  70 #include "runtime/thread.inline.hpp"
  71 #include "runtime/timer.hpp"
  72 #include "runtime/vm_operations.hpp"
  73 #include "services/memoryService.hpp"
  74 #include "utilities/copy.hpp"
  75 #include "utilities/events.hpp"
  76 #include "utilities/hashtable.inline.hpp"
  77 #include "utilities/macros.hpp"
  78 #include "utilities/ostream.hpp"
  79 #include "utilities/preserveException.hpp"
  80 #if INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
  81 #include "gc/cms/cmsCollectorPolicy.hpp"
  82 #include "gc/g1/g1CollectedHeap.inline.hpp"
  83 #include "gc/g1/g1CollectorPolicy.hpp"
  84 #include "gc/parallel/parallelScavengeHeap.hpp"
  85 #include "gc/shared/adaptiveSizePolicy.hpp"
  86 #endif // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
  87 #if INCLUDE_CDS
  88 #include "classfile/sharedClassUtil.hpp"
  89 #endif
  90 
  91 // Known objects
  92 Klass* Universe::_boolArrayKlassObj                 = NULL;
  93 Klass* Universe::_byteArrayKlassObj                 = NULL;
  94 Klass* Universe::_charArrayKlassObj                 = NULL;
  95 Klass* Universe::_intArrayKlassObj                  = NULL;
  96 Klass* Universe::_shortArrayKlassObj                = NULL;
  97 Klass* Universe::_longArrayKlassObj                 = NULL;
  98 Klass* Universe::_singleArrayKlassObj               = NULL;
  99 Klass* Universe::_doubleArrayKlassObj               = NULL;
 100 Klass* Universe::_typeArrayKlassObjs[T_VOID+1]      = { NULL /*, NULL...*/ };
 101 Klass* Universe::_objectArrayKlassObj               = NULL;
 102 oop Universe::_int_mirror                             = NULL;
 103 oop Universe::_float_mirror                           = NULL;
 104 oop Universe::_double_mirror                          = NULL;
 105 oop Universe::_byte_mirror                            = NULL;
 106 oop Universe::_bool_mirror                            = NULL;
 107 oop Universe::_char_mirror                            = NULL;
 108 oop Universe::_long_mirror                            = NULL;
 109 oop Universe::_short_mirror                           = NULL;
 110 oop Universe::_void_mirror                            = NULL;
 111 oop Universe::_mirrors[T_VOID+1]                      = { NULL /*, NULL...*/ };
 112 oop Universe::_main_thread_group                      = NULL;
 113 oop Universe::_system_thread_group                    = NULL;
 114 objArrayOop Universe::_the_empty_class_klass_array    = NULL;
 115 Array<Klass*>* Universe::_the_array_interfaces_array = NULL;
 116 oop Universe::_the_null_string                        = NULL;
 117 oop Universe::_the_min_jint_string                   = NULL;
 118 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_finalizer_register_cache = NULL;
 119 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_loader_addClass_cache    = NULL;
 120 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_pd_implies_cache         = NULL;
 121 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_throw_illegal_access_error_cache = NULL;
 122 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_do_stack_walk_cache     = NULL;
 123 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap          = NULL;
 124 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace          = NULL;
 125 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace    = NULL;
 126 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size         = NULL;
 127 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit  = NULL;
 128 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects    = NULL;
 129 oop Universe::_delayed_stack_overflow_error_message   = NULL;
 130 objArrayOop Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_array = NULL;
 131 volatile jint Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count = 0;
 132 bool Universe::_verify_in_progress                    = false;
 133 long Universe::verify_flags                           = Universe::Verify_All;
 134 oop Universe::_null_ptr_exception_instance            = NULL;
 135 oop Universe::_arithmetic_exception_instance          = NULL;
 136 oop Universe::_virtual_machine_error_instance         = NULL;
 137 oop Universe::_vm_exception                           = NULL;
 138 oop Universe::_allocation_context_notification_obj    = NULL;
 139 
 140 Array<int>* Universe::_the_empty_int_array            = NULL;
 141 Array<u2>* Universe::_the_empty_short_array           = NULL;
 142 Array<Klass*>* Universe::_the_empty_klass_array     = NULL;
 143 Array<Method*>* Universe::_the_empty_method_array   = NULL;
 144 
 145 // These variables are guarded by FullGCALot_lock.
 146 debug_only(objArrayOop Universe::_fullgc_alot_dummy_array = NULL;)
 147 debug_only(int Universe::_fullgc_alot_dummy_next      = 0;)
 148 
 149 // Heap
 150 int             Universe::_verify_count = 0;
 151 
 152 // Oop verification (see MacroAssembler::verify_oop)
 153 uintptr_t       Universe::_verify_oop_mask = 0;
 154 uintptr_t       Universe::_verify_oop_bits = (uintptr_t) -1;
 155 
 156 int             Universe::_base_vtable_size = 0;
 157 bool            Universe::_bootstrapping = false;
 158 bool            Universe::_fully_initialized = false;
 159 
 160 size_t          Universe::_heap_capacity_at_last_gc;
 161 size_t          Universe::_heap_used_at_last_gc = 0;
 162 
 163 CollectedHeap*  Universe::_collectedHeap = NULL;
 164 
 165 NarrowPtrStruct Universe::_narrow_oop = { NULL, 0, true };
 166 NarrowPtrStruct Universe::_narrow_klass = { NULL, 0, true };
 167 address Universe::_narrow_ptrs_base;
 168 
 169 void Universe::basic_type_classes_do(void f(Klass*)) {
 170   f(boolArrayKlassObj());
 171   f(byteArrayKlassObj());
 172   f(charArrayKlassObj());
 173   f(intArrayKlassObj());
 174   f(shortArrayKlassObj());
 175   f(longArrayKlassObj());
 176   f(singleArrayKlassObj());
 177   f(doubleArrayKlassObj());
 178 }
 179 
 180 void Universe::oops_do(OopClosure* f, bool do_all) {
 181 
 182   f->do_oop((oop*) &_int_mirror);
 183   f->do_oop((oop*) &_float_mirror);
 184   f->do_oop((oop*) &_double_mirror);
 185   f->do_oop((oop*) &_byte_mirror);
 186   f->do_oop((oop*) &_bool_mirror);
 187   f->do_oop((oop*) &_char_mirror);
 188   f->do_oop((oop*) &_long_mirror);
 189   f->do_oop((oop*) &_short_mirror);
 190   f->do_oop((oop*) &_void_mirror);
 191 
 192   for (int i = T_BOOLEAN; i < T_VOID+1; i++) {
 193     f->do_oop((oop*) &_mirrors[i]);
 194   }
 195   assert(_mirrors[0] == NULL && _mirrors[T_BOOLEAN - 1] == NULL, "checking");
 196 
 197   f->do_oop((oop*)&_the_empty_class_klass_array);
 198   f->do_oop((oop*)&_the_null_string);
 199   f->do_oop((oop*)&_the_min_jint_string);
 200   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_java_heap);
 201   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_metaspace);
 202   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace);
 203   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_array_size);
 204   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit);
 205   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects);
 206   f->do_oop((oop*)&_delayed_stack_overflow_error_message);
 207   f->do_oop((oop*)&_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_array);
 208   f->do_oop((oop*)&_null_ptr_exception_instance);
 209   f->do_oop((oop*)&_arithmetic_exception_instance);
 210   f->do_oop((oop*)&_virtual_machine_error_instance);
 211   f->do_oop((oop*)&_main_thread_group);
 212   f->do_oop((oop*)&_system_thread_group);
 213   f->do_oop((oop*)&_vm_exception);
 214   f->do_oop((oop*)&_allocation_context_notification_obj);
 215   debug_only(f->do_oop((oop*)&_fullgc_alot_dummy_array);)
 216 }
 217 
 218 // Serialize metadata in and out of CDS archive, not oops.
 219 void Universe::serialize(SerializeClosure* f, bool do_all) {
 220 
 221   f->do_ptr((void**)&_boolArrayKlassObj);
 222   f->do_ptr((void**)&_byteArrayKlassObj);
 223   f->do_ptr((void**)&_charArrayKlassObj);
 224   f->do_ptr((void**)&_intArrayKlassObj);
 225   f->do_ptr((void**)&_shortArrayKlassObj);
 226   f->do_ptr((void**)&_longArrayKlassObj);
 227   f->do_ptr((void**)&_singleArrayKlassObj);
 228   f->do_ptr((void**)&_doubleArrayKlassObj);
 229   f->do_ptr((void**)&_objectArrayKlassObj);
 230 
 231   {
 232     for (int i = 0; i < T_VOID+1; i++) {
 233       if (_typeArrayKlassObjs[i] != NULL) {
 234         assert(i >= T_BOOLEAN, "checking");
 235         f->do_ptr((void**)&_typeArrayKlassObjs[i]);
 236       } else if (do_all) {
 237         f->do_ptr((void**)&_typeArrayKlassObjs[i]);
 238       }
 239     }
 240   }
 241 
 242   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_array_interfaces_array);
 243   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_int_array);
 244   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_short_array);
 245   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_method_array);
 246   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_klass_array);
 247   _finalizer_register_cache->serialize(f);
 248   _loader_addClass_cache->serialize(f);
 249   _pd_implies_cache->serialize(f);
 250   _throw_illegal_access_error_cache->serialize(f);
 251   _do_stack_walk_cache->serialize(f);
 252 }
 253 
 254 void Universe::check_alignment(uintx size, uintx alignment, const char* name) {
 255   if (size < alignment || size % alignment != 0) {
 256     vm_exit_during_initialization(
 257       err_msg("Size of %s (" UINTX_FORMAT " bytes) must be aligned to " UINTX_FORMAT " bytes", name, size, alignment));
 258   }
 259 }
 260 
 261 void initialize_basic_type_klass(Klass* k, TRAPS) {
 262   Klass* ok = SystemDictionary::Object_klass();
 263   if (UseSharedSpaces) {
 264     ClassLoaderData* loader_data = ClassLoaderData::the_null_class_loader_data();
 265     assert(k->super() == ok, "u3");
 266     k->restore_unshareable_info(loader_data, Handle(), CHECK);
 267   } else {
 268     k->initialize_supers(ok, CHECK);
 269   }
 270   k->append_to_sibling_list();
 271 }
 272 
 273 void Universe::genesis(TRAPS) {
 274   ResourceMark rm;
 275 
 276   { FlagSetting fs(_bootstrapping, true);
 277 
 278     { MutexLocker mc(Compile_lock);
 279 
 280       // determine base vtable size; without that we cannot create the array klasses
 281       compute_base_vtable_size();
 282 
 283       if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
 284         _boolArrayKlassObj      = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_BOOLEAN, sizeof(jboolean), CHECK);
 285         _charArrayKlassObj      = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_CHAR,    sizeof(jchar),    CHECK);
 286         _singleArrayKlassObj    = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_FLOAT,   sizeof(jfloat),   CHECK);
 287         _doubleArrayKlassObj    = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_DOUBLE,  sizeof(jdouble),  CHECK);
 288         _byteArrayKlassObj      = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_BYTE,    sizeof(jbyte),    CHECK);
 289         _shortArrayKlassObj     = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_SHORT,   sizeof(jshort),   CHECK);
 290         _intArrayKlassObj       = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_INT,     sizeof(jint),     CHECK);
 291         _longArrayKlassObj      = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_LONG,    sizeof(jlong),    CHECK);
 292 
 293         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_BOOLEAN] = _boolArrayKlassObj;
 294         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_CHAR]    = _charArrayKlassObj;
 295         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_FLOAT]   = _singleArrayKlassObj;
 296         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_DOUBLE]  = _doubleArrayKlassObj;
 297         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_BYTE]    = _byteArrayKlassObj;
 298         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_SHORT]   = _shortArrayKlassObj;
 299         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_INT]     = _intArrayKlassObj;
 300         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_LONG]    = _longArrayKlassObj;
 301 
 302         ClassLoaderData* null_cld = ClassLoaderData::the_null_class_loader_data();
 303 
 304         _the_array_interfaces_array = MetadataFactory::new_array<Klass*>(null_cld, 2, NULL, CHECK);
 305         _the_empty_int_array        = MetadataFactory::new_array<int>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 306         _the_empty_short_array      = MetadataFactory::new_array<u2>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 307         _the_empty_method_array     = MetadataFactory::new_array<Method*>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 308         _the_empty_klass_array      = MetadataFactory::new_array<Klass*>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 309       }
 310     }
 311 
 312     vmSymbols::initialize(CHECK);
 313 
 314     SystemDictionary::initialize(CHECK);
 315 
 316     Klass* ok = SystemDictionary::Object_klass();
 317 
 318     _the_null_string            = StringTable::intern("null", CHECK);
 319     _the_min_jint_string       = StringTable::intern("-2147483648", CHECK);
 320 
 321     if (UseSharedSpaces) {
 322       // Verify shared interfaces array.
 323       assert(_the_array_interfaces_array->at(0) ==
 324              SystemDictionary::Cloneable_klass(), "u3");
 325       assert(_the_array_interfaces_array->at(1) ==
 326              SystemDictionary::Serializable_klass(), "u3");
 327       MetaspaceShared::fixup_shared_string_regions();
 328     } else {
 329       // Set up shared interfaces array.  (Do this before supers are set up.)
 330       _the_array_interfaces_array->at_put(0, SystemDictionary::Cloneable_klass());
 331       _the_array_interfaces_array->at_put(1, SystemDictionary::Serializable_klass());
 332     }
 333 
 334     initialize_basic_type_klass(boolArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 335     initialize_basic_type_klass(charArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 336     initialize_basic_type_klass(singleArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 337     initialize_basic_type_klass(doubleArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 338     initialize_basic_type_klass(byteArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 339     initialize_basic_type_klass(shortArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 340     initialize_basic_type_klass(intArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 341     initialize_basic_type_klass(longArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 342   } // end of core bootstrapping
 343 
 344   // Maybe this could be lifted up now that object array can be initialized
 345   // during the bootstrapping.
 346 
 347   // OLD
 348   // Initialize _objectArrayKlass after core bootstraping to make
 349   // sure the super class is set up properly for _objectArrayKlass.
 350   // ---
 351   // NEW
 352   // Since some of the old system object arrays have been converted to
 353   // ordinary object arrays, _objectArrayKlass will be loaded when
 354   // SystemDictionary::initialize(CHECK); is run. See the extra check
 355   // for Object_klass_loaded in objArrayKlassKlass::allocate_objArray_klass_impl.
 356   _objectArrayKlassObj = InstanceKlass::
 357     cast(SystemDictionary::Object_klass())->array_klass(1, CHECK);
 358   // OLD
 359   // Add the class to the class hierarchy manually to make sure that
 360   // its vtable is initialized after core bootstrapping is completed.
 361   // ---
 362   // New
 363   // Have already been initialized.
 364   _objectArrayKlassObj->append_to_sibling_list();
 365 
 366   #ifdef ASSERT
 367   if (FullGCALot) {
 368     // Allocate an array of dummy objects.
 369     // We'd like these to be at the bottom of the old generation,
 370     // so that when we free one and then collect,
 371     // (almost) the whole heap moves
 372     // and we find out if we actually update all the oops correctly.
 373     // But we can't allocate directly in the old generation,
 374     // so we allocate wherever, and hope that the first collection
 375     // moves these objects to the bottom of the old generation.
 376     // We can allocate directly in the permanent generation, so we do.
 377     int size;
 378     if (UseConcMarkSweepGC) {
 379       log_warning(gc)("Using +FullGCALot with concurrent mark sweep gc will not force all objects to relocate");
 380       size = FullGCALotDummies;
 381     } else {
 382       size = FullGCALotDummies * 2;
 383     }
 384     objArrayOop    naked_array = oopFactory::new_objArray(SystemDictionary::Object_klass(), size, CHECK);
 385     objArrayHandle dummy_array(THREAD, naked_array);
 386     int i = 0;
 387     while (i < size) {
 388         // Allocate dummy in old generation
 389       oop dummy = SystemDictionary::Object_klass()->allocate_instance(CHECK);
 390       dummy_array->obj_at_put(i++, dummy);
 391     }
 392     {
 393       // Only modify the global variable inside the mutex.
 394       // If we had a race to here, the other dummy_array instances
 395       // and their elements just get dropped on the floor, which is fine.
 396       MutexLocker ml(FullGCALot_lock);
 397       if (_fullgc_alot_dummy_array == NULL) {
 398         _fullgc_alot_dummy_array = dummy_array();
 399       }
 400     }
 401     assert(i == _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->length(), "just checking");
 402   }
 403   #endif
 404 
 405   // Initialize dependency array for null class loader
 406   ClassLoaderData::the_null_class_loader_data()->init_dependencies(CHECK);
 407 
 408 }
 409 
 410 // CDS support for patching vtables in metadata in the shared archive.
 411 // All types inherited from Metadata have vtables, but not types inherited
 412 // from MetaspaceObj, because the latter does not have virtual functions.
 413 // If the metadata type has a vtable, it cannot be shared in the read-only
 414 // section of the CDS archive, because the vtable pointer is patched.
 415 static inline void add_vtable(void** list, int* n, void* o, int count) {
 416   guarantee((*n) < count, "vtable list too small");
 417   void* vtable = dereference_vptr(o);
 418   assert(*(void**)(vtable) != NULL, "invalid vtable");
 419   list[(*n)++] = vtable;
 420 }
 421 
 422 void Universe::init_self_patching_vtbl_list(void** list, int count) {
 423   int n = 0;
 424   { InstanceKlass o;          add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 425   { InstanceClassLoaderKlass o; add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 426   { InstanceMirrorKlass o;    add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 427   { InstanceRefKlass o;       add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 428   { TypeArrayKlass o;         add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 429   { ObjArrayKlass o;          add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 430   { Method o;                 add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 431   { ConstantPool o;           add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 432 }
 433 
 434 void Universe::initialize_basic_type_mirrors(TRAPS) {
 435     assert(_int_mirror==NULL, "basic type mirrors already initialized");
 436     _int_mirror     =
 437       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("int",    T_INT, CHECK);
 438     _float_mirror   =
 439       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("float",  T_FLOAT,   CHECK);
 440     _double_mirror  =
 441       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("double", T_DOUBLE,  CHECK);
 442     _byte_mirror    =
 443       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("byte",   T_BYTE, CHECK);
 444     _bool_mirror    =
 445       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("boolean",T_BOOLEAN, CHECK);
 446     _char_mirror    =
 447       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("char",   T_CHAR, CHECK);
 448     _long_mirror    =
 449       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("long",   T_LONG, CHECK);
 450     _short_mirror   =
 451       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("short",  T_SHORT,   CHECK);
 452     _void_mirror    =
 453       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("void",   T_VOID, CHECK);
 454 
 455     _mirrors[T_INT]     = _int_mirror;
 456     _mirrors[T_FLOAT]   = _float_mirror;
 457     _mirrors[T_DOUBLE]  = _double_mirror;
 458     _mirrors[T_BYTE]    = _byte_mirror;
 459     _mirrors[T_BOOLEAN] = _bool_mirror;
 460     _mirrors[T_CHAR]    = _char_mirror;
 461     _mirrors[T_LONG]    = _long_mirror;
 462     _mirrors[T_SHORT]   = _short_mirror;
 463     _mirrors[T_VOID]    = _void_mirror;
 464   //_mirrors[T_OBJECT]  = _object_klass->java_mirror();
 465   //_mirrors[T_ARRAY]   = _object_klass->java_mirror();
 466 }
 467 
 468 void Universe::fixup_mirrors(TRAPS) {
 469   // Bootstrap problem: all classes gets a mirror (java.lang.Class instance) assigned eagerly,
 470   // but we cannot do that for classes created before java.lang.Class is loaded. Here we simply
 471   // walk over permanent objects created so far (mostly classes) and fixup their mirrors. Note
 472   // that the number of objects allocated at this point is very small.
 473   assert(SystemDictionary::Class_klass_loaded(), "java.lang.Class should be loaded");
 474   HandleMark hm(THREAD);
 475   // Cache the start of the static fields
 476   InstanceMirrorKlass::init_offset_of_static_fields();
 477 
 478   GrowableArray <Klass*>* list = java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror_list();
 479   int list_length = list->length();
 480   for (int i = 0; i < list_length; i++) {
 481     Klass* k = list->at(i);
 482     assert(k->is_klass(), "List should only hold classes");
 483     EXCEPTION_MARK;
 484     KlassHandle kh(THREAD, k);
 485     java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror(kh, CATCH);
 486 }
 487   delete java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror_list();
 488   java_lang_Class::set_fixup_mirror_list(NULL);
 489 }
 490 
 491 static bool has_run_finalizers_on_exit = false;
 492 
 493 void Universe::run_finalizers_on_exit() {
 494   if (has_run_finalizers_on_exit) return;
 495   has_run_finalizers_on_exit = true;
 496 
 497   // Called on VM exit. This ought to be run in a separate thread.
 498   log_trace(ref)("Callback to run finalizers on exit");
 499   {
 500     PRESERVE_EXCEPTION_MARK;
 501     KlassHandle finalizer_klass(THREAD, SystemDictionary::Finalizer_klass());
 502     JavaValue result(T_VOID);
 503     JavaCalls::call_static(
 504       &result,
 505       finalizer_klass,
 506       vmSymbols::run_finalizers_on_exit_name(),
 507       vmSymbols::void_method_signature(),
 508       THREAD
 509     );
 510     // Ignore any pending exceptions
 511     CLEAR_PENDING_EXCEPTION;
 512   }
 513 }
 514 
 515 
 516 // initialize_vtable could cause gc if
 517 // 1) we specified true to initialize_vtable and
 518 // 2) this ran after gc was enabled
 519 // In case those ever change we use handles for oops
 520 void Universe::reinitialize_vtable_of(KlassHandle k_h, TRAPS) {
 521   // init vtable of k and all subclasses
 522   Klass* ko = k_h();
 523   klassVtable* vt = ko->vtable();
 524   if (vt) vt->initialize_vtable(false, CHECK);
 525   if (ko->is_instance_klass()) {
 526     for (KlassHandle s_h(THREAD, ko->subklass());
 527          s_h() != NULL;
 528          s_h = KlassHandle(THREAD, s_h()->next_sibling())) {
 529       reinitialize_vtable_of(s_h, CHECK);
 530     }
 531   }
 532 }
 533 
 534 
 535 void initialize_itable_for_klass(Klass* k, TRAPS) {
 536   InstanceKlass::cast(k)->itable()->initialize_itable(false, CHECK);
 537 }
 538 
 539 
 540 void Universe::reinitialize_itables(TRAPS) {
 541   SystemDictionary::classes_do(initialize_itable_for_klass, CHECK);
 542 
 543 }
 544 
 545 
 546 bool Universe::on_page_boundary(void* addr) {
 547   return ((uintptr_t) addr) % os::vm_page_size() == 0;
 548 }
 549 
 550 
 551 bool Universe::should_fill_in_stack_trace(Handle throwable) {
 552   // never attempt to fill in the stack trace of preallocated errors that do not have
 553   // backtrace. These errors are kept alive forever and may be "re-used" when all
 554   // preallocated errors with backtrace have been consumed. Also need to avoid
 555   // a potential loop which could happen if an out of memory occurs when attempting
 556   // to allocate the backtrace.
 557   return ((throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap) &&
 558           (throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace)  &&
 559           (throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace)  &&
 560           (throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size) &&
 561           (throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit) &&
 562           (throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects));
 563 }
 564 
 565 
 566 oop Universe::gen_out_of_memory_error(oop default_err) {
 567   // generate an out of memory error:
 568   // - if there is a preallocated error with backtrace available then return it wth
 569   //   a filled in stack trace.
 570   // - if there are no preallocated errors with backtrace available then return
 571   //   an error without backtrace.
 572   int next;
 573   if (_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count > 0) {
 574     next = (int)Atomic::add(-1, &_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count);
 575     assert(next < (int)PreallocatedOutOfMemoryErrorCount, "avail count is corrupt");
 576   } else {
 577     next = -1;
 578   }
 579   if (next < 0) {
 580     // all preallocated errors have been used.
 581     // return default
 582     return default_err;
 583   } else {
 584     // get the error object at the slot and set set it to NULL so that the
 585     // array isn't keeping it alive anymore.
 586     oop exc = preallocated_out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at(next);
 587     assert(exc != NULL, "slot has been used already");
 588     preallocated_out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at_put(next, NULL);
 589 
 590     // use the message from the default error
 591     oop msg = java_lang_Throwable::message(default_err);
 592     assert(msg != NULL, "no message");
 593     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(exc, msg);
 594 
 595     // populate the stack trace and return it.
 596     java_lang_Throwable::fill_in_stack_trace_of_preallocated_backtrace(exc);
 597     return exc;
 598   }
 599 }
 600 
 601 intptr_t Universe::_non_oop_bits = 0;
 602 
 603 void* Universe::non_oop_word() {
 604   // Neither the high bits nor the low bits of this value is allowed
 605   // to look like (respectively) the high or low bits of a real oop.
 606   //
 607   // High and low are CPU-specific notions, but low always includes
 608   // the low-order bit.  Since oops are always aligned at least mod 4,
 609   // setting the low-order bit will ensure that the low half of the
 610   // word will never look like that of a real oop.
 611   //
 612   // Using the OS-supplied non-memory-address word (usually 0 or -1)
 613   // will take care of the high bits, however many there are.
 614 
 615   if (_non_oop_bits == 0) {
 616     _non_oop_bits = (intptr_t)os::non_memory_address_word() | 1;
 617   }
 618 
 619   return (void*)_non_oop_bits;
 620 }
 621 
 622 jint universe_init() {
 623   assert(!Universe::_fully_initialized, "called after initialize_vtables");
 624   guarantee(1 << LogHeapWordSize == sizeof(HeapWord),
 625          "LogHeapWordSize is incorrect.");
 626   guarantee(sizeof(oop) >= sizeof(HeapWord), "HeapWord larger than oop?");
 627   guarantee(sizeof(oop) % sizeof(HeapWord) == 0,
 628             "oop size is not not a multiple of HeapWord size");
 629 
 630   TraceStartupTime timer("Genesis");
 631 
 632   JavaClasses::compute_hard_coded_offsets();
 633 
 634   jint status = Universe::initialize_heap();
 635   if (status != JNI_OK) {
 636     return status;
 637   }
 638 
 639   Metaspace::global_initialize();
 640 
 641   // Checks 'AfterMemoryInit' constraints.
 642   if (!CommandLineFlagConstraintList::check_constraints(CommandLineFlagConstraint::AfterMemoryInit)) {
 643     return JNI_EINVAL;
 644   }
 645 
 646   // Create memory for metadata.  Must be after initializing heap for
 647   // DumpSharedSpaces.
 648   ClassLoaderData::init_null_class_loader_data();
 649 
 650   // We have a heap so create the Method* caches before
 651   // Metaspace::initialize_shared_spaces() tries to populate them.
 652   Universe::_finalizer_register_cache = new LatestMethodCache();
 653   Universe::_loader_addClass_cache    = new LatestMethodCache();
 654   Universe::_pd_implies_cache         = new LatestMethodCache();
 655   Universe::_throw_illegal_access_error_cache = new LatestMethodCache();
 656   Universe::_do_stack_walk_cache = new LatestMethodCache();
 657 
 658   if (UseSharedSpaces) {
 659     // Read the data structures supporting the shared spaces (shared
 660     // system dictionary, symbol table, etc.).  After that, access to
 661     // the file (other than the mapped regions) is no longer needed, and
 662     // the file is closed. Closing the file does not affect the
 663     // currently mapped regions.
 664     MetaspaceShared::initialize_shared_spaces();
 665     StringTable::create_table();
 666   } else {
 667     SymbolTable::create_table();
 668     StringTable::create_table();
 669     ClassLoader::create_package_info_table();
 670 
 671     if (DumpSharedSpaces) {
 672       MetaspaceShared::prepare_for_dumping();
 673     }
 674   }
 675   if (strlen(VerifySubSet) > 0) {
 676     Universe::initialize_verify_flags();
 677   }
 678 
 679   return JNI_OK;
 680 }
 681 
 682 CollectedHeap* Universe::create_heap() {
 683   assert(_collectedHeap == NULL, "Heap already created");
 684 #if !INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
 685   if (UseParallelGC) {
 686     fatal("UseParallelGC not supported in this VM.");
 687   } else if (UseG1GC) {
 688     fatal("UseG1GC not supported in this VM.");
 689   } else if (UseConcMarkSweepGC) {
 690     fatal("UseConcMarkSweepGC not supported in this VM.");
 691 #else
 692   if (UseParallelGC) {
 693     return Universe::create_heap_with_policy<ParallelScavengeHeap, GenerationSizer>();
 694   } else if (UseG1GC) {
 695     return Universe::create_heap_with_policy<G1CollectedHeap, G1CollectorPolicy>();
 696   } else if (UseConcMarkSweepGC) {
 697     return Universe::create_heap_with_policy<GenCollectedHeap, ConcurrentMarkSweepPolicy>();
 698 #endif
 699   } else if (UseSerialGC) {
 700     return Universe::create_heap_with_policy<GenCollectedHeap, MarkSweepPolicy>();
 701   }
 702 
 703   ShouldNotReachHere();
 704   return NULL;
 705 }
 706 
 707 // Choose the heap base address and oop encoding mode
 708 // when compressed oops are used:
 709 // Unscaled  - Use 32-bits oops without encoding when
 710 //     NarrowOopHeapBaseMin + heap_size < 4Gb
 711 // ZeroBased - Use zero based compressed oops with encoding when
 712 //     NarrowOopHeapBaseMin + heap_size < 32Gb
 713 // HeapBased - Use compressed oops with heap base + encoding.
 714 
 715 jint Universe::initialize_heap() {
 716   jint status = JNI_ERR;
 717 
 718   _collectedHeap = create_heap_ext();
 719   if (_collectedHeap == NULL) {
 720     _collectedHeap = create_heap();
 721   }
 722 
 723   status = _collectedHeap->initialize();
 724   if (status != JNI_OK) {
 725     return status;
 726   }
 727   log_info(gc)("Using %s", _collectedHeap->name());
 728 
 729   ThreadLocalAllocBuffer::set_max_size(Universe::heap()->max_tlab_size());
 730 
 731 #ifdef _LP64
 732   if (UseCompressedOops) {
 733     // Subtract a page because something can get allocated at heap base.
 734     // This also makes implicit null checking work, because the
 735     // memory+1 page below heap_base needs to cause a signal.
 736     // See needs_explicit_null_check.
 737     // Only set the heap base for compressed oops because it indicates
 738     // compressed oops for pstack code.
 739     if ((uint64_t)Universe::heap()->reserved_region().end() > UnscaledOopHeapMax) {
 740       // Didn't reserve heap below 4Gb.  Must shift.
 741       Universe::set_narrow_oop_shift(LogMinObjAlignmentInBytes);
 742     }
 743     if ((uint64_t)Universe::heap()->reserved_region().end() <= OopEncodingHeapMax) {
 744       // Did reserve heap below 32Gb. Can use base == 0;
 745       Universe::set_narrow_oop_base(0);
 746     }
 747 
 748     Universe::set_narrow_ptrs_base(Universe::narrow_oop_base());
 749 
 750     if (PrintCompressedOopsMode || (PrintMiscellaneous && Verbose)) {
 751       Universe::print_compressed_oops_mode(tty);
 752     }
 753 
 754     // Tell tests in which mode we run.
 755     Arguments::PropertyList_add(new SystemProperty("java.vm.compressedOopsMode",
 756                                                    narrow_oop_mode_to_string(narrow_oop_mode()),
 757                                                    false));
 758   }
 759   // Universe::narrow_oop_base() is one page below the heap.
 760   assert((intptr_t)Universe::narrow_oop_base() <= (intptr_t)(Universe::heap()->base() -
 761          os::vm_page_size()) ||
 762          Universe::narrow_oop_base() == NULL, "invalid value");
 763   assert(Universe::narrow_oop_shift() == LogMinObjAlignmentInBytes ||
 764          Universe::narrow_oop_shift() == 0, "invalid value");
 765 #endif
 766 
 767   // We will never reach the CATCH below since Exceptions::_throw will cause
 768   // the VM to exit if an exception is thrown during initialization
 769 
 770   if (UseTLAB) {
 771     assert(Universe::heap()->supports_tlab_allocation(),
 772            "Should support thread-local allocation buffers");
 773     ThreadLocalAllocBuffer::startup_initialization();
 774   }
 775   return JNI_OK;
 776 }
 777 
 778 void Universe::print_compressed_oops_mode(outputStream* st) {
 779   st->print("heap address: " PTR_FORMAT ", size: " SIZE_FORMAT " MB",
 780               p2i(Universe::heap()->base()), Universe::heap()->reserved_region().byte_size()/M);
 781 
 782   st->print(", Compressed Oops mode: %s", narrow_oop_mode_to_string(narrow_oop_mode()));
 783 
 784   if (Universe::narrow_oop_base() != 0) {
 785     st->print(": " PTR_FORMAT, p2i(Universe::narrow_oop_base()));
 786   }
 787 
 788   if (Universe::narrow_oop_shift() != 0) {
 789     st->print(", Oop shift amount: %d", Universe::narrow_oop_shift());
 790   }
 791 
 792   if (!Universe::narrow_oop_use_implicit_null_checks()) {
 793     st->print(", no protected page in front of the heap");
 794   }
 795   st->cr();
 796 }
 797 
 798 ReservedSpace Universe::reserve_heap(size_t heap_size, size_t alignment) {
 799 
 800   assert(alignment <= Arguments::conservative_max_heap_alignment(),
 801          "actual alignment " SIZE_FORMAT " must be within maximum heap alignment " SIZE_FORMAT,
 802          alignment, Arguments::conservative_max_heap_alignment());
 803 
 804   size_t total_reserved = align_size_up(heap_size, alignment);
 805   assert(!UseCompressedOops || (total_reserved <= (OopEncodingHeapMax - os::vm_page_size())),
 806       "heap size is too big for compressed oops");
 807 
 808   bool use_large_pages = UseLargePages && is_size_aligned(alignment, os::large_page_size());
 809   assert(!UseLargePages
 810       || UseParallelGC
 811       || use_large_pages, "Wrong alignment to use large pages");
 812 
 813   // Now create the space.
 814   ReservedHeapSpace total_rs(total_reserved, alignment, use_large_pages);
 815 
 816   if (total_rs.is_reserved()) {
 817     assert((total_reserved == total_rs.size()) && ((uintptr_t)total_rs.base() % alignment == 0),
 818            "must be exactly of required size and alignment");
 819     // We are good.
 820 
 821     if (UseCompressedOops) {
 822       // Universe::initialize_heap() will reset this to NULL if unscaled
 823       // or zero-based narrow oops are actually used.
 824       // Else heap start and base MUST differ, so that NULL can be encoded nonambigous.
 825       Universe::set_narrow_oop_base((address)total_rs.compressed_oop_base());
 826     }
 827 
 828     return total_rs;
 829   }
 830 
 831   vm_exit_during_initialization(
 832     err_msg("Could not reserve enough space for " SIZE_FORMAT "KB object heap",
 833             total_reserved/K));
 834 
 835   // satisfy compiler
 836   ShouldNotReachHere();
 837   return ReservedHeapSpace(0, 0, false);
 838 }
 839 
 840 
 841 // It's the caller's responsibility to ensure glitch-freedom
 842 // (if required).
 843 void Universe::update_heap_info_at_gc() {
 844   _heap_capacity_at_last_gc = heap()->capacity();
 845   _heap_used_at_last_gc     = heap()->used();
 846 }
 847 
 848 
 849 const char* Universe::narrow_oop_mode_to_string(Universe::NARROW_OOP_MODE mode) {
 850   switch (mode) {
 851     case UnscaledNarrowOop:
 852       return "32-bit";
 853     case ZeroBasedNarrowOop:
 854       return "Zero based";
 855     case DisjointBaseNarrowOop:
 856       return "Non-zero disjoint base";
 857     case HeapBasedNarrowOop:
 858       return "Non-zero based";
 859   }
 860 
 861   ShouldNotReachHere();
 862   return "";
 863 }
 864 
 865 
 866 Universe::NARROW_OOP_MODE Universe::narrow_oop_mode() {
 867   if (narrow_oop_base_disjoint()) {
 868     return DisjointBaseNarrowOop;
 869   }
 870 
 871   if (narrow_oop_base() != 0) {
 872     return HeapBasedNarrowOop;
 873   }
 874 
 875   if (narrow_oop_shift() != 0) {
 876     return ZeroBasedNarrowOop;
 877   }
 878 
 879   return UnscaledNarrowOop;
 880 }
 881 
 882 
 883 void universe2_init() {
 884   EXCEPTION_MARK;
 885   Universe::genesis(CATCH);
 886 }
 887 
 888 
 889 bool universe_post_init() {
 890   assert(!is_init_completed(), "Error: initialization not yet completed!");
 891   Universe::_fully_initialized = true;
 892   EXCEPTION_MARK;
 893   { ResourceMark rm;
 894     Interpreter::initialize();      // needed for interpreter entry points
 895     if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
 896       HandleMark hm(THREAD);
 897       KlassHandle ok_h(THREAD, SystemDictionary::Object_klass());
 898       Universe::reinitialize_vtable_of(ok_h, CHECK_false);
 899       Universe::reinitialize_itables(CHECK_false);
 900     }
 901   }
 902 
 903   HandleMark hm(THREAD);
 904   Klass* k;
 905   instanceKlassHandle k_h;
 906     // Setup preallocated empty java.lang.Class array
 907     Universe::_the_empty_class_klass_array = oopFactory::new_objArray(SystemDictionary::Class_klass(), 0, CHECK_false);
 908 
 909     // Setup preallocated OutOfMemoryError errors
 910     k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(vmSymbols::java_lang_OutOfMemoryError(), true, CHECK_false);
 911     k_h = instanceKlassHandle(THREAD, k);
 912     Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap = k_h->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 913     Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace = k_h->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 914     Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace = k_h->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 915     Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size = k_h->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 916     Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit =
 917       k_h->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 918     Universe::_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects = k_h->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 919 
 920     // Setup preallocated cause message for delayed StackOverflowError
 921     if (StackReservedPages > 0) {
 922       Universe::_delayed_stack_overflow_error_message =
 923         java_lang_String::create_oop_from_str("Delayed StackOverflowError due to ReservedStackAccess annotated method", CHECK_false);
 924     }
 925 
 926     // Setup preallocated NullPointerException
 927     // (this is currently used for a cheap & dirty solution in compiler exception handling)
 928     k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(vmSymbols::java_lang_NullPointerException(), true, CHECK_false);
 929     Universe::_null_ptr_exception_instance = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 930     // Setup preallocated ArithmeticException
 931     // (this is currently used for a cheap & dirty solution in compiler exception handling)
 932     k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(vmSymbols::java_lang_ArithmeticException(), true, CHECK_false);
 933     Universe::_arithmetic_exception_instance = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 934     // Virtual Machine Error for when we get into a situation we can't resolve
 935     k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(
 936       vmSymbols::java_lang_VirtualMachineError(), true, CHECK_false);
 937     bool linked = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->link_class_or_fail(CHECK_false);
 938     if (!linked) {
 939       tty->print_cr("Unable to link/verify VirtualMachineError class");
 940       return false; // initialization failed
 941     }
 942     Universe::_virtual_machine_error_instance =
 943       InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 944 
 945     Universe::_vm_exception = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 946 
 947   if (!DumpSharedSpaces) {
 948     // These are the only Java fields that are currently set during shared space dumping.
 949     // We prefer to not handle this generally, so we always reinitialize these detail messages.
 950     Handle msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Java heap space", CHECK_false);
 951     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap, msg());
 952 
 953     msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Metaspace", CHECK_false);
 954     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace, msg());
 955     msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Compressed class space", CHECK_false);
 956     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace, msg());
 957 
 958     msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Requested array size exceeds VM limit", CHECK_false);
 959     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size, msg());
 960 
 961     msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("GC overhead limit exceeded", CHECK_false);
 962     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit, msg());
 963 
 964     msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Java heap space: failed reallocation of scalar replaced objects", CHECK_false);
 965     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects, msg());
 966 
 967     msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("/ by zero", CHECK_false);
 968     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_arithmetic_exception_instance, msg());
 969 
 970     // Setup the array of errors that have preallocated backtrace
 971     k = Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap->klass();
 972     assert(k->name() == vmSymbols::java_lang_OutOfMemoryError(), "should be out of memory error");
 973     k_h = instanceKlassHandle(THREAD, k);
 974 
 975     int len = (StackTraceInThrowable) ? (int)PreallocatedOutOfMemoryErrorCount : 0;
 976     Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_array = oopFactory::new_objArray(k_h(), len, CHECK_false);
 977     for (int i=0; i<len; i++) {
 978       oop err = k_h->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 979       Handle err_h = Handle(THREAD, err);
 980       java_lang_Throwable::allocate_backtrace(err_h, CHECK_false);
 981       Universe::preallocated_out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at_put(i, err_h());
 982     }
 983     Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count = (jint)len;
 984   }
 985 
 986 
 987   // Setup static method for registering finalizers
 988   // The finalizer klass must be linked before looking up the method, in
 989   // case it needs to get rewritten.
 990   SystemDictionary::Finalizer_klass()->link_class(CHECK_false);
 991   Method* m = SystemDictionary::Finalizer_klass()->find_method(
 992                                   vmSymbols::register_method_name(),
 993                                   vmSymbols::register_method_signature());
 994   if (m == NULL || !m->is_static()) {
 995     tty->print_cr("Unable to link/verify Finalizer.register method");
 996     return false; // initialization failed (cannot throw exception yet)
 997   }
 998   Universe::_finalizer_register_cache->init(
 999     SystemDictionary::Finalizer_klass(), m);
1000 
1001   SystemDictionary::internal_Unsafe_klass()->link_class(CHECK_false);
1002   m = SystemDictionary::internal_Unsafe_klass()->find_method(
1003                                   vmSymbols::throwIllegalAccessError_name(),
1004                                   vmSymbols::void_method_signature());
1005   if (m != NULL && !m->is_static()) {
1006     // Note null is okay; this method is used in itables, and if it is null,
1007     // then AbstractMethodError is thrown instead.
1008     tty->print_cr("Unable to link/verify Unsafe.throwIllegalAccessError method");
1009     return false; // initialization failed (cannot throw exception yet)
1010   }
1011   Universe::_throw_illegal_access_error_cache->init(
1012     SystemDictionary::internal_Unsafe_klass(), m);
1013 
1014   // Setup method for registering loaded classes in class loader vector
1015   SystemDictionary::ClassLoader_klass()->link_class(CHECK_false);
1016   m = SystemDictionary::ClassLoader_klass()->find_method(vmSymbols::addClass_name(), vmSymbols::class_void_signature());
1017   if (m == NULL || m->is_static()) {
1018     tty->print_cr("Unable to link/verify ClassLoader.addClass method");
1019     return false; // initialization failed (cannot throw exception yet)
1020   }
1021   Universe::_loader_addClass_cache->init(
1022     SystemDictionary::ClassLoader_klass(), m);
1023 
1024   // Setup method for checking protection domain
1025   SystemDictionary::ProtectionDomain_klass()->link_class(CHECK_false);
1026   m = SystemDictionary::ProtectionDomain_klass()->
1027             find_method(vmSymbols::impliesCreateAccessControlContext_name(),
1028                         vmSymbols::void_boolean_signature());
1029   // Allow NULL which should only happen with bootstrapping.
1030   if (m != NULL) {
1031     if (m->is_static()) {
1032       // NoSuchMethodException doesn't actually work because it tries to run the
1033       // <init> function before java_lang_Class is linked. Print error and exit.
1034       tty->print_cr("ProtectionDomain.impliesCreateAccessControlContext() has the wrong linkage");
1035       return false; // initialization failed
1036     }
1037     Universe::_pd_implies_cache->init(
1038       SystemDictionary::ProtectionDomain_klass(), m);
1039   }
1040 
1041   // Setup method for stack walking
1042   InstanceKlass::cast(SystemDictionary::AbstractStackWalker_klass())->link_class(CHECK_false);
1043   m = InstanceKlass::cast(SystemDictionary::AbstractStackWalker_klass())->
1044             find_method(vmSymbols::doStackWalk_name(),
1045                         vmSymbols::doStackWalk_signature());
1046   // Allow NULL which should only happen with bootstrapping.
1047   if (m != NULL) {
1048     Universe::_do_stack_walk_cache->init(
1049       SystemDictionary::AbstractStackWalker_klass(), m);
1050   }
1051 
1052   // This needs to be done before the first scavenge/gc, since
1053   // it's an input to soft ref clearing policy.
1054   {
1055     MutexLocker x(Heap_lock);
1056     Universe::update_heap_info_at_gc();
1057   }
1058 
1059   // ("weak") refs processing infrastructure initialization
1060   Universe::heap()->post_initialize();
1061 
1062   // Initialize performance counters for metaspaces
1063   MetaspaceCounters::initialize_performance_counters();
1064   CompressedClassSpaceCounters::initialize_performance_counters();
1065 
1066   MemoryService::add_metaspace_memory_pools();
1067 
1068   MemoryService::set_universe_heap(Universe::heap());
1069 #if INCLUDE_CDS
1070   SharedClassUtil::initialize(CHECK_false);
1071 #endif
1072   return true;
1073 }
1074 
1075 
1076 void Universe::compute_base_vtable_size() {
1077   _base_vtable_size = ClassLoader::compute_Object_vtable();
1078 }
1079 
1080 void Universe::print_on(outputStream* st) {
1081   st->print_cr("Heap");
1082   heap()->print_on(st);
1083 }
1084 
1085 void Universe::print_heap_at_SIGBREAK() {
1086   if (PrintHeapAtSIGBREAK) {
1087     MutexLocker hl(Heap_lock);
1088     print_on(tty);
1089     tty->cr();
1090     tty->flush();
1091   }
1092 }
1093 
1094 void Universe::print_heap_before_gc() {
1095   LogHandle(gc, heap) log;
1096   if (log.is_debug()) {
1097     log.debug("Heap before GC invocations=%u (full %u):", heap()->total_collections(), heap()->total_full_collections());
1098     ResourceMark rm;
1099     heap()->print_on(log.debug_stream());
1100   }
1101 }
1102 
1103 void Universe::print_heap_after_gc() {
1104   LogHandle(gc, heap) log;
1105   if (log.is_debug()) {
1106     log.debug("Heap after GC invocations=%u (full %u):", heap()->total_collections(), heap()->total_full_collections());
1107     ResourceMark rm;
1108     heap()->print_on(log.debug_stream());
1109   }
1110 }
1111 
1112 void Universe::initialize_verify_flags() {
1113   verify_flags = 0;
1114   const char delimiter[] = " ,";
1115 
1116   size_t length = strlen(VerifySubSet);
1117   char* subset_list = NEW_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, length + 1, mtInternal);
1118   strncpy(subset_list, VerifySubSet, length + 1);
1119 
1120   char* token = strtok(subset_list, delimiter);
1121   while (token != NULL) {
1122     if (strcmp(token, "threads") == 0) {
1123       verify_flags |= Verify_Threads;
1124     } else if (strcmp(token, "heap") == 0) {
1125       verify_flags |= Verify_Heap;
1126     } else if (strcmp(token, "symbol_table") == 0) {
1127       verify_flags |= Verify_SymbolTable;
1128     } else if (strcmp(token, "string_table") == 0) {
1129       verify_flags |= Verify_StringTable;
1130     } else if (strcmp(token, "codecache") == 0) {
1131       verify_flags |= Verify_CodeCache;
1132     } else if (strcmp(token, "dictionary") == 0) {
1133       verify_flags |= Verify_SystemDictionary;
1134     } else if (strcmp(token, "classloader_data_graph") == 0) {
1135       verify_flags |= Verify_ClassLoaderDataGraph;
1136     } else if (strcmp(token, "metaspace") == 0) {
1137       verify_flags |= Verify_MetaspaceAux;
1138     } else if (strcmp(token, "jni_handles") == 0) {
1139       verify_flags |= Verify_JNIHandles;
1140     } else if (strcmp(token, "c-heap") == 0) {
1141       verify_flags |= Verify_CHeap;
1142     } else if (strcmp(token, "codecache_oops") == 0) {
1143       verify_flags |= Verify_CodeCacheOops;
1144     } else {
1145       vm_exit_during_initialization(err_msg("VerifySubSet: \'%s\' memory sub-system is unknown, please correct it", token));
1146     }
1147     token = strtok(NULL, delimiter);
1148   }
1149   FREE_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, subset_list);
1150 }
1151 
1152 bool Universe::should_verify_subset(uint subset) {
1153   if (verify_flags & subset) {
1154     return true;
1155   }
1156   return false;
1157 }
1158 
1159 void Universe::verify(VerifyOption option, const char* prefix) {
1160   // The use of _verify_in_progress is a temporary work around for
1161   // 6320749.  Don't bother with a creating a class to set and clear
1162   // it since it is only used in this method and the control flow is
1163   // straight forward.
1164   _verify_in_progress = true;
1165 
1166   COMPILER2_PRESENT(
1167     assert(!DerivedPointerTable::is_active(),
1168          "DPT should not be active during verification "
1169          "(of thread stacks below)");
1170   )
1171 
1172   ResourceMark rm;
1173   HandleMark hm;  // Handles created during verification can be zapped
1174   _verify_count++;
1175 
1176   FormatBuffer<> title("Verifying %s", prefix);
1177   GCTraceTime(Info, gc, verify) tm(title.buffer());
1178   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_Threads)) {
1179     log_debug(gc, verify)("Threads");
1180     Threads::verify();
1181   }
1182   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_Heap)) {
1183     log_debug(gc, verify)("Heap");
1184     heap()->verify(option);
1185   }
1186   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_SymbolTable)) {
1187     log_debug(gc, verify)("SymbolTable");
1188     SymbolTable::verify();
1189   }
1190   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_StringTable)) {
1191     log_debug(gc, verify)("StringTable");
1192     StringTable::verify();
1193   }
1194   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_CodeCache)) {
1195   {
1196     MutexLockerEx mu(CodeCache_lock, Mutex::_no_safepoint_check_flag);
1197     log_debug(gc, verify)("CodeCache");
1198     CodeCache::verify();
1199   }
1200   }
1201   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_SystemDictionary)) {
1202     log_debug(gc, verify)("SystemDictionary");
1203     SystemDictionary::verify();
1204   }
1205 #ifndef PRODUCT
1206   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_ClassLoaderDataGraph)) {
1207     log_debug(gc, verify)("ClassLoaderDataGraph");
1208     ClassLoaderDataGraph::verify();
1209   }
1210 #endif
1211   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_MetaspaceAux)) {
1212     log_debug(gc, verify)("MetaspaceAux");
1213     MetaspaceAux::verify_free_chunks();
1214   }
1215   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_JNIHandles)) {
1216     log_debug(gc, verify)("JNIHandles");
1217     JNIHandles::verify();
1218   }
1219   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_CHeap)) {
1220     log_debug(gc, verify)("C-heap");
1221     os::check_heap();
1222   }
1223   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_CodeCacheOops)) {
1224     log_debug(gc, verify)("CodeCache Oops");
1225     CodeCache::verify_oops();
1226   }
1227 
1228   _verify_in_progress = false;
1229 }
1230 
1231 
1232 #ifndef PRODUCT
1233 void Universe::calculate_verify_data(HeapWord* low_boundary, HeapWord* high_boundary) {
1234   assert(low_boundary < high_boundary, "bad interval");
1235 
1236   // decide which low-order bits we require to be clear:
1237   size_t alignSize = MinObjAlignmentInBytes;
1238   size_t min_object_size = CollectedHeap::min_fill_size();
1239 
1240   // make an inclusive limit:
1241   uintptr_t max = (uintptr_t)high_boundary - min_object_size*wordSize;
1242   uintptr_t min = (uintptr_t)low_boundary;
1243   assert(min < max, "bad interval");
1244   uintptr_t diff = max ^ min;
1245 
1246   // throw away enough low-order bits to make the diff vanish
1247   uintptr_t mask = (uintptr_t)(-1);
1248   while ((mask & diff) != 0)
1249     mask <<= 1;
1250   uintptr_t bits = (min & mask);
1251   assert(bits == (max & mask), "correct mask");
1252   // check an intermediate value between min and max, just to make sure:
1253   assert(bits == ((min + (max-min)/2) & mask), "correct mask");
1254 
1255   // require address alignment, too:
1256   mask |= (alignSize - 1);
1257 
1258   if (!(_verify_oop_mask == 0 && _verify_oop_bits == (uintptr_t)-1)) {
1259     assert(_verify_oop_mask == mask && _verify_oop_bits == bits, "mask stability");
1260   }
1261   _verify_oop_mask = mask;
1262   _verify_oop_bits = bits;
1263 }
1264 
1265 // Oop verification (see MacroAssembler::verify_oop)
1266 
1267 uintptr_t Universe::verify_oop_mask() {
1268   MemRegion m = heap()->reserved_region();
1269   calculate_verify_data(m.start(), m.end());
1270   return _verify_oop_mask;
1271 }
1272 
1273 uintptr_t Universe::verify_oop_bits() {
1274   MemRegion m = heap()->reserved_region();
1275   calculate_verify_data(m.start(), m.end());
1276   return _verify_oop_bits;
1277 }
1278 
1279 uintptr_t Universe::verify_mark_mask() {
1280   return markOopDesc::lock_mask_in_place;
1281 }
1282 
1283 uintptr_t Universe::verify_mark_bits() {
1284   intptr_t mask = verify_mark_mask();
1285   intptr_t bits = (intptr_t)markOopDesc::prototype();
1286   assert((bits & ~mask) == 0, "no stray header bits");
1287   return bits;
1288 }
1289 #endif // PRODUCT
1290 
1291 
1292 void Universe::compute_verify_oop_data() {
1293   verify_oop_mask();
1294   verify_oop_bits();
1295   verify_mark_mask();
1296   verify_mark_bits();
1297 }
1298 
1299 
1300 void LatestMethodCache::init(Klass* k, Method* m) {
1301   if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
1302     _klass = k;
1303   }
1304 #ifndef PRODUCT
1305   else {
1306     // sharing initilization should have already set up _klass
1307     assert(_klass != NULL, "just checking");
1308   }
1309 #endif
1310 
1311   _method_idnum = m->method_idnum();
1312   assert(_method_idnum >= 0, "sanity check");
1313 }
1314 
1315 
1316 Method* LatestMethodCache::get_method() {
1317   if (klass() == NULL) return NULL;
1318   InstanceKlass* ik = InstanceKlass::cast(klass());
1319   Method* m = ik->method_with_idnum(method_idnum());
1320   assert(m != NULL, "sanity check");
1321   return m;
1322 }
1323 
1324 
1325 #ifdef ASSERT
1326 // Release dummy object(s) at bottom of heap
1327 bool Universe::release_fullgc_alot_dummy() {
1328   MutexLocker ml(FullGCALot_lock);
1329   if (_fullgc_alot_dummy_array != NULL) {
1330     if (_fullgc_alot_dummy_next >= _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->length()) {
1331       // No more dummies to release, release entire array instead
1332       _fullgc_alot_dummy_array = NULL;
1333       return false;
1334     }
1335     if (!UseConcMarkSweepGC) {
1336       // Release dummy at bottom of old generation
1337       _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->obj_at_put(_fullgc_alot_dummy_next++, NULL);
1338     }
1339     // Release dummy at bottom of permanent generation
1340     _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->obj_at_put(_fullgc_alot_dummy_next++, NULL);
1341   }
1342   return true;
1343 }
1344 
1345 #endif // ASSERT