1 # tzdb data for Africa and environs
   2 
   3 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
   4 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
   5 
   6 # This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
   7 # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
   8 # tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
   9 # the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
  10 
  11 # From Paul Eggert (2018-05-27):
  12 #
  13 # Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:
  14 # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
  15 # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
  16 # Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.
  17 #
  18 # Many years ago Gwillim Law wrote that a good source
  19 # for time zone data was the International Air Transport
  20 # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
  21 # published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
  22 # of the IATA's data after 1990.  Except where otherwise noted,
  23 # IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.
  24 #
  25 # Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
  26 # Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which
  27 # I found in the UCLA library.
  28 #
  29 # For data circa 1899, a common source is:
  30 # Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94.
  31 # https://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359
  32 #
  33 # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
  34 # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
  35 #
  36 # European-style abbreviations are commonly used along the Mediterranean.
  37 # For sub-Saharan Africa abbreviations were less standardized.
  38 # Previous editions of this database used WAT, CAT, SAT, and EAT
  39 # for UT +00 through +03, respectively,
  40 # but in 1997 Mark R V Murray reported that
  41 # 'SAST' is the official abbreviation for +02 in the country of South Africa,
  42 # 'CAT' is commonly used for +02 in countries north of South Africa, and
  43 # 'WAT' is probably the best name for +01, as the common phrase for
  44 # the area that includes Nigeria is "West Africa".
  45 #
  46 # To summarize, the following abbreviations seemed to have some currency:
  47 #        +00    GMT     Greenwich Mean Time
  48 #        +02    CAT     Central Africa Time
  49 #        +02    SAST    South Africa Standard Time
  50 # and Murray suggested the following abbreviation:
  51 #        +01    WAT     West Africa Time
  52 # Murray's suggestion seems to have caught on in news reports and the like.
  53 # I vaguely recall 'WAT' also being used for -01 in the past but
  54 # cannot now come up with solid citations.
  55 #
  56 # I invented the following abbreviations in the 1990s:
  57 #        +02    WAST    West Africa Summer Time
  58 #        +03    CAST    Central Africa Summer Time
  59 #        +03    SAST    South Africa Summer Time
  60 #        +03    EAT     East Africa Time
  61 # 'EAT' seems to have caught on and is in current timestamps, and though
  62 # the other abbreviations are rarer and are only in past timestamps,
  63 # they are paired with better-attested non-DST abbreviations.
  64 # Corrections are welcome.
  65 
  66 # Algeria
  67 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
  68 Rule    Algeria 1916    only    -       Jun     14      23:00s  1:00    S
  69 Rule    Algeria 1916    1919    -       Oct     Sun>=1       23:00s  0       -
  70 Rule    Algeria 1917    only    -       Mar     24      23:00s  1:00    S
  71 Rule    Algeria 1918    only    -       Mar      9      23:00s  1:00    S
  72 Rule    Algeria 1919    only    -       Mar      1      23:00s  1:00    S
  73 Rule    Algeria 1920    only    -       Feb     14      23:00s  1:00    S
  74 Rule    Algeria 1920    only    -       Oct     23      23:00s  0       -
  75 Rule    Algeria 1921    only    -       Mar     14      23:00s  1:00    S
  76 Rule    Algeria 1921    only    -       Jun     21      23:00s  0       -
  77 Rule    Algeria 1939    only    -       Sep     11      23:00s  1:00    S
  78 Rule    Algeria 1939    only    -       Nov     19       1:00   0       -
  79 Rule    Algeria 1944    1945    -       Apr     Mon>=1        2:00   1:00    S
  80 Rule    Algeria 1944    only    -       Oct      8       2:00   0       -
  81 Rule    Algeria 1945    only    -       Sep     16       1:00   0       -
  82 Rule    Algeria 1971    only    -       Apr     25      23:00s  1:00    S
  83 Rule    Algeria 1971    only    -       Sep     26      23:00s  0       -
  84 Rule    Algeria 1977    only    -       May      6       0:00   1:00    S
  85 Rule    Algeria 1977    only    -       Oct     21       0:00   0       -
  86 Rule    Algeria 1978    only    -       Mar     24       1:00   1:00    S
  87 Rule    Algeria 1978    only    -       Sep     22       3:00   0       -
  88 Rule    Algeria 1980    only    -       Apr     25       0:00   1:00    S
  89 Rule    Algeria 1980    only    -       Oct     31       2:00   0       -
  90 # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's
  91 # more precise 0:09:21.
  92 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
  93 Zone    Africa/Algiers  0:12:12 -       LMT     1891 Mar 15  0:01
  94                         0:09:21 -       PMT     1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time
  95                         0:00    Algeria WE%sT   1940 Feb 25  2:00
  96                         1:00    Algeria CE%sT   1946 Oct  7
  97                         0:00    -       WET     1956 Jan 29
  98                         1:00    -       CET     1963 Apr 14
  99                         0:00    Algeria WE%sT   1977 Oct 21
 100                         1:00    Algeria CE%sT   1979 Oct 26
 101                         0:00    Algeria WE%sT   1981 May
 102                         1:00    -       CET
 103 
 104 # Angola
 105 # Benin
 106 # See Africa/Lagos.
 107 
 108 # Botswana
 109 # See Africa/Maputo.
 110 
 111 # Burkina Faso
 112 # See Africa/Abidjan.
 113 
 114 # Burundi
 115 # See Africa/Maputo.
 116 
 117 # Cameroon
 118 # See Africa/Lagos.
 119 
 120 # Cape Verde / Cabo Verde
 121 #
 122 # From Paul Eggert (2018-02-16):
 123 # Shanks gives 1907 for the transition to +02.
 124 # For now, ignore that and follow the 1911-05-26 Portuguese decree
 125 # (see Europe/Lisbon).
 126 #
 127 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 128 Zone Atlantic/Cape_Verde -1:34:04 -     LMT     1912 Jan 01  2:00u # Praia
 129                         -2:00   -       -02     1942 Sep
 130                         -2:00   1:00    -01     1945 Oct 15
 131                         -2:00   -       -02     1975 Nov 25  2:00
 132                         -1:00   -       -01
 133 
 134 # Central African Republic
 135 # See Africa/Lagos.
 136 
 137 # Chad
 138 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 139 Zone    Africa/Ndjamena 1:00:12 -       LMT     1912        # N'Djamena
 140                         1:00    -       WAT     1979 Oct 14
 141                         1:00    1:00    WAST    1980 Mar  8
 142                         1:00    -       WAT
 143 
 144 # Comoros
 145 # See Africa/Nairobi.
 146 
 147 # Democratic Republic of the Congo
 148 # See Africa/Lagos for the western part and Africa/Maputo for the eastern.
 149 
 150 # Republic of the Congo
 151 # See Africa/Lagos.
 152 
 153 # Côte d'Ivoire / Ivory Coast
 154 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 155 Zone    Africa/Abidjan  -0:16:08 -      LMT     1912
 156                          0:00   -       GMT
 157 Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Bamako       # Mali
 158 Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Banjul       # Gambia
 159 Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Conakry      # Guinea
 160 Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Dakar        # Senegal
 161 Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Freetown     # Sierra Leone
 162 Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Lome         # Togo
 163 Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Nouakchott   # Mauritania
 164 Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Ouagadougou  # Burkina Faso
 165 Link Africa/Abidjan Atlantic/St_Helena  # St Helena
 166 
 167 # Djibouti
 168 # See Africa/Nairobi.
 169 
 170 ###############################################################################
 171 
 172 # Egypt
 173 
 174 # Milne says Cairo used 2:05:08.9, the local mean time of the Abbasizeh
 175 # observatory; round to nearest.  Milne also says that the official time for
 176 # Egypt was mean noon at the Great Pyramid, 2:04:30.5, but apparently this
 177 # did not apply to Cairo, Alexandria, or Port Said.
 178 
 179 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 180 Rule    Egypt   1940    only    -       Jul     15      0:00    1:00    S
 181 Rule    Egypt   1940    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
 182 Rule    Egypt   1941    only    -       Apr     15      0:00    1:00    S
 183 Rule    Egypt   1941    only    -       Sep     16      0:00    0       -
 184 Rule    Egypt   1942    1944    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
 185 Rule    Egypt   1942    only    -       Oct     27      0:00    0       -
 186 Rule    Egypt   1943    1945    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       -
 187 Rule    Egypt   1945    only    -       Apr     16      0:00    1:00    S
 188 Rule    Egypt   1957    only    -       May     10      0:00    1:00    S
 189 Rule    Egypt   1957    1958    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
 190 Rule    Egypt   1958    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S
 191 Rule    Egypt   1959    1981    -       May      1      1:00    1:00    S
 192 Rule    Egypt   1959    1965    -       Sep     30      3:00    0       -
 193 Rule    Egypt   1966    1994    -       Oct      1      3:00    0       -
 194 Rule    Egypt   1982    only    -       Jul     25      1:00    1:00    S
 195 Rule    Egypt   1983    only    -       Jul     12      1:00    1:00    S
 196 Rule    Egypt   1984    1988    -       May      1      1:00    1:00    S
 197 Rule    Egypt   1989    only    -       May      6      1:00    1:00    S
 198 Rule    Egypt   1990    1994    -       May      1      1:00    1:00    S
 199 # IATA (after 1990) says transitions are at 0:00.
 200 # Go with IATA starting in 1995, except correct 1995 entry from 09-30 to 09-29.
 201 
 202 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-04-20):
 203 # "...Egypt's interim cabinet decided on Wednesday to cancel daylight
 204 # saving time after a poll posted on its website showed the majority of
 205 # Egyptians would approve the cancellation."
 206 #
 207 # Egypt to cancel daylight saving time
 208 # http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/node/407168
 209 # or
 210 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_egypt04.html
 211 Rule    Egypt   1995    2010    -       Apr     lastFri  0:00s  1:00    S
 212 Rule    Egypt   1995    2005    -       Sep     lastThu 24:00   0       -
 213 # From Steffen Thorsen (2006-09-19):
 214 # The Egyptian Gazette, issue 41,090 (2006-09-18), page 1, reports:
 215 # Egypt will turn back clocks by one hour at the midnight of Thursday
 216 # after observing the daylight saving time since May.
 217 # http://news.gom.com.eg/gazette/pdf/2006/09/18/01.pdf
 218 Rule    Egypt   2006    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
 219 # From Dirk Losch (2007-08-14):
 220 # I received a mail from an airline which says that the daylight
 221 # saving time in Egypt will end in the night of 2007-09-06 to 2007-09-07.
 222 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2007-08-15): [The following agree:]
 223 # http://www.nentjes.info/Bill/bill5.htm
 224 # https://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/city.html?n=53
 225 # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-09-04): The official information...:
 226 # http://www.sis.gov.eg/En/EgyptOnline/Miscellaneous/000002/0207000000000000001580.htm
 227 Rule    Egypt   2007    only    -       Sep     Thu>=1       24:00   0       -
 228 # From Abdelrahman Hassan (2007-09-06):
 229 # Due to the Hijri (lunar Islamic calendar) year being 11 days shorter
 230 # than the year of the Gregorian calendar, Ramadan shifts earlier each
 231 # year. This year it will be observed September 13 (September is quite
 232 # hot in Egypt), and the idea is to make fasting easier for workers by
 233 # shifting business hours one hour out of daytime heat. Consequently,
 234 # unless discontinued, next DST may end Thursday 28 August 2008.
 235 # From Paul Eggert (2007-08-17):
 236 # For lack of better info, assume the new rule is last Thursday in August.
 237 
 238 # From Petr Machata (2009-04-06):
 239 # The following appeared in Red Hat bugzilla[1] (edited):
 240 #
 241 # > $ zdump -v /usr/share/zoneinfo/Africa/Cairo | grep 2009
 242 # > /usr/share/zoneinfo/Africa/Cairo  Thu Apr 23 21:59:59 2009 UTC = Thu =
 243 # Apr 23
 244 # > 23:59:59 2009 EET isdst=0 gmtoff=7200
 245 # > /usr/share/zoneinfo/Africa/Cairo  Thu Apr 23 22:00:00 2009 UTC = Fri =
 246 # Apr 24
 247 # > 01:00:00 2009 EEST isdst=1 gmtoff=10800
 248 # > /usr/share/zoneinfo/Africa/Cairo  Thu Aug 27 20:59:59 2009 UTC = Thu =
 249 # Aug 27
 250 # > 23:59:59 2009 EEST isdst=1 gmtoff=10800
 251 # > /usr/share/zoneinfo/Africa/Cairo  Thu Aug 27 21:00:00 2009 UTC = Thu =
 252 # Aug 27
 253 # > 23:00:00 2009 EET isdst=0 gmtoff=7200
 254 #
 255 # > end date should be Thu Sep 24 2009 (Last Thursday in September at 23:59=
 256 # :59)
 257 # > http://support.microsoft.com/kb/958729/
 258 #
 259 # timeanddate[2] and another site I've found[3] also support that.
 260 #
 261 # [1] https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=492263
 262 # [2] https://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/clockchange.html?n=53
 263 # [3] https://wwp.greenwichmeantime.com/time-zone/africa/egypt/
 264 
 265 # From Arthur David Olson (2009-04-20):
 266 # In 2009 (and for the next several years), Ramadan ends before the fourth
 267 # Thursday in September; Egypt is expected to revert to the last Thursday
 268 # in September.
 269 
 270 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-08-11):
 271 # We have been able to confirm the August change with the Egyptian Cabinet
 272 # Information and Decision Support Center:
 273 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/egypt-dst-ends-2009.html
 274 #
 275 # The Middle East News Agency
 276 # https://www.mena.org.eg/index.aspx
 277 # also reports "Egypt starts winter time on August 21"
 278 # today in article numbered "71, 11/08/2009 12:25 GMT."
 279 # Only the title above is available without a subscription to their service,
 280 # and can be found by searching for "winter" in their search engine
 281 # (at least today).
 282 
 283 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-07-20):
 284 # According to News from Egypt - Al-Masry Al-Youm Egypt's cabinet has
 285 # decided that Daylight Saving Time will not be used in Egypt during
 286 # Ramadan.
 287 #
 288 # Arabic translation:
 289 # "Clocks to go back during Ramadan - and then forward again"
 290 # http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/news/clocks-go-back-during-ramadan-and-then-forward-again
 291 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_egypt02.html
 292 
 293 # From Ahmad El-Dardiry (2014-05-07):
 294 # Egypt is to change back to Daylight system on May 15
 295 # http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/1/64/100735/Egypt/Politics-/Egypts-government-to-reapply-daylight-saving-time-.aspx
 296 
 297 # From Gunther Vermier (2014-05-13):
 298 # our Egypt office confirms that the change will be at 15 May "midnight" (24:00)
 299 
 300 # From Imed Chihi (2014-06-04):
 301 # We have finally "located" a precise official reference about the DST changes
 302 # in Egypt.  The Ministers Cabinet decision is explained at
 303 # http://www.cabinet.gov.eg/Media/CabinetMeetingsDetails.aspx?id=347 ...
 304 # [T]his (Arabic) site is not accessible outside Egypt, but the page ...
 305 # translates into: "With regard to daylight saving time, it is scheduled to
 306 # take effect at exactly twelve o'clock this evening, Thursday, 15 MAY 2014,
 307 # to be suspended by twelve o'clock on the evening of Thursday, 26 JUN 2014,
 308 # and re-established again at the end of the month of Ramadan, at twelve
 309 # o'clock on the evening of Thursday, 31 JUL 2014."  This statement has been
 310 # reproduced by other (more accessible) sites[, e.g.,]...
 311 # http://elgornal.net/news/news.aspx?id=4699258
 312 
 313 # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-04):
 314 # Sarah El Deeb and Lee Keath of AP report that the Egyptian government says
 315 # the change is because of blackouts in Cairo, even though Ahram Online (cited
 316 # above) says DST had no affect on electricity consumption.  There is
 317 # no information about when DST will end this fall.  See:
 318 # http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory/el-sissi-pushes-egyptians-line-23614833
 319 
 320 # From Steffen Thorsen (2015-04-08):
 321 # Egypt will start DST on midnight after Thursday, April 30, 2015.
 322 # This is based on a law (no 35) from May 15, 2014 saying it starts the last
 323 # Thursday of April....  Clocks will still be turned back for Ramadan, but
 324 # dates not yet announced....
 325 # http://almogaz.com/news/weird-news/2015/04/05/1947105 ...
 326 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/egypt-starts-dst-2015.html
 327 
 328 # From Ahmed Nazmy (2015-04-20):
 329 # Egypt's ministers cabinet just announced ... that it will cancel DST at
 330 # least for 2015.
 331 #
 332 # From Tim Parenti (2015-04-20):
 333 # http://english.ahram.org.eg/WriterArticles/NewsContentP/1/128195/Egypt/No-daylight-saving-this-summer-Egypts-prime-minist.aspx
 334 # "Egypt's cabinet agreed on Monday not to switch clocks for daylight saving
 335 # time this summer, and carry out studies on the possibility of canceling the
 336 # practice altogether in future years."
 337 #
 338 # From Paul Eggert (2015-04-24):
 339 # Yesterday the office of Egyptian President El-Sisi announced his
 340 # decision to abandon DST permanently.  See Ahram Online 2015-04-24.
 341 # http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/1/64/128509/Egypt/Politics-/Sisi-cancels-daylight-saving-time-in-Egypt.aspx
 342 
 343 # From Steffen Thorsen (2016-04-29):
 344 # Egypt will have DST from July 7 until the end of October....
 345 # http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContentP/1/204655/Egypt/Daylight-savings-time-returning-to-Egypt-on--July.aspx
 346 # From Mina Samuel (2016-07-04):
 347 # Egyptian government took the decision to cancel the DST,
 348 
 349 Rule    Egypt   2008    only    -       Aug     lastThu 24:00   0       -
 350 Rule    Egypt   2009    only    -       Aug     20      24:00   0       -
 351 Rule    Egypt   2010    only    -       Aug     10      24:00   0       -
 352 Rule    Egypt   2010    only    -       Sep      9      24:00   1:00    S
 353 Rule    Egypt   2010    only    -       Sep     lastThu 24:00   0       -
 354 Rule    Egypt   2014    only    -       May     15      24:00   1:00    S
 355 Rule    Egypt   2014    only    -       Jun     26      24:00   0       -
 356 Rule    Egypt   2014    only    -       Jul     31      24:00   1:00    S
 357 Rule    Egypt   2014    only    -       Sep     lastThu 24:00   0       -
 358 
 359 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 360 Zone    Africa/Cairo    2:05:09 -       LMT     1900 Oct
 361                         2:00    Egypt   EE%sT
 362 
 363 # Equatorial Guinea
 364 # See Africa/Lagos.
 365 
 366 # Eritrea
 367 # Ethiopia
 368 # See Africa/Nairobi.
 369 #
 370 # Unfortunately tzdb records only Western clock time in use in Ethiopia,
 371 # as the tzdb format is not up to properly recording a common Ethiopian
 372 # timekeeping practice that is based on solar time.  See:
 373 # Mortada D. If you have a meeting in Ethiopia, you'd better double
 374 # check the time. PRI's The World. 2015-01-30 15:15 -05.
 375 # https://www.pri.org/stories/2015-01-30/if-you-have-meeting-ethiopia-you-better-double-check-time
 376 
 377 # Gabon
 378 # See Africa/Lagos.
 379 
 380 # Gambia
 381 # See Africa/Abidjan.
 382 
 383 # Ghana
 384 
 385 # From Paul Eggert (2018-01-30):
 386 # Whitman says DST was observed from 1931 to "the present";
 387 # Shanks & Pottenger say 1936 to 1942 with 20 minutes of DST,
 388 # with transitions on 09-01 and 12-31 at 00:00.
 389 # Page 33 of Parish GCB, Colonial Reports - Annual. No. 1066. Gold
 390 # Coast. Report for 1919. (March 1921), OCLC 784024077
 391 # http://libsysdigi.library.illinois.edu/ilharvest/africana/books2011-05/5530214/5530214_1919/5530214_1919_opt.pdf
 392 # lists the Determination of the Time Ordinance, 1919, No. 18,
 393 # "to advance the time observed locally by the space of twenty minutes
 394 # during the last four months of each year; the object in view being
 395 # to extend during those months the period of daylight-time available
 396 # for evening recreation after office hours."
 397 # Vanessa Ogle, The Global Transformation of Time, 1870-1950 (2015), p 33,
 398 # writes "In 1919, the Gold Coast (Ghana as of 1957) made Greenwich
 399 # time its legal time and simultaneously legalized a summer time of
 400 # UTC - 00:20 minutes from March to October."; a footnote lists
 401 # the ordinance as being dated 1919-11-24.
 402 # The Crown Colonist, Volume 12 (1942), p 176, says "the Government
 403 # intend advancing Gold Coast time half an hour ahead of G.M.T.
 404 # The actual date of the alteration has not yet been announced."
 405 # These sources are incomplete and contradictory.  Possibly what is
 406 # now Ghana observed different DST regimes in different years.  For
 407 # lack of better info, use Shanks except treat the minus sign as a
 408 # typo, and assume DST started in 1920 not 1936.
 409 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 410 Rule    Ghana   1920    1942    -       Sep      1      0:00    0:20    -
 411 Rule    Ghana   1920    1942    -       Dec     31      0:00    0       -
 412 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 413 Zone    Africa/Accra    -0:00:52 -      LMT     1918
 414                          0:00   Ghana   GMT/+0020
 415 
 416 # Guinea
 417 # See Africa/Abidjan.
 418 
 419 # Guinea-Bissau
 420 #
 421 # From Paul Eggert (2018-02-16):
 422 # Shanks gives 1911-05-26 for the transition to WAT,
 423 # evidently confusing the date of the Portuguese decree
 424 # (see Europe/Lisbon) with the date that it took effect.
 425 #
 426 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 427 Zone    Africa/Bissau   -1:02:20 -      LMT     1912 Jan  1  1:00u
 428                         -1:00   -       -01     1975
 429                          0:00   -       GMT
 430 
 431 # Kenya
 432 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 433 Zone    Africa/Nairobi  2:27:16 -       LMT     1928 Jul
 434                         3:00    -       EAT     1930
 435                         2:30    -       +0230   1940
 436                         2:45    -       +0245   1960
 437                         3:00    -       EAT
 438 Link Africa/Nairobi Africa/Addis_Ababa   # Ethiopia
 439 Link Africa/Nairobi Africa/Asmara        # Eritrea
 440 Link Africa/Nairobi Africa/Dar_es_Salaam # Tanzania
 441 Link Africa/Nairobi Africa/Djibouti
 442 Link Africa/Nairobi Africa/Kampala       # Uganda
 443 Link Africa/Nairobi Africa/Mogadishu     # Somalia
 444 Link Africa/Nairobi Indian/Antananarivo  # Madagascar
 445 Link Africa/Nairobi Indian/Comoro
 446 Link Africa/Nairobi Indian/Mayotte
 447 
 448 # Lesotho
 449 # See Africa/Johannesburg.
 450 
 451 # Liberia
 452 #
 453 # From Paul Eggert (2017-03-02):
 454 #
 455 # The Nautical Almanac for the Year 1970, p 264, is the source for -0:44:30.
 456 #
 457 # In 1972 Liberia was the last country to switch from a UT offset
 458 # that was not a multiple of 15 or 20 minutes.  The 1972 change was on
 459 # 1972-01-07, according to an entry dated 1972-01-04 on p 330 of:
 460 # Presidential Papers: First year of the administration of
 461 # President William R. Tolbert, Jr., July 23, 1971-July 31, 1972.
 462 # Monrovia: Executive Mansion.
 463 #
 464 # Use the abbreviation "MMT" before 1972, as the more-accurate numeric
 465 # abbreviation "-004430" would be one byte over the POSIX limit.
 466 #
 467 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 468 Zone    Africa/Monrovia -0:43:08 -      LMT     1882
 469                         -0:43:08 -      MMT     1919 Mar # Monrovia Mean Time
 470                         -0:44:30 -      MMT     1972 Jan 7 # approximately MMT
 471                          0:00   -       GMT
 472 
 473 ###############################################################################
 474 
 475 # Libya
 476 
 477 # From Even Scharning (2012-11-10):
 478 # Libya set their time one hour back at 02:00 on Saturday November 10.
 479 # https://www.libyaherald.com/2012/11/04/clocks-to-go-back-an-hour-on-saturday/
 480 # Here is an official source [in Arabic]: http://ls.ly/fb6Yc
 481 #
 482 # Steffen Thorsen forwarded a translation (2012-11-10) in
 483 # https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2012-November/018451.html
 484 #
 485 # From Tim Parenti (2012-11-11):
 486 # Treat the 2012-11-10 change as a zone change from UTC+2 to UTC+1.
 487 # The DST rules planned for 2013 and onward roughly mirror those of Europe
 488 # (either two days before them or five days after them, so as to fall on
 489 # lastFri instead of lastSun).
 490 
 491 # From Even Scharning (2013-10-25):
 492 # The scheduled end of DST in Libya on Friday, October 25, 2013 was
 493 # cancelled yesterday....
 494 # https://www.libyaherald.com/2013/10/24/correction-no-time-change-tomorrow/
 495 #
 496 # From Paul Eggert (2013-10-25):
 497 # For now, assume they're reverting to the pre-2012 rules of permanent UT +02.
 498 
 499 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 500 Rule    Libya   1951    only    -       Oct     14      2:00    1:00    S
 501 Rule    Libya   1952    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    0       -
 502 Rule    Libya   1953    only    -       Oct      9      2:00    1:00    S
 503 Rule    Libya   1954    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    0       -
 504 Rule    Libya   1955    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    1:00    S
 505 Rule    Libya   1956    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    0       -
 506 Rule    Libya   1982    1984    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
 507 Rule    Libya   1982    1985    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
 508 Rule    Libya   1985    only    -       Apr      6      0:00    1:00    S
 509 Rule    Libya   1986    only    -       Apr      4      0:00    1:00    S
 510 Rule    Libya   1986    only    -       Oct      3      0:00    0       -
 511 Rule    Libya   1987    1989    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
 512 Rule    Libya   1987    1989    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
 513 Rule    Libya   1997    only    -       Apr      4      0:00    1:00    S
 514 Rule    Libya   1997    only    -       Oct      4      0:00    0       -
 515 Rule    Libya   2013    only    -       Mar     lastFri 1:00    1:00    S
 516 Rule    Libya   2013    only    -       Oct     lastFri 2:00    0       -
 517 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 518 Zone    Africa/Tripoli  0:52:44 -       LMT     1920
 519                         1:00    Libya   CE%sT   1959
 520                         2:00    -       EET     1982
 521                         1:00    Libya   CE%sT   1990 May  4
 522 # The 1996 and 1997 entries are from Shanks & Pottenger;
 523 # the IATA SSIM data entries contain some obvious errors.
 524                         2:00    -       EET     1996 Sep 30
 525                         1:00    Libya   CE%sT   1997 Oct  4
 526                         2:00    -       EET     2012 Nov 10  2:00
 527                         1:00    Libya   CE%sT   2013 Oct 25  2:00
 528                         2:00    -       EET
 529 
 530 # Madagascar
 531 # See Africa/Nairobi.
 532 
 533 # Malawi
 534 # See Africa/Maputo.
 535 
 536 # Mali
 537 # Mauritania
 538 # See Africa/Abidjan.
 539 
 540 # Mauritius
 541 
 542 # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-06-25):
 543 # Mauritius plans to observe DST from 2008-11-01 to 2009-03-31 on a trial
 544 # basis....
 545 # It seems that Mauritius observed daylight saving time from 1982-10-10 to
 546 # 1983-03-20 as well, but that was not successful....
 547 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/mauritius-daylight-saving-time.html
 548 
 549 # From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-06-25):
 550 # http://economicdevelopment.gov.mu/portal/site/Mainhomepage/menuitem.a42b24128104d9845dabddd154508a0c/?content_id=0a7cee8b5d69a110VgnVCM1000000a04a8c0RCRD
 551 
 552 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-06-30):
 553 # The www.timeanddate.com article cited by Steffen Thorsen notes that "A
 554 # final decision has yet to be made on the times that daylight saving
 555 # would begin and end on these dates." As a place holder, use midnight.
 556 
 557 # From Paul Eggert (2008-06-30):
 558 # Follow Thorsen on DST in 1982/1983, instead of Shanks & Pottenger.
 559 
 560 # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-07-10):
 561 # According to
 562 # http://www.lexpress.mu/display_article.php?news_id=111216
 563 # (in French), Mauritius will start and end their DST a few days earlier
 564 # than previously announced (2008-11-01 to 2009-03-31).  The new start
 565 # date is 2008-10-26 at 02:00 and the new end date is 2009-03-27 (no time
 566 # given, but it is probably at either 2 or 3 wall clock time).
 567 #
 568 # A little strange though, since the article says that they moved the date
 569 # to align itself with Europe and USA which also change time on that date,
 570 # but that means they have not paid attention to what happened in
 571 # USA/Canada last year (DST ends first Sunday in November). I also wonder
 572 # why that they end on a Friday, instead of aligning with Europe which
 573 # changes two days later.
 574 
 575 # From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-07-11):
 576 # Seems that English language article "The revival of daylight saving
 577 # time: Energy conservation?"- No. 16578 (07/11/2008) was originally
 578 # published on Monday, June 30, 2008...
 579 #
 580 # I guess that article in French "Le gouvernement avance l'introduction
 581 # de l'heure d'été" stating that DST in Mauritius starting on October 26
 582 # and ending on March 27, 2009 is the most recent one....
 583 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_mauritius02.html
 584 
 585 # From Riad M. Hossen Ally (2008-08-03):
 586 # The Government of Mauritius weblink
 587 # http://www.gov.mu/portal/site/pmosite/menuitem.4ca0efdee47462e7440a600248a521ca/?content_id=4728ca68b2a5b110VgnVCM1000000a04a8c0RCRD
 588 # Cabinet Decision of July 18th, 2008 states as follows:
 589 #
 590 # 4. ...Cabinet has agreed to the introduction into the National Assembly
 591 # of the Time Bill which provides for the introduction of summer time in
 592 # Mauritius. The summer time period which will be of one hour ahead of
 593 # the standard time, will be aligned with that in Europe and the United
 594 # States of America. It will start at two o'clock in the morning on the
 595 # last Sunday of October and will end at two o'clock in the morning on
 596 # the last Sunday of March the following year. The summer time for the
 597 # year 2008-2009 will, therefore, be effective as from 26 October 2008
 598 # and end on 29 March 2009.
 599 
 600 # From Ed Maste (2008-10-07):
 601 # THE TIME BILL (No. XXVII of 2008) Explanatory Memorandum states the
 602 # beginning / ending of summer time is 2 o'clock standard time in the
 603 # morning of the last Sunday of October / last Sunday of March.
 604 # http://www.gov.mu/portal/goc/assemblysite/file/bill2708.pdf
 605 
 606 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-06-05):
 607 # According to several sources, Mauritius will not continue to observe
 608 # DST the coming summer...
 609 #
 610 # Some sources, in French:
 611 # http://www.defimedia.info/news/946/Rashid-Beebeejaun-:-%C2%AB-L%E2%80%99heure-d%E2%80%99%C3%A9t%C3%A9-ne-sera-pas-appliqu%C3%A9e-cette-ann%C3%A9e-%C2%BB
 612 # http://lexpress.mu/Story/3398~Beebeejaun---Les-objectifs-d-%C3%A9conomie-d-%C3%A9nergie-de-l-heure-d-%C3%A9t%C3%A9-ont-%C3%A9t%C3%A9-atteints-
 613 #
 614 # Our wrap-up:
 615 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/mauritius-dst-will-not-repeat.html
 616 
 617 # From Arthur David Olson (2009-07-11):
 618 # The "mauritius-dst-will-not-repeat" wrapup includes this:
 619 # "The trial ended on March 29, 2009, when the clocks moved back by one hour
 620 # at 2am (or 02:00) local time..."
 621 
 622 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 623 Rule Mauritius  1982    only    -       Oct     10      0:00    1:00    -
 624 Rule Mauritius  1983    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    0       -
 625 Rule Mauritius  2008    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    -
 626 Rule Mauritius  2009    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    0       -
 627 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 628 Zone Indian/Mauritius   3:50:00 -       LMT     1907 # Port Louis
 629                         4:00 Mauritius  +04/+05
 630 # Agalega Is, Rodriguez
 631 # no information; probably like Indian/Mauritius
 632 
 633 # Mayotte
 634 # See Africa/Nairobi.
 635 
 636 # Morocco
 637 # See the 'europe' file for Spanish Morocco (Africa/Ceuta).
 638 
 639 # From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-05-09):
 640 # Here is an article that Morocco plan to introduce Daylight Saving Time between
 641 # 1 June, 2008 and 27 September, 2008.
 642 #
 643 # "... Morocco is to save energy by adjusting its clock during summer so it will
 644 # be one hour ahead of GMT between 1 June and 27 September, according to
 645 # Communication Minister and Government Spokesman, Khalid Naciri...."
 646 #
 647 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_morocco01.html
 648 # http://en.afrik.com/news11892.html
 649 
 650 # From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-05-09):
 651 # The Morocco time change can be confirmed on Morocco web site Maghreb Arabe
 652 # Presse:
 653 # http://www.map.ma/eng/sections/box3/morocco_shifts_to_da/view
 654 #
 655 # Morocco shifts to daylight time on June 1st through September 27, Govt.
 656 # spokesman.
 657 
 658 # From Patrice Scattolin (2008-05-09):
 659 # According to this article:
 660 # https://www.avmaroc.com/actualite/heure-dete-comment-a127896.html
 661 # (and republished here: <http://www.actu.ma/heure-dete-comment_i127896_0.html>)
 662 # the changes occur at midnight:
 663 #
 664 # Saturday night May 31st at midnight (which in French is to be
 665 # interpreted as the night between Saturday and Sunday)
 666 # Sunday night the 28th at midnight
 667 #
 668 # Seeing that the 28th is Monday, I am guessing that she intends to say
 669 # the midnight of the 28th which is the midnight between Sunday and
 670 # Monday, which jives with other sources that say that it's inclusive
 671 # June 1st to Sept 27th.
 672 #
 673 # The decision was taken by decree *2-08-224 *but I can't find the decree
 674 # published on the web.
 675 #
 676 # It's also confirmed here:
 677 # http://www.maroc.ma/NR/exeres/FACF141F-D910-44B0-B7FA-6E03733425D1.htm
 678 # on a government portal as being between June 1st and Sept 27th (not yet
 679 # posted in English).
 680 #
 681 # The following Google query will generate many relevant hits:
 682 # https://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Conseil+de+gouvernement+maroc+heure+avance&btnG=Search
 683 
 684 # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-08-27):
 685 # Morocco will change the clocks back on the midnight between August 31
 686 # and September 1. They originally planned to observe DST to near the end
 687 # of September:
 688 #
 689 # One article about it (in French):
 690 # http://www.menara.ma/fr/Actualites/Maroc/Societe/ci.retour_a_l_heure_gmt_a_partir_du_dimanche_31_aout_a_minuit_officiel_.default
 691 #
 692 # We have some further details posted here:
 693 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-ends-dst-early-2008.html
 694 
 695 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-03-17):
 696 # Morocco will observe DST from 2009-06-01 00:00 to 2009-08-21 00:00 according
 697 # to many sources, such as
 698 # http://news.marweb.com/morocco/entertainment/morocco-daylight-saving.html
 699 # http://www.medi1sat.ma/fr/depeche.aspx?idp=2312
 700 # (French)
 701 #
 702 # Our summary:
 703 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-starts-dst-2009.html
 704 
 705 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-17):
 706 # Here is a link to official document from Royaume du Maroc Premier Ministre,
 707 # Ministère de la Modernisation des Secteurs Publics
 708 #
 709 # Under Article 1 of Royal Decree No. 455-67 of Act 23 safar 1387 (2 June 1967)
 710 # concerning the amendment of the legal time, the Ministry of Modernization of
 711 # Public Sectors announced that the official time in the Kingdom will be
 712 # advanced 60 minutes from Sunday 31 May 2009 at midnight.
 713 #
 714 # http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/francais/Actualites_fr/PDF_Actualites_Fr/HeureEte_FR.pdf
 715 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_morocco03.html
 716 
 717 # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-04-13):
 718 # Several news media in Morocco report that the Ministry of Modernization
 719 # of Public Sectors has announced that Morocco will have DST from
 720 # 2010-05-02 to 2010-08-08.
 721 #
 722 # Example:
 723 # http://www.lavieeco.com/actualites/4099-le-maroc-passera-a-l-heure-d-ete-gmt1-le-2-mai.html
 724 # (French)
 725 # Our page:
 726 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-starts-dst-2010.html
 727 
 728 # From Dan Abitol (2011-03-30):
 729 # ...Rules for Africa/Casablanca are the following (24h format)
 730 # The 3rd April 2011 at 00:00:00, [it] will be 3rd April 01:00:00
 731 # The 31st July 2011 at 00:59:59, [it] will be 31st July 00:00:00
 732 # ...Official links of change in morocco
 733 # The change was broadcast on the FM Radio
 734 # I ve called ANRT (telecom regulations in Morocco) at
 735 # +212.537.71.84.00
 736 # http://www.anrt.net.ma/fr/
 737 # They said that
 738 # http://www.map.ma/fr/sections/accueil/l_heure_legale_au_ma/view
 739 # is the official publication to look at.
 740 # They said that the decision was already taken.
 741 #
 742 # More articles in the press
 743 # https://www.yabiladi.com/articles/details/5058/secret-l-heure-d-ete-maroc-leve.html
 744 # http://www.lematin.ma/Actualite/Express/Article.asp?id=148923
 745 # http://www.lavieeco.com/actualite/Le-Maroc-passe-sur-GMT%2B1-a-partir-de-dim
 746 
 747 # From Petr Machata (2011-03-30):
 748 # They have it written in English here:
 749 # http://www.map.ma/eng/sections/home/morocco_to_spring_fo/view
 750 #
 751 # It says there that "Morocco will resume its standard time on July 31,
 752 # 2011 at midnight." Now they don't say whether they mean midnight of
 753 # wall clock time (i.e. 11pm UTC), but that's what I would assume. It has
 754 # also been like that in the past.
 755 
 756 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2012-03-09):
 757 # According to Infomédiaire web site from Morocco (infomediaire.ma),
 758 # on March 9, 2012, (in French) Heure légale:
 759 # Le Maroc adopte officiellement l'heure d'été
 760 # http://www.infomediaire.ma/news/maroc/heure-l%C3%A9gale-le-maroc-adopte-officiellement-lheure-d%C3%A9t%C3%A9
 761 # Governing Council adopted draft decree, that Morocco DST starts on
 762 # the last Sunday of March (March 25, 2012) and ends on
 763 # last Sunday of September (September 30, 2012)
 764 # except the month of Ramadan.
 765 # or (brief)
 766 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_morocco06.html
 767 
 768 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-10):
 769 # The infomediaire.ma source indicates that the system is to be in
 770 # effect every year. It gives 03H00 as the "fall back" time of day;
 771 # it lacks a "spring forward" time of day; assume 2:00 XXX.
 772 # Wait on specifying the Ramadan exception for details about
 773 # start date, start time of day, end date, and end time of day XXX.
 774 
 775 # From Christophe Tropamer (2012-03-16):
 776 # Seen Morocco change again:
 777 # http://www.le2uminutes.com/actualite.php
 778 # "...à partir du dernier dimanche d'avril et non fins mars,
 779 # comme annoncé précédemment."
 780 
 781 # From Milamber Space Network (2012-07-17):
 782 # The official return to GMT is announced by the Moroccan government:
 783 # http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/fr/actualites.aspx?id=288 [in French]
 784 #
 785 # Google translation, lightly edited:
 786 # Back to the standard time of the Kingdom (GMT)
 787 # Pursuant to Decree No. 2-12-126 issued on 26 Jumada (I) 1433 (April 18,
 788 # 2012) and in accordance with the order of Mr. President of the
 789 # Government No. 3-47-12 issued on 24 Sha'ban (11 July 2012), the Ministry
 790 # of Public Service and Administration Modernization announces the return
 791 # of the legal time of the Kingdom (GMT) from Friday, July 20, 2012 until
 792 # Monday, August 20, 2012.  So the time will be delayed by 60 minutes from
 793 # 3:00 am Friday, July 20, 2012 and will again be advanced by 60 minutes
 794 # August 20, 2012 from 2:00 am.
 795 
 796 # From Paul Eggert (2013-03-06):
 797 # Morocco's daylight-saving transitions due to Ramadan seem to be
 798 # announced a bit in advance.  On 2012-07-11 the Moroccan government
 799 # announced that year's Ramadan daylight-saving transitions would be
 800 # 2012-07-20 and 2012-08-20; see
 801 # http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/fr/actualites.aspx?id=288
 802 
 803 # From Andrew Paprocki (2013-07-02):
 804 # Morocco announced that the year's Ramadan daylight-savings
 805 # transitions would be 2013-07-07 and 2013-08-10; see:
 806 # http://www.maroc.ma/en/news/morocco-suspends-daylight-saving-time-july-7-aug10
 807 
 808 # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-09-28):
 809 # Morocco extends DST by one month, on very short notice, just 1 day
 810 # before it was going to end.  There is a new decree (2.13.781) for
 811 # this, where DST from now on goes from last Sunday of March at 02:00
 812 # to last Sunday of October at 03:00, similar to EU rules.  Official
 813 # source (French):
 814 # http://www.maroc.gov.ma/fr/actualites/lhoraire-dete-gmt1-maintenu-jusquau-27-octobre-2013
 815 # Another source (specifying the time for start and end in the decree):
 816 # http://www.lemag.ma/Heure-d-ete-au-Maroc-jusqu-au-27-octobre_a75620.html
 817 
 818 # From Sebastien Willemijns (2014-03-18):
 819 # http://www.afriquinfos.com/articles/2014/3/18/maroc-heure-dete-avancez-tous-horloges-247891.asp
 820 
 821 # From Milamber Space Network (2014-06-05):
 822 # The Moroccan government has recently announced that the country will return
 823 # to standard time at 03:00 on Saturday, June 28, 2014 local time....  DST
 824 # will resume again at 02:00 on Saturday, August 2, 2014....
 825 # http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/fr/actualites.aspx?id=586
 826 
 827 # From Milamber (2015-06-08):
 828 # (Google Translation) The hour will thus be delayed 60 minutes
 829 # Sunday, June 14 at 3:00, the ministry said in a statement, adding
 830 # that the time will be advanced again 60 minutes Sunday, July 19,
 831 # 2015 at 2:00.  The move comes under 2.12.126 Decree of 26 Jumada I
 832 # 1433 (18 April 2012) and the decision of the Head of Government of
 833 # 16 N. 3-29-15 Chaaban 1435 (4 June 2015).
 834 # Source (french):
 835 # https://lnt.ma/le-maroc-reculera-dune-heure-le-dimanche-14-juin/
 836 #
 837 # From Milamber (2015-06-09):
 838 # http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/fr/actualites.aspx?id=863
 839 #
 840 # From Michael Deckers (2015-06-09):
 841 # [The gov.ma announcement] would (probably) make the switch on 2015-07-19 go
 842 # from 03:00 to 04:00 rather than from 02:00 to 03:00, as in the patch....
 843 # I think the patch is correct and the quoted text is wrong; the text in
 844 # <https://lnt.ma/le-maroc-reculera-dune-heure-le-dimanche-14-juin/> agrees
 845 # with the patch.
 846 
 847 # From Mohamed Essedik Najd (2018-10-26):
 848 # Today, a Moroccan government council approved the perpetual addition
 849 # of 60 minutes to the regular Moroccan timezone.
 850 # From Matt Johnson (2018-10-28):
 851 # http://www.sgg.gov.ma/Portals/1/BO/2018/BO_6720-bis_Ar.pdf
 852 #
 853 # From Maamar Abdelkader (2018-11-01):
 854 # We usually move clocks back the previous week end and come back to the +1
 855 # the week end after....  The government does not announce yet the decision
 856 # about this temporary change.  But it s 99% sure that it will be the case,
 857 # as in previous years.  An unofficial survey was done these days, showing
 858 # that 64% of asked peopke are ok for moving from +1 to +0 during Ramadan.
 859 # https://leconomiste.com/article/1035870-enquete-l-economiste-sunergia-64-des-marocains-plebiscitent-le-gmt-pendant-ramadan
 860 #
 861 # From Paul Eggert (2018-11-01):
 862 # For now, guess that Morocco will fall back at 03:00 the last Sunday
 863 # before Ramadan, and spring forward at 02:00 the first Sunday after
 864 # Ramadan, as this has been the practice since 2012.  To implement this,
 865 # transition dates for 2019 through 2037 were determined by running the
 866 # following program under GNU Emacs 26.1.
 867 # (let ((islamic-year 1440))
 868 #   (require 'cal-islam)
 869 #   (while (< islamic-year 1460)
 870 #     (let ((a (calendar-islamic-to-absolute (list 9 1 islamic-year)))
 871 #           (b (calendar-islamic-to-absolute (list 10 1 islamic-year)))
 872 #           (sunday 0))
 873 #       (while (/= sunday (mod (setq a (1- a)) 7)))
 874 #       (while (/= sunday (mod b 7))
 875 #         (setq b (1+ b)))
 876 #       (setq a (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute a))
 877 #       (setq b (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute b))
 878 #       (insert
 879 #        (format
 880 #         (concat "Rule\tMorocco\t%d\tonly\t-\t%s\t%2d\t 3:00\t-1:00\t-\n"
 881 #                 "Rule\tMorocco\t%d\tonly\t-\t%s\t%2d\t 2:00\t0\t-\n")
 882 #         (car (cdr (cdr a))) (calendar-month-name (car a) t) (car (cdr a))
 883 #         (car (cdr (cdr b))) (calendar-month-name (car b) t) (car (cdr b)))))
 884 #     (setq islamic-year (+ 1 islamic-year))))
 885 
 886 # RULE  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 887 Rule    Morocco 1939    only    -       Sep     12       0:00   1:00    -
 888 Rule    Morocco 1939    only    -       Nov     19       0:00   0       -
 889 Rule    Morocco 1940    only    -       Feb     25       0:00   1:00    -
 890 Rule    Morocco 1945    only    -       Nov     18       0:00   0       -
 891 Rule    Morocco 1950    only    -       Jun     11       0:00   1:00    -
 892 Rule    Morocco 1950    only    -       Oct     29       0:00   0       -
 893 Rule    Morocco 1967    only    -       Jun      3      12:00   1:00    -
 894 Rule    Morocco 1967    only    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       -
 895 Rule    Morocco 1974    only    -       Jun     24       0:00   1:00    -
 896 Rule    Morocco 1974    only    -       Sep      1       0:00   0       -
 897 Rule    Morocco 1976    1977    -       May      1       0:00   1:00    -
 898 Rule    Morocco 1976    only    -       Aug      1       0:00   0       -
 899 Rule    Morocco 1977    only    -       Sep     28       0:00   0       -
 900 Rule    Morocco 1978    only    -       Jun      1       0:00   1:00    -
 901 Rule    Morocco 1978    only    -       Aug      4       0:00   0       -
 902 Rule    Morocco 2008    only    -       Jun      1       0:00   1:00    -
 903 Rule    Morocco 2008    only    -       Sep      1       0:00   0       -
 904 Rule    Morocco 2009    only    -       Jun      1       0:00   1:00    -
 905 Rule    Morocco 2009    only    -       Aug     21       0:00   0       -
 906 Rule    Morocco 2010    only    -       May      2       0:00   1:00    -
 907 Rule    Morocco 2010    only    -       Aug      8       0:00   0       -
 908 Rule    Morocco 2011    only    -       Apr      3       0:00   1:00    -
 909 Rule    Morocco 2011    only    -       Jul     31       0:00   0       -
 910 Rule    Morocco 2012    2013    -       Apr     lastSun  2:00   1:00    -
 911 Rule    Morocco 2012    only    -       Jul     20       3:00   0       -
 912 Rule    Morocco 2012    only    -       Aug     20       2:00   1:00    -
 913 Rule    Morocco 2012    only    -       Sep     30       3:00   0       -
 914 Rule    Morocco 2013    only    -       Jul      7       3:00   0       -
 915 Rule    Morocco 2013    only    -       Aug     10       2:00   1:00    -
 916 Rule    Morocco 2013    2017    -       Oct     lastSun  3:00   0       -
 917 Rule    Morocco 2014    2018    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00   1:00    -
 918 Rule    Morocco 2014    only    -       Jun     28       3:00   0       -
 919 Rule    Morocco 2014    only    -       Aug      2       2:00   1:00    -
 920 Rule    Morocco 2015    only    -       Jun     14       3:00   0       -
 921 Rule    Morocco 2015    only    -       Jul     19       2:00   1:00    -
 922 Rule    Morocco 2016    only    -       Jun      5       3:00   0       -
 923 Rule    Morocco 2016    only    -       Jul     10       2:00   1:00    -
 924 Rule    Morocco 2017    only    -       May     21       3:00   0       -
 925 Rule    Morocco 2017    only    -       Jul      2       2:00   1:00    -
 926 Rule    Morocco 2018    only    -       May     13       3:00   0       -
 927 Rule    Morocco 2018    only    -       Jun     17       2:00   1:00    -
 928 Rule    Morocco 2019    only    -       May      5       3:00   0       -
 929 Rule    Morocco 2019    only    -       Jun      9       2:00   1:00    -
 930 Rule    Morocco 2020    only    -       Apr     19       3:00   0       -
 931 Rule    Morocco 2020    only    -       May     24       2:00   1:00    -
 932 Rule    Morocco 2021    only    -       Apr     11       3:00   0       -
 933 Rule    Morocco 2021    only    -       May     16       2:00   1:00    -
 934 Rule    Morocco 2022    only    -       Mar     27       3:00   0       -
 935 Rule    Morocco 2022    only    -       May      8       2:00   1:00    -
 936 Rule    Morocco 2023    only    -       Mar     19       3:00   0       -
 937 Rule    Morocco 2023    only    -       Apr     23       2:00   1:00    -
 938 Rule    Morocco 2024    only    -       Mar     10       3:00   0       -
 939 Rule    Morocco 2024    only    -       Apr     14       2:00   1:00    -
 940 Rule    Morocco 2025    only    -       Feb     23       3:00   0       -
 941 Rule    Morocco 2025    only    -       Apr      6       2:00   1:00    -
 942 Rule    Morocco 2026    only    -       Feb     15       3:00   0       -
 943 Rule    Morocco 2026    only    -       Mar     22       2:00   1:00    -
 944 Rule    Morocco 2027    only    -       Feb      7       3:00   0       -
 945 Rule    Morocco 2027    only    -       Mar     14       2:00   1:00    -
 946 Rule    Morocco 2028    only    -       Jan     23       3:00   0       -
 947 Rule    Morocco 2028    only    -       Feb     27       2:00   1:00    -
 948 Rule    Morocco 2029    only    -       Jan     14       3:00   0       -
 949 Rule    Morocco 2029    only    -       Feb     18       2:00   1:00    -
 950 Rule    Morocco 2029    only    -       Dec     30       3:00   0       -
 951 Rule    Morocco 2030    only    -       Feb     10       2:00   1:00    -
 952 Rule    Morocco 2030    only    -       Dec     22       3:00   0       -
 953 Rule    Morocco 2031    only    -       Jan     26       2:00   1:00    -
 954 Rule    Morocco 2031    only    -       Dec     14       3:00   0       -
 955 Rule    Morocco 2032    only    -       Jan     18       2:00   1:00    -
 956 Rule    Morocco 2032    only    -       Nov     28       3:00   0       -
 957 Rule    Morocco 2033    only    -       Jan      9       2:00   1:00    -
 958 Rule    Morocco 2033    only    -       Nov     20       3:00   0       -
 959 Rule    Morocco 2033    only    -       Dec     25       2:00   1:00    -
 960 Rule    Morocco 2034    only    -       Nov      5       3:00   0       -
 961 Rule    Morocco 2034    only    -       Dec     17       2:00   1:00    -
 962 Rule    Morocco 2035    only    -       Oct     28       3:00   0       -
 963 Rule    Morocco 2035    only    -       Dec      2       2:00   1:00    -
 964 Rule    Morocco 2036    only    -       Oct     19       3:00   0       -
 965 Rule    Morocco 2036    only    -       Nov     23       2:00   1:00    -
 966 Rule    Morocco 2037    only    -       Oct      4       3:00   0       -
 967 Rule    Morocco 2037    only    -       Nov     15       2:00   1:00    -
 968 
 969 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 970 Zone Africa/Casablanca  -0:30:20 -      LMT     1913 Oct 26
 971                          0:00   Morocco +00/+01 1984 Mar 16
 972                          1:00   -       +01     1986
 973                          0:00   Morocco +00/+01 2018 Oct 28  3:00
 974                          0:00   Morocco +00/+01
 975 
 976 # Western Sahara
 977 #
 978 # From Gwillim Law (2013-10-22):
 979 # A correspondent who is usually well informed about time zone matters
 980 # ... says that Western Sahara observes daylight saving time, just as
 981 # Morocco does.
 982 #
 983 # From Paul Eggert (2013-10-23):
 984 # Assume that this has been true since Western Sahara switched to GMT,
 985 # since most of it was then controlled by Morocco.
 986 
 987 Zone Africa/El_Aaiun    -0:52:48 -      LMT     1934 Jan # El Aaiún
 988                         -1:00   -       -01     1976 Apr 14
 989                          0:00   Morocco +00/+01 2018 Oct 28  3:00
 990                          0:00   Morocco +00/+01
 991 
 992 # Mozambique
 993 #
 994 # Shanks gives 1903-03-01 for the transition to CAT.
 995 # Perhaps the 1911-05-26 Portuguese decree
 996 # https://dre.pt/pdf1sdip/1911/05/12500/23132313.pdf
 997 # merely made it official?
 998 #
 999 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1000 Zone    Africa/Maputo   2:10:20 -       LMT     1903 Mar
1001                         2:00    -       CAT
1002 Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Blantyre      # Malawi
1003 Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Bujumbura     # Burundi
1004 Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Gaborone      # Botswana
1005 Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Harare        # Zimbabwe
1006 Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Kigali        # Rwanda
1007 Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Lubumbashi    # E Dem. Rep. of Congo
1008 Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Lusaka        # Zambia
1009 
1010 
1011 # Namibia
1012 
1013 # From Arthur David Olson (2017-08-09):
1014 # The text of the "Namibia Time Act, 1994" is available online at
1015 # www.lac.org.na/laws/1994/811.pdf
1016 # and includes this nugget:
1017 # Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (2) of section 1, the
1018 # first winter period after the commencement of this Act shall
1019 # commence at OOhOO on Monday 21 March 1994 and shall end at 02h00 on
1020 # Sunday 4 September 1994.
1021 
1022 # From Michael Deckers (2017-04-06):
1023 # ... both summer and winter time are called "standard"
1024 # (which differs from the use in Ireland) ...
1025 
1026 # From Petronella Sibeene (2007-03-30):
1027 # http://allafrica.com/stories/200703300178.html
1028 # While the entire country changes its time, Katima Mulilo and other
1029 # settlements in Caprivi unofficially will not because the sun there
1030 # rises and sets earlier compared to other regions.  Chief of
1031 # Forecasting Riaan van Zyl explained that the far eastern parts of
1032 # the country are close to 40 minutes earlier in sunrise than the rest
1033 # of the country.
1034 #
1035 # From Paul Eggert (2017-02-22):
1036 # Although the Zambezi Region (formerly known as Caprivi) informally
1037 # observes Botswana time, we have no details about historical practice.
1038 # In the meantime people there can use Africa/Gaborone.
1039 # See: Immanuel S. The Namibian. 2017-02-23.
1040 # https://www.namibian.com.na/51480/read/Time-change-divides-lawmakers
1041 
1042 # From Steffen Thorsen (2017-08-09):
1043 # Namibia is going to change their time zone to what is now their DST:
1044 # https://www.newera.com.na/2017/02/23/namibias-winter-time-might-be-repealed/
1045 # This video is from the government decision:
1046 # https://www.nbc.na/news/na-passes-namibia-time-bill-repealing-1994-namibia-time-act.8665
1047 # We have made the assumption so far that they will change their time zone at
1048 # the same time they would normally start DST, the first Sunday in September:
1049 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/namibia-new-time-zone.html
1050 
1051 # From Paul Eggert (2017-04-09):
1052 # Before the change, summer and winter time were both standard time legally.
1053 # However in common parlance, winter time was considered to be DST.  See, e.g.:
1054 # http://www.nbc.na/news/namibias-winter-time-could-be-scrapped.2706
1055 # https://zone.my.na/news/times-are-changing-in-namibia
1056 # https://www.newera.com.na/2017/02/23/namibias-winter-time-might-be-repealed/
1057 # Use plain "WAT" and "CAT" for the time zone abbreviations, to be compatible
1058 # with Namibia's neighbors.
1059 
1060 # RULE  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1061 # Vanguard section, for zic and other parsers that support negative DST.
1062 #Rule   Namibia 1994    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    -1:00   WAT
1063 #Rule   Namibia 1994    2017    -       Sep     Sun>=1       2:00    0       CAT
1064 #Rule   Namibia 1995    2017    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    -1:00   WAT
1065 # Rearguard section, for parsers that do not support negative DST.
1066 Rule    Namibia 1994    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    0       WAT
1067 Rule    Namibia 1994    2017    -       Sep     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    CAT
1068 Rule    Namibia 1995    2017    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    0       WAT
1069 # End of rearguard section.
1070 
1071 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1072 Zone    Africa/Windhoek 1:08:24 -       LMT     1892 Feb 8
1073                         1:30    -       +0130   1903 Mar
1074                         2:00    -       SAST    1942 Sep 20  2:00
1075                         2:00    1:00    SAST    1943 Mar 21  2:00
1076                         2:00    -       SAST    1990 Mar 21 # independence
1077 # Vanguard section, for zic and other parsers that support negative DST.
1078 #                       2:00    Namibia %s
1079 # Rearguard section, for parsers that do not support negative DST.
1080                         2:00    -       CAT     1994 Mar 21  0:00
1081 # From Paul Eggert (2017-04-07):
1082 # The official date of the 2017 rule change was 2017-10-24.  See:
1083 # http://www.lac.org.na/laws/annoSTAT/Namibian%20Time%20Act%209%20of%202017.pdf
1084                         1:00    Namibia %s      2017 Oct 24
1085                         2:00    -       CAT
1086 # End of rearguard section.
1087 
1088 # Niger
1089 # See Africa/Lagos.
1090 
1091 # Nigeria
1092 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1093 Zone    Africa/Lagos    0:13:36 -       LMT     1919 Sep
1094                         1:00    -       WAT
1095 Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Bangui      # Central African Republic
1096 Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Brazzaville # Rep. of the Congo
1097 Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Douala      # Cameroon
1098 Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Kinshasa    # Dem. Rep. of the Congo (west)
1099 Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Libreville  # Gabon
1100 Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Luanda      # Angola
1101 Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Malabo      # Equatorial Guinea
1102 Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Niamey      # Niger
1103 Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Porto-Novo  # Benin
1104 
1105 # Réunion
1106 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1107 Zone    Indian/Reunion  3:41:52 -       LMT     1911 Jun # Saint-Denis
1108                         4:00    -       +04
1109 #
1110 # Crozet Islands also observes Réunion time; see the 'antarctica' file.
1111 #
1112 # Scattered Islands (Îles Éparses) administered from Réunion are as follows.
1113 # The following information about them is taken from
1114 # Îles Éparses (<http://www.outre-mer.gouv.fr/domtom/ile.htm>, 1997-07-22,
1115 # in French; no longer available as of 1999-08-17).
1116 # We have no info about their time zone histories.
1117 #
1118 # Bassas da India - uninhabited
1119 # Europa Island - inhabited from 1905 to 1910 by two families
1120 # Glorioso Is - inhabited until at least 1958
1121 # Juan de Nova - uninhabited
1122 # Tromelin - inhabited until at least 1958
1123 
1124 # Rwanda
1125 # See Africa/Maputo.
1126 
1127 # St Helena
1128 # See Africa/Abidjan.
1129 # The other parts of the St Helena territory are similar:
1130 #       Tristan da Cunha: on GMT, say Whitman and the CIA
1131 #       Ascension: on GMT, say the USNO (1995-12-21) and the CIA
1132 #       Gough (scientific station since 1955; sealers wintered previously):
1133 #               on GMT, says the CIA
1134 #       Inaccessible, Nightingale: uninhabited
1135 
1136 # São Tomé and Príncipe
1137 
1138 # See Europe/Lisbon for info about the 1912 transition.
1139 
1140 # From Steffen Thorsen (2018-01-08):
1141 # Multiple sources tell that São Tomé changed from UTC to UTC+1 as
1142 # they entered the year 2018.
1143 # From Michael Deckers (2018-01-08):
1144 # the switch is from 01:00 to 02:00 ... [Decree No. 25/2017]
1145 # http://www.mnec.gov.st/index.php/publicacoes/documentos/file/90-decreto-lei-n-25-2017
1146 
1147 # From Vadim Nasardinov (2018-12-29):
1148 # São Tomé and Príncipe is about to do the following on Jan 1, 2019:
1149 # https://www.stp-press.st/2018/12/05/governo-jesus-ja-decidiu-repor-hora-legal-sao-tomense/
1150 #
1151 # From Michael Deckers (2018-12-30):
1152 # https://www.legis-palop.org/download.jsp?idFile=102818
1153 # ... [The legal time of the country, which coincides with universal
1154 # coordinated time, will be restituted at 2 o'clock on day 1 of January, 2019.]
1155 
1156 Zone    Africa/Sao_Tome  0:26:56 -      LMT     1884
1157                         -0:36:45 -      LMT     1912 Jan  1 00:00u # Lisbon MT
1158                          0:00   -       GMT     2018 Jan  1 01:00
1159                          1:00   -       WAT     2019 Jan  1 02:00
1160                          0:00   -       GMT
1161 
1162 # Senegal
1163 # See Africa/Abidjan.
1164 
1165 # Seychelles
1166 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1167 Zone    Indian/Mahe     3:41:48 -       LMT     1906 Jun # Victoria
1168                         4:00    -       +04
1169 # From Paul Eggert (2001-05-30):
1170 # Aldabra, Farquhar, and Desroches, originally dependencies of the
1171 # Seychelles, were transferred to the British Indian Ocean Territory
1172 # in 1965 and returned to Seychelles control in 1976.  We don't know
1173 # whether this affected their time zone, so omit this for now.
1174 # Possibly the islands were uninhabited.
1175 
1176 # Sierra Leone
1177 # See Africa/Abidjan.
1178 
1179 # Somalia
1180 # See Africa/Nairobi.
1181 
1182 # South Africa
1183 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1184 Rule    SA      1942    1943    -       Sep     Sun>=15      2:00    1:00    -
1185 Rule    SA      1943    1944    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00    0       -
1186 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1187 Zone Africa/Johannesburg 1:52:00 -      LMT     1892 Feb 8
1188                         1:30    -       SAST    1903 Mar
1189                         2:00    SA      SAST
1190 Link Africa/Johannesburg Africa/Maseru     # Lesotho
1191 Link Africa/Johannesburg Africa/Mbabane    # Swaziland
1192 #
1193 # Marion and Prince Edward Is
1194 # scientific station since 1947
1195 # no information
1196 
1197 # Sudan
1198 
1199 # From <http://www.sunanews.net/sn13jane.html>
1200 # Sudan News Agency (2000-01-13),
1201 # also reported by Michaël De Beukelaer-Dossche via Steffen Thorsen:
1202 # Clocks will be moved ahead for 60 minutes all over the Sudan as of noon
1203 # Saturday....  This was announced Thursday by Caretaker State Minister for
1204 # Manpower Abdul-Rahman Nur-Eddin.
1205 
1206 # From Ahmed Atyya, National Telecommunications Corp. (NTC), Sudan (2017-10-17):
1207 # ... the Republic of Sudan is going to change the time zone from (GMT+3:00)
1208 # to (GMT+ 2:00) starting from Wednesday 1 November 2017.
1209 #
1210 # From Paul Eggert (2017-10-18):
1211 # A scanned copy (in Arabic) of Cabinet Resolution No. 352 for the
1212 # year 2017 can be found as an attachment in email today from Yahia
1213 # Abdalla of NTC, archived at:
1214 # https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2017-October/025333.html
1215 
1216 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1217 Rule    Sudan   1970    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S
1218 Rule    Sudan   1970    1985    -       Oct     15      0:00    0       -
1219 Rule    Sudan   1971    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    S
1220 Rule    Sudan   1972    1985    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    1:00    S
1221 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1222 Zone    Africa/Khartoum 2:10:08 -       LMT     1931
1223                         2:00    Sudan   CA%sT   2000 Jan 15 12:00
1224                         3:00    -       EAT     2017 Nov  1
1225                         2:00    -       CAT
1226 
1227 # South Sudan
1228 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1229 Zone    Africa/Juba     2:06:28 -       LMT     1931
1230                         2:00    Sudan   CA%sT   2000 Jan 15 12:00
1231                         3:00    -       EAT
1232 
1233 # Swaziland
1234 # See Africa/Johannesburg.
1235 
1236 # Tanzania
1237 # See Africa/Nairobi.
1238 
1239 # Togo
1240 # See Africa/Abidjan.
1241 
1242 # Tunisia
1243 
1244 # From Gwillim Law (2005-04-30):
1245 # My correspondent, Risto Nykänen, has alerted me to another adoption of DST,
1246 # this time in Tunisia.  According to Yahoo France News
1247 # <http://fr.news.yahoo.com/050426/5/4dumk.html>, in a story attributed to AP
1248 # and dated 2005-04-26, "Tunisia has decided to advance its official time by
1249 # one hour, starting on Sunday, May 1.  Henceforth, Tunisian time will be
1250 # UTC+2 instead of UTC+1.  The change will take place at 23:00 UTC next
1251 # Saturday."  (My translation)
1252 #
1253 # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-05-02):
1254 # La Presse, the first national daily newspaper ...
1255 # http://www.lapresse.tn/archives/archives280405/actualites/lheure.html
1256 # ... DST for 2005: on: Sun May 1 0h standard time, off: Fri Sept. 30,
1257 # 1h standard time.
1258 #
1259 # From Atef Loukil (2006-03-28):
1260 # The daylight saving time will be the same each year:
1261 # Beginning      : the last Sunday of March at 02:00
1262 # Ending         : the last Sunday of October at 03:00 ...
1263 # http://www.tap.info.tn/en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1188&Itemid=50
1264 
1265 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-03-16):
1266 # According to several news sources, Tunisia will not observe DST this year.
1267 # (Arabic)
1268 # http://www.elbashayer.com/?page=viewn&nid=42546
1269 # https://www.babnet.net/kiwidetail-15295.asp
1270 #
1271 # We have also confirmed this with the US embassy in Tunisia.
1272 # We have a wrap-up about this on the following page:
1273 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/tunisia-cancels-dst-2009.html
1274 
1275 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-17):
1276 # Here is a link to Tunis Afrique Presse News Agency
1277 #
1278 # Standard time to be kept the whole year long (tap.info.tn):
1279 #
1280 # (in English)
1281 # http://www.tap.info.tn/en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=26813&Itemid=157
1282 #
1283 # (in Arabic)
1284 # http://www.tap.info.tn/ar/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=61240&Itemid=1
1285 
1286 # From Arthur David Olson (2009-03-18):
1287 # The Tunis Afrique Presse News Agency notice contains this: "This measure is
1288 # due to the fact that the fasting month of Ramadan coincides with the period
1289 # concerned by summer time.  Therefore, the standard time will be kept
1290 # unchanged the whole year long."  So foregoing DST seems to be an exception
1291 # (albeit one that may be repeated in the future).
1292 
1293 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-27):
1294 # According to some news reports Tunis confirmed not to use DST in 2010
1295 #
1296 # (translation):
1297 # "The Tunisian government has decided to abandon DST, which was scheduled on
1298 # Sunday...
1299 # Tunisian authorities had suspended the DST for the first time last year also
1300 # coincided with the month of Ramadan..."
1301 #
1302 # (in Arabic)
1303 # http://www.moheet.com/show_news.aspx?nid=358861&pg=1
1304 # http://www.almadenahnews.com/newss/news.php?c=118&id=38036
1305 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_tunis02.html
1306 
1307 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1308 Rule    Tunisia 1939    only    -       Apr     15      23:00s  1:00    S
1309 Rule    Tunisia 1939    only    -       Nov     18      23:00s  0       -
1310 Rule    Tunisia 1940    only    -       Feb     25      23:00s  1:00    S
1311 Rule    Tunisia 1941    only    -       Oct      6       0:00   0       -
1312 Rule    Tunisia 1942    only    -       Mar      9       0:00   1:00    S
1313 Rule    Tunisia 1942    only    -       Nov      2       3:00   0       -
1314 Rule    Tunisia 1943    only    -       Mar     29       2:00   1:00    S
1315 Rule    Tunisia 1943    only    -       Apr     17       2:00   0       -
1316 Rule    Tunisia 1943    only    -       Apr     25       2:00   1:00    S
1317 Rule    Tunisia 1943    only    -       Oct      4       2:00   0       -
1318 Rule    Tunisia 1944    1945    -       Apr     Mon>=1        2:00   1:00    S
1319 Rule    Tunisia 1944    only    -       Oct      8       0:00   0       -
1320 Rule    Tunisia 1945    only    -       Sep     16       0:00   0       -
1321 Rule    Tunisia 1977    only    -       Apr     30       0:00s  1:00    S
1322 Rule    Tunisia 1977    only    -       Sep     24       0:00s  0       -
1323 Rule    Tunisia 1978    only    -       May      1       0:00s  1:00    S
1324 Rule    Tunisia 1978    only    -       Oct      1       0:00s  0       -
1325 Rule    Tunisia 1988    only    -       Jun      1       0:00s  1:00    S
1326 Rule    Tunisia 1988    1990    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       -
1327 Rule    Tunisia 1989    only    -       Mar     26       0:00s  1:00    S
1328 Rule    Tunisia 1990    only    -       May      1       0:00s  1:00    S
1329 Rule    Tunisia 2005    only    -       May      1       0:00s  1:00    S
1330 Rule    Tunisia 2005    only    -       Sep     30       1:00s  0       -
1331 Rule    Tunisia 2006    2008    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
1332 Rule    Tunisia 2006    2008    -       Oct     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
1333 
1334 # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's
1335 # more precise 0:09:21.
1336 # Shanks & Pottenger say the 1911 switch was on Mar 9; go with Howse's Mar 11.
1337 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1338 Zone    Africa/Tunis    0:40:44 -       LMT     1881 May 12
1339                         0:09:21 -       PMT     1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time
1340                         1:00    Tunisia CE%sT
1341 
1342 # Uganda
1343 # See Africa/Nairobi.
1344 
1345 # Zambia
1346 # Zimbabwe
1347 # See Africa/Maputo.