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8216178: (tz) Upgrade time-zone data to tzdata2018i
Reviewed-by: duke
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  19 #
  20 # Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  21 # or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  22 # questions.
  23 #
  24 # tzdb data for Asia and environs
  25 
  26 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
  27 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
  28 
  29 # This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
  30 # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
  31 # tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
  32 # the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
  33 
  34 # From Paul Eggert (2018-06-19):
  35 #
  36 # Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:
  37 # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
  38 # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
  39 # Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.
  40 #
  41 # Many years ago Gwillim Law wrote that a good source
  42 # for time zone data was the International Air Transport
  43 # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),


 592 # Xinjiang time, used by many in western China; represented by Ürümqi / Ürümchi
 593 # / Wulumuqi.  (Please use Asia/Shanghai if you prefer Beijing time.)
 594 Zone    Asia/Urumqi     5:50:20 -       LMT     1928
 595                         6:00    -       +06
 596 
 597 
 598 # Hong Kong (Xianggang)
 599 
 600 # Milne gives 7:36:41.7; round this.
 601 
 602 # From Lee Yiu Chung (2009-10-24):
 603 # I found there are some mistakes for the...DST rule for Hong
 604 # Kong. [According] to the DST record from Hong Kong Observatory (actually,
 605 # it is not [an] observatory, but the official meteorological agency of HK,
 606 # and also serves as the official timing agency), there are some missing
 607 # and incorrect rules. Although the exact switch over time is missing, I
 608 # think 3:30 is correct. The official DST record for Hong Kong can be
 609 # obtained from
 610 # http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm
 611 
 612 # From Arthur David Olson (2009-10-28):






































































 613 # Here are the dates given at
 614 # http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm
 615 # as of 2009-10-28:
 616 # Year        Period
 617 # 1941        1 Apr to 30 Sep
 618 # 1942        Whole year
 619 # 1943        Whole year
 620 # 1944        Whole year
 621 # 1945        Whole year
 622 # 1946        20 Apr to 1 Dec
 623 # 1947        13 Apr to 30 Dec
 624 # 1948        2 May to 31 Oct
 625 # 1949        3 Apr to 30 Oct
 626 # 1950        2 Apr to 29 Oct
 627 # 1951        1 Apr to 28 Oct
 628 # 1952        6 Apr to 25 Oct
 629 # 1953        5 Apr to 1 Nov
 630 # 1954        21 Mar to 31 Oct
 631 # 1955        20 Mar to 6 Nov
 632 # 1956        18 Mar to 4 Nov
 633 # 1957        24 Mar to 3 Nov
 634 # 1958        23 Mar to 2 Nov
 635 # 1959        22 Mar to 1 Nov
 636 # 1960        20 Mar to 6 Nov
 637 # 1961        19 Mar to 5 Nov
 638 # 1962        18 Mar to 4 Nov
 639 # 1963        24 Mar to 3 Nov
 640 # 1964        22 Mar to 1 Nov
 641 # 1965        18 Apr to 17 Oct
 642 # 1966        17 Apr to 16 Oct
 643 # 1967        16 Apr to 22 Oct
 644 # 1968        21 Apr to 20 Oct
 645 # 1969        20 Apr to 19 Oct
 646 # 1970        19 Apr to 18 Oct
 647 # 1971        18 Apr to 17 Oct
 648 # 1972        16 Apr to 22 Oct
 649 # 1973        22 Apr to 21 Oct
 650 # 1973/74     30 Dec 73 to 20 Oct 74
 651 # 1975        20 Apr to 19 Oct
 652 # 1976        18 Apr to 17 Oct
 653 # 1977        Nil
 654 # 1978        Nil
 655 # 1979        13 May to 21 Oct
 656 # 1980 to Now Nil
 657 # The page does not give start or end times of day.
 658 # The page does not give a start date for 1942.
 659 # The page does not givw an end date for 1945.
 660 # The Japanese occupation of Hong Kong began on 1941-12-25.
 661 # The Japanese surrender of Hong Kong was signed 1945-09-15.
 662 # For lack of anything better, use start of those days as the transition times.



 663 
 664 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 665 Rule    HK      1941    only    -       Apr     1       3:30    1:00    S
 666 Rule    HK      1941    only    -       Sep     30      3:30    0       -
 667 Rule    HK      1946    only    -       Apr     20      3:30    1:00    S
 668 Rule    HK      1946    only    -       Dec     1       3:30    0       -
 669 Rule    HK      1947    only    -       Apr     13      3:30    1:00    S
 670 Rule    HK      1947    only    -       Dec     30      3:30    0       -
 671 Rule    HK      1948    only    -       May     2       3:30    1:00    S
 672 Rule    HK      1948    1951    -       Oct     lastSun 3:30    0       -
 673 Rule    HK      1952    only    -       Oct     25      3:30    0       -
 674 Rule    HK      1949    1953    -       Apr     Sun>=1       3:30    1:00    S
 675 Rule    HK      1953    only    -       Nov     1       3:30    0       -
 676 Rule    HK      1954    1964    -       Mar     Sun>=18      3:30    1:00    S
 677 Rule    HK      1954    only    -       Oct     31      3:30    0       -
 678 Rule    HK      1955    1964    -       Nov     Sun>=1       3:30    0       -
 679 Rule    HK      1965    1976    -       Apr     Sun>=16      3:30    1:00    S
 680 Rule    HK      1965    1976    -       Oct     Sun>=16      3:30    0       -
 681 Rule    HK      1973    only    -       Dec     30      3:30    1:00    S
 682 Rule    HK      1979    only    -       May     Sun>=8       3:30    1:00    S
 683 Rule    HK      1979    only    -       Oct     Sun>=16      3:30    0       -
 684 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 685 Zone    Asia/Hong_Kong  7:36:42 -       LMT     1904 Oct 30
 686                         8:00    HK      HK%sT   1941 Dec 25
 687                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 15


 688                         8:00    HK      HK%sT
 689 
 690 ###############################################################################
 691 
 692 # Taiwan
 693 
 694 # From smallufo (2010-04-03):
 695 # According to Taiwan's CWB [Central Weather Bureau],
 696 # http://www.cwb.gov.tw/V6/astronomy/cdata/summert.htm
 697 # Taipei has DST in 1979 between July 1st and Sep 30.
 698 
 699 # From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2013-07-12):
 700 # On Dec 28, 1895, the Meiji Emperor announced Ordinance No. 167 of
 701 # Meiji Year 28 "The clause about standard time", mentioned that
 702 # Taiwan and Penghu Islands, as well as Yaeyama and Miyako Islands
 703 # (both in Okinawa) adopt the Western Standard Time which is based on
 704 # 120E. The adoption began from Jan 1, 1896. The original text can be
 705 # found on Wikisource:
 706 # https://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/標準時ニ關スル件_(公布時)
 707 # ... This could be the first adoption of time zone in Taiwan, because


1063 # We don't have any record of the above attempt.
1064 # Most likely our records are incomplete, but we have no better data.
1065 
1066 # From Manoel de Almeida e Silva, Deputy Spokesman for the UN Secretary-General
1067 # http://www.hri.org/news/world/undh/2000/00-08-16.undh.html
1068 # (2000-08-16):
1069 # The Cabinet of the East Timor Transition Administration decided
1070 # today to advance East Timor's time by one hour.  The time change,
1071 # which will be permanent, with no seasonal adjustment, will happen at
1072 # midnight on Saturday, September 16.
1073 
1074 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1075 Zone    Asia/Dili       8:22:20 -       LMT     1912 Jan  1
1076                         8:00    -       +08     1942 Feb 21 23:00
1077                         9:00    -       +09     1976 May  3
1078                         8:00    -       +08     2000 Sep 17  0:00
1079                         9:00    -       +09
1080 
1081 # India
1082 










1083 # From Ian P. Beacock, in "A brief history of (modern) time", The Atlantic
1084 # https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2015/12/the-creation-of-modern-time/421419/
1085 # (2015-12-22):
1086 # In January 1906, several thousand cotton-mill workers rioted on the
1087 # outskirts of Bombay....  They were protesting the proposed abolition of
1088 # local time in favor of Indian Standard Time....  Journalists called this
1089 # dispute the "Battle of the Clocks."  It lasted nearly half a century.
1090 
1091 # From Paul Eggert (2017-04-20):
1092 # Good luck trying to nail down old timekeeping records in India.
1093 # "... in the nineteenth century ... Madras Observatory took its magnetic
1094 # measurements on Göttingen time, its meteorological measurements on Madras
1095 # (local) time, dropped its time ball on Greenwich (ocean navigator's) time,
1096 # and distributed civil (local time)." -- Bartky IR. Selling the true time:
1097 # 19th-century timekeeping in america. Stanford U Press (2000), 247 note 19.
1098 # "A more potent cause of resistance to the general adoption of the present
1099 # standard time lies in the fact that it is Madras time.  The citizen of
1100 # Bombay, proud of being 'primus in Indis' and of Calcutta, equally proud of
1101 # his city being the Capital of India, and - for a part of the year - the Seat
1102 # of the Supreme Government, alike look down on Madras, and refuse to change


1233 #       for synchronizing the official times of the country, agreed that:
1234 #
1235 #       The official time of the country will should move forward one hour
1236 #       at the 24[:00] hours of the first day of Farvardin and should return
1237 #       to its previous state at the 24[:00] hours of the 30th day of
1238 #       Shahrivar.
1239 #
1240 #       First Deputy to the President - Hassan Habibi
1241 #
1242 # From personal experience, that agrees with what has been followed
1243 # for at least the last 5 years.  Before that, for a few years, the
1244 # date used was the first Thursday night of Farvardin and the last
1245 # Thursday night of Shahrivar, but I can't give exact dates....
1246 #
1247 # From Roozbeh Pournader (2005-04-05):
1248 # The text of the Iranian law, in effect since 1925, clearly mentions
1249 # that the true solar year is the measure, and there is no arithmetic
1250 # leap year calculation involved.  There has never been any serious
1251 # plan to change that law....
1252 #
1253 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1254 # Go with Shanks & Pottenger before Sept. 1991, and with Pournader thereafter.
1255 # I used Ed Reingold's cal-persia in GNU Emacs 21.2 to check Persian dates,
1256 # stopping after 2037 when 32-bit time_t's overflow.
1257 # That cal-persia used Birashk's approximation, which disagrees with the solar
1258 # calendar predictions for the year 2025, so I corrected those dates by hand.





















































1259 #
1260 # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-03-30), writing about future
1261 # discrepancies between cal-persia and the Iranian calendar:
1262 # For 2091 solar-longitude-after yields 2091-03-20 08:40:07.7 UT for
1263 # the vernal equinox and that gets so close to 12:00 some local
1264 # Iranian time that the definition of the correct location needs to be
1265 # known exactly, amongst other factors.  2157 is even closer:
1266 # 2157-03-20 08:37:15.5 UT.  But the Gregorian year 2025 should give
1267 # no interpretation problem whatsoever.  By the way, another instant
1268 # in the near future where there will be a discrepancy between
1269 # arithmetical and astronomical Iranian calendars will be in 2058:
1270 # vernal equinox on 2058-03-20 09:03:05.9 UT.  The Java version of
1271 # Reingold's/Dershowitz' calculator gives correctly the Gregorian date
1272 # 2058-03-21 for 1 Farvardin 1437 (astronomical).
1273 #
1274 # From Steffen Thorsen (2006-03-22):
1275 # Several of my users have reported that Iran will not observe DST anymore:
1276 # http://www.irna.ir/en/news/view/line-17/0603193812164948.htm
1277 #
1278 # From Reuters (2007-09-16), with a heads-up from Jesper Nørgaard Welen:
1279 # ... the Guardian Council ... approved a law on Sunday to re-introduce
1280 # daylight saving time ...
1281 # https://uk.reuters.com/article/oilRpt/idUKBLA65048420070916
1282 #
1283 # From Roozbeh Pournader (2007-11-05):
1284 # This is quoted from Official Gazette of the Islamic Republic of
1285 # Iran, Volume 63, No. 18242, dated Tuesday 1386/6/24
1286 # [2007-10-16]. I am doing the best translation I can:...
1287 # The official time of the country will be moved forward for one hour
1288 # on the 24 hours of the first day of the month of Farvardin and will
1289 # be changed back to its previous state on the 24 hours of the
1290 # thirtieth day of Shahrivar.
1291 #
1292 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1293 Rule    Iran    1978    1980    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
1294 Rule    Iran    1978    only    -       Oct     21      0:00    0       -
1295 Rule    Iran    1979    only    -       Sep     19      0:00    0       -
1296 Rule    Iran    1980    only    -       Sep     23      0:00    0       -
1297 Rule    Iran    1991    only    -       May      3      0:00    1:00    -
1298 Rule    Iran    1992    1995    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
1299 Rule    Iran    1991    1995    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
1300 Rule    Iran    1996    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
1301 Rule    Iran    1996    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
1302 Rule    Iran    1997    1999    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
1303 Rule    Iran    1997    1999    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
1304 Rule    Iran    2000    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
1305 Rule    Iran    2000    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
1306 Rule    Iran    2001    2003    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
1307 Rule    Iran    2001    2003    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
1308 Rule    Iran    2004    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
1309 Rule    Iran    2004    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
1310 Rule    Iran    2005    only    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
1311 Rule    Iran    2005    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
1312 Rule    Iran    2008    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
1313 Rule    Iran    2008    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
1314 Rule    Iran    2009    2011    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
1315 Rule    Iran    2009    2011    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
1316 Rule    Iran    2012    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
1317 Rule    Iran    2012    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
1318 Rule    Iran    2013    2015    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
1319 Rule    Iran    2013    2015    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
1320 Rule    Iran    2016    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
1321 Rule    Iran    2016    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
1322 Rule    Iran    2017    2019    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
1323 Rule    Iran    2017    2019    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
1324 Rule    Iran    2020    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
1325 Rule    Iran    2020    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
1326 Rule    Iran    2021    2023    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
1327 Rule    Iran    2021    2023    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
1328 Rule    Iran    2024    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
1329 Rule    Iran    2024    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
1330 Rule    Iran    2025    2027    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
1331 Rule    Iran    2025    2027    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
1332 Rule    Iran    2028    2029    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
1333 Rule    Iran    2028    2029    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
1334 Rule    Iran    2030    2031    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
1335 Rule    Iran    2030    2031    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
1336 Rule    Iran    2032    2033    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
1337 Rule    Iran    2032    2033    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
1338 Rule    Iran    2034    2035    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
1339 Rule    Iran    2034    2035    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
1340 #
1341 # The following rules are approximations starting in the year 2038.
1342 # These are the best post-2037 approximations available, given the
1343 # restrictions of a single rule using a Gregorian-based data format.




















































1344 # At some point this table will need to be extended, though quite
1345 # possibly Iran will change the rules first.
1346 Rule    Iran    2036    max     -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
1347 Rule    Iran    2036    max     -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
1348 
1349 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1350 Zone    Asia/Tehran     3:25:44 -       LMT     1916
1351                         3:25:44 -       TMT     1946     # Tehran Mean Time
1352                         3:30    -       +0330   1977 Nov
1353                         4:00    Iran    +04/+05 1979
1354                         3:30    Iran    +0330/+0430
1355 
1356 
1357 # Iraq
1358 #
1359 # From Jonathan Lennox (2000-06-12):
1360 # An article in this week's Economist ("Inside the Saddam-free zone", p. 50 in
1361 # the U.S. edition) on the Iraqi Kurds contains a paragraph:
1362 # "The three northern provinces ... switched their clocks this spring and
1363 # are an hour ahead of Baghdad."
1364 #
1365 # But Rives McDow (2000-06-18) quotes a contact in Iraqi-Kurdistan as follows:
1366 # In the past, some Kurdish nationalists, as a protest to the Iraqi
1367 # Government, did not adhere to daylight saving time.  They referred


1697 # time" was abolished in the ordinance No. 529 (1937).  In the ordinance No.
1698 # 167, there is no mention regarding for what place western standard time is
1699 # standard....
1700 #
1701 # I wrote "ordinance" above, but I don't know how to translate.
1702 # In Japanese it's "chokurei", which means ordinance from emperor.
1703 
1704 # From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2013-07-12):
1705 # ...the Meiji Emperor announced Ordinance No. 167 of Meiji Year 28 "The clause
1706 # about standard time" ... The adoption began from Jan 1, 1896.
1707 # https://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/標準時ニ關スル件_(公布時)
1708 #
1709 # ...the Showa Emperor announced Ordinance No. 529 of Showa Year 12 ... which
1710 # means the whole Japan territory, including later occupations, adopt Japan
1711 # Central Time (UT+9). The adoption began on Oct 1, 1937.
1712 # https://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/明治二十八年勅令第百六十七號標準時ニ關スル件中改正ノ件
1713 
1714 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1715 Zone    Asia/Tokyo      9:18:59 -       LMT     1887 Dec 31 15:00u
1716                         9:00    Japan   J%sT
1717 # Since 1938, all Japanese possessions have been like Asia/Tokyo.


1718 
1719 # Jordan
1720 #
1721 # From <http://star.arabia.com/990701/JO9.html>
1722 # Jordan Week (1999-07-01) via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
1723 # Clocks in Jordan were forwarded one hour on Wednesday at midnight,
1724 # in accordance with the government's decision to implement summer time
1725 # all year round.
1726 #
1727 # From <http://star.arabia.com/990930/JO9.html>
1728 # Jordan Week (1999-09-30) via Steffen Thorsen (1999-11-09):
1729 # Winter time starts today Thursday, 30 September. Clocks will be turned back
1730 # by one hour.  This is the latest government decision and it's final!
1731 # The decision was taken because of the increase in working hours in
1732 # government's departments from six to seven hours.
1733 #
1734 # From Paul Eggert (2005-11-22):
1735 # Starting 2003 transitions are from Steffen Thorsen's web site timeanddate.com.
1736 #
1737 # From Steffen Thorsen (2005-11-23):


1987 # No. 23 from 1992-01-08 [See 'europe' file for details].
1988 # Kazakh 1992-01-13 act appears to provide the same rules and 1992-03-27
1989 # act was to be enacted on the last Sunday of March 1992.
1990 
1991 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-11-08):
1992 # Turgai reorganization should affect only southern part of Qostanay
1993 # oblast.  Which should probably be separated into Asia/Arkalyk zone.
1994 # (There were also 1970, 1988 and 1990 Turgai oblast reorganizations
1995 # according to wikipedia.)
1996 #
1997 # [For Qostanay] http://www.ng.kz/gazeta/195/hranit/
1998 # suggests that clocks were to be moved 40 minutes backwards on
1999 # 1920-01-01 to the fourth time belt.  But I do not understand
2000 # how that could happen....
2001 #
2002 # [For Atyrau and Oral] 1919 decree
2003 # (http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia-1919-02-08.html
2004 # and in Byalokoz) lists Ural river (plus 10 versts on its left bank) in
2005 # the third time belt (before 1930 this means +03).
2006 
2007 # From Paul Eggert (2016-12-06):
2008 # The tables below reflect Golosunov's remarks, with exceptions as noted.


2009 
2010 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2011 #
2012 # Almaty (formerly Alma-Ata), representing most locations in Kazakhstan
2013 # This includes KZ-AKM, KZ-ALA, KZ-ALM, KZ-AST, KZ-BAY, KZ-VOS, KZ-ZHA,
2014 # KZ-KAR, KZ-SEV, KZ-PAV, and KZ-YUZ.
2015 Zone    Asia/Almaty     5:07:48 -       LMT     1924 May  2 # or Alma-Ata
2016                         5:00    -       +05     1930 Jun 21
2017                         6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2018                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2019                         6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 2004 Oct 31  2:00s
2020                         6:00    -       +06
2021 # Qyzylorda (aka Kyzylorda, Kizilorda, Kzyl-Orda, etc.) (KZ-KZY)
2022 # This currently includes Qostanay (aka Kostanay, Kustanay) (KZ-KUS);
2023 # see comments below.
2024 Zone    Asia/Qyzylorda  4:21:52 -       LMT     1924 May  2
2025                         4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
2026                         5:00    -       +05     1981 Apr  1
2027                         5:00    1:00    +06     1981 Oct  1
2028                         6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1
2029                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2030                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1991 Sep 29  2:00s
2031                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2032                         6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 1992 Mar 29  2:00s
2033                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 2004 Oct 31  2:00s
2034                         6:00    -       +06
2035 # The following zone is like Asia/Qyzylorda except for being one
2036 # hour earlier from 1991-09-29 to 1992-03-29.  The 1991/2 rules for
2037 # Qostanay are unclear partly because of the 1997 Turgai
2038 # reorganization, so this zone is commented out for now.
2039 #Zone   Asia/Qostanay   4:14:20 -       LMT     1924 May  2
2040 #                       4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
2041 #                       5:00    -       +05     1981 Apr  1
2042 #                       5:00    1:00    +06     1981 Oct  1
2043 #                       6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1
2044 #                       5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2045 #                       4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2046 #                       5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 2004 Oct 31  2:00s
2047 #                       6:00    -       +06
2048 #













2049 # Aqtöbe (aka Aktobe, formerly Aktyubinsk) (KZ-AKT)
2050 Zone    Asia/Aqtobe     3:48:40 -       LMT     1924 May  2
2051                         4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
2052                         5:00    -       +05     1981 Apr  1
2053                         5:00    1:00    +06     1981 Oct  1
2054                         6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1
2055                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2056                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2057                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 2004 Oct 31  2:00s
2058                         5:00    -       +05
2059 # Mangghystaū (KZ-MAN)
2060 # Aqtau was not founded until 1963, but it represents an inhabited region,
2061 # so include timestamps before 1963.
2062 Zone    Asia/Aqtau      3:21:04 -       LMT     1924 May  2
2063                         4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
2064                         5:00    -       +05     1981 Oct  1
2065                         6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1
2066                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2067                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2068                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1994 Sep 25  2:00s


2122 
2123 # Korea (North and South)
2124 
2125 # From Annie I. Bang (2006-07-10):
2126 # http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=200607100012
2127 # Korea ran a daylight saving program from 1949-61 but stopped it
2128 # during the 1950-53 Korean War.  The system was temporarily enforced
2129 # between 1987 and 1988 ...
2130 
2131 # From Sanghyuk Jung (2014-10-29):
2132 # https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2014-October/021830.html
2133 # According to the Korean Wikipedia
2134 # https://ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/한국_표준시
2135 # [oldid=12896437 2014-09-04 08:03 UTC]
2136 # DST in Republic of Korea was as follows....  And I checked old
2137 # newspapers in Korean, all articles correspond with data in Wikipedia.
2138 # For example, the article in 1948 (Korean Language) proved that DST
2139 # started at June 1 in that year.  For another example, the article in
2140 # 1988 said that DST started at 2:00 AM in that year.
2141 






















2142 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2143 Rule    ROK     1948    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    D
2144 Rule    ROK     1948    only    -       Sep     13      0:00    0       S
2145 Rule    ROK     1949    only    -       Apr      3      0:00    1:00    D
2146 Rule    ROK     1949    1951    -       Sep     Sun>=8       0:00    0       S
2147 Rule    ROK     1950    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    D
2148 Rule    ROK     1951    only    -       May      6      0:00    1:00    D
2149 Rule    ROK     1955    only    -       May      5      0:00    1:00    D
2150 Rule    ROK     1955    only    -       Sep      9      0:00    0       S
2151 Rule    ROK     1956    only    -       May     20      0:00    1:00    D
2152 Rule    ROK     1956    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       S
2153 Rule    ROK     1957    1960    -       May     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
2154 Rule    ROK     1957    1960    -       Sep     Sun>=18      0:00    0       S
2155 Rule    ROK     1987    1988    -       May     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
2156 Rule    ROK     1987    1988    -       Oct     Sun>=8       3:00    0       S
2157 
2158 # From Paul Eggert (2016-08-23):
2159 # The Korean Wikipedia entry gives the following sources for UT offsets:
2160 #
2161 # 1908: Official Journal Article No. 3994 (decree No. 5)
2162 # 1912: Governor-General of Korea Official Gazette Issue No. 367
2163 #       (Announcement No. 338)
2164 # 1954: Presidential Decree No. 876 (1954-03-17)
2165 # 1961: Law No. 676 (1961-08-07)
2166 #
2167 # (Another source "1987: Law No. 3919 (1986-12-31)" was in the 2014-10-30
2168 # edition of the Korean Wikipedia entry.)
2169 #
2170 # I guessed that time zone abbreviations through 1945 followed the same
2171 # rules as discussed under Taiwan, with nominal switches from JST to KST
2172 # when the respective cities were taken over by the Allies after WWII.
2173 #
2174 # For Pyongyang, guess no changes from World War II until 2015, as we


2926                         2:00    Jordan  EE%sT   1999
2927                         2:00 Palestine  EE%sT   2008 Aug 29  0:00
2928                         2:00    -       EET     2008 Sep
2929                         2:00 Palestine  EE%sT   2010
2930                         2:00    -       EET     2010 Mar 27  0:01
2931                         2:00 Palestine  EE%sT   2011 Aug  1
2932                         2:00    -       EET     2012
2933                         2:00 Palestine  EE%sT
2934 
2935 Zone    Asia/Hebron     2:20:23 -       LMT     1900 Oct
2936                         2:00    Zion    EET/EEST 1948 May 15
2937                         2:00 EgyptAsia  EE%sT   1967 Jun  5
2938                         2:00    Zion    I%sT    1996
2939                         2:00    Jordan  EE%sT   1999
2940                         2:00 Palestine  EE%sT
2941 
2942 # Paracel Is
2943 # no information
2944 
2945 # Philippines





2946 # On 1844-08-16, Narciso Clavería, governor-general of the
2947 # Philippines, issued a proclamation announcing that 1844-12-30 was to
2948 # be immediately followed by 1845-01-01; see R.H. van Gent's
2949 # History of the International Date Line
2950 # https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/idl/idl_philippines.htm
2951 # The rest of the data entries are from Shanks & Pottenger.
2952 
2953 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-04-26):
2954 # ... claims that Philippines had DST last time in 1990:
2955 # http://story.philippinetimes.com/p.x/ct/9/id/145be20cc6b121c0/cid/3e5bbccc730d258c/
2956 # [a story dated 2006-04-25 by Cris Larano of Dow Jones Newswires,
2957 # but no details]
2958 
2959 # From Paul Eggert (2014-08-14):
2960 # The following source says DST may be instituted November-January and again
2961 # March-June, but this is not definite.  It also says DST was last proclaimed
2962 # during the Ramos administration (1992-1998); but again, no details.
2963 # Carcamo D. PNoy urged to declare use of daylight saving time.
2964 # Philippine Star 2014-08-05
2965 # http://www.philstar.com/headlines/2014/08/05/1354152/pnoy-urged-declare-use-daylight-saving-time


3011 # observed standard time, and that people in Jeddah mostly observed quasi-solar
3012 # time, doing so by setting their watches at sunrise to 6 o'clock (or to 12
3013 # o'clock for "Arab" time).
3014 #
3015 # Timekeeping differed depending on who you were and which part of Saudi
3016 # Arabia you were in.  In 1969, Elias Antar wrote that although a common
3017 # practice had been to set one's watch to 12:00 (i.e., midnight) at sunset -
3018 # which meant that the time on one side of a mountain could differ greatly from
3019 # the time on the other side - many foreigners set their watches to 6pm
3020 # instead, while airlines instead used UTC +03 (except in Dhahran, where they
3021 # used UTC +04), Aramco used UTC +03 with DST, and the Trans-Arabian Pipe Line
3022 # Company used Aramco time in eastern Saudi Arabia and airline time in western.
3023 # (The American Military Aid Advisory Group used plain UTC.)  Antar writes,
3024 # "A man named Higgins, so the story goes, used to run a local power
3025 # station. One day, the whole thing became too much for Higgins and he
3026 # assembled his staff and laid down the law. 'I've had enough of this,' he
3027 # shrieked. 'It is now 12 o'clock Higgins Time, and from now on this station is
3028 # going to run on Higgins Time.' And so, until last year, it did."  See:
3029 # Antar E. Dinner at When? Saudi Aramco World, 1969 March/April. 2-3.
3030 # http://archive.aramcoworld.com/issue/196902/dinner.at.when.htm
3031 # newspapers.com says a similar story about Higgins was published in the Port
3032 # Angeles (WA) Evening News, 1965-03-10, page 5, but I lack access to the text.
3033 #
3034 # The TZ database cannot represent quasi-solar time; airline time is the best
3035 # we can do.  The 1946 foreign air news digest of the U.S. Civil Aeronautics
3036 # Board (OCLC 42299995) reported that the "... Arabian Government, inaugurated
3037 # a weekly Dhahran-Cairo service, via the Saudi Arabian cities of Riyadh and
3038 # Jidda, on March 14, 1947".  Shanks & Pottenger guessed 1950; go with the
3039 # earlier date.
3040 #
3041 # Shanks & Pottenger also state that until 1968-05-01 Saudi Arabia had two
3042 # time zones; the other zone, at UT +04, was in the far eastern part of
3043 # the country.  Presumably this is documenting airline time.  Ignore this,
3044 # as it's before our 1970 cutoff.
3045 #
3046 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3047 Zone    Asia/Riyadh     3:06:52 -       LMT     1947 Mar 14
3048                         3:00    -       +03
3049 Link Asia/Riyadh Asia/Aden      # Yemen
3050 Link Asia/Riyadh Asia/Kuwait
3051 
3052 # Singapore

























   1 # tzdb data for Asia and environs
   2 
   3 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
   4 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
   5 
   6 # This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
   7 # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
   8 # tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
   9 # the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
  10 
  11 # From Paul Eggert (2018-06-19):
  12 #
  13 # Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:
  14 # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
  15 # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
  16 # Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.
  17 #
  18 # Many years ago Gwillim Law wrote that a good source
  19 # for time zone data was the International Air Transport
  20 # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),


 569 # Xinjiang time, used by many in western China; represented by Ürümqi / Ürümchi
 570 # / Wulumuqi.  (Please use Asia/Shanghai if you prefer Beijing time.)
 571 Zone    Asia/Urumqi     5:50:20 -       LMT     1928
 572                         6:00    -       +06
 573 
 574 
 575 # Hong Kong (Xianggang)
 576 
 577 # Milne gives 7:36:41.7; round this.
 578 
 579 # From Lee Yiu Chung (2009-10-24):
 580 # I found there are some mistakes for the...DST rule for Hong
 581 # Kong. [According] to the DST record from Hong Kong Observatory (actually,
 582 # it is not [an] observatory, but the official meteorological agency of HK,
 583 # and also serves as the official timing agency), there are some missing
 584 # and incorrect rules. Although the exact switch over time is missing, I
 585 # think 3:30 is correct. The official DST record for Hong Kong can be
 586 # obtained from
 587 # http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm
 588 
 589 # From Phake Nick (2018-10-27):
 590 # According to Singaporean newspaper
 591 # http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/singfreepresswk19041102-1.2.37
 592 # the day that Hong Kong start using GMT+8 should be Oct 30, 1904.
 593 #
 594 # From Paul Eggert (2018-11-17):
 595 # Hong Kong had a time ball near the Marine Police Station, Tsim Sha Tsui.
 596 # "The ball was raised manually each day and dropped at exactly 1pm
 597 # (except on Sundays and Government holidays)."
 598 # Dyson AD. From Time Ball to Atomic Clock. Hong Kong Government. 1983.
 599 # <https://www.hko.gov.hk/publica/gen_pub/timeball_atomic_clock.pdf>
 600 # "From 1904 October 30 the time-ball at Hong Kong has been dropped by order
 601 # of the Governor of the Colony at 17h 0m 0s G.M.T., which is 23m 18s.14 in
 602 # advance of 1h 0m 0s of Hong Kong mean time."
 603 # Hollis HP. Universal Time, Longitudes, and Geodesy. Mon Not R Astron Soc.
 604 # 1905-02-10;65(4):405-6. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/65.4.382
 605 #
 606 # From Joseph Myers (2018-11-18):
 607 # An astronomer before 1925 referring to GMT would have been using the old
 608 # astronomical convention where the day started at noon, not midnight.
 609 #
 610 # From Steve Allen (2018-11-17):
 611 # Meteorological Observations made at the Hongkong Observatory in the year 1904
 612 # page 4 <https://books.google.com/books?id=kgw5AQAAMAAJ&pg=RA4-PA4>
 613 # ... the log of drop times in Table II shows that on Sunday 1904-10-30 the
 614 # ball was dropped.  So that looks like a special case drop for the sake
 615 # of broadcasting the new local time.
 616 #
 617 # From Phake Nick (2018-11-18):
 618 # According to The Hong Kong Weekly Press, 1904-10-29, p.324, the
 619 # governor of Hong Kong at the time stated that "We are further desired to
 620 # make it known that the change will be effected by firing the gun and by the
 621 # dropping of the Ball at 23min. 18sec. before one."
 622 # From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18):
 623 # See <https://mmis.hkpl.gov.hk> for this; unfortunately Flash is required.
 624 
 625 # From Phake Nick (2018-10-26):
 626 # I went to check microfilm records stored at Hong Kong Public Library....
 627 # on September 30 1941, according to Ta Kung Pao (Hong Kong edition), it was
 628 # stated that fallback would occur on the next day (the 1st)'s "03:00 am (Hong
 629 # Kong Time 04:00 am)" and the clock will fall back for a half hour. (03:00
 630 # probably refer to the time commonly used in mainland China at the time given
 631 # the paper's background) ... the sunrise/sunset time given by South China
 632 # Morning Post for October 1st was indeed moved by half an hour compares to
 633 # before.  After that, in December, the battle to capture Hong Kong started and
 634 # the library doesn't seems to have any record stored about press during that
 635 # period of time.  Some media resumed publication soon after that within the
 636 # same month, but there were not much information about time there.  Later they
 637 # started including a radio program guide when they restored radio service,
 638 # explicitly mentioning it use Tokyo standard time, and later added a note
 639 # saying it's half an hour ahead of the old Hong Kong standard time, and it
 640 # also seems to indicate that Hong Kong was not using GMT+8 when it was
 641 # captured by Japan.
 642 #
 643 # Image of related sections on newspaper:
 644 # * 1941-09-30, Ta Kung Pao (Hong Kong), "Winter Time start tomorrow".
 645 #   https://i.imgur.com/6waY51Z.jpg (Chinese)
 646 # * 1941-09-29, South China Morning Post, Information on sunrise/sunset
 647 #   time and other things for September 30 and October 1.
 648 #   https://i.imgur.com/kCiUR78.jpg
 649 # * 1942-02-05. The Hong Kong News, Radio Program Guide.
 650 #   https://i.imgur.com/eVvDMzS.jpg
 651 # * 1941-06-14. Hong Kong Daily Press, Daylight Saving from 3am Tomorrow.
 652 #   https://i.imgur.com/05KkvtC.png
 653 # * 1941-09-30, Hong Kong Daily Press, Winter Time Warning.
 654 #   https://i.imgur.com/dge4kFJ.png
 655 # Also, the Liberation day of Hong Kong after WWII which British rule
 656 # over the territory resumed was August 30, 1945, which I think should
 657 # be the termination date for the use of JST in the territory....
 658 
 659 # From Paul Eggert (2018-11-17):
 660 # Here are the dates given at
 661 # https://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm
 662 # as of 2014-06-19:
 663 # Year        Period
 664 # 1941        15 Jun to 30 Sep
 665 # 1942        Whole year
 666 # 1943        Whole year
 667 # 1944        Whole year
 668 # 1945        Whole year
 669 # 1946        20 Apr to 1 Dec
 670 # 1947        13 Apr to 30 Dec
 671 # 1948        2 May to 31 Oct
 672 # 1949        3 Apr to 30 Oct
 673 # 1950        2 Apr to 29 Oct
 674 # 1951        1 Apr to 28 Oct
 675 # 1952        6 Apr to 2 Nov
 676 # 1953        5 Apr to 1 Nov
 677 # 1954        21 Mar to 31 Oct
 678 # 1955        20 Mar to 6 Nov
 679 # 1956        18 Mar to 4 Nov
 680 # 1957        24 Mar to 3 Nov
 681 # 1958        23 Mar to 2 Nov
 682 # 1959        22 Mar to 1 Nov
 683 # 1960        20 Mar to 6 Nov
 684 # 1961        19 Mar to 5 Nov
 685 # 1962        18 Mar to 4 Nov
 686 # 1963        24 Mar to 3 Nov
 687 # 1964        22 Mar to 1 Nov
 688 # 1965        18 Apr to 17 Oct
 689 # 1966        17 Apr to 16 Oct
 690 # 1967        16 Apr to 22 Oct
 691 # 1968        21 Apr to 20 Oct
 692 # 1969        20 Apr to 19 Oct
 693 # 1970        19 Apr to 18 Oct
 694 # 1971        18 Apr to 17 Oct
 695 # 1972        16 Apr to 22 Oct
 696 # 1973        22 Apr to 21 Oct
 697 # 1973/74     30 Dec 73 to 20 Oct 74
 698 # 1975        20 Apr to 19 Oct
 699 # 1976        18 Apr to 17 Oct
 700 # 1977        Nil
 701 # 1978        Nil
 702 # 1979        13 May to 21 Oct
 703 # 1980 to Now Nil
 704 # The page does not give times of day for transitions,
 705 # or dates for the 1942 and 1945 transitions.
 706 # The Japanese occupation of Hong Kong began 1941-12-25.
 707 # The Japanese surrender of Hong Kong was signed 1945-09-16; see:
 708 # Heaver S. The days after the Pacific war ended: unsettling times
 709 # in Hong Kong. Post Magazine. 2016-06-13.
 710 # https://www.scmp.com/magazines/post-magazine/article/1852990/days-after-pacific-war-ended-unsettling-times-hong-kong
 711 # For lack of anything better, use start of those days as the
 712 # transition times.
 713 
 714 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S


 715 Rule    HK      1946    only    -       Apr     20      3:30    1:00    S
 716 Rule    HK      1946    only    -       Dec     1       3:30    0       -
 717 Rule    HK      1947    only    -       Apr     13      3:30    1:00    S
 718 Rule    HK      1947    only    -       Dec     30      3:30    0       -
 719 Rule    HK      1948    only    -       May     2       3:30    1:00    S
 720 Rule    HK      1948    1951    -       Oct     lastSun 3:30    0       -
 721 Rule    HK      1952    1953    -       Nov     Sun>=1       3:30    0       -
 722 Rule    HK      1949    1953    -       Apr     Sun>=1       3:30    1:00    S

 723 Rule    HK      1954    1964    -       Mar     Sun>=18      3:30    1:00    S
 724 Rule    HK      1954    only    -       Oct     31      3:30    0       -
 725 Rule    HK      1955    1964    -       Nov     Sun>=1       3:30    0       -
 726 Rule    HK      1965    1976    -       Apr     Sun>=16      3:30    1:00    S
 727 Rule    HK      1965    1976    -       Oct     Sun>=16      3:30    0       -
 728 Rule    HK      1973    only    -       Dec     30      3:30    1:00    S
 729 Rule    HK      1979    only    -       May     Sun>=8       3:30    1:00    S
 730 Rule    HK      1979    only    -       Oct     Sun>=16      3:30    0       -
 731 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 732 Zone    Asia/Hong_Kong  7:36:42 -       LMT     1904 Oct 30  0:36:42
 733                         8:00    -       HKT     1941 Jun 15  3:30
 734                         8:00    1:00    HKST    1941 Oct  1  4:00
 735                         8:30    -       HKT     1941 Dec 25
 736                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 16
 737                         8:00    HK      HK%sT
 738 
 739 ###############################################################################
 740 
 741 # Taiwan
 742 
 743 # From smallufo (2010-04-03):
 744 # According to Taiwan's CWB [Central Weather Bureau],
 745 # http://www.cwb.gov.tw/V6/astronomy/cdata/summert.htm
 746 # Taipei has DST in 1979 between July 1st and Sep 30.
 747 
 748 # From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2013-07-12):
 749 # On Dec 28, 1895, the Meiji Emperor announced Ordinance No. 167 of
 750 # Meiji Year 28 "The clause about standard time", mentioned that
 751 # Taiwan and Penghu Islands, as well as Yaeyama and Miyako Islands
 752 # (both in Okinawa) adopt the Western Standard Time which is based on
 753 # 120E. The adoption began from Jan 1, 1896. The original text can be
 754 # found on Wikisource:
 755 # https://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/標準時ニ關スル件_(公布時)
 756 # ... This could be the first adoption of time zone in Taiwan, because


1112 # We don't have any record of the above attempt.
1113 # Most likely our records are incomplete, but we have no better data.
1114 
1115 # From Manoel de Almeida e Silva, Deputy Spokesman for the UN Secretary-General
1116 # http://www.hri.org/news/world/undh/2000/00-08-16.undh.html
1117 # (2000-08-16):
1118 # The Cabinet of the East Timor Transition Administration decided
1119 # today to advance East Timor's time by one hour.  The time change,
1120 # which will be permanent, with no seasonal adjustment, will happen at
1121 # midnight on Saturday, September 16.
1122 
1123 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1124 Zone    Asia/Dili       8:22:20 -       LMT     1912 Jan  1
1125                         8:00    -       +08     1942 Feb 21 23:00
1126                         9:00    -       +09     1976 May  3
1127                         8:00    -       +08     2000 Sep 17  0:00
1128                         9:00    -       +09
1129 
1130 # India
1131 
1132 # British astronomer Henry Park Hollis disliked India Standard Time's offset:
1133 # "A new time system has been proposed for India, Further India, and Burmah.
1134 # The scheme suggested is that the times of the meridians 5½ and 6½ hours
1135 # east of Greenwich should be adopted in these territories.  No reason is
1136 # given why hourly meridians five hours and six hours east should not be
1137 # chosen; a plan which would bring the time of India into harmony with
1138 # that of almost the whole of the civilised world."
1139 # Hollis HP. Universal Time, Longitudes, and Geodesy. Mon Not R Astron Soc.
1140 # 1905-02-10;65(4):405-6. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/65.4.382
1141 
1142 # From Ian P. Beacock, in "A brief history of (modern) time", The Atlantic
1143 # https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2015/12/the-creation-of-modern-time/421419/
1144 # (2015-12-22):
1145 # In January 1906, several thousand cotton-mill workers rioted on the
1146 # outskirts of Bombay....  They were protesting the proposed abolition of
1147 # local time in favor of Indian Standard Time....  Journalists called this
1148 # dispute the "Battle of the Clocks."  It lasted nearly half a century.
1149 
1150 # From Paul Eggert (2017-04-20):
1151 # Good luck trying to nail down old timekeeping records in India.
1152 # "... in the nineteenth century ... Madras Observatory took its magnetic
1153 # measurements on Göttingen time, its meteorological measurements on Madras
1154 # (local) time, dropped its time ball on Greenwich (ocean navigator's) time,
1155 # and distributed civil (local time)." -- Bartky IR. Selling the true time:
1156 # 19th-century timekeeping in america. Stanford U Press (2000), 247 note 19.
1157 # "A more potent cause of resistance to the general adoption of the present
1158 # standard time lies in the fact that it is Madras time.  The citizen of
1159 # Bombay, proud of being 'primus in Indis' and of Calcutta, equally proud of
1160 # his city being the Capital of India, and - for a part of the year - the Seat
1161 # of the Supreme Government, alike look down on Madras, and refuse to change


1292 #       for synchronizing the official times of the country, agreed that:
1293 #
1294 #       The official time of the country will should move forward one hour
1295 #       at the 24[:00] hours of the first day of Farvardin and should return
1296 #       to its previous state at the 24[:00] hours of the 30th day of
1297 #       Shahrivar.
1298 #
1299 #       First Deputy to the President - Hassan Habibi
1300 #
1301 # From personal experience, that agrees with what has been followed
1302 # for at least the last 5 years.  Before that, for a few years, the
1303 # date used was the first Thursday night of Farvardin and the last
1304 # Thursday night of Shahrivar, but I can't give exact dates....
1305 #
1306 # From Roozbeh Pournader (2005-04-05):
1307 # The text of the Iranian law, in effect since 1925, clearly mentions
1308 # that the true solar year is the measure, and there is no arithmetic
1309 # leap year calculation involved.  There has never been any serious
1310 # plan to change that law....
1311 #
1312 # From Paul Eggert (2018-11-30):
1313 # Go with Shanks & Pottenger before Sept. 1991, and with Pournader thereafter.
1314 # I used the following code in GNU Emacs 26.1 to generate the "Rule Iran"
1315 # lines from 2008 through 2087.  Emacs 26.1 uses Ed Reingold's
1316 # cal-persia implementation of Birashk's approximation, which in the
1317 # 2008-2087 range disagrees with the the astronomical Persian calendar
1318 # for Persian years 1404 (Gregorian 2025) and 1437 (Gregorian 2058),
1319 # so the following code special-case those years.  See Table 15.1, page 264, of:
1320 # Edward M. Reingold and Nachum Dershowitz, Calendrical Calculations:
1321 # The Ultimate Edition, Cambridge University Press (2018).
1322 # https://www.cambridge.org/fr/academic/subjects/computer-science/computing-general-interest/calendrical-calculations-ultimate-edition-4th-edition
1323 # Page 258, footnote 2, of this book says there is some dispute over what will
1324 # happen in 2091 (and some other years after that), so this code
1325 # stops in 2087, as 2088 and 2089 agree with the "max" rule below.
1326 # (cl-loop
1327 #  initially (require 'cal-persia)
1328 #  with first-persian-year = 1387
1329 #  with last-persian-year = 1466
1330 #  ;; Exceptional years in the above range,
1331 #  ;; from Reingold & Dershowitz Table 15.1, page 264:
1332 #  with exceptional-persian-years = '(1404 1437)
1333 #  with range-start = nil
1334 #  for persian-year from first-persian-year to last-persian-year
1335 #  do
1336 #  (let*
1337 #      ((exceptional-year-offset
1338 #        (if (member persian-year exceptional-persian-years) 1 0))
1339 #       (beg-dst-absolute
1340 #        (+ (calendar-persian-to-absolute (list 1 1 persian-year))
1341 #           exceptional-year-offset))
1342 #       (end-dst-absolute
1343 #        (+ (calendar-persian-to-absolute (list 6 30 persian-year))
1344 #           exceptional-year-offset))
1345 #       (next-year-beg-dst-absolute
1346 #        (+ (calendar-persian-to-absolute (list 1 1 (1+ persian-year)))
1347 #           (if (member (1+ persian-year) exceptional-persian-years) 1 0)))
1348 #       (beg-dst (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute beg-dst-absolute))
1349 #       (end-dst (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute end-dst-absolute))
1350 #       (next-year-beg-dst (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute
1351 #                           next-year-beg-dst-absolute))
1352 #       (year (calendar-extract-year beg-dst))
1353 #       (range-end (if range-start year "only")))
1354 #    (setq range-start (or range-start year))
1355 #    (when (or (/= (calendar-extract-day beg-dst)
1356 #                  (calendar-extract-day next-year-beg-dst))
1357 #              (= persian-year last-persian-year))
1358 #      (insert
1359 #       (format
1360 #        "Rule\tIran\t%d\t%s\t-\t%s\t%2d\t24:00\t1:00\t-\n"
1361 #        range-start range-end
1362 #        (calendar-month-name (calendar-extract-month beg-dst) t)
1363 #        (calendar-extract-day beg-dst)))
1364 #      (insert
1365 #       (format
1366 #        "Rule\tIran\t%d\t%s\t-\t%s\t%2d\t24:00\t0\t-\n"
1367 #        range-start range-end
1368 #        (calendar-month-name (calendar-extract-month end-dst) t)
1369 #        (calendar-extract-day end-dst)))
1370 #      (setq range-start nil))))
1371 #
1372 # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-03-30), writing about future
1373 # discrepancies between cal-persia and the Iranian calendar:
1374 # For 2091 solar-longitude-after yields 2091-03-20 08:40:07.7 UT for
1375 # the vernal equinox and that gets so close to 12:00 some local
1376 # Iranian time that the definition of the correct location needs to be
1377 # known exactly, amongst other factors.  2157 is even closer:
1378 # 2157-03-20 08:37:15.5 UT.  But the Gregorian year 2025 should give
1379 # no interpretation problem whatsoever.  By the way, another instant
1380 # in the near future where there will be a discrepancy between
1381 # arithmetical and astronomical Iranian calendars will be in 2058:
1382 # vernal equinox on 2058-03-20 09:03:05.9 UT.  The Java version of
1383 # Reingold's/Dershowitz' calculator gives correctly the Gregorian date
1384 # 2058-03-21 for 1 Farvardin 1437 (astronomical).
1385 #
1386 # From Steffen Thorsen (2006-03-22):
1387 # Several of my users have reported that Iran will not observe DST anymore:
1388 # http://www.irna.ir/en/news/view/line-17/0603193812164948.htm
1389 #
1390 # From Reuters (2007-09-16), with a heads-up from Jesper Nørgaard Welen:
1391 # ... the Guardian Council ... approved a law on Sunday to re-introduce
1392 # daylight saving time ...
1393 # https://uk.reuters.com/article/oilRpt/idUKBLA65048420070916
1394 #
1395 # From Roozbeh Pournader (2007-11-05):
1396 # This is quoted from Official Gazette of the Islamic Republic of
1397 # Iran, Volume 63, No. 18242, dated Tuesday 1386/6/24
1398 # [2007-10-16]. I am doing the best translation I can:...
1399 # The official time of the country will be moved forward for one hour
1400 # on the 24 hours of the first day of the month of Farvardin and will
1401 # be changed back to its previous state on the 24 hours of the
1402 # thirtieth day of Shahrivar.
1403 #
1404 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1405 Rule    Iran    1978    1980    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1406 Rule    Iran    1978    only    -       Oct     20      24:00   0       -
1407 Rule    Iran    1979    only    -       Sep     18      24:00   0       -
1408 Rule    Iran    1980    only    -       Sep     22      24:00   0       -
1409 Rule    Iran    1991    only    -       May      2      24:00   1:00    -
1410 Rule    Iran    1992    1995    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1411 Rule    Iran    1991    1995    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1412 Rule    Iran    1996    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1413 Rule    Iran    1996    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1414 Rule    Iran    1997    1999    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1415 Rule    Iran    1997    1999    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1416 Rule    Iran    2000    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1417 Rule    Iran    2000    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1418 Rule    Iran    2001    2003    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1419 Rule    Iran    2001    2003    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1420 Rule    Iran    2004    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1421 Rule    Iran    2004    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1422 Rule    Iran    2005    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1423 Rule    Iran    2005    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1424 Rule    Iran    2008    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1425 Rule    Iran    2008    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1426 Rule    Iran    2009    2011    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1427 Rule    Iran    2009    2011    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1428 Rule    Iran    2012    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1429 Rule    Iran    2012    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1430 Rule    Iran    2013    2015    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1431 Rule    Iran    2013    2015    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1432 Rule    Iran    2016    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1433 Rule    Iran    2016    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1434 Rule    Iran    2017    2019    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1435 Rule    Iran    2017    2019    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1436 Rule    Iran    2020    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1437 Rule    Iran    2020    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1438 Rule    Iran    2021    2023    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1439 Rule    Iran    2021    2023    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1440 Rule    Iran    2024    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1441 Rule    Iran    2024    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1442 Rule    Iran    2025    2027    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1443 Rule    Iran    2025    2027    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1444 Rule    Iran    2028    2029    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1445 Rule    Iran    2028    2029    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1446 Rule    Iran    2030    2031    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1447 Rule    Iran    2030    2031    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1448 Rule    Iran    2032    2033    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1449 Rule    Iran    2032    2033    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1450 Rule    Iran    2034    2035    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1451 Rule    Iran    2034    2035    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1452 Rule    Iran    2036    2037    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1453 Rule    Iran    2036    2037    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1454 Rule    Iran    2038    2039    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1455 Rule    Iran    2038    2039    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1456 Rule    Iran    2040    2041    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1457 Rule    Iran    2040    2041    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1458 Rule    Iran    2042    2043    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1459 Rule    Iran    2042    2043    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1460 Rule    Iran    2044    2045    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1461 Rule    Iran    2044    2045    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1462 Rule    Iran    2046    2047    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1463 Rule    Iran    2046    2047    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1464 Rule    Iran    2048    2049    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1465 Rule    Iran    2048    2049    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1466 Rule    Iran    2050    2051    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1467 Rule    Iran    2050    2051    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1468 Rule    Iran    2052    2053    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1469 Rule    Iran    2052    2053    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1470 Rule    Iran    2054    2055    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1471 Rule    Iran    2054    2055    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1472 Rule    Iran    2056    2057    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1473 Rule    Iran    2056    2057    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1474 Rule    Iran    2058    2059    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1475 Rule    Iran    2058    2059    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1476 Rule    Iran    2060    2062    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1477 Rule    Iran    2060    2062    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1478 Rule    Iran    2063    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1479 Rule    Iran    2063    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1480 Rule    Iran    2064    2066    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1481 Rule    Iran    2064    2066    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1482 Rule    Iran    2067    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1483 Rule    Iran    2067    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1484 Rule    Iran    2068    2070    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1485 Rule    Iran    2068    2070    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1486 Rule    Iran    2071    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1487 Rule    Iran    2071    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1488 Rule    Iran    2072    2074    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1489 Rule    Iran    2072    2074    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1490 Rule    Iran    2075    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1491 Rule    Iran    2075    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1492 Rule    Iran    2076    2078    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1493 Rule    Iran    2076    2078    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1494 Rule    Iran    2079    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1495 Rule    Iran    2079    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1496 Rule    Iran    2080    2082    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1497 Rule    Iran    2080    2082    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1498 Rule    Iran    2083    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1499 Rule    Iran    2083    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1500 Rule    Iran    2084    2086    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1501 Rule    Iran    2084    2086    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1502 Rule    Iran    2087    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1503 Rule    Iran    2087    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1504 #
1505 # The following rules are approximations starting in the year 2088.
1506 # These are the best post-2088 approximations available, given the
1507 # restrictions of a single rule using ordinary Gregorian dates.
1508 # At some point this table will need to be extended, though quite
1509 # possibly Iran will change the rules first.
1510 Rule    Iran    2088    max     -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1511 Rule    Iran    2088    max     -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1512 
1513 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1514 Zone    Asia/Tehran     3:25:44 -       LMT     1916
1515                         3:25:44 -       TMT     1946     # Tehran Mean Time
1516                         3:30    -       +0330   1977 Nov
1517                         4:00    Iran    +04/+05 1979
1518                         3:30    Iran    +0330/+0430
1519 
1520 
1521 # Iraq
1522 #
1523 # From Jonathan Lennox (2000-06-12):
1524 # An article in this week's Economist ("Inside the Saddam-free zone", p. 50 in
1525 # the U.S. edition) on the Iraqi Kurds contains a paragraph:
1526 # "The three northern provinces ... switched their clocks this spring and
1527 # are an hour ahead of Baghdad."
1528 #
1529 # But Rives McDow (2000-06-18) quotes a contact in Iraqi-Kurdistan as follows:
1530 # In the past, some Kurdish nationalists, as a protest to the Iraqi
1531 # Government, did not adhere to daylight saving time.  They referred


1861 # time" was abolished in the ordinance No. 529 (1937).  In the ordinance No.
1862 # 167, there is no mention regarding for what place western standard time is
1863 # standard....
1864 #
1865 # I wrote "ordinance" above, but I don't know how to translate.
1866 # In Japanese it's "chokurei", which means ordinance from emperor.
1867 
1868 # From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2013-07-12):
1869 # ...the Meiji Emperor announced Ordinance No. 167 of Meiji Year 28 "The clause
1870 # about standard time" ... The adoption began from Jan 1, 1896.
1871 # https://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/標準時ニ關スル件_(公布時)
1872 #
1873 # ...the Showa Emperor announced Ordinance No. 529 of Showa Year 12 ... which
1874 # means the whole Japan territory, including later occupations, adopt Japan
1875 # Central Time (UT+9). The adoption began on Oct 1, 1937.
1876 # https://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/明治二十八年勅令第百六十七號標準時ニ關スル件中改正ノ件
1877 
1878 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1879 Zone    Asia/Tokyo      9:18:59 -       LMT     1887 Dec 31 15:00u
1880                         9:00    Japan   J%sT
1881 # Since 1938, all Japanese possessions have been like Asia/Tokyo,
1882 # except that Truk (Chuuk), Ponape (Pohnpei), and Jaluit (Kosrae) did not
1883 # switch from +10 to +09 until 1941-04-01; see the 'australasia' file.
1884 
1885 # Jordan
1886 #
1887 # From <http://star.arabia.com/990701/JO9.html>
1888 # Jordan Week (1999-07-01) via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
1889 # Clocks in Jordan were forwarded one hour on Wednesday at midnight,
1890 # in accordance with the government's decision to implement summer time
1891 # all year round.
1892 #
1893 # From <http://star.arabia.com/990930/JO9.html>
1894 # Jordan Week (1999-09-30) via Steffen Thorsen (1999-11-09):
1895 # Winter time starts today Thursday, 30 September. Clocks will be turned back
1896 # by one hour.  This is the latest government decision and it's final!
1897 # The decision was taken because of the increase in working hours in
1898 # government's departments from six to seven hours.
1899 #
1900 # From Paul Eggert (2005-11-22):
1901 # Starting 2003 transitions are from Steffen Thorsen's web site timeanddate.com.
1902 #
1903 # From Steffen Thorsen (2005-11-23):


2153 # No. 23 from 1992-01-08 [See 'europe' file for details].
2154 # Kazakh 1992-01-13 act appears to provide the same rules and 1992-03-27
2155 # act was to be enacted on the last Sunday of March 1992.
2156 
2157 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-11-08):
2158 # Turgai reorganization should affect only southern part of Qostanay
2159 # oblast.  Which should probably be separated into Asia/Arkalyk zone.
2160 # (There were also 1970, 1988 and 1990 Turgai oblast reorganizations
2161 # according to wikipedia.)
2162 #
2163 # [For Qostanay] http://www.ng.kz/gazeta/195/hranit/
2164 # suggests that clocks were to be moved 40 minutes backwards on
2165 # 1920-01-01 to the fourth time belt.  But I do not understand
2166 # how that could happen....
2167 #
2168 # [For Atyrau and Oral] 1919 decree
2169 # (http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia-1919-02-08.html
2170 # and in Byalokoz) lists Ural river (plus 10 versts on its left bank) in
2171 # the third time belt (before 1930 this means +03).
2172 
2173 # From Alexander Konzurovski (2018-12-20):
2174 # Qyzyolrda Region (Asia/Qyzylorda) is changing its time zone from
2175 # UTC+6 to UTC+5 effective December 21st, 2018. The legal document is
2176 # located here: http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P1800000817 (russian language).
2177 
2178 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2179 #
2180 # Almaty (formerly Alma-Ata), representing most locations in Kazakhstan
2181 # This includes KZ-AKM, KZ-ALA, KZ-ALM, KZ-AST, KZ-BAY, KZ-VOS, KZ-ZHA,
2182 # KZ-KAR, KZ-SEV, KZ-PAV, and KZ-YUZ.
2183 Zone    Asia/Almaty     5:07:48 -       LMT     1924 May  2 # or Alma-Ata
2184                         5:00    -       +05     1930 Jun 21
2185                         6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2186                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2187                         6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 2004 Oct 31  2:00s
2188                         6:00    -       +06
2189 # Qyzylorda (aka Kyzylorda, Kizilorda, Kzyl-Orda, etc.) (KZ-KZY)


2190 Zone    Asia/Qyzylorda  4:21:52 -       LMT     1924 May  2
2191                         4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
2192                         5:00    -       +05     1981 Apr  1
2193                         5:00    1:00    +06     1981 Oct  1
2194                         6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1
2195                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2196                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1991 Sep 29  2:00s
2197                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2198                         6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 1992 Mar 29  2:00s
2199                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 2004 Oct 31  2:00s
2200                         6:00    -       +06     2018 Dec 21  0:00
2201                         5:00    -       +05












2202 #
2203 # Qostanay (aka Kostanay, Kustanay) (KZ-KUS)
2204 # The 1991/2 rules are unclear partly because of the 1997 Turgai
2205 # reorganization.
2206 Zone    Asia/Qostanay   4:14:28 -       LMT     1924 May  2
2207                         4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
2208                         5:00    -       +05     1981 Apr  1
2209                         5:00    1:00    +06     1981 Oct  1
2210                         6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1
2211                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2212                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2213                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 2004 Oct 31  2:00s
2214                         6:00    -       +06
2215 
2216 # Aqtöbe (aka Aktobe, formerly Aktyubinsk) (KZ-AKT)
2217 Zone    Asia/Aqtobe     3:48:40 -       LMT     1924 May  2
2218                         4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
2219                         5:00    -       +05     1981 Apr  1
2220                         5:00    1:00    +06     1981 Oct  1
2221                         6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1
2222                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2223                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2224                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 2004 Oct 31  2:00s
2225                         5:00    -       +05
2226 # Mangghystaū (KZ-MAN)
2227 # Aqtau was not founded until 1963, but it represents an inhabited region,
2228 # so include timestamps before 1963.
2229 Zone    Asia/Aqtau      3:21:04 -       LMT     1924 May  2
2230                         4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
2231                         5:00    -       +05     1981 Oct  1
2232                         6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1
2233                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2234                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2235                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1994 Sep 25  2:00s


2289 
2290 # Korea (North and South)
2291 
2292 # From Annie I. Bang (2006-07-10):
2293 # http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=200607100012
2294 # Korea ran a daylight saving program from 1949-61 but stopped it
2295 # during the 1950-53 Korean War.  The system was temporarily enforced
2296 # between 1987 and 1988 ...
2297 
2298 # From Sanghyuk Jung (2014-10-29):
2299 # https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2014-October/021830.html
2300 # According to the Korean Wikipedia
2301 # https://ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/한국_표준시
2302 # [oldid=12896437 2014-09-04 08:03 UTC]
2303 # DST in Republic of Korea was as follows....  And I checked old
2304 # newspapers in Korean, all articles correspond with data in Wikipedia.
2305 # For example, the article in 1948 (Korean Language) proved that DST
2306 # started at June 1 in that year.  For another example, the article in
2307 # 1988 said that DST started at 2:00 AM in that year.
2308 
2309 # From Phake Nick (2018-10-27):
2310 # 1. According to official announcement from Korean government, the DST end
2311 # date in South Korea should be
2312 # 1955-09-08 without specifying time
2313 # http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027977557
2314 # 1956-09-29 without specifying time
2315 # http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027978341
2316 # 1957-09-21 24 o'clock
2317 # http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027979690#3
2318 # 1958-09-20 24 o'clock
2319 # http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027981189
2320 # 1959-09-19 24 o'clock
2321 # http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027982974#2
2322 # 1960-09-17 24 o'clock
2323 # http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0028044104
2324 # ...
2325 # 2.... https://namu.wiki/w/대한민국%20표준시 ... [says]
2326 # when Korea was using GMT+8:30 as standard time, the international
2327 # aviation/marine/meteorological industry in the country refused to
2328 # follow and continued to use GMT+9:00 for interoperability.
2329 
2330 
2331 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2332 Rule    ROK     1948    only    -       Jun      1       0:00   1:00    D
2333 Rule    ROK     1948    only    -       Sep     12      24:00   0       S
2334 Rule    ROK     1949    only    -       Apr      3       0:00   1:00    D
2335 Rule    ROK     1949    1951    -       Sep     Sat>=7       24:00   0       S
2336 Rule    ROK     1950    only    -       Apr      1       0:00   1:00    D
2337 Rule    ROK     1951    only    -       May      6       0:00   1:00    D
2338 Rule    ROK     1955    only    -       May      5       0:00   1:00    D
2339 Rule    ROK     1955    only    -       Sep      8      24:00   0       S
2340 Rule    ROK     1956    only    -       May     20       0:00   1:00    D
2341 Rule    ROK     1956    only    -       Sep     29      24:00   0       S
2342 Rule    ROK     1957    1960    -       May     Sun>=1        0:00   1:00    D
2343 Rule    ROK     1957    1960    -       Sep     Sat>=17      24:00   0       S
2344 Rule    ROK     1987    1988    -       May     Sun>=8        2:00   1:00    D
2345 Rule    ROK     1987    1988    -       Oct     Sun>=8        3:00   0       S
2346 
2347 # From Paul Eggert (2016-08-23):
2348 # The Korean Wikipedia entry gives the following sources for UT offsets:
2349 #
2350 # 1908: Official Journal Article No. 3994 (decree No. 5)
2351 # 1912: Governor-General of Korea Official Gazette Issue No. 367
2352 #       (Announcement No. 338)
2353 # 1954: Presidential Decree No. 876 (1954-03-17)
2354 # 1961: Law No. 676 (1961-08-07)
2355 #
2356 # (Another source "1987: Law No. 3919 (1986-12-31)" was in the 2014-10-30
2357 # edition of the Korean Wikipedia entry.)
2358 #
2359 # I guessed that time zone abbreviations through 1945 followed the same
2360 # rules as discussed under Taiwan, with nominal switches from JST to KST
2361 # when the respective cities were taken over by the Allies after WWII.
2362 #
2363 # For Pyongyang, guess no changes from World War II until 2015, as we


3115                         2:00    Jordan  EE%sT   1999
3116                         2:00 Palestine  EE%sT   2008 Aug 29  0:00
3117                         2:00    -       EET     2008 Sep
3118                         2:00 Palestine  EE%sT   2010
3119                         2:00    -       EET     2010 Mar 27  0:01
3120                         2:00 Palestine  EE%sT   2011 Aug  1
3121                         2:00    -       EET     2012
3122                         2:00 Palestine  EE%sT
3123 
3124 Zone    Asia/Hebron     2:20:23 -       LMT     1900 Oct
3125                         2:00    Zion    EET/EEST 1948 May 15
3126                         2:00 EgyptAsia  EE%sT   1967 Jun  5
3127                         2:00    Zion    I%sT    1996
3128                         2:00    Jordan  EE%sT   1999
3129                         2:00 Palestine  EE%sT
3130 
3131 # Paracel Is
3132 # no information
3133 
3134 # Philippines
3135 
3136 # From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18):
3137 # The Spanish initially used American (west-of-Greenwich) time.
3138 # It is unknown what time Manila kept when the British occupied it from
3139 # 1762-10-06 through 1764-04; for now assume it kept American time.
3140 # On 1844-08-16, Narciso Clavería, governor-general of the
3141 # Philippines, issued a proclamation announcing that 1844-12-30 was to
3142 # be immediately followed by 1845-01-01; see R.H. van Gent's
3143 # History of the International Date Line
3144 # https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/idl/idl_philippines.htm
3145 # The rest of the data entries are from Shanks & Pottenger.
3146 
3147 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-04-26):
3148 # ... claims that Philippines had DST last time in 1990:
3149 # http://story.philippinetimes.com/p.x/ct/9/id/145be20cc6b121c0/cid/3e5bbccc730d258c/
3150 # [a story dated 2006-04-25 by Cris Larano of Dow Jones Newswires,
3151 # but no details]
3152 
3153 # From Paul Eggert (2014-08-14):
3154 # The following source says DST may be instituted November-January and again
3155 # March-June, but this is not definite.  It also says DST was last proclaimed
3156 # during the Ramos administration (1992-1998); but again, no details.
3157 # Carcamo D. PNoy urged to declare use of daylight saving time.
3158 # Philippine Star 2014-08-05
3159 # http://www.philstar.com/headlines/2014/08/05/1354152/pnoy-urged-declare-use-daylight-saving-time


3205 # observed standard time, and that people in Jeddah mostly observed quasi-solar
3206 # time, doing so by setting their watches at sunrise to 6 o'clock (or to 12
3207 # o'clock for "Arab" time).
3208 #
3209 # Timekeeping differed depending on who you were and which part of Saudi
3210 # Arabia you were in.  In 1969, Elias Antar wrote that although a common
3211 # practice had been to set one's watch to 12:00 (i.e., midnight) at sunset -
3212 # which meant that the time on one side of a mountain could differ greatly from
3213 # the time on the other side - many foreigners set their watches to 6pm
3214 # instead, while airlines instead used UTC +03 (except in Dhahran, where they
3215 # used UTC +04), Aramco used UTC +03 with DST, and the Trans-Arabian Pipe Line
3216 # Company used Aramco time in eastern Saudi Arabia and airline time in western.
3217 # (The American Military Aid Advisory Group used plain UTC.)  Antar writes,
3218 # "A man named Higgins, so the story goes, used to run a local power
3219 # station. One day, the whole thing became too much for Higgins and he
3220 # assembled his staff and laid down the law. 'I've had enough of this,' he
3221 # shrieked. 'It is now 12 o'clock Higgins Time, and from now on this station is
3222 # going to run on Higgins Time.' And so, until last year, it did."  See:
3223 # Antar E. Dinner at When? Saudi Aramco World, 1969 March/April. 2-3.
3224 # http://archive.aramcoworld.com/issue/196902/dinner.at.when.htm
3225 # Also see: Antar EN. Arabian flying is confusing.
3226 # Port Angeles (WA) Evening News. 1965-03-10. page 3.
3227 #
3228 # The TZ database cannot represent quasi-solar time; airline time is the best
3229 # we can do.  The 1946 foreign air news digest of the U.S. Civil Aeronautics
3230 # Board (OCLC 42299995) reported that the "... Arabian Government, inaugurated
3231 # a weekly Dhahran-Cairo service, via the Saudi Arabian cities of Riyadh and
3232 # Jidda, on March 14, 1947".  Shanks & Pottenger guessed 1950; go with the
3233 # earlier date.
3234 #
3235 # Shanks & Pottenger also state that until 1968-05-01 Saudi Arabia had two
3236 # time zones; the other zone, at UT +04, was in the far eastern part of
3237 # the country.  Presumably this is documenting airline time.  Ignore this,
3238 # as it's before our 1970 cutoff.
3239 #
3240 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3241 Zone    Asia/Riyadh     3:06:52 -       LMT     1947 Mar 14
3242                         3:00    -       +03
3243 Link Asia/Riyadh Asia/Aden      # Yemen
3244 Link Asia/Riyadh Asia/Kuwait
3245 
3246 # Singapore


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