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8216178: (tz) Upgrade time-zone data to tzdata2018i
Reviewed-by: duke

@@ -1,28 +1,5 @@
-#
-# DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
-#
-# This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
-# under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
-# published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
-# particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
-# by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
-#
-# This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
-# ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
-# FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
-# version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
-# accompanied this code).
-#
-# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
-# 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
-# Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
-#
-# Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
-# or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
-# questions.
-#
 # tzdb data for Asia and environs
 
 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
 

@@ -607,27 +584,97 @@
 # and incorrect rules. Although the exact switch over time is missing, I
 # think 3:30 is correct. The official DST record for Hong Kong can be
 # obtained from
 # http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm
 
-# From Arthur David Olson (2009-10-28):
+# From Phake Nick (2018-10-27):
+# According to Singaporean newspaper
+# http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/singfreepresswk19041102-1.2.37
+# the day that Hong Kong start using GMT+8 should be Oct 30, 1904.
+#
+# From Paul Eggert (2018-11-17):
+# Hong Kong had a time ball near the Marine Police Station, Tsim Sha Tsui.
+# "The ball was raised manually each day and dropped at exactly 1pm
+# (except on Sundays and Government holidays)."
+# Dyson AD. From Time Ball to Atomic Clock. Hong Kong Government. 1983.
+# <https://www.hko.gov.hk/publica/gen_pub/timeball_atomic_clock.pdf>
+# "From 1904 October 30 the time-ball at Hong Kong has been dropped by order
+# of the Governor of the Colony at 17h 0m 0s G.M.T., which is 23m 18s.14 in
+# advance of 1h 0m 0s of Hong Kong mean time."
+# Hollis HP. Universal Time, Longitudes, and Geodesy. Mon Not R Astron Soc.
+# 1905-02-10;65(4):405-6. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/65.4.382
+#
+# From Joseph Myers (2018-11-18):
+# An astronomer before 1925 referring to GMT would have been using the old
+# astronomical convention where the day started at noon, not midnight.
+#
+# From Steve Allen (2018-11-17):
+# Meteorological Observations made at the Hongkong Observatory in the year 1904
+# page 4 <https://books.google.com/books?id=kgw5AQAAMAAJ&pg=RA4-PA4>
+# ... the log of drop times in Table II shows that on Sunday 1904-10-30 the
+# ball was dropped.  So that looks like a special case drop for the sake
+# of broadcasting the new local time.
+#
+# From Phake Nick (2018-11-18):
+# According to The Hong Kong Weekly Press, 1904-10-29, p.324, the
+# governor of Hong Kong at the time stated that "We are further desired to
+# make it known that the change will be effected by firing the gun and by the
+# dropping of the Ball at 23min. 18sec. before one."
+# From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18):
+# See <https://mmis.hkpl.gov.hk> for this; unfortunately Flash is required.
+
+# From Phake Nick (2018-10-26):
+# I went to check microfilm records stored at Hong Kong Public Library....
+# on September 30 1941, according to Ta Kung Pao (Hong Kong edition), it was
+# stated that fallback would occur on the next day (the 1st)'s "03:00 am (Hong
+# Kong Time 04:00 am)" and the clock will fall back for a half hour. (03:00
+# probably refer to the time commonly used in mainland China at the time given
+# the paper's background) ... the sunrise/sunset time given by South China
+# Morning Post for October 1st was indeed moved by half an hour compares to
+# before.  After that, in December, the battle to capture Hong Kong started and
+# the library doesn't seems to have any record stored about press during that
+# period of time.  Some media resumed publication soon after that within the
+# same month, but there were not much information about time there.  Later they
+# started including a radio program guide when they restored radio service,
+# explicitly mentioning it use Tokyo standard time, and later added a note
+# saying it's half an hour ahead of the old Hong Kong standard time, and it
+# also seems to indicate that Hong Kong was not using GMT+8 when it was
+# captured by Japan.
+#
+# Image of related sections on newspaper:
+# * 1941-09-30, Ta Kung Pao (Hong Kong), "Winter Time start tomorrow".
+#   https://i.imgur.com/6waY51Z.jpg (Chinese)
+# * 1941-09-29, South China Morning Post, Information on sunrise/sunset
+#   time and other things for September 30 and October 1.
+#   https://i.imgur.com/kCiUR78.jpg
+# * 1942-02-05. The Hong Kong News, Radio Program Guide.
+#   https://i.imgur.com/eVvDMzS.jpg
+# * 1941-06-14. Hong Kong Daily Press, Daylight Saving from 3am Tomorrow.
+#   https://i.imgur.com/05KkvtC.png
+# * 1941-09-30, Hong Kong Daily Press, Winter Time Warning.
+#   https://i.imgur.com/dge4kFJ.png
+# Also, the Liberation day of Hong Kong after WWII which British rule
+# over the territory resumed was August 30, 1945, which I think should
+# be the termination date for the use of JST in the territory....
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2018-11-17):
 # Here are the dates given at
-# http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm
-# as of 2009-10-28:
+# https://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm
+# as of 2014-06-19:
 # Year        Period
-# 1941        1 Apr to 30 Sep
+# 1941        15 Jun to 30 Sep
 # 1942        Whole year
 # 1943        Whole year
 # 1944        Whole year
 # 1945        Whole year
 # 1946        20 Apr to 1 Dec
 # 1947        13 Apr to 30 Dec
 # 1948        2 May to 31 Oct
 # 1949        3 Apr to 30 Oct
 # 1950        2 Apr to 29 Oct
 # 1951        1 Apr to 28 Oct
-# 1952        6 Apr to 25 Oct
+# 1952        6 Apr to 2 Nov
 # 1953        5 Apr to 1 Nov
 # 1954        21 Mar to 31 Oct
 # 1955        20 Mar to 6 Nov
 # 1956        18 Mar to 4 Nov
 # 1957        24 Mar to 3 Nov

@@ -652,41 +699,43 @@
 # 1976        18 Apr to 17 Oct
 # 1977        Nil
 # 1978        Nil
 # 1979        13 May to 21 Oct
 # 1980 to Now Nil
-# The page does not give start or end times of day.
-# The page does not give a start date for 1942.
-# The page does not givw an end date for 1945.
-# The Japanese occupation of Hong Kong began on 1941-12-25.
-# The Japanese surrender of Hong Kong was signed 1945-09-15.
-# For lack of anything better, use start of those days as the transition times.
+# The page does not give times of day for transitions,
+# or dates for the 1942 and 1945 transitions.
+# The Japanese occupation of Hong Kong began 1941-12-25.
+# The Japanese surrender of Hong Kong was signed 1945-09-16; see:
+# Heaver S. The days after the Pacific war ended: unsettling times
+# in Hong Kong. Post Magazine. 2016-06-13.
+# https://www.scmp.com/magazines/post-magazine/article/1852990/days-after-pacific-war-ended-unsettling-times-hong-kong
+# For lack of anything better, use start of those days as the
+# transition times.
 
 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
-Rule    HK      1941    only    -       Apr     1       3:30    1:00    S
-Rule    HK      1941    only    -       Sep     30      3:30    0       -
 Rule    HK      1946    only    -       Apr     20      3:30    1:00    S
 Rule    HK      1946    only    -       Dec     1       3:30    0       -
 Rule    HK      1947    only    -       Apr     13      3:30    1:00    S
 Rule    HK      1947    only    -       Dec     30      3:30    0       -
 Rule    HK      1948    only    -       May     2       3:30    1:00    S
 Rule    HK      1948    1951    -       Oct     lastSun 3:30    0       -
-Rule    HK      1952    only    -       Oct     25      3:30    0       -
+Rule    HK      1952    1953    -       Nov     Sun>=1  3:30    0       -
 Rule    HK      1949    1953    -       Apr     Sun>=1  3:30    1:00    S
-Rule    HK      1953    only    -       Nov     1       3:30    0       -
 Rule    HK      1954    1964    -       Mar     Sun>=18 3:30    1:00    S
 Rule    HK      1954    only    -       Oct     31      3:30    0       -
 Rule    HK      1955    1964    -       Nov     Sun>=1  3:30    0       -
 Rule    HK      1965    1976    -       Apr     Sun>=16 3:30    1:00    S
 Rule    HK      1965    1976    -       Oct     Sun>=16 3:30    0       -
 Rule    HK      1973    only    -       Dec     30      3:30    1:00    S
 Rule    HK      1979    only    -       May     Sun>=8  3:30    1:00    S
 Rule    HK      1979    only    -       Oct     Sun>=16 3:30    0       -
 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
-Zone    Asia/Hong_Kong  7:36:42 -       LMT     1904 Oct 30
-                        8:00    HK      HK%sT   1941 Dec 25
-                        9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 15
+Zone    Asia/Hong_Kong  7:36:42 -       LMT     1904 Oct 30  0:36:42
+                        8:00    -       HKT     1941 Jun 15  3:30
+                        8:00    1:00    HKST    1941 Oct  1  4:00
+                        8:30    -       HKT     1941 Dec 25
+                        9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 16
                         8:00    HK      HK%sT
 
 ###############################################################################
 
 # Taiwan

@@ -1078,10 +1127,20 @@
                         8:00    -       +08     2000 Sep 17  0:00
                         9:00    -       +09
 
 # India
 
+# British astronomer Henry Park Hollis disliked India Standard Time's offset:
+# "A new time system has been proposed for India, Further India, and Burmah.
+# The scheme suggested is that the times of the meridians 5½ and 6½ hours
+# east of Greenwich should be adopted in these territories.  No reason is
+# given why hourly meridians five hours and six hours east should not be
+# chosen; a plan which would bring the time of India into harmony with
+# that of almost the whole of the civilised world."
+# Hollis HP. Universal Time, Longitudes, and Geodesy. Mon Not R Astron Soc.
+# 1905-02-10;65(4):405-6. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/65.4.382
+
 # From Ian P. Beacock, in "A brief history of (modern) time", The Atlantic
 # https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2015/12/the-creation-of-modern-time/421419/
 # (2015-12-22):
 # In January 1906, several thousand cotton-mill workers rioted on the
 # outskirts of Bombay....  They were protesting the proposed abolition of

@@ -1248,16 +1307,69 @@
 # The text of the Iranian law, in effect since 1925, clearly mentions
 # that the true solar year is the measure, and there is no arithmetic
 # leap year calculation involved.  There has never been any serious
 # plan to change that law....
 #
-# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
+# From Paul Eggert (2018-11-30):
 # Go with Shanks & Pottenger before Sept. 1991, and with Pournader thereafter.
-# I used Ed Reingold's cal-persia in GNU Emacs 21.2 to check Persian dates,
-# stopping after 2037 when 32-bit time_t's overflow.
-# That cal-persia used Birashk's approximation, which disagrees with the solar
-# calendar predictions for the year 2025, so I corrected those dates by hand.
+# I used the following code in GNU Emacs 26.1 to generate the "Rule Iran"
+# lines from 2008 through 2087.  Emacs 26.1 uses Ed Reingold's
+# cal-persia implementation of Birashk's approximation, which in the
+# 2008-2087 range disagrees with the the astronomical Persian calendar
+# for Persian years 1404 (Gregorian 2025) and 1437 (Gregorian 2058),
+# so the following code special-case those years.  See Table 15.1, page 264, of:
+# Edward M. Reingold and Nachum Dershowitz, Calendrical Calculations:
+# The Ultimate Edition, Cambridge University Press (2018).
+# https://www.cambridge.org/fr/academic/subjects/computer-science/computing-general-interest/calendrical-calculations-ultimate-edition-4th-edition
+# Page 258, footnote 2, of this book says there is some dispute over what will
+# happen in 2091 (and some other years after that), so this code
+# stops in 2087, as 2088 and 2089 agree with the "max" rule below.
+# (cl-loop
+#  initially (require 'cal-persia)
+#  with first-persian-year = 1387
+#  with last-persian-year = 1466
+#  ;; Exceptional years in the above range,
+#  ;; from Reingold & Dershowitz Table 15.1, page 264:
+#  with exceptional-persian-years = '(1404 1437)
+#  with range-start = nil
+#  for persian-year from first-persian-year to last-persian-year
+#  do
+#  (let*
+#      ((exceptional-year-offset
+#        (if (member persian-year exceptional-persian-years) 1 0))
+#       (beg-dst-absolute
+#        (+ (calendar-persian-to-absolute (list 1 1 persian-year))
+#           exceptional-year-offset))
+#       (end-dst-absolute
+#        (+ (calendar-persian-to-absolute (list 6 30 persian-year))
+#           exceptional-year-offset))
+#       (next-year-beg-dst-absolute
+#        (+ (calendar-persian-to-absolute (list 1 1 (1+ persian-year)))
+#           (if (member (1+ persian-year) exceptional-persian-years) 1 0)))
+#       (beg-dst (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute beg-dst-absolute))
+#       (end-dst (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute end-dst-absolute))
+#       (next-year-beg-dst (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute
+#                           next-year-beg-dst-absolute))
+#       (year (calendar-extract-year beg-dst))
+#       (range-end (if range-start year "only")))
+#    (setq range-start (or range-start year))
+#    (when (or (/= (calendar-extract-day beg-dst)
+#                  (calendar-extract-day next-year-beg-dst))
+#              (= persian-year last-persian-year))
+#      (insert
+#       (format
+#        "Rule\tIran\t%d\t%s\t-\t%s\t%2d\t24:00\t1:00\t-\n"
+#        range-start range-end
+#        (calendar-month-name (calendar-extract-month beg-dst) t)
+#        (calendar-extract-day beg-dst)))
+#      (insert
+#       (format
+#        "Rule\tIran\t%d\t%s\t-\t%s\t%2d\t24:00\t0\t-\n"
+#        range-start range-end
+#        (calendar-month-name (calendar-extract-month end-dst) t)
+#        (calendar-extract-day end-dst)))
+#      (setq range-start nil))))
 #
 # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-03-30), writing about future
 # discrepancies between cal-persia and the Iranian calendar:
 # For 2091 solar-longitude-after yields 2091-03-20 08:40:07.7 UT for
 # the vernal equinox and that gets so close to 12:00 some local

@@ -1288,65 +1400,117 @@
 # on the 24 hours of the first day of the month of Farvardin and will
 # be changed back to its previous state on the 24 hours of the
 # thirtieth day of Shahrivar.
 #
 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
-Rule    Iran    1978    1980    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    1978    only    -       Oct     21      0:00    0       -
-Rule    Iran    1979    only    -       Sep     19      0:00    0       -
-Rule    Iran    1980    only    -       Sep     23      0:00    0       -
-Rule    Iran    1991    only    -       May      3      0:00    1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    1992    1995    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    1991    1995    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
-Rule    Iran    1996    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    1996    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
-Rule    Iran    1997    1999    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    1997    1999    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
-Rule    Iran    2000    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2000    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
-Rule    Iran    2001    2003    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2001    2003    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
-Rule    Iran    2004    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2004    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
-Rule    Iran    2005    only    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2005    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
-Rule    Iran    2008    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2008    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
-Rule    Iran    2009    2011    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2009    2011    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
-Rule    Iran    2012    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2012    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
-Rule    Iran    2013    2015    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2013    2015    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
-Rule    Iran    2016    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2016    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
-Rule    Iran    2017    2019    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2017    2019    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
-Rule    Iran    2020    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2020    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
-Rule    Iran    2021    2023    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2021    2023    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
-Rule    Iran    2024    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2024    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
-Rule    Iran    2025    2027    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2025    2027    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
-Rule    Iran    2028    2029    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2028    2029    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
-Rule    Iran    2030    2031    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2030    2031    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
-Rule    Iran    2032    2033    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2032    2033    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
-Rule    Iran    2034    2035    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2034    2035    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
-#
-# The following rules are approximations starting in the year 2038.
-# These are the best post-2037 approximations available, given the
-# restrictions of a single rule using a Gregorian-based data format.
+Rule    Iran    1978    1980    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    1978    only    -       Oct     20      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    1979    only    -       Sep     18      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    1980    only    -       Sep     22      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    1991    only    -       May      2      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    1992    1995    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    1991    1995    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    1996    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    1996    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    1997    1999    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    1997    1999    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2000    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2000    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2001    2003    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2001    2003    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2004    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2004    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2005    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2005    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2008    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2008    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2009    2011    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2009    2011    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2012    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2012    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2013    2015    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2013    2015    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2016    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2016    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2017    2019    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2017    2019    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2020    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2020    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2021    2023    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2021    2023    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2024    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2024    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2025    2027    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2025    2027    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2028    2029    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2028    2029    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2030    2031    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2030    2031    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2032    2033    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2032    2033    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2034    2035    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2034    2035    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2036    2037    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2036    2037    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2038    2039    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2038    2039    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2040    2041    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2040    2041    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2042    2043    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2042    2043    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2044    2045    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2044    2045    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2046    2047    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2046    2047    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2048    2049    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2048    2049    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2050    2051    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2050    2051    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2052    2053    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2052    2053    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2054    2055    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2054    2055    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2056    2057    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2056    2057    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2058    2059    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2058    2059    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2060    2062    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2060    2062    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2063    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2063    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2064    2066    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2064    2066    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2067    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2067    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2068    2070    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2068    2070    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2071    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2071    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2072    2074    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2072    2074    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2075    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2075    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2076    2078    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2076    2078    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2079    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2079    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2080    2082    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2080    2082    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2083    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2083    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2084    2086    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2084    2086    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2087    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2087    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
+#
+# The following rules are approximations starting in the year 2088.
+# These are the best post-2088 approximations available, given the
+# restrictions of a single rule using ordinary Gregorian dates.
 # At some point this table will need to be extended, though quite
 # possibly Iran will change the rules first.
-Rule    Iran    2036    max     -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2036    max     -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
+Rule    Iran    2088    max     -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2088    max     -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
 
 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Asia/Tehran     3:25:44 -       LMT     1916
                         3:25:44 -       TMT     1946     # Tehran Mean Time
                         3:30    -       +0330   1977 Nov

@@ -1712,11 +1876,13 @@
 # https://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/明治二十八年勅令第百六十七號標準時ニ關スル件中改正ノ件
 
 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Asia/Tokyo      9:18:59 -       LMT     1887 Dec 31 15:00u
                         9:00    Japan   J%sT
-# Since 1938, all Japanese possessions have been like Asia/Tokyo.
+# Since 1938, all Japanese possessions have been like Asia/Tokyo,
+# except that Truk (Chuuk), Ponape (Pohnpei), and Jaluit (Kosrae) did not
+# switch from +10 to +09 until 1941-04-01; see the 'australasia' file.
 
 # Jordan
 #
 # From <http://star.arabia.com/990701/JO9.html>
 # Jordan Week (1999-07-01) via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):

@@ -2002,12 +2168,14 @@
 # [For Atyrau and Oral] 1919 decree
 # (http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia-1919-02-08.html
 # and in Byalokoz) lists Ural river (plus 10 versts on its left bank) in
 # the third time belt (before 1930 this means +03).
 
-# From Paul Eggert (2016-12-06):
-# The tables below reflect Golosunov's remarks, with exceptions as noted.
+# From Alexander Konzurovski (2018-12-20):
+# Qyzyolrda Region (Asia/Qyzylorda) is changing its time zone from
+# UTC+6 to UTC+5 effective December 21st, 2018. The legal document is
+# located here: http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P1800000817 (russian language).
 
 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 #
 # Almaty (formerly Alma-Ata), representing most locations in Kazakhstan
 # This includes KZ-AKM, KZ-ALA, KZ-ALM, KZ-AST, KZ-BAY, KZ-VOS, KZ-ZHA,

@@ -2017,37 +2185,36 @@
                         6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
                         6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 2004 Oct 31  2:00s
                         6:00    -       +06
 # Qyzylorda (aka Kyzylorda, Kizilorda, Kzyl-Orda, etc.) (KZ-KZY)
-# This currently includes Qostanay (aka Kostanay, Kustanay) (KZ-KUS);
-# see comments below.
 Zone    Asia/Qyzylorda  4:21:52 -       LMT     1924 May  2
                         4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
                         5:00    -       +05     1981 Apr  1
                         5:00    1:00    +06     1981 Oct  1
                         6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1
                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1991 Sep 29  2:00s
                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
                         6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 1992 Mar 29  2:00s
                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 2004 Oct 31  2:00s
-                        6:00    -       +06
-# The following zone is like Asia/Qyzylorda except for being one
-# hour earlier from 1991-09-29 to 1992-03-29.  The 1991/2 rules for
-# Qostanay are unclear partly because of the 1997 Turgai
-# reorganization, so this zone is commented out for now.
-#Zone   Asia/Qostanay   4:14:20 -       LMT     1924 May  2
-#                       4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
-#                       5:00    -       +05     1981 Apr  1
-#                       5:00    1:00    +06     1981 Oct  1
-#                       6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1
-#                       5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
-#                       4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
-#                       5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 2004 Oct 31  2:00s
-#                       6:00    -       +06
+                        6:00    -       +06     2018 Dec 21  0:00
+                        5:00    -       +05
 #
+# Qostanay (aka Kostanay, Kustanay) (KZ-KUS)
+# The 1991/2 rules are unclear partly because of the 1997 Turgai
+# reorganization.
+Zone    Asia/Qostanay   4:14:28 -       LMT     1924 May  2
+                        4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
+                        5:00    -       +05     1981 Apr  1
+                        5:00    1:00    +06     1981 Oct  1
+                        6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1
+                        5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
+                        4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
+                        5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 2004 Oct 31  2:00s
+                        6:00    -       +06
+
 # Aqtöbe (aka Aktobe, formerly Aktyubinsk) (KZ-AKT)
 Zone    Asia/Aqtobe     3:48:40 -       LMT     1924 May  2
                         4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
                         5:00    -       +05     1981 Apr  1
                         5:00    1:00    +06     1981 Oct  1

@@ -2137,23 +2304,45 @@
 # newspapers in Korean, all articles correspond with data in Wikipedia.
 # For example, the article in 1948 (Korean Language) proved that DST
 # started at June 1 in that year.  For another example, the article in
 # 1988 said that DST started at 2:00 AM in that year.
 
+# From Phake Nick (2018-10-27):
+# 1. According to official announcement from Korean government, the DST end
+# date in South Korea should be
+# 1955-09-08 without specifying time
+# http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027977557
+# 1956-09-29 without specifying time
+# http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027978341
+# 1957-09-21 24 o'clock
+# http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027979690#3
+# 1958-09-20 24 o'clock
+# http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027981189
+# 1959-09-19 24 o'clock
+# http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027982974#2
+# 1960-09-17 24 o'clock
+# http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0028044104
+# ...
+# 2.... https://namu.wiki/w/대한민국%20표준시 ... [says]
+# when Korea was using GMT+8:30 as standard time, the international
+# aviation/marine/meteorological industry in the country refused to
+# follow and continued to use GMT+9:00 for interoperability.
+
+
 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 Rule    ROK     1948    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    D
-Rule    ROK     1948    only    -       Sep     13      0:00    0       S
+Rule    ROK     1948    only    -       Sep     12      24:00   0       S
 Rule    ROK     1949    only    -       Apr      3      0:00    1:00    D
-Rule    ROK     1949    1951    -       Sep     Sun>=8  0:00    0       S
+Rule    ROK     1949    1951    -       Sep     Sat>=7  24:00   0       S
 Rule    ROK     1950    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    D
 Rule    ROK     1951    only    -       May      6      0:00    1:00    D
 Rule    ROK     1955    only    -       May      5      0:00    1:00    D
-Rule    ROK     1955    only    -       Sep      9      0:00    0       S
+Rule    ROK     1955    only    -       Sep      8      24:00   0       S
 Rule    ROK     1956    only    -       May     20      0:00    1:00    D
-Rule    ROK     1956    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       S
+Rule    ROK     1956    only    -       Sep     29      24:00   0       S
 Rule    ROK     1957    1960    -       May     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    D
-Rule    ROK     1957    1960    -       Sep     Sun>=18 0:00    0       S
+Rule    ROK     1957    1960    -       Sep     Sat>=17 24:00   0       S
 Rule    ROK     1987    1988    -       May     Sun>=8  2:00    1:00    D
 Rule    ROK     1987    1988    -       Oct     Sun>=8  3:00    0       S
 
 # From Paul Eggert (2016-08-23):
 # The Korean Wikipedia entry gives the following sources for UT offsets:

@@ -2941,10 +3130,15 @@
 
 # Paracel Is
 # no information
 
 # Philippines
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18):
+# The Spanish initially used American (west-of-Greenwich) time.
+# It is unknown what time Manila kept when the British occupied it from
+# 1762-10-06 through 1764-04; for now assume it kept American time.
 # On 1844-08-16, Narciso Clavería, governor-general of the
 # Philippines, issued a proclamation announcing that 1844-12-30 was to
 # be immediately followed by 1845-01-01; see R.H. van Gent's
 # History of the International Date Line
 # https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/idl/idl_philippines.htm

@@ -3026,12 +3220,12 @@
 # assembled his staff and laid down the law. 'I've had enough of this,' he
 # shrieked. 'It is now 12 o'clock Higgins Time, and from now on this station is
 # going to run on Higgins Time.' And so, until last year, it did."  See:
 # Antar E. Dinner at When? Saudi Aramco World, 1969 March/April. 2-3.
 # http://archive.aramcoworld.com/issue/196902/dinner.at.when.htm
-# newspapers.com says a similar story about Higgins was published in the Port
-# Angeles (WA) Evening News, 1965-03-10, page 5, but I lack access to the text.
+# Also see: Antar EN. Arabian flying is confusing.
+# Port Angeles (WA) Evening News. 1965-03-10. page 3.
 #
 # The TZ database cannot represent quasi-solar time; airline time is the best
 # we can do.  The 1946 foreign air news digest of the U.S. Civil Aeronautics
 # Board (OCLC 42299995) reported that the "... Arabian Government, inaugurated
 # a weekly Dhahran-Cairo service, via the Saudi Arabian cities of Riyadh and
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