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8216178: (tz) Upgrade time-zone data to tzdata2018i
Reviewed-by: duke
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   4 # This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
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  10 # This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
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  13 # version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
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  19 #
  20 # Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  21 # or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  22 # questions.
  23 #
  24 # tzdb data for Australasia and environs, and for much of the Pacific
  25 
  26 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
  27 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
  28 
  29 # This file also includes Pacific islands.
  30 
  31 # Notes are at the end of this file
  32 
  33 ###############################################################################
  34 
  35 # Australia
  36 
  37 # Please see the notes below for the controversy about "EST" versus "AEST" etc.
  38 
  39 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
  40 Rule    Aus     1917    only    -       Jan      1      0:01    1:00    D
  41 Rule    Aus     1917    only    -       Mar     25      2:00    0       S
  42 Rule    Aus     1942    only    -       Jan      1      2:00    1:00    D
  43 Rule    Aus     1942    only    -       Mar     29      2:00    0       S


 408 Rule    Fiji    2012    2013    -       Jan     Sun>=18      3:00    0       -
 409 Rule    Fiji    2014    only    -       Jan     Sun>=18      2:00    0       -
 410 Rule    Fiji    2014    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    -
 411 Rule    Fiji    2015    max     -       Jan     Sun>=13      3:00    0       -
 412 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 413 Zone    Pacific/Fiji    11:55:44 -      LMT     1915 Oct 26 # Suva
 414                         12:00   Fiji    +12/+13
 415 
 416 # French Polynesia
 417 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 418 Zone    Pacific/Gambier  -8:59:48 -     LMT     1912 Oct # Rikitea
 419                          -9:00  -       -09
 420 Zone    Pacific/Marquesas -9:18:00 -    LMT     1912 Oct
 421                          -9:30  -       -0930
 422 Zone    Pacific/Tahiti   -9:58:16 -     LMT     1912 Oct # Papeete
 423                         -10:00  -       -10
 424 # Clipperton (near North America) is administered from French Polynesia;
 425 # it is uninhabited.
 426 
 427 # Guam
































 428 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 429 Zone    Pacific/Guam    -14:21:00 -     LMT     1844 Dec 31
 430                          9:39:00 -      LMT     1901        # Agana
 431                         10:00   -       GST     2000 Dec 23 # Guam


 432                         10:00   -       ChST    # Chamorro Standard Time
 433 Link Pacific/Guam Pacific/Saipan # N Mariana Is
 434 
 435 # Kiribati
 436 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 437 Zone Pacific/Tarawa      11:32:04 -     LMT     1901 # Bairiki
 438                          12:00  -       +12
 439 Zone Pacific/Enderbury  -11:24:20 -     LMT     1901
 440                         -12:00  -       -12     1979 Oct
 441                         -11:00  -       -11     1994 Dec 31
 442                          13:00  -       +13
 443 Zone Pacific/Kiritimati -10:29:20 -     LMT     1901
 444                         -10:40  -       -1040   1979 Oct
 445                         -10:00  -       -10     1994 Dec 31
 446                          14:00  -       +14
 447 
 448 # N Mariana Is
 449 # See Pacific/Guam.
 450 
 451 # Marshall Is
 452 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 453 Zone Pacific/Majuro     11:24:48 -      LMT     1901





 454                         11:00   -       +11     1969 Oct
 455                         12:00   -       +12
 456 Zone Pacific/Kwajalein  11:09:20 -      LMT     1901



 457                         11:00   -       +11     1969 Oct
 458                         -12:00  -       -12     1993 Aug 20
 459                         12:00   -       +12
 460 
 461 # Micronesia
 462 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 463 Zone Pacific/Chuuk      10:07:08 -      LMT     1901





 464                         10:00   -       +10
 465 Zone Pacific/Pohnpei    10:32:52 -      LMT     1901 # Kolonia






 466                         11:00   -       +11
 467 Zone Pacific/Kosrae     10:51:56 -      LMT     1901






 468                         11:00   -       +11     1969 Oct
 469                         12:00   -       +12     1999
 470                         11:00   -       +11
 471 
 472 # Nauru
 473 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 474 Zone    Pacific/Nauru   11:07:40 -      LMT     1921 Jan 15 # Uaobe
 475                         11:30   -       +1130   1942 Mar 15
 476                         9:00    -       +09     1944 Aug 15
 477                         11:30   -       +1130   1979 May
 478                         12:00   -       +12
 479 
 480 # New Caledonia
 481 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 482 Rule    NC      1977    1978    -       Dec     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    -
 483 Rule    NC      1978    1979    -       Feb     27      0:00    0       -
 484 Rule    NC      1996    only    -       Dec      1      2:00s   1:00    -
 485 # Shanks & Pottenger say the following was at 2:00; go with IATA.
 486 Rule    NC      1997    only    -       Mar      2      2:00s   0       -
 487 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 488 Zone    Pacific/Noumea  11:05:48 -      LMT     1912 Jan 13 # Nouméa
 489                         11:00   NC      +11/+12
 490 
 491 
 492 ###############################################################################
 493 
 494 # New Zealand
 495 
 496 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 497 Rule    NZ      1927    only    -       Nov      6      2:00    1:00    S


 558 
 559 
 560 # Niue
 561 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 562 Zone    Pacific/Niue    -11:19:40 -     LMT     1901        # Alofi
 563                         -11:20  -       -1120   1951
 564                         -11:30  -       -1130   1978 Oct  1
 565                         -11:00  -       -11
 566 
 567 # Norfolk
 568 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 569 Zone    Pacific/Norfolk 11:11:52 -      LMT     1901 # Kingston
 570                         11:12   -       +1112   1951
 571                         11:30   -       +1130   1974 Oct 27 02:00
 572                         11:30   1:00    +1230   1975 Mar  2 02:00
 573                         11:30   -       +1130   2015 Oct  4 02:00
 574                         11:00   -       +11
 575 
 576 # Palau (Belau)
 577 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 578 Zone Pacific/Palau      8:57:56 -       LMT     1901 # Koror

 579                         9:00    -       +09
 580 
 581 # Papua New Guinea
 582 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 583 Zone Pacific/Port_Moresby 9:48:40 -     LMT     1880
 584                         9:48:32 -       PMMT    1895 # Port Moresby Mean Time
 585                         10:00   -       +10
 586 #
 587 # From Paul Eggert (2014-10-13):
 588 # Base the Bougainville entry on the Arawa-Kieta region, which appears to have
 589 # the most people even though it was devastated in the Bougainville Civil War.
 590 #
 591 # Although Shanks gives 1942-03-15 / 1943-11-01 for UT +09, these dates
 592 # are apparently rough guesswork from the starts of military campaigns.
 593 # The World War II entries below are instead based on Arawa-Kieta.
 594 # The Japanese occupied Kieta in July 1942,
 595 # according to the Pacific War Online Encyclopedia
 596 # https://pwencycl.kgbudge.com/B/o/Bougainville.htm
 597 # and seem to have controlled it until their 1945-08-21 surrender.
 598 #


 821 Rule    Vanuatu 1992    1993    -       Jan     Sun>=23      0:00    0       -
 822 Rule    Vanuatu 1992    only    -       Oct     Sun>=23      0:00    1:00    -
 823 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 824 Zone    Pacific/Efate   11:13:16 -      LMT     1912 Jan 13 # Vila
 825                         11:00   Vanuatu +11/+12
 826 
 827 # Wallis and Futuna
 828 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 829 Zone    Pacific/Wallis  12:15:20 -      LMT     1901
 830                         12:00   -       +12
 831 
 832 ###############################################################################
 833 
 834 # NOTES
 835 
 836 # This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
 837 # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
 838 # tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
 839 # the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
 840 
 841 # From Paul Eggert (2017-02-10):
 842 #
 843 # Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:
 844 # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
 845 # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
 846 # Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.
 847 #
 848 # Many years ago Gwillim Law wrote that a good source
 849 # for time zone data was the International Air Transport
 850 # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
 851 # published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
 852 # of the IATA's data after 1990.  Except where otherwise noted,
 853 # IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.
 854 #
 855 # Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
 856 # Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which
 857 # I found in the UCLA library.
 858 #
 859 # For data circa 1899, a common source is:
 860 # Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94.
 861 # https://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359
 862 #
 863 # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
 864 # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
 865 #

 866 # The following abbreviations are from other sources.
 867 # Corrections are welcome!
 868 #               std     dst
 869 #               LMT             Local Mean Time
 870 #         8:00  AWST    AWDT    Western Australia
 871 #         9:30  ACST    ACDT    Central Australia
 872 #        10:00  AEST    AEDT    Eastern Australia
 873 #        10:00  GST             Guam through 2000
 874 #        10:00  ChST            Chamorro
 875 #        11:30  NZMT    NZST    New Zealand through 1945
 876 #        12:00  NZST    NZDT    New Zealand 1946-present
 877 #       -11:00  SST             Samoa
 878 #       -10:00  HST             Hawaii
 879 #
 880 # See the 'northamerica' file for Hawaii.
 881 # See the 'southamerica' file for Easter I and the Galápagos Is.
 882 
 883 ###############################################################################
 884 
 885 # Australia
 886 
 887 # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):
 888 # Daylight saving time has long been controversial in Australia, pitting
 889 # region against region, rural against urban, and local against global.
 890 # For example, in her review of Graeme Davison's _The Unforgiving
 891 # Minute: how Australians learned to tell the time_ (1993), Perth native
 892 # Phillipa J Martyr wrote, "The section entitled 'Saving Daylight' was
 893 # very informative, but was (as can, sadly, only be expected from a


1552 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/press/2000_09/2000_09_13-05.shtml (2000-09-13)
1553 # reports that Fiji has discontinued DST.
1554 
1555 
1556 # Kiribati
1557 
1558 # From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22):
1559 # Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (page 1) reports that Kiribati
1560 # "declared it the same day [throughout] the country as of Jan. 1, 1995"
1561 # as part of the competition to be first into the 21st century.
1562 
1563 # From Kerry Shetline (2018-02-03):
1564 # December 31 was the day that was skipped, so that the transition
1565 # would be from Friday December 30, 1994 to Sunday January 1, 1995.
1566 # From Paul Eggert (2018-02-04):
1567 # One source for this is page 202 of: Bartky IR. One Time Fits All:
1568 # The Campaigns for Global Uniformity (2007).
1569 
1570 # Kwajalein
1571 
1572 # In comp.risks 14.87 (26 August 1993), Peter Neumann writes:
1573 # I wonder what happened in Kwajalein, where there was NO Friday,
1574 # 1993-08-20.  Thursday night at midnight Kwajalein switched sides with
1575 # respect to the International Date Line, to rejoin its fellow islands,
1576 # going from 11:59 p.m. Thursday to 12:00 m. Saturday in a blink.




















1577 
1578 
1579 # N Mariana Is, Guam
1580 







1581 # Howse writes (p 153) "The Spaniards, on the other hand, reached the
1582 # Philippines and the Ladrones from America," and implies that the Ladrones
1583 # (now called the Marianas) kept American date for quite some time.
1584 # For now, we assume the Ladrones switched at the same time as the Philippines;
1585 # see Asia/Manila.
1586 





1587 # US Public Law 106-564 (2000-12-23) made UT +10 the official standard time,
1588 # under the name "Chamorro Standard Time".  There is no official abbreviation,
1589 # but Congressman Robert A. Underwood, author of the bill that became law,
1590 # wrote in a press release (2000-12-27) that he will seek the use of "ChST".
1591 





1592 
1593 # Micronesia





1594 
1595 # Alan Eugene Davis writes (1996-03-16),
1596 # "I am certain, having lived there for the past decade, that 'Truk'
1597 # (now properly known as Chuuk) ... is in the time zone GMT+10."
1598 #
1599 # Shanks & Pottenger write that Truk switched from UT +10 to +11
1600 # on 1978-10-01; ignore this for now.
1601 
1602 # From Paul Eggert (1999-10-29):
1603 # The Federated States of Micronesia Visitors Board writes in
1604 # The Federated States of Micronesia - Visitor Information (1999-01-26)
1605 # http://www.fsmgov.org/info/clocks.html
1606 # that Truk and Yap are UT +10, and Ponape and Kosrae are +11.
1607 # We don't know when Kosrae switched from +12; assume January 1 for now.
1608 

























































































1609 
1610 # Midway
1611 
1612 # From Charles T O'Connor, KMTH DJ (1956),
1613 # quoted in the KTMH section of the Radio Heritage Collection
1614 # <http://radiodx.com/spdxr/KMTH.htm> (2002-12-31):
1615 # For the past two months we've been on what is known as Daylight
1616 # Saving Time.  This time has put us on air at 5am in the morning,
1617 # your time down there in New Zealand.  Starting September 2, 1956
1618 # we'll again go back to Standard Time.  This'll mean that we'll go to
1619 # air at 6am your time.
1620 #
1621 # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23):
1622 # We don't know the date of that quote, but we'll guess they
1623 # started DST on June 3.  Possibly DST was observed other years
1624 # in Midway, but we have no record of it.
1625 























1626 # Norfolk
1627 
1628 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2015-09-23):
1629 # Norfolk Island will change ... from +1130 to +1100:
1630 # https://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/F2015L01483/Explanatory%20Statement/Text
1631 # ... at 12.30 am (by legal time in New South Wales) on 4 October 2015.
1632 # http://www.norfolkisland.gov.nf/nia/MediaRelease/Media%20Release%20Norfolk%20Island%20Standard%20Time%20Change.pdf
1633 
1634 # From Paul Eggert (2015-09-23):
1635 # Transitions before 2015 are from timeanddate.com, which consulted
1636 # the Norfolk Island Museum and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's
1637 # Norfolk Island station, and found no record of Norfolk observing DST
1638 # other than in 1974/5.  See:
1639 # https://www.timeanddate.com/time/australia/norfolk-island.html
1640 



1641 # Pitcairn
1642 
1643 # From Rives McDow (1999-11-08):
1644 # A Proclamation was signed by the Governor of Pitcairn on the 27th March 1998
1645 # with regard to Pitcairn Standard Time.  The Proclamation is as follows.
1646 #
1647 #       The local time for general purposes in the Islands shall be
1648 #       Co-ordinated Universal time minus 8 hours and shall be known
1649 #       as Pitcairn Standard Time.
1650 #
1651 # ... I have also seen Pitcairn listed as UTC minus 9 hours in several
1652 # references, and can only assume that this was an error in interpretation
1653 # somehow in light of this proclamation.
1654 
1655 # From Rives McDow (1999-11-09):
1656 # The Proclamation regarding Pitcairn time came into effect on 27 April 1998
1657 # ... at midnight.
1658 
1659 # From Howie Phelps (1999-11-10), who talked to a Pitcairner via shortwave:
1660 # Betty Christian told me yesterday that their local time is the same as


1784 # From Paul Eggert (2017-10-18):
1785 # For now, guess that DST is discontinued.  That's what the IATA is guessing.
1786 
1787 
1788 # Wake
1789 
1790 # From Vernice Anderson, Personal Secretary to Philip Jessup,
1791 # US Ambassador At Large (oral history interview, 1971-02-02):
1792 #
1793 # Saturday, the 14th [of October, 1950] - ...  The time was all the
1794 # more confusing at that point, because we had crossed the
1795 # International Date Line, thus getting two Sundays.  Furthermore, we
1796 # discovered that Wake Island had two hours of daylight saving time
1797 # making calculation of time in Washington difficult if not almost
1798 # impossible.
1799 #
1800 # https://www.trumanlibrary.org/oralhist/andrsonv.htm
1801 
1802 # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23):
1803 # We have no other report of DST in Wake Island, so omit this info for now.



1804 
1805 ###############################################################################
1806 
1807 # The International Date Line
1808 
1809 # From Gwillim Law (2000-01-03):
1810 #
1811 # The International Date Line is not defined by any international standard,
1812 # convention, or treaty.  Mapmakers are free to draw it as they please.
1813 # Reputable mapmakers will simply ensure that every point of land appears on
1814 # the correct side of the IDL, according to the date legally observed there.
1815 #
1816 # When Kiribati adopted a uniform date in 1995, thereby moving the Phoenix and
1817 # Line Islands to the west side of the IDL (or, if you prefer, moving the IDL
1818 # to the east side of the Phoenix and Line Islands), I suppose that most
1819 # mapmakers redrew the IDL following the boundary of Kiribati.  Even that line
1820 # has a rather arbitrary nature.  The straight-line boundaries between Pacific
1821 # island nations that are shown on many maps are based on an international
1822 # convention, but are not legally binding national borders.... The date is
1823 # governed by the IDL; therefore, even on the high seas, there may be some

























   1 # tzdb data for Australasia and environs, and for much of the Pacific
   2 
   3 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
   4 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
   5 
   6 # This file also includes Pacific islands.
   7 
   8 # Notes are at the end of this file
   9 
  10 ###############################################################################
  11 
  12 # Australia
  13 
  14 # Please see the notes below for the controversy about "EST" versus "AEST" etc.
  15 
  16 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
  17 Rule    Aus     1917    only    -       Jan      1      0:01    1:00    D
  18 Rule    Aus     1917    only    -       Mar     25      2:00    0       S
  19 Rule    Aus     1942    only    -       Jan      1      2:00    1:00    D
  20 Rule    Aus     1942    only    -       Mar     29      2:00    0       S


 385 Rule    Fiji    2012    2013    -       Jan     Sun>=18      3:00    0       -
 386 Rule    Fiji    2014    only    -       Jan     Sun>=18      2:00    0       -
 387 Rule    Fiji    2014    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    -
 388 Rule    Fiji    2015    max     -       Jan     Sun>=13      3:00    0       -
 389 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 390 Zone    Pacific/Fiji    11:55:44 -      LMT     1915 Oct 26 # Suva
 391                         12:00   Fiji    +12/+13
 392 
 393 # French Polynesia
 394 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 395 Zone    Pacific/Gambier  -8:59:48 -     LMT     1912 Oct # Rikitea
 396                          -9:00  -       -09
 397 Zone    Pacific/Marquesas -9:18:00 -    LMT     1912 Oct
 398                          -9:30  -       -0930
 399 Zone    Pacific/Tahiti   -9:58:16 -     LMT     1912 Oct # Papeete
 400                         -10:00  -       -10
 401 # Clipperton (near North America) is administered from French Polynesia;
 402 # it is uninhabited.
 403 
 404 # Guam
 405 
 406 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 407 # http://guamlegislature.com/Public_Laws_5th/PL05-025.pdf
 408 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-59-7-Guam-Daylight-Savings-Time-May-6-1959.pdf
 409 Rule    Guam    1959    only    -       Jun     27      2:00    1:00    D
 410 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-61-5-Revocation-of-Daylight-Saving-Time-and-Restoratio.pdf
 411 Rule    Guam    1961    only    -       Jan     29      2:00    0       S
 412 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-67-13-Guam-Daylight-Savings-Time.pdf
 413 Rule    Guam    1967    only    -       Sep      1      2:00    1:00    D
 414 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-69-2-Repeal-of-Guam-Daylight-Saving-Time.pdf
 415 Rule    Guam    1969    only    -       Jan     26      0:01    0       S
 416 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-69-10-Guam-Daylight-Saving-Time.pdf
 417 Rule    Guam    1969    only    -       Jun     22      2:00    1:00    D
 418 Rule    Guam    1969    only    -       Aug     31      2:00    0       S
 419 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-70-10-Guam-Daylight-Saving-Time.pdf
 420 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-70-30-End-of-Guam-Daylight-Saving-Time.pdf
 421 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-71-5-Guam-Daylight-Savings-Time.pdf
 422 Rule    Guam    1970    1971    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 423 Rule    Guam    1970    1971    -       Sep     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
 424 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-73-28.-Guam-Day-light-Saving-Time.pdf
 425 Rule    Guam    1973    only    -       Dec     16      2:00    1:00    D
 426 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-74-7-Guam-Daylight-Savings-Time-Rescinded.pdf
 427 Rule    Guam    1974    only    -       Feb     24      2:00    0       S
 428 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-76-13-Daylight-Savings-Time.pdf
 429 Rule    Guam    1976    only    -       May     26      2:00    1:00    D
 430 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-76-25-Revocation-of-E.O.-76-13.pdf
 431 Rule    Guam    1976    only    -       Aug     22      2:01    0       S
 432 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-77-4-Daylight-Savings-Time.pdf
 433 Rule    Guam    1977    only    -       Apr     24      2:00    1:00    D
 434 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-77-18-Guam-Standard-Time.pdf
 435 Rule    Guam    1977    only    -       Aug     28      2:00    0       S
 436 
 437 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 438 Zone    Pacific/Guam    -14:21:00 -     LMT     1844 Dec 31
 439                          9:39:00 -      LMT     1901        # Agana
 440                         10:00   -       GST     1941 Dec 10 # Guam
 441                          9:00   -       +09     1944 Jul 31
 442                         10:00   Guam    G%sT    2000 Dec 23
 443                         10:00   -       ChST    # Chamorro Standard Time
 444 Link Pacific/Guam Pacific/Saipan # N Mariana Is
 445 
 446 # Kiribati
 447 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 448 Zone Pacific/Tarawa      11:32:04 -     LMT     1901 # Bairiki
 449                          12:00  -       +12
 450 Zone Pacific/Enderbury  -11:24:20 -     LMT     1901
 451                         -12:00  -       -12     1979 Oct
 452                         -11:00  -       -11     1994 Dec 31
 453                          13:00  -       +13
 454 Zone Pacific/Kiritimati -10:29:20 -     LMT     1901
 455                         -10:40  -       -1040   1979 Oct
 456                         -10:00  -       -10     1994 Dec 31
 457                          14:00  -       +14
 458 
 459 # N Mariana Is
 460 # See Pacific/Guam.
 461 
 462 # Marshall Is
 463 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 464 Zone Pacific/Majuro      11:24:48 -     LMT     1901
 465                          11:00  -       +11     1914 Oct
 466                           9:00  -       +09     1919 Feb  1
 467                          11:00  -       +11     1937
 468                          10:00  -       +10     1941 Apr  1
 469                           9:00  -       +09     1944 Jan 30
 470                          11:00  -       +11     1969 Oct
 471                          12:00  -       +12
 472 Zone Pacific/Kwajalein   11:09:20 -     LMT     1901
 473                          11:00  -       +11     1937
 474                          10:00  -       +10     1941 Apr  1
 475                           9:00  -       +09     1944 Feb  6
 476                          11:00  -       +11     1969 Oct
 477                         -12:00  -       -12     1993 Aug 20 24:00
 478                          12:00  -       +12
 479 
 480 # Micronesia
 481 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 482 Zone Pacific/Chuuk      -13:52:52 -     LMT     1844 Dec 31
 483                          10:07:08 -     LMT     1901
 484                          10:00  -       +10     1914 Oct
 485                           9:00  -       +09     1919 Feb  1
 486                          10:00  -       +10     1941 Apr  1
 487                           9:00  -       +09     1945 Aug
 488                          10:00  -       +10
 489 Zone Pacific/Pohnpei    -13:27:08 -     LMT     1844 Dec 31     # Kolonia
 490                          10:32:52 -     LMT     1901
 491                          11:00  -       +11     1914 Oct
 492                           9:00  -       +09     1919 Feb  1
 493                          11:00  -       +11     1937
 494                          10:00  -       +10     1941 Apr  1
 495                           9:00  -       +09     1945 Aug
 496                          11:00  -       +11
 497 Zone Pacific/Kosrae     -13:08:04 -     LMT     1844 Dec 31
 498                          10:51:56 -     LMT     1901
 499                          11:00  -       +11     1914 Oct
 500                           9:00  -       +09     1919 Feb  1
 501                          11:00  -       +11     1937
 502                          10:00  -       +10     1941 Apr  1
 503                           9:00  -       +09     1945 Aug
 504                          11:00  -       +11     1969 Oct
 505                          12:00  -       +12     1999
 506                          11:00  -       +11
 507 
 508 # Nauru
 509 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 510 Zone    Pacific/Nauru   11:07:40 -      LMT     1921 Jan 15 # Uaobe
 511                         11:30   -       +1130   1942 Aug 29
 512                          9:00   -       +09     1945 Sep  8
 513                         11:30   -       +1130   1979 Feb 10  2:00
 514                         12:00   -       +12
 515 
 516 # New Caledonia
 517 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 518 Rule    NC      1977    1978    -       Dec     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    -
 519 Rule    NC      1978    1979    -       Feb     27      0:00    0       -
 520 Rule    NC      1996    only    -       Dec      1      2:00s   1:00    -
 521 # Shanks & Pottenger say the following was at 2:00; go with IATA.
 522 Rule    NC      1997    only    -       Mar      2      2:00s   0       -
 523 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 524 Zone    Pacific/Noumea  11:05:48 -      LMT     1912 Jan 13 # Nouméa
 525                         11:00   NC      +11/+12
 526 
 527 
 528 ###############################################################################
 529 
 530 # New Zealand
 531 
 532 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 533 Rule    NZ      1927    only    -       Nov      6      2:00    1:00    S


 594 
 595 
 596 # Niue
 597 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 598 Zone    Pacific/Niue    -11:19:40 -     LMT     1901        # Alofi
 599                         -11:20  -       -1120   1951
 600                         -11:30  -       -1130   1978 Oct  1
 601                         -11:00  -       -11
 602 
 603 # Norfolk
 604 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 605 Zone    Pacific/Norfolk 11:11:52 -      LMT     1901 # Kingston
 606                         11:12   -       +1112   1951
 607                         11:30   -       +1130   1974 Oct 27 02:00
 608                         11:30   1:00    +1230   1975 Mar  2 02:00
 609                         11:30   -       +1130   2015 Oct  4 02:00
 610                         11:00   -       +11
 611 
 612 # Palau (Belau)
 613 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 614 Zone Pacific/Palau      -15:02:04 -     LMT     1844 Dec 31     # Koror
 615                           8:57:56 -     LMT     1901
 616                           9:00  -       +09
 617 
 618 # Papua New Guinea
 619 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 620 Zone Pacific/Port_Moresby 9:48:40 -     LMT     1880
 621                         9:48:32 -       PMMT    1895 # Port Moresby Mean Time
 622                         10:00   -       +10
 623 #
 624 # From Paul Eggert (2014-10-13):
 625 # Base the Bougainville entry on the Arawa-Kieta region, which appears to have
 626 # the most people even though it was devastated in the Bougainville Civil War.
 627 #
 628 # Although Shanks gives 1942-03-15 / 1943-11-01 for UT +09, these dates
 629 # are apparently rough guesswork from the starts of military campaigns.
 630 # The World War II entries below are instead based on Arawa-Kieta.
 631 # The Japanese occupied Kieta in July 1942,
 632 # according to the Pacific War Online Encyclopedia
 633 # https://pwencycl.kgbudge.com/B/o/Bougainville.htm
 634 # and seem to have controlled it until their 1945-08-21 surrender.
 635 #


 858 Rule    Vanuatu 1992    1993    -       Jan     Sun>=23      0:00    0       -
 859 Rule    Vanuatu 1992    only    -       Oct     Sun>=23      0:00    1:00    -
 860 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 861 Zone    Pacific/Efate   11:13:16 -      LMT     1912 Jan 13 # Vila
 862                         11:00   Vanuatu +11/+12
 863 
 864 # Wallis and Futuna
 865 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 866 Zone    Pacific/Wallis  12:15:20 -      LMT     1901
 867                         12:00   -       +12
 868 
 869 ###############################################################################
 870 
 871 # NOTES
 872 
 873 # This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
 874 # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
 875 # tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
 876 # the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
 877 
 878 # From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18):
 879 #
 880 # Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:
 881 # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
 882 # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
 883 # Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.
 884 #
 885 # Many years ago Gwillim Law wrote that a good source
 886 # for time zone data was the International Air Transport
 887 # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
 888 # published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
 889 # of the IATA's data after 1990.  Except where otherwise noted,
 890 # IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.
 891 #
 892 # Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
 893 # Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which
 894 # I found in the UCLA library.
 895 #
 896 # For data circa 1899, a common source is:
 897 # Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94.
 898 # https://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359
 899 #
 900 # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
 901 # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
 902 #
 903 # I invented the abbreviation marked "*".
 904 # The following abbreviations are from other sources.
 905 # Corrections are welcome!
 906 #               std     dst
 907 #               LMT             Local Mean Time
 908 #         8:00  AWST    AWDT    Western Australia
 909 #         9:30  ACST    ACDT    Central Australia
 910 #        10:00  AEST    AEDT    Eastern Australia
 911 #        10:00  GST     GDT*    Guam through 2000
 912 #        10:00  ChST            Chamorro
 913 #        11:30  NZMT    NZST    New Zealand through 1945
 914 #        12:00  NZST    NZDT    New Zealand 1946-present
 915 #       -11:00  SST             Samoa
 916 #       -10:00  HST             Hawaii
 917 #
 918 # See the 'northamerica' file for Hawaii.
 919 # See the 'southamerica' file for Easter I and the Galápagos Is.
 920 
 921 ###############################################################################
 922 
 923 # Australia
 924 
 925 # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):
 926 # Daylight saving time has long been controversial in Australia, pitting
 927 # region against region, rural against urban, and local against global.
 928 # For example, in her review of Graeme Davison's _The Unforgiving
 929 # Minute: how Australians learned to tell the time_ (1993), Perth native
 930 # Phillipa J Martyr wrote, "The section entitled 'Saving Daylight' was
 931 # very informative, but was (as can, sadly, only be expected from a


1590 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/press/2000_09/2000_09_13-05.shtml (2000-09-13)
1591 # reports that Fiji has discontinued DST.
1592 
1593 
1594 # Kiribati
1595 
1596 # From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22):
1597 # Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (page 1) reports that Kiribati
1598 # "declared it the same day [throughout] the country as of Jan. 1, 1995"
1599 # as part of the competition to be first into the 21st century.
1600 
1601 # From Kerry Shetline (2018-02-03):
1602 # December 31 was the day that was skipped, so that the transition
1603 # would be from Friday December 30, 1994 to Sunday January 1, 1995.
1604 # From Paul Eggert (2018-02-04):
1605 # One source for this is page 202 of: Bartky IR. One Time Fits All:
1606 # The Campaigns for Global Uniformity (2007).
1607 
1608 # Kwajalein
1609 
1610 # From an AP article (1993-08-22):
1611 # "The nearly 3,000 Americans living on this remote Pacific atoll have a good
1612 # excuse for not remembering Saturday night: there wasn't one.  Residents were
1613 # going to bed Friday night and waking up Sunday morning because at midnight
1614 # -- 8 A.M. Eastern daylight time on Saturday -- Kwajalein was jumping from
1615 # one side of the international date line to the other."
1616 # "In Marshall Islands, Friday is followed by Sunday", NY Times. 1993-08-22.
1617 # https://www.nytimes.com/1993/08/22/world/in-marshall-islands-friday-is-followed-by-sunday.html
1618 
1619 # From Phake Nick (2018-10-27):
1620 # <https://wiki.suikawiki.org/n/南洋群島の標準時> ... pointed out that
1621 # currently tzdata say Pacific/Kwajalein switched from GMT+11 to GMT-12 in
1622 # 1969 October without explanation, however an 1993 article from NYT say it
1623 # synchorized its day with US mainland about 40 years ago and thus the switch
1624 # should occur at around 1950s instead.
1625 #
1626 # From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18):
1627 # The NYT (actually, AP) article is vague and possibly wrong about this.
1628 # The article says the earlier switch was "40 years ago when the United States
1629 # Army established a missile test range here".  However, the Kwajalein Test
1630 # Center was established on 1960-10-01 and was run by the US Navy.  It was
1631 # transferred to the US Army on 1964-07-01.  See "Seize the High Ground"
1632 # <https://history.army.mil/html/books/070/70-88-1/cmhPub_70-88-1.pdf>.
1633 # Given that Shanks was right on the money about the 1993 change, I'm inclined
1634 # to take Shanks's word for the 1969 change unless we find better evidence.
1635 
1636 
1637 # N Mariana Is, Guam
1638 
1639 # From Phake Nick (2018-10-27):
1640 # Guam Island was briefly annexed by Japan during ... year 1941-1944 ...
1641 # however there are no detailed information about what time it use during that
1642 # period.  It would probably be reasonable to assume Guam use GMT+9 during
1643 # that period of time like the surrounding area.
1644 
1645 # From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18):
1646 # Howse writes (p 153) "The Spaniards, on the other hand, reached the
1647 # Philippines and the Ladrones from America," and implies that the Ladrones
1648 # (now called the Marianas) kept American date for quite some time.
1649 # For now, we assume the Ladrones switched at the same time as the Philippines;
1650 # see Asia/Manila.
1651 #
1652 # Use 1941-12-10 and 1944-07-31 for Guam WWII transitions, as the rough start
1653 # and end of Japanese control of Agana.  We don't know whether the Northern
1654 # Marianas followed Guam's DST rules from 1959 through 1977; for now, assume
1655 # they did as that avoids the need for a separate zone due to our 1970 cutoff.
1656 #
1657 # US Public Law 106-564 (2000-12-23) made UT +10 the official standard time,
1658 # under the name "Chamorro Standard Time".  There is no official abbreviation,
1659 # but Congressman Robert A. Underwood, author of the bill that became law,
1660 # wrote in a press release (2000-12-27) that he will seek the use of "ChST".
1661 
1662 # See also the commentary for Micronesia.
1663 
1664 
1665 # Marshall Is
1666 # See the commentary for Micronesia.
1667 
1668 
1669 # Micronesia (and nearby)
1670 
1671 # From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18):
1672 # Like the Ladrones (see Guam commentary), assume the Spanish East Indies
1673 # kept American time until the Philippines switched at the end of 1844.
1674 
1675 # Alan Eugene Davis writes (1996-03-16),
1676 # "I am certain, having lived there for the past decade, that 'Truk'
1677 # (now properly known as Chuuk) ... is in the time zone GMT+10."
1678 #
1679 # Shanks & Pottenger write that Truk switched from UT +10 to +11
1680 # on 1978-10-01; ignore this for now.
1681 
1682 # From Paul Eggert (1999-10-29):
1683 # The Federated States of Micronesia Visitors Board writes in
1684 # The Federated States of Micronesia - Visitor Information (1999-01-26)
1685 # http://www.fsmgov.org/info/clocks.html
1686 # that Truk and Yap are UT +10, and Ponape and Kosrae are +11.
1687 # We don't know when Kosrae switched from +12; assume January 1 for now.
1688 
1689 # From Phake Nick (2018-10-27):
1690 #
1691 # From a Japanese wiki site https://wiki.suikawiki.org/n/南洋群島の標準時
1692 # ...
1693 # For "Southern Islands" (modern region of Mariana + Palau + Federation of
1694 # Micronesia + Marshall Islands):
1695 #
1696 # A 1906 Japanese magazine shown the Caroline Islands and Mariana Islands
1697 # who was occupied by Germany at the time as GMT+10, together with the like
1698 # of German New Guinea.  However there is a marking saying it have not been
1699 # implemented (yet).  No further information after that were found.
1700 #
1701 # Japan invaded those islands in 1914, and records shows that they were
1702 # instructed to use JST at the time.
1703 #
1704 # 1915 January telecommunication record on the Jaluit Atoll shows they use
1705 # the meridian of 170E as standard time (GMT+11:20), which is similar to the
1706 # longitude of the atoll.
1707 # 1915 February record say the 170E standard time is to be used until
1708 # February 9 noon, and after February 9 noon they are to use JST.
1709 # However these are time used within the Japanese Military at the time and
1710 # probably does not reflect the time used by local resident at the time (that
1711 # is if they keep their own time back then)
1712 #
1713 # In January 1919 the occupying force issued a command that split the area
1714 # into three different timezone with meridian of 135E, 150E, 165E (JST+0, +1,
1715 # +2), and the command was to become effective from February 1 of the same
1716 # year.  Despite the target of the command is still only for the occupying
1717 # force itself, further publication have described the time as the standard
1718 # time for the occupied area and thus it can probably be seen as such.
1719 #  * Area that use meridian of 135E: Palau and Yap civil administration area
1720 #    (Southern Islands Western Standard Time)
1721 #  * Area that use meridian of 150E: Truk (Chuuk) and Saipan civil
1722 #    administration area (Southern Islands Central Standard Time)
1723 #  * Area that use meridian of 165E: Ponape (Pohnpei) and Jaluit civil
1724 #    administration area (Southern Islands Eastern Standard Time).
1725 #  * In the next few years Japanese occupation of those islands have been
1726 #    formalized via League of Nation Mandate (South Pacific Mandate) and formal
1727 #    governance structure have been established, these district [become
1728 #    subprefectures] and timezone classification have been inherited as standard
1729 #    time of the area.
1730 #  * Saipan subprefecture include Mariana islands (exclude Guam which was
1731 #    occupied by America at the time), Palau and Yap subprefecture rule the
1732 #    Western Caroline Islands with 137E longitude as border, Truk and Ponape
1733 #    subprefecture rule the Eastern Caroline Islands with 154E as border, Ponape
1734 #    subprefecture also rule part of Marshall Islands to the west of 164E
1735 #    starting from (1918?) and Jaluit subprefecture rule the rest of the
1736 #    Marshall Islands.
1737 #
1738 # And then in year 1937, an announcement was made to change the time in the
1739 # area into 2 timezones:
1740 #  * Area that use meridian of 135E: area administered by Palau, Yap and
1741 #    Saipan subprefecture (Southern Islands Western Standard Time)
1742 #  * Area that use meridian of 150E: area administered by Truk (Chuuk),
1743 #    Ponape (Pohnpei) and Jaluit subprefecture (Southern Islands Eastern
1744 #    Standard Time)
1745 #
1746 # Another announcement issued in 1941 say that on April 1 that year,
1747 # standard time of the Southern Islands would be changed to use the meridian
1748 # of 135E (GMT+9), and thus abolishing timezone different within the area.
1749 #
1750 # Then Pacific theater of WWII started and Japan slowly lose control on the
1751 # island.  The webpage I linked above contain no information during this
1752 # period of time....
1753 #
1754 # After the end of WWII, in 1946 February, a document written by the
1755 # (former?) Japanese military personnel describe there are 3 hours time
1756 # different between Caroline islands time/Wake island time and the Chungking
1757 # time, which would mean the time being used there at the time was GMT+10.
1758 #
1759 # After that, the area become Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands
1760 # under American administration from year 1947.  The site listed some
1761 # American/International books/maps/publications about time used in those
1762 # area during this period of time but they doesn't seems to be reliable
1763 # information so it would be the best if someone know where can more reliable
1764 # information can be found.
1765 #
1766 #
1767 # From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18):
1768 #
1769 # For the above, use vague dates like "1914" and "1945" for transitions that
1770 # plausibly exist but for which the details are not known.  The information
1771 # for Wake is too sketchy to act on.
1772 #
1773 # The 1906 GMT+10 info about German-controlled islands might not have been
1774 # done, so omit it from the data for now.
1775 #
1776 # The Jaluit info governs Kwajalein.
1777 
1778 
1779 # Midway
1780 
1781 # From Charles T O'Connor, KMTH DJ (1956),
1782 # quoted in the KTMH section of the Radio Heritage Collection
1783 # <http://radiodx.com/spdxr/KMTH.htm> (2002-12-31):
1784 # For the past two months we've been on what is known as Daylight
1785 # Saving Time.  This time has put us on air at 5am in the morning,
1786 # your time down there in New Zealand.  Starting September 2, 1956
1787 # we'll again go back to Standard Time.  This'll mean that we'll go to
1788 # air at 6am your time.
1789 #
1790 # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23):
1791 # We don't know the date of that quote, but we'll guess they
1792 # started DST on June 3.  Possibly DST was observed other years
1793 # in Midway, but we have no record of it.
1794 
1795 # Nauru
1796 
1797 # From Phake Nick (2018-10-31):
1798 # Currently, the tz database say Nauru use LMT until 1921, and then
1799 # switched to GMT+11:30 for the next two decades.
1800 # However, a number of timezone map published in America/Japan back then
1801 # showed its timezone as GMT+11 per https://wiki.suikawiki.org/n/ナウルの標準時
1802 # And it would also be nice if the 1921 transition date could be sourced.
1803 # ...
1804 # The "Nauru Standard Time Act 1978 Time Change"
1805 # http://ronlaw.gov.nr/nauru_lpms/files/gazettes/4b23a17d2030150404db7a5fa5872f52.pdf#page=3
1806 # based on "Nauru Standard Time Act 1978 Time Change"
1807 # http://www.paclii.org/nr/legis/num_act/nsta1978207/ defined that "Nauru
1808 # Alternative Time" (GMT+12) should be in effect from 1979 Feb.
1809 #
1810 # From Paul Eggert (2018-11-19):
1811 # The 1921-01-15 introduction of standard time is in Shanks; it is also in
1812 # "Standard Time Throughout the World", US National Bureau of Standards (1935),
1813 # page 3, which does not give the UT offset.  In response to a comment by
1814 # Phake Nick I set the Nauru time of occupation by Japan to
1815 # 1942-08-29/1945-09-08 by using dates from:
1816 # https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_occupation_of_Nauru
1817 
1818 # Norfolk
1819 
1820 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2015-09-23):
1821 # Norfolk Island will change ... from +1130 to +1100:
1822 # https://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/F2015L01483/Explanatory%20Statement/Text
1823 # ... at 12.30 am (by legal time in New South Wales) on 4 October 2015.
1824 # http://www.norfolkisland.gov.nf/nia/MediaRelease/Media%20Release%20Norfolk%20Island%20Standard%20Time%20Change.pdf
1825 
1826 # From Paul Eggert (2015-09-23):
1827 # Transitions before 2015 are from timeanddate.com, which consulted
1828 # the Norfolk Island Museum and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's
1829 # Norfolk Island station, and found no record of Norfolk observing DST
1830 # other than in 1974/5.  See:
1831 # https://www.timeanddate.com/time/australia/norfolk-island.html
1832 
1833 # Palau
1834 # See commentary for Micronesia.
1835 
1836 # Pitcairn
1837 
1838 # From Rives McDow (1999-11-08):
1839 # A Proclamation was signed by the Governor of Pitcairn on the 27th March 1998
1840 # with regard to Pitcairn Standard Time.  The Proclamation is as follows.
1841 #
1842 #       The local time for general purposes in the Islands shall be
1843 #       Co-ordinated Universal time minus 8 hours and shall be known
1844 #       as Pitcairn Standard Time.
1845 #
1846 # ... I have also seen Pitcairn listed as UTC minus 9 hours in several
1847 # references, and can only assume that this was an error in interpretation
1848 # somehow in light of this proclamation.
1849 
1850 # From Rives McDow (1999-11-09):
1851 # The Proclamation regarding Pitcairn time came into effect on 27 April 1998
1852 # ... at midnight.
1853 
1854 # From Howie Phelps (1999-11-10), who talked to a Pitcairner via shortwave:
1855 # Betty Christian told me yesterday that their local time is the same as


1979 # From Paul Eggert (2017-10-18):
1980 # For now, guess that DST is discontinued.  That's what the IATA is guessing.
1981 
1982 
1983 # Wake
1984 
1985 # From Vernice Anderson, Personal Secretary to Philip Jessup,
1986 # US Ambassador At Large (oral history interview, 1971-02-02):
1987 #
1988 # Saturday, the 14th [of October, 1950] - ...  The time was all the
1989 # more confusing at that point, because we had crossed the
1990 # International Date Line, thus getting two Sundays.  Furthermore, we
1991 # discovered that Wake Island had two hours of daylight saving time
1992 # making calculation of time in Washington difficult if not almost
1993 # impossible.
1994 #
1995 # https://www.trumanlibrary.org/oralhist/andrsonv.htm
1996 
1997 # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23):
1998 # We have no other report of DST in Wake Island, so omit this info for now.
1999 
2000 # See also the commentary for Micronesia.
2001 
2002 
2003 ###############################################################################
2004 
2005 # The International Date Line
2006 
2007 # From Gwillim Law (2000-01-03):
2008 #
2009 # The International Date Line is not defined by any international standard,
2010 # convention, or treaty.  Mapmakers are free to draw it as they please.
2011 # Reputable mapmakers will simply ensure that every point of land appears on
2012 # the correct side of the IDL, according to the date legally observed there.
2013 #
2014 # When Kiribati adopted a uniform date in 1995, thereby moving the Phoenix and
2015 # Line Islands to the west side of the IDL (or, if you prefer, moving the IDL
2016 # to the east side of the Phoenix and Line Islands), I suppose that most
2017 # mapmakers redrew the IDL following the boundary of Kiribati.  Even that line
2018 # has a rather arbitrary nature.  The straight-line boundaries between Pacific
2019 # island nations that are shown on many maps are based on an international
2020 # convention, but are not legally binding national borders.... The date is
2021 # governed by the IDL; therefore, even on the high seas, there may be some


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