8216178: (tz) Upgrade time-zone data to tzdata2018i
Reviewed-by: duke

   1 #
   2 # DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
   3 #
   4 # This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   5 # under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
   6 # published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
   7 # particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
   8 # by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
   9 #
  10 # This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  11 # ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  12 # FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  13 # version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  14 # accompanied this code).
  15 #
  16 # You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  17 # 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  18 # Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  19 #
  20 # Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  21 # or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  22 # questions.
  23 #
  24 # tzdb data for North and Central America and environs
  25 
  26 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
  27 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
  28 
  29 # also includes Central America and the Caribbean
  30 
  31 # This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
  32 # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
  33 # tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
  34 # the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
  35 
  36 # From Paul Eggert (1999-03-22):
  37 # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
  38 # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
  39 
  40 ###############################################################################
  41 
  42 # United States
  43 
  44 # From Paul Eggert (1999-03-31):
  45 # Howse writes (pp 121-125) that time zones were invented by
  46 # Professor Charles Ferdinand Dowd (1825-1904),
  47 # Principal of Temple Grove Ladies' Seminary (Saratoga Springs, NY).
  48 # His pamphlet "A System of National Time for Railroads" (1870)
  49 # was the result of his proposals at the Convention of Railroad Trunk Lines
  50 # in New York City (1869-10).  His 1870 proposal was based on Washington, DC,
  51 # but in 1872-05 he moved the proposed origin to Greenwich.
  52 
  53 # From Paul Eggert (2018-03-20):
  54 # Dowd's proposal left many details unresolved, such as where to draw
  55 # lines between time zones.  The key individual who made time zones
  56 # work in the US was William Frederick Allen - railway engineer,
  57 # managing editor of the Travelers' Guide, and secretary of the
  58 # General Time Convention, a railway standardization group.  Allen
  59 # spent months in dialogs with scientific and railway leaders,
  60 # developed a workable plan to institute time zones, and presented it
  61 # to the General Time Convention on 1883-04-11, saying that his plan
  62 # meant "local time would be practically abolished" - a plus for
  63 # railway scheduling.  By the next convention on 1883-10-11 nearly all
  64 # railroads had agreed and it took effect on 1883-11-18.  That Sunday
  65 # was called the "day of two noons", as some locations observed noon
  66 # twice.  Allen witnessed the transition in New York City, writing:
  67 #
  68 #   I heard the bells of St. Paul's strike on the old time.  Four
  69 #   minutes later, obedient to the electrical signal from the Naval
  70 #   Observatory ... the time-ball made its rapid descent, the chimes
  71 #   of old Trinity rang twelve measured strokes, and local time was
  72 #   abandoned, probably forever.
  73 #
  74 # Most of the US soon followed suit.  See:
  75 # Bartky IR. The adoption of standard time. Technol Cult 1989 Jan;30(1):25-56.
  76 # https://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3105430
  77 
  78 # From Paul Eggert (2005-04-16):
  79 # That 1883 transition occurred at 12:00 new time, not at 12:00 old time.
  80 # See p 46 of David Prerau, Seize the daylight, Thunder's Mouth Press (2005).
  81 
  82 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
  83 # A good source for time zone historical data in the US is
  84 # Thomas G. Shanks, The American Atlas (5th edition),
  85 # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1991).
  86 # Make sure you have the errata sheet; the book is somewhat useless without it.
  87 # It is the source for most of the pre-1991 US entries below.
  88 
  89 # From Paul Eggert (2001-03-06):
  90 # Daylight Saving Time was first suggested as a joke by Benjamin Franklin
  91 # in his whimsical essay "An Economical Project for Diminishing the Cost
  92 # of Light" published in the Journal de Paris (1784-04-26).
  93 # Not everyone is happy with the results:
  94 #
  95 #       I don't really care how time is reckoned so long as there is some
  96 #       agreement about it, but I object to being told that I am saving
  97 #       daylight when my reason tells me that I am doing nothing of the kind.
  98 #       I even object to the implication that I am wasting something
  99 #       valuable if I stay in bed after the sun has risen.  As an admirer
 100 #       of moonlight I resent the bossy insistence of those who want to
 101 #       reduce my time for enjoying it.  At the back of the Daylight Saving
 102 #       scheme I detect the bony, blue-fingered hand of Puritanism, eager
 103 #       to push people into bed earlier, and get them up earlier, to make
 104 #       them healthy, wealthy and wise in spite of themselves.
 105 #
 106 #        -- Robertson Davies, The diary of Samuel Marchbanks,
 107 #          Clarke, Irwin (1947), XIX, Sunday
 108 #
 109 # For more about the first ten years of DST in the United States, see
 110 # Robert Garland, Ten years of daylight saving from the Pittsburgh standpoint
 111 # (Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, 1927).
 112 # http://www.clpgh.org/exhibit/dst.html
 113 #
 114 # Shanks says that DST was called "War Time" in the US in 1918 and 1919.
 115 # However, DST was imposed by the Standard Time Act of 1918, which
 116 # was the first nationwide legal time standard, and apparently
 117 # time was just called "Standard Time" or "Daylight Saving Time".
 118 
 119 # From Arthur David Olson:
 120 # US Daylight Saving Time ended on the last Sunday of *October* in 1974.
 121 # See, for example, the front page of the Saturday, 1974-10-26
 122 # and Sunday, 1974-10-27 editions of the Washington Post.
 123 
 124 # From Arthur David Olson:
 125 # Before the Uniform Time Act of 1966 took effect in 1967, observance of
 126 # Daylight Saving Time in the US was by local option, except during wartime.
 127 
 128 # From Arthur David Olson (2000-09-25):
 129 # Last night I heard part of a rebroadcast of a 1945 Arch Oboler radio drama.
 130 # In the introduction, Oboler spoke of "Eastern Peace Time."
 131 # An AltaVista search turned up:
 132 # https://web.archive.org/web/20000926032210/http://rowayton.org/rhs/hstaug45.html
 133 # "When the time is announced over the radio now, it is 'Eastern Peace
 134 # Time' instead of the old familiar 'Eastern War Time.'  Peace is wonderful."
 135 # (August 1945) by way of confirmation.
 136 #
 137 # From Paul Eggert (2017-09-23):
 138 # This was the V-J Day issue of the Clamdigger, a Rowayton, CT newsletter.
 139 
 140 # From Joseph Gallant citing
 141 # George H. Douglas, _The Early Days of Radio Broadcasting_ (1987):
 142 # At 7 P.M. (Eastern War Time) [on 1945-08-14], the networks were set
 143 # to switch to London for Attlee's address, but the American people
 144 # never got to hear his speech live. According to one press account,
 145 # CBS' Bob Trout was first to announce the word of Japan's surrender,
 146 # but a few seconds later, NBC, ABC and Mutual also flashed the word
 147 # of surrender, all of whom interrupting the bells of Big Ben in
 148 # London which were to precede Mr. Attlee's speech.
 149 
 150 # From Paul Eggert (2003-02-09): It was Robert St John, not Bob Trout.  From
 151 # Myrna Oliver's obituary of St John on page B16 of today's Los Angeles Times:
 152 #
 153 # ... a war-weary U.S. clung to radios, awaiting word of Japan's surrender.
 154 # Any announcement from Asia would reach St. John's New York newsroom on a
 155 # wire service teletype machine, which had prescribed signals for major news.
 156 # Associated Press, for example, would ring five bells before spewing out
 157 # typed copy of an important story, and 10 bells for news "of transcendental
 158 # importance."
 159 #
 160 # On Aug. 14, stalling while talking steadily into the NBC networks' open
 161 # microphone, St. John heard five bells and waited only to hear a sixth bell,
 162 # before announcing confidently: "Ladies and gentlemen, World War II is over.
 163 # The Japanese have agreed to our surrender terms."
 164 #
 165 # He had scored a 20-second scoop on other broadcasters.
 166 
 167 # From Arthur David Olson (2005-08-22):
 168 # Paul has been careful to use the "US" rules only in those locations
 169 # that are part of the United States; this reflects the real scope of
 170 # U.S. government action.  So even though the "US" rules have changed
 171 # in the latest release, other countries won't be affected.
 172 
 173 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 174 Rule    US      1918    1919    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 175 Rule    US      1918    1919    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 176 Rule    US      1942    only    -       Feb     9       2:00    1:00    W # War
 177 Rule    US      1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace
 178 Rule    US      1945    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 179 Rule    US      1967    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 180 Rule    US      1967    1973    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 181 Rule    US      1974    only    -       Jan     6       2:00    1:00    D
 182 Rule    US      1975    only    -       Feb     23      2:00    1:00    D
 183 Rule    US      1976    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 184 Rule    US      1987    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
 185 Rule    US      2007    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
 186 Rule    US      2007    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
 187 
 188 # From Arthur David Olson, 2005-12-19
 189 # We generate the files specified below to guard against old files with
 190 # obsolete information being left in the time zone binary directory.
 191 # We limit the list to names that have appeared in previous versions of
 192 # this time zone package.
 193 # We do these as separate Zones rather than as Links to avoid problems if
 194 # a particular place changes whether it observes DST.
 195 # We put these specifications here in the northamerica file both to
 196 # increase the chances that they'll actually get compiled and to
 197 # avoid the need to duplicate the US rules in another file.
 198 
 199 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 200 Zone    EST              -5:00  -       EST
 201 Zone    MST              -7:00  -       MST
 202 Zone    HST             -10:00  -       HST
 203 Zone    EST5EDT          -5:00  US      E%sT
 204 Zone    CST6CDT          -6:00  US      C%sT
 205 Zone    MST7MDT          -7:00  US      M%sT
 206 Zone    PST8PDT          -8:00  US      P%sT
 207 
 208 # From U. S. Naval Observatory (1989-01-19):
 209 # USA  EASTERN       5 H  BEHIND UTC    NEW YORK, WASHINGTON
 210 # USA  EASTERN       4 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30
 211 # USA  CENTRAL       6 H  BEHIND UTC    CHICAGO, HOUSTON
 212 # USA  CENTRAL       5 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30
 213 # USA  MOUNTAIN      7 H  BEHIND UTC    DENVER
 214 # USA  MOUNTAIN      6 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30
 215 # USA  PACIFIC       8 H  BEHIND UTC    L.A., SAN FRANCISCO
 216 # USA  PACIFIC       7 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30
 217 # USA  ALASKA STD    9 H  BEHIND UTC    MOST OF ALASKA     (AKST)
 218 # USA  ALASKA STD    8 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30 (AKDT)
 219 # USA  ALEUTIAN     10 H  BEHIND UTC    ISLANDS WEST OF 170W
 220 # USA    "           9 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30
 221 # USA  HAWAII       10 H  BEHIND UTC
 222 # USA  BERING       11 H  BEHIND UTC    SAMOA, MIDWAY
 223 
 224 # From Arthur David Olson (1989-01-21):
 225 # The above dates are for 1988.
 226 # Note the "AKST" and "AKDT" abbreviations, the claim that there's
 227 # no DST in Samoa, and the claim that there is DST in Alaska and the
 228 # Aleutians.
 229 
 230 # From Arthur David Olson (1988-02-13):
 231 # Legal standard time zone names, from United States Code (1982 Edition and
 232 # Supplement III), Title 15, Chapter 6, Section 260 and forward.  First, names
 233 # up to 1967-04-01 (when most provisions of the Uniform Time Act of 1966
 234 # took effect), as explained in sections 263 and 261:
 235 #       (none)
 236 #       United States standard eastern time
 237 #       United States standard mountain time
 238 #       United States standard central time
 239 #       United States standard Pacific time
 240 #       (none)
 241 #       United States standard Alaska time
 242 #       (none)
 243 # Next, names from 1967-04-01 until 1983-11-30 (the date for
 244 # public law 98-181):
 245 #       Atlantic standard time
 246 #       eastern standard time
 247 #       central standard time
 248 #       mountain standard time
 249 #       Pacific standard time
 250 #       Yukon standard time
 251 #       Alaska-Hawaii standard time
 252 #       Bering standard time
 253 # And after 1983-11-30:
 254 #       Atlantic standard time
 255 #       eastern standard time
 256 #       central standard time
 257 #       mountain standard time
 258 #       Pacific standard time
 259 #       Alaska standard time
 260 #       Hawaii-Aleutian standard time
 261 #       Samoa standard time
 262 # The law doesn't give abbreviations.
 263 #
 264 # From Paul Eggert (2016-12-19):
 265 # Here are URLs for the 1918 and 1966 legislation:
 266 # http://uscode.house.gov/statviewer.htm?volume=40&page=451
 267 # http://uscode.house.gov/statviewer.htm?volume=80&page=108
 268 # Although the 1918 names were officially "United States Standard
 269 # Eastern Time" and similarly for "Central", "Mountain", "Pacific",
 270 # and "Alaska", in practice "Standard" was placed just before "Time",
 271 # as codified in 1966.  In practice, Alaska time was abbreviated "AST"
 272 # before 1968.  Summarizing the 1967 name changes:
 273 #       1918 names                      1967 names
 274 #  -08  Standard Pacific Time (PST)     Pacific standard time (PST)
 275 #  -09  (unofficial) Yukon (YST)        Yukon standard time (YST)
 276 #  -10  Standard Alaska Time (AST)      Alaska-Hawaii standard time (AHST)
 277 #  -11  (unofficial) Nome (NST)         Bering standard time (BST)
 278 #
 279 # From Paul Eggert (2000-01-08), following a heads-up from Rives McDow:
 280 # Public law 106-564 (2000-12-23) introduced ... "Chamorro Standard Time"
 281 # for time in Guam and the Northern Marianas.  See the file "australasia".
 282 #
 283 # From Paul Eggert (2015-04-17):
 284 # HST and HDT are standardized abbreviations for Hawaii-Aleutian
 285 # standard and daylight times.  See section 9.47 (p 234) of the
 286 # U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual (2008)
 287 # https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/GPO-STYLEMANUAL-2008/pdf/GPO-STYLEMANUAL-2008.pdf
 288 
 289 # From Arthur David Olson, 2005-08-09
 290 # The following was signed into law on 2005-08-08.
 291 #
 292 # H.R. 6, Energy Policy Act of 2005, SEC. 110. DAYLIGHT SAVINGS.
 293 #   (a) Amendment.--Section 3(a) of the Uniform Time Act of 1966 (15
 294 #   U.S.C. 260a(a)) is amended--
 295 #     (1) by striking "first Sunday of April" and inserting "second
 296 #     Sunday of March"; and
 297 #     (2) by striking "last Sunday of October" and inserting "first
 298 #     Sunday of November'.
 299 #   (b) Effective Date.--Subsection (a) shall take effect 1 year after the
 300 #   date of enactment of this Act or March 1, 2007, whichever is later.
 301 #   (c) Report to Congress.--Not later than 9 months after the effective
 302 #   date stated in subsection (b), the Secretary shall report to Congress
 303 #   on the impact of this section on energy consumption in the United
 304 #   States.
 305 #   (d) Right to Revert.--Congress retains the right to revert the
 306 #   Daylight Saving Time back to the 2005 time schedules once the
 307 #   Department study is complete.
 308 
 309 # US eastern time, represented by New York
 310 
 311 # Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, most of Florida,
 312 # Georgia, southeast Indiana (Dearborn and Ohio counties), eastern Kentucky
 313 # (except America/Kentucky/Louisville below), Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts,
 314 # New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio,
 315 # Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, eastern Tennessee,
 316 # Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia
 317 
 318 # From Dave Cantor (2004-11-02):
 319 # Early this summer I had the occasion to visit the Mount Washington
 320 # Observatory weather station atop (of course!) Mount Washington [, NH]....
 321 # One of the staff members said that the station was on Eastern Standard Time
 322 # and didn't change their clocks for Daylight Saving ... so that their
 323 # reports will always have times which are 5 hours behind UTC.
 324 
 325 # From Paul Eggert (2005-08-26):
 326 # According to today's Huntsville Times
 327 # http://www.al.com/news/huntsvilletimes/index.ssf?/base/news/1125047783228320.xml&coll=1
 328 # a few towns on Alabama's "eastern border with Georgia, such as Phenix City
 329 # in Russell County, Lanett in Chambers County and some towns in Lee County,
 330 # set their watches and clocks on Eastern time."  It quotes H.H. "Bubba"
 331 # Roberts, city administrator in Phenix City. as saying "We are in the Central
 332 # time zone, but we do go by the Eastern time zone because so many people work
 333 # in Columbus."
 334 #
 335 # From Paul Eggert (2017-02-22):
 336 # Four cities are involved.  The two not mentioned above are Smiths Station
 337 # and Valley.  Barbara Brooks, Valley's assistant treasurer, heard it started
 338 # because West Point Pepperell textile mills were in Alabama while the
 339 # corporate office was in Georgia, and residents voted to keep Eastern
 340 # time even after the mills closed.  See: Kazek K. Did you know which
 341 # Alabama towns are in a different time zone?  al.com 2017-02-06.
 342 # http://www.al.com/living/index.ssf/2017/02/do_you_know_which_alabama_town.html
 343 
 344 # From Paul Eggert (2014-09-06):
 345 # Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 44, 4 (1884-02-08), 208
 346 # says that New York City Hall time was 3 minutes 58.4 seconds fast of
 347 # Eastern time (i.e., -4:56:01.6) just before the 1883 switch.  Round to the
 348 # nearest second.
 349 
 350 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 351 Rule    NYC     1920    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 352 Rule    NYC     1920    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 353 Rule    NYC     1921    1966    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 354 Rule    NYC     1921    1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 355 Rule    NYC     1955    1966    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 356 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 357 Zone America/New_York   -4:56:02 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:03:58
 358                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1920
 359                         -5:00   NYC     E%sT    1942
 360                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1946
 361                         -5:00   NYC     E%sT    1967
 362                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 363 
 364 # US central time, represented by Chicago
 365 
 366 # Alabama, Arkansas, Florida panhandle (Bay, Calhoun, Escambia,
 367 # Gulf, Holmes, Jackson, Okaloosa, Santa Rosa, Walton, and
 368 # Washington counties), Illinois, western Indiana
 369 # (Gibson, Jasper, Lake, LaPorte, Newton, Porter, Posey, Spencer,
 370 # Vanderburgh, and Warrick counties), Iowa, most of Kansas, western
 371 # Kentucky, Louisiana, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, eastern
 372 # Nebraska, eastern North Dakota, Oklahoma, eastern South Dakota,
 373 # western Tennessee, most of Texas, Wisconsin
 374 
 375 # From Paul Eggert (2018-01-07):
 376 # In 1869 the Chicago Astronomical Society contracted with the city to keep
 377 # time.  Though delayed by the Great Fire, by 1880 a wire ran from the
 378 # Dearborn Observatory (on the University of Chicago campus) to City Hall,
 379 # which then sent signals to police and fire stations.  However, railroads got
 380 # their time signals from the Allegheny Observatory, the Madison Observatory,
 381 # the Ann Arbor Observatory, etc., so their clocks did not agree with each
 382 # other or with the city's official time.  The confusion took some years to
 383 # clear up.  See:
 384 # Moser M. How Chicago gave America its time zones. Chicago. 2018-01-04.
 385 # http://www.chicagomag.com/city-life/January-2018/How-Chicago-Gave-America-Its-Time-Zones/
 386 
 387 # From Larry M. Smith (2006-04-26) re Wisconsin:
 388 # https://docs.legis.wisconsin.gov/statutes/statutes/175.pdf
 389 # is currently enforced at the 01:00 time of change.  Because the local
 390 # "bar time" in the state corresponds to 02:00, a number of citations
 391 # are issued for the "sale of class 'B' alcohol after prohibited
 392 # hours" within the deviated hour of this change every year....
 393 #
 394 # From Douglas R. Bomberg (2007-03-12):
 395 # Wisconsin has enacted (nearly eleventh-hour) legislation to get WI
 396 # Statue 175 closer in synch with the US Congress' intent....
 397 # https://docs.legis.wisconsin.gov/2007/related/acts/3
 398 
 399 # From an email administrator of the City of Fort Pierre, SD (2015-12-21):
 400 # Fort Pierre is technically located in the Mountain time zone as is
 401 # the rest of Stanley County.  Most of Stanley County and Fort Pierre
 402 # uses the Central time zone due to doing most of their business in
 403 # Pierre so it simplifies schedules.  I have lived in Stanley County
 404 # all my life and it has been that way since I can remember.  (43 years!)
 405 #
 406 # From Paul Eggert (2015-12-25):
 407 # Assume this practice predates 1970, so Fort Pierre can use America/Chicago.
 408 
 409 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 410 Rule    Chicago 1920    only    -       Jun     13      2:00    1:00    D
 411 Rule    Chicago 1920    1921    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 412 Rule    Chicago 1921    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 413 Rule    Chicago 1922    1966    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 414 Rule    Chicago 1922    1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 415 Rule    Chicago 1955    1966    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 416 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 417 Zone America/Chicago    -5:50:36 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:09:24
 418                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1920
 419                         -6:00   Chicago C%sT    1936 Mar  1  2:00
 420                         -5:00   -       EST     1936 Nov 15  2:00
 421                         -6:00   Chicago C%sT    1942
 422                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
 423                         -6:00   Chicago C%sT    1967
 424                         -6:00   US      C%sT
 425 # Oliver County, ND switched from mountain to central time on 1992-10-25.
 426 Zone America/North_Dakota/Center -6:45:12 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:14:48
 427                         -7:00   US      M%sT    1992 Oct 25  2:00
 428                         -6:00   US      C%sT
 429 # Morton County, ND, switched from mountain to central time on
 430 # 2003-10-26, except for the area around Mandan which was already central time.
 431 # See <http://dmses.dot.gov/docimages/p63/135818.pdf>.
 432 # Officially this switch also included part of Sioux County, and
 433 # Jones, Mellette, and Todd Counties in South Dakota;
 434 # but in practice these other counties were already observing central time.
 435 # See <http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/EPA-IMPACT/2003/October/Day-28/i27056.htm>.
 436 Zone America/North_Dakota/New_Salem -6:45:39 - LMT      1883 Nov 18 12:14:21
 437                         -7:00   US      M%sT    2003 Oct 26  2:00
 438                         -6:00   US      C%sT
 439 
 440 # From Josh Findley (2011-01-21):
 441 # ...it appears that Mercer County, North Dakota, changed from the
 442 # mountain time zone to the central time zone at the last transition from
 443 # daylight-saving to standard time (on Nov. 7, 2010):
 444 # https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-29/html/2010-24376.htm
 445 # http://www.bismarcktribune.com/news/local/article_1eb1b588-c758-11df-b472-001cc4c03286.html
 446 
 447 # From Andy Lipscomb (2011-01-24):
 448 # ...according to the Census Bureau, the largest city is Beulah (although
 449 # it's commonly referred to as Beulah-Hazen, with Hazen being the next
 450 # largest city in Mercer County).  Google Maps places Beulah's city hall
 451 # at 47° 15' 51" N, 101° 46' 40" W, which yields an offset of 6h47'07".
 452 
 453 Zone America/North_Dakota/Beulah -6:47:07 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:12:53
 454                         -7:00   US      M%sT    2010 Nov  7  2:00
 455                         -6:00   US      C%sT
 456 
 457 # US mountain time, represented by Denver
 458 #
 459 # Colorado, far western Kansas, Montana, western
 460 # Nebraska, Nevada border (Jackpot, Owyhee, and Mountain City),
 461 # New Mexico, southwestern North Dakota,
 462 # western South Dakota, far western Texas (El Paso County, Hudspeth County,
 463 # and Pine Springs and Nickel Creek in Culberson County), Utah, Wyoming
 464 #
 465 # From Paul Eggert (2018-10-25):
 466 # On 1921-03-04 federal law placed all of Texas into the central time zone.
 467 # However, El Paso ignored the law for decades and continued to observe
 468 # mountain time, on the grounds that that's what they had always done
 469 # and they weren't about to let the federal government tell them what to do.
 470 # Eventually the federal government gave in and changed the law on
 471 # 1970-04-10 to match what El Paso was actually doing.  Although
 472 # that's slightly after our 1970 cutoff, there is no need to create a
 473 # separate zone for El Paso since they were ignoring the law anyway.  See:
 474 # Long T. El Pasoans were time rebels, fought to stay in Mountain zone.
 475 # El Paso Times. 2018-10-24 06:40 -06.
 476 # https://www.elpasotimes.com/story/news/local/el-paso/2018/10/24/el-pasoans-were-time-rebels-fought-stay-mountain-zone/1744509002/
 477 #
 478 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 479 Rule    Denver  1920    1921    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 480 Rule    Denver  1920    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 481 Rule    Denver  1921    only    -       May     22      2:00    0       S
 482 Rule    Denver  1965    1966    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 483 Rule    Denver  1965    1966    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 484 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 485 Zone America/Denver     -6:59:56 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:00:04
 486                         -7:00   US      M%sT    1920
 487                         -7:00   Denver  M%sT    1942
 488                         -7:00   US      M%sT    1946
 489                         -7:00   Denver  M%sT    1967
 490                         -7:00   US      M%sT
 491 
 492 # US Pacific time, represented by Los Angeles
 493 #
 494 # California, northern Idaho (Benewah, Bonner, Boundary, Clearwater,
 495 # Kootenai, Latah, Lewis, Nez Perce, and Shoshone counties, Idaho county
 496 # north of the Salmon River, and the towns of Burgdorf and Warren),
 497 # Nevada (except West Wendover), Oregon (except the northern ¾ of
 498 # Malheur county), and Washington
 499 
 500 # From Paul Eggert (2016-08-20):
 501 # In early February 1948, in response to California's electricity shortage,
 502 # PG&E changed power frequency from 60 to 59.5 Hz during daylight hours,
 503 # causing electric clocks to lose six minutes per day.  (This did not change
 504 # legal time, and is not part of the data here.)  See:
 505 # Ross SA. An energy crisis from the past: Northern California in 1948.
 506 # Working Paper No. 8, Institute of Governmental Studies, UC Berkeley,
 507 # 1973-11.  https://escholarship.org/uc/item/8x22k30c
 508 #
 509 # In another measure to save electricity, DST was instituted from 1948-03-14
 510 # at 02:01 to 1949-01-16 at 02:00, with the governor having the option to move
 511 # the fallback transition earlier.  See pages 3-4 of:
 512 # http://clerk.assembly.ca.gov/sites/clerk.assembly.ca.gov/files/archive/Statutes/1948/48Vol1_Chapters.pdf
 513 #
 514 # In response:
 515 #
 516 #   Governor Warren received a torrent of objecting mail, and it is not too much
 517 #   to speculate that the objections to Daylight Saving Time were one important
 518 #   factor in the defeat of the Dewey-Warren Presidential ticket in California.
 519 #     -- Ross, p 25
 520 #
 521 # On December 8 the governor exercised the option, setting the date to January 1
 522 # (LA Times 1948-12-09).  The transition time was 02:00 (LA Times 1949-01-01).
 523 #
 524 # Despite the controversy, in 1949 California voters approved Proposition 12,
 525 # which established DST from April's last Sunday at 01:00 until September's
 526 # last Sunday at 02:00. This was amended by 1962's Proposition 6, which changed
 527 # the fall-back date to October's last Sunday. See:
 528 # https://repository.uchastings.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1501&context=ca_ballot_props
 529 # https://repository.uchastings.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1636&context=ca_ballot_props
 530 #
 531 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 532 Rule    CA      1948    only    -       Mar     14      2:01    1:00    D
 533 Rule    CA      1949    only    -       Jan      1      2:00    0       S
 534 Rule    CA      1950    1966    -       Apr     lastSun 1:00    1:00    D
 535 Rule    CA      1950    1961    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 536 Rule    CA      1962    1966    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 537 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 538 Zone America/Los_Angeles -7:52:58 -     LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:07:02
 539                         -8:00   US      P%sT    1946
 540                         -8:00   CA      P%sT    1967
 541                         -8:00   US      P%sT
 542 
 543 # Alaska
 544 # AK%sT is the modern abbreviation for -09 per USNO.
 545 #
 546 # From Paul Eggert (2017-06-15):
 547 # Howse writes that Alaska switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar,
 548 # and from east-of-GMT to west-of-GMT days, when the US bought it from Russia.
 549 # On Friday, 1867-10-18 (Gregorian), at precisely 15:30 local time, the
 550 # Russian forts and fleet at Sitka fired salutes to mark the ceremony of
 551 # formal transfer.  See the Sacramento Daily Union (1867-11-14), p 3, col 2.
 552 # https://cdnc.ucr.edu/cgi-bin/cdnc?a=d&d=SDU18671114.2.12.1
 553 # Sitka workers did not change their calendars until Sunday, 1867-10-20,
 554 # and so celebrated two Sundays that week.  See: Ahllund T (tr Hallamaa P).
 555 # From the memoirs of a Finnish workman. Alaska History. 2006 Fall;21(2):1-25.
 556 # http://alaskahistoricalsociety.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Ahllund-2006-Memoirs-of-a-Finnish-Workman.pdf
 557 # Include only the time zone part of this transition, ignoring the switch
 558 # from Julian to Gregorian, since we can't represent the Julian calendar.
 559 #
 560 # As far as we know, of the locations mentioned below only Sitka was
 561 # permanently inhabited in 1867 by anyone using either calendar.
 562 # (Yakutat was colonized by the Russians in 1799, but the settlement was
 563 # destroyed in 1805 by a Yakutat-kon war party.)  Many of Alaska's inhabitants
 564 # were unaware of the US acquisition of Alaska, much less of any calendar or
 565 # time change.  However, the Russian-influenced part of Alaska did observe
 566 # Russian time, and it is more accurate to model this than to ignore it.
 567 # The database format requires an exact transition time; use the Russian
 568 # salute as a somewhat-arbitrary time for the formal transfer of control for
 569 # all of Alaska.  Sitka's UTC offset is -9:01:13; adjust its 15:30 to the
 570 # local times of other Alaskan locations so that they change simultaneously.
 571 
 572 # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-18):
 573 # One opinion of the early-1980s turmoil in Alaska over time zones and
 574 # daylight saving time appeared as graffiti on a Juneau airport wall:
 575 # "Welcome to Juneau.  Please turn your watch back to the 19th century."
 576 # See: Turner W. Alaska's four time zones now two. NY Times 1983-11-01.
 577 # http://www.nytimes.com/1983/11/01/us/alaska-s-four-time-zones-now-two.html
 578 #
 579 # Steve Ferguson (2011-01-31) referred to the following source:
 580 # Norris F. Keeping time in Alaska: national directives, local response.
 581 # Alaska History 2001;16(1-2).
 582 # http://alaskahistoricalsociety.org/discover-alaska/glimpses-of-the-past/keeping-time-in-alaska/
 583 
 584 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-02-01):
 585 # Here's database-relevant material from the 2001 "Alaska History" article:
 586 #
 587 # On September 20 [1979]...DOT...officials decreed that on April 27,
 588 # 1980, Juneau and other nearby communities would move to Yukon Time.
 589 # Sitka, Petersburg, Wrangell, and Ketchikan, however, would remain on
 590 # Pacific Time.
 591 #
 592 # ...on September 22, 1980, DOT Secretary Neil E. Goldschmidt rescinded the
 593 # Department's September 1979 decision. Juneau and other communities in
 594 # northern Southeast reverted to Pacific Time on October 26.
 595 #
 596 # On October 28 [1983]...the Metlakatla Indian Community Council voted
 597 # unanimously to keep the reservation on Pacific Time.
 598 #
 599 # According to DOT official Joanne Petrie, Indian reservations are not
 600 # bound to follow time zones imposed by neighboring jurisdictions.
 601 #
 602 # (The last is consistent with how the database now handles the Navajo
 603 # Nation.)
 604 
 605 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-02-09):
 606 # I just spoke by phone with a staff member at the Metlakatla Indian
 607 # Community office (using contact information available at
 608 # http://www.commerce.state.ak.us/dca/commdb/CIS.cfm?Comm_Boro_name=Metlakatla
 609 # It's shortly after 1:00 here on the east coast of the United States;
 610 # the staffer said it was shortly after 10:00 there. When I asked whether
 611 # that meant they were on Pacific time, they said no - they were on their
 612 # own time. I asked about daylight saving; they said it wasn't used. I
 613 # did not inquire about practices in the past.
 614 
 615 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-08-17):
 616 # For lack of better information, assume that Metlakatla's
 617 # abandonment of use of daylight saving resulted from the 1983 vote.
 618 
 619 # From Steffen Thorsen (2015-11-09):
 620 # It seems Metlakatla did go off PST on Sunday, November 1, changing
 621 # their time to AKST and are going to follow Alaska's DST, switching
 622 # between AKST and AKDT from now on....
 623 # https://www.krbd.org/2015/10/30/annette-island-times-they-are-a-changing/
 624 











 625 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 626 Zone America/Juneau      15:02:19 -     LMT     1867 Oct 19 15:33:32
 627                          -8:57:41 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00
 628                          -8:00  -       PST     1942
 629                          -8:00  US      P%sT    1946
 630                          -8:00  -       PST     1969
 631                          -8:00  US      P%sT    1980 Apr 27  2:00
 632                          -9:00  US      Y%sT    1980 Oct 26  2:00
 633                          -8:00  US      P%sT    1983 Oct 30  2:00
 634                          -9:00  US      Y%sT    1983 Nov 30
 635                          -9:00  US      AK%sT
 636 Zone America/Sitka       14:58:47 -     LMT     1867 Oct 19 15:30
 637                          -9:01:13 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00
 638                          -8:00  -       PST     1942
 639                          -8:00  US      P%sT    1946
 640                          -8:00  -       PST     1969
 641                          -8:00  US      P%sT    1983 Oct 30  2:00
 642                          -9:00  US      Y%sT    1983 Nov 30
 643                          -9:00  US      AK%sT
 644 Zone America/Metlakatla  15:13:42 -     LMT     1867 Oct 19 15:44:55
 645                          -8:46:18 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00
 646                          -8:00  -       PST     1942
 647                          -8:00  US      P%sT    1946
 648                          -8:00  -       PST     1969
 649                          -8:00  US      P%sT    1983 Oct 30  2:00
 650                          -8:00  -       PST     2015 Nov  1  2:00


 651                          -9:00  US      AK%sT
 652 Zone America/Yakutat     14:41:05 -     LMT     1867 Oct 19 15:12:18
 653                          -9:18:55 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00
 654                          -9:00  -       YST     1942
 655                          -9:00  US      Y%sT    1946
 656                          -9:00  -       YST     1969
 657                          -9:00  US      Y%sT    1983 Nov 30
 658                          -9:00  US      AK%sT
 659 Zone America/Anchorage   14:00:24 -     LMT     1867 Oct 19 14:31:37
 660                          -9:59:36 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00
 661                         -10:00  -       AST     1942
 662                         -10:00  US      A%sT    1967 Apr
 663                         -10:00  -       AHST    1969
 664                         -10:00  US      AH%sT   1983 Oct 30  2:00
 665                          -9:00  US      Y%sT    1983 Nov 30
 666                          -9:00  US      AK%sT
 667 Zone America/Nome        12:58:22 -     LMT     1867 Oct 19 13:29:35
 668                         -11:01:38 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00
 669                         -11:00  -       NST     1942
 670                         -11:00  US      N%sT    1946
 671                         -11:00  -       NST     1967 Apr
 672                         -11:00  -       BST     1969
 673                         -11:00  US      B%sT    1983 Oct 30  2:00
 674                          -9:00  US      Y%sT    1983 Nov 30
 675                          -9:00  US      AK%sT
 676 Zone America/Adak        12:13:22 -     LMT     1867 Oct 19 12:44:35
 677                         -11:46:38 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00
 678                         -11:00  -       NST     1942
 679                         -11:00  US      N%sT    1946
 680                         -11:00  -       NST     1967 Apr
 681                         -11:00  -       BST     1969
 682                         -11:00  US      B%sT    1983 Oct 30  2:00
 683                         -10:00  US      AH%sT   1983 Nov 30
 684                         -10:00  US      H%sT
 685 # The following switches don't quite make our 1970 cutoff.
 686 #
 687 # Shanks writes that part of southwest Alaska (e.g. Aniak)
 688 # switched from -11:00 to -10:00 on 1968-09-22 at 02:00,
 689 # and another part (e.g. Akiak) made the same switch five weeks later.
 690 #
 691 # From David Flater (2004-11-09):
 692 # In e-mail, 2004-11-02, Ray Hudson, historian/liaison to the Unalaska
 693 # Historic Preservation Commission, provided this information, which
 694 # suggests that Unalaska deviated from statutory time from early 1967
 695 # possibly until 1983:
 696 #
 697 #  Minutes of the Unalaska City Council Meeting, January 10, 1967:
 698 #  "Except for St. Paul and Akutan, Unalaska is the only important
 699 #  location not on Alaska Standard Time.  The following resolution was
 700 #  made by William Robinson and seconded by Henry Swanson: Be it
 701 #  resolved that the City of Unalaska hereby goes to Alaska Standard
 702 #  Time as of midnight Friday, January 13, 1967 (1 A.M. Saturday,
 703 #  January 14, Alaska Standard Time.)  This resolution was passed with
 704 #  three votes for and one against."
 705 
 706 # Hawaii
 707 
 708 # From Arthur David Olson (2010-12-09):
 709 # "Hawaiian Time" by Robert C. Schmitt and Doak C. Cox appears on pages 207-225
 710 # of volume 26 of The Hawaiian Journal of History (1992). As of 2010-12-09,
 711 # the article is available at
 712 # https://evols.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10524/239/2/JL26215.pdf
 713 # and indicates that standard time was adopted effective noon, January
 714 # 13, 1896 (page 218), that in "1933, the Legislature decreed daylight
 715 # saving for the period between the last Sunday of each April and the
 716 # last Sunday of each September, but less than a month later repealed the
 717 # act," (page 220), that year-round daylight saving time was in effect
 718 # from 1942-02-09 to 1945-09-30 (page 221, with no time of day given for
 719 # when clocks changed) and that clocks were changed by 30 minutes
 720 # effective the second Sunday of June, 1947 (page 219, with no time of
 721 # day given for when clocks changed). A footnote for the 1933 changes
 722 # cites Session Laws of Hawaii 1933, "Act. 90 (approved 26 Apr. 1933)
 723 # and Act 163 (approved 21 May 1933)."
 724 
 725 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-01-19):
 726 # The following is from "Laws of the Territory of Hawaii Passed by the
 727 # Seventeenth Legislature: Regular Session 1933," available (as of
 728 # 2011-01-19) at American University's Pence Law Library. Page 85: "Act
 729 # 90...At 2 o'clock ante meridian of the last Sunday in April of each
 730 # year, the standard time of this Territory shall be advanced one
 731 # hour...This Act shall take effect upon its approval. Approved this 26th
 732 # day of April, A. D. 1933. LAWRENCE M JUDD, Governor of the Territory of
 733 # Hawaii." Page 172: "Act 163...Act 90 of the Session Laws of 1933 is
 734 # hereby repealed...This Act shall take effect upon its approval, upon
 735 # which date the standard time of this Territory shall be restored to
 736 # that existing immediately prior to the taking effect of said Act 90.
 737 # Approved this 21st day of May, A. D. 1933. LAWRENCE M. JUDD, Governor
 738 # of the Territory of Hawaii."
 739 #
 740 # Note that 1933-05-21 was a Sunday.
 741 # We're left to guess the time of day when Act 163 was approved; guess noon.
 742 
 743 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 744 Zone Pacific/Honolulu   -10:31:26 -     LMT     1896 Jan 13 12:00
 745                         -10:30  -       HST     1933 Apr 30  2:00
 746                         -10:30  1:00    HDT     1933 May 21 12:00
 747                         -10:30  US      H%sT    1947 Jun  8  2:00
 748                         -10:00  -       HST
 749 
 750 # Now we turn to US areas that have diverged from the consensus since 1970.
 751 
 752 # Arizona mostly uses MST.
 753 
 754 # From Paul Eggert (2002-10-20):
 755 #
 756 # The information in the rest of this paragraph is derived from the
 757 # Daylight Saving Time web page
 758 # <http://www.dlapr.lib.az.us/links/daylight.htm> (2002-01-23)
 759 # maintained by the Arizona State Library, Archives and Public Records.
 760 # Between 1944-01-01 and 1944-04-01 the State of Arizona used standard
 761 # time, but by federal law railroads, airlines, bus lines, military
 762 # personnel, and some engaged in interstate commerce continued to
 763 # observe war (i.e., daylight saving) time.  The 1944-03-17 Phoenix
 764 # Gazette says that was the date the law changed, and that 04-01 was
 765 # the date the state's clocks would change.  In 1945 the State of
 766 # Arizona used standard time all year, again with exceptions only as
 767 # mandated by federal law.  Arizona observed DST in 1967, but Arizona
 768 # Laws 1968, ch. 183 (effective 1968-03-21) repealed DST.
 769 #
 770 # Shanks says the 1944 experiment came to an end on 1944-03-17.
 771 # Go with the Arizona State Library instead.
 772 
 773 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 774 Zone America/Phoenix    -7:28:18 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 11:31:42
 775                         -7:00   US      M%sT    1944 Jan  1  0:01
 776                         -7:00   -       MST     1944 Apr  1  0:01
 777                         -7:00   US      M%sT    1944 Oct  1  0:01
 778                         -7:00   -       MST     1967
 779                         -7:00   US      M%sT    1968 Mar 21
 780                         -7:00   -       MST
 781 # From Arthur David Olson (1988-02-13):
 782 # A writer from the Inter Tribal Council of Arizona, Inc.,
 783 # notes in private correspondence dated 1987-12-28 that "Presently, only the
 784 # Navajo Nation participates in the Daylight Saving Time policy, due to its
 785 # large size and location in three states."  (The "only" means that other
 786 # tribal nations don't use DST.)
 787 #
 788 # From Paul Eggert (2013-08-26):
 789 # See America/Denver for a zone appropriate for the Navajo Nation.
 790 
 791 # Southern Idaho (Ada, Adams, Bannock, Bear Lake, Bingham, Blaine,
 792 # Boise, Bonneville, Butte, Camas, Canyon, Caribou, Cassia, Clark,
 793 # Custer, Elmore, Franklin, Fremont, Gem, Gooding, Jefferson, Jerome,
 794 # Lemhi, Lincoln, Madison, Minidoka, Oneida, Owyhee, Payette, Power,
 795 # Teton, Twin Falls, Valley, Washington counties, and the southern
 796 # quarter of Idaho county) and eastern Oregon (most of Malheur County)
 797 # switched four weeks late in 1974.
 798 #
 799 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 800 Zone America/Boise      -7:44:49 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:15:11
 801                         -8:00   US      P%sT    1923 May 13  2:00
 802                         -7:00   US      M%sT    1974
 803                         -7:00   -       MST     1974 Feb  3  2:00
 804                         -7:00   US      M%sT
 805 
 806 # Indiana
 807 #
 808 # For a map of Indiana's time zone regions, see:
 809 # https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_in_Indiana
















 810 #
 811 # From Paul Eggert (2007-08-17):
 812 # Since 1970, most of Indiana has been like America/Indiana/Indianapolis,
 813 # with the following exceptions:
 814 #
 815 # - Gibson, Jasper, Lake, LaPorte, Newton, Porter, Posey, Spencer,
 816 #   Vanderburgh, and Warrick counties have been like America/Chicago.
 817 #
 818 # - Dearborn and Ohio counties have been like America/New_York.
 819 #
 820 # - Clark, Floyd, and Harrison counties have been like
 821 #   America/Kentucky/Louisville.
 822 #
 823 # - Crawford, Daviess, Dubois, Knox, Martin, Perry, Pike, Pulaski, Starke,
 824 #   and Switzerland counties have their own time zone histories as noted below.
 825 #
 826 # Shanks partitioned Indiana into 345 regions, each with its own time history,
 827 # and wrote "Even newspaper reports present contradictory information."
 828 # Those Hoosiers!  Such a flighty and changeable people!
 829 # Fortunately, most of the complexity occurred before our cutoff date of 1970.
 830 #
 831 # Other than Indianapolis, the Indiana place names are so nondescript
 832 # that they would be ambiguous if we left them at the 'America' level.
 833 # So we reluctantly put them all in a subdirectory 'America/Indiana'.
 834 
 835 # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-26):
 836 # https://www.federalregister.gov/articles/2006/01/20/06-563/standard-time-zone-boundary-in-the-state-of-indiana
 837 # says "DOT is relocating the time zone boundary in Indiana to move Starke,
 838 # Pulaski, Knox, Daviess, Martin, Pike, Dubois, and Perry Counties from the
 839 # Eastern Time Zone to the Central Time Zone.... The effective date of
 840 # this rule is 2 a.m. EST Sunday, April 2, 2006, which is the
 841 # changeover date from standard time to Daylight Saving Time."
 842 # Strictly speaking, this meant the affected counties changed their
 843 # clocks twice that night, but this obviously was in error.  The intent
 844 # was that 01:59:59 EST be followed by 02:00:00 CDT.
 845 
 846 # From Gwillim Law (2007-02-10):
 847 # The Associated Press has been reporting that Pulaski County, Indiana is
 848 # going to switch from Central to Eastern Time on March 11, 2007....
 849 # http://www.indystar.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070207/LOCAL190108/702070524/0/LOCAL
 850 
 851 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 852 Rule Indianapolis 1941  only    -       Jun     22      2:00    1:00    D
 853 Rule Indianapolis 1941  1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 854 Rule Indianapolis 1946  1954    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 855 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 856 Zone America/Indiana/Indianapolis -5:44:38 - LMT        1883 Nov 18 12:15:22
 857                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1920
 858                         -6:00 Indianapolis C%sT 1942
 859                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
 860                         -6:00 Indianapolis C%sT 1955 Apr 24  2:00
 861                         -5:00   -       EST     1957 Sep 29  2:00
 862                         -6:00   -       CST     1958 Apr 27  2:00
 863                         -5:00   -       EST     1969
 864                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1971
 865                         -5:00   -       EST     2006
 866                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 867 #
 868 # Eastern Crawford County, Indiana, left its clocks alone in 1974,
 869 # as well as from 1976 through 2005.
 870 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 871 Rule    Marengo 1951    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 872 Rule    Marengo 1951    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 873 Rule    Marengo 1954    1960    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 874 Rule    Marengo 1954    1960    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 875 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 876 Zone America/Indiana/Marengo -5:45:23 - LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:14:37
 877                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1951
 878                         -6:00   Marengo C%sT    1961 Apr 30  2:00
 879                         -5:00   -       EST     1969
 880                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1974 Jan  6  2:00
 881                         -6:00   1:00    CDT     1974 Oct 27  2:00
 882                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1976
 883                         -5:00   -       EST     2006
 884                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 885 #
 886 # Daviess, Dubois, Knox, and Martin Counties, Indiana,
 887 # switched from eastern to central time in April 2006, then switched back
 888 # in November 2007.
 889 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 890 Rule Vincennes  1946    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 891 Rule Vincennes  1946    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 892 Rule Vincennes  1953    1954    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 893 Rule Vincennes  1953    1959    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 894 Rule Vincennes  1955    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D
 895 Rule Vincennes  1956    1963    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 896 Rule Vincennes  1960    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 897 Rule Vincennes  1961    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 898 Rule Vincennes  1962    1963    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 899 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 900 Zone America/Indiana/Vincennes -5:50:07 - LMT   1883 Nov 18 12:09:53
 901                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
 902                         -6:00 Vincennes C%sT    1964 Apr 26  2:00
 903                         -5:00   -       EST     1969
 904                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1971
 905                         -5:00   -       EST     2006 Apr  2  2:00
 906                         -6:00   US      C%sT    2007 Nov  4  2:00
 907                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 908 #
 909 # Perry County, Indiana, switched from eastern to central time in April 2006.
 910 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 911 Rule Perry      1946    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 912 Rule Perry      1946    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 913 Rule Perry      1953    1954    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 914 Rule Perry      1953    1959    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 915 Rule Perry      1955    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D
 916 Rule Perry      1956    1963    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 917 Rule Perry      1960    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 918 Rule Perry      1961    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 919 Rule Perry      1962    1963    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 920 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 921 Zone America/Indiana/Tell_City -5:47:03 - LMT   1883 Nov 18 12:12:57
 922                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
 923                         -6:00 Perry     C%sT    1964 Apr 26  2:00
 924                         -5:00   -       EST     1969
 925                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1971
 926                         -5:00   -       EST     2006 Apr  2  2:00
 927                         -6:00   US      C%sT
 928 #
 929 # Pike County, Indiana moved from central to eastern time in 1977,
 930 # then switched back in 2006, then switched back again in 2007.
 931 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 932 Rule    Pike    1955    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D
 933 Rule    Pike    1955    1960    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 934 Rule    Pike    1956    1964    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 935 Rule    Pike    1961    1964    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 936 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 937 Zone America/Indiana/Petersburg -5:49:07 - LMT  1883 Nov 18 12:10:53
 938                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1955
 939                         -6:00   Pike    C%sT    1965 Apr 25  2:00
 940                         -5:00   -       EST     1966 Oct 30  2:00
 941                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1977 Oct 30  2:00
 942                         -5:00   -       EST     2006 Apr  2  2:00
 943                         -6:00   US      C%sT    2007 Nov  4  2:00
 944                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 945 #
 946 # Starke County, Indiana moved from central to eastern time in 1991,
 947 # then switched back in 2006.
 948 # From Arthur David Olson (1991-10-28):
 949 # An article on page A3 of the Sunday, 1991-10-27 Washington Post
 950 # notes that Starke County switched from Central time to Eastern time as of
 951 # 1991-10-27.
 952 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 953 Rule    Starke  1947    1961    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 954 Rule    Starke  1947    1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 955 Rule    Starke  1955    1956    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 956 Rule    Starke  1957    1958    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 957 Rule    Starke  1959    1961    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 958 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 959 Zone America/Indiana/Knox -5:46:30 -    LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:13:30
 960                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1947
 961                         -6:00   Starke  C%sT    1962 Apr 29  2:00
 962                         -5:00   -       EST     1963 Oct 27  2:00
 963                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1991 Oct 27  2:00
 964                         -5:00   -       EST     2006 Apr  2  2:00
 965                         -6:00   US      C%sT
 966 #
 967 # Pulaski County, Indiana, switched from eastern to central time in
 968 # April 2006 and then switched back in March 2007.
 969 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 970 Rule    Pulaski 1946    1960    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 971 Rule    Pulaski 1946    1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 972 Rule    Pulaski 1955    1956    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 973 Rule    Pulaski 1957    1960    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 974 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 975 Zone America/Indiana/Winamac -5:46:25 - LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:13:35
 976                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
 977                         -6:00   Pulaski C%sT    1961 Apr 30  2:00
 978                         -5:00   -       EST     1969
 979                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1971
 980                         -5:00   -       EST     2006 Apr  2  2:00
 981                         -6:00   US      C%sT    2007 Mar 11  2:00
 982                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 983 #
 984 # Switzerland County, Indiana, did not observe DST from 1973 through 2005.
 985 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 986 Zone America/Indiana/Vevay -5:40:16 -   LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:19:44
 987                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1954 Apr 25  2:00
 988                         -5:00   -       EST     1969
 989                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1973
 990                         -5:00   -       EST     2006
 991                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 992 
 993 # From Paul Eggert (2018-03-20):
 994 # The Louisville & Nashville Railroad's 1883-11-18 change occurred at
 995 # 10:00 old local time; train were supposed to come to a standstill
 996 # for precisely 18 minutes.  See Bartky Fig. 1 (page 50).  It is not
 997 # clear how this matched civil time in Louisville, so for now continue
 998 # to assume Louisville switched at noon new local time, like New York.
 999 #
1000 # Part of Kentucky left its clocks alone in 1974.
1001 # This also includes Clark, Floyd, and Harrison counties in Indiana.
1002 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
1003 Rule Louisville 1921    only    -       May     1       2:00    1:00    D
1004 Rule Louisville 1921    only    -       Sep     1       2:00    0       S
1005 Rule Louisville 1941    1961    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1006 Rule Louisville 1941    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1007 Rule Louisville 1946    only    -       Jun     2       2:00    0       S
1008 Rule Louisville 1950    1955    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1009 Rule Louisville 1956    1960    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1010 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1011 Zone America/Kentucky/Louisville -5:43:02 -     LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:16:58
1012                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1921
1013                         -6:00 Louisville C%sT   1942
1014                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
1015                         -6:00 Louisville C%sT   1961 Jul 23  2:00
1016                         -5:00   -       EST     1968
1017                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1974 Jan  6  2:00
1018                         -6:00   1:00    CDT     1974 Oct 27  2:00
1019                         -5:00   US      E%sT
1020 #
1021 # Wayne County, Kentucky
1022 #
1023 # From Lake Cumberland LIFE
1024 # http://www.lake-cumberland.com/life/archive/news990129time.shtml
1025 # (1999-01-29) via WKYM-101.7:
1026 # Clinton County has joined Wayne County in asking the DoT to change from
1027 # the Central to the Eastern time zone....  The Wayne County government made
1028 # the same request in December.  And while Russell County officials have not
1029 # taken action, the majority of respondents to a poll conducted there in
1030 # August indicated they would like to change to "fast time" also.
1031 # The three Lake Cumberland counties are the farthest east of any U.S.
1032 # location in the Central time zone.
1033 #
1034 # From Rich Wales (2000-08-29):
1035 # After prolonged debate, and despite continuing deep differences of opinion,
1036 # Wayne County (central Kentucky) is switching from Central (-0600) to Eastern
1037 # (-0500) time.  They won't "fall back" this year.  See Sara Shipley,
1038 # The difference an hour makes, Nando Times (2000-08-29 15:33 -0400).
1039 #
1040 # From Paul Eggert (2001-07-16):
1041 # The final rule was published in the
1042 # Federal Register 65, 160 (2000-08-17), pp 50154-50158.
1043 # https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2000-08-17/html/00-20854.htm
1044 #
1045 Zone America/Kentucky/Monticello -5:39:24 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:20:36
1046                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
1047                         -6:00   -       CST     1968
1048                         -6:00   US      C%sT    2000 Oct 29  2:00
1049                         -5:00   US      E%sT
1050 
1051 
1052 # From Rives McDow (2000-08-30):
1053 # Here ... are all the changes in the US since 1985.
1054 # Kearny County, KS (put all of county on central;
1055 #       previously split between MST and CST) ... 1990-10
1056 # Starke County, IN (from CST to EST) ... 1991-10
1057 # Oliver County, ND (from MST to CST) ... 1992-10
1058 # West Wendover, NV (from PST TO MST) ... 1999-10
1059 # Wayne County, KY (from CST to EST) ... 2000-10
1060 #
1061 # From Paul Eggert (2001-07-17):
1062 # We don't know where the line used to be within Kearny County, KS,
1063 # so omit that change for now.
1064 # See America/Indiana/Knox for the Starke County, IN change.
1065 # See America/North_Dakota/Center for the Oliver County, ND change.
1066 # West Wendover, NV officially switched from Pacific to mountain time on
1067 # 1999-10-31.  See the
1068 # Federal Register 64, 203 (1999-10-21), pp 56705-56707.
1069 # https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1999-10-21/html/99-27240.htm
1070 # However, the Federal Register says that West Wendover already operated
1071 # on mountain time, and the rule merely made this official;
1072 # hence a separate tz entry is not needed.
1073 
1074 # Michigan
1075 #
1076 # From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
1077 # Michigan didn't observe DST from 1968 to 1973.
1078 #
1079 # From Paul Eggert (1999-03-31):
1080 # Shanks writes that Michigan started using standard time on 1885-09-18,
1081 # but Howse writes (pp 124-125, referring to Popular Astronomy, 1901-01)
1082 # that Detroit kept
1083 #
1084 #       local time until 1900 when the City Council decreed that clocks should
1085 #       be put back twenty-eight minutes to Central Standard Time.  Half the
1086 #       city obeyed, half refused.  After considerable debate, the decision
1087 #       was rescinded and the city reverted to Sun time.  A derisive offer to
1088 #       erect a sundial in front of the city hall was referred to the
1089 #       Committee on Sewers.  Then, in 1905, Central time was adopted
1090 #       by city vote.
1091 #
1092 # This story is too entertaining to be false, so go with Howse over Shanks.
1093 #
1094 # From Paul Eggert (2001-03-06):
1095 # Garland (1927) writes "Cleveland and Detroit advanced their clocks
1096 # one hour in 1914."  This change is not in Shanks.  We have no more
1097 # info, so omit this for now.
1098 #
1099 # From Paul Eggert (2017-07-26):
1100 # Although Shanks says Detroit observed DST in 1967 from 06-14 00:01
1101 # until 10-29 00:01, I now see multiple reports that this is incorrect.
1102 # For example, according to a 50-year anniversary report about the 1967
1103 # Detroit riots and a major-league doubleheader on 1967-07-23, "By the time
1104 # the last fly ball of the doubleheader settled into the glove of leftfielder
1105 # Lenny Green, it was after 7 p.m.  Detroit did not observe daylight saving
1106 # time, so light was already starting to fail.  Twilight was made even deeper
1107 # by billowing columns of smoke that ascended in an unbroken wall north of the
1108 # ballpark."  See: Dow B. Detroit '67: As violence unfolded, Tigers played two
1109 # at home vs. Yankees. Detroit Free Press 2017-07-23.
1110 # https://www.freep.com/story/sports/mlb/tigers/2017/07/23/detroit-tigers-1967-riot-new-york-yankees/499951001/
1111 #
1112 # Most of Michigan observed DST from 1973 on, but was a bit late in 1975.
1113 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
1114 Rule    Detroit 1948    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1115 Rule    Detroit 1948    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1116 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1117 Zone America/Detroit    -5:32:11 -      LMT     1905
1118                         -6:00   -       CST     1915 May 15  2:00
1119                         -5:00   -       EST     1942
1120                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1946
1121                         -5:00   Detroit E%sT    1973
1122                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1975
1123                         -5:00   -       EST     1975 Apr 27  2:00
1124                         -5:00   US      E%sT
1125 #
1126 # Dickinson, Gogebic, Iron, and Menominee Counties, Michigan,
1127 # switched from EST to CST/CDT in 1973.
1128 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
1129 Rule Menominee  1946    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1130 Rule Menominee  1946    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1131 Rule Menominee  1966    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1132 Rule Menominee  1966    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1133 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1134 Zone America/Menominee  -5:50:27 -      LMT     1885 Sep 18 12:00
1135                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
1136                         -6:00 Menominee C%sT    1969 Apr 27  2:00
1137                         -5:00   -       EST     1973 Apr 29  2:00
1138                         -6:00   US      C%sT
1139 
1140 # Navassa
1141 # administered by the US Fish and Wildlife Service
1142 # claimed by US under the provisions of the 1856 Guano Islands Act
1143 # also claimed by Haiti
1144 # occupied 1857/1900 by the Navassa Phosphate Co
1145 # US lighthouse 1917/1996-09
1146 # currently uninhabited
1147 # see Mark Fineman, "An Isle Rich in Guano and Discord",
1148 # _Los Angeles Times_ (1998-11-10), A1, A10; it cites
1149 # Jimmy Skaggs, _The Great Guano Rush_ (1994).
1150 
1151 ################################################################################
1152 
1153 
1154 # From Paul Eggert (2017-02-10):
1155 #
1156 # Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:
1157 # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
1158 # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
1159 # Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.
1160 #
1161 # Many years ago Gwillim Law wrote that a good source
1162 # for time zone data was the International Air Transport
1163 # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
1164 # published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
1165 # of the IATA's data after 1990.  Except where otherwise noted,
1166 # IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.
1167 #
1168 # Other sources occasionally used include:
1169 #
1170 #       Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
1171 #       Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated),
1172 #       which I found in the UCLA library.
1173 #
1174 #       William Willett, The Waste of Daylight, 19th edition
1175 #       <http://cs.ucla.edu/~eggert/The-Waste-of-Daylight-19th.pdf>
1176 #       [PDF] (1914-03)
1177 #
1178 #       Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94
1179 #       <https://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359>.
1180 #
1181 # See the 'europe' file for Greenland.
1182 
1183 # Canada
1184 
1185 # From Alain LaBonté (1994-11-14):
1186 # I post here the time zone abbreviations standardized in Canada
1187 # for both English and French in the CAN/CSA-Z234.4-89 standard....
1188 #
1189 #       UTC     Standard time   Daylight saving time
1190 #       offset  French  English French  English
1191 #       -2:30   -       -       HAT     NDT
1192 #       -3      -       -       HAA     ADT
1193 #       -3:30   HNT     NST     -       -
1194 #       -4      HNA     AST     HAE     EDT
1195 #       -5      HNE     EST     HAC     CDT
1196 #       -6      HNC     CST     HAR     MDT
1197 #       -7      HNR     MST     HAP     PDT
1198 #       -8      HNP     PST     HAY     YDT
1199 #       -9      HNY     YST     -       -
1200 #
1201 #       HN: Heure Normale       ST: Standard Time
1202 #       HA: Heure Avancée      DT: Daylight saving Time
1203 #
1204 #       A: de l'Atlantique      Atlantic
1205 #       C: du Centre            Central
1206 #       E: de l'Est             Eastern
1207 #       M:                      Mountain
1208 #       N:                      Newfoundland
1209 #       P: du Pacifique         Pacific
1210 #       R: des Rocheuses
1211 #       T: de Terre-Neuve
1212 #       Y: du Yukon             Yukon
1213 #
1214 # From Paul Eggert (1994-11-22):
1215 # Alas, this sort of thing must be handled by localization software.
1216 
1217 # Unless otherwise specified, the data entries for Canada are all from Shanks
1218 # & Pottenger.
1219 
1220 # From Chris Walton (2006-04-01, 2006-04-25, 2006-06-26, 2007-01-31,
1221 # 2007-03-01):
1222 # The British Columbia government announced yesterday that it will
1223 # adjust daylight savings next year to align with changes in the
1224 # U.S. and the rest of Canada....
1225 # https://archive.news.gov.bc.ca/releases/news_releases_2005-2009/2006AG0014-000330.htm
1226 # ...
1227 # Nova Scotia
1228 # Daylight saving time will be extended by four weeks starting in 2007....
1229 # https://www.novascotia.ca/just/regulations/rg2/2006/ma1206.pdf
1230 #
1231 # [For New Brunswick] the new legislation dictates that the time change is to
1232 # be done at 02:00 instead of 00:01.
1233 # https://www.gnb.ca/0062/acts/BBA-2006/Chap-19.pdf
1234 # ...
1235 # Manitoba has traditionally changed the clock every fall at 03:00.
1236 # As of 2006, the transition is to take place one hour earlier at 02:00.
1237 # https://web2.gov.mb.ca/laws/statutes/ccsm/o030e.php
1238 # ...
1239 # [Alberta, Ontario, Quebec] will follow US rules.
1240 # http://www.qp.gov.ab.ca/documents/spring/CH03_06.CFM
1241 # http://www.e-laws.gov.on.ca/DBLaws/Source/Regs/English/2006/R06111_e.htm
1242 # http://www2.publicationsduquebec.gouv.qc.ca/dynamicSearch/telecharge.php?type=5&file=2006C39A.PDF
1243 # ...
1244 # P.E.I. will follow US rules....
1245 # http://www.assembly.pe.ca/bills/pdf_chapter/62/3/chapter-41.pdf
1246 # ...
1247 # Province of Newfoundland and Labrador....
1248 # http://www.hoa.gov.nl.ca/hoa/bills/Bill0634.htm
1249 # ...
1250 # Yukon
1251 # https://www.gov.yk.ca/legislation/regs/oic2006_127.pdf
1252 # ...
1253 # N.W.T. will follow US rules.  Whoever maintains the government web site
1254 # does not seem to believe in bookmarks.  To see the news release, click the
1255 # following link and search for "Daylight Savings Time Change".  Press the
1256 # "Daylight Savings Time Change" link; it will fire off a popup using
1257 # JavaScript.
1258 # http://www.exec.gov.nt.ca/currentnews/currentPR.asp?mode=archive
1259 # ...
1260 # Nunavut
1261 # An amendment to the Interpretation Act was registered on February 19/2007....
1262 # http://action.attavik.ca/home/justice-gn/attach/2007/gaz02part2.pdf
1263 
1264 # From Paul Eggert (2014-10-18):
1265 # H. David Matthews and Mary Vincent's map
1266 # "It's about TIME", _Canadian Geographic_ (September-October 1998)
1267 # http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/Magazine/SO98/alacarte.asp
1268 # contains detailed boundaries for regions observing nonstandard
1269 # time and daylight saving time arrangements in Canada circa 1998.
1270 #
1271 # National Research Council Canada maintains info about time zones and DST.
1272 # https://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/services/time/time_zones.html
1273 # https://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/services/time/faq/index.html#Q5
1274 # Its unofficial information is often taken from Matthews and Vincent.
1275 
1276 # From Paul Eggert (2006-06-27):
1277 # For now, assume all of DST-observing Canada will fall into line with the
1278 # new US DST rules,
1279 
1280 # From Chris Walton (2011-12-01)
1281 # In the first of Tammy Hardwick's articles
1282 # http://www.ilovecreston.com/?p=articles&t=spec&ar=260
1283 # she quotes the Friday November 1/1918 edition of the Creston Review.
1284 # The quote includes these two statements:
1285 # 'Sunday the CPR went back to the old system of time...'
1286 # '... The daylight saving scheme was dropped all over Canada at the same time,'
1287 # These statements refer to a transition from daylight time to standard time
1288 # that occurred nationally on Sunday October 27/1918.  This transition was
1289 # also documented in the Saturday October 26/1918 edition of the Toronto Star.
1290 
1291 # In light of that evidence, we alter the date from the earlier believed
1292 # Oct 31, to Oct 27, 1918 (and Sunday is a more likely transition day
1293 # than Thursday) in all Canadian rulesets.
1294 
1295 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1296 Rule    Canada  1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D
1297 Rule    Canada  1918    only    -       Oct     27      2:00    0       S
1298 Rule    Canada  1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War
1299 Rule    Canada  1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace
1300 Rule    Canada  1945    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S
1301 Rule    Canada  1974    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1302 Rule    Canada  1974    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1303 Rule    Canada  1987    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
1304 Rule    Canada  2007    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
1305 Rule    Canada  2007    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
1306 
1307 
1308 # Newfoundland and Labrador
1309 
1310 # From Paul Eggert (2017-10-14):
1311 # Legally Labrador should observe Newfoundland time; see:
1312 # McLeod J. Labrador time - legal or not? St. John's Telegram, 2017-10-07
1313 # http://www.thetelegram.com/news/local/labrador-time--legal-or-not-154860/
1314 # Matthews and Vincent (1998) write that the only part of Labrador
1315 # that follows the rules is the southeast corner, including Port Hope
1316 # Simpson and Mary's Harbour, but excluding, say, Black Tickle.
1317 
1318 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1319 Rule    StJohns 1917    only    -       Apr      8      2:00    1:00    D
1320 Rule    StJohns 1917    only    -       Sep     17      2:00    0       S
1321 # Whitman gives 1919 Apr 5 and 1920 Apr 5; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1322 Rule    StJohns 1919    only    -       May      5      23:00   1:00    D
1323 Rule    StJohns 1919    only    -       Aug     12      23:00   0       S
1324 # For 1931-1935 Whitman gives Apr same date; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1325 Rule    StJohns 1920    1935    -       May     Sun>=1       23:00   1:00    D
1326 Rule    StJohns 1920    1935    -       Oct     lastSun 23:00   0       S
1327 # For 1936-1941 Whitman gives May Sun>=8 and Oct Sun>=1; go with Shanks &
1328 # Pottenger.
1329 Rule    StJohns 1936    1941    -       May     Mon>=9       0:00    1:00    D
1330 Rule    StJohns 1936    1941    -       Oct     Mon>=2       0:00    0       S
1331 # Whitman gives the following transitions:
1332 # 1942 03-01/12-31, 1943 05-30/09-05, 1944 07-10/09-02, 1945 01-01/10-07
1333 # but go with Shanks & Pottenger and assume they used Canadian rules.
1334 # For 1946-9 Whitman gives May 5,4,9,1 - Oct 1,5,3,2, and for 1950 he gives
1335 # Apr 30 - Sep 24; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1336 Rule    StJohns 1946    1950    -       May     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
1337 Rule    StJohns 1946    1950    -       Oct     Sun>=2       2:00    0       S
1338 Rule    StJohns 1951    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1339 Rule    StJohns 1951    1959    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1340 Rule    StJohns 1960    1986    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1341 # From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
1342 # INMS (2000-09-12) says that, since 1988 at least, Newfoundland switches
1343 # at 00:01 local time.  For now, assume it started in 1987.
1344 
1345 # From Michael Pelley (2011-09-12):
1346 # We received today, Monday, September 12, 2011, notification that the
1347 # changes to the Newfoundland Standard Time Act have been proclaimed.
1348 # The change in the Act stipulates that the change from Daylight Savings
1349 # Time to Standard Time and from Standard Time to Daylight Savings Time
1350 # now occurs at 2:00AM.
1351 # ...
1352 # http://www.assembly.nl.ca/legislation/sr/annualstatutes/2011/1106.chp.htm
1353 # ...
1354 # MICHAEL PELLEY  |  Manager of Enterprise Architecture - Solution Delivery
1355 # Office of the Chief Information Officer
1356 # Executive Council
1357 # Government of Newfoundland & Labrador
1358 
1359 Rule    StJohns 1987    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:01    1:00    D
1360 Rule    StJohns 1987    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 0:01    0       S
1361 Rule    StJohns 1988    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:01    2:00    DD
1362 Rule    StJohns 1989    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:01    1:00    D
1363 Rule    StJohns 2007    2011    -       Mar     Sun>=8       0:01    1:00    D
1364 Rule    StJohns 2007    2010    -       Nov     Sun>=1       0:01    0       S
1365 #
1366 # St John's has an apostrophe, but Posix file names can't have apostrophes.
1367 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1368 Zone America/St_Johns   -3:30:52 -      LMT     1884
1369                         -3:30:52 StJohns N%sT   1918
1370                         -3:30:52 Canada N%sT    1919
1371                         -3:30:52 StJohns N%sT   1935 Mar 30
1372                         -3:30   StJohns N%sT    1942 May 11
1373                         -3:30   Canada  N%sT    1946
1374                         -3:30   StJohns N%sT    2011 Nov
1375                         -3:30   Canada  N%sT
1376 
1377 # most of east Labrador
1378 
1379 # The name 'Happy Valley-Goose Bay' is too long; use 'Goose Bay'.
1380 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1381 Zone America/Goose_Bay  -4:01:40 -      LMT     1884 # Happy Valley-Goose Bay
1382                         -3:30:52 -      NST     1918
1383                         -3:30:52 Canada N%sT    1919
1384                         -3:30:52 -      NST     1935 Mar 30
1385                         -3:30   -       NST     1936
1386                         -3:30   StJohns N%sT    1942 May 11
1387                         -3:30   Canada  N%sT    1946
1388                         -3:30   StJohns N%sT    1966 Mar 15  2:00
1389                         -4:00   StJohns A%sT    2011 Nov
1390                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT
1391 
1392 
1393 # west Labrador, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward I
1394 
1395 # From Brian Inglis (2015-07-20):
1396 # From the historical weather station records available at:
1397 # https://weatherspark.com/history/28351/1971/Sydney-Nova-Scotia-Canada
1398 # Sydney shares the same time history as Glace Bay, so was
1399 # likely to be the same across the island....
1400 # Sydney, as the capital and most populous location, or Cape Breton, would
1401 # have been better names for the zone had we known this in 1996.
1402 
1403 # From Paul Eggert (2015-07-20):
1404 # Shanks & Pottenger write that since 1970 most of this region has been like
1405 # Halifax.  Many locales did not observe peacetime DST until 1972;
1406 # the Cape Breton area, represented by Glace Bay, is the largest we know of
1407 # (Glace Bay was perhaps not the best name choice but no point changing now).
1408 # Shanks & Pottenger also write that Liverpool, NS was the only town
1409 # in Canada to observe DST in 1971 but not 1970; for now we'll assume
1410 # this is a typo.
1411 
1412 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1413 Rule    Halifax 1916    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    D
1414 Rule    Halifax 1916    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       S
1415 Rule    Halifax 1920    only    -       May      9      0:00    1:00    D
1416 Rule    Halifax 1920    only    -       Aug     29      0:00    0       S
1417 Rule    Halifax 1921    only    -       May      6      0:00    1:00    D
1418 Rule    Halifax 1921    1922    -       Sep      5      0:00    0       S
1419 Rule    Halifax 1922    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    D
1420 Rule    Halifax 1923    1925    -       May     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
1421 Rule    Halifax 1923    only    -       Sep      4      0:00    0       S
1422 Rule    Halifax 1924    only    -       Sep     15      0:00    0       S
1423 Rule    Halifax 1925    only    -       Sep     28      0:00    0       S
1424 Rule    Halifax 1926    only    -       May     16      0:00    1:00    D
1425 Rule    Halifax 1926    only    -       Sep     13      0:00    0       S
1426 Rule    Halifax 1927    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D
1427 Rule    Halifax 1927    only    -       Sep     26      0:00    0       S
1428 Rule    Halifax 1928    1931    -       May     Sun>=8       0:00    1:00    D
1429 Rule    Halifax 1928    only    -       Sep      9      0:00    0       S
1430 Rule    Halifax 1929    only    -       Sep      3      0:00    0       S
1431 Rule    Halifax 1930    only    -       Sep     15      0:00    0       S
1432 Rule    Halifax 1931    1932    -       Sep     Mon>=24      0:00    0       S
1433 Rule    Halifax 1932    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D
1434 Rule    Halifax 1933    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    D
1435 Rule    Halifax 1933    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       S
1436 Rule    Halifax 1934    only    -       May     20      0:00    1:00    D
1437 Rule    Halifax 1934    only    -       Sep     16      0:00    0       S
1438 Rule    Halifax 1935    only    -       Jun      2      0:00    1:00    D
1439 Rule    Halifax 1935    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       S
1440 Rule    Halifax 1936    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    D
1441 Rule    Halifax 1936    only    -       Sep     14      0:00    0       S
1442 Rule    Halifax 1937    1938    -       May     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
1443 Rule    Halifax 1937    1941    -       Sep     Mon>=24      0:00    0       S
1444 Rule    Halifax 1939    only    -       May     28      0:00    1:00    D
1445 Rule    Halifax 1940    1941    -       May     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
1446 Rule    Halifax 1946    1949    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1447 Rule    Halifax 1946    1949    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1448 Rule    Halifax 1951    1954    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1449 Rule    Halifax 1951    1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1450 Rule    Halifax 1956    1959    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1451 Rule    Halifax 1956    1959    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1452 Rule    Halifax 1962    1973    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1453 Rule    Halifax 1962    1973    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1454 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1455 Zone America/Halifax    -4:14:24 -      LMT     1902 Jun 15
1456                         -4:00   Halifax A%sT    1918
1457                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1919
1458                         -4:00   Halifax A%sT    1942 Feb  9  2:00s
1459                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1946
1460                         -4:00   Halifax A%sT    1974
1461                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT
1462 Zone America/Glace_Bay  -3:59:48 -      LMT     1902 Jun 15
1463                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1953
1464                         -4:00   Halifax A%sT    1954
1465                         -4:00   -       AST     1972
1466                         -4:00   Halifax A%sT    1974
1467                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT
1468 
1469 # New Brunswick
1470 
1471 # From Paul Eggert (2007-01-31):
1472 # The Time Definition Act <http://www.gnb.ca/0062/PDF-acts/t-06.pdf>
1473 # says they changed at 00:01 through 2006, and
1474 # <http://www.canlii.org/nb/laws/sta/t-6/20030127/whole.html> makes it
1475 # clear that this was the case since at least 1993.
1476 # For now, assume it started in 1993.
1477 
1478 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1479 Rule    Moncton 1933    1935    -       Jun     Sun>=8       1:00    1:00    D
1480 Rule    Moncton 1933    1935    -       Sep     Sun>=8       1:00    0       S
1481 Rule    Moncton 1936    1938    -       Jun     Sun>=1       1:00    1:00    D
1482 Rule    Moncton 1936    1938    -       Sep     Sun>=1       1:00    0       S
1483 Rule    Moncton 1939    only    -       May     27      1:00    1:00    D
1484 Rule    Moncton 1939    1941    -       Sep     Sat>=21      1:00    0       S
1485 Rule    Moncton 1940    only    -       May     19      1:00    1:00    D
1486 Rule    Moncton 1941    only    -       May      4      1:00    1:00    D
1487 Rule    Moncton 1946    1972    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1488 Rule    Moncton 1946    1956    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1489 Rule    Moncton 1957    1972    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1490 Rule    Moncton 1993    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:01    1:00    D
1491 Rule    Moncton 1993    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 0:01    0       S
1492 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1493 Zone America/Moncton    -4:19:08 -      LMT     1883 Dec  9
1494                         -5:00   -       EST     1902 Jun 15
1495                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1933
1496                         -4:00   Moncton A%sT    1942
1497                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1946
1498                         -4:00   Moncton A%sT    1973
1499                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1993
1500                         -4:00   Moncton A%sT    2007
1501                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT
1502 
1503 # Quebec
1504 
1505 # From Paul Eggert (2015-03-24):
1506 # See America/Toronto for most of Quebec, including Montreal.
1507 #
1508 # Matthews and Vincent (1998) also write that Quebec east of the -63
1509 # meridian is supposed to observe AST, but residents as far east as
1510 # Natashquan use EST/EDT, and residents east of Natashquan use AST.
1511 # The Quebec department of justice writes in
1512 # "The situation in Minganie and Basse-Côte-Nord"
1513 # http://www.justice.gouv.qc.ca/english/publications/generale/temps-minganie-a.htm
1514 # that the coastal strip from just east of Natashquan to Blanc-Sablon
1515 # observes Atlantic standard time all year round.
1516 # https://www.assnat.qc.ca/Media/Process.aspx?MediaId=ANQ.Vigie.Bll.DocumentGenerique_8845en
1517 # says this common practice was codified into law as of 2007.
1518 # For lack of better info, guess this practice began around 1970, contra to
1519 # Shanks & Pottenger who have this region observing AST/ADT.
1520 
1521 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1522 Zone America/Blanc-Sablon -3:48:28 -    LMT     1884
1523                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1970
1524                         -4:00   -       AST
1525 
1526 # Ontario
1527 
1528 # From Paul Eggert (2006-07-09):
1529 # Shanks & Pottenger write that since 1970 most of Ontario has been like
1530 # Toronto.
1531 # Thunder Bay skipped DST in 1973.
1532 # Many smaller locales did not observe peacetime DST until 1974;
1533 # Nipigon (EST) and Rainy River (CST) are the largest that we know of.
1534 # Far west Ontario is like Winnipeg; far east Quebec is like Halifax.
1535 
1536 # From Mark Brader (2003-07-26):
1537 # [According to the Toronto Star] Orillia, Ontario, adopted DST
1538 # effective Saturday, 1912-06-22, 22:00; the article mentions that
1539 # Port Arthur (now part of Thunder Bay, Ontario) as well as Moose Jaw
1540 # have already done so.  In Orillia DST was to run until Saturday,
1541 # 1912-08-31 (no time mentioned), but it was met with considerable
1542 # hostility from certain segments of the public, and was revoked after
1543 # only two weeks - I copied it as Saturday, 1912-07-07, 22:00, but
1544 # presumably that should be -07-06.  (1912-06-19, -07-12; also letters
1545 # earlier in June).
1546 #
1547 # Kenora, Ontario, was to abandon DST on 1914-06-01 (-05-21).
1548 #
1549 # From Paul Eggert (2017-07-08):
1550 # For more on Orillia, see: Daubs K. Bold attempt at daylight saving
1551 # time became a comic failure in Orillia. Toronto Star 2017-07-08.
1552 # https://www.thestar.com/news/insight/2017/07/08/bold-attempt-at-daylight-saving-time-became-a-comic-failure-in-orillia.html
1553 
1554 # From Paul Eggert (1997-10-17):
1555 # Mark Brader writes that an article in the 1997-10-14 Toronto Star
1556 # says that Atikokan, Ontario currently does not observe DST,
1557 # but will vote on 11-10 whether to use EST/EDT.
1558 # He also writes that the Ontario Time Act (1990, Chapter T.9)
1559 # http://www.gov.on.ca/MBS/english/publications/statregs/conttext.html
1560 # says that Ontario east of 90W uses EST/EDT, and west of 90W uses CST/CDT.
1561 # Officially Atikokan is therefore on CST/CDT, and most likely this report
1562 # concerns a non-official time observed as a matter of local practice.
1563 #
1564 # From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
1565 # Matthews and Vincent (1998) write that Atikokan, Pickle Lake, and
1566 # New Osnaburgh observe CST all year, that Big Trout Lake observes
1567 # CST/CDT, and that Upsala and Shebandowan observe EST/EDT, all in
1568 # violation of the official Ontario rules.
1569 #
1570 # From Paul Eggert (2006-07-09):
1571 # Chris Walton (2006-07-06) mentioned an article by Stephanie MacLellan in the
1572 # 2005-07-21 Chronicle-Journal, which said:
1573 #
1574 #       The clocks in Atikokan stay set on standard time year-round.
1575 #       This means they spend about half the time on central time and
1576 #       the other half on eastern time.
1577 #
1578 #       For the most part, the system works, Mayor Dennis Brown said.
1579 #
1580 #       "The majority of businesses in Atikokan deal more with Eastern
1581 #       Canada, but there are some that deal with Western Canada," he
1582 #       said.  "I don't see any changes happening here."
1583 #
1584 # Walton also writes "Supposedly Pickle Lake and Mishkeegogamang
1585 # [New Osnaburgh] follow the same practice."
1586 
1587 # From Garry McKinnon (2006-07-14) via Chris Walton:
1588 # I chatted with a member of my board who has an outstanding memory
1589 # and a long history in Atikokan (and in the telecom industry) and he
1590 # can say for certain that Atikokan has been practicing the current
1591 # time keeping since 1952, at least.
1592 
1593 # From Paul Eggert (2006-07-17):
1594 # Shanks & Pottenger say that Atikokan has agreed with Rainy River
1595 # ever since standard time was introduced, but the information from
1596 # McKinnon sounds more authoritative.  For now, assume that Atikokan
1597 # switched to EST immediately after WWII era daylight saving time
1598 # ended.  This matches the old (less-populous) America/Coral_Harbour
1599 # entry since our cutoff date of 1970, so we can move
1600 # America/Coral_Harbour to the 'backward' file.
1601 
1602 # From Mark Brader (2010-03-06):
1603 #
1604 # Currently the database has:
1605 #
1606 # # Ontario
1607 #
1608 # # From Paul Eggert (2006-07-09):
1609 # # Shanks & Pottenger write that since 1970 most of Ontario has been like
1610 # # Toronto.
1611 # # Thunder Bay skipped DST in 1973.
1612 # # Many smaller locales did not observe peacetime DST until 1974;
1613 # # Nipigon (EST) and Rainy River (CST) are the largest that we know of.
1614 #
1615 # In the (Toronto) Globe and Mail for Saturday, 1955-09-24, in the bottom
1616 # right corner of page 1, it says that Toronto will return to standard
1617 # time at 2 am Sunday morning (which agrees with the database), and that:
1618 #
1619 #     The one-hour setback will go into effect throughout most of Ontario,
1620 #     except in areas like Windsor which remains on standard time all year.
1621 #
1622 # Windsor is, of course, a lot larger than Nipigon.
1623 #
1624 # I only came across this incidentally.  I don't know if Windsor began
1625 # observing DST when Detroit did, or in 1974, or on some other date.
1626 #
1627 # By the way, the article continues by noting that:
1628 #
1629 #     Some cities in the United States have pushed the deadline back
1630 #     three weeks and will change over from daylight saving in October.
1631 
1632 # From Arthur David Olson (2010-07-17):
1633 #
1634 # "Standard Time and Time Zones in Canada" appeared in
1635 # The Journal of The Royal Astronomical Society of Canada,
1636 # volume 26, number 2 (February 1932) and, as of 2010-07-17,
1637 # was available at
1638 # http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1932JRASC..26...49S
1639 #
1640 # It includes the text below (starting on page 57):
1641 #
1642 #   A list of the places in Canada using daylight saving time would
1643 # require yearly revision. From information kindly furnished by
1644 # the provincial governments and by the postmasters in many cities
1645 # and towns, it is found that the following places used daylight sav-
1646 # ing in 1930. The information for the province of Quebec is definite,
1647 # for the other provinces only approximate:
1648 #
1649 #       Province        Daylight saving time used
1650 # Prince Edward Island  Not used.
1651 # Nova Scotia           In Halifax only.
1652 # New Brunswick         In St. John only.
1653 # Quebec                In the following places:
1654 #                       Montreal        Lachine
1655 #                       Quebec          Mont-Royal
1656 #                       Lévis          Iberville
1657 #                       St. Lambert     Cap de la Madelèine
1658 #                       Verdun          Loretteville
1659 #                       Westmount       Richmond
1660 #                       Outremont       St. Jérôme
1661 #                       Longueuil       Greenfield Park
1662 #                       Arvida          Waterloo
1663 #                       Chambly-Canton  Beaulieu
1664 #                       Melbourne       La Tuque
1665 #                       St. Théophile  Buckingham
1666 # Ontario               Used generally in the cities and towns along
1667 #                       the southerly part of the province. Not
1668 #                       used in the northwesterly part.
1669 # Manitoba              Not used.
1670 # Saskatchewan          In Regina only.
1671 # Alberta               Not used.
1672 # British Columbia      Not used.
1673 #
1674 #   With some exceptions, the use of daylight saving may be said to be limited
1675 # to those cities and towns lying between Quebec city and Windsor, Ont.
1676 
1677 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1678 Rule    Toronto 1919    only    -       Mar     30      23:30   1:00    D
1679 Rule    Toronto 1919    only    -       Oct     26      0:00    0       S
1680 Rule    Toronto 1920    only    -       May      2      2:00    1:00    D
1681 Rule    Toronto 1920    only    -       Sep     26      0:00    0       S
1682 Rule    Toronto 1921    only    -       May     15      2:00    1:00    D
1683 Rule    Toronto 1921    only    -       Sep     15      2:00    0       S
1684 Rule    Toronto 1922    1923    -       May     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
1685 # Shanks & Pottenger say 1923-09-19; assume it's a typo and that "-16"
1686 # was meant.
1687 Rule    Toronto 1922    1926    -       Sep     Sun>=15      2:00    0       S
1688 Rule    Toronto 1924    1927    -       May     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
1689 # The 1927-to-1939 rules can be expressed more simply as
1690 # Rule  Toronto 1927    1937    -       Sep     Sun>=25      2:00    0       S
1691 # Rule  Toronto 1928    1937    -       Apr     Sun>=25      2:00    1:00    D
1692 # Rule  Toronto 1938    1940    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1693 # Rule  Toronto 1938    1939    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1694 # The rules below avoid use of Sun>=25
1695 # (which pre-2004 versions of zic cannot handle).
1696 Rule    Toronto 1927    1932    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1697 Rule    Toronto 1928    1931    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1698 Rule    Toronto 1932    only    -       May     1       2:00    1:00    D
1699 Rule    Toronto 1933    1940    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1700 Rule    Toronto 1933    only    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       S
1701 Rule    Toronto 1934    1939    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1702 Rule    Toronto 1945    1946    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1703 Rule    Toronto 1946    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1704 Rule    Toronto 1947    1949    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    1:00    D
1705 Rule    Toronto 1947    1948    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       S
1706 Rule    Toronto 1949    only    -       Nov     lastSun 0:00    0       S
1707 Rule    Toronto 1950    1973    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1708 Rule    Toronto 1950    only    -       Nov     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1709 Rule    Toronto 1951    1956    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1710 # Shanks & Pottenger say Toronto ended DST a week early in 1971,
1711 # namely on 1971-10-24, but Mark Brader wrote (2003-05-31) that this
1712 # is wrong, and that he had confirmed it by checking the 1971-10-30
1713 # Toronto Star, which said that DST was ending 1971-10-31 as usual.
1714 Rule    Toronto 1957    1973    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1715 
1716 # From Paul Eggert (2003-07-27):
1717 # Willett (1914-03) writes (p. 17) "In the Cities of Fort William, and
1718 # Port Arthur, Ontario, the principle of the Bill has been in
1719 # operation for the past three years, and in the City of Moose Jaw,
1720 # Saskatchewan, for one year."
1721 
1722 # From David Bryan via Tory Tronrud, Director/Curator,
1723 # Thunder Bay Museum (2003-11-12):
1724 # There is some suggestion, however, that, by-law or not, daylight
1725 # savings time was being practiced in Fort William and Port Arthur
1726 # before 1909.... [I]n 1910, the line between the Eastern and Central
1727 # Time Zones was permanently moved about two hundred miles west to
1728 # include the Thunder Bay area....  When Canada adopted daylight
1729 # savings time in 1916, Fort William and Port Arthur, having done so
1730 # already, did not change their clocks....  During the Second World
1731 # War,... [t]he cities agreed to implement DST during the summer
1732 # months for the remainder of the war years.
1733 
1734 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1735 Zone America/Toronto    -5:17:32 -      LMT     1895
1736                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1919
1737                         -5:00   Toronto E%sT    1942 Feb  9  2:00s
1738                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1946
1739                         -5:00   Toronto E%sT    1974
1740                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT
1741 Zone America/Thunder_Bay -5:57:00 -     LMT     1895
1742                         -6:00   -       CST     1910
1743                         -5:00   -       EST     1942
1744                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1970
1745                         -5:00   Toronto E%sT    1973
1746                         -5:00   -       EST     1974
1747                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT
1748 Zone America/Nipigon    -5:53:04 -      LMT     1895
1749                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1940 Sep 29
1750                         -5:00   1:00    EDT     1942 Feb  9  2:00s
1751                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT
1752 Zone America/Rainy_River -6:18:16 -     LMT     1895
1753                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT    1940 Sep 29
1754                         -6:00   1:00    CDT     1942 Feb  9  2:00s
1755                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT
1756 Zone America/Atikokan   -6:06:28 -      LMT     1895
1757                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT    1940 Sep 29
1758                         -6:00   1:00    CDT     1942 Feb  9  2:00s
1759                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT    1945 Sep 30  2:00
1760                         -5:00   -       EST
1761 
1762 
1763 # Manitoba
1764 
1765 # From Rob Douglas (2006-04-06):
1766 # the old Manitoba Time Act - as amended by Bill 2, assented to
1767 # March 27, 1987 ... said ...
1768 # "between two o'clock Central Standard Time in the morning of
1769 # the first Sunday of April of each year and two o'clock Central
1770 # Standard Time in the morning of the last Sunday of October next
1771 # following, one hour in advance of Central Standard Time."...
1772 # I believe that the English legislation [of the old time act] had
1773 # been assented to (March 22, 1967)....
1774 # Also, as far as I can tell, there was no order-in-council varying
1775 # the time of Daylight Saving Time for 2005 and so the provisions of
1776 # the 1987 version would apply - the changeover was at 2:00 Central
1777 # Standard Time (i.e. not until 3:00 Central Daylight Time).
1778 
1779 # From Paul Eggert (2006-04-10):
1780 # Shanks & Pottenger say Manitoba switched at 02:00 (not 02:00s)
1781 # starting 1966.  Since 02:00s is clearly correct for 1967 on, assume
1782 # it was also 02:00s in 1966.
1783 
1784 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1785 Rule    Winn    1916    only    -       Apr     23      0:00    1:00    D
1786 Rule    Winn    1916    only    -       Sep     17      0:00    0       S
1787 Rule    Winn    1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D
1788 Rule    Winn    1918    only    -       Oct     27      2:00    0       S
1789 Rule    Winn    1937    only    -       May     16      2:00    1:00    D
1790 Rule    Winn    1937    only    -       Sep     26      2:00    0       S
1791 Rule    Winn    1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War
1792 Rule    Winn    1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace
1793 Rule    Winn    1945    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1794 Rule    Winn    1946    only    -       May     12      2:00    1:00    D
1795 Rule    Winn    1946    only    -       Oct     13      2:00    0       S
1796 Rule    Winn    1947    1949    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1797 Rule    Winn    1947    1949    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1798 Rule    Winn    1950    only    -       May      1      2:00    1:00    D
1799 Rule    Winn    1950    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S
1800 Rule    Winn    1951    1960    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1801 Rule    Winn    1951    1958    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1802 Rule    Winn    1959    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1803 Rule    Winn    1960    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1804 Rule    Winn    1963    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1805 Rule    Winn    1963    only    -       Sep     22      2:00    0       S
1806 Rule    Winn    1966    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
1807 Rule    Winn    1966    2005    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
1808 Rule    Winn    1987    2005    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
1809 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1810 Zone America/Winnipeg   -6:28:36 -      LMT     1887 Jul 16
1811                         -6:00   Winn    C%sT    2006
1812                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT
1813 
1814 
1815 # Saskatchewan
1816 
1817 # From Mark Brader (2003-07-26):
1818 # The first actual adoption of DST in Canada was at the municipal
1819 # level.  As the [Toronto] Star put it (1912-06-07), "While people
1820 # elsewhere have long been talking of legislation to save daylight,
1821 # the city of Moose Jaw [Saskatchewan] has acted on its own hook."
1822 # DST in Moose Jaw began on Saturday, 1912-06-01 (no time mentioned:
1823 # presumably late evening, as below), and would run until "the end of
1824 # the summer".  The discrepancy between municipal time and railroad
1825 # time was noted.
1826 
1827 # From Paul Eggert (2003-07-27):
1828 # Willett (1914-03) notes that DST "has been in operation ... in the
1829 # City of Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, for one year."
1830 
1831 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1832 # Shanks & Pottenger say that since 1970 this region has mostly been as Regina.
1833 # Some western towns (e.g. Swift Current) switched from MST/MDT to CST in 1972.
1834 # Other western towns (e.g. Lloydminster) are like Edmonton.
1835 # Matthews and Vincent (1998) write that Denare Beach and Creighton
1836 # are like Winnipeg, in violation of Saskatchewan law.
1837 
1838 # From W. Jones (1992-11-06):
1839 # The. . .below is based on information I got from our law library, the
1840 # provincial archives, and the provincial Community Services department.
1841 # A precise history would require digging through newspaper archives, and
1842 # since you didn't say what you wanted, I didn't bother.
1843 #
1844 # Saskatchewan is split by a time zone meridian (105W) and over the years
1845 # the boundary became pretty ragged as communities near it reevaluated
1846 # their affiliations in one direction or the other.  In 1965 a provincial
1847 # referendum favoured legislating common time practices.
1848 #
1849 # On 15 April 1966 the Time Act (c. T-14, Revised Statutes of
1850 # Saskatchewan 1978) was proclaimed, and established that the eastern
1851 # part of Saskatchewan would use CST year round, that districts in
1852 # northwest Saskatchewan would by default follow CST but could opt to
1853 # follow Mountain Time rules (thus 1 hour difference in the winter and
1854 # zero in the summer), and that districts in southwest Saskatchewan would
1855 # by default follow MT but could opt to follow CST.
1856 #
1857 # It took a few years for the dust to settle (I know one story of a town
1858 # on one time zone having its school in another, such that a mom had to
1859 # serve her family lunch in two shifts), but presently it seems that only
1860 # a few towns on the border with Alberta (e.g. Lloydminster) follow MT
1861 # rules any more; all other districts appear to have used CST year round
1862 # since sometime in the 1960s.
1863 
1864 # From Chris Walton (2006-06-26):
1865 # The Saskatchewan time act which was last updated in 1996 is about 30 pages
1866 # long and rather painful to read.
1867 # http://www.qp.gov.sk.ca/documents/English/Statutes/Statutes/T14.pdf
1868 
1869 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1870 Rule    Regina  1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D
1871 Rule    Regina  1918    only    -       Oct     27      2:00    0       S
1872 Rule    Regina  1930    1934    -       May     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
1873 Rule    Regina  1930    1934    -       Oct     Sun>=1       0:00    0       S
1874 Rule    Regina  1937    1941    -       Apr     Sun>=8       0:00    1:00    D
1875 Rule    Regina  1937    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8       0:00    0       S
1876 Rule    Regina  1938    only    -       Oct     Sun>=1       0:00    0       S
1877 Rule    Regina  1939    1941    -       Oct     Sun>=8       0:00    0       S
1878 Rule    Regina  1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War
1879 Rule    Regina  1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace
1880 Rule    Regina  1945    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1881 Rule    Regina  1946    only    -       Apr     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
1882 Rule    Regina  1946    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8       2:00    0       S
1883 Rule    Regina  1947    1957    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1884 Rule    Regina  1947    1957    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1885 Rule    Regina  1959    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1886 Rule    Regina  1959    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1887 #
1888 Rule    Swift   1957    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1889 Rule    Swift   1957    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1890 Rule    Swift   1959    1961    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1891 Rule    Swift   1959    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1892 Rule    Swift   1960    1961    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1893 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1894 Zone America/Regina     -6:58:36 -      LMT     1905 Sep
1895                         -7:00   Regina  M%sT    1960 Apr lastSun  2:00
1896                         -6:00   -       CST
1897 Zone America/Swift_Current -7:11:20 -   LMT     1905 Sep
1898                         -7:00   Canada  M%sT    1946 Apr lastSun  2:00
1899                         -7:00   Regina  M%sT    1950
1900                         -7:00   Swift   M%sT    1972 Apr lastSun  2:00
1901                         -6:00   -       CST
1902 
1903 
1904 # Alberta
1905 
1906 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1907 Rule    Edm     1918    1919    -       Apr     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
1908 Rule    Edm     1918    only    -       Oct     27      2:00    0       S
1909 Rule    Edm     1919    only    -       May     27      2:00    0       S
1910 Rule    Edm     1920    1923    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1911 Rule    Edm     1920    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1912 Rule    Edm     1921    1923    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1913 Rule    Edm     1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War
1914 Rule    Edm     1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace
1915 Rule    Edm     1945    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1916 Rule    Edm     1947    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1917 Rule    Edm     1947    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1918 Rule    Edm     1967    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1919 Rule    Edm     1967    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1920 Rule    Edm     1969    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1921 Rule    Edm     1969    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1922 Rule    Edm     1972    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1923 Rule    Edm     1972    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1924 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1925 Zone America/Edmonton   -7:33:52 -      LMT     1906 Sep
1926                         -7:00   Edm     M%sT    1987
1927                         -7:00   Canada  M%sT
1928 
1929 
1930 # British Columbia
1931 
1932 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1933 # Shanks & Pottenger write that since 1970 most of this region has
1934 # been like Vancouver.
1935 # Dawson Creek uses MST.  Much of east BC is like Edmonton.
1936 # Matthews and Vincent (1998) write that Creston is like Dawson Creek.
1937 
1938 # It seems though that (re: Creston) is not entirely correct:
1939 
1940 # From Chris Walton (2011-12-01):
1941 # There are two areas within the Canadian province of British Columbia
1942 # that do not currently observe daylight saving:
1943 # a) The Creston Valley (includes the town of Creston and surrounding area)
1944 # b) The eastern half of the Peace River Regional District
1945 # (includes the cities of Dawson Creek and Fort St. John)
1946 
1947 # Earlier this year I stumbled across a detailed article about the time
1948 # keeping history of Creston; it was written by Tammy Hardwick who is the
1949 # manager of the Creston & District Museum. The article was written in May 2009.
1950 # http://www.ilovecreston.com/?p=articles&t=spec&ar=260
1951 # According to the article, Creston has not changed its clocks since June 1918.
1952 # i.e. Creston has been stuck on UT-7 for 93 years.
1953 # Dawson Creek, on the other hand, changed its clocks as recently as April 1972.
1954 
1955 # Unfortunately the exact date for the time change in June 1918 remains
1956 # unknown and will be difficult to ascertain.  I e-mailed Tammy a few months
1957 # ago to ask if Sunday June 2 was a reasonable guess.  She said it was just
1958 # as plausible as any other date (in June).  She also said that after writing
1959 # the article she had discovered another time change in 1916; this is the
1960 # subject of another article which she wrote in October 2010.
1961 # http://www.creston.museum.bc.ca/index.php?module=comments&uop=view_comment&cm+id=56
1962 
1963 # Here is a summary of the three clock change events in Creston's history:
1964 # 1. 1884 or 1885: adoption of Mountain Standard Time (GMT-7)
1965 # Exact date unknown
1966 # 2. Oct 1916: switch to Pacific Standard Time (GMT-8)
1967 # Exact date in October unknown; Sunday October 1 is a reasonable guess.
1968 # 3. June 1918: switch to Pacific Daylight Time (GMT-7)
1969 # Exact date in June unknown; Sunday June 2 is a reasonable guess.
1970 # note 1:
1971 # On Oct 27/1918 when daylight saving ended in the rest of Canada,
1972 # Creston did not change its clocks.
1973 # note 2:
1974 # During WWII when the Federal Government legislated a mandatory clock change,
1975 # Creston did not oblige.
1976 # note 3:
1977 # There is no guarantee that Creston will remain on Mountain Standard Time
1978 # (UTC-7) forever.
1979 # The subject was debated at least once this year by the town Council.
1980 # http://www.bclocalnews.com/kootenay_rockies/crestonvalleyadvance/news/116760809.html
1981 
1982 # During a period WWII, summer time (Daylight saying) was mandatory in Canada.
1983 # In Creston, that was handled by shifting the area to PST (-8:00) then applying
1984 # summer time to cause the offset to be -7:00, the same as it had been before
1985 # the change.  It can be argued that the timezone abbreviation during this
1986 # period should be PDT rather than MST, but that doesn't seem important enough
1987 # (to anyone) to further complicate the rules.
1988 
1989 # The transition dates (and times) are guesses.
1990 
1991 # From Matt Johnson (2015-09-21):
1992 # Fort Nelson, BC, Canada will cancel DST this year.  So while previously they
1993 # were aligned with America/Vancouver, they're now aligned with
1994 # America/Dawson_Creek.
1995 # http://www.northernrockies.ca/EN/meta/news/archives/2015/northern-rockies-time-change.html
1996 #
1997 # From Tim Parenti (2015-09-23):
1998 # This requires a new zone for the Northern Rockies Regional Municipality,
1999 # America/Fort_Nelson.  The resolution of 2014-12-08 was reached following a
2000 # 2014-11-15 poll with nearly 75% support.  Effectively, the municipality has
2001 # been on MST (-0700) like Dawson Creek since it advanced its clocks on
2002 # 2015-03-08.
2003 #
2004 # From Paul Eggert (2015-09-23):
2005 # Shanks says Fort Nelson did not observe DST in 1946, unlike Vancouver.
2006 
2007 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2008 Rule    Vanc    1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D
2009 Rule    Vanc    1918    only    -       Oct     27      2:00    0       S
2010 Rule    Vanc    1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War
2011 Rule    Vanc    1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace
2012 Rule    Vanc    1945    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S
2013 Rule    Vanc    1946    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
2014 Rule    Vanc    1946    only    -       Oct     13      2:00    0       S
2015 Rule    Vanc    1947    1961    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
2016 Rule    Vanc    1962    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
2017 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2018 Zone America/Vancouver  -8:12:28 -      LMT     1884
2019                         -8:00   Vanc    P%sT    1987
2020                         -8:00   Canada  P%sT
2021 Zone America/Dawson_Creek -8:00:56 -    LMT     1884
2022                         -8:00   Canada  P%sT    1947
2023                         -8:00   Vanc    P%sT    1972 Aug 30  2:00
2024                         -7:00   -       MST
2025 Zone America/Fort_Nelson        -8:10:47 -      LMT     1884
2026                         -8:00   Vanc    P%sT    1946
2027                         -8:00   -       PST     1947
2028                         -8:00   Vanc    P%sT    1987
2029                         -8:00   Canada  P%sT    2015 Mar  8  2:00
2030                         -7:00   -       MST
2031 Zone America/Creston    -7:46:04 -      LMT     1884
2032                         -7:00   -       MST     1916 Oct 1
2033                         -8:00   -       PST     1918 Jun 2
2034                         -7:00   -       MST
2035 
2036 # Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Yukon
2037 
2038 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
2039 # Dawson switched to PST in 1973.  Inuvik switched to MST in 1979.
2040 # Mathew Englander (1996-10-07) gives the following refs:
2041 #       * 1967. Paragraph 28(34)(g) of the Interpretation Act, S.C. 1967-68,
2042 #       c. 7 defines Yukon standard time as UTC-9....
2043 #       see Interpretation Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. I-21, s. 35(1).
2044 #       [https://www.canlii.org/en/ca/laws/stat/rsc-1985-c-i-21/latest/rsc-1985-c-i-21.html]
2045 #       * C.O. 1973/214 switched Yukon to PST on 1973-10-28 00:00.
2046 #       * O.I.C. 1980/02 established DST.
2047 #       * O.I.C. 1987/056 changed DST to Apr firstSun 2:00 to Oct lastSun 2:00.
2048 
2049 # From Brian Inglis (2015-04-14):
2050 #
2051 # I tried to trace the history of Yukon time and found the following
2052 # regulations, giving the reference title and URL if found, regulation name,
2053 # and relevant quote if available.  Each regulation specifically revokes its
2054 # predecessor.  The final reference is to the current Interpretation Act
2055 # authorizing and resulting from these regulatory changes.
2056 #
2057 # Only recent regulations were retrievable via Yukon government site search or
2058 # index, and only some via Canadian legal sources.  Other sources used include
2059 # articles titled "Standard Time and Time Zones in Canada" from JRASC via ADS
2060 # Abstracts, cited by ADO for 1932 ..., and updated versions from 1958 and
2061 # 1970 quoted below; each article includes current extracts from provincial
2062 # and territorial ST and DST regulations at the end, summaries and details of
2063 # standard times and daylight saving time at many locations across Canada,
2064 # with time zone maps, tables and calculations for Canadian Sunrise, Sunset,
2065 # and LMST; they also cover many countries and global locations, with a chart
2066 # and table showing current Universal Time offsets, and may be useful as
2067 # another source of information for 1970 and earlier.
2068 #
2069 # * Standard Time and Time Zones in Canada; Smith, C.C.; JRASC, Vol. 26,
2070 #   pp.49-77; February 1932; SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2071 #   http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1932JRASC..26...49S from p.75:
2072 #   Yukon Interpretation Ordinance
2073 #   Yukon standard time is the local mean time at the one hundred and
2074 #   thirty-fifth meridian.
2075 #
2076 # * Standard Time and Time Zones in Canada; Smith, C.C.; Thomson, Malcolm M.;
2077 #   JRASC, Vol. 52, pp.193-223; October 1958; SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System
2078 #   (ADS) http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1958JRASC..52..193S from pp.220-1:
2079 #   Yukon Interpretation Ordinance, 1955, Chap. 16.
2080 #
2081 #     (1) Subject to this section, standard time shall be reckoned as nine
2082 #     hours behind Greenwich Time and called Yukon Standard Time.
2083 #
2084 #     (2) Notwithstanding subsection (1), the Commissioner may make regulations
2085 #     varying the manner of reckoning standard time.
2086 #
2087 # * Yukon Territory Commissioner's Order 1966-20 Interpretation Ordinance
2088 #   http://? - no online source found
2089 #
2090 # * Standard Time and Time Zones in Canada; Thomson, Malcolm M.; JRASC,
2091 #   Vol. 64, pp.129-162; June 1970; SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2092 #   http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1970JRASC..64..129T from p.156: Yukon
2093 #   Territory Commissioner's Order 1967-59 Interpretation Ordinance ...
2094 #
2095 #     1. Commissioner's Order 1966-20 dated at Whitehorse in the Yukon
2096 #     Territory on 27th January, 1966, is hereby revoked.
2097 #
2098 #     2. Yukon (East) Standard Time as defined by section 36 of the
2099 #     Interpretation Ordinance from and after mid-night on the 28th day of May,
2100 #     1967 shall be reckoned in the same manner as Pacific Standard Time, that
2101 #     is to say, eight hours behind Greenwich Time in the area of the Yukon
2102 #     Territory lying east of the 138th degree longitude west.
2103 #
2104 #     3. In the remainder of the Territory, lying west of the 138th degree
2105 #     longitude west, Yukon (West) Standard Time shall be reckoned as nine
2106 #     hours behind Greenwich Time.
2107 #
2108 # * Yukon Standard Time defined as Pacific Standard Time, YCO 1973/214
2109 #   https://www.canlii.org/en/yk/laws/regu/yco-1973-214/latest/yco-1973-214.html
2110 #   C.O. 1973/214 INTERPRETATION ACT ...
2111 #
2112 #     1. Effective October 28, 1973 Commissioner's Order 1967/59 is hereby
2113 #     revoked.
2114 #
2115 #     2. Yukon Standard Time as defined by section 36 of the Interpretation
2116 #     Act from and after midnight on the twenty-eighth day of October, 1973
2117 #     shall be reckoned in the same manner as Pacific Standard Time, that is
2118 #     to say eight hours behind Greenwich Time.
2119 #
2120 # * O.I.C. 1980/02 INTERPRETATION ACT
2121 #   http://? - no online source found
2122 #
2123 # * Yukon Daylight Saving Time, YOIC 1987/56
2124 #   https://www.canlii.org/en/yk/laws/regu/yoic-1987-56/latest/yoic-1987-56.html
2125 #   O.I.C. 1987/056 INTERPRETATION ACT ...
2126 #
2127 #   In every year between
2128 #     (a) two o'clock in the morning in the first Sunday in April, and
2129 #     (b) two o'clock in the morning in the last Sunday in October,
2130 #   Standard Time shall be reckoned as seven hours behind Greenwich Time and
2131 #   called Yukon Daylight Saving Time.
2132 #   ...
2133 #   Dated ... 9th day of March, A.D., 1987.
2134 #
2135 # * Yukon Daylight Saving Time 2006, YOIC 2006/127
2136 #   https://www.canlii.org/en/yk/laws/regu/yoic-2006-127/latest/yoic-2006-127.html
2137 #   O.I.C. 2006/127 INTERPRETATION ACT ...
2138 #
2139 #     1. In Yukon each year the time for general purposes shall be 7 hours
2140 #     behind Greenwich mean time during the period commencing at two o'clock
2141 #     in the forenoon on the second Sunday of March and ending at two o'clock
2142 #     in the forenoon on the first Sunday of November and shall be called
2143 #     Yukon Daylight Saving Time.
2144 #
2145 #     2. Order-in-Council 1987/56 is revoked.
2146 #
2147 #     3. This order comes into force January 1, 2007.
2148 #
2149 # * Interpretation Act, RSY 2002, c 125
2150 # https://www.canlii.org/en/yk/laws/stat/rsy-2002-c-125/latest/rsy-2002-c-125.html
2151 
2152 # From Rives McDow (1999-09-04):
2153 # Nunavut ... moved ... to incorporate the whole territory into one time zone.
2154 # Nunavut moves to single time zone Oct. 31
2155 # http://www.nunatsiaq.com/nunavut/nvt90903_13.html
2156 #
2157 # From Antoine Leca (1999-09-06):
2158 # We then need to create a new timezone for the Kitikmeot region of Nunavut
2159 # to differentiate it from the Yellowknife region.
2160 
2161 # From Paul Eggert (1999-09-20):
2162 # Basic Facts: The New Territory
2163 # http://www.nunavut.com/basicfacts/english/basicfacts_1territory.html
2164 # (1999) reports that Pangnirtung operates on eastern time,
2165 # and that Coral Harbour does not observe DST.  We don't know when
2166 # Pangnirtung switched to eastern time; we'll guess 1995.
2167 
2168 # From Rives McDow (1999-11-08):
2169 # On October 31, when the rest of Nunavut went to Central time,
2170 # Pangnirtung wobbled.  Here is the result of their wobble:
2171 #
2172 # The following businesses and organizations in Pangnirtung use Central Time:
2173 #
2174 #       First Air, Power Corp, Nunavut Construction, Health Center, RCMP,
2175 #       Eastern Arctic National Parks, A & D Specialist
2176 #
2177 # The following businesses and organizations in Pangnirtung use Eastern Time:
2178 #
2179 #       Hamlet office, All other businesses, Both schools, Airport operator
2180 #
2181 # This has made for an interesting situation there, which warranted the news.
2182 # No one there that I spoke with seems concerned, or has plans to
2183 # change the local methods of keeping time, as it evidently does not
2184 # really interfere with any activities or make things difficult locally.
2185 # They plan to celebrate New Year's turn-over twice, one hour apart,
2186 # so it appears that the situation will last at least that long.
2187 # The Nunavut Intergovernmental Affairs hopes that they will "come to
2188 # their senses", but the locals evidently don't see any problem with
2189 # the current state of affairs.
2190 
2191 # From Michaela Rodrigue, writing in the
2192 # Nunatsiaq News (1999-11-19):
2193 # http://www.nunatsiaqonline.ca/archives/nunavut991130/nvt91119_17.html
2194 # Clyde River, Pangnirtung and Sanikiluaq now operate with two time zones,
2195 # central - or Nunavut time - for government offices, and eastern time
2196 # for municipal offices and schools....  Igloolik [was similar but then]
2197 # made the switch to central time on Saturday, Nov. 6.
2198 
2199 # From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
2200 # Matthews and Vincent (1998) say the following, but we lack histories
2201 # for these potential new Zones.
2202 #
2203 # The Canadian Forces station at Alert uses Eastern Time while the
2204 # handful of residents at the Eureka weather station [in the Central
2205 # zone] skip daylight savings.  Baffin Island, which is crossed by the
2206 # Central, Eastern and Atlantic Time zones only uses Eastern Time.
2207 # Gjoa Haven, Taloyoak and Pelly Bay all use Mountain instead of
2208 # Central Time and Southampton Island [in the Central zone] is not
2209 # required to use daylight savings.
2210 
2211 # From <http://www.nunatsiaqonline.ca/archives/nunavut001130/nvt21110_02.html>
2212 # Nunavut now has two time zones (2000-11-10):
2213 # The Nunavut government would allow its employees in Kugluktuk and
2214 # Cambridge Bay to operate on central time year-round, putting them
2215 # one hour behind the rest of Nunavut for six months during the winter.
2216 # At the end of October the two communities had rebelled against
2217 # Nunavut's unified time zone, refusing to shift to eastern time with
2218 # the rest of the territory for the winter.  Cambridge Bay remained on
2219 # central time, while Kugluktuk, even farther west, reverted to
2220 # mountain time, which they had used before the advent of Nunavut's
2221 # unified time zone in 1999.
2222 #
2223 # From Rives McDow (2001-01-20), quoting the Nunavut government:
2224 # The preceding decision came into effect at midnight, Saturday Nov 4, 2000.
2225 
2226 # From Paul Eggert (2000-12-04):
2227 # Let's just keep track of the official times for now.
2228 
2229 # From Rives McDow (2001-03-07):
2230 # The premier of Nunavut has issued a ministerial statement advising
2231 # that effective 2001-04-01, the territory of Nunavut will revert
2232 # back to three time zones (mountain, central, and eastern).  Of the
2233 # cities in Nunavut, Coral Harbor is the only one that I know of that
2234 # has said it will not observe dst, staying on EST year round.  I'm
2235 # checking for more info, and will get back to you if I come up with
2236 # more.
2237 # [Also see <http://www.nunatsiaq.com/nunavut/nvt10309_06.html> (2001-03-09).]
2238 
2239 # From Gwillim Law (2005-05-21):
2240 # According to ...
2241 # http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/Magazine/SO98/geomap.asp
2242 # (from a 1998 Canadian Geographic article), the de facto and de jure time
2243 # for Southampton Island (at the north end of Hudson Bay) is UTC-5 all year
2244 # round.  Using Google, it's easy to find other websites that confirm this.
2245 # I wasn't able to find how far back this time regimen goes, but since it
2246 # predates the creation of Nunavut, it probably goes back many years....
2247 # The Inuktitut name of Coral Harbour is Sallit, but it's rarely used.
2248 #
2249 # From Paul Eggert (2014-10-17):
2250 # For lack of better information, assume that Southampton Island observed
2251 # daylight saving only during wartime.  Gwillim Law's email also
2252 # mentioned maps now maintained by National Research Council Canada;
2253 # see above for an up-to-date link.
2254 
2255 # From Chris Walton (2007-03-01):
2256 # ... the community of Resolute (located on Cornwallis Island in
2257 # Nunavut) moved from Central Time to Eastern Time last November.
2258 # Basically the community did not change its clocks at the end of
2259 # daylight saving....
2260 # http://www.nnsl.com/frames/newspapers/2006-11/nov13_06none.html
2261 
2262 # From Chris Walton (2011-03-21):
2263 # Back in 2007 I initiated the creation of a new "zone file" for Resolute
2264 # Bay. Resolute Bay is a small community located about 900km north of
2265 # the Arctic Circle. The zone file was required because Resolute Bay had
2266 # decided to use UTC-5 instead of UTC-6 for the winter of 2006-2007.
2267 #
2268 # According to new information which I received last week, Resolute Bay
2269 # went back to using UTC-6 in the winter of 2007-2008...
2270 #
2271 # On March 11/2007 most of Canada went onto daylight saving. On March
2272 # 14/2007 I phoned the Resolute Bay hamlet office to do a "time check." I
2273 # talked to somebody that was both knowledgeable and helpful. I was able
2274 # to confirm that Resolute Bay was still operating on UTC-5. It was
2275 # explained to me that Resolute Bay had been on the Eastern Time zone
2276 # (EST) in the winter, and was now back on the Central Time zone (CDT).
2277 # i.e. the time zone had changed twice in the last year but the clocks
2278 # had not moved. The residents had to know which time zone they were in
2279 # so they could follow the correct TV schedule...
2280 #
2281 # On Nov 02/2008 most of Canada went onto standard time. On Nov 03/2008 I
2282 # phoned the Resolute Bay hamlet office...[D]ue to the challenging nature
2283 # of the phone call, I decided to seek out an alternate source of
2284 # information. I found an e-mail address for somebody by the name of
2285 # Stephanie Adams whose job was listed as "Inns North Support Officer for
2286 # Arctic Co-operatives." I was under the impression that Stephanie lived
2287 # and worked in Resolute Bay...
2288 #
2289 # On March 14/2011 I phoned the hamlet office again. I was told that
2290 # Resolute Bay had been using Central Standard Time over the winter of
2291 # 2010-2011 and that the clocks had therefore been moved one hour ahead
2292 # on March 13/2011. The person I talked to was aware that Resolute Bay
2293 # had previously experimented with Eastern Standard Time but he could not
2294 # tell me when the practice had stopped.
2295 #
2296 # On March 17/2011 I searched the Web to find an e-mail address of
2297 # somebody that might be able to tell me exactly when Resolute Bay went
2298 # off Eastern Standard Time. I stumbled on the name "Aziz Kheraj." Aziz
2299 # used to be the mayor of Resolute Bay and he apparently owns half the
2300 # businesses including "South Camp Inn." This website has some info on
2301 # Aziz:
2302 # http://www.uphere.ca/node/493
2303 #
2304 # I sent Aziz an e-mail asking when Resolute Bay had stopped using
2305 # Eastern Standard Time.
2306 #
2307 # Aziz responded quickly with this: "hi, The time was not changed for the
2308 # 1 year only, the following year, the community went back to the old way
2309 # of "spring ahead-fall behind" currently we are zulu plus 5 hrs and in
2310 # the winter Zulu plus 6 hrs"
2311 #
2312 # This of course conflicted with everything I had ascertained in November 2008.
2313 #
2314 # I sent Aziz a copy of my 2008 e-mail exchange with Stephanie. Aziz
2315 # responded with this: "Hi, Stephanie lives in Winnipeg. I live here, You
2316 # may want to check with the weather office in Resolute Bay or do a
2317 # search on the weather through Env. Canada. web site"
2318 #
2319 # If I had realized the Stephanie did not live in Resolute Bay I would
2320 # never have contacted her.  I now believe that all the information I
2321 # obtained in November 2008 should be ignored...
2322 # I apologize for reporting incorrect information in 2008.
2323 
2324 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2325 Rule    NT_YK   1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D
2326 Rule    NT_YK   1918    only    -       Oct     27      2:00    0       S
2327 Rule    NT_YK   1919    only    -       May     25      2:00    1:00    D
2328 Rule    NT_YK   1919    only    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       S
2329 Rule    NT_YK   1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War
2330 Rule    NT_YK   1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace
2331 Rule    NT_YK   1945    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S
2332 Rule    NT_YK   1965    only    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    2:00    DD
2333 Rule    NT_YK   1965    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
2334 Rule    NT_YK   1980    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
2335 Rule    NT_YK   1980    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
2336 Rule    NT_YK   1987    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
2337 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2338 # aka Panniqtuuq
2339 Zone America/Pangnirtung 0      -       -00     1921 # trading post est.
2340                         -4:00   NT_YK   A%sT    1995 Apr Sun>=1  2:00
2341                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1999 Oct 31  2:00
2342                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT    2000 Oct 29  2:00
2343                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT
2344 # formerly Frobisher Bay
2345 Zone America/Iqaluit    0       -       -00     1942 Aug # Frobisher Bay est.
2346                         -5:00   NT_YK   E%sT    1999 Oct 31  2:00
2347                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT    2000 Oct 29  2:00
2348                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT
2349 # aka Qausuittuq
2350 Zone America/Resolute   0       -       -00     1947 Aug 31 # Resolute founded
2351                         -6:00   NT_YK   C%sT    2000 Oct 29  2:00
2352                         -5:00   -       EST     2001 Apr  1  3:00
2353                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT    2006 Oct 29  2:00
2354                         -5:00   -       EST     2007 Mar 11  3:00
2355                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT
2356 # aka Kangiqiniq
2357 Zone America/Rankin_Inlet 0     -       -00     1957 # Rankin Inlet founded
2358                         -6:00   NT_YK   C%sT    2000 Oct 29  2:00
2359                         -5:00   -       EST     2001 Apr  1  3:00
2360                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT
2361 # aka Iqaluktuuttiaq
2362 Zone America/Cambridge_Bay 0    -       -00     1920 # trading post est.?
2363                         -7:00   NT_YK   M%sT    1999 Oct 31  2:00
2364                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT    2000 Oct 29  2:00
2365                         -5:00   -       EST     2000 Nov  5  0:00
2366                         -6:00   -       CST     2001 Apr  1  3:00
2367                         -7:00   Canada  M%sT
2368 Zone America/Yellowknife 0      -       -00     1935 # Yellowknife founded?
2369                         -7:00   NT_YK   M%sT    1980
2370                         -7:00   Canada  M%sT
2371 Zone America/Inuvik     0       -       -00     1953 # Inuvik founded
2372                         -8:00   NT_YK   P%sT    1979 Apr lastSun  2:00
2373                         -7:00   NT_YK   M%sT    1980
2374                         -7:00   Canada  M%sT
2375 Zone America/Whitehorse -9:00:12 -      LMT     1900 Aug 20
2376                         -9:00   NT_YK   Y%sT    1967 May 28  0:00
2377                         -8:00   NT_YK   P%sT    1980
2378                         -8:00   Canada  P%sT
2379 Zone America/Dawson     -9:17:40 -      LMT     1900 Aug 20
2380                         -9:00   NT_YK   Y%sT    1973 Oct 28  0:00
2381                         -8:00   NT_YK   P%sT    1980
2382                         -8:00   Canada  P%sT
2383 
2384 
2385 ###############################################################################
2386 
2387 # Mexico
2388 
2389 # From Paul Eggert (2014-12-07):
2390 # The Investigation and Analysis Service of the
2391 # Mexican Library of Congress (MLoC) has published a
2392 # history of Mexican local time (in Spanish)
2393 # http://www.diputados.gob.mx/bibliot/publica/inveyana/polisoc/horver/index.htm
2394 #
2395 # Here are the discrepancies between Shanks & Pottenger (S&P) and the MLoC.
2396 # (In all cases we go with the MLoC.)
2397 # S&P report that Baja was at -8:00 in 1922/1923.
2398 # S&P say the 1930 transition in Baja was 1930-11-16.
2399 # S&P report no DST during summer 1931.
2400 # S&P report a transition at 1932-03-30 23:00, not 1932-04-01.
2401 
2402 # From Gwillim Law (2001-02-20):
2403 # There are some other discrepancies between the Decrees page and the
2404 # tz database.  I think they can best be explained by supposing that
2405 # the researchers who prepared the Decrees page failed to find some of
2406 # the relevant documents.
2407 
2408 # From Alan Perry (1996-02-15):
2409 # A guy from our Mexico subsidiary finally found the Presidential Decree
2410 # outlining the timezone changes in Mexico.
2411 #
2412 # ------------- Begin Forwarded Message -------------
2413 #
2414 # I finally got my hands on the Official Presidential Decree that sets up the
2415 # rules for the DST changes. The rules are:
2416 #
2417 # 1. The country is divided in 3 timezones:
2418 #    - Baja California Norte (the Mexico/BajaNorte TZ)
2419 #    - Baja California Sur, Nayarit, Sinaloa and Sonora (the Mexico/BajaSur TZ)
2420 #    - The rest of the country (the Mexico/General TZ)
2421 #
2422 # 2. From the first Sunday in April at 2:00 AM to the last Sunday in October
2423 #    at 2:00 AM, the times in each zone are as follows:
2424 #    BajaNorte: GMT+7
2425 #    BajaSur:   GMT+6
2426 #    General:   GMT+5
2427 #
2428 # 3. The rest of the year, the times are as follows:
2429 #    BajaNorte: GMT+8
2430 #    BajaSur:   GMT+7
2431 #    General:   GMT+6
2432 #
2433 # The Decree was published in Mexico's Official Newspaper on January 4th.
2434 #
2435 # -------------- End Forwarded Message --------------
2436 # From Paul Eggert (1996-06-12):
2437 # For an English translation of the decree, see
2438 # "Diario Oficial: Time Zone Changeover" (1996-01-04).
2439 # http://mexico-travel.com/extra/timezone_eng.html
2440 
2441 # From Rives McDow (1998-10-08):
2442 # The State of Quintana Roo has reverted back to central STD and DST times
2443 # (i.e. UTC -0600 and -0500 as of 1998-08-02).
2444 
2445 # From Rives McDow (2000-01-10):
2446 # Effective April 4, 1999 at 2:00 AM local time, Sonora changed to the time
2447 # zone 5 hours from the International Date Line, and will not observe daylight
2448 # savings time so as to stay on the same time zone as the southern part of
2449 # Arizona year round.
2450 
2451 # From Jesper Nørgaard, translating
2452 # <http://www.reforma.com/nacional/articulo/064327/> (2001-01-17):
2453 # In Oaxaca, the 55.000 teachers from the Section 22 of the National
2454 # Syndicate of Education Workers, refuse to apply daylight saving each
2455 # year, so that the more than 10,000 schools work at normal hour the
2456 # whole year.
2457 
2458 # From Gwillim Law (2001-01-19):
2459 # <http://www.reforma.com/negocios_y_dinero/articulo/064481/> ... says
2460 # (translated):...
2461 # January 17, 2000 - The Energy Secretary, Ernesto Martens, announced
2462 # that Summer Time will be reduced from seven to five months, starting
2463 # this year....
2464 # http://www.publico.com.mx/scripts/texto3.asp?action=pagina&pag=21&pos=p&secc=naci&date=01/17/2001
2465 # [translated], says "summer time will ... take effect on the first Sunday
2466 # in May, and end on the last Sunday of September.
2467 
2468 # From Arthur David Olson (2001-01-25):
2469 # The 2001-01-24 traditional Washington Post contained the page one
2470 # story "Timely Issue Divides Mexicans."...
2471 # http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A37383-2001Jan23.html
2472 # ... Mexico City Mayor López Obrador "...is threatening to keep
2473 # Mexico City and its 20 million residents on a different time than
2474 # the rest of the country..." In particular, López Obrador would abolish
2475 # observation of Daylight Saving Time.
2476 
2477 # Official statute published by the Energy Department
2478 # http://www.conae.gob.mx/ahorro/decretohorver2001.html#decre
2479 # (2001-02-01) shows Baja and Chihauhua as still using US DST rules,
2480 # and Sonora with no DST.  This was reported by Jesper Nørgaard (2001-02-03).
2481 
2482 # From Paul Eggert (2001-03-03):
2483 #
2484 # http://www.latimes.com/news/nation/20010303/t000018766.html
2485 # James F. Smith writes in today's LA Times
2486 # * Sonora will continue to observe standard time.
2487 # * Last week Mexico City's mayor Andrés Manuel López Obrador decreed that
2488 #   the Federal District will not adopt DST.
2489 # * 4 of 16 district leaders announced they'll ignore the decree.
2490 # * The decree does not affect federal-controlled facilities including
2491 #   the airport, banks, hospitals, and schools.
2492 #
2493 # For now we'll assume that the Federal District will bow to federal rules.
2494 
2495 # From Jesper Nørgaard (2001-04-01):
2496 # I found some references to the Mexican application of daylight
2497 # saving, which modifies what I had already sent you, stating earlier
2498 # that a number of northern Mexican states would go on daylight
2499 # saving. The modification reverts this to only cover Baja California
2500 # (Norte), while all other states (except Sonora, who has no daylight
2501 # saving all year) will follow the original decree of president
2502 # Vicente Fox, starting daylight saving May 6, 2001 and ending
2503 # September 30, 2001.
2504 # References: "Diario de Monterrey" <http://www.diariodemonterrey.com/index.asp>
2505 # Palabra <http://palabra.infosel.com/010331/primera/ppri3101.pdf> (2001-03-31)
2506 
2507 # From Reuters (2001-09-04):
2508 # Mexico's Supreme Court on Tuesday declared that daylight savings was
2509 # unconstitutional in Mexico City, creating the possibility the
2510 # capital will be in a different time zone from the rest of the nation
2511 # next year....  The Supreme Court's ruling takes effect at 2:00
2512 # a.m. (0800 GMT) on Sept. 30, when Mexico is scheduled to revert to
2513 # standard time. "This is so residents of the Federal District are not
2514 # subject to unexpected time changes," a statement from the court said.
2515 
2516 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2002-03-12):
2517 # ... consulting my local grocery store(!) and my coworkers, they all insisted
2518 # that a new decision had been made to reinstate US style DST in Mexico....
2519 # http://www.conae.gob.mx/ahorro/horaver2001_m1_2002.html (2002-02-20)
2520 # confirms this.  Sonora as usual is the only state where DST is not applied.
2521 
2522 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-12-28):
2523 #
2524 # Steffen Thorsen wrote:
2525 # > Mexico's House of Representatives has approved a proposal for northern
2526 # > Mexico's border cities to share the same daylight saving schedule as
2527 # > the United States.
2528 # Now this has passed both the Congress and the Senate, so starting from
2529 # 2010, some border regions will be the same:
2530 # http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/2009/dec/28/clocks-will-match-both-sides-border/
2531 # http://www.elmananarey.com/diario/noticia/nacional/noticias/empatan_horario_de_frontera_con_eu/621939
2532 # (Spanish)
2533 #
2534 # Could not find the new law text, but the proposed law text changes are here:
2535 # http://gaceta.diputados.gob.mx/Gaceta/61/2009/dic/20091210-V.pdf
2536 # (Gaceta Parlamentaria)
2537 #
2538 # There is also a list of the votes here:
2539 # http://gaceta.diputados.gob.mx/Gaceta/61/2009/dic/V2-101209.html
2540 #
2541 # Our page:
2542 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/north-mexico-dst-change.html
2543 
2544 # From Arthur David Olson (2010-01-20):
2545 # The page
2546 # http://dof.gob.mx/nota_detalle.php?codigo=5127480&fecha=06/01/2010
2547 # includes this text:
2548 # En los municipios fronterizos de Tijuana y Mexicali en Baja California;
2549 # Juárez y Ojinaga en Chihuahua; Acuña y Piedras Negras en Coahuila;
2550 # Anáhuac en Nuevo León; y Nuevo Laredo, Reynosa y Matamoros en
2551 # Tamaulipas, la aplicación de este horario estacional surtirá efecto
2552 # desde las dos horas del segundo domingo de marzo y concluirá a las dos
2553 # horas del primer domingo de noviembre.
2554 # En los municipios fronterizos que se encuentren ubicados en la franja
2555 # fronteriza norte en el territorio comprendido entre la línea
2556 # internacional y la línea paralela ubicada a una distancia de veinte
2557 # kilómetros, así como la Ciudad de Ensenada, Baja California, hacia el
2558 # interior del país, la aplicación de este horario estacional surtirá
2559 # efecto desde las dos horas del segundo domingo de marzo y concluirá a
2560 # las dos horas del primer domingo de noviembre.
2561 
2562 # From Steffen Thorsen (2014-12-08), translated by Gwillim Law:
2563 # The Mexican state of Quintana Roo will likely change to EST in 2015.
2564 #
2565 # http://www.unioncancun.mx/articulo/2014/12/04/medio-ambiente/congreso-aprueba-una-hora-mas-de-sol-en-qroo
2566 # "With this change, the time conflict that has existed between the municipios
2567 # of Quintana Roo and the municipio of Felipe Carrillo Puerto may come to an
2568 # end. The latter declared itself in rebellion 15 years ago when a time change
2569 # was initiated in Mexico, and since then it has refused to change its time
2570 # zone along with the rest of the country."
2571 #
2572 # From Steffen Thorsen (2015-01-14), translated by Gwillim Law:
2573 # http://sipse.com/novedades/confirman-aplicacion-de-nueva-zona-horaria-para-quintana-roo-132331.html
2574 # "...the new time zone will come into effect at two o'clock on the first Sunday
2575 # of February, when we will have to advance the clock one hour from its current
2576 # time..."
2577 # Also, the new zone will not use DST.
2578 #
2579 # From Carlos Raúl Perasso (2015-02-02):
2580 # The decree that modifies the Mexican Hour System Law has finally
2581 # been published at the Diario Oficial de la Federación
2582 # http://www.dof.gob.mx/nota_detalle.php?codigo=5380123&fecha=31/01/2015
2583 # It establishes 5 zones for Mexico:
2584 # 1- Zona Centro (Central Zone): Corresponds to longitude 90 W,
2585 #    includes most of Mexico, excluding what's mentioned below.
2586 # 2- Zona Pacífico (Pacific Zone): Longitude 105 W, includes the
2587 #    states of Baja California Sur; Chihuahua; Nayarit (excluding Bahía
2588 #    de Banderas which lies in Central Zone); Sinaloa and Sonora.
2589 # 3- Zona Noroeste (Northwest Zone): Longitude 120 W, includes the
2590 #    state of Baja California.
2591 # 4- Zona Sureste (Southeast Zone): Longitude 75 W, includes the state
2592 #    of Quintana Roo.
2593 # 5- The islands, reefs and keys shall take their timezone from the
2594 #    longitude they are located at.
2595 
2596 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2597 Rule    Mexico  1939    only    -       Feb     5       0:00    1:00    D
2598 Rule    Mexico  1939    only    -       Jun     25      0:00    0       S
2599 Rule    Mexico  1940    only    -       Dec     9       0:00    1:00    D
2600 Rule    Mexico  1941    only    -       Apr     1       0:00    0       S
2601 Rule    Mexico  1943    only    -       Dec     16      0:00    1:00    W # War
2602 Rule    Mexico  1944    only    -       May     1       0:00    0       S
2603 Rule    Mexico  1950    only    -       Feb     12      0:00    1:00    D
2604 Rule    Mexico  1950    only    -       Jul     30      0:00    0       S
2605 Rule    Mexico  1996    2000    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
2606 Rule    Mexico  1996    2000    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
2607 Rule    Mexico  2001    only    -       May     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
2608 Rule    Mexico  2001    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
2609 Rule    Mexico  2002    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
2610 Rule    Mexico  2002    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
2611 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2612 # Quintana Roo; represented by Cancún
2613 Zone America/Cancun     -5:47:04 -      LMT     1922 Jan  1  0:12:56
2614                         -6:00   -       CST     1981 Dec 23
2615                         -5:00   Mexico  E%sT    1998 Aug  2  2:00
2616                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT    2015 Feb  1  2:00
2617                         -5:00   -       EST
2618 # Campeche, Yucatán; represented by Mérida
2619 Zone America/Merida     -5:58:28 -      LMT     1922 Jan  1  0:01:32
2620                         -6:00   -       CST     1981 Dec 23
2621                         -5:00   -       EST     1982 Dec  2
2622                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT
2623 # Coahuila, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas (near US border)
2624 # This includes the following municipalities:
2625 #   in Coahuila: Ocampo, Acuña, Zaragoza, Jiménez, Piedras Negras, Nava,
2626 #     Guerrero, Hidalgo.
2627 #   in Nuevo León: Anáhuac, Los Aldama.
2628 #   in Tamaulipas: Nuevo Laredo, Guerrero, Mier, Miguel Alemán, Camargo,
2629 #     Gustavo Díaz Ordaz, Reynosa, Río Bravo, Valle Hermoso, Matamoros.
2630 # See: Inicia mañana Horario de Verano en zona fronteriza, El Universal,
2631 # 2016-03-12
2632 # http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/articulo/estados/2016/03/12/inicia-manana-horario-de-verano-en-zona-fronteriza
2633 Zone America/Matamoros  -6:40:00 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:20:00
2634                         -6:00   -       CST     1988
2635                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1989
2636                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT    2010
2637                         -6:00   US      C%sT
2638 # Durango; Coahuila, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas (away from US border)
2639 Zone America/Monterrey  -6:41:16 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:18:44
2640                         -6:00   -       CST     1988
2641                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1989
2642                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT
2643 # Central Mexico
2644 Zone America/Mexico_City -6:36:36 -     LMT     1922 Jan  1  0:23:24
2645                         -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00
2646                         -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15
2647                         -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00
2648                         -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct
2649                         -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1
2650                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT    2001 Sep 30  2:00
2651                         -6:00   -       CST     2002 Feb 20
2652                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT
2653 # Chihuahua (near US border)
2654 # This includes the municipalities of Janos, Ascensión, Juárez, Guadalupe,
2655 # Práxedis G Guerrero, Coyame del Sotol, Ojinaga, and Manuel Benavides.
2656 # (See the 2016-03-12 El Universal source mentioned above.)
2657 Zone America/Ojinaga    -6:57:40 -      LMT     1922 Jan  1  0:02:20
2658                         -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00
2659                         -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15
2660                         -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00
2661                         -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct
2662                         -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1
2663                         -6:00   -       CST     1996
2664                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT    1998
2665                         -6:00   -       CST     1998 Apr Sun>=1  3:00
2666                         -7:00   Mexico  M%sT    2010
2667                         -7:00   US      M%sT
2668 # Chihuahua (away from US border)
2669 Zone America/Chihuahua  -7:04:20 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:55:40
2670                         -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00
2671                         -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15
2672                         -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00
2673                         -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct
2674                         -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1
2675                         -6:00   -       CST     1996
2676                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT    1998
2677                         -6:00   -       CST     1998 Apr Sun>=1  3:00
2678                         -7:00   Mexico  M%sT
2679 # Sonora
2680 Zone America/Hermosillo -7:23:52 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:36:08
2681                         -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00
2682                         -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15
2683                         -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00
2684                         -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct
2685                         -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1
2686                         -6:00   -       CST     1942 Apr 24
2687                         -7:00   -       MST     1949 Jan 14
2688                         -8:00   -       PST     1970
2689                         -7:00   Mexico  M%sT    1999
2690                         -7:00   -       MST
2691 
2692 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-04-21):
2693 # According to news, Bahía de Banderas (Mexican state of Nayarit)
2694 # changed time zone UTC-7 to new time zone UTC-6 on April 4, 2010 (to
2695 # share the same time zone as nearby city Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco).
2696 #
2697 # (Spanish)
2698 # Bahía de Banderas homologa su horario al del centro del
2699 # país, a partir de este domingo
2700 # http://www.nayarit.gob.mx/notes.asp?id=20748
2701 #
2702 # Bahía de Banderas homologa su horario con el del Centro del
2703 # País
2704 # http://www.bahiadebanderas.gob.mx/principal/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=261:bahia-de-banderas-homologa-su-horario-con-el-del-centro-del-pais&catid=42:comunicacion-social&Itemid=50
2705 #
2706 # (English)
2707 # Puerto Vallarta and Bahía de Banderas: One Time Zone
2708 # http://virtualvallarta.com/puertovallarta/puertovallarta/localnews/2009-12-03-Puerto-Vallarta-and-Bahia-de-Banderas-One-Time-Zone.shtml
2709 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_mexico08.html
2710 #
2711 # "Mexico's Senate approved the amendments to the Mexican Schedule System that
2712 # will allow Bahía de Banderas and Puerto Vallarta to share the same time
2713 # zone ..."
2714 # Baja California Sur, Nayarit, Sinaloa
2715 
2716 # From Arthur David Olson (2010-05-01):
2717 # Use "Bahia_Banderas" to keep the name to fourteen characters.
2718 
2719 # Mazatlán
2720 Zone America/Mazatlan   -7:05:40 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:54:20
2721                         -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00
2722                         -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15
2723                         -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00
2724                         -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct
2725                         -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1
2726                         -6:00   -       CST     1942 Apr 24
2727                         -7:00   -       MST     1949 Jan 14
2728                         -8:00   -       PST     1970
2729                         -7:00   Mexico  M%sT
2730 
2731 # Bahía de Banderas
2732 Zone America/Bahia_Banderas     -7:01:00 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:59:00
2733                         -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00
2734                         -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15
2735                         -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00
2736                         -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct
2737                         -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1
2738                         -6:00   -       CST     1942 Apr 24
2739                         -7:00   -       MST     1949 Jan 14
2740                         -8:00   -       PST     1970
2741                         -7:00   Mexico  M%sT    2010 Apr  4  2:00
2742                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT
2743 
2744 # Baja California
2745 Zone America/Tijuana    -7:48:04 -      LMT     1922 Jan  1  0:11:56
2746                         -7:00   -       MST     1924
2747                         -8:00   -       PST     1927 Jun 10 23:00
2748                         -7:00   -       MST     1930 Nov 15
2749                         -8:00   -       PST     1931 Apr  1
2750                         -8:00   1:00    PDT     1931 Sep 30
2751                         -8:00   -       PST     1942 Apr 24
2752                         -8:00   1:00    PWT     1945 Aug 14 23:00u
2753                         -8:00   1:00    PPT     1945 Nov 12 # Peace
2754                         -8:00   -       PST     1948 Apr  5
2755                         -8:00   1:00    PDT     1949 Jan 14
2756                         -8:00   -       PST     1954
2757                         -8:00   CA      P%sT    1961
2758                         -8:00   -       PST     1976
2759                         -8:00   US      P%sT    1996
2760                         -8:00   Mexico  P%sT    2001
2761                         -8:00   US      P%sT    2002 Feb 20
2762                         -8:00   Mexico  P%sT    2010
2763                         -8:00   US      P%sT
2764 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
2765 # Formerly there was an America/Ensenada zone, which differed from
2766 # America/Tijuana only in that it did not observe DST from 1976
2767 # through 1995.  This was as per Shanks (1999).  But Shanks & Pottenger say
2768 # Ensenada did not observe DST from 1948 through 1975.  Guy Harris reports
2769 # that the 1987 OAG says "Only Ensenada, Mexicali, San Felipe and
2770 # Tijuana observe DST," which agrees with Shanks & Pottenger but implies that
2771 # DST-observance was a town-by-town matter back then.  This concerns
2772 # data after 1970 so most likely there should be at least one Zone
2773 # other than America/Tijuana for Baja, but it's not clear yet what its
2774 # name or contents should be.
2775 #
2776 # From Paul Eggert (2015-10-08):
2777 # Formerly there was an America/Santa_Isabel zone, but this appears to
2778 # have come from a misreading of
2779 # http://dof.gob.mx/nota_detalle.php?codigo=5127480&fecha=06/01/2010
2780 # It has been moved to the 'backward' file.
2781 #
2782 #
2783 # Revillagigedo Is
2784 # no information
2785 
2786 ###############################################################################
2787 
2788 # Anguilla
2789 # Antigua and Barbuda
2790 # See America/Port_of_Spain.
2791 
2792 # Bahamas
2793 #
2794 # For 1899 Milne gives -5:09:29.5; round that.
2795 #
2796 # From Sue Williams (2006-12-07):
2797 # The Bahamas announced about a month ago that they plan to change their DST
2798 # rules to sync with the U.S. starting in 2007....
2799 # http://www.jonesbahamas.com/?c=45&a=10412
2800 
2801 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2802 Rule    Bahamas 1964    1975    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
2803 Rule    Bahamas 1964    1975    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
2804 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2805 Zone    America/Nassau  -5:09:30 -      LMT     1912 Mar 2
2806                         -5:00   Bahamas E%sT    1976
2807                         -5:00   US      E%sT
2808 
2809 # Barbados
2810 
2811 # For 1899 Milne gives -3:58:29.2; round that.
2812 
2813 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2814 Rule    Barb    1977    only    -       Jun     12      2:00    1:00    D
2815 Rule    Barb    1977    1978    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
2816 Rule    Barb    1978    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=15      2:00    1:00    D
2817 Rule    Barb    1979    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S
2818 Rule    Barb    1980    only    -       Sep     25      2:00    0       S
2819 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2820 Zone America/Barbados   -3:58:29 -      LMT     1924 # Bridgetown
2821                         -3:58:29 -      BMT     1932 # Bridgetown Mean Time
2822                         -4:00   Barb    A%sT
2823 
2824 # Belize
2825 # Whitman entirely disagrees with Shanks; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2826 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2827 Rule    Belize  1918    1942    -       Oct     Sun>=2       0:00    0:30    -0530
2828 Rule    Belize  1919    1943    -       Feb     Sun>=9       0:00    0       CST
2829 Rule    Belize  1973    only    -       Dec      5      0:00    1:00    CDT
2830 Rule    Belize  1974    only    -       Feb      9      0:00    0       CST
2831 Rule    Belize  1982    only    -       Dec     18      0:00    1:00    CDT
2832 Rule    Belize  1983    only    -       Feb     12      0:00    0       CST
2833 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2834 Zone    America/Belize  -5:52:48 -      LMT     1912 Apr
2835                         -6:00   Belize  %s
2836 
2837 # Bermuda
2838 
2839 # For 1899 Milne gives -4:19:18.3 as the meridian of the clock tower,
2840 # Bermuda dockyard, Ireland I; round that.
2841 
2842 # From Dan Jones, reporting in The Royal Gazette (2006-06-26):
2843 
2844 # Next year, however, clocks in the US will go forward on the second Sunday
2845 # in March, until the first Sunday in November.  And, after the Time Zone
2846 # (Seasonal Variation) Bill 2006 was passed in the House of Assembly on
2847 # Friday, the same thing will happen in Bermuda.
2848 # http://www.theroyalgazette.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060529/NEWS/105290135
2849 
2850 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2851 Zone Atlantic/Bermuda   -4:19:18 -      LMT     1930 Jan  1  2:00 # Hamilton
2852                         -4:00   -       AST     1974 Apr 28  2:00
2853                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1976
2854                         -4:00   US      A%sT
2855 
2856 # Cayman Is
2857 # See America/Panama.
2858 
2859 # Costa Rica
2860 
2861 # Milne gives -5:36:13.3 as San José mean time; round to nearest.
2862 
2863 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2864 Rule    CR      1979    1980    -       Feb     lastSun 0:00    1:00    D
2865 Rule    CR      1979    1980    -       Jun     Sun>=1       0:00    0       S
2866 Rule    CR      1991    1992    -       Jan     Sat>=15      0:00    1:00    D
2867 # IATA SSIM (1991-09) says the following was at 1:00;
2868 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2869 Rule    CR      1991    only    -       Jul      1      0:00    0       S
2870 Rule    CR      1992    only    -       Mar     15      0:00    0       S
2871 # There are too many San Josés elsewhere, so we'll use 'Costa Rica'.
2872 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2873 Zone America/Costa_Rica -5:36:13 -      LMT     1890        # San José
2874                         -5:36:13 -      SJMT    1921 Jan 15 # San José Mean Time
2875                         -6:00   CR      C%sT
2876 # Coco
2877 # no information; probably like America/Costa_Rica
2878 
2879 # Cuba
2880 
2881 # From Paul Eggert (2013-02-21):
2882 # Milne gives -5:28:50.45 for the observatory at Havana, -5:29:23.57
2883 # for the port, and -5:30 for meteorological observations.
2884 # For now, stick with Shanks & Pottenger.
2885 
2886 # From Arthur David Olson (1999-03-29):
2887 # The 1999-03-28 exhibition baseball game held in Havana, Cuba, between
2888 # the Cuban National Team and the Baltimore Orioles was carried live on
2889 # the Orioles Radio Network, including affiliate WTOP in Washington, DC.
2890 # During the game, play-by-play announcer Jim Hunter noted that
2891 # "We'll be losing two hours of sleep...Cuba switched to Daylight Saving
2892 # Time today."  (The "two hour" remark referred to losing one hour of
2893 # sleep on 1999-03-28 - when the announcers were in Cuba as it switched
2894 # to DST - and one more hour on 1999-04-04 - when the announcers will have
2895 # returned to Baltimore, which switches on that date.)
2896 
2897 # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-11-11):
2898 # DST start in Cuba in 2004 ... does not follow the same rules as the
2899 # years before.  The correct date should be Sunday 2004-03-28 00:00 ...
2900 # https://web.archive.org/web/20040402060750/http://www.granma.cu/espanol/2004/marzo/sab27/reloj.html
2901 
2902 # From Evert van der Veer via Steffen Thorsen (2004-10-28):
2903 # Cuba is not going back to standard time this year.
2904 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
2905 # http://www.granma.cu/ingles/2004/septiembre/juev30/41medid-i.html
2906 # says that it's due to a problem at the Antonio Guiteras
2907 # thermoelectric plant, and says "This October there will be no return
2908 # to normal hours (after daylight saving time)".
2909 # For now, let's assume that it's a temporary measure.
2910 
2911 # From Carlos A. Carnero Delgado (2005-11-12):
2912 # This year (just like in 2004-2005) there's no change in time zone
2913 # adjustment in Cuba.  We will stay in daylight saving time:
2914 # http://www.granma.cu/espanol/2005/noviembre/mier9/horario.html
2915 
2916 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-10-21):
2917 # An article in GRANMA INTERNACIONAL claims that Cuba will end
2918 # the 3 years of permanent DST next weekend, see
2919 # http://www.granma.cu/ingles/2006/octubre/lun16/43horario.html
2920 # "On Saturday night, October 28 going into Sunday, October 29, at 01:00,
2921 # watches should be set back one hour - going back to 00:00 hours - returning
2922 # to the normal schedule....
2923 
2924 # From Paul Eggert (2007-03-02):
2925 # <http://www.granma.cubaweb.cu/english/news/art89.html>, dated yesterday,
2926 # says Cuban clocks will advance at midnight on March 10.
2927 # For lack of better information, assume Cuba will use US rules,
2928 # except that it switches at midnight standard time as usual.
2929 #
2930 # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-10-25):
2931 # Carlos Alberto Fonseca Arauz informed me that Cuba will end DST one week
2932 # earlier - on the last Sunday of October, just like in 2006.
2933 #
2934 # He supplied these references:
2935 #
2936 # http://www.prensalatina.com.mx/article.asp?ID=%7B4CC32C1B-A9F7-42FB-8A07-8631AFC923AF%7D&language=ES
2937 # http://actualidad.terra.es/sociedad/articulo/cuba_llama_ahorrar_energia_cambio_1957044.htm
2938 #
2939 # From Alex Krivenyshev (2007-10-25):
2940 # Here is also article from Granma (Cuba):
2941 #
2942 # Regirá el Horario Normal desde el próximo domingo 28 de octubre
2943 # http://www.granma.cubaweb.cu/2007/10/24/nacional/artic07.html
2944 #
2945 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_cuba03.html
2946 
2947 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-09):
2948 # I'm in Maryland which is now observing United States Eastern Daylight
2949 # Time. At 9:44 local time I used RealPlayer to listen to
2950 # http://media.enet.cu/radioreloj
2951 # a Cuban information station, and heard
2952 # the time announced as "ocho cuarenta y cuatro" ("eight forty-four"),
2953 # indicating that Cuba is still on standard time.
2954 
2955 # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-03-12):
2956 # It seems that Cuba will start DST on Sunday, 2007-03-16...
2957 # It was announced yesterday, according to this source (in Spanish):
2958 # http://www.nnc.cubaweb.cu/marzo-2008/cien-1-11-3-08.htm
2959 #
2960 # Some more background information is posted here:
2961 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-starts-dst-march-16.html
2962 #
2963 # The article also says that Cuba has been observing DST since 1963,
2964 # while Shanks (and tzdata) has 1965 as the first date (except in the
2965 # 1940's). Many other web pages in Cuba also claim that it has been
2966 # observed since 1963, but with the exception of 1970 - an exception
2967 # which is not present in tzdata/Shanks. So there is a chance we need to
2968 # change some historic records as well.
2969 #
2970 # One example:
2971 # http://www.radiohc.cu/espanol/noticias/mar07/11mar/hor.htm
2972 
2973 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2008-03-13):
2974 # The Cuban time change has just been confirmed on the most authoritative
2975 # web site, the Granma.  Please check out
2976 # http://www.granma.cubaweb.cu/2008/03/13/nacional/artic10.html
2977 #
2978 # Basically as expected after Steffen Thorsen's information, the change
2979 # will take place midnight between Saturday and Sunday.
2980 
2981 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-12):
2982 # Assume Sun>=15 (third Sunday) going forward.
2983 
2984 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-04)
2985 # According to the Radio Reloj - Cuba will start Daylight Saving Time on
2986 # midnight between Saturday, March 07, 2009 and Sunday, March 08, 2009-
2987 # not on midnight March 14 / March 15 as previously thought.
2988 #
2989 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_cuba05.html
2990 # (in Spanish)
2991 
2992 # From Arthur David Olson (2009-03-09)
2993 # I listened over the Internet to
2994 # http://media.enet.cu/readioreloj
2995 # this morning; when it was 10:05 a. m. here in Bethesda, Maryland the
2996 # the time was announced as "diez cinco" - the same time as here, indicating
2997 # that has indeed switched to DST. Assume second Sunday from 2009 forward.
2998 
2999 # From Steffen Thorsen (2011-03-08):
3000 # Granma announced that Cuba is going to start DST on 2011-03-20 00:00:00
3001 # this year. Nothing about the end date known so far (if that has
3002 # changed at all).
3003 #
3004 # Source:
3005 # http://granma.co.cu/2011/03/08/nacional/artic01.html
3006 #
3007 # Our info:
3008 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-starts-dst-2011.html
3009 #
3010 # From Steffen Thorsen (2011-10-30)
3011 # Cuba will end DST two weeks later this year. Instead of going back
3012 # tonight, it has been delayed to 2011-11-13 at 01:00.
3013 #
3014 # One source (Spanish)
3015 # http://www.radioangulo.cu/noticias/cuba/17105-cuba-restablecera-el-horario-del-meridiano-de-greenwich.html
3016 #
3017 # Our page:
3018 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-time-changes-2011.html
3019 #
3020 # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-01)
3021 # According to Radio Reloj, Cuba will start DST on Midnight between March
3022 # 31 and April 1.
3023 #
3024 # Radio Reloj has the following info (Spanish):
3025 # http://www.radioreloj.cu/index.php/noticias-radio-reloj/71-miscelaneas/7529-cuba-aplicara-el-horario-de-verano-desde-el-1-de-abril
3026 #
3027 # Our info on it:
3028 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-starts-dst-2012.html
3029 
3030 # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-11-03):
3031 # Radio Reloj and many other sources report that Cuba is changing back
3032 # to standard time on 2012-11-04:
3033 # http://www.radioreloj.cu/index.php/noticias-radio-reloj/36-nacionales/9961-regira-horario-normal-en-cuba-desde-el-domingo-cuatro-de-noviembre
3034 # From Paul Eggert (2012-11-03):
3035 # For now, assume the future rule is first Sunday in November.
3036 
3037 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3038 Rule    Cuba    1928    only    -       Jun     10      0:00    1:00    D
3039 Rule    Cuba    1928    only    -       Oct     10      0:00    0       S
3040 Rule    Cuba    1940    1942    -       Jun     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
3041 Rule    Cuba    1940    1942    -       Sep     Sun>=1       0:00    0       S
3042 Rule    Cuba    1945    1946    -       Jun     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
3043 Rule    Cuba    1945    1946    -       Sep     Sun>=1       0:00    0       S
3044 Rule    Cuba    1965    only    -       Jun     1       0:00    1:00    D
3045 Rule    Cuba    1965    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       S
3046 Rule    Cuba    1966    only    -       May     29      0:00    1:00    D
3047 Rule    Cuba    1966    only    -       Oct     2       0:00    0       S
3048 Rule    Cuba    1967    only    -       Apr     8       0:00    1:00    D
3049 Rule    Cuba    1967    1968    -       Sep     Sun>=8       0:00    0       S
3050 Rule    Cuba    1968    only    -       Apr     14      0:00    1:00    D
3051 Rule    Cuba    1969    1977    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    1:00    D
3052 Rule    Cuba    1969    1971    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       S
3053 Rule    Cuba    1972    1974    -       Oct     8       0:00    0       S
3054 Rule    Cuba    1975    1977    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       S
3055 Rule    Cuba    1978    only    -       May     7       0:00    1:00    D
3056 Rule    Cuba    1978    1990    -       Oct     Sun>=8       0:00    0       S
3057 Rule    Cuba    1979    1980    -       Mar     Sun>=15      0:00    1:00    D
3058 Rule    Cuba    1981    1985    -       May     Sun>=5       0:00    1:00    D
3059 Rule    Cuba    1986    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=14      0:00    1:00    D
3060 Rule    Cuba    1990    1997    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
3061 Rule    Cuba    1991    1995    -       Oct     Sun>=8       0:00s   0       S
3062 Rule    Cuba    1996    only    -       Oct      6      0:00s   0       S
3063 Rule    Cuba    1997    only    -       Oct     12      0:00s   0       S
3064 Rule    Cuba    1998    1999    -       Mar     lastSun 0:00s   1:00    D
3065 Rule    Cuba    1998    2003    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00s   0       S
3066 Rule    Cuba    2000    2003    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:00s   1:00    D
3067 Rule    Cuba    2004    only    -       Mar     lastSun 0:00s   1:00    D
3068 Rule    Cuba    2006    2010    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00s   0       S
3069 Rule    Cuba    2007    only    -       Mar     Sun>=8       0:00s   1:00    D
3070 Rule    Cuba    2008    only    -       Mar     Sun>=15      0:00s   1:00    D
3071 Rule    Cuba    2009    2010    -       Mar     Sun>=8       0:00s   1:00    D
3072 Rule    Cuba    2011    only    -       Mar     Sun>=15      0:00s   1:00    D
3073 Rule    Cuba    2011    only    -       Nov     13      0:00s   0       S
3074 Rule    Cuba    2012    only    -       Apr     1       0:00s   1:00    D
3075 Rule    Cuba    2012    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1       0:00s   0       S
3076 Rule    Cuba    2013    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8       0:00s   1:00    D
3077 
3078 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3079 Zone    America/Havana  -5:29:28 -      LMT     1890
3080                         -5:29:36 -      HMT     1925 Jul 19 12:00 # Havana MT
3081                         -5:00   Cuba    C%sT
3082 
3083 # Dominica
3084 # See America/Port_of_Spain.
3085 
3086 # Dominican Republic
3087 
3088 # From Steffen Thorsen (2000-10-30):
3089 # Enrique Morales reported to me that the Dominican Republic has changed the
3090 # time zone to Eastern Standard Time as of Sunday 29 at 2 am....
3091 # http://www.listin.com.do/antes/261000/republica/princi.html
3092 
3093 # From Paul Eggert (2000-12-04):
3094 # That URL (2000-10-26, in Spanish) says they planned to use US-style DST.
3095 
3096 # From Rives McDow (2000-12-01):
3097 # Dominican Republic changed its mind and presidential decree on Tuesday,
3098 # November 28, 2000, with a new decree.  On Sunday, December 3 at 1:00 AM the
3099 # Dominican Republic will be reverting to 8 hours from the International Date
3100 # Line, and will not be using DST in the foreseeable future.  The reason they
3101 # decided to use DST was to be in synch with Puerto Rico, who was also going
3102 # to implement DST.  When Puerto Rico didn't implement DST, the president
3103 # decided to revert.
3104 
3105 
3106 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3107 Rule    DR      1966    only    -       Oct     30      0:00    1:00    EDT
3108 Rule    DR      1967    only    -       Feb     28      0:00    0       EST
3109 Rule    DR      1969    1973    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0:30    -0430
3110 Rule    DR      1970    only    -       Feb     21      0:00    0       EST
3111 Rule    DR      1971    only    -       Jan     20      0:00    0       EST
3112 Rule    DR      1972    1974    -       Jan     21      0:00    0       EST
3113 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3114 Zone America/Santo_Domingo -4:39:36 -   LMT     1890
3115                         -4:40   -       SDMT    1933 Apr  1 12:00 # S. Dom. MT
3116                         -5:00   DR      %s      1974 Oct 27
3117                         -4:00   -       AST     2000 Oct 29  2:00
3118                         -5:00   US      E%sT    2000 Dec  3  1:00
3119                         -4:00   -       AST
3120 
3121 # El Salvador
3122 
3123 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3124 Rule    Salv    1987    1988    -       May     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
3125 Rule    Salv    1987    1988    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       S
3126 # There are too many San Salvadors elsewhere, so use America/El_Salvador
3127 # instead of America/San_Salvador.
3128 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3129 Zone America/El_Salvador -5:56:48 -     LMT     1921 # San Salvador
3130                         -6:00   Salv    C%sT
3131 
3132 # Grenada
3133 # Guadeloupe
3134 # St Barthélemy
3135 # St Martin (French part)
3136 # See America/Port_of_Spain.
3137 
3138 # Guatemala
3139 #
3140 # From Gwillim Law (2006-04-22), after a heads-up from Oscar van Vlijmen:
3141 # Diario Co Latino, at
3142 # <http://www.diariocolatino.com/internacionales/detalles.asp?NewsID=8079>,
3143 # says in an article dated 2006-04-19 that the Guatemalan government had
3144 # decided on that date to advance official time by 60 minutes, to lessen the
3145 # impact of the elevated cost of oil....  Daylight saving time will last from
3146 # 2006-04-29 24:00 (Guatemalan standard time) to 2006-09-30 (time unspecified).
3147 # From Paul Eggert (2006-06-22):
3148 # The Ministry of Energy and Mines, press release CP-15/2006
3149 # (2006-04-19), says DST ends at 24:00.  See
3150 # http://www.sieca.org.gt/Sitio_publico/Energeticos/Doc/Medidas/Cambio_Horario_Nac_190406.pdf
3151 
3152 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3153 Rule    Guat    1973    only    -       Nov     25      0:00    1:00    D
3154 Rule    Guat    1974    only    -       Feb     24      0:00    0       S
3155 Rule    Guat    1983    only    -       May     21      0:00    1:00    D
3156 Rule    Guat    1983    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
3157 Rule    Guat    1991    only    -       Mar     23      0:00    1:00    D
3158 Rule    Guat    1991    only    -       Sep      7      0:00    0       S
3159 Rule    Guat    2006    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    D
3160 Rule    Guat    2006    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       S
3161 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3162 Zone America/Guatemala  -6:02:04 -      LMT     1918 Oct 5
3163                         -6:00   Guat    C%sT
3164 
3165 # Haiti
3166 # From Gwillim Law (2005-04-15):
3167 # Risto O. Nykänen wrote me that Haiti is now on DST.
3168 # I searched for confirmation, and I found a press release
3169 # on the Web page of the Haitian Consulate in Chicago (2005-03-31),
3170 # <http://www.haitianconsulate.org/time.doc>.  Translated from French, it says:
3171 #
3172 #  "The Prime Minister's Communication Office notifies the public in general
3173 #   and the press in particular that, following a decision of the Interior
3174 #   Ministry and the Territorial Collectivities [I suppose that means the
3175 #   provinces], Haiti will move to Eastern Daylight Time in the night from next
3176 #   Saturday the 2nd to Sunday the 3rd.
3177 #
3178 #  "Consequently, the Prime Minister's Communication Office wishes to inform
3179 #   the population that the country's clocks will be set forward one hour
3180 #   starting at midnight.  This provision will hold until the last Saturday in
3181 #   October 2005.
3182 #
3183 #  "Port-au-Prince, March 31, 2005"
3184 #
3185 # From Steffen Thorsen (2006-04-04):
3186 # I have been informed by users that Haiti observes DST this year like
3187 # last year, so the current "only" rule for 2005 might be changed to a
3188 # "max" rule or to last until 2006. (Who knows if they will observe DST
3189 # next year or if they will extend their DST like US/Canada next year).
3190 #
3191 # I have found this article about it (in French):
3192 # http://www.haitipressnetwork.com/news.cfm?articleID=7612
3193 #
3194 # The reason seems to be an energy crisis.
3195 
3196 # From Stephen Colebourne (2007-02-22):
3197 # Some IATA info: Haiti won't be having DST in 2007.
3198 
3199 # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-11):
3200 # According to several news sources, Haiti will observe DST this year,
3201 # apparently using the same start and end date as USA/Canada.
3202 # So this means they have already changed their time.
3203 #
3204 # http://www.alterpresse.org/spip.php?article12510
3205 # http://radiovision2000haiti.net/home/?p=13253
3206 #
3207 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-11):
3208 # The alterpresse.org source seems to show a US-style leap from 2:00 a.m. to
3209 # 3:00 a.m. rather than the traditional Haitian jump at midnight.
3210 # Assume a US-style fall back as well.
3211 
3212 # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-03-10):
3213 # It appears that Haiti is observing DST this year as well, same rules
3214 # as US/Canada.  They did it last year as well, and it looks like they
3215 # are going to observe DST every year now...
3216 #
3217 # http://radiovision2000haiti.net/public/haiti-avis-changement-dheure-dimanche/
3218 # http://www.canalplushaiti.net/?p=6714
3219 
3220 # From Steffen Thorsen (2016-03-12):
3221 # Jean Antoine, editor of www.haiti-reference.com informed us that Haiti
3222 # are not going on DST this year.  Several other resources confirm this: ...
3223 # https://www.radiotelevisioncaraibes.com/presse/heure_d_t_pas_de_changement_d_heure_pr_vu_pour_cet_ann_e.html
3224 # https://www.vantbefinfo.com/changement-dheure-pas-pour-haiti/
3225 # http://news.anmwe.com/haiti-lheure-nationale-ne-sera-ni-avancee-ni-reculee-cette-annee/
3226 
3227 # From Steffen Thorsen (2017-03-12):
3228 # We have received 4 mails from different people telling that Haiti
3229 # has started DST again today, and this source seems to confirm that,
3230 # I have not been able to find a more authoritative source:
3231 # https://www.haitilibre.com/en/news-20319-haiti-notices-time-change-in-haiti.html
3232 
3233 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3234 Rule    Haiti   1983    only    -       May     8       0:00    1:00    D
3235 Rule    Haiti   1984    1987    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    1:00    D
3236 Rule    Haiti   1983    1987    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       S
3237 # Shanks & Pottenger say AT is 2:00, but IATA SSIM (1991/1997) says 1:00s.
3238 # Go with IATA.
3239 Rule    Haiti   1988    1997    -       Apr     Sun>=1       1:00s   1:00    D
3240 Rule    Haiti   1988    1997    -       Oct     lastSun 1:00s   0       S
3241 Rule    Haiti   2005    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
3242 Rule    Haiti   2005    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       S
3243 Rule    Haiti   2012    2015    -       Mar     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
3244 Rule    Haiti   2012    2015    -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
3245 Rule    Haiti   2017    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
3246 Rule    Haiti   2017    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
3247 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3248 Zone America/Port-au-Prince -4:49:20 -  LMT     1890
3249                         -4:49   -       PPMT    1917 Jan 24 12:00 # P-a-P MT
3250                         -5:00   Haiti   E%sT
3251 
3252 # Honduras
3253 # Shanks & Pottenger say 1921 Jan 1; go with Whitman's more precise Apr 1.
3254 
3255 # From Paul Eggert (2006-05-05):
3256 # worldtimezone.com reports a 2006-05-02 Spanish-language AP article
3257 # saying Honduras will start using DST midnight Saturday, effective 4
3258 # months until September.  La Tribuna reported today
3259 # <http://www.latribuna.hn/99299.html> that Manuel Zelaya, the president
3260 # of Honduras, refused to back down on this.
3261 
3262 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-08-08):
3263 # It seems that Honduras has returned from DST to standard time this Monday at
3264 # 00:00 hours (prolonging Sunday to 25 hours duration).
3265 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_honduras04.html
3266 
3267 # From Paul Eggert (2006-08-08):
3268 # Also see Diario El Heraldo, The country returns to standard time (2006-08-08).
3269 # http://www.elheraldo.hn/nota.php?nid=54941&sec=12
3270 # It mentions executive decree 18-2006.
3271 
3272 # From Steffen Thorsen (2006-08-17):
3273 # Honduras will observe DST from 2007 to 2009, exact dates are not
3274 # published, I have located this authoritative source:
3275 # http://www.presidencia.gob.hn/noticia.aspx?nId=47
3276 
3277 # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-03-30):
3278 # http://www.laprensahn.com/pais_nota.php?id04962=7386
3279 # So it seems that Honduras will not enter DST this year....
3280 
3281 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3282 Rule    Hond    1987    1988    -       May     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
3283 Rule    Hond    1987    1988    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       S
3284 Rule    Hond    2006    only    -       May     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
3285 Rule    Hond    2006    only    -       Aug     Mon>=1       0:00    0       S
3286 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3287 Zone America/Tegucigalpa -5:48:52 -     LMT     1921 Apr
3288                         -6:00   Hond    C%sT
3289 #
3290 # Great Swan I ceded by US to Honduras in 1972
3291 
3292 # Jamaica
3293 # Shanks & Pottenger give -5:07:12, but Milne records -5:07:10.41 from an
3294 # unspecified official document, and says "This time is used throughout the
3295 # island".  Go with Milne.  Round to the nearest second as required by zic.
3296 #
3297 # Shanks & Pottenger give April 28 for the 1974 spring-forward transition, but
3298 # Lance Neita writes that Prime Minister Michael Manley decreed it January 5.
3299 # Assume Neita meant Jan 6 02:00, the same as the US.  Neita also writes that
3300 # Manley's supporters associated this act with Manley's nickname "Joshua"
3301 # (recall that in the Bible the sun stood still at Joshua's request),
3302 # and with the Rod of Correction which Manley said he had received from
3303 # Haile Selassie, Emperor of Ethiopia.  See:
3304 # Neita L. The politician in all of us. Jamaica Observer 2014-09-20
3305 # http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/columns/The-politician-in-all-of-us_17573647
3306 #
3307 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3308 Zone    America/Jamaica -5:07:10 -      LMT     1890        # Kingston
3309                         -5:07:10 -      KMT     1912 Feb    # Kingston Mean Time
3310                         -5:00   -       EST     1974
3311                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1984
3312                         -5:00   -       EST
3313 
3314 # Martinique
3315 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3316 Zone America/Martinique -4:04:20 -      LMT     1890        # Fort-de-France
3317                         -4:04:20 -      FFMT    1911 May    # Fort-de-France MT
3318                         -4:00   -       AST     1980 Apr  6
3319                         -4:00   1:00    ADT     1980 Sep 28
3320                         -4:00   -       AST
3321 
3322 # Montserrat
3323 # See America/Port_of_Spain.
3324 
3325 # Nicaragua
3326 #
3327 # This uses Shanks & Pottenger for times before 2005.
3328 #
3329 # From Steffen Thorsen (2005-04-12):
3330 # I've got reports from 8 different people that Nicaragua just started
3331 # DST on Sunday 2005-04-10, in order to save energy because of
3332 # expensive petroleum.  The exact end date for DST is not yet
3333 # announced, only "September" but some sites also say "mid-September".
3334 # Some background information is available on the President's official site:
3335 # http://www.presidencia.gob.ni/Presidencia/Files_index/Secretaria/Notas%20de%20Prensa/Presidente/2005/ABRIL/Gobierno-de-nicaragua-adelanta-hora-oficial-06abril.htm
3336 # The Decree, no 23-2005 is available here:
3337 # http://www.presidencia.gob.ni/buscador_gaceta/BD/DECRETOS/2005/Decreto%2023-2005%20Se%20adelanta%20en%20una%20hora%20en%20todo%20el%20territorio%20nacional%20apartir%20de%20las%2024horas%20del%2009%20de%20Abril.pdf
3338 #
3339 # From Paul Eggert (2005-05-01):
3340 # The decree doesn't say anything about daylight saving, but for now let's
3341 # assume that it is daylight saving....
3342 #
3343 # From Gwillim Law (2005-04-21):
3344 # The Associated Press story on the time change, which can be found at
3345 # http://www.lapalmainteractivo.com/guias/content/gen/ap/America_Latina/AMC_GEN_NICARAGUA_HORA.html
3346 # and elsewhere, says (fifth paragraph, translated from Spanish): "The last
3347 # time that a change of clocks was applied to save energy was in the year 2000
3348 # during the Arnoldo Alemán administration."...
3349 # The northamerica file says that Nicaragua has been on UTC-6 continuously
3350 # since December 1998.  I wasn't able to find any details of Nicaraguan time
3351 # changes in 2000.  Perhaps a note could be added to the northamerica file, to
3352 # the effect that we have indirect evidence that DST was observed in 2000.
3353 #
3354 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-11-02):
3355 # Nicaragua left DST the 2005-10-02 at 00:00 (local time).
3356 # http://www.presidencia.gob.ni/presidencia/files_index/secretaria/comunicados/2005/septiembre/26septiembre-cambio-hora.htm
3357 # (2005-09-26)
3358 #
3359 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-05-05):
3360 # http://www.elnuevodiario.com.ni/2006/05/01/nacionales/18410
3361 # (my informal translation)
3362 # By order of the president of the republic, Enrique Bolaños, Nicaragua
3363 # advanced by sixty minutes their official time, yesterday at 2 in the
3364 # morning, and will stay that way until 30th of September.
3365 #
3366 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-09-30):
3367 # http://www.presidencia.gob.ni/buscador_gaceta/BD/DECRETOS/2006/D-063-2006P-PRN-Cambio-Hora.pdf
3368 # My informal translation runs:
3369 # The natural sun time is restored in all the national territory, in that the
3370 # time is returned one hour at 01:00 am of October 1 of 2006.
3371 #
3372 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3373 Rule    Nic     1979    1980    -       Mar     Sun>=16      0:00    1:00    D
3374 Rule    Nic     1979    1980    -       Jun     Mon>=23      0:00    0       S
3375 Rule    Nic     2005    only    -       Apr     10      0:00    1:00    D
3376 Rule    Nic     2005    only    -       Oct     Sun>=1       0:00    0       S
3377 Rule    Nic     2006    only    -       Apr     30      2:00    1:00    D
3378 Rule    Nic     2006    only    -       Oct     Sun>=1       1:00    0       S
3379 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3380 Zone    America/Managua -5:45:08 -      LMT     1890
3381                         -5:45:12 -      MMT     1934 Jun 23 # Managua Mean Time?
3382                         -6:00   -       CST     1973 May
3383                         -5:00   -       EST     1975 Feb 16
3384                         -6:00   Nic     C%sT    1992 Jan  1  4:00
3385                         -5:00   -       EST     1992 Sep 24
3386                         -6:00   -       CST     1993
3387                         -5:00   -       EST     1997
3388                         -6:00   Nic     C%sT
3389 
3390 # Panama
3391 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3392 Zone    America/Panama  -5:18:08 -      LMT     1890
3393                         -5:19:36 -      CMT     1908 Apr 22 # Colón Mean Time
3394                         -5:00   -       EST
3395 Link America/Panama America/Cayman
3396 
3397 # Puerto Rico
3398 # There are too many San Juans elsewhere, so we'll use 'Puerto_Rico'.
3399 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3400 Zone America/Puerto_Rico -4:24:25 -     LMT     1899 Mar 28 12:00 # San Juan
3401                         -4:00   -       AST     1942 May  3
3402                         -4:00   US      A%sT    1946
3403                         -4:00   -       AST
3404 
3405 # St Kitts-Nevis
3406 # St Lucia
3407 # See America/Port_of_Spain.
3408 
3409 # St Pierre and Miquelon
3410 # There are too many St Pierres elsewhere, so we'll use 'Miquelon'.
3411 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3412 Zone America/Miquelon   -3:44:40 -      LMT     1911 May 15 # St Pierre
3413                         -4:00   -       AST     1980 May
3414                         -3:00   -       -03     1987
3415                         -3:00   Canada  -03/-02
3416 
3417 # St Vincent and the Grenadines
3418 # See America/Port_of_Spain.
3419 
3420 # Turks and Caicos
3421 #
3422 # From Chris Dunn in
3423 # https://bugs.debian.org/415007
3424 # (2007-03-15): In the Turks & Caicos Islands (America/Grand_Turk) the
3425 # daylight saving dates for time changes have been adjusted to match
3426 # the recent U.S. change of dates.
3427 #
3428 # From Brian Inglis (2007-04-28):
3429 # http://www.turksandcaicos.tc/calendar/index.htm [2007-04-26]
3430 # there is an entry for Nov 4 "Daylight Savings Time Ends 2007" and three
3431 # rows before that there is an out of date entry for Oct:
3432 # "Eastern Standard Times Begins 2007
3433 # Clocks are set back one hour at 2:00 a.m. local Daylight Saving Time"
3434 # indicating that the normal ET rules are followed.
3435 #
3436 # From Paul Eggert (2014-08-19):
3437 # The 2014-08-13 Cabinet meeting decided to stay on UT -04 year-round.  See:
3438 # http://tcweeklynews.com/daylight-savings-time-to-be-maintained-p5353-127.htm
3439 # Model this as a switch from EST/EDT to AST ...
3440 # From Chris Walton (2014-11-04):
3441 # ... the TCI government appears to have delayed the switch to
3442 # "permanent daylight saving time" by one year....
3443 # http://tcweeklynews.com/time-change-to-go-ahead-this-november-p5437-127.htm
3444 #
3445 # From the Turks & Caicos Cabinet (2017-07-20), heads-up from Steffen Thorsen:
3446 # ... agreed to the reintroduction in TCI of Daylight Saving Time (DST)
3447 # during the summer months and Standard Time, also known as Local
3448 # Time, during the winter months with effect from April 2018 ...
3449 # https://www.gov.uk/government/news/turks-and-caicos-post-cabinet-meeting-statement--3
3450 #
3451 # From Paul Eggert (2017-08-26):
3452 # The date of effect of the spring 2018 change appears to be March 11,
3453 # which makes more sense.  See: Hamilton D. Time change back
3454 # by March 2018 for TCI. Magnetic Media. 2017-08-25.
3455 # http://magneticmediatv.com/2017/08/time-change-back-by-march-2018-for-tci/
3456 #
3457 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3458 Zone America/Grand_Turk -4:44:32 -      LMT     1890
3459                         -5:07:10 -      KMT     1912 Feb # Kingston Mean Time
3460                         -5:00   -       EST     1979
3461                         -5:00   US      E%sT    2015 Nov Sun>=1 2:00
3462                         -4:00   -       AST     2018 Mar 11 3:00
3463                         -5:00   US      E%sT
3464 
3465 # British Virgin Is
3466 # Virgin Is
3467 # See America/Port_of_Spain.
3468 
3469 
3470 # Local Variables:
3471 # coding: utf-8
3472 # End:
--- EOF ---