8216178: (tz) Upgrade time-zone data to tzdata2018i
Reviewed-by: duke
























   1 # tzdb data for South America and environs
   2 
   3 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
   4 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
   5 
   6 # This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
   7 # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
   8 # tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
   9 # the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
  10 
  11 # From Paul Eggert (2016-12-05):
  12 #
  13 # Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:
  14 # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
  15 # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
  16 # Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.
  17 #
  18 # Many years ago Gwillim Law wrote that a good source
  19 # for time zone data was the International Air Transport
  20 # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
  21 # published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
  22 # of the IATA's data after 1990.  Except where otherwise noted,
  23 # IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.
  24 #
  25 # For data circa 1899, a common source is:
  26 # Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94.
  27 # https://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359
  28 #
  29 # These tables use numeric abbreviations like -03 and -0330 for
  30 # integer hour and minute UT offsets.  Although earlier editions used
  31 # alphabetic time zone abbreviations, these abbreviations were
  32 # invented and did not reflect common practice.
  33 
  34 ###############################################################################
  35 
  36 ###############################################################################
  37 
  38 # Argentina
  39 
  40 # From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
  41 # Argentina: first Sunday in October to first Sunday in April since 1976.
  42 # Double Summer time from 1969 to 1974.  Switches at midnight.
  43 
  44 # From U. S. Naval Observatory (1988-01-19):
  45 # ARGENTINA           3 H BEHIND   UTC
  46 
  47 # From Hernan G. Otero (1995-06-26):
  48 # I am sending modifications to the Argentine time zone table...
  49 # AR was chosen because they are the ISO letters that represent Argentina.
  50 
  51 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
  52 Rule    Arg     1930    only    -       Dec      1      0:00    1:00    -
  53 Rule    Arg     1931    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       -
  54 Rule    Arg     1931    only    -       Oct     15      0:00    1:00    -
  55 Rule    Arg     1932    1940    -       Mar      1      0:00    0       -
  56 Rule    Arg     1932    1939    -       Nov      1      0:00    1:00    -
  57 Rule    Arg     1940    only    -       Jul      1      0:00    1:00    -
  58 Rule    Arg     1941    only    -       Jun     15      0:00    0       -
  59 Rule    Arg     1941    only    -       Oct     15      0:00    1:00    -
  60 Rule    Arg     1943    only    -       Aug      1      0:00    0       -
  61 Rule    Arg     1943    only    -       Oct     15      0:00    1:00    -
  62 Rule    Arg     1946    only    -       Mar      1      0:00    0       -
  63 Rule    Arg     1946    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    1:00    -
  64 Rule    Arg     1963    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
  65 Rule    Arg     1963    only    -       Dec     15      0:00    1:00    -
  66 Rule    Arg     1964    1966    -       Mar      1      0:00    0       -
  67 Rule    Arg     1964    1966    -       Oct     15      0:00    1:00    -
  68 Rule    Arg     1967    only    -       Apr      2      0:00    0       -
  69 Rule    Arg     1967    1968    -       Oct     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    -
  70 Rule    Arg     1968    1969    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:00    0       -
  71 Rule    Arg     1974    only    -       Jan     23      0:00    1:00    -
  72 Rule    Arg     1974    only    -       May      1      0:00    0       -
  73 Rule    Arg     1988    only    -       Dec      1      0:00    1:00    -
  74 #
  75 # From Hernan G. Otero (1995-06-26):
  76 # These corrections were contributed by InterSoft Argentina S.A.,
  77 # obtaining the data from the:
  78 # Talleres de Hidrografía Naval Argentina
  79 # (Argentine Naval Hydrography Institute)
  80 Rule    Arg     1989    1993    -       Mar     Sun>=1       0:00    0       -
  81 Rule    Arg     1989    1992    -       Oct     Sun>=15      0:00    1:00    -
  82 #
  83 # From Hernan G. Otero (1995-06-26):
  84 # From this moment on, the law that mandated the daylight saving
  85 # time corrections was derogated and no more modifications
  86 # to the time zones (for daylight saving) are now made.
  87 #
  88 # From Rives McDow (2000-01-10):
  89 # On October 3, 1999, 0:00 local, Argentina implemented daylight savings time,
  90 # which did not result in the switch of a time zone, as they stayed 9 hours
  91 # from the International Date Line.
  92 Rule    Arg     1999    only    -       Oct     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    -
  93 # From Paul Eggert (2007-12-28):
  94 # DST was set to expire on March 5, not March 3, but since it was converted
  95 # to standard time on March 3 it's more convenient for us to pretend that
  96 # it ended on March 3.
  97 Rule    Arg     2000    only    -       Mar     3       0:00    0       -
  98 #
  99 # From Peter Gradelski via Steffen Thorsen (2000-03-01):
 100 # We just checked with our São Paulo office and they say the government of
 101 # Argentina decided not to become one of the countries that go on or off DST.
 102 # So Buenos Aires should be -3 hours from GMT at all times.
 103 #
 104 # From Fabián L. Arce Jofré (2000-04-04):
 105 # The law that claimed DST for Argentina was derogated by President Fernando
 106 # de la Rúa on March 2, 2000, because it would make people spend more energy
 107 # in the winter time, rather than less.  The change took effect on March 3.
 108 #
 109 # From Mariano Absatz (2001-06-06):
 110 # one of the major newspapers here in Argentina said that the 1999
 111 # Timezone Law (which never was effectively applied) will (would?) be
 112 # in effect.... The article is at
 113 # http://ar.clarin.com/diario/2001-06-06/e-01701.htm
 114 # ... The Law itself is "Ley No. 25155", sanctioned on 1999-08-25, enacted
 115 # 1999-09-17, and published 1999-09-21.  The official publication is at:
 116 # http://www.boletin.jus.gov.ar/BON/Primera/1999/09-Septiembre/21/PDF/BO21-09-99LEG.PDF
 117 # Regretfully, you have to subscribe (and pay) for the on-line version....
 118 #
 119 # (2001-06-12):
 120 # the timezone for Argentina will not change next Sunday.
 121 # Apparently it will do so on Sunday 24th....
 122 # http://ar.clarin.com/diario/2001-06-12/s-03501.htm
 123 #
 124 # (2001-06-25):
 125 # Last Friday (yes, the last working day before the date of the change), the
 126 # Senate annulled the 1999 law that introduced the changes later postponed.
 127 # http://www.clarin.com.ar/diario/2001-06-22/s-03601.htm
 128 # It remains the vote of the Deputies..., but it will be the same....
 129 # This kind of things had always been done this way in Argentina.
 130 # We are still -03:00 all year round in all of the country.
 131 #
 132 # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-12-21):
 133 # A user (Leonardo Chaim) reported that Argentina will adopt DST....
 134 # all of the country (all Zone-entries) are affected.  News reports like
 135 # http://www.lanacion.com.ar/opinion/nota.asp?nota_id=973037 indicate
 136 # that Argentina will use DST next year as well, from October to
 137 # March, although exact rules are not given.
 138 #
 139 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2007-12-26)
 140 # The last hurdle of Argentina DST is over, the proposal was approved in
 141 # the lower chamber too (Diputados) with a vote 192 for and 2 against.
 142 # By the way thanks to Mariano Absatz and Daniel Mario Vega for the link to
 143 # the original scanned proposal, where the dates and the zero hours are
 144 # clear and unambiguous...This is the article about final approval:
 145 # http://www.lanacion.com.ar/politica/nota.asp?nota_id=973996
 146 #
 147 # From Paul Eggert (2007-12-22):
 148 # For dates after mid-2008, the following rules are my guesses and
 149 # are quite possibly wrong, but are more likely than no DST at all.
 150 
 151 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2008-09-05):
 152 # As per message from Carlos Alberto Fonseca Arauz (Nicaragua),
 153 # Argentina will start DST on Sunday October 19, 2008.
 154 #
 155 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_argentina03.html
 156 # http://www.impulsobaires.com.ar/nota.php?id=57832 (in spanish)
 157 
 158 # From Juan Manuel Docile in https://bugs.gentoo.org/240339 (2008-10-07)
 159 # via Rodrigo Severo:
 160 # Argentinian law No. 25.155 is no longer valid.
 161 # http://www.infoleg.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/60000-64999/60036/norma.htm
 162 # The new one is law No. 26.350
 163 # http://www.infoleg.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/135000-139999/136191/norma.htm
 164 # So there is no summer time in Argentina for now.
 165 
 166 # From Mariano Absatz (2008-10-20):
 167 # Decree 1693/2008 applies Law 26.350 for the summer 2008/2009 establishing DST
 168 # in Argentina from 2008-10-19 until 2009-03-15.
 169 # http://www.boletinoficial.gov.ar/Bora.Portal/CustomControls/PdfContent.aspx?fp=16102008&pi=3&pf=4&s=0&sec=01
 170 #
 171 
 172 # Decree 1705/2008 excepting 12 Provinces from applying DST in the summer
 173 # 2008/2009: Catamarca, La Rioja, Mendoza, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, La
 174 # Pampa, Neuquén, Rio Negro, Chubut, Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego
 175 # http://www.boletinoficial.gov.ar/Bora.Portal/CustomControls/PdfContent.aspx?fp=17102008&pi=1&pf=1&s=0&sec=01
 176 #
 177 # Press release 235 dated Saturday October 18th, from the Government of the
 178 # Province of Jujuy saying it will not apply DST either (even when it was not
 179 # included in Decree 1705/2008).
 180 # http://www.jujuy.gov.ar/index2/partes_prensa/18_10_08/235-181008.doc
 181 
 182 # From fullinet (2009-10-18):
 183 # As announced in
 184 # http://www.argentina.gob.ar/argentina/portal/paginas.dhtml?pagina=356
 185 # (an official .gob.ar) under title: "Sin Cambio de Hora"
 186 # (English: "No hour change").
 187 #
 188 # "Por el momento, el Gobierno Nacional resolvió no modificar la hora
 189 # oficial, decisión que estaba en estudio para su implementación el
 190 # domingo 18 de octubre. Desde el Ministerio de Planificación se anunció
 191 # que la Argentina hoy, en estas condiciones meteorológicas, no necesita
 192 # la modificación del huso horario, ya que 2009 nos encuentra con
 193 # crecimiento en la producción y distribución energética."
 194 
 195 Rule    Arg     2007    only    -       Dec     30      0:00    1:00    -
 196 Rule    Arg     2008    2009    -       Mar     Sun>=15      0:00    0       -
 197 Rule    Arg     2008    only    -       Oct     Sun>=15      0:00    1:00    -
 198 
 199 # From Mariano Absatz (2004-05-21):
 200 # Today it was officially published that the Province of Mendoza is changing
 201 # its timezone this winter... starting tomorrow night....
 202 # http://www.gobernac.mendoza.gov.ar/boletin/pdf/20040521-27158-normas.pdf
 203 # From Paul Eggert (2004-05-24):
 204 # It's Law No. 7,210.  This change is due to a public power emergency, so for
 205 # now we'll assume it's for this year only.
 206 #
 207 # From Paul Eggert (2018-01-31):
 208 # Hora de verano para la República Argentina
 209 # http://buenasiembra.com.ar/esoterismo/astrologia/hora-de-verano-de-la-republica-argentina-27.html
 210 # says that standard time in Argentina from 1894-10-31
 211 # to 1920-05-01 was -4:16:48.25.  Go with this more-precise value
 212 # over Shanks & Pottenger.  It is upward compatible with Milne, who
 213 # says Córdoba time was -4:16:48.2.
 214 
 215 #
 216 # From Mariano Absatz (2004-06-05):
 217 # These media articles from a major newspaper mostly cover the current state:
 218 # http://www.lanacion.com.ar/04/05/27/de_604825.asp
 219 # http://www.lanacion.com.ar/04/05/28/de_605203.asp
 220 #
 221 # The following eight (8) provinces pulled clocks back to UTC-04:00 at
 222 # midnight Monday May 31st. (that is, the night between 05/31 and 06/01).
 223 # Apparently, all nine provinces would go back to UTC-03:00 at the same
 224 # time in October 17th.
 225 #
 226 # Catamarca, Chubut, La Rioja, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz,
 227 # Tierra del Fuego, Tucumán.
 228 #
 229 # From Mariano Absatz (2004-06-14):
 230 # ... this weekend, the Province of Tucumán decided it'd go back to UTC-03:00
 231 # yesterday midnight (that is, at 24:00 Saturday 12th), since the people's
 232 # annoyance with the change is much higher than the power savings obtained....
 233 #
 234 # From Gwillim Law (2004-06-14):
 235 # http://www.lanacion.com.ar/04/06/10/de_609078.asp ...
 236 #     "The time change in Tierra del Fuego was a conflicted decision from
 237 #   the start.  The government had decreed that the measure would take
 238 #   effect on June 1, but a normative error forced the new time to begin
 239 #   three days earlier, from a Saturday to a Sunday....
 240 # Our understanding was that the change was originally scheduled to take place
 241 # on June 1 at 00:00 in Chubut, Santa Cruz, Tierra del Fuego (and some other
 242 # provinces).  Sunday was May 30, only two days earlier.  So the article
 243 # contains a contradiction.  I would give more credence to the Saturday/Sunday
 244 # date than the "three days earlier" phrase, and conclude that Tierra del
 245 # Fuego set its clocks back at 2004-05-30 00:00.
 246 #
 247 # From Steffen Thorsen (2004-10-05):
 248 # The previous law 7210 which changed the province of Mendoza's time zone
 249 # back in May have been modified slightly in a new law 7277, which set the
 250 # new end date to 2004-09-26 (original date was 2004-10-17).
 251 # http://www.gobernac.mendoza.gov.ar/boletin/pdf/20040924-27244-normas.pdf
 252 #
 253 # From Mariano Absatz (2004-10-05):
 254 # San Juan changed from UTC-03:00 to UTC-04:00 at midnight between
 255 # Sunday, May 30th and Monday, May 31st.  It changed back to UTC-03:00
 256 # at midnight between Saturday, July 24th and Sunday, July 25th....
 257 # http://www.sanjuan.gov.ar/prensa/archivo/000329.html
 258 # http://www.sanjuan.gov.ar/prensa/archivo/000426.html
 259 # http://www.sanjuan.gov.ar/prensa/archivo/000441.html
 260 
 261 # From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-01-17):
 262 # Here are articles that Argentina Province San Luis is planning to end DST
 263 # as earlier as upcoming Monday January 21, 2008 or February 2008:
 264 #
 265 # Provincia argentina retrasa reloj y marca diferencia con resto del país
 266 # (Argentine Province delayed clock and mark difference with the rest of the
 267 # country)
 268 # http://cl.invertia.com/noticias/noticia.aspx?idNoticia=200801171849_EFE_ET4373&idtel
 269 #
 270 # Es inminente que en San Luis atrasen una hora los relojes
 271 # (It is imminent in San Luis clocks one hour delay)
 272 # https://www.lagaceta.com.ar/nota/253414/Economia/Es-inminente-que-en-San-Luis-atrasen-una-hora-los-relojes.html
 273 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_argentina02.html
 274 
 275 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2008-01-18):
 276 # The page of the San Luis provincial government
 277 # http://www.sanluis.gov.ar/notas.asp?idCanal=0&id=22812
 278 # confirms what Alex Krivenyshev has earlier sent to the tz
 279 # emailing list about that San Luis plans to return to standard
 280 # time much earlier than the rest of the country. It also
 281 # confirms that upon request the provinces San Juan and Mendoza
 282 # refused to follow San Luis in this change.
 283 #
 284 # The change is supposed to take place Monday the 21st at 0:00
 285 # hours. As far as I understand it if this goes ahead, we need
 286 # a new timezone for San Luis (although there are also documented
 287 # independent changes in the southamerica file of San Luis in
 288 # 1990 and 1991 which has not been confirmed).
 289 
 290 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2008-01-25):
 291 # Unfortunately the below page has become defunct, about the San Luis
 292 # time change. Perhaps because it now is part of a group of pages "Most
 293 # important pages of 2008."
 294 #
 295 # You can use
 296 # http://www.sanluis.gov.ar/notas.asp?idCanal=8141&id=22834
 297 # instead it seems. Or use "Buscador" from the main page of the San Luis
 298 # government, and fill in "huso" and click OK, and you will get 3 pages
 299 # from which the first one is identical to the above.
 300 
 301 # From Mariano Absatz (2008-01-28):
 302 # I can confirm that the Province of San Luis (and so far only that
 303 # province) decided to go back to UTC-3 effective midnight Jan 20th 2008
 304 # (that is, Monday 21st at 0:00 is the time the clocks were delayed back
 305 # 1 hour), and they intend to keep UTC-3 as their timezone all year round
 306 # (that is, unless they change their mind any minute now).
 307 #
 308 # So we'll have to add yet another city to 'southamerica' (I think San
 309 # Luis city is the mos populated city in the Province, so it'd be
 310 # America/Argentina/San_Luis... of course I can't remember if San Luis's
 311 # history of particular changes goes along with Mendoza or San Juan :-(
 312 # (I only remember not being able to collect hard facts about San Luis
 313 # back in 2004, when these provinces changed to UTC-4 for a few days, I
 314 # mailed them personally and never got an answer).
 315 
 316 # From Paul Eggert (2014-08-12):
 317 # Unless otherwise specified, data entries are from Shanks & Pottenger through
 318 # 1992, from the IATA otherwise.  As noted below, Shanks & Pottenger say that
 319 # America/Cordoba split into 6 subregions during 1991/1992, one of which
 320 # was America/San_Luis, but we haven't verified this yet so for now we'll
 321 # keep America/Cordoba a single region rather than splitting it into the
 322 # other 5 subregions.
 323 
 324 # From Mariano Absatz (2009-03-13):
 325 # Yesterday (with our usual 2-day notice) the Province of San Luis
 326 # decided that next Sunday instead of "staying" @utc-03:00 they will go
 327 # to utc-04:00 until the second Saturday in October...
 328 #
 329 # The press release is at
 330 # http://www.sanluis.gov.ar/SL/Paginas/NoticiaDetalle.asp?TemaId=1&InfoPrensaId=3102
 331 # (I couldn't find the decree, but www.sanluis.gov.ar
 332 # is the official page for the Province Government.)
 333 #
 334 # There's also a note in only one of the major national papers ...
 335 # http://www.lanacion.com.ar/nota.asp?nota_id=1107912
 336 #
 337 # The press release says [quick and dirty translation]:
 338 # ... announced that next Sunday, at 00:00, Puntanos (the San Luis
 339 # inhabitants) will have to turn back one hour their clocks
 340 #
 341 # Since then, San Luis will establish its own Province timezone. Thus,
 342 # during 2009, this timezone change will run from 00:00 the third Sunday
 343 # in March until 24:00 of the second Saturday in October.
 344 
 345 # From Mariano Absatz (2009-10-16):
 346 # ...the Province of San Luis is a case in itself.
 347 #
 348 # The Law at
 349 # http://www.diputadossanluis.gov.ar/diputadosasp/paginas/verNorma.asp?NormaID=276
 350 # is ambiguous because establishes a calendar from the 2nd Sunday in
 351 # October at 0:00 thru the 2nd Saturday in March at 24:00 and the
 352 # complement of that starting on the 2nd Sunday of March at 0:00 and
 353 # ending on the 2nd Saturday of March at 24:00.
 354 #
 355 # This clearly breaks every time the 1st of March or October is a Sunday.
 356 #
 357 # IMHO, the "spirit of the Law" is to make the changes at 0:00 on the 2nd
 358 # Sunday of October and March.
 359 #
 360 # The problem is that the changes in the rest of the Provinces that did
 361 # change in 2007/2008, were made according to the Federal Law and Decrees
 362 # that did so on the 3rd Sunday of October and March.
 363 #
 364 # In fact, San Luis actually switched from UTC-4 to UTC-3 last Sunday
 365 # (October 11th) at 0:00.
 366 #
 367 # So I guess a new set of rules, besides "Arg", must be made and the last
 368 # America/Argentina/San_Luis entries should change to use these...
 369 # ...
 370 
 371 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-04-09):
 372 # According to news reports from El Diario de la República Province San
 373 # Luis, Argentina (standard time UTC-04) will keep Daylight Saving Time
 374 # after April 11, 2010 - will continue to have same time as rest of
 375 # Argentina (UTC-3) (no DST).
 376 #
 377 # Confirmaron la prórroga del huso horario de verano (Spanish)
 378 # http://www.eldiariodelarepublica.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=29383&Itemid=9
 379 # or (some English translation):
 380 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_argentina08.html
 381 
 382 # From Mariano Absatz (2010-04-12):
 383 # yes...I can confirm this...and given that San Luis keeps calling
 384 # UTC-03:00 "summer time", we should't just let San Luis go back to "Arg"
 385 # rules...San Luis is still using "Western ARgentina Time" and it got
 386 # stuck on Summer daylight savings time even though the summer is over.
 387 
 388 # From Paul Eggert (2018-01-23):
 389 # Perhaps San Luis operates on the legal fiction that it is at -04
 390 # with perpetual daylight saving time, but ordinary usage typically seems to
 391 # just say it's at -03; see, for example,
 392 # https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hora_oficial_argentina
 393 # We've documented similar situations as being plain changes to
 394 # standard time, so let's do that here too.  This does not change UTC
 395 # offsets, only tm_isdst and the time zone abbreviations.  One minor
 396 # plus is that this silences a zic complaint that there's no POSIX TZ
 397 # setting for timestamps past 2038.
 398 
 399 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 400 #
 401 # Buenos Aires (BA), Capital Federal (CF),
 402 Zone America/Argentina/Buenos_Aires -3:53:48 - LMT      1894 Oct 31
 403                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May    # Córdoba Mean Time
 404                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 405                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 406                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3
 407                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3
 408                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02
 409 #
 410 # Córdoba (CB), Santa Fe (SF), Entre Ríos (ER), Corrientes (CN), Misiones (MN),
 411 # Chaco (CC), Formosa (FM), Santiago del Estero (SE)
 412 #
 413 # Shanks & Pottenger also make the following claims, which we haven't verified:
 414 # - Formosa switched to -3:00 on 1991-01-07.
 415 # - Misiones switched to -3:00 on 1990-12-29.
 416 # - Chaco switched to -3:00 on 1991-01-04.
 417 # - Santiago del Estero switched to -4:00 on 1991-04-01,
 418 #   then to -3:00 on 1991-04-26.
 419 #
 420 Zone America/Argentina/Cordoba -4:16:48 - LMT   1894 Oct 31
 421                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May
 422                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 423                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 424                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1991 Mar  3
 425                         -4:00   -       -04     1991 Oct 20
 426                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3
 427                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3
 428                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02
 429 #
 430 # Salta (SA), La Pampa (LP), Neuquén (NQ), Rio Negro (RN)
 431 Zone America/Argentina/Salta -4:21:40 - LMT     1894 Oct 31
 432                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May
 433                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 434                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 435                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1991 Mar  3
 436                         -4:00   -       -04     1991 Oct 20
 437                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3
 438                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3
 439                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Oct 18
 440                         -3:00   -       -03
 441 #
 442 # Tucumán (TM)
 443 Zone America/Argentina/Tucuman -4:20:52 - LMT   1894 Oct 31
 444                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May
 445                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 446                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 447                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1991 Mar  3
 448                         -4:00   -       -04     1991 Oct 20
 449                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3
 450                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3
 451                         -3:00   -       -03     2004 Jun  1
 452                         -4:00   -       -04     2004 Jun 13
 453                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02
 454 #
 455 # La Rioja (LR)
 456 Zone America/Argentina/La_Rioja -4:27:24 - LMT  1894 Oct 31
 457                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May
 458                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 459                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 460                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1991 Mar  1
 461                         -4:00   -       -04     1991 May  7
 462                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3
 463                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3
 464                         -3:00   -       -03     2004 Jun  1
 465                         -4:00   -       -04     2004 Jun 20
 466                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Oct 18
 467                         -3:00   -       -03
 468 #
 469 # San Juan (SJ)
 470 Zone America/Argentina/San_Juan -4:34:04 - LMT  1894 Oct 31
 471                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May
 472                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 473                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 474                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1991 Mar  1
 475                         -4:00   -       -04     1991 May  7
 476                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3
 477                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3
 478                         -3:00   -       -03     2004 May 31
 479                         -4:00   -       -04     2004 Jul 25
 480                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Oct 18
 481                         -3:00   -       -03
 482 #
 483 # Jujuy (JY)
 484 Zone America/Argentina/Jujuy -4:21:12 - LMT     1894 Oct 31
 485                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May
 486                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 487                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 488                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1990 Mar  4
 489                         -4:00   -       -04     1990 Oct 28
 490                         -4:00   1:00    -03     1991 Mar 17
 491                         -4:00   -       -04     1991 Oct  6
 492                         -3:00   1:00    -02     1992
 493                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3
 494                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3
 495                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Oct 18
 496                         -3:00   -       -03
 497 #
 498 # Catamarca (CT), Chubut (CH)
 499 Zone America/Argentina/Catamarca -4:23:08 - LMT 1894 Oct 31
 500                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May
 501                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 502                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 503                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1991 Mar  3
 504                         -4:00   -       -04     1991 Oct 20
 505                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3
 506                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3
 507                         -3:00   -       -03     2004 Jun  1
 508                         -4:00   -       -04     2004 Jun 20
 509                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Oct 18
 510                         -3:00   -       -03
 511 #
 512 # Mendoza (MZ)
 513 Zone America/Argentina/Mendoza -4:35:16 - LMT   1894 Oct 31
 514                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May
 515                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 516                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 517                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1990 Mar  4
 518                         -4:00   -       -04     1990 Oct 15
 519                         -4:00   1:00    -03     1991 Mar  1
 520                         -4:00   -       -04     1991 Oct 15
 521                         -4:00   1:00    -03     1992 Mar  1
 522                         -4:00   -       -04     1992 Oct 18
 523                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3
 524                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3
 525                         -3:00   -       -03     2004 May 23
 526                         -4:00   -       -04     2004 Sep 26
 527                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Oct 18
 528                         -3:00   -       -03
 529 #
 530 # San Luis (SL)
 531 
 532 Rule    SanLuis 2008    2009    -       Mar     Sun>=8       0:00    0       -
 533 Rule    SanLuis 2007    2008    -       Oct     Sun>=8       0:00    1:00    -
 534 
 535 Zone America/Argentina/San_Luis -4:25:24 - LMT  1894 Oct 31
 536                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May
 537                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 538                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 539                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1990
 540                         -3:00   1:00    -02     1990 Mar 14
 541                         -4:00   -       -04     1990 Oct 15
 542                         -4:00   1:00    -03     1991 Mar  1
 543                         -4:00   -       -04     1991 Jun  1
 544                         -3:00   -       -03     1999 Oct  3
 545                         -4:00   1:00    -03     2000 Mar  3
 546                         -3:00   -       -03     2004 May 31
 547                         -4:00   -       -04     2004 Jul 25
 548                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Jan 21
 549                         -4:00   SanLuis -04/-03 2009 Oct 11
 550                         -3:00   -       -03
 551 #
 552 # Santa Cruz (SC)
 553 Zone America/Argentina/Rio_Gallegos -4:36:52 - LMT      1894 Oct 31
 554                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May
 555                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 556                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 557                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3
 558                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3
 559                         -3:00   -       -03     2004 Jun  1
 560                         -4:00   -       -04     2004 Jun 20
 561                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Oct 18
 562                         -3:00   -       -03
 563 #
 564 # Tierra del Fuego, Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur (TF)
 565 Zone America/Argentina/Ushuaia -4:33:12 - LMT   1894 Oct 31
 566                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May
 567                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 568                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 569                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3
 570                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3
 571                         -3:00   -       -03     2004 May 30
 572                         -4:00   -       -04     2004 Jun 20
 573                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Oct 18
 574                         -3:00   -       -03
 575 
 576 # Aruba
 577 Link America/Curacao America/Aruba
 578 
 579 # Bolivia
 580 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 581 Zone    America/La_Paz  -4:32:36 -      LMT     1890
 582                         -4:32:36 -      CMT     1931 Oct 15 # Calamarca MT
 583                         -4:32:36 1:00   BST     1932 Mar 21 # Bolivia ST
 584                         -4:00   -       -04
 585 
 586 # Brazil
 587 
 588 # From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18):
 589 # The mayor of Rio recently attempted to change the time zone rules
 590 # just in his city, in order to leave more summer time for the tourist trade.
 591 # The rule change lasted only part of the day;
 592 # the federal government refused to follow the city's rules, and business
 593 # was in a chaos, so the mayor backed down that afternoon.
 594 
 595 # From IATA SSIM (1996-02):
 596 # _Only_ the following states in BR1 observe DST: Rio Grande do Sul (RS),
 597 # Santa Catarina (SC), Paraná (PR), São Paulo (SP), Rio de Janeiro (RJ),
 598 # Espírito Santo (ES), Minas Gerais (MG), Bahia (BA), Goiás (GO),
 599 # Distrito Federal (DF), Tocantins (TO), Sergipe [SE] and Alagoas [AL].
 600 # [The last three states are new to this issue of the IATA SSIM.]
 601 
 602 # From Gwillim Law (1996-10-07):
 603 # Geography, history (Tocantins was part of Goiás until 1989), and other
 604 # sources of time zone information lead me to believe that AL, SE, and TO were
 605 # always in BR1, and so the only change was whether or not they observed DST....
 606 # The earliest issue of the SSIM I have is 2/91.  Each issue from then until
 607 # 9/95 says that DST is observed only in the ten states I quoted from 9/95,
 608 # along with Mato Grosso (MT) and Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), which are in BR2
 609 # (UTC-4)....  The other two time zones given for Brazil are BR3, which is
 610 # UTC-5, no DST, and applies only in the state of Acre (AC); and BR4, which is
 611 # UTC-2, and applies to Fernando de Noronha (formerly FN, but I believe it's
 612 # become part of the state of Pernambuco).  The boundary between BR1 and BR2
 613 # has never been clearly stated.  They've simply been called East and West.
 614 # However, some conclusions can be drawn from another IATA manual: the Airline
 615 # Coding Directory, which lists close to 400 airports in Brazil.  For each
 616 # airport it gives a time zone which is coded to the SSIM.  From that
 617 # information, I'm led to conclude that the states of Amapá (AP), Ceará (CE),
 618 # Maranhão (MA), Paraíba (PR), Pernambuco (PE), Piauí (PI), and Rio Grande do
 619 # Norte (RN), and the eastern part of Pará (PA) are all in BR1 without DST.
 620 
 621 # From Marcos Tadeu (1998-09-27):
 622 # Brazilian official page <http://pcdsh01.on.br/verao1.html>
 623 
 624 # From Jesper Nørgaard (2000-11-03):
 625 # [For an official list of which regions in Brazil use which time zones, see:]
 626 # http://pcdsh01.on.br/Fusbr.htm
 627 # http://pcdsh01.on.br/Fusbrhv.htm
 628 
 629 # From Celso Doria via David Madeo (2002-10-09):
 630 # The reason for the delay this year has to do with elections in Brazil.
 631 #
 632 # Unlike in the United States, elections in Brazil are 100% computerized and
 633 # the results are known almost immediately.  Yesterday, it was the first
 634 # round of the elections when 115 million Brazilians voted for President,
 635 # Governor, Senators, Federal Deputies, and State Deputies.  Nobody is
 636 # counting (or re-counting) votes anymore and we know there will be a second
 637 # round for the Presidency and also for some Governors.  The 2nd round will
 638 # take place on October 27th.
 639 #
 640 # The reason why the DST will only begin November 3rd is that the thousands
 641 # of electoral machines used cannot have their time changed, and since the
 642 # Constitution says the elections must begin at 8:00 AM and end at 5:00 PM,
 643 # the Government decided to postpone DST, instead of changing the Constitution
 644 # (maybe, for the next elections, it will be possible to change the clock)...
 645 
 646 # From Rodrigo Severo (2004-10-04):
 647 # It's just the biannual change made necessary by the much hyped, supposedly
 648 # modern Brazilian eletronic voting machines which, apparently, can't deal
 649 # with a time change between the first and the second rounds of the elections.
 650 
 651 # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-09-20):
 652 # Brazil will start DST on 2007-10-14 00:00 and end on 2008-02-17 00:00:
 653 # http://www.mme.gov.br/site/news/detail.do;jsessionid=BBA06811AFCAAC28F0285210913513DA?newsId=13975
 654 
 655 # From Paul Schulze (2008-06-24):
 656 # ...by law number 11.662 of April 24, 2008 (published in the "Diario
 657 # Oficial da União"...) in Brazil there are changes in the timezones,
 658 # effective today (00:00am at June 24, 2008) as follows:
 659 #
 660 # a) The timezone UTC+5 is extinguished, with all the Acre state and the
 661 # part of the Amazonas state that had this timezone now being put to the
 662 # timezone UTC+4
 663 # b) The whole Pará state now is put at timezone UTC+3, instead of just
 664 # part of it, as was before.
 665 #
 666 # This change follows a proposal of senator Tiao Viana of Acre state, that
 667 # proposed it due to concerns about open television channels displaying
 668 # programs inappropriate to youths in the states that had the timezone
 669 # UTC+5 too early in the night. In the occasion, some more corrections
 670 # were proposed, trying to unify the timezones of any given state. This
 671 # change modifies timezone rules defined in decree 2.784 of 18 June,
 672 # 1913.
 673 
 674 # From Rodrigo Severo (2008-06-24):
 675 # Just correcting the URL:
 676 # https://www.in.gov.br/imprensa/visualiza/index.jsp?jornal=do&secao=1&pagina=1&data=25/04/2008
 677 #
 678 # As a result of the above Decree I believe the America/Rio_Branco
 679 # timezone shall be modified from UTC-5 to UTC-4 and a new timezone shall
 680 # be created to represent the...west side of the Pará State. I
 681 # suggest this new timezone be called Santarem as the most
 682 # important/populated city in the affected area.
 683 #
 684 # This new timezone would be the same as the Rio_Branco timezone up to
 685 # the 2008/06/24 change which would be to UTC-3 instead of UTC-4.
 686 
 687 # From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-06-24):
 688 # This is a quick reference page for New and Old Brazil Time Zones map.
 689 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/brazil-time-new-old.php
 690 #
 691 # - 4 time zones replaced by 3 time zones - eliminating time zone UTC-05
 692 # (state Acre and the part of the Amazonas will be UTC/GMT-04) - western
 693 # part of Par state is moving to one timezone UTC-03 (from UTC-04).
 694 
 695 # From Paul Eggert (2002-10-10):
 696 # The official decrees referenced below are mostly taken from
 697 # Decretos sobre o Horário de Verão no Brasil.
 698 # http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV.html
 699 
 700 # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-08-29):
 701 # As announced by the government and many newspapers in Brazil late
 702 # yesterday, Brazil will start DST on 2008-10-19 (need to change rule) and
 703 # it will end on 2009-02-15 (current rule for Brazil is fine). Based on
 704 # past years experience with the elections, there was a good chance that
 705 # the start was postponed to November, but it did not happen this year.
 706 #
 707 # It has not yet been posted to http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV.html
 708 #
 709 # An official page about it:
 710 # http://www.mme.gov.br/site/news/detail.do?newsId=16722
 711 # Note that this link does not always work directly, but must be accessed
 712 # by going to
 713 # http://www.mme.gov.br/first
 714 #
 715 # One example link that works directly:
 716 # http://jornale.com.br/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=13530&Itemid=54
 717 # (Portuguese)
 718 #
 719 # We have a written a short article about it as well:
 720 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/brazil-dst-2008-2009.html
 721 #
 722 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-10-04):
 723 # State Bahia will return to Daylight savings time this year after 8 years off.
 724 # The announcement was made by Governor Jaques Wagner in an interview to a
 725 # television station in Salvador.
 726 
 727 # In Portuguese:
 728 # http://g1.globo.com/bahia/noticia/2011/10/governador-jaques-wagner-confirma-horario-de-verao-na-bahia.html
 729 # https://noticias.terra.com.br/brasil/noticias/0,,OI5390887-EI8139,00-Bahia+volta+a+ter+horario+de+verao+apos+oito+anos.html
 730 
 731 # From Guilherme Bernardes Rodrigues (2011-10-07):
 732 # There is news in the media, however there is still no decree about it.
 733 # I just send a e-mail to Zulmira Brandao at http://pcdsh01.on.br/ the
 734 # official agency about time in Brazil, and she confirmed that the old rule is
 735 # still in force.
 736 
 737 # From Guilherme Bernardes Rodrigues (2011-10-14)
 738 # It's official, the President signed a decree that includes Bahia in summer
 739 # time.
 740 #        [ and in a second message (same day): ]
 741 # I found the decree.
 742 #
 743 # DECRETO No. 7.584, DE 13 DE OUTUBRO DE 2011
 744 # Link :
 745 # http://www.in.gov.br/visualiza/index.jsp?data=13/10/2011&jornal=1000&pagina=6&totalArquivos=6
 746 
 747 # From Kelley Cook (2012-10-16):
 748 # The governor of state of Bahia in Brazil announced on Thursday that
 749 # due to public pressure, he is reversing the DST policy they implemented
 750 # last year and will not be going to Summer Time on October 21st....
 751 # http://www.correio24horas.com.br/r/artigo/apos-pressoes-wagner-suspende-horario-de-verao-na-bahia
 752 
 753 # From Rodrigo Severo (2012-10-16):
 754 # Tocantins state will have DST.
 755 # https://noticias.terra.com.br/brasil/noticias/0,,OI6232536-EI306.html
 756 
 757 # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-09-20):
 758 # Tocantins in Brazil is very likely not to observe DST from October....
 759 # http://conexaoto.com.br/2013/09/18/ministerio-confirma-que-tocantins-esta-fora-do-horario-de-verao-em-2013-mas-falta-publicacao-de-decreto
 760 # We will keep this article updated when this is confirmed:
 761 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/brazil-starts-dst-2013.html
 762 
 763 # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-10-17):
 764 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/acre-amazonas-change-time-zone.html
 765 # Senator Jorge Viana announced that Acre will change time zone on November 10.
 766 # He did not specify the time of the change, nor if western parts of Amazonas
 767 # will change as well.
 768 #
 769 # From Paul Eggert (2013-10-17):
 770 # For now, assume western Amazonas will change as well.
 771 
 772 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 773 # Decree 20,466 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV20466.htm> (1931-10-01)
 774 # Decree 21,896 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV21896.htm> (1932-01-10)
 775 Rule    Brazil  1931    only    -       Oct      3      11:00   1:00    -
 776 Rule    Brazil  1932    1933    -       Apr      1       0:00   0       -
 777 Rule    Brazil  1932    only    -       Oct      3       0:00   1:00    -
 778 # Decree 23,195 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV23195.htm> (1933-10-10)
 779 # revoked DST.
 780 # Decree 27,496 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV27496.htm> (1949-11-24)
 781 # Decree 27,998 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV27998.htm> (1950-04-13)
 782 Rule    Brazil  1949    1952    -       Dec      1       0:00   1:00    -
 783 Rule    Brazil  1950    only    -       Apr     16       1:00   0       -
 784 Rule    Brazil  1951    1952    -       Apr      1       0:00   0       -
 785 # Decree 32,308 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV32308.htm> (1953-02-24)
 786 Rule    Brazil  1953    only    -       Mar      1       0:00   0       -
 787 # Decree 34,724 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV34724.htm> (1953-11-30)
 788 # revoked DST.
 789 # Decree 52,700 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV52700.htm> (1963-10-18)
 790 # established DST from 1963-10-23 00:00 to 1964-02-29 00:00
 791 # in SP, RJ, GB, MG, ES, due to the prolongation of the drought.
 792 # Decree 53,071 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV53071.htm> (1963-12-03)
 793 # extended the above decree to all of the national territory on 12-09.
 794 Rule    Brazil  1963    only    -       Dec      9       0:00   1:00    -
 795 # Decree 53,604 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV53604.htm> (1964-02-25)
 796 # extended summer time by one day to 1964-03-01 00:00 (start of school).
 797 Rule    Brazil  1964    only    -       Mar      1       0:00   0       -
 798 # Decree 55,639 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV55639.htm> (1965-01-27)
 799 Rule    Brazil  1965    only    -       Jan     31       0:00   1:00    -
 800 Rule    Brazil  1965    only    -       Mar     31       0:00   0       -
 801 # Decree 57,303 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV57303.htm> (1965-11-22)
 802 Rule    Brazil  1965    only    -       Dec      1       0:00   1:00    -
 803 # Decree 57,843 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV57843.htm> (1966-02-18)
 804 Rule    Brazil  1966    1968    -       Mar      1       0:00   0       -
 805 Rule    Brazil  1966    1967    -       Nov      1       0:00   1:00    -
 806 # Decree 63,429 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV63429.htm> (1968-10-15)
 807 # revoked DST.
 808 # Decree 91,698 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV91698.htm> (1985-09-27)
 809 Rule    Brazil  1985    only    -       Nov      2       0:00   1:00    -
 810 # Decree 92,310 (1986-01-21)
 811 # Decree 92,463 (1986-03-13)
 812 Rule    Brazil  1986    only    -       Mar     15       0:00   0       -
 813 # Decree 93,316 (1986-10-01)
 814 Rule    Brazil  1986    only    -       Oct     25       0:00   1:00    -
 815 Rule    Brazil  1987    only    -       Feb     14       0:00   0       -
 816 # Decree 94,922 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV94922.htm> (1987-09-22)
 817 Rule    Brazil  1987    only    -       Oct     25       0:00   1:00    -
 818 Rule    Brazil  1988    only    -       Feb      7       0:00   0       -
 819 # Decree 96,676 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV96676.htm> (1988-09-12)
 820 # except for the states of AC, AM, PA, RR, RO, and AP (then a territory)
 821 Rule    Brazil  1988    only    -       Oct     16       0:00   1:00    -
 822 Rule    Brazil  1989    only    -       Jan     29       0:00   0       -
 823 # Decree 98,077 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV98077.htm> (1989-08-21)
 824 # with the same exceptions
 825 Rule    Brazil  1989    only    -       Oct     15       0:00   1:00    -
 826 Rule    Brazil  1990    only    -       Feb     11       0:00   0       -
 827 # Decree 99,530 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV99530.htm> (1990-09-17)
 828 # adopted by RS, SC, PR, SP, RJ, ES, MG, GO, MS, DF.
 829 # Decree 99,629 (1990-10-19) adds BA, MT.
 830 Rule    Brazil  1990    only    -       Oct     21       0:00   1:00    -
 831 Rule    Brazil  1991    only    -       Feb     17       0:00   0       -
 832 # Unnumbered decree <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1991.htm> (1991-09-25)
 833 # adopted by RS, SC, PR, SP, RJ, ES, MG, BA, GO, MT, MS, DF.
 834 Rule    Brazil  1991    only    -       Oct     20       0:00   1:00    -
 835 Rule    Brazil  1992    only    -       Feb      9       0:00   0       -
 836 # Unnumbered decree <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1992.htm> (1992-10-16)
 837 # adopted by same states.
 838 Rule    Brazil  1992    only    -       Oct     25       0:00   1:00    -
 839 Rule    Brazil  1993    only    -       Jan     31       0:00   0       -
 840 # Decree 942 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV942.htm> (1993-09-28)
 841 # adopted by same states, plus AM.
 842 # Decree 1,252 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1252.htm> (1994-09-22;
 843 # web page corrected 2004-01-07) adopted by same states, minus AM.
 844 # Decree 1,636 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1636.htm> (1995-09-14)
 845 # adopted by same states, plus MT and TO.
 846 # Decree 1,674 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1674.htm> (1995-10-13)
 847 # adds AL, SE.
 848 Rule    Brazil  1993    1995    -       Oct     Sun>=11       0:00   1:00    -
 849 Rule    Brazil  1994    1995    -       Feb     Sun>=15       0:00   0       -
 850 Rule    Brazil  1996    only    -       Feb     11       0:00   0       -
 851 # Decree 2,000 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV2000.htm> (1996-09-04)
 852 # adopted by same states, minus AL, SE.
 853 Rule    Brazil  1996    only    -       Oct      6       0:00   1:00    -
 854 Rule    Brazil  1997    only    -       Feb     16       0:00   0       -
 855 # From Daniel C. Sobral (1998-02-12):
 856 # In 1997, the DS began on October 6. The stated reason was that
 857 # because international television networks ignored Brazil's policy on DS,
 858 # they bought the wrong times on satellite for coverage of Pope's visit.
 859 # This year, the ending date of DS was postponed to March 1
 860 # to help dealing with the shortages of electric power.
 861 #
 862 # Decree 2,317 (1997-09-04), adopted by same states.
 863 Rule    Brazil  1997    only    -       Oct      6       0:00   1:00    -
 864 # Decree 2,495 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/figuras/HV2495.JPG>
 865 # (1998-02-10)
 866 Rule    Brazil  1998    only    -       Mar      1       0:00   0       -
 867 # Decree 2,780 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/figuras/Hv98.jpg> (1998-09-11)
 868 # adopted by the same states as before.
 869 Rule    Brazil  1998    only    -       Oct     11       0:00   1:00    -
 870 Rule    Brazil  1999    only    -       Feb     21       0:00   0       -
 871 # Decree 3,150 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/figuras/HV3150.gif>
 872 # (1999-08-23) adopted by same states.
 873 # Decree 3,188 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV99.gif> (1999-09-30)
 874 # adds SE, AL, PB, PE, RN, CE, PI, MA and RR.
 875 Rule    Brazil  1999    only    -       Oct      3       0:00   1:00    -
 876 Rule    Brazil  2000    only    -       Feb     27       0:00   0       -
 877 # Decree 3,592 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/DEC3592.htm> (2000-09-06)
 878 # adopted by the same states as before.
 879 # Decree 3,630 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/Dec3630.jpg> (2000-10-13)
 880 # repeals DST in PE and RR, effective 2000-10-15 00:00.
 881 # Decree 3,632 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/Dec3632.jpg> (2000-10-17)
 882 # repeals DST in SE, AL, PB, RN, CE, PI and MA, effective 2000-10-22 00:00.
 883 # Decree 3,916 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/figuras/HV3916.gif>
 884 # (2001-09-13) reestablishes DST in AL, CE, MA, PB, PE, PI, RN, SE.
 885 Rule    Brazil  2000    2001    -       Oct     Sun>=8        0:00   1:00    -
 886 Rule    Brazil  2001    2006    -       Feb     Sun>=15       0:00   0       -
 887 # Decree 4,399 (2002-10-01) repeals DST in AL, CE, MA, PB, PE, PI, RN, SE.
 888 # 4,399 <http://www.presidencia.gov.br/CCIVIL/decreto/2002/D4399.htm>
 889 Rule    Brazil  2002    only    -       Nov      3       0:00   1:00    -
 890 # Decree 4,844 (2003-09-24; corrected 2003-09-26) repeals DST in BA, MT, TO.
 891 # 4,844 <http://www.presidencia.gov.br/CCIVIL/decreto/2003/D4844.htm>
 892 Rule    Brazil  2003    only    -       Oct     19       0:00   1:00    -
 893 # Decree 5,223 (2004-10-01) reestablishes DST in MT.
 894 # 5,223 <http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2004-2006/2004/Decreto/D5223.htm>
 895 Rule    Brazil  2004    only    -       Nov      2       0:00   1:00    -
 896 # Decree 5,539 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV5539.gif> (2005-09-19),
 897 # adopted by the same states as before.
 898 Rule    Brazil  2005    only    -       Oct     16       0:00   1:00    -
 899 # Decree 5,920 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV5920.gif> (2006-10-03),
 900 # adopted by the same states as before.
 901 Rule    Brazil  2006    only    -       Nov      5       0:00   1:00    -
 902 Rule    Brazil  2007    only    -       Feb     25       0:00   0       -
 903 # Decree 6,212 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV6212.gif> (2007-09-26),
 904 # adopted by the same states as before.
 905 Rule    Brazil  2007    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8        0:00   1:00    -
 906 # From Frederico A. C. Neves (2008-09-10):
 907 # According to this decree
 908 # http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2007-2010/2008/Decreto/D6558.htm
 909 # [t]he DST period in Brazil now on will be from the 3rd Oct Sunday to the
 910 # 3rd Feb Sunday. There is an exception on the return date when this is
 911 # the Carnival Sunday then the return date will be the next Sunday...
 912 Rule    Brazil  2008    2017    -       Oct     Sun>=15      0:00    1:00    -
 913 Rule    Brazil  2008    2011    -       Feb     Sun>=15      0:00    0       -
 914 # Decree 7,584 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HVdecreto7584_20111013.jpg> (2011-10-13)
 915 # added Bahia.
 916 Rule    Brazil  2012    only    -       Feb     Sun>=22      0:00    0       -
 917 # Decree 7,826 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HVdecreto7826_20121015.jpg> (2012-10-15)
 918 # removed Bahia and added Tocantins.
 919 # Decree 8,112 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HVdecreto8112_20130930.JPG> (2013-09-30)
 920 # removed Tocantins.
 921 Rule    Brazil  2013    2014    -       Feb     Sun>=15      0:00    0       -
 922 Rule    Brazil  2015    only    -       Feb     Sun>=22      0:00    0       -
 923 Rule    Brazil  2016    2022    -       Feb     Sun>=15      0:00    0       -
 924 # From Steffen Thorsen (2017-12-18):
 925 # According to many media sources, next year's DST start in Brazil will move to
 926 # the first Sunday of November, and it will stay like that for the years after.
 927 # ... https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/brazil-delays-dst-2018.html
 928 # From Steffen Thorsen (2017-12-20):
 929 # http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_ato2015-2018/2017/decreto/D9242.htm
 930 #
 931 # From Fábio Gomes (2018-10-04):
 932 # The Brazilian president just announced a new change on this year DST.
 933 # It was scheduled to start on November 4th and it was changed to November 18th.
 934 # From Rodrigo Brüning Wessler (2018-10-15):
 935 # The Brazilian government just announced that the change in DST was
 936 # canceled....  Maybe the president Michel Temer also woke up one hour
 937 # earlier today. :)
 938 Rule    Brazil  2018    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    -
 939 Rule    Brazil  2023    only    -       Feb     Sun>=22      0:00    0       -
 940 Rule    Brazil  2024    2025    -       Feb     Sun>=15      0:00    0       -
 941 Rule    Brazil  2026    only    -       Feb     Sun>=22      0:00    0       -
 942 Rule    Brazil  2027    2033    -       Feb     Sun>=15      0:00    0       -
 943 Rule    Brazil  2034    only    -       Feb     Sun>=22      0:00    0       -
 944 Rule    Brazil  2035    2036    -       Feb     Sun>=15      0:00    0       -
 945 Rule    Brazil  2037    only    -       Feb     Sun>=22      0:00    0       -
 946 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-09-29):
 947 # The next is wrong in some years but is better than nothing.
 948 Rule    Brazil  2038    max     -       Feb     Sun>=15      0:00    0       -
 949 
 950 # The latest ruleset listed above says that the following states observe DST:
 951 # DF, ES, GO, MG, MS, MT, PR, RJ, RS, SC, SP.
 952 
 953 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 954 #
 955 # Fernando de Noronha (administratively part of PE)
 956 Zone America/Noronha    -2:09:40 -      LMT     1914
 957                         -2:00   Brazil  -02/-01 1990 Sep 17
 958                         -2:00   -       -02     1999 Sep 30
 959                         -2:00   Brazil  -02/-01 2000 Oct 15
 960                         -2:00   -       -02     2001 Sep 13
 961                         -2:00   Brazil  -02/-01 2002 Oct  1
 962                         -2:00   -       -02
 963 # Other Atlantic islands have no permanent settlement.
 964 # These include Trindade and Martim Vaz (administratively part of ES),
 965 # Rocas Atoll (RN), and the St Peter and St Paul Archipelago (PE).
 966 # Fernando de Noronha was a separate territory from 1942-09-02 to 1989-01-01;
 967 # it also included the Penedos.
 968 #
 969 # Amapá (AP), east Pará (PA)
 970 # East Pará includes Belém, Marabá, Serra Norte, and São Félix do Xingu.
 971 # The division between east and west Pará is the river Xingu.
 972 # In the north a very small part from the river Javary (now Jari I guess,
 973 # the border with Amapá) to the Amazon, then to the Xingu.
 974 Zone America/Belem      -3:13:56 -      LMT     1914
 975                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 1988 Sep 12
 976                         -3:00   -       -03
 977 #
 978 # west Pará (PA)
 979 # West Pará includes Altamira, Óbidos, Prainha, Oriximiná, and Santarém.
 980 Zone America/Santarem   -3:38:48 -      LMT     1914
 981                         -4:00   Brazil  -04/-03 1988 Sep 12
 982                         -4:00   -       -04     2008 Jun 24  0:00
 983                         -3:00   -       -03
 984 #
 985 # Maranhão (MA), Piauí (PI), Ceará (CE), Rio Grande do Norte (RN),
 986 # Paraíba (PB)
 987 Zone America/Fortaleza  -2:34:00 -      LMT     1914
 988                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 1990 Sep 17
 989                         -3:00   -       -03     1999 Sep 30
 990                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2000 Oct 22
 991                         -3:00   -       -03     2001 Sep 13
 992                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2002 Oct  1
 993                         -3:00   -       -03
 994 #
 995 # Pernambuco (PE) (except Atlantic islands)
 996 Zone America/Recife     -2:19:36 -      LMT     1914
 997                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 1990 Sep 17
 998                         -3:00   -       -03     1999 Sep 30
 999                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2000 Oct 15
1000                         -3:00   -       -03     2001 Sep 13
1001                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2002 Oct  1
1002                         -3:00   -       -03
1003 #
1004 # Tocantins (TO)
1005 Zone America/Araguaina  -3:12:48 -      LMT     1914
1006                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 1990 Sep 17
1007                         -3:00   -       -03     1995 Sep 14
1008                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2003 Sep 24
1009                         -3:00   -       -03     2012 Oct 21
1010                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2013 Sep
1011                         -3:00   -       -03
1012 #
1013 # Alagoas (AL), Sergipe (SE)
1014 Zone America/Maceio     -2:22:52 -      LMT     1914
1015                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 1990 Sep 17
1016                         -3:00   -       -03     1995 Oct 13
1017                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 1996 Sep  4
1018                         -3:00   -       -03     1999 Sep 30
1019                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2000 Oct 22
1020                         -3:00   -       -03     2001 Sep 13
1021                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2002 Oct  1
1022                         -3:00   -       -03
1023 #
1024 # Bahia (BA)
1025 # There are too many Salvadors elsewhere, so use America/Bahia instead
1026 # of America/Salvador.
1027 Zone America/Bahia      -2:34:04 -      LMT     1914
1028                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2003 Sep 24
1029                         -3:00   -       -03     2011 Oct 16
1030                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2012 Oct 21
1031                         -3:00   -       -03
1032 #
1033 # Goiás (GO), Distrito Federal (DF), Minas Gerais (MG),
1034 # Espírito Santo (ES), Rio de Janeiro (RJ), São Paulo (SP), Paraná (PR),
1035 # Santa Catarina (SC), Rio Grande do Sul (RS)
1036 Zone America/Sao_Paulo  -3:06:28 -      LMT     1914
1037                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 1963 Oct 23  0:00
1038                         -3:00   1:00    -02     1964
1039                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02
1040 #
1041 # Mato Grosso do Sul (MS)
1042 Zone America/Campo_Grande -3:38:28 -    LMT     1914
1043                         -4:00   Brazil  -04/-03
1044 #
1045 # Mato Grosso (MT)
1046 Zone America/Cuiaba     -3:44:20 -      LMT     1914
1047                         -4:00   Brazil  -04/-03 2003 Sep 24
1048                         -4:00   -       -04     2004 Oct  1
1049                         -4:00   Brazil  -04/-03
1050 #
1051 # Rondônia (RO)
1052 Zone America/Porto_Velho -4:15:36 -     LMT     1914
1053                         -4:00   Brazil  -04/-03 1988 Sep 12
1054                         -4:00   -       -04
1055 #
1056 # Roraima (RR)
1057 Zone America/Boa_Vista  -4:02:40 -      LMT     1914
1058                         -4:00   Brazil  -04/-03 1988 Sep 12
1059                         -4:00   -       -04     1999 Sep 30
1060                         -4:00   Brazil  -04/-03 2000 Oct 15
1061                         -4:00   -       -04
1062 #
1063 # east Amazonas (AM): Boca do Acre, Jutaí, Manaus, Floriano Peixoto
1064 # The great circle line from Tabatinga to Porto Acre divides
1065 # east from west Amazonas.
1066 Zone America/Manaus     -4:00:04 -      LMT     1914
1067                         -4:00   Brazil  -04/-03 1988 Sep 12
1068                         -4:00   -       -04     1993 Sep 28
1069                         -4:00   Brazil  -04/-03 1994 Sep 22
1070                         -4:00   -       -04
1071 #
1072 # west Amazonas (AM): Atalaia do Norte, Boca do Maoco, Benjamin Constant,
1073 #       Eirunepé, Envira, Ipixuna
1074 Zone America/Eirunepe   -4:39:28 -      LMT     1914
1075                         -5:00   Brazil  -05/-04 1988 Sep 12
1076                         -5:00   -       -05     1993 Sep 28
1077                         -5:00   Brazil  -05/-04 1994 Sep 22
1078                         -5:00   -       -05     2008 Jun 24  0:00
1079                         -4:00   -       -04     2013 Nov 10
1080                         -5:00   -       -05
1081 #
1082 # Acre (AC)
1083 Zone America/Rio_Branco -4:31:12 -      LMT     1914
1084                         -5:00   Brazil  -05/-04 1988 Sep 12
1085                         -5:00   -       -05     2008 Jun 24  0:00
1086                         -4:00   -       -04     2013 Nov 10
1087                         -5:00   -       -05
1088 
1089 # Chile
1090 
1091 # From Paul Eggert (2015-04-03):
1092 # Shanks & Pottenger says America/Santiago introduced standard time in
1093 # 1890 and rounds its UT offset to 70W40; guess that in practice this
1094 # was the same offset as in 1916-1919.  It also says Pacific/Easter
1095 # standardized on 109W22 in 1890; assume this didn't change the clocks.
1096 #
1097 # Dates for America/Santiago from 1910 to 2004 are primarily from
1098 # the following source, cited by Oscar van Vlijmen (2006-10-08):
1099 # [1] Chile Law
1100 # http://www.webexhibits.org/daylightsaving/chile.html
1101 # This contains a copy of this official table:
1102 # Cambios en la hora oficial de Chile desde 1900 (retrieved 2008-03-30)
1103 # https://web.archive.org/web/20080330200901/http://www.horaoficial.cl/cambio.htm
1104 # [1] needs several corrections, though.
1105 #
1106 # The first set of corrections is from:
1107 # [2] History of the Official Time of Chile
1108 # http://www.horaoficial.cl/ing/horaof_ing.html (retrieved 2012-03-06).  See:
1109 # https://web.archive.org/web/20120306042032/http://www.horaoficial.cl/ing/horaof_ing.html
1110 # This is an English translation of:
1111 # Historia de la hora oficial de Chile (retrieved 2012-10-24).  See:
1112 # https://web.archive.org/web/20121024234627/http://www.horaoficial.cl/horaof.htm
1113 # A fancier Spanish version (requiring mouse-clicking) is at:
1114 # http://www.horaoficial.cl/historia_hora.html
1115 # Conflicts between [1] and [2] were resolved as follows:
1116 #
1117 #  - [1] says the 1910 transition was Jan 1, [2] says Jan 10 and cites
1118 #    Boletín No. 1, Aviso No. 1 (1910).  Go with [2].
1119 #
1120 #  - [1] says SMT was -4:42:45, [2] says Chile's official time from
1121 #    1916 to 1919 was -4:42:46.3, the meridian of Chile's National
1122 #    Astronomical Observatory (OAN), then located in what is now
1123 #    Quinta Normal in Santiago.  Go with [2], rounding it to -4:42:46.
1124 #
1125 #  - [1] says the 1918 transition was Sep 1, [2] says Sep 10 and cites
1126 #    Boletín No. 22, Aviso No. 129/1918 (1918-08-23).  Go with [2].
1127 #
1128 #  - [1] does not give times for transitions; assume they occur
1129 #    at midnight mainland time, the current common practice.  However,
1130 #    go with [2]'s specification of 23:00 for the 1947-05-21 transition.
1131 #
1132 # Another correction to [1] is from Jesper Nørgaard Welen, who
1133 # wrote (2006-10-08), "I think that there are some obvious mistakes in
1134 # the suggested link from Oscar van Vlijmen,... for instance entry 66
1135 # says that GMT-4 ended 1990-09-12 while entry 67 only begins GMT-3 at
1136 # 1990-09-15 (they should have been 1990-09-15 and 1990-09-16
1137 # respectively), but anyhow it clears up some doubts too."
1138 #
1139 # Data for Pacific/Easter from 1910 through 1967 come from Shanks &
1140 # Pottenger.  After that, for lack of better info assume
1141 # Pacific/Easter is always two hours behind America/Santiago;
1142 # this is known to work for DST transitions starting in 2008 and
1143 # may well be true for earlier transitions.
1144 
1145 # From Eduardo Krell (1995-10-19):
1146 # The law says to switch to DST at midnight [24:00] on the second SATURDAY
1147 # of October....  The law is the same for March and October.
1148 # (1998-09-29):
1149 # Because of the drought this year, the government decided to go into
1150 # DST earlier (saturday 9/26 at 24:00). This is a one-time change only ...
1151 # (unless there's another dry season next year, I guess).
1152 
1153 # From Julio I. Pacheco Troncoso (1999-03-18):
1154 # Because of the same drought, the government decided to end DST later,
1155 # on April 3, (one-time change).
1156 
1157 # From Germán Poo-Caamaño (2008-03-03):
1158 # Due to drought, Chile extends Daylight Time in three weeks.  This
1159 # is one-time change (Saturday 3/29 at 24:00 for America/Santiago
1160 # and Saturday 3/29 at 22:00 for Pacific/Easter)
1161 # The Supreme Decree is located at
1162 # http://www.shoa.cl/servicios/supremo316.pdf
1163 #
1164 # From José Miguel Garrido (2008-03-05):
1165 # http://www.shoa.cl/noticias/2008/04hora/hora.htm
1166 
1167 # From Angel Chiang (2010-03-04):
1168 # Subject: DST in Chile exceptionally extended to 3 April due to earthquake
1169 # http://www.gobiernodechile.cl/viewNoticia.aspx?idArticulo=30098
1170 #
1171 # From Arthur David Olson (2010-03-06):
1172 # Angel Chiang's message confirmed by Julio Pacheco; Julio provided a patch.
1173 
1174 # From Glenn Eychaner (2011-03-28):
1175 # http://diario.elmercurio.com/2011/03/28/_portada/_portada/noticias/7565897A-CA86-49E6-9E03-660B21A4883E.htm?id=3D{7565897A-CA86-49E6-9E03-660B21A4883E}
1176 # In English:
1177 # Chile's clocks will go back an hour this year on the 7th of May instead
1178 # of this Saturday. They will go forward again the 3rd Saturday in
1179 # August, not in October as they have since 1968.
1180 
1181 # From Mauricio Parada (2012-02-22), translated by Glenn Eychaner (2012-02-23):
1182 # As stated in the website of the Chilean Energy Ministry
1183 # http://www.minenergia.cl/ministerio/noticias/generales/gobierno-anuncia-fechas-de-cambio-de.html
1184 # The Chilean Government has decided to postpone the entrance into winter time
1185 # (to leave DST) from March 11 2012 to April 28th 2012....
1186 # Quote from the website communication:
1187 #
1188 # 6. For the year 2012, the dates of entry into winter time will be as follows:
1189 # a. Saturday April 28, 2012, clocks should go back 60 minutes; that is, at
1190 # 23:59:59, instead of passing to 0:00, the time should be adjusted to be 23:00
1191 # of the same day.
1192 # b. Saturday, September 1, 2012, clocks should go forward 60 minutes; that is,
1193 # at 23:59:59, instead of passing to 0:00, the time should be adjusted to be
1194 # 01:00 on September 2.
1195 
1196 # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-02-15):
1197 # According to several news sources, Chile has extended DST this year,
1198 # they will end DST later and start DST earlier than planned.  They
1199 # hope to save energy.  The new end date is 2013-04-28 00:00 and new
1200 # start date is 2013-09-08 00:00....
1201 # http://www.gob.cl/informa/2013/02/15/gobierno-anuncia-fechas-de-cambio-de-hora-para-el-ano-2013.htm
1202 
1203 # From José Miguel Garrido (2014-02-19):
1204 # Today appeared in the Diario Oficial a decree amending the time change
1205 # dates to 2014.
1206 # DST End: last Saturday of April 2014 (Sun 27 Apr 2014 03:00 UTC)
1207 # DST Start: first Saturday of September 2014 (Sun 07 Sep 2014 04:00 UTC)
1208 # http://www.diariooficial.interior.gob.cl//media/2014/02/19/do-20140219.pdf
1209 
1210 # From Eduardo Romero Urra (2015-03-03):
1211 # Today has been published officially that Chile will use the DST time
1212 # permanently until March 25 of 2017
1213 # http://www.diariooficial.interior.gob.cl/media/2015/03/03/1-large.jpg
1214 #
1215 # From Paul Eggert (2015-03-03):
1216 # For now, assume that the extension will persist indefinitely.
1217 
1218 # From Juan Correa (2016-03-18):
1219 # The decree regarding DST has been published in today's Official Gazette:
1220 # http://www.diariooficial.interior.gob.cl/versiones-anteriores/do/20160318/
1221 # http://www.leychile.cl/Navegar?idNorma=1088502
1222 # It does consider the second Saturday of May and August as the dates
1223 # for the transition; and it lists DST dates until 2019, but I think
1224 # this scheme will stick.
1225 #
1226 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
1227 # For now, assume the pattern holds for the indefinite future.
1228 # The decree says transitions occur at 24:00; in practice this appears
1229 # to mean 24:00 mainland time, not 24:00 local time, so that Easter
1230 # Island is always two hours behind the mainland.
1231 
1232 # From Juan Correa (2016-12-04):
1233 # Magallanes region ... will keep DST (UTC -3) all year round....
1234 # http://www.soychile.cl/Santiago/Sociedad/2016/12/04/433428/Bachelet-firmo-el-decreto-para-establecer-un-horario-unico-para-la-Region-de-Magallanes.aspx
1235 #
1236 # From Deborah Goldsmith (2017-01-19):
1237 # http://www.diariooficial.interior.gob.cl/publicaciones/2017/01/17/41660/01/1169626.pdf
1238 # From Paul Eggert (2017-01-19):
1239 # The above says the Magallanes change expires 2019-05-11 at 24:00,
1240 # so in theory, they will revert to -04/-03 after that, which means
1241 # they will switch from -03 to -04 one hour after Santiago does that day.
1242 # For now, assume that they will not revert.
1243 
1244 # From Juan Correa (2018-08-13):
1245 # As of moments ago, the Ministry of Energy in Chile has announced the new
1246 # schema for DST. ...  Announcement in video (in Spanish):
1247 # https://twitter.com/MinEnergia/status/1029000399129374720
1248 # From Yonathan Dossow (2018-08-13):
1249 # The video says "first Saturday of September", we all know it means Sunday at
1250 # midnight.
1251 # From Tim Parenti (2018-08-13):
1252 # Translating the captions on the video at 0:44-0:55, "We want to announce as
1253 # Government that from 2019, Winter Time will be increased to 5 months, between
1254 # the first Saturday of April and the first Saturday of September."
1255 # At 2:08-2:20, "The Magallanes region will maintain its current time, as
1256 # decided by the citizens during 2017, but our Government will promote a
1257 # regional dialogue table to gather their opinion on this matter."
1258 # https://twitter.com/MinEnergia/status/1029009354001973248
1259 # "We will keep the new time policy unchanged for at least the next 4 years."
1260 # So we extend the new rules on Saturdays at 24:00 mainland time indefinitely.
1261 
1262 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1263 Rule    Chile   1927    1931    -       Sep      1      0:00    1:00    -
1264 Rule    Chile   1928    1932    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       -
1265 Rule    Chile   1968    only    -       Nov      3      4:00u   1:00    -
1266 Rule    Chile   1969    only    -       Mar     30      3:00u   0       -
1267 Rule    Chile   1969    only    -       Nov     23      4:00u   1:00    -
1268 Rule    Chile   1970    only    -       Mar     29      3:00u   0       -
1269 Rule    Chile   1971    only    -       Mar     14      3:00u   0       -
1270 Rule    Chile   1970    1972    -       Oct     Sun>=9       4:00u   1:00    -
1271 Rule    Chile   1972    1986    -       Mar     Sun>=9       3:00u   0       -
1272 Rule    Chile   1973    only    -       Sep     30      4:00u   1:00    -
1273 Rule    Chile   1974    1987    -       Oct     Sun>=9       4:00u   1:00    -
1274 Rule    Chile   1987    only    -       Apr     12      3:00u   0       -
1275 Rule    Chile   1988    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=9       3:00u   0       -
1276 Rule    Chile   1988    1989    -       Oct     Sun>=9       4:00u   1:00    -
1277 Rule    Chile   1990    only    -       Sep     16      4:00u   1:00    -
1278 Rule    Chile   1991    1996    -       Mar     Sun>=9       3:00u   0       -
1279 Rule    Chile   1991    1997    -       Oct     Sun>=9       4:00u   1:00    -
1280 Rule    Chile   1997    only    -       Mar     30      3:00u   0       -
1281 Rule    Chile   1998    only    -       Mar     Sun>=9       3:00u   0       -
1282 Rule    Chile   1998    only    -       Sep     27      4:00u   1:00    -
1283 Rule    Chile   1999    only    -       Apr      4      3:00u   0       -
1284 Rule    Chile   1999    2010    -       Oct     Sun>=9       4:00u   1:00    -
1285 Rule    Chile   2000    2007    -       Mar     Sun>=9       3:00u   0       -
1286 # N.B.: the end of March 29 in Chile is March 30 in Universal time,
1287 # which is used below in specifying the transition.
1288 Rule    Chile   2008    only    -       Mar     30      3:00u   0       -
1289 Rule    Chile   2009    only    -       Mar     Sun>=9       3:00u   0       -
1290 Rule    Chile   2010    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       3:00u   0       -
1291 Rule    Chile   2011    only    -       May     Sun>=2       3:00u   0       -
1292 Rule    Chile   2011    only    -       Aug     Sun>=16      4:00u   1:00    -
1293 Rule    Chile   2012    2014    -       Apr     Sun>=23      3:00u   0       -
1294 Rule    Chile   2012    2014    -       Sep     Sun>=2       4:00u   1:00    -
1295 Rule    Chile   2016    2018    -       May     Sun>=9       3:00u   0       -
1296 Rule    Chile   2016    2018    -       Aug     Sun>=9       4:00u   1:00    -
1297 Rule    Chile   2019    max     -       Apr     Sun>=2       3:00u   0       -
1298 Rule    Chile   2019    max     -       Sep     Sun>=2       4:00u   1:00    -
1299 # IATA SSIM anomalies: (1992-02) says 1992-03-14;
1300 # (1996-09) says 1998-03-08.  Ignore these.
1301 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1302 Zone America/Santiago   -4:42:46 -      LMT     1890
1303                         -4:42:46 -      SMT     1910 Jan 10 # Santiago Mean Time
1304                         -5:00   -       -05     1916 Jul  1
1305                         -4:42:46 -      SMT     1918 Sep 10
1306                         -4:00   -       -04     1919 Jul  1
1307                         -4:42:46 -      SMT     1927 Sep  1
1308                         -5:00   Chile   -05/-04 1932 Sep  1
1309                         -4:00   -       -04     1942 Jun  1
1310                         -5:00   -       -05     1942 Aug  1
1311                         -4:00   -       -04     1946 Jul 15
1312                         -4:00   1:00    -03     1946 Sep  1 # central Chile
1313                         -4:00   -       -04     1947 Apr  1
1314                         -5:00   -       -05     1947 May 21 23:00
1315                         -4:00   Chile   -04/-03
1316 Zone America/Punta_Arenas -4:43:40 -    LMT     1890
1317                         -4:42:46 -      SMT     1910 Jan 10
1318                         -5:00   -       -05     1916 Jul  1
1319                         -4:42:46 -      SMT     1918 Sep 10
1320                         -4:00   -       -04     1919 Jul  1
1321                         -4:42:46 -      SMT     1927 Sep  1
1322                         -5:00   Chile   -05/-04 1932 Sep  1
1323                         -4:00   -       -04     1942 Jun  1
1324                         -5:00   -       -05     1942 Aug  1
1325                         -4:00   -       -04     1947 Apr  1
1326                         -5:00   -       -05     1947 May 21 23:00
1327                         -4:00   Chile   -04/-03 2016 Dec  4
1328                         -3:00   -       -03
1329 Zone Pacific/Easter     -7:17:28 -      LMT     1890
1330                         -7:17:28 -      EMT     1932 Sep    # Easter Mean Time
1331                         -7:00   Chile   -07/-06 1982 Mar 14 3:00u # Easter Time
1332                         -6:00   Chile   -06/-05
1333 #
1334 # Salas y Gómez Island is uninhabited.
1335 # Other Chilean locations, including Juan Fernández Is, Desventuradas Is,
1336 # and Antarctic bases, are like America/Santiago.
1337 
1338 # Antarctic base using South American rules
1339 # (See the file 'antarctica' for more.)
1340 #
1341 # Palmer, Anvers Island, since 1965 (moved 2 miles in 1968)
1342 #
1343 # From Ethan Dicks (1996-10-06):
1344 # It keeps the same time as Punta Arenas, Chile, because, just like us
1345 # and the South Pole, that's the other end of their supply line....
1346 # I verified with someone who was there that since 1980,
1347 # Palmer has followed Chile.  Prior to that, before the Falklands War,
1348 # Palmer used to be supplied from Argentina.
1349 #
1350 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1351 Zone Antarctica/Palmer  0       -       -00     1965
1352                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
1353                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1982 May
1354                         -4:00   Chile   -04/-03 2016 Dec  4
1355                         -3:00   -       -03
1356 
1357 # Colombia
1358 
1359 # Milne gives 4:56:16.4 for Bogotá time in 1899; round to nearest.  He writes,
1360 # "A variation of fifteen minutes in the public clocks of Bogota is not rare."
1361 
1362 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1363 Rule    CO      1992    only    -       May      3      0:00    1:00    -
1364 Rule    CO      1993    only    -       Apr      4      0:00    0       -
1365 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1366 Zone    America/Bogota  -4:56:16 -      LMT     1884 Mar 13
1367                         -4:56:16 -      BMT     1914 Nov 23 # Bogotá Mean Time
1368                         -5:00   CO      -05/-04
1369 # Malpelo, Providencia, San Andres
1370 # no information; probably like America/Bogota
1371 
1372 # Curaçao
1373 
1374 # Milne gives 4:35:46.9 for Curaçao mean time; round to nearest.
1375 #
1376 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1377 # Shanks & Pottenger say that The Bottom and Philipsburg have been at
1378 # -4:00 since standard time was introduced on 1912-03-02; and that
1379 # Kralendijk and Rincon used Kralendijk Mean Time (-4:33:08) from
1380 # 1912-02-02 to 1965-01-01.  The former is dubious, since S&P also say
1381 # Saba Island has been like Curaçao.
1382 # This all predates our 1970 cutoff, though.
1383 #
1384 # By July 2007 Curaçao and St Maarten are planned to become
1385 # associated states within the Netherlands, much like Aruba;
1386 # Bonaire, Saba and St Eustatius would become directly part of the
1387 # Netherlands as Kingdom Islands.  This won't affect their time zones
1388 # though, as far as we know.
1389 #
1390 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1391 Zone    America/Curacao -4:35:47 -      LMT     1912 Feb 12 # Willemstad
1392                         -4:30   -       -0430   1965
1393                         -4:00   -       AST
1394 
1395 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15):
1396 # use links for places with new iso3166 codes.
1397 # The name "Lower Prince's Quarter" is both longer than fourteen characters
1398 # and contains an apostrophe; use "Lower_Princes" below.
1399 
1400 Link    America/Curacao America/Lower_Princes   # Sint Maarten
1401 Link    America/Curacao America/Kralendijk      # Caribbean Netherlands
1402 
1403 # Ecuador
1404 #
1405 # Milne says the Central and South American Telegraph Company used -5:24:15.
1406 #
1407 # From Alois Treindl (2016-12-15):
1408 # https://www.elcomercio.com/actualidad/hora-sixto-1993.html
1409 # ... Whether the law applied also to Galápagos, I do not know.
1410 # From Paul Eggert (2016-12-15):
1411 # https://www.elcomercio.com/afull/modificacion-husohorario-ecuador-presidentes-decreto.html
1412 # This says President Sixto Durán Ballén signed decree No. 285, which
1413 # established DST from 1992-11-28 to 1993-02-05; it does not give transition
1414 # times.  The people called it "hora de Sixto" ("Sixto hour").  The change did
1415 # not go over well; a popular song "Qué hora es" by Jaime Guevara had lyrics
1416 # that included "Amanecía en mitad de la noche, los guaguas iban a clase sin
1417 # sol" ("It was dawning in the middle of the night, the buses went to class
1418 # without sun").  Although Ballén's campaign slogan was "Ni un paso atrás"
1419 # (Not one step back), the clocks went back in 1993 and the experiment was not
1420 # repeated.  For now, assume transitions were at 00:00 local time country-wide.
1421 #
1422 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1423 Rule    Ecuador 1992    only    -       Nov     28      0:00    1:00    -
1424 Rule    Ecuador 1993    only    -       Feb      5      0:00    0       -
1425 #
1426 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1427 Zone America/Guayaquil  -5:19:20 -      LMT     1890
1428                         -5:14:00 -      QMT     1931 # Quito Mean Time
1429                         -5:00   Ecuador -05/-04
1430 Zone Pacific/Galapagos  -5:58:24 -      LMT     1931 # Puerto Baquerizo Moreno
1431                         -5:00   -       -05     1986
1432                         -6:00   Ecuador -06/-05
1433 
1434 # Falklands
1435 
1436 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1437 # Between 1990 and 2000 inclusive, Shanks & Pottenger and the IATA agree except
1438 # the IATA gives 1996-09-08.  Go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1439 
1440 # From Falkland Islands Government Office, London (2001-01-22)
1441 # via Jesper Nørgaard:
1442 # ... the clocks revert back to Local Mean Time at 2 am on Sunday 15
1443 # April 2001 and advance one hour to summer time at 2 am on Sunday 2
1444 # September.  It is anticipated that the clocks will revert back at 2
1445 # am on Sunday 21 April 2002 and advance to summer time at 2 am on
1446 # Sunday 1 September.
1447 
1448 # From Rives McDow (2001-02-13):
1449 #
1450 # I have communicated several times with people there, and the last
1451 # time I had communications that was helpful was in 1998.  Here is
1452 # what was said then:
1453 #
1454 # "The general rule was that Stanley used daylight saving and the Camp
1455 # did not. However for various reasons many people in the Camp have
1456 # started to use daylight saving (known locally as 'Stanley Time')
1457 # There is no rule as to who uses daylight saving - it is a matter of
1458 # personal choice and so it is impossible to draw a map showing who
1459 # uses it and who does not. Any list would be out of date as soon as
1460 # it was produced. This year daylight saving ended on April 18/19th
1461 # and started again on September 12/13th.  I do not know what the rule
1462 # is, but can find out if you like.  We do not change at the same time
1463 # as UK or Chile."
1464 #
1465 # I did have in my notes that the rule was "Second Saturday in Sep at
1466 # 0:00 until third Saturday in Apr at 0:00".  I think that this does
1467 # not agree in some cases with Shanks; is this true?
1468 #
1469 # Also, there is no mention in the list that some areas in the
1470 # Falklands do not use DST.  I have found in my communications there
1471 # that these areas are on the western half of East Falkland and all of
1472 # West Falkland.  Stanley is the only place that consistently observes
1473 # DST.  Again, as in other places in the world, the farmers don't like
1474 # it.  West Falkland is almost entirely sheep farmers.
1475 #
1476 # I know one lady there that keeps a list of which farm keeps DST and
1477 # which doesn't each year.  She runs a shop in Stanley, and says that
1478 # the list changes each year.  She uses it to communicate to her
1479 # customers, catching them when they are home for lunch or dinner.
1480 
1481 # From Paul Eggert (2001-03-05):
1482 # For now, we'll just record the time in Stanley, since we have no
1483 # better info.
1484 
1485 # From Steffen Thorsen (2011-04-01):
1486 # The Falkland Islands will not turn back clocks this winter, but stay on
1487 # daylight saving time.
1488 #
1489 # One source:
1490 # http://www.falklandnews.com/public/story.cfm?get=5914&source=3
1491 #
1492 # We have gotten this confirmed by a clerk of the legislative assembly:
1493 # Normally the clocks revert to Local Mean Time (UTC/GMT -4 hours) on the
1494 # third Sunday of April at 0200hrs and advance to Summer Time (UTC/GMT -3
1495 # hours) on the first Sunday of September at 0200hrs.
1496 #
1497 # IMPORTANT NOTE: During 2011, on a trial basis, the Falkland Islands
1498 # will not revert to local mean time, but clocks will remain on Summer
1499 # time (UTC/GMT - 3 hours) throughout the whole of 2011.  Any long term
1500 # change to local time following the trial period will be notified.
1501 #
1502 # From Andrew Newman (2012-02-24)
1503 # A letter from Justin McPhee, Chief Executive,
1504 # Cable & Wireless Falkland Islands (dated 2012-02-22)
1505 # states...
1506 #   The current Atlantic/Stanley entry under South America expects the
1507 #   clocks to go back to standard Falklands Time (FKT) on the 15th April.
1508 #   The database entry states that in 2011 Stanley was staying on fixed
1509 #   summer time on a trial basis only.  FIG need to contact IANA and/or
1510 #   the maintainers of the database to inform them we're adopting
1511 #   the same policy this year and suggest recommendations for future years.
1512 #
1513 # For now we will assume permanent -03 for the Falklands
1514 # until advised differently (to apply for 2012 and beyond, after the 2011
1515 # experiment was apparently successful.)
1516 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1517 Rule    Falk    1937    1938    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    1:00    -
1518 Rule    Falk    1938    1942    -       Mar     Sun>=19      0:00    0       -
1519 Rule    Falk    1939    only    -       Oct     1       0:00    1:00    -
1520 Rule    Falk    1940    1942    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    1:00    -
1521 Rule    Falk    1943    only    -       Jan     1       0:00    0       -
1522 Rule    Falk    1983    only    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    1:00    -
1523 Rule    Falk    1984    1985    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    0       -
1524 Rule    Falk    1984    only    -       Sep     16      0:00    1:00    -
1525 Rule    Falk    1985    2000    -       Sep     Sun>=9       0:00    1:00    -
1526 Rule    Falk    1986    2000    -       Apr     Sun>=16      0:00    0       -
1527 Rule    Falk    2001    2010    -       Apr     Sun>=15      2:00    0       -
1528 Rule    Falk    2001    2010    -       Sep     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    -
1529 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1530 Zone Atlantic/Stanley   -3:51:24 -      LMT     1890
1531                         -3:51:24 -      SMT     1912 Mar 12 # Stanley Mean Time
1532                         -4:00   Falk    -04/-03 1983 May
1533                         -3:00   Falk    -03/-02 1985 Sep 15
1534                         -4:00   Falk    -04/-03 2010 Sep  5  2:00
1535                         -3:00   -       -03
1536 
1537 # French Guiana
1538 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1539 Zone America/Cayenne    -3:29:20 -      LMT     1911 Jul
1540                         -4:00   -       -04     1967 Oct
1541                         -3:00   -       -03
1542 
1543 # Guyana
1544 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1545 Zone    America/Guyana  -3:52:40 -      LMT     1915 Mar    # Georgetown
1546                         -3:45   -       -0345   1975 Jul 31
1547                         -3:00   -       -03     1991
1548 # IATA SSIM (1996-06) says -4:00.  Assume a 1991 switch.
1549                         -4:00   -       -04
1550 
1551 # Paraguay
1552 #
1553 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1554 # Shanks & Pottenger say that spring transitions are 01:00 -> 02:00,
1555 # and autumn transitions are 00:00 -> 23:00.  Go with pre-1999
1556 # editions of Shanks, and with the IATA, who say transitions occur at 00:00.
1557 #
1558 # From Waldemar Villamayor-Venialbo (2013-09-20):
1559 # No time of the day is established for the adjustment, so people normally
1560 # adjust their clocks at 0 hour of the given dates.
1561 #
1562 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1563 Rule    Para    1975    1988    -       Oct      1      0:00    1:00    -
1564 Rule    Para    1975    1978    -       Mar      1      0:00    0       -
1565 Rule    Para    1979    1991    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       -
1566 Rule    Para    1989    only    -       Oct     22      0:00    1:00    -
1567 Rule    Para    1990    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    1:00    -
1568 Rule    Para    1991    only    -       Oct      6      0:00    1:00    -
1569 Rule    Para    1992    only    -       Mar      1      0:00    0       -
1570 Rule    Para    1992    only    -       Oct      5      0:00    1:00    -
1571 Rule    Para    1993    only    -       Mar     31      0:00    0       -
1572 Rule    Para    1993    1995    -       Oct      1      0:00    1:00    -
1573 Rule    Para    1994    1995    -       Feb     lastSun 0:00    0       -
1574 Rule    Para    1996    only    -       Mar      1      0:00    0       -
1575 # IATA SSIM (2000-02) says 1999-10-10; ignore this for now.
1576 # From Steffen Thorsen (2000-10-02):
1577 # I have three independent reports that Paraguay changed to DST this Sunday
1578 # (10-01).
1579 #
1580 # Translated by Gwillim Law (2001-02-27) from
1581 # Noticias, a daily paper in Asunción, Paraguay (2000-10-01):
1582 # http://www.diarionoticias.com.py/011000/nacional/naciona1.htm
1583 # Starting at 0:00 today, the clock will be set forward 60 minutes, in
1584 # fulfillment of Decree No. 7,273 of the Executive Power....  The time change
1585 # system has been operating for several years.  Formerly there was a separate
1586 # decree each year; the new law has the same effect, but permanently.  Every
1587 # year, the time will change on the first Sunday of October; likewise, the
1588 # clock will be set back on the first Sunday of March.
1589 #
1590 Rule    Para    1996    2001    -       Oct     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    -
1591 # IATA SSIM (1997-09) says Mar 1; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1592 Rule    Para    1997    only    -       Feb     lastSun 0:00    0       -
1593 # Shanks & Pottenger say 1999-02-28; IATA SSIM (1999-02) says 1999-02-27, but
1594 # (1999-09) reports no date; go with above sources and Gerd Knops (2001-02-27).
1595 Rule    Para    1998    2001    -       Mar     Sun>=1       0:00    0       -
1596 # From Rives McDow (2002-02-28):
1597 # A decree was issued in Paraguay (No. 16350) on 2002-02-26 that changed the
1598 # dst method to be from the first Sunday in September to the first Sunday in
1599 # April.
1600 Rule    Para    2002    2004    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:00    0       -
1601 Rule    Para    2002    2003    -       Sep     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    -
1602 #
1603 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-01-02):
1604 # There are several sources that claim that Paraguay made
1605 # a timezone rule change in autumn 2004.
1606 # From Steffen Thorsen (2005-01-05):
1607 # Decree 1,867 (2004-03-05)
1608 # From Carlos Raúl Perasso via Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-10-13)
1609 # http://www.presidencia.gov.py/decretos/D1867.pdf
1610 Rule    Para    2004    2009    -       Oct     Sun>=15      0:00    1:00    -
1611 Rule    Para    2005    2009    -       Mar     Sun>=8       0:00    0       -
1612 # From Carlos Raúl Perasso (2010-02-18):
1613 # By decree number 3958 issued yesterday
1614 # http://www.presidencia.gov.py/v1/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/decreto3958.pdf
1615 # Paraguay changes its DST schedule, postponing the March rule to April and
1616 # modifying the October date. The decree reads:
1617 # ...
1618 # Art. 1. It is hereby established that from the second Sunday of the month of
1619 # April of this year (2010), the official time is to be set back 60 minutes,
1620 # and that on the first Sunday of the month of October, it is to be set
1621 # forward 60 minutes, in all the territory of the Paraguayan Republic.
1622 # ...
1623 Rule    Para    2010    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    -
1624 Rule    Para    2010    2012    -       Apr     Sun>=8       0:00    0       -
1625 #
1626 # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-03-07):
1627 # Paraguay will end DST on 2013-03-24 00:00....
1628 # http://www.ande.gov.py/interna.php?id=1075
1629 #
1630 # From Carlos Raúl Perasso (2013-03-15):
1631 # The change in Paraguay is now final.  Decree number 10780
1632 # http://www.presidencia.gov.py/uploads/pdf/presidencia-3b86ff4b691c79d4f5927ca964922ec74772ce857c02ca054a52a37b49afc7fb.pdf
1633 # From Carlos Raúl Perasso (2014-02-28):
1634 # Decree 1264 can be found at:
1635 # http://www.presidencia.gov.py/archivos/documentos/DECRETO1264_ey9r8zai.pdf
1636 Rule    Para    2013    max     -       Mar     Sun>=22      0:00    0       -
1637 
1638 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1639 Zone America/Asuncion   -3:50:40 -      LMT     1890
1640                         -3:50:40 -      AMT     1931 Oct 10 # Asunción Mean Time
1641                         -4:00   -       -04     1972 Oct
1642                         -3:00   -       -03     1974 Apr
1643                         -4:00   Para    -04/-03
1644 
1645 # Peru
1646 #
1647 # From Evelyn C. Leeper via Mark Brader (2003-10-26)
1648 # <news:xrGmb.39935$gA1.13896113@news4.srv.hcvlny.cv.net>:
1649 # When we were in Peru in 1985-1986, they apparently switched over
1650 # sometime between December 29 and January 3 while we were on the Amazon.
1651 #
1652 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1653 # Shanks & Pottenger don't have this transition.  Assume 1986 was like 1987.
1654 
1655 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1656 Rule    Peru    1938    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    1:00    -
1657 Rule    Peru    1938    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       -
1658 Rule    Peru    1938    1939    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    1:00    -
1659 Rule    Peru    1939    1940    -       Mar     Sun>=24      0:00    0       -
1660 Rule    Peru    1986    1987    -       Jan      1      0:00    1:00    -
1661 Rule    Peru    1986    1987    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       -
1662 Rule    Peru    1990    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    1:00    -
1663 Rule    Peru    1990    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       -
1664 # IATA is ambiguous for 1993/1995; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1665 Rule    Peru    1994    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    1:00    -
1666 Rule    Peru    1994    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       -
1667 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1668 Zone    America/Lima    -5:08:12 -      LMT     1890
1669                         -5:08:36 -      LMT     1908 Jul 28 # Lima Mean Time?
1670                         -5:00   Peru    -05/-04
1671 
1672 # South Georgia
1673 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1674 Zone Atlantic/South_Georgia -2:26:08 -  LMT     1890 # Grytviken
1675                         -2:00   -       -02
1676 
1677 # South Sandwich Is
1678 # uninhabited; scientific personnel have wintered
1679 
1680 # Suriname
1681 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1682 Zone America/Paramaribo -3:40:40 -      LMT     1911
1683                         -3:40:52 -      PMT     1935     # Paramaribo Mean Time
1684                         -3:40:36 -      PMT     1945 Oct    # The capital moved?
1685                         -3:30   -       -0330   1984 Oct
1686                         -3:00   -       -03
1687 
1688 # Trinidad and Tobago
1689 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1690 Zone America/Port_of_Spain -4:06:04 -   LMT     1912 Mar 2
1691                         -4:00   -       AST
1692 
1693 # These all agree with Trinidad and Tobago since 1970.
1694 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Anguilla
1695 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Antigua
1696 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Dominica
1697 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Grenada
1698 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Guadeloupe
1699 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Marigot      # St Martin (French part)
1700 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Montserrat
1701 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/St_Barthelemy # St Barthélemy
1702 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/St_Kitts     # St Kitts & Nevis
1703 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/St_Lucia
1704 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/St_Thomas    # Virgin Islands (US)
1705 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/St_Vincent
1706 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Tortola      # Virgin Islands (UK)
1707 
1708 # Uruguay
1709 # From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18):
1710 # Uruguay wins the prize for the strangest peacetime manipulation of the rules.
1711 #
1712 # From Tim Parenti (2018-02-20), per Jeremie Bonjour (2018-01-31) and Michael
1713 # Deckers (2018-02-20):
1714 # ... At least they kept good records...
1715 #
1716 # http://www.armada.mil.uy/ContenidosPDFs/sohma/web/almanaque/almanaque_2018.pdf#page=36
1717 # Page 36 of Almanaque 2018, published by the Oceanography, Hydrography, and
1718 # Meteorology Service of the Uruguayan Navy, seems to give many transitions
1719 # with greater clarity than we've had before.  It directly references many laws
1720 # and decrees which are, in turn, referenced below.  They can be viewed in the
1721 # public archives of the Diario Oficial (in Spanish) at
1722 # http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/
1723 #
1724 # Ley No. 3920 of 1908-06-10 placed the determination of legal time under the
1725 # auspices of the National Institute for the Prediction of Time.  It is unclear
1726 # exactly what offset was used during this period, though Ley No. 7200 of
1727 # 1920-04-23 used the Observatory of the National Meteorological Institute in
1728 # Montevideo (34° 54' 33" S, 56° 12' 45" W) as its reference meridian,
1729 # retarding legal time by 15 minutes 9 seconds from 1920-04-30 24:00,
1730 # resulting in UT-04.  Assume the corresponding LMT of UT-03:44:51 (given on
1731 # page 725 of the Proceedings of the Second Pan-American Scientific Congress,
1732 # 1915-1916) was in use, and merely became official from 1908-06-10.
1733 # https://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1908/06/18/12
1734 # https://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1920/04/27/9
1735 #
1736 # Ley No. 7594 of 1923-06-28 specified legal time as Observatory time advanced
1737 # by 44 minutes 51 seconds (UT-03) "from 30 September to 31 March", and by 14
1738 # minutes 51 seconds (UT-03:30) "the rest of the year"; a message from the
1739 # National Council of Administration the same day, published directly below the
1740 # law in the Diario Oficial, specified the first transition to be 1923-09-30
1741 # 24:00.  This effectively established standard time at UT-03:30 with 30
1742 # minutes DST.  Assume transitions at 24:00 on the specified days until Ley No.
1743 # 7919 of 1926-03-05 ended this arrangement, repealing all "laws and other
1744 # provisions which oppose" it, resulting in year-round UT-03:30; a Resolución
1745 # of 1926-03-11 puts the final transition at 1926-03-31 24:00, the same as it
1746 # would have been under the previous law.
1747 # https://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1923/07/02/2
1748 # https://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1926/03/10/2
1749 # https://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1926/03/18/2
1750 #
1751 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1752 Rule    Uruguay 1923    1925    -       Oct      1       0:00   0:30    -
1753 Rule    Uruguay 1924    1926    -       Apr      1       0:00   0       -
1754 # From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15):
1755 # http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1933/10/27/6
1756 #
1757 # It appears Ley No. 9122 of 1933 was never published as such in the Diario
1758 # Oficial, but instead appeared as Document 26 in the Diario on Friday
1759 # 1933-10-27 as a decree made Monday 1933-10-23 and filed under the Ministry of
1760 # National Defense.  It reinstituted a DST of 30 minutes (to UT-03) "from the
1761 # last Sunday of October...until the last Saturday of March."  In accordance
1762 # with this provision, the first transition was explicitly specified in Article
1763 # 2 of the decree as Saturday 1933-10-28 at 24:00; that is, Sunday 1933-10-29
1764 # at 00:00.  Assume transitions at 00:00 Sunday throughout.
1765 #
1766 # Departing from the matter-of-fact nature of previous timekeeping laws, the
1767 # 1933 decree "consider[s] the advantages of...the advance of legal time":
1768 #
1769 #   "Whereas: The measure adopted by almost all nations at the time of the last
1770 #    World War still persists in North America and Europe, precisely because of
1771 #    the economic, hygienic, and social advantages derived from such an
1772 #    emergency measure...
1773 #
1774 #    Whereas: The advance of the legal time during the summer seasons, by
1775 #    displacing social activity near sunrise, favors the citizen populations
1776 #    and especially the society that creates and works..."
1777 #
1778 # It further specified that "necessary measures" be taken to ensure that
1779 # "public spectacles finish, in general, before [01:00]."
1780 Rule    Uruguay 1933    1938    -       Oct     lastSun  0:00   0:30    -
1781 Rule    Uruguay 1934    1941    -       Mar     lastSat 24:00   0       -
1782 # From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15):
1783 # Most of the Rules below, and their contemporaneous Zone lines, have been
1784 # updated simply to match the Almanaque 2018.  Although the document does not
1785 # list exact transition times, midnight transitions were already present in our
1786 # data here for all transitions through 2004-09, and this is both consistent
1787 # with prior transitions and verified in several decrees marked below between
1788 # 1939-09 and 2004-09, wherein the relevant text was typically of the form:
1789 #
1790 #   "From 0 hours on [date], the legal time of the entire Republic will be...
1791 #
1792 #    In accordance with [the preceding], on [previous date] at 24 hours, all
1793 #    clocks throughout the Republic will be [advanced/retarded] by..."
1794 #
1795 # It is possible that there is greater specificity to be found for the Rules
1796 # below, but it is buried in no fewer than 40 different decrees individually
1797 # referenced by the Almanaque for the period from 1939-09 to 2014-09.
1798 # Four-fifths of these were promulgated less than two weeks before taking
1799 # effect; more than half within a week and none more than 5 weeks.  Only the
1800 # handful with comments below have been checked with any thoroughness.
1801 Rule    Uruguay 1939    only    -       Oct      1       0:00   0:30    -
1802 Rule    Uruguay 1940    only    -       Oct     27       0:00   0:30    -
1803 # From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15):
1804 # Decreto 1145 of the Ministry of National Defense, dated 1941-07-26, specified
1805 # UT-03 from Friday 1941-08-01 00:00, citing an "urgent...need to save fuel".
1806 # http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1941/08/04/1
1807 Rule    Uruguay 1941    only    -       Aug      1       0:00   0:30    -
1808 # From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15):
1809 # Decreto 1866 of the Ministry of National Defense, dated 1942-12-09, specified
1810 # further advancement (to UT-02:30) from Sunday 1942-12-13 24:00.  Since clocks
1811 # never went back to UT-03:30 thereafter, this is modeled as advancing standard
1812 # time by 30 minutes to UT-03, while retaining 30 minutes of DST.
1813 # http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1942/12/16/3
1814 Rule    Uruguay 1942    only    -       Dec     14       0:00   0:30    -
1815 Rule    Uruguay 1943    only    -       Mar     14       0:00   0       -
1816 Rule    Uruguay 1959    only    -       May     24       0:00   0:30    -
1817 Rule    Uruguay 1959    only    -       Nov     15       0:00   0       -
1818 Rule    Uruguay 1960    only    -       Jan     17       0:00   1:00    -
1819 Rule    Uruguay 1960    only    -       Mar      6       0:00   0       -
1820 Rule    Uruguay 1965    only    -       Apr      4       0:00   1:00    -
1821 Rule    Uruguay 1965    only    -       Sep     26       0:00   0       -
1822 # From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15):
1823 # Decreto 321/968 of 1968-05-25, citing emergency drought measures decreed the
1824 # day before, brought clocks forward 30 minutes from Monday 1968-05-27 00:00.
1825 # http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1968/05/30/5
1826 Rule    Uruguay 1968    only    -       May     27       0:00   0:30    -
1827 Rule    Uruguay 1968    only    -       Dec      1       0:00   0       -
1828 # From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15):
1829 # Decreto 188/970 of 1970-04-23 instituted restrictions on electricity
1830 # consumption "as a consequence of the current rainfall regime in the country".
1831 # Articles 13 and 14 advanced clocks by an hour from Saturday 1970-04-25 00:00.
1832 # http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1970/04/29/4
1833 Rule    Uruguay 1970    only    -       Apr     25       0:00   1:00    -
1834 Rule    Uruguay 1970    only    -       Jun     14       0:00   0       -
1835 Rule    Uruguay 1972    only    -       Apr     23       0:00   1:00    -
1836 Rule    Uruguay 1972    only    -       Jul     16       0:00   0       -
1837 # From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15):
1838 # Decreto 29/974 of 1974-01-11, citing "the international rise in the price of
1839 # oil", advanced clocks by 90 minutes (to UT-01:30).  Decreto 163/974 of
1840 # 1974-03-04 returned 60 of those minutes (to UT-02:30), and the remaining 30
1841 # minutes followed in Decreto 679/974 of 1974-08-29.
1842 # http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1974/01/22/11
1843 # http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1974/03/14/3
1844 # http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1974/09/04/6
1845 Rule    Uruguay 1974    only    -       Jan     13       0:00   1:30    -
1846 Rule    Uruguay 1974    only    -       Mar     10       0:00   0:30    -
1847 Rule    Uruguay 1974    only    -       Sep      1       0:00   0       -
1848 Rule    Uruguay 1974    only    -       Dec     22       0:00   1:00    -
1849 Rule    Uruguay 1975    only    -       Mar     30       0:00   0       -
1850 Rule    Uruguay 1976    only    -       Dec     19       0:00   1:00    -
1851 Rule    Uruguay 1977    only    -       Mar      6       0:00   0       -
1852 Rule    Uruguay 1977    only    -       Dec      4       0:00   1:00    -
1853 Rule    Uruguay 1978    1979    -       Mar     Sun>=1        0:00   0       -
1854 Rule    Uruguay 1978    only    -       Dec     17       0:00   1:00    -
1855 Rule    Uruguay 1979    only    -       Apr     29       0:00   1:00    -
1856 Rule    Uruguay 1980    only    -       Mar     16       0:00   0       -
1857 # From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15):
1858 # Decreto 725/987 of 1987-12-04 cited "better use of national tourist
1859 # attractions" to advance clocks one hour from Monday 1987-12-14 00:00.
1860 # http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1988/01/25/1
1861 Rule    Uruguay 1987    only    -       Dec     14       0:00   1:00    -
1862 Rule    Uruguay 1988    only    -       Feb     28       0:00   0       -
1863 Rule    Uruguay 1988    only    -       Dec     11       0:00   1:00    -
1864 Rule    Uruguay 1989    only    -       Mar      5       0:00   0       -
1865 Rule    Uruguay 1989    only    -       Oct     29       0:00   1:00    -
1866 Rule    Uruguay 1990    only    -       Feb     25       0:00   0       -
1867 # From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15), per Paul Eggert (1999-11-04):
1868 # IATA agrees as below for 1990-10 through 1993-02.  Per Almanaque 2018, the
1869 # 1992/1993 season appears to be the first in over half a century where DST
1870 # both began and ended pursuant to the same decree.
1871 Rule    Uruguay 1990    1991    -       Oct     Sun>=21       0:00   1:00    -
1872 Rule    Uruguay 1991    1992    -       Mar     Sun>=1        0:00   0       -
1873 Rule    Uruguay 1992    only    -       Oct     18       0:00   1:00    -
1874 Rule    Uruguay 1993    only    -       Feb     28       0:00   0       -
1875 # From Eduardo Cota (2004-09-20):
1876 # The Uruguayan government has decreed a change in the local time....
1877 # From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15):
1878 # Decreto 328/004 of 2004-09-15.
1879 # http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/2004/09/23/documentos.pdf#page=1
1880 Rule    Uruguay 2004    only    -       Sep     19       0:00   1:00    -
1881 # From Steffen Thorsen (2005-03-11):
1882 # Uruguay's DST was scheduled to end on Sunday, 2005-03-13, but in order to
1883 # save energy ... it was postponed two weeks....
1884 # From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15):
1885 # This 2005 postponement is not in Almanaque 2018.  Go with the contemporaneous
1886 # reporting, which is confirmed by Decreto 107/005 of 2005-03-10 amending
1887 # Decreto 328/004:
1888 # http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/2005/03/15/documentos.pdf#page=1
1889 # The original decree specified a transition of 2005-03-12 24:00, but the new
1890 # one specified 2005-03-27 02:00.
1891 Rule    Uruguay 2005    only    -       Mar     27       2:00   0       -
1892 # From Eduardo Cota (2005-09-27):
1893 # ...from 2005-10-09 at 02:00 local time, until 2006-03-12 at 02:00 local time,
1894 # official time in Uruguay will be at GMT -2.
1895 # From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15):
1896 # Decreto 318/005 of 2005-09-19.
1897 # http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/2005/09/23/documentos.pdf#page=1
1898 Rule    Uruguay 2005    only    -       Oct      9       2:00   1:00    -
1899 Rule    Uruguay 2006    2015    -       Mar     Sun>=8        2:00   0       -
1900 # From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15), per Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-09-06):
1901 # Decreto 311/006 of 2006-09-04 established regular DST from the first Sunday
1902 # of October at 02:00 through the second Sunday of March at 02:00.  Almanaque
1903 # 2018 appears to have a few typoed dates through this period; ignore them.
1904 # http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/2006/09/08/documentos.pdf#page=1
1905 Rule    Uruguay 2006    2014    -       Oct     Sun>=1        2:00   1:00    -
1906 # From Steffen Thorsen (2015-06-30):
1907 # ... it looks like they will not be using DST the coming summer:
1908 # http://www.elobservador.com.uy/gobierno-resolvio-que-no-habra-cambio-horario-verano-n656787
1909 # http://www.republica.com.uy/este-ano-no-se-modificara-el-huso-horario-en-uruguay/523760/
1910 # From Paul Eggert (2015-06-30):
1911 # Apparently restaurateurs complained that DST caused people to go to the beach
1912 # instead of out to dinner.
1913 # From Pablo Camargo (2015-07-13):
1914 # http://archivo.presidencia.gub.uy/sci/decretos/2015/06/cons_min_201.pdf
1915 # From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15):
1916 # Decreto 178/015 of 2015-06-29; repeals Decreto 311/006.
1917 
1918 # This Zone can be simplified once we assume zic %z.
1919 Zone America/Montevideo -3:44:51 -      LMT     1908 Jun 10
1920                         -3:44:51 -      MMT     1920 May  1 # Montevideo MT
1921                         -4:00   -       -04     1923 Oct  1
1922                         -3:30   Uruguay -0330/-03 1942 Dec 14
1923                         -3:00   Uruguay -03/-0230 1960
1924                         -3:00   Uruguay -03/-02 1968
1925                         -3:00   Uruguay -03/-0230 1970
1926                         -3:00   Uruguay -03/-02 1974
1927                         -3:00   Uruguay -03/-0130 1974 Mar 10
1928                         -3:00   Uruguay -03/-0230 1974 Dec 22
1929                         -3:00   Uruguay -03/-02
1930 
1931 # Venezuela
1932 #
1933 # From Paul Eggert (2015-07-28):
1934 # For the 1965 transition see Gaceta Oficial No. 27.619 (1964-12-15), p 205.533
1935 # http://www.pgr.gob.ve/dmdocuments/1964/27619.pdf
1936 #
1937 # From John Stainforth (2007-11-28):
1938 # ... the change for Venezuela originally expected for 2007-12-31 has
1939 # been brought forward to 2007-12-09.  The official announcement was
1940 # published today in the "Gaceta Oficial de la República Bolivariana
1941 # de Venezuela, número 38.819" (official document for all laws or
1942 # resolution publication)
1943 # http://www.globovision.com/news.php?nid=72208
1944 
1945 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-04-15):
1946 # https://actualidad.rt.com/actualidad/204758-venezuela-modificar-huso-horario-sequia-elnino
1947 #
1948 # From Paul Eggert (2016-04-15):
1949 # Clocks advance 30 minutes on 2016-05-01 at 02:30....
1950 # "'Venezuela's new time-zone: hours without light, hours without water,
1951 # hours of presidential broadcasts, hours of lines,' quipped comedian
1952 # Jean Mary Curró ...". See: Cawthorne A, Kai D. Venezuela scraps
1953 # half-hour time difference set by Chavez. Reuters 2016-04-15 14:50 -0400
1954 # https://www.reuters.com/article/us-venezuela-timezone-idUSKCN0XC2BE
1955 #
1956 # From Matt Johnson (2016-04-20):
1957 # ... published in the official Gazette [2016-04-18], here:
1958 # http://historico.tsj.gob.ve/gaceta_ext/abril/1842016/E-1842016-4551.pdf
1959 
1960 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1961 Zone    America/Caracas -4:27:44 -      LMT     1890
1962                         -4:27:40 -      CMT     1912 Feb 12 # Caracas Mean Time?
1963                         -4:30   -       -0430   1965 Jan  1  0:00
1964                         -4:00   -       -04     2007 Dec  9  3:00
1965                         -4:30   -       -0430   2016 May  1  2:30
1966                         -4:00   -       -04
--- EOF ---