rev 58768 : 8238358: Implementation of JEP 371: Hidden Classes
Reviewed-by: alanb, cjplummer, coleenp, dholmes, dlong, forax, jlahoda, psandoz, plevart, vromero
Contributed-by: mandy.chung@oracle.com, lois.foltan@oracle.com, david.holmes@oracle.com, harold.seigel@oracle.com, serguei.spitsyn@oracle.com, alex.buckley@oracle.com, jamsheed.c.m@oracle.com, jan.lahoda@oracle.com, amy.lu@oracle.com
rev 58769 : imported patch type-descriptor-name

   1 /*
   2  * Copyright (c) 1994, 2020, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
   3  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
   4  *
   5  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   6  * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
   7  * published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
   8  * particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
   9  * by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
  10  *
  11  * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  12  * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  13  * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  14  * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  15  * accompanied this code).
  16  *
  17  * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  18  * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  19  * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  20  *
  21  * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  22  * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  23  * questions.
  24  */
  25 
  26 package java.lang;
  27 
  28 import java.lang.annotation.Annotation;
  29 import java.lang.constant.ClassDesc;
  30 import java.lang.invoke.TypeDescriptor;
  31 import java.lang.invoke.MethodHandles;
  32 import java.lang.module.ModuleReader;
  33 import java.lang.ref.SoftReference;
  34 import java.io.IOException;
  35 import java.io.InputStream;
  36 import java.io.ObjectStreamField;
  37 import java.lang.reflect.AnnotatedElement;
  38 import java.lang.reflect.AnnotatedType;
  39 import java.lang.reflect.Array;
  40 import java.lang.reflect.Constructor;
  41 import java.lang.reflect.Executable;
  42 import java.lang.reflect.Field;
  43 import java.lang.reflect.GenericArrayType;
  44 import java.lang.reflect.GenericDeclaration;
  45 import java.lang.reflect.InvocationTargetException;
  46 import java.lang.reflect.Member;
  47 import java.lang.reflect.Method;
  48 import java.lang.reflect.Modifier;
  49 import java.lang.reflect.Proxy;
  50 import java.lang.reflect.RecordComponent;
  51 import java.lang.reflect.Type;
  52 import java.lang.reflect.TypeVariable;
  53 import java.lang.constant.Constable;
  54 import java.net.URL;
  55 import java.security.AccessController;
  56 import java.security.PrivilegedAction;
  57 import java.util.ArrayList;
  58 import java.util.Arrays;
  59 import java.util.Collection;
  60 import java.util.HashMap;
  61 import java.util.LinkedHashMap;
  62 import java.util.LinkedHashSet;
  63 import java.util.List;
  64 import java.util.Map;
  65 import java.util.Objects;
  66 import java.util.Optional;
  67 import java.util.stream.Collectors;
  68 
  69 import jdk.internal.HotSpotIntrinsicCandidate;
  70 import jdk.internal.loader.BootLoader;
  71 import jdk.internal.loader.BuiltinClassLoader;
  72 import jdk.internal.misc.Unsafe;
  73 import jdk.internal.module.Resources;
  74 import jdk.internal.reflect.CallerSensitive;
  75 import jdk.internal.reflect.ConstantPool;
  76 import jdk.internal.reflect.Reflection;
  77 import jdk.internal.reflect.ReflectionFactory;
  78 import jdk.internal.vm.annotation.ForceInline;
  79 import sun.invoke.util.Wrapper;
  80 import sun.reflect.generics.factory.CoreReflectionFactory;
  81 import sun.reflect.generics.factory.GenericsFactory;
  82 import sun.reflect.generics.repository.ClassRepository;
  83 import sun.reflect.generics.repository.MethodRepository;
  84 import sun.reflect.generics.repository.ConstructorRepository;
  85 import sun.reflect.generics.scope.ClassScope;
  86 import sun.security.util.SecurityConstants;
  87 import sun.reflect.annotation.*;
  88 import sun.reflect.misc.ReflectUtil;
  89 
  90 /**
  91  * Instances of the class {@code Class} represent classes and
  92  * interfaces in a running Java application. An enum type and a record
  93  * type are kinds of class; an annotation type is a kind of
  94  * interface. Every array also belongs to a class that is reflected as
  95  * a {@code Class} object that is shared by all arrays with the same
  96  * element type and number of dimensions.  The primitive Java types
  97  * ({@code boolean}, {@code byte}, {@code char}, {@code short}, {@code
  98  * int}, {@code long}, {@code float}, and {@code double}), and the
  99  * keyword {@code void} are also represented as {@code Class} objects.
 100  *
 101  * <p> {@code Class} has no public constructor. Instead a {@code Class}
 102  * object is constructed automatically by the Java Virtual Machine when
 103  * a class is derived from the bytes of a {@code class} file through
 104  * the invocation of one of the following methods:
 105  * <ul>
 106  * <li> {@link ClassLoader#defineClass(String, byte[], int, int) ClassLoader::defineClass}
 107  * <li> {@link java.lang.invoke.MethodHandles.Lookup#defineClass(byte[])
 108  *      java.lang.invoke.MethodHandles.Lookup::defineClass}
 109  * <li> {@link java.lang.invoke.MethodHandles.Lookup#defineHiddenClass(byte[], boolean, MethodHandles.Lookup.ClassOption...)
 110  *      java.lang.invoke.MethodHandles.Lookup::defineHiddenClass}
 111  * </ul>
 112  *
 113  * <p> The methods of class {@code Class} expose many characteristics of a
 114  * class or interface. Most characteristics are derived from the {@code class}
 115  * file that the class loader passed to the Java Virtual Machine or
 116  * from the {@code class} file passed to {@code Lookup::defineClass}
 117  * or {@code Lookup::defineHiddenClass}.
 118  * A few characteristics are determined by the class loading environment
 119  * at run time, such as the module returned by {@link #getModule() getModule()}.
 120  *
 121  * <p> The following example uses a {@code Class} object to print the
 122  * class name of an object:
 123  *
 124  * <blockquote><pre>
 125  *     void printClassName(Object obj) {
 126  *         System.out.println("The class of " + obj +
 127  *                            " is " + obj.getClass().getName());
 128  *     }
 129  * </pre></blockquote>
 130  *
 131  * It is also possible to get the {@code Class} object for a named
 132  * type (or for {@code void}) using a <i>class literal</i>.
 133  * For example:
 134  *
 135  * <blockquote>
 136  *     {@code System.out.println("The name of class Foo is: "+Foo.class.getName());}
 137  * </blockquote>
 138  *
 139  * <p> Some methods of class {@code Class} expose whether the declaration of
 140  * a class or interface in Java source code was <em>enclosed</em> within
 141  * another declaration. Other methods describe how a class or interface
 142  * is situated in a <em>nest</em>. A <a id="nest">nest</a> is a set of
 143  * classes and interfaces, in the same run-time package, that
 144  * allow mutual access to their {@code private} members.
 145  * The classes and interfaces are known as <em>nestmates</em>.
 146  * One nestmate acts as the
 147  * <em>nest host</em>, and enumerates the other nestmates which
 148  * belong to the nest; each of them in turn records it as the nest host.
 149  * The classes and interfaces which belong to a nest, including its host, are
 150  * determined when
 151  * {@code class} files are generated, for example, a Java compiler
 152  * will typically record a top-level class as the host of a nest where the
 153  * other members are the classes and interfaces whose declarations are
 154  * enclosed within the top-level class declaration.
 155  *
 156  * <p> A class or interface created by the invocation of
 157  * {@link java.lang.invoke.MethodHandles.Lookup#defineHiddenClass(byte[], boolean, MethodHandles.Lookup.ClassOption...)
 158  * Lookup::defineHiddenClass} is a {@linkplain Class#isHidden() <em>hidden</em>}
 159  * class or interface.
 160  * All kinds of class, including enum types and record types, may be
 161  * hidden classes; all kinds of interface, including annotation types,
 162  * may be hidden interfaces.
 163  *
 164  * The {@linkplain #getName() name of a hidden class or interface} is
 165  * not a <a href="ClassLoader.html#binary-name">binary name</a>,
 166  * which means that a hidden class or interface cannot be
 167  * referenced by the constant pools of other classes and interfaces,
 168  * and cannot be discovered by {@link #forName Class::forName} or
 169  * {@link ClassLoader#loadClass(String, boolean) ClassLoader::loadClass}.








 170  *
 171  * A hidden class or interface is never an array class, but may be
 172  * the element type of an array. In all other respects, the fact that
 173  * a class or interface is hidden has no bearing on the characteristics
 174  * exposed by the methods of class {@code Class}.
 175  *
 176  * @param <T> the type of the class modeled by this {@code Class}
 177  * object.  For example, the type of {@code String.class} is {@code
 178  * Class<String>}.  Use {@code Class<?>} if the class being modeled is
 179  * unknown.
 180  *
 181  * @author  unascribed
 182  * @see     java.lang.ClassLoader#defineClass(byte[], int, int)
 183  * @since   1.0
 184  * @jls 15.8.2 Class Literals
 185  */
 186 public final class Class<T> implements java.io.Serializable,
 187                               GenericDeclaration,
 188                               Type,
 189                               AnnotatedElement,
 190                               TypeDescriptor.OfField<Class<?>>,
 191                               Constable {
 192     private static final int ANNOTATION= 0x00002000;
 193     private static final int ENUM      = 0x00004000;
 194     private static final int SYNTHETIC = 0x00001000;
 195 
 196     private static native void registerNatives();
 197     static {
 198         registerNatives();
 199     }
 200 
 201     /*
 202      * Private constructor. Only the Java Virtual Machine creates Class objects.
 203      * This constructor is not used and prevents the default constructor being
 204      * generated.
 205      */
 206     private Class(ClassLoader loader, Class<?> arrayComponentType) {
 207         // Initialize final field for classLoader.  The initialization value of non-null
 208         // prevents future JIT optimizations from assuming this final field is null.
 209         classLoader = loader;
 210         componentType = arrayComponentType;
 211     }
 212 
 213     /**
 214      * Converts the object to a string. The string representation is the
 215      * string "class" or "interface", followed by a space, and then by the
 216      * name of the class in the format returned by {@code getName}.
 217      * If this {@code Class} object represents a primitive type,
 218      * this method returns the name of the primitive type.  If
 219      * this {@code Class} object represents void this method returns
 220      * "void". If this {@code Class} object represents an array type,
 221      * this method returns "class " followed by {@code getName}.
 222      *
 223      * @return a string representation of this {@code Class} object.
 224      */
 225     public String toString() {
 226         return (isInterface() ? "interface " : (isPrimitive() ? "" : "class "))
 227             + getName();
 228     }
 229 
 230     /**
 231      * Returns a string describing this {@code Class}, including
 232      * information about modifiers and type parameters.
 233      *
 234      * The string is formatted as a list of type modifiers, if any,
 235      * followed by the kind of type (empty string for primitive types
 236      * and {@code class}, {@code enum}, {@code interface},
 237      * {@code @interface}, or {@code record} as appropriate), followed
 238      * by the type's name, followed by an angle-bracketed
 239      * comma-separated list of the type's type parameters, if any,
 240      * including informative bounds on the type parameters, if any.
 241      *
 242      * A space is used to separate modifiers from one another and to
 243      * separate any modifiers from the kind of type. The modifiers
 244      * occur in canonical order. If there are no type parameters, the
 245      * type parameter list is elided.
 246      *
 247      * For an array type, the string starts with the type name,
 248      * followed by an angle-bracketed comma-separated list of the
 249      * type's type parameters, if any, followed by a sequence of
 250      * {@code []} characters, one set of brackets per dimension of
 251      * the array.
 252      *
 253      * <p>Note that since information about the runtime representation
 254      * of a type is being generated, modifiers not present on the
 255      * originating source code or illegal on the originating source
 256      * code may be present.
 257      *
 258      * @return a string describing this {@code Class}, including
 259      * information about modifiers and type parameters
 260      *
 261      * @since 1.8
 262      */
 263     @SuppressWarnings("preview")
 264     public String toGenericString() {
 265         if (isPrimitive()) {
 266             return toString();
 267         } else {
 268             StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
 269             Class<?> component = this;
 270             int arrayDepth = 0;
 271 
 272             if (isArray()) {
 273                 do {
 274                     arrayDepth++;
 275                     component = component.getComponentType();
 276                 } while (component.isArray());
 277                 sb.append(component.getName());
 278             } else {
 279                 // Class modifiers are a superset of interface modifiers
 280                 int modifiers = getModifiers() & Modifier.classModifiers();
 281                 if (modifiers != 0) {
 282                     sb.append(Modifier.toString(modifiers));
 283                     sb.append(' ');
 284                 }
 285 
 286                 if (isAnnotation()) {
 287                     sb.append('@');
 288                 }
 289                 if (isInterface()) { // Note: all annotation types are interfaces
 290                     sb.append("interface");
 291                 } else {
 292                     if (isEnum())
 293                         sb.append("enum");
 294                     else if (isRecord())
 295                         sb.append("record");
 296                     else
 297                         sb.append("class");
 298                 }
 299                 sb.append(' ');
 300                 sb.append(getName());
 301             }
 302 
 303             TypeVariable<?>[] typeparms = component.getTypeParameters();
 304             if (typeparms.length > 0) {
 305                 sb.append(Arrays.stream(typeparms)
 306                           .map(Class::typeVarBounds)
 307                           .collect(Collectors.joining(",", "<", ">")));
 308             }
 309 
 310             if (arrayDepth > 0) sb.append("[]".repeat(arrayDepth));
 311 
 312             return sb.toString();
 313         }
 314     }
 315 
 316     static String typeVarBounds(TypeVariable<?> typeVar) {
 317         Type[] bounds = typeVar.getBounds();
 318         if (bounds.length == 1 && bounds[0].equals(Object.class)) {
 319             return typeVar.getName();
 320         } else {
 321             return typeVar.getName() + " extends " +
 322                 Arrays.stream(bounds)
 323                 .map(Type::getTypeName)
 324                 .collect(Collectors.joining(" & "));
 325         }
 326     }
 327 
 328     /**
 329      * Returns the {@code Class} object associated with the class or
 330      * interface with the given string name.  Invoking this method is
 331      * equivalent to:
 332      *
 333      * <blockquote>
 334      *  {@code Class.forName(className, true, currentLoader)}
 335      * </blockquote>
 336      *
 337      * where {@code currentLoader} denotes the defining class loader of
 338      * the current class.
 339      *
 340      * <p> For example, the following code fragment returns the
 341      * runtime {@code Class} descriptor for the class named
 342      * {@code java.lang.Thread}:
 343      *
 344      * <blockquote>
 345      *   {@code Class t = Class.forName("java.lang.Thread")}
 346      * </blockquote>
 347      * <p>
 348      * A call to {@code forName("X")} causes the class named
 349      * {@code X} to be initialized.
 350      *
 351      * @param      className   the fully qualified name of the desired class.
 352      * @return     the {@code Class} object for the class with the
 353      *             specified name.
 354      * @throws    LinkageError if the linkage fails
 355      * @throws    ExceptionInInitializerError if the initialization provoked
 356      *            by this method fails
 357      * @throws    ClassNotFoundException if the class cannot be located
 358      *
 359      * @jls 12.2 Loading of Classes and Interfaces
 360      * @jls 12.3 Linking of Classes and Interfaces
 361      * @jls 12.4 Initialization of Classes and Interfaces
 362      */
 363     @CallerSensitive
 364     public static Class<?> forName(String className)
 365                 throws ClassNotFoundException {
 366         Class<?> caller = Reflection.getCallerClass();
 367         return forName0(className, true, ClassLoader.getClassLoader(caller), caller);
 368     }
 369 
 370 
 371     /**
 372      * Returns the {@code Class} object associated with the class or
 373      * interface with the given string name, using the given class loader.
 374      * Given the fully qualified name for a class or interface (in the same
 375      * format returned by {@code getName}) this method attempts to
 376      * locate and load the class or interface.  The specified class
 377      * loader is used to load the class or interface.  If the parameter
 378      * {@code loader} is null, the class is loaded through the bootstrap
 379      * class loader.  The class is initialized only if the
 380      * {@code initialize} parameter is {@code true} and if it has
 381      * not been initialized earlier.
 382      *
 383      * <p> If {@code name} denotes a primitive type or void, an attempt
 384      * will be made to locate a user-defined class in the unnamed package whose
 385      * name is {@code name}. Therefore, this method cannot be used to
 386      * obtain any of the {@code Class} objects representing primitive
 387      * types or void.
 388      *
 389      * <p> If {@code name} denotes an array class, the component type of
 390      * the array class is loaded but not initialized.
 391      *
 392      * <p> For example, in an instance method the expression:
 393      *
 394      * <blockquote>
 395      *  {@code Class.forName("Foo")}
 396      * </blockquote>
 397      *
 398      * is equivalent to:
 399      *
 400      * <blockquote>
 401      *  {@code Class.forName("Foo", true, this.getClass().getClassLoader())}
 402      * </blockquote>
 403      *
 404      * Note that this method throws errors related to loading, linking
 405      * or initializing as specified in Sections {@jls 12.2}, {@jls
 406      * 12.3}, and {@jls 12.4} of <cite>The Java&trade; Language
 407      * Specification</cite>.
 408      * Note that this method does not check whether the requested class
 409      * is accessible to its caller.
 410      *
 411      * @param name       fully qualified name of the desired class
 412 
 413      * @param initialize if {@code true} the class will be initialized
 414      *                   (which implies linking). See Section {@jls
 415      *                   12.4} of <cite>The Java&trade; Language
 416      *                   Specification</cite>.
 417      * @param loader     class loader from which the class must be loaded
 418      * @return           class object representing the desired class
 419      *
 420      * @throws    LinkageError if the linkage fails
 421      * @throws    ExceptionInInitializerError if the initialization provoked
 422      *            by this method fails
 423      * @throws    ClassNotFoundException if the class cannot be located by
 424      *            the specified class loader
 425      * @throws    SecurityException
 426      *            if a security manager is present, and the {@code loader} is
 427      *            {@code null}, and the caller's class loader is not
 428      *            {@code null}, and the caller does not have the
 429      *            {@link RuntimePermission}{@code ("getClassLoader")}
 430      *
 431      * @see       java.lang.Class#forName(String)
 432      * @see       java.lang.ClassLoader
 433      *
 434      * @jls 12.2 Loading of Classes and Interfaces
 435      * @jls 12.3 Linking of Classes and Interfaces
 436      * @jls 12.4 Initialization of Classes and Interfaces
 437      * @since     1.2
 438      */
 439     @CallerSensitive
 440     public static Class<?> forName(String name, boolean initialize,
 441                                    ClassLoader loader)
 442         throws ClassNotFoundException
 443     {
 444         Class<?> caller = null;
 445         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
 446         if (sm != null) {
 447             // Reflective call to get caller class is only needed if a security manager
 448             // is present.  Avoid the overhead of making this call otherwise.
 449             caller = Reflection.getCallerClass();
 450             if (loader == null) {
 451                 ClassLoader ccl = ClassLoader.getClassLoader(caller);
 452                 if (ccl != null) {
 453                     sm.checkPermission(
 454                         SecurityConstants.GET_CLASSLOADER_PERMISSION);
 455                 }
 456             }
 457         }
 458         return forName0(name, initialize, loader, caller);
 459     }
 460 
 461     /** Called after security check for system loader access checks have been made. */
 462     private static native Class<?> forName0(String name, boolean initialize,
 463                                             ClassLoader loader,
 464                                             Class<?> caller)
 465         throws ClassNotFoundException;
 466 
 467 
 468     /**
 469      * Returns the {@code Class} with the given <a href="ClassLoader.html#binary-name">
 470      * binary name</a> in the given module.
 471      *
 472      * <p> This method attempts to locate and load the class or interface.
 473      * It does not link the class, and does not run the class initializer.
 474      * If the class is not found, this method returns {@code null}. </p>
 475      *
 476      * <p> If the class loader of the given module defines other modules and
 477      * the given name is a class defined in a different module, this method
 478      * returns {@code null} after the class is loaded. </p>
 479      *
 480      * <p> This method does not check whether the requested class is
 481      * accessible to its caller. </p>
 482      *
 483      * @apiNote
 484      * This method returns {@code null} on failure rather than
 485      * throwing a {@link ClassNotFoundException}, as is done by
 486      * the {@link #forName(String, boolean, ClassLoader)} method.
 487      * The security check is a stack-based permission check if the caller
 488      * loads a class in another module.
 489      *
 490      * @param  module   A module
 491      * @param  name     The <a href="ClassLoader.html#binary-name">binary name</a>
 492      *                  of the class
 493      * @return {@code Class} object of the given name defined in the given module;
 494      *         {@code null} if not found.
 495      *
 496      * @throws NullPointerException if the given module or name is {@code null}
 497      *
 498      * @throws LinkageError if the linkage fails
 499      *
 500      * @throws SecurityException
 501      *         <ul>
 502      *         <li> if the caller is not the specified module and
 503      *         {@code RuntimePermission("getClassLoader")} permission is denied; or</li>
 504      *         <li> access to the module content is denied. For example,
 505      *         permission check will be performed when a class loader calls
 506      *         {@link ModuleReader#open(String)} to read the bytes of a class file
 507      *         in a module.</li>
 508      *         </ul>
 509      *
 510      * @jls 12.2 Loading of Classes and Interfaces
 511      * @jls 12.3 Linking of Classes and Interfaces
 512      * @since 9
 513      * @spec JPMS
 514      */
 515     @CallerSensitive
 516     public static Class<?> forName(Module module, String name) {
 517         Objects.requireNonNull(module);
 518         Objects.requireNonNull(name);
 519 
 520         ClassLoader cl;
 521         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
 522         if (sm != null) {
 523             Class<?> caller = Reflection.getCallerClass();
 524             if (caller != null && caller.getModule() != module) {
 525                 // if caller is null, Class.forName is the last java frame on the stack.
 526                 // java.base has all permissions
 527                 sm.checkPermission(SecurityConstants.GET_CLASSLOADER_PERMISSION);
 528             }
 529             PrivilegedAction<ClassLoader> pa = module::getClassLoader;
 530             cl = AccessController.doPrivileged(pa);
 531         } else {
 532             cl = module.getClassLoader();
 533         }
 534 
 535         if (cl != null) {
 536             return cl.loadClass(module, name);
 537         } else {
 538             return BootLoader.loadClass(module, name);
 539         }
 540     }
 541 
 542     /**
 543      * Creates a new instance of the class represented by this {@code Class}
 544      * object.  The class is instantiated as if by a {@code new}
 545      * expression with an empty argument list.  The class is initialized if it
 546      * has not already been initialized.
 547      *
 548      * @deprecated This method propagates any exception thrown by the
 549      * nullary constructor, including a checked exception.  Use of
 550      * this method effectively bypasses the compile-time exception
 551      * checking that would otherwise be performed by the compiler.
 552      * The {@link
 553      * java.lang.reflect.Constructor#newInstance(java.lang.Object...)
 554      * Constructor.newInstance} method avoids this problem by wrapping
 555      * any exception thrown by the constructor in a (checked) {@link
 556      * java.lang.reflect.InvocationTargetException}.
 557      *
 558      * <p>The call
 559      *
 560      * <pre>{@code
 561      * clazz.newInstance()
 562      * }</pre>
 563      *
 564      * can be replaced by
 565      *
 566      * <pre>{@code
 567      * clazz.getDeclaredConstructor().newInstance()
 568      * }</pre>
 569      *
 570      * The latter sequence of calls is inferred to be able to throw
 571      * the additional exception types {@link
 572      * InvocationTargetException} and {@link
 573      * NoSuchMethodException}. Both of these exception types are
 574      * subclasses of {@link ReflectiveOperationException}.
 575      *
 576      * @return  a newly allocated instance of the class represented by this
 577      *          object.
 578      * @throws  IllegalAccessException  if the class or its nullary
 579      *          constructor is not accessible.
 580      * @throws  InstantiationException
 581      *          if this {@code Class} represents an abstract class,
 582      *          an interface, an array class, a primitive type, or void;
 583      *          or if the class has no nullary constructor;
 584      *          or if the instantiation fails for some other reason.
 585      * @throws  ExceptionInInitializerError if the initialization
 586      *          provoked by this method fails.
 587      * @throws  SecurityException
 588      *          If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and
 589      *          the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
 590      *          ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
 591      *          invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
 592      *          s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
 593      *          of this class.
 594      */
 595     @CallerSensitive
 596     @Deprecated(since="9")
 597     public T newInstance()
 598         throws InstantiationException, IllegalAccessException
 599     {
 600         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
 601         if (sm != null) {
 602             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.PUBLIC, Reflection.getCallerClass(), false);
 603         }
 604 
 605         // Constructor lookup
 606         Constructor<T> tmpConstructor = cachedConstructor;
 607         if (tmpConstructor == null) {
 608             if (this == Class.class) {
 609                 throw new IllegalAccessException(
 610                     "Can not call newInstance() on the Class for java.lang.Class"
 611                 );
 612             }
 613             try {
 614                 Class<?>[] empty = {};
 615                 final Constructor<T> c = getReflectionFactory().copyConstructor(
 616                     getConstructor0(empty, Member.DECLARED));
 617                 // Disable accessibility checks on the constructor
 618                 // access check is done with the true caller
 619                 java.security.AccessController.doPrivileged(
 620                     new java.security.PrivilegedAction<>() {
 621                         public Void run() {
 622                                 c.setAccessible(true);
 623                                 return null;
 624                             }
 625                         });
 626                 cachedConstructor = tmpConstructor = c;
 627             } catch (NoSuchMethodException e) {
 628                 throw (InstantiationException)
 629                     new InstantiationException(getName()).initCause(e);
 630             }
 631         }
 632 
 633         try {
 634             Class<?> caller = Reflection.getCallerClass();
 635             return getReflectionFactory().newInstance(tmpConstructor, null, caller);
 636         } catch (InvocationTargetException e) {
 637             Unsafe.getUnsafe().throwException(e.getTargetException());
 638             // Not reached
 639             return null;
 640         }
 641     }
 642 
 643     private transient volatile Constructor<T> cachedConstructor;
 644 
 645     /**
 646      * Determines if the specified {@code Object} is assignment-compatible
 647      * with the object represented by this {@code Class}.  This method is
 648      * the dynamic equivalent of the Java language {@code instanceof}
 649      * operator. The method returns {@code true} if the specified
 650      * {@code Object} argument is non-null and can be cast to the
 651      * reference type represented by this {@code Class} object without
 652      * raising a {@code ClassCastException.} It returns {@code false}
 653      * otherwise.
 654      *
 655      * <p> Specifically, if this {@code Class} object represents a
 656      * declared class, this method returns {@code true} if the specified
 657      * {@code Object} argument is an instance of the represented class (or
 658      * of any of its subclasses); it returns {@code false} otherwise. If
 659      * this {@code Class} object represents an array class, this method
 660      * returns {@code true} if the specified {@code Object} argument
 661      * can be converted to an object of the array class by an identity
 662      * conversion or by a widening reference conversion; it returns
 663      * {@code false} otherwise. If this {@code Class} object
 664      * represents an interface, this method returns {@code true} if the
 665      * class or any superclass of the specified {@code Object} argument
 666      * implements this interface; it returns {@code false} otherwise. If
 667      * this {@code Class} object represents a primitive type, this method
 668      * returns {@code false}.
 669      *
 670      * @param   obj the object to check
 671      * @return  true if {@code obj} is an instance of this class
 672      *
 673      * @since 1.1
 674      */
 675     @HotSpotIntrinsicCandidate
 676     public native boolean isInstance(Object obj);
 677 
 678 
 679     /**
 680      * Determines if the class or interface represented by this
 681      * {@code Class} object is either the same as, or is a superclass or
 682      * superinterface of, the class or interface represented by the specified
 683      * {@code Class} parameter. It returns {@code true} if so;
 684      * otherwise it returns {@code false}. If this {@code Class}
 685      * object represents a primitive type, this method returns
 686      * {@code true} if the specified {@code Class} parameter is
 687      * exactly this {@code Class} object; otherwise it returns
 688      * {@code false}.
 689      *
 690      * <p> Specifically, this method tests whether the type represented by the
 691      * specified {@code Class} parameter can be converted to the type
 692      * represented by this {@code Class} object via an identity conversion
 693      * or via a widening reference conversion. See <cite>The Java&trade; Language
 694      * Specification</cite>, sections {@jls 5.1.1} and {@jls 5.1.4},
 695      * for details.
 696      *
 697      * @param     cls the {@code Class} object to be checked
 698      * @return    the {@code boolean} value indicating whether objects of the
 699      *            type {@code cls} can be assigned to objects of this class
 700      * @throws    NullPointerException if the specified Class parameter is
 701      *            null.
 702      * @since     1.1
 703      */
 704     @HotSpotIntrinsicCandidate
 705     public native boolean isAssignableFrom(Class<?> cls);
 706 
 707 
 708     /**
 709      * Determines if this {@code Class} object represents an
 710      * interface type.
 711      *
 712      * @return  {@code true} if this {@code Class} object represents an interface;
 713      *          {@code false} otherwise.
 714      */
 715     @HotSpotIntrinsicCandidate
 716     public native boolean isInterface();
 717 
 718 
 719     /**
 720      * Determines if this {@code Class} object represents an array class.
 721      *
 722      * @return  {@code true} if this {@code Class} object represents an array class;
 723      *          {@code false} otherwise.
 724      * @since   1.1
 725      */
 726     @HotSpotIntrinsicCandidate
 727     public native boolean isArray();
 728 
 729 
 730     /**
 731      * Determines if the specified {@code Class} object represents a
 732      * primitive type.
 733      *
 734      * <p> There are nine predefined {@code Class} objects to represent
 735      * the eight primitive types and void.  These are created by the Java
 736      * Virtual Machine, and have the same names as the primitive types that
 737      * they represent, namely {@code boolean}, {@code byte},
 738      * {@code char}, {@code short}, {@code int},
 739      * {@code long}, {@code float}, and {@code double}.
 740      *
 741      * <p> These objects may only be accessed via the following public static
 742      * final variables, and are the only {@code Class} objects for which
 743      * this method returns {@code true}.
 744      *
 745      * @return true if and only if this class represents a primitive type
 746      *
 747      * @see     java.lang.Boolean#TYPE
 748      * @see     java.lang.Character#TYPE
 749      * @see     java.lang.Byte#TYPE
 750      * @see     java.lang.Short#TYPE
 751      * @see     java.lang.Integer#TYPE
 752      * @see     java.lang.Long#TYPE
 753      * @see     java.lang.Float#TYPE
 754      * @see     java.lang.Double#TYPE
 755      * @see     java.lang.Void#TYPE
 756      * @since 1.1
 757      */
 758     @HotSpotIntrinsicCandidate
 759     public native boolean isPrimitive();
 760 
 761     /**
 762      * Returns true if this {@code Class} object represents an annotation
 763      * type.  Note that if this method returns true, {@link #isInterface()}
 764      * would also return true, as all annotation types are also interfaces.
 765      *
 766      * @return {@code true} if this {@code Class} object represents an annotation
 767      *      type; {@code false} otherwise
 768      * @since 1.5
 769      */
 770     public boolean isAnnotation() {
 771         return (getModifiers() & ANNOTATION) != 0;
 772     }
 773 
 774     /**
 775      * Returns {@code true} if and only if this class has the synthetic modifier
 776      * bit set.
 777      *
 778      * @return {@code true} if and only if this class has the synthetic modifier bit set
 779      * @jls 13.1 The Form of a Binary
 780      * @jvms 4.1 The {@code ClassFile} Structure
 781      * @since 1.5
 782      */
 783     public boolean isSynthetic() {
 784         return (getModifiers() & SYNTHETIC) != 0;
 785     }
 786 
 787     /**
 788      * Returns the  name of the entity (class, interface, array class,
 789      * primitive type, or void) represented by this {@code Class} object.
 790      *
 791      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents a class or interface,
 792      * not an array class, then:
 793      * <ul>
 794      * <li> If the class or interface is not {@linkplain #isHidden() hidden},
 795      *      then the <a href="ClassLoader.html#binary-name">binary name</a>
 796      *      of the class or interface is returned.
 797      * <li> If the class or interface is hidden, then the result is a string
 798      *      of the form: {@code N + '/' + <suffix>}
 799      *      where {@code N} is the <a href="ClassLoader.html#binary-name">binary name</a>
 800      *      indicated by the {@code class} file passed to
 801      *      {@link java.lang.invoke.MethodHandles.Lookup#defineHiddenClass(byte[], boolean, MethodHandles.Lookup.ClassOption...)
 802      *      Lookup::defineHiddenClass}, and {@code <suffix>} is an unqualified name.
 803      * </ul>
 804      *
 805      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents an array class, then
 806      * the result is a string consisting of one or more '{@code [}' characters
 807      * representing the depth of the array nesting, followed by the element
 808      * type as encoded using the following table:
 809      *
 810      * <blockquote><table class="striped">
 811      * <caption style="display:none">Element types and encodings</caption>
 812      * <thead>
 813      * <tr><th scope="col"> Element Type <th scope="col"> Encoding
 814      * </thead>
 815      * <tbody style="text-align:left">
 816      * <tr><th scope="row"> {@code boolean} <td style="text-align:center"> {@code Z}
 817      * <tr><th scope="row"> {@code byte}    <td style="text-align:center"> {@code B}
 818      * <tr><th scope="row"> {@code char}    <td style="text-align:center"> {@code C}
 819      * <tr><th scope="row"> class or interface with <a href="ClassLoader.html#binary-name">binary name</a> <i>N</i>
 820      *                                      <td style="text-align:center"> {@code L}<em>N</em>{@code ;}
 821      * <tr><th scope="row"> {@code double}  <td style="text-align:center"> {@code D}
 822      * <tr><th scope="row"> {@code float}   <td style="text-align:center"> {@code F}
 823      * <tr><th scope="row"> {@code int}     <td style="text-align:center"> {@code I}
 824      * <tr><th scope="row"> {@code long}    <td style="text-align:center"> {@code J}
 825      * <tr><th scope="row"> {@code short}   <td style="text-align:center"> {@code S}
 826      * </tbody>
 827      * </table></blockquote>
 828      *
 829      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents a primitive type or {@code void},
 830      * then the result is a string with the same spelling as the Java language
 831      * keyword which corresponds to the primitive type or {@code void}.
 832      *
 833      * <p> Examples:
 834      * <blockquote><pre>
 835      * String.class.getName()
 836      *     returns "java.lang.String"
 837      * byte.class.getName()
 838      *     returns "byte"
 839      * (new Object[3]).getClass().getName()
 840      *     returns "[Ljava.lang.Object;"
 841      * (new int[3][4][5][6][7][8][9]).getClass().getName()
 842      *     returns "[[[[[[[I"
 843      * </pre></blockquote>
 844      *
 845      * @return  the name of the class, interface, or other entity
 846      *          represented by this {@code Class} object.
 847      * @jls 13.1 The Form of a Binary
 848      */
 849     public String getName() {
 850         String name = this.name;
 851         return name != null ? name : initClassName();
 852     }
 853 
 854     // Cache the name to reduce the number of calls into the VM.
 855     // This field would be set by VM itself during initClassName call.
 856     private transient String name;
 857     private native String initClassName();
 858 
 859     /**
 860      * Returns the class loader for the class.  Some implementations may use
 861      * null to represent the bootstrap class loader. This method will return
 862      * null in such implementations if this class was loaded by the bootstrap
 863      * class loader.
 864      *
 865      * <p>If this {@code Class} object
 866      * represents a primitive type or void, null is returned.
 867      *
 868      * @return  the class loader that loaded the class or interface
 869      *          represented by this {@code Class} object.
 870      * @throws  SecurityException
 871      *          if a security manager is present, and the caller's class loader
 872      *          is not {@code null} and is not the same as or an ancestor of the
 873      *          class loader for the class whose class loader is requested,
 874      *          and the caller does not have the
 875      *          {@link RuntimePermission}{@code ("getClassLoader")}
 876      * @see java.lang.ClassLoader
 877      * @see SecurityManager#checkPermission
 878      * @see java.lang.RuntimePermission
 879      */
 880     @CallerSensitive
 881     @ForceInline // to ensure Reflection.getCallerClass optimization
 882     public ClassLoader getClassLoader() {
 883         ClassLoader cl = getClassLoader0();
 884         if (cl == null)
 885             return null;
 886         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
 887         if (sm != null) {
 888             ClassLoader.checkClassLoaderPermission(cl, Reflection.getCallerClass());
 889         }
 890         return cl;
 891     }
 892 
 893     // Package-private to allow ClassLoader access
 894     ClassLoader getClassLoader0() { return classLoader; }
 895 
 896     /**
 897      * Returns the module that this class or interface is a member of.
 898      *
 899      * If this class represents an array type then this method returns the
 900      * {@code Module} for the element type. If this class represents a
 901      * primitive type or void, then the {@code Module} object for the
 902      * {@code java.base} module is returned.
 903      *
 904      * If this class is in an unnamed module then the {@linkplain
 905      * ClassLoader#getUnnamedModule() unnamed} {@code Module} of the class
 906      * loader for this class is returned.
 907      *
 908      * @return the module that this class or interface is a member of
 909      *
 910      * @since 9
 911      * @spec JPMS
 912      */
 913     public Module getModule() {
 914         return module;
 915     }
 916 
 917     // set by VM
 918     private transient Module module;
 919 
 920     // Initialized in JVM not by private constructor
 921     // This field is filtered from reflection access, i.e. getDeclaredField
 922     // will throw NoSuchFieldException
 923     private final ClassLoader classLoader;
 924 
 925     // Set by VM
 926     private transient Object classData;
 927 
 928     // package-private
 929     Object getClassData() {
 930         return classData;
 931     }
 932 
 933     /**
 934      * Returns an array of {@code TypeVariable} objects that represent the
 935      * type variables declared by the generic declaration represented by this
 936      * {@code GenericDeclaration} object, in declaration order.  Returns an
 937      * array of length 0 if the underlying generic declaration declares no type
 938      * variables.
 939      *
 940      * @return an array of {@code TypeVariable} objects that represent
 941      *     the type variables declared by this generic declaration
 942      * @throws java.lang.reflect.GenericSignatureFormatError if the generic
 943      *     signature of this generic declaration does not conform to
 944      *     the format specified in section {@jvms 4.7.9} of
 945      *     <cite>The Java&trade; Virtual Machine Specification</cite>
 946      * @since 1.5
 947      */
 948     @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
 949     public TypeVariable<Class<T>>[] getTypeParameters() {
 950         ClassRepository info = getGenericInfo();
 951         if (info != null)
 952             return (TypeVariable<Class<T>>[])info.getTypeParameters();
 953         else
 954             return (TypeVariable<Class<T>>[])new TypeVariable<?>[0];
 955     }
 956 
 957 
 958     /**
 959      * Returns the {@code Class} representing the direct superclass of the
 960      * entity (class, interface, primitive type or void) represented by
 961      * this {@code Class}.  If this {@code Class} represents either the
 962      * {@code Object} class, an interface, a primitive type, or void, then
 963      * null is returned.  If this {@code Class} object represents an array class
 964      * then the {@code Class} object representing the {@code Object} class is
 965      * returned.
 966      *
 967      * @return the direct superclass of the class represented by this {@code Class} object
 968      */
 969     @HotSpotIntrinsicCandidate
 970     public native Class<? super T> getSuperclass();
 971 
 972 
 973     /**
 974      * Returns the {@code Type} representing the direct superclass of
 975      * the entity (class, interface, primitive type or void) represented by
 976      * this {@code Class} object.
 977      *
 978      * <p>If the superclass is a parameterized type, the {@code Type}
 979      * object returned must accurately reflect the actual type
 980      * arguments used in the source code. The parameterized type
 981      * representing the superclass is created if it had not been
 982      * created before. See the declaration of {@link
 983      * java.lang.reflect.ParameterizedType ParameterizedType} for the
 984      * semantics of the creation process for parameterized types.  If
 985      * this {@code Class} object represents either the {@code Object}
 986      * class, an interface, a primitive type, or void, then null is
 987      * returned.  If this {@code Class} object represents an array class
 988      * then the {@code Class} object representing the {@code Object} class is
 989      * returned.
 990      *
 991      * @throws java.lang.reflect.GenericSignatureFormatError if the generic
 992      *     class signature does not conform to the format specified in
 993      *     section {@jvms 4.7.9} of <cite>The Java&trade; Virtual
 994      *     Machine Specification</cite>
 995      * @throws TypeNotPresentException if the generic superclass
 996      *     refers to a non-existent type declaration
 997      * @throws java.lang.reflect.MalformedParameterizedTypeException if the
 998      *     generic superclass refers to a parameterized type that cannot be
 999      *     instantiated  for any reason
1000      * @return the direct superclass of the class represented by this {@code Class} object
1001      * @since 1.5
1002      */
1003     public Type getGenericSuperclass() {
1004         ClassRepository info = getGenericInfo();
1005         if (info == null) {
1006             return getSuperclass();
1007         }
1008 
1009         // Historical irregularity:
1010         // Generic signature marks interfaces with superclass = Object
1011         // but this API returns null for interfaces
1012         if (isInterface()) {
1013             return null;
1014         }
1015 
1016         return info.getSuperclass();
1017     }
1018 
1019     /**
1020      * Gets the package of this class.
1021      *
1022      * <p>If this class represents an array type, a primitive type or void,
1023      * this method returns {@code null}.
1024      *
1025      * @return the package of this class.
1026      * @revised 9
1027      * @spec JPMS
1028      */
1029     public Package getPackage() {
1030         if (isPrimitive() || isArray()) {
1031             return null;
1032         }
1033         ClassLoader cl = getClassLoader0();
1034         return cl != null ? cl.definePackage(this)
1035                           : BootLoader.definePackage(this);
1036     }
1037 
1038     /**
1039      * Returns the fully qualified package name.
1040      *
1041      * <p> If this class is a top level class, then this method returns the fully
1042      * qualified name of the package that the class is a member of, or the
1043      * empty string if the class is in an unnamed package.
1044      *
1045      * <p> If this class is a member class, then this method is equivalent to
1046      * invoking {@code getPackageName()} on the {@linkplain #getEnclosingClass
1047      * enclosing class}.
1048      *
1049      * <p> If this class is a {@linkplain #isLocalClass local class} or an {@linkplain
1050      * #isAnonymousClass() anonymous class}, then this method is equivalent to
1051      * invoking {@code getPackageName()} on the {@linkplain #getDeclaringClass
1052      * declaring class} of the {@linkplain #getEnclosingMethod enclosing method} or
1053      * {@linkplain #getEnclosingConstructor enclosing constructor}.
1054      *
1055      * <p> If this class represents an array type then this method returns the
1056      * package name of the element type. If this class represents a primitive
1057      * type or void then the package name "{@code java.lang}" is returned.
1058      *
1059      * @return the fully qualified package name
1060      *
1061      * @since 9
1062      * @spec JPMS
1063      * @jls 6.7 Fully Qualified Names
1064      */
1065     public String getPackageName() {
1066         String pn = this.packageName;
1067         if (pn == null) {
1068             Class<?> c = this;
1069             while (c.isArray()) {
1070                 c = c.getComponentType();
1071             }
1072             if (c.isPrimitive()) {
1073                 pn = "java.lang";
1074             } else {
1075                 String cn = c.getName();
1076                 int dot = cn.lastIndexOf('.');
1077                 pn = (dot != -1) ? cn.substring(0, dot).intern() : "";
1078             }
1079             this.packageName = pn;
1080         }
1081         return pn;
1082     }
1083 
1084     // cached package name
1085     private transient String packageName;
1086 
1087     /**
1088      * Returns the interfaces directly implemented by the class or interface
1089      * represented by this {@code Class} object.
1090      *
1091      * <p>If this {@code Class} object represents a class, the return value is an array
1092      * containing objects representing all interfaces directly implemented by
1093      * the class.  The order of the interface objects in the array corresponds
1094      * to the order of the interface names in the {@code implements} clause of
1095      * the declaration of the class represented by this {@code Class} object.  For example,
1096      * given the declaration:
1097      * <blockquote>
1098      * {@code class Shimmer implements FloorWax, DessertTopping { ... }}
1099      * </blockquote>
1100      * suppose the value of {@code s} is an instance of
1101      * {@code Shimmer}; the value of the expression:
1102      * <blockquote>
1103      * {@code s.getClass().getInterfaces()[0]}
1104      * </blockquote>
1105      * is the {@code Class} object that represents interface
1106      * {@code FloorWax}; and the value of:
1107      * <blockquote>
1108      * {@code s.getClass().getInterfaces()[1]}
1109      * </blockquote>
1110      * is the {@code Class} object that represents interface
1111      * {@code DessertTopping}.
1112      *
1113      * <p>If this {@code Class} object represents an interface, the array contains objects
1114      * representing all interfaces directly extended by the interface.  The
1115      * order of the interface objects in the array corresponds to the order of
1116      * the interface names in the {@code extends} clause of the declaration of
1117      * the interface represented by this {@code Class} object.
1118      *
1119      * <p>If this {@code Class} object represents a class or interface that implements no
1120      * interfaces, the method returns an array of length 0.
1121      *
1122      * <p>If this {@code Class} object represents a primitive type or void, the method
1123      * returns an array of length 0.
1124      *
1125      * <p>If this {@code Class} object represents an array type, the
1126      * interfaces {@code Cloneable} and {@code java.io.Serializable} are
1127      * returned in that order.
1128      *
1129      * @return an array of interfaces directly implemented by this class
1130      */
1131     public Class<?>[] getInterfaces() {
1132         // defensively copy before handing over to user code
1133         return getInterfaces(true);
1134     }
1135 
1136     private Class<?>[] getInterfaces(boolean cloneArray) {
1137         ReflectionData<T> rd = reflectionData();
1138         if (rd == null) {
1139             // no cloning required
1140             return getInterfaces0();
1141         } else {
1142             Class<?>[] interfaces = rd.interfaces;
1143             if (interfaces == null) {
1144                 interfaces = getInterfaces0();
1145                 rd.interfaces = interfaces;
1146             }
1147             // defensively copy if requested
1148             return cloneArray ? interfaces.clone() : interfaces;
1149         }
1150     }
1151 
1152     private native Class<?>[] getInterfaces0();
1153 
1154     /**
1155      * Returns the {@code Type}s representing the interfaces
1156      * directly implemented by the class or interface represented by
1157      * this {@code Class} object.
1158      *
1159      * <p>If a superinterface is a parameterized type, the
1160      * {@code Type} object returned for it must accurately reflect
1161      * the actual type arguments used in the source code. The
1162      * parameterized type representing each superinterface is created
1163      * if it had not been created before. See the declaration of
1164      * {@link java.lang.reflect.ParameterizedType ParameterizedType}
1165      * for the semantics of the creation process for parameterized
1166      * types.
1167      *
1168      * <p>If this {@code Class} object represents a class, the return value is an array
1169      * containing objects representing all interfaces directly implemented by
1170      * the class.  The order of the interface objects in the array corresponds
1171      * to the order of the interface names in the {@code implements} clause of
1172      * the declaration of the class represented by this {@code Class} object.
1173      *
1174      * <p>If this {@code Class} object represents an interface, the array contains objects
1175      * representing all interfaces directly extended by the interface.  The
1176      * order of the interface objects in the array corresponds to the order of
1177      * the interface names in the {@code extends} clause of the declaration of
1178      * the interface represented by this {@code Class} object.
1179      *
1180      * <p>If this {@code Class} object represents a class or interface that implements no
1181      * interfaces, the method returns an array of length 0.
1182      *
1183      * <p>If this {@code Class} object represents a primitive type or void, the method
1184      * returns an array of length 0.
1185      *
1186      * <p>If this {@code Class} object represents an array type, the
1187      * interfaces {@code Cloneable} and {@code java.io.Serializable} are
1188      * returned in that order.
1189      *
1190      * @throws java.lang.reflect.GenericSignatureFormatError
1191      *     if the generic class signature does not conform to the
1192      *     format specified in section {@jvms 4.7.9} of <cite>The
1193      *     Java&trade; Virtual Machine Specification</cite>
1194      * @throws TypeNotPresentException if any of the generic
1195      *     superinterfaces refers to a non-existent type declaration
1196      * @throws java.lang.reflect.MalformedParameterizedTypeException
1197      *     if any of the generic superinterfaces refer to a parameterized
1198      *     type that cannot be instantiated for any reason
1199      * @return an array of interfaces directly implemented by this class
1200      * @since 1.5
1201      */
1202     public Type[] getGenericInterfaces() {
1203         ClassRepository info = getGenericInfo();
1204         return (info == null) ?  getInterfaces() : info.getSuperInterfaces();
1205     }
1206 
1207 
1208     /**
1209      * Returns the {@code Class} representing the component type of an
1210      * array.  If this class does not represent an array class this method
1211      * returns null.
1212      *
1213      * @return the {@code Class} representing the component type of this
1214      * class if this class is an array
1215      * @see     java.lang.reflect.Array
1216      * @since 1.1
1217      */
1218     public Class<?> getComponentType() {
1219         // Only return for array types. Storage may be reused for Class for instance types.
1220         if (isArray()) {
1221             return componentType;
1222         } else {
1223             return null;
1224         }
1225     }
1226 
1227     private final Class<?> componentType;
1228 














1229 
1230     /**
1231      * Returns the Java language modifiers for this class or interface, encoded
1232      * in an integer. The modifiers consist of the Java Virtual Machine's
1233      * constants for {@code public}, {@code protected},
1234      * {@code private}, {@code final}, {@code static},
1235      * {@code abstract} and {@code interface}; they should be decoded
1236      * using the methods of class {@code Modifier}.
1237      *
1238      * <p> If the underlying class is an array class, then its
1239      * {@code public}, {@code private} and {@code protected}
1240      * modifiers are the same as those of its component type.  If this
1241      * {@code Class} object represents a primitive type or void, its
1242      * {@code public} modifier is always {@code true}, and its
1243      * {@code protected} and {@code private} modifiers are always
1244      * {@code false}. If this {@code Class} object represents an array class, a
1245      * primitive type or void, then its {@code final} modifier is always
1246      * {@code true} and its interface modifier is always
1247      * {@code false}. The values of its other modifiers are not determined
1248      * by this specification.
1249      *
1250      * <p> The modifier encodings are defined in section {@jvms 4.1}
1251      * of <cite>The Java&trade; Virtual Machine Specification</cite>.
1252      *
1253      * @return the {@code int} representing the modifiers for this class
1254      * @see     java.lang.reflect.Modifier
1255      * @since 1.1
1256      */
1257     @HotSpotIntrinsicCandidate
1258     public native int getModifiers();
1259 
1260 
1261     /**
1262      * Gets the signers of this class.
1263      *
1264      * @return  the signers of this class, or null if there are no signers.  In
1265      *          particular, this method returns null if this {@code Class} object represents
1266      *          a primitive type or void.
1267      * @since   1.1
1268      */
1269     public native Object[] getSigners();
1270 
1271 
1272     /**
1273      * Set the signers of this class.
1274      */
1275     native void setSigners(Object[] signers);
1276 
1277 
1278     /**
1279      * If this {@code Class} object represents a local or anonymous
1280      * class within a method, returns a {@link
1281      * java.lang.reflect.Method Method} object representing the
1282      * immediately enclosing method of the underlying class. Returns
1283      * {@code null} otherwise.
1284      *
1285      * In particular, this method returns {@code null} if the underlying
1286      * class is a local or anonymous class immediately enclosed by a type
1287      * declaration, instance initializer or static initializer.
1288      *
1289      * @return the immediately enclosing method of the underlying class, if
1290      *     that class is a local or anonymous class; otherwise {@code null}.
1291      *
1292      * @throws SecurityException
1293      *         If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and any of the
1294      *         following conditions is met:
1295      *
1296      *         <ul>
1297      *
1298      *         <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as the
1299      *         class loader of the enclosing class and invocation of
1300      *         {@link SecurityManager#checkPermission
1301      *         s.checkPermission} method with
1302      *         {@code RuntimePermission("accessDeclaredMembers")}
1303      *         denies access to the methods within the enclosing class
1304      *
1305      *         <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
1306      *         ancestor of the class loader for the enclosing class and
1307      *         invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
1308      *         s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
1309      *         of the enclosing class
1310      *
1311      *         </ul>
1312      * @since 1.5
1313      */
1314     @CallerSensitive
1315     public Method getEnclosingMethod() throws SecurityException {
1316         EnclosingMethodInfo enclosingInfo = getEnclosingMethodInfo();
1317 
1318         if (enclosingInfo == null)
1319             return null;
1320         else {
1321             if (!enclosingInfo.isMethod())
1322                 return null;
1323 
1324             MethodRepository typeInfo = MethodRepository.make(enclosingInfo.getDescriptor(),
1325                                                               getFactory());
1326             Class<?>   returnType       = toClass(typeInfo.getReturnType());
1327             Type []    parameterTypes   = typeInfo.getParameterTypes();
1328             Class<?>[] parameterClasses = new Class<?>[parameterTypes.length];
1329 
1330             // Convert Types to Classes; returned types *should*
1331             // be class objects since the methodDescriptor's used
1332             // don't have generics information
1333             for(int i = 0; i < parameterClasses.length; i++)
1334                 parameterClasses[i] = toClass(parameterTypes[i]);
1335 
1336             // Perform access check
1337             final Class<?> enclosingCandidate = enclosingInfo.getEnclosingClass();
1338             SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
1339             if (sm != null) {
1340                 enclosingCandidate.checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.DECLARED,
1341                                                      Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
1342             }
1343             Method[] candidates = enclosingCandidate.privateGetDeclaredMethods(false);
1344 
1345             /*
1346              * Loop over all declared methods; match method name,
1347              * number of and type of parameters, *and* return
1348              * type.  Matching return type is also necessary
1349              * because of covariant returns, etc.
1350              */
1351             ReflectionFactory fact = getReflectionFactory();
1352             for (Method m : candidates) {
1353                 if (m.getName().equals(enclosingInfo.getName()) &&
1354                     arrayContentsEq(parameterClasses,
1355                                     fact.getExecutableSharedParameterTypes(m))) {
1356                     // finally, check return type
1357                     if (m.getReturnType().equals(returnType)) {
1358                         return fact.copyMethod(m);
1359                     }
1360                 }
1361             }
1362 
1363             throw new InternalError("Enclosing method not found");
1364         }
1365     }
1366 
1367     private native Object[] getEnclosingMethod0();
1368 
1369     private EnclosingMethodInfo getEnclosingMethodInfo() {
1370         Object[] enclosingInfo = getEnclosingMethod0();
1371         if (enclosingInfo == null)
1372             return null;
1373         else {
1374             return new EnclosingMethodInfo(enclosingInfo);
1375         }
1376     }
1377 
1378     private static final class EnclosingMethodInfo {
1379         private final Class<?> enclosingClass;
1380         private final String name;
1381         private final String descriptor;
1382 
1383         static void validate(Object[] enclosingInfo) {
1384             if (enclosingInfo.length != 3)
1385                 throw new InternalError("Malformed enclosing method information");
1386             try {
1387                 // The array is expected to have three elements:
1388 
1389                 // the immediately enclosing class
1390                 Class<?> enclosingClass = (Class<?>)enclosingInfo[0];
1391                 assert(enclosingClass != null);
1392 
1393                 // the immediately enclosing method or constructor's
1394                 // name (can be null).
1395                 String name = (String)enclosingInfo[1];
1396 
1397                 // the immediately enclosing method or constructor's
1398                 // descriptor (null iff name is).
1399                 String descriptor = (String)enclosingInfo[2];
1400                 assert((name != null && descriptor != null) || name == descriptor);
1401             } catch (ClassCastException cce) {
1402                 throw new InternalError("Invalid type in enclosing method information", cce);
1403             }
1404         }
1405 
1406         EnclosingMethodInfo(Object[] enclosingInfo) {
1407             validate(enclosingInfo);
1408             this.enclosingClass = (Class<?>)enclosingInfo[0];
1409             this.name = (String)enclosingInfo[1];
1410             this.descriptor = (String)enclosingInfo[2];
1411         }
1412 
1413         boolean isPartial() {
1414             return enclosingClass == null || name == null || descriptor == null;
1415         }
1416 
1417         boolean isConstructor() { return !isPartial() && "<init>".equals(name); }
1418 
1419         boolean isMethod() { return !isPartial() && !isConstructor() && !"<clinit>".equals(name); }
1420 
1421         Class<?> getEnclosingClass() { return enclosingClass; }
1422 
1423         String getName() { return name; }
1424 
1425         String getDescriptor() { return descriptor; }
1426 
1427     }
1428 
1429     private static Class<?> toClass(Type o) {
1430         if (o instanceof GenericArrayType)
1431             return Array.newInstance(toClass(((GenericArrayType)o).getGenericComponentType()),
1432                                      0)
1433                 .getClass();
1434         return (Class<?>)o;
1435      }
1436 
1437     /**
1438      * If this {@code Class} object represents a local or anonymous
1439      * class within a constructor, returns a {@link
1440      * java.lang.reflect.Constructor Constructor} object representing
1441      * the immediately enclosing constructor of the underlying
1442      * class. Returns {@code null} otherwise.  In particular, this
1443      * method returns {@code null} if the underlying class is a local
1444      * or anonymous class immediately enclosed by a type declaration,
1445      * instance initializer or static initializer.
1446      *
1447      * @return the immediately enclosing constructor of the underlying class, if
1448      *     that class is a local or anonymous class; otherwise {@code null}.
1449      * @throws SecurityException
1450      *         If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and any of the
1451      *         following conditions is met:
1452      *
1453      *         <ul>
1454      *
1455      *         <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as the
1456      *         class loader of the enclosing class and invocation of
1457      *         {@link SecurityManager#checkPermission
1458      *         s.checkPermission} method with
1459      *         {@code RuntimePermission("accessDeclaredMembers")}
1460      *         denies access to the constructors within the enclosing class
1461      *
1462      *         <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
1463      *         ancestor of the class loader for the enclosing class and
1464      *         invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
1465      *         s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
1466      *         of the enclosing class
1467      *
1468      *         </ul>
1469      * @since 1.5
1470      */
1471     @CallerSensitive
1472     public Constructor<?> getEnclosingConstructor() throws SecurityException {
1473         EnclosingMethodInfo enclosingInfo = getEnclosingMethodInfo();
1474 
1475         if (enclosingInfo == null)
1476             return null;
1477         else {
1478             if (!enclosingInfo.isConstructor())
1479                 return null;
1480 
1481             ConstructorRepository typeInfo = ConstructorRepository.make(enclosingInfo.getDescriptor(),
1482                                                                         getFactory());
1483             Type []    parameterTypes   = typeInfo.getParameterTypes();
1484             Class<?>[] parameterClasses = new Class<?>[parameterTypes.length];
1485 
1486             // Convert Types to Classes; returned types *should*
1487             // be class objects since the methodDescriptor's used
1488             // don't have generics information
1489             for(int i = 0; i < parameterClasses.length; i++)
1490                 parameterClasses[i] = toClass(parameterTypes[i]);
1491 
1492             // Perform access check
1493             final Class<?> enclosingCandidate = enclosingInfo.getEnclosingClass();
1494             SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
1495             if (sm != null) {
1496                 enclosingCandidate.checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.DECLARED,
1497                                                      Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
1498             }
1499 
1500             Constructor<?>[] candidates = enclosingCandidate
1501                     .privateGetDeclaredConstructors(false);
1502             /*
1503              * Loop over all declared constructors; match number
1504              * of and type of parameters.
1505              */
1506             ReflectionFactory fact = getReflectionFactory();
1507             for (Constructor<?> c : candidates) {
1508                 if (arrayContentsEq(parameterClasses,
1509                                     fact.getExecutableSharedParameterTypes(c))) {
1510                     return fact.copyConstructor(c);
1511                 }
1512             }
1513 
1514             throw new InternalError("Enclosing constructor not found");
1515         }
1516     }
1517 
1518 
1519     /**
1520      * If the class or interface represented by this {@code Class} object
1521      * is a member of another class, returns the {@code Class} object
1522      * representing the class in which it was declared.  This method returns
1523      * null if this class or interface is not a member of any other class.  If
1524      * this {@code Class} object represents an array class, a primitive
1525      * type, or void,then this method returns null.
1526      *
1527      * @return the declaring class for this class
1528      * @throws SecurityException
1529      *         If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and the caller's
1530      *         class loader is not the same as or an ancestor of the class
1531      *         loader for the declaring class and invocation of {@link
1532      *         SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess s.checkPackageAccess()}
1533      *         denies access to the package of the declaring class
1534      * @since 1.1
1535      */
1536     @CallerSensitive
1537     public Class<?> getDeclaringClass() throws SecurityException {
1538         final Class<?> candidate = getDeclaringClass0();
1539 
1540         if (candidate != null) {
1541             SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
1542             if (sm != null) {
1543                 candidate.checkPackageAccess(sm,
1544                     ClassLoader.getClassLoader(Reflection.getCallerClass()), true);
1545             }
1546         }
1547         return candidate;
1548     }
1549 
1550     private native Class<?> getDeclaringClass0();
1551 
1552 
1553     /**
1554      * Returns the immediately enclosing class of the underlying
1555      * class.  If the underlying class is a top level class this
1556      * method returns {@code null}.
1557      * @return the immediately enclosing class of the underlying class
1558      * @throws     SecurityException
1559      *             If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and the caller's
1560      *             class loader is not the same as or an ancestor of the class
1561      *             loader for the enclosing class and invocation of {@link
1562      *             SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess s.checkPackageAccess()}
1563      *             denies access to the package of the enclosing class
1564      * @since 1.5
1565      */
1566     @CallerSensitive
1567     public Class<?> getEnclosingClass() throws SecurityException {
1568         // There are five kinds of classes (or interfaces):
1569         // a) Top level classes
1570         // b) Nested classes (static member classes)
1571         // c) Inner classes (non-static member classes)
1572         // d) Local classes (named classes declared within a method)
1573         // e) Anonymous classes
1574 
1575 
1576         // JVM Spec 4.7.7: A class must have an EnclosingMethod
1577         // attribute if and only if it is a local class or an
1578         // anonymous class.
1579         EnclosingMethodInfo enclosingInfo = getEnclosingMethodInfo();
1580         Class<?> enclosingCandidate;
1581 
1582         if (enclosingInfo == null) {
1583             // This is a top level or a nested class or an inner class (a, b, or c)
1584             enclosingCandidate = getDeclaringClass0();
1585         } else {
1586             Class<?> enclosingClass = enclosingInfo.getEnclosingClass();
1587             // This is a local class or an anonymous class (d or e)
1588             if (enclosingClass == this || enclosingClass == null)
1589                 throw new InternalError("Malformed enclosing method information");
1590             else
1591                 enclosingCandidate = enclosingClass;
1592         }
1593 
1594         if (enclosingCandidate != null) {
1595             SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
1596             if (sm != null) {
1597                 enclosingCandidate.checkPackageAccess(sm,
1598                     ClassLoader.getClassLoader(Reflection.getCallerClass()), true);
1599             }
1600         }
1601         return enclosingCandidate;
1602     }
1603 
1604     /**
1605      * Returns the simple name of the underlying class as given in the
1606      * source code. Returns an empty string if the underlying class is
1607      * anonymous.
1608      *
1609      * <p>The simple name of an array is the simple name of the
1610      * component type with "[]" appended.  In particular the simple
1611      * name of an array whose component type is anonymous is "[]".
1612      *
1613      * @return the simple name of the underlying class
1614      * @since 1.5
1615      */
1616     public String getSimpleName() {
1617         ReflectionData<T> rd = reflectionData();
1618         String simpleName = rd.simpleName;
1619         if (simpleName == null) {
1620             rd.simpleName = simpleName = getSimpleName0();
1621         }
1622         return simpleName;
1623     }
1624 
1625     private String getSimpleName0() {
1626         if (isArray()) {
1627             return getComponentType().getSimpleName() + "[]";
1628         }
1629         String simpleName = getSimpleBinaryName();
1630         if (simpleName == null) { // top level class
1631             simpleName = getName();
1632             simpleName = simpleName.substring(simpleName.lastIndexOf('.') + 1); // strip the package name
1633         }
1634         return simpleName;
1635     }
1636 
1637     /**
1638      * Return an informative string for the name of this type.
1639      *
1640      * @return an informative string for the name of this type
1641      * @since 1.8
1642      */
1643     public String getTypeName() {
1644         if (isArray()) {
1645             try {
1646                 Class<?> cl = this;
1647                 int dimensions = 0;
1648                 do {
1649                     dimensions++;
1650                     cl = cl.getComponentType();
1651                 } while (cl.isArray());
1652                 return cl.getName() + "[]".repeat(dimensions);
1653             } catch (Throwable e) { /*FALLTHRU*/ }
1654         }
1655         return getName();
1656     }
1657 
1658     /**
1659      * Returns the canonical name of the underlying class as
1660      * defined by <cite>The Java&trade; Language Specification</cite>.
1661      * Returns {@code null} if the underlying class does not have a canonical
1662      * name. Classes without canonical names include:
1663      * <ul>
1664      * <li>a {@linkplain #isLocalClass() local class}
1665      * <li>a {@linkplain #isAnonymousClass() anonymous class}
1666      * <li>a {@linkplain #isHidden() hidden class}
1667      * <li>an array whose component type does not have a canonical name</li>
1668      * </ul>
1669      *
1670      * @return the canonical name of the underlying class if it exists, and
1671      * {@code null} otherwise.
1672      * @since 1.5
1673      */
1674     public String getCanonicalName() {
1675         ReflectionData<T> rd = reflectionData();
1676         String canonicalName = rd.canonicalName;
1677         if (canonicalName == null) {
1678             rd.canonicalName = canonicalName = getCanonicalName0();
1679         }
1680         return canonicalName == ReflectionData.NULL_SENTINEL? null : canonicalName;
1681     }
1682 
1683     private String getCanonicalName0() {
1684         if (isArray()) {
1685             String canonicalName = getComponentType().getCanonicalName();
1686             if (canonicalName != null)
1687                 return canonicalName + "[]";
1688             else
1689                 return ReflectionData.NULL_SENTINEL;
1690         }
1691         if (isHidden() || isLocalOrAnonymousClass())
1692             return ReflectionData.NULL_SENTINEL;
1693         Class<?> enclosingClass = getEnclosingClass();
1694         if (enclosingClass == null) { // top level class
1695             return getName();
1696         } else {
1697             String enclosingName = enclosingClass.getCanonicalName();
1698             if (enclosingName == null)
1699                 return ReflectionData.NULL_SENTINEL;
1700             return enclosingName + "." + getSimpleName();
1701         }
1702     }
1703 
1704     /**
1705      * Returns {@code true} if and only if the underlying class
1706      * is an anonymous class.
1707      *
1708      * @apiNote
1709      * An anonymous class is not a {@linkplain #isHidden() hidden class}.
1710      *
1711      * @return {@code true} if and only if this class is an anonymous class.
1712      * @since 1.5
1713      */
1714     public boolean isAnonymousClass() {
1715         return !isArray() && isLocalOrAnonymousClass() &&
1716                 getSimpleBinaryName0() == null;
1717     }
1718 
1719     /**
1720      * Returns {@code true} if and only if the underlying class
1721      * is a local class.
1722      *
1723      * @return {@code true} if and only if this class is a local class.
1724      * @since 1.5
1725      */
1726     public boolean isLocalClass() {
1727         return isLocalOrAnonymousClass() &&
1728                 (isArray() || getSimpleBinaryName0() != null);
1729     }
1730 
1731     /**
1732      * Returns {@code true} if and only if the underlying class
1733      * is a member class.
1734      *
1735      * @return {@code true} if and only if this class is a member class.
1736      * @since 1.5
1737      */
1738     public boolean isMemberClass() {
1739         return !isLocalOrAnonymousClass() && getDeclaringClass0() != null;
1740     }
1741 
1742     /**
1743      * Returns the "simple binary name" of the underlying class, i.e.,
1744      * the binary name without the leading enclosing class name.
1745      * Returns {@code null} if the underlying class is a top level
1746      * class.
1747      */
1748     private String getSimpleBinaryName() {
1749         if (isTopLevelClass())
1750             return null;
1751         String name = getSimpleBinaryName0();
1752         if (name == null) // anonymous class
1753             return "";
1754         return name;
1755     }
1756 
1757     private native String getSimpleBinaryName0();
1758 
1759     /**
1760      * Returns {@code true} if this is a top level class.  Returns {@code false}
1761      * otherwise.
1762      */
1763     private boolean isTopLevelClass() {
1764         return !isLocalOrAnonymousClass() && getDeclaringClass0() == null;
1765     }
1766 
1767     /**
1768      * Returns {@code true} if this is a local class or an anonymous
1769      * class.  Returns {@code false} otherwise.
1770      */
1771     private boolean isLocalOrAnonymousClass() {
1772         // JVM Spec 4.7.7: A class must have an EnclosingMethod
1773         // attribute if and only if it is a local class or an
1774         // anonymous class.
1775         return hasEnclosingMethodInfo();
1776     }
1777 
1778     private boolean hasEnclosingMethodInfo() {
1779         Object[] enclosingInfo = getEnclosingMethod0();
1780         if (enclosingInfo != null) {
1781             EnclosingMethodInfo.validate(enclosingInfo);
1782             return true;
1783         }
1784         return false;
1785     }
1786 
1787     /**
1788      * Returns an array containing {@code Class} objects representing all
1789      * the public classes and interfaces that are members of the class
1790      * represented by this {@code Class} object.  This includes public
1791      * class and interface members inherited from superclasses and public class
1792      * and interface members declared by the class.  This method returns an
1793      * array of length 0 if this {@code Class} object has no public member
1794      * classes or interfaces.  This method also returns an array of length 0 if
1795      * this {@code Class} object represents a primitive type, an array
1796      * class, or void.
1797      *
1798      * @return the array of {@code Class} objects representing the public
1799      *         members of this class
1800      * @throws SecurityException
1801      *         If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and
1802      *         the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
1803      *         ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
1804      *         invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
1805      *         s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
1806      *         of this class.
1807      *
1808      * @since 1.1
1809      */
1810     @CallerSensitive
1811     public Class<?>[] getClasses() {
1812         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
1813         if (sm != null) {
1814             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.PUBLIC, Reflection.getCallerClass(), false);
1815         }
1816 
1817         // Privileged so this implementation can look at DECLARED classes,
1818         // something the caller might not have privilege to do.  The code here
1819         // is allowed to look at DECLARED classes because (1) it does not hand
1820         // out anything other than public members and (2) public member access
1821         // has already been ok'd by the SecurityManager.
1822 
1823         return java.security.AccessController.doPrivileged(
1824             new java.security.PrivilegedAction<>() {
1825                 public Class<?>[] run() {
1826                     List<Class<?>> list = new ArrayList<>();
1827                     Class<?> currentClass = Class.this;
1828                     while (currentClass != null) {
1829                         for (Class<?> m : currentClass.getDeclaredClasses()) {
1830                             if (Modifier.isPublic(m.getModifiers())) {
1831                                 list.add(m);
1832                             }
1833                         }
1834                         currentClass = currentClass.getSuperclass();
1835                     }
1836                     return list.toArray(new Class<?>[0]);
1837                 }
1838             });
1839     }
1840 
1841 
1842     /**
1843      * Returns an array containing {@code Field} objects reflecting all
1844      * the accessible public fields of the class or interface represented by
1845      * this {@code Class} object.
1846      *
1847      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents a class or interface with
1848      * no accessible public fields, then this method returns an array of length
1849      * 0.
1850      *
1851      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents a class, then this method
1852      * returns the public fields of the class and of all its superclasses and
1853      * superinterfaces.
1854      *
1855      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents an interface, then this
1856      * method returns the fields of the interface and of all its
1857      * superinterfaces.
1858      *
1859      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents an array type, a primitive
1860      * type, or void, then this method returns an array of length 0.
1861      *
1862      * <p> The elements in the returned array are not sorted and are not in any
1863      * particular order.
1864      *
1865      * @return the array of {@code Field} objects representing the
1866      *         public fields
1867      * @throws SecurityException
1868      *         If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and
1869      *         the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
1870      *         ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
1871      *         invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
1872      *         s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
1873      *         of this class.
1874      *
1875      * @since 1.1
1876      * @jls 8.2 Class Members
1877      * @jls 8.3 Field Declarations
1878      */
1879     @CallerSensitive
1880     public Field[] getFields() throws SecurityException {
1881         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
1882         if (sm != null) {
1883             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.PUBLIC, Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
1884         }
1885         return copyFields(privateGetPublicFields());
1886     }
1887 
1888 
1889     /**
1890      * Returns an array containing {@code Method} objects reflecting all the
1891      * public methods of the class or interface represented by this {@code
1892      * Class} object, including those declared by the class or interface and
1893      * those inherited from superclasses and superinterfaces.
1894      *
1895      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents an array type, then the
1896      * returned array has a {@code Method} object for each of the public
1897      * methods inherited by the array type from {@code Object}. It does not
1898      * contain a {@code Method} object for {@code clone()}.
1899      *
1900      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents an interface then the
1901      * returned array does not contain any implicitly declared methods from
1902      * {@code Object}. Therefore, if no methods are explicitly declared in
1903      * this interface or any of its superinterfaces then the returned array
1904      * has length 0. (Note that a {@code Class} object which represents a class
1905      * always has public methods, inherited from {@code Object}.)
1906      *
1907      * <p> The returned array never contains methods with names "{@code <init>}"
1908      * or "{@code <clinit>}".
1909      *
1910      * <p> The elements in the returned array are not sorted and are not in any
1911      * particular order.
1912      *
1913      * <p> Generally, the result is computed as with the following 4 step algorithm.
1914      * Let C be the class or interface represented by this {@code Class} object:
1915      * <ol>
1916      * <li> A union of methods is composed of:
1917      *   <ol type="a">
1918      *   <li> C's declared public instance and static methods as returned by
1919      *        {@link #getDeclaredMethods()} and filtered to include only public
1920      *        methods.</li>
1921      *   <li> If C is a class other than {@code Object}, then include the result
1922      *        of invoking this algorithm recursively on the superclass of C.</li>
1923      *   <li> Include the results of invoking this algorithm recursively on all
1924      *        direct superinterfaces of C, but include only instance methods.</li>
1925      *   </ol></li>
1926      * <li> Union from step 1 is partitioned into subsets of methods with same
1927      *      signature (name, parameter types) and return type.</li>
1928      * <li> Within each such subset only the most specific methods are selected.
1929      *      Let method M be a method from a set of methods with same signature
1930      *      and return type. M is most specific if there is no such method
1931      *      N != M from the same set, such that N is more specific than M.
1932      *      N is more specific than M if:
1933      *   <ol type="a">
1934      *   <li> N is declared by a class and M is declared by an interface; or</li>
1935      *   <li> N and M are both declared by classes or both by interfaces and
1936      *        N's declaring type is the same as or a subtype of M's declaring type
1937      *        (clearly, if M's and N's declaring types are the same type, then
1938      *        M and N are the same method).</li>
1939      *   </ol></li>
1940      * <li> The result of this algorithm is the union of all selected methods from
1941      *      step 3.</li>
1942      * </ol>
1943      *
1944      * @apiNote There may be more than one method with a particular name
1945      * and parameter types in a class because while the Java language forbids a
1946      * class to declare multiple methods with the same signature but different
1947      * return types, the Java virtual machine does not.  This
1948      * increased flexibility in the virtual machine can be used to
1949      * implement various language features.  For example, covariant
1950      * returns can be implemented with {@linkplain
1951      * java.lang.reflect.Method#isBridge bridge methods}; the bridge
1952      * method and the overriding method would have the same
1953      * signature but different return types.
1954      *
1955      * @return the array of {@code Method} objects representing the
1956      *         public methods of this class
1957      * @throws SecurityException
1958      *         If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and
1959      *         the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
1960      *         ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
1961      *         invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
1962      *         s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
1963      *         of this class.
1964      *
1965      * @jls 8.2 Class Members
1966      * @jls 8.4 Method Declarations
1967      * @since 1.1
1968      */
1969     @CallerSensitive
1970     public Method[] getMethods() throws SecurityException {
1971         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
1972         if (sm != null) {
1973             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.PUBLIC, Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
1974         }
1975         return copyMethods(privateGetPublicMethods());
1976     }
1977 
1978 
1979     /**
1980      * Returns an array containing {@code Constructor} objects reflecting
1981      * all the public constructors of the class represented by this
1982      * {@code Class} object.  An array of length 0 is returned if the
1983      * class has no public constructors, or if the class is an array class, or
1984      * if the class reflects a primitive type or void.
1985      *
1986      * @apiNote
1987      * While this method returns an array of {@code
1988      * Constructor<T>} objects (that is an array of constructors from
1989      * this class), the return type of this method is {@code
1990      * Constructor<?>[]} and <em>not</em> {@code Constructor<T>[]} as
1991      * might be expected.  This less informative return type is
1992      * necessary since after being returned from this method, the
1993      * array could be modified to hold {@code Constructor} objects for
1994      * different classes, which would violate the type guarantees of
1995      * {@code Constructor<T>[]}.
1996      *
1997      * @return the array of {@code Constructor} objects representing the
1998      *         public constructors of this class
1999      * @throws SecurityException
2000      *         If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and
2001      *         the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
2002      *         ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
2003      *         invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
2004      *         s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
2005      *         of this class.
2006      *
2007      * @since 1.1
2008      */
2009     @CallerSensitive
2010     public Constructor<?>[] getConstructors() throws SecurityException {
2011         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
2012         if (sm != null) {
2013             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.PUBLIC, Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
2014         }
2015         return copyConstructors(privateGetDeclaredConstructors(true));
2016     }
2017 
2018 
2019     /**
2020      * Returns a {@code Field} object that reflects the specified public member
2021      * field of the class or interface represented by this {@code Class}
2022      * object. The {@code name} parameter is a {@code String} specifying the
2023      * simple name of the desired field.
2024      *
2025      * <p> The field to be reflected is determined by the algorithm that
2026      * follows.  Let C be the class or interface represented by this {@code Class} object:
2027      *
2028      * <OL>
2029      * <LI> If C declares a public field with the name specified, that is the
2030      *      field to be reflected.</LI>
2031      * <LI> If no field was found in step 1 above, this algorithm is applied
2032      *      recursively to each direct superinterface of C. The direct
2033      *      superinterfaces are searched in the order they were declared.</LI>
2034      * <LI> If no field was found in steps 1 and 2 above, and C has a
2035      *      superclass S, then this algorithm is invoked recursively upon S.
2036      *      If C has no superclass, then a {@code NoSuchFieldException}
2037      *      is thrown.</LI>
2038      * </OL>
2039      *
2040      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents an array type, then this
2041      * method does not find the {@code length} field of the array type.
2042      *
2043      * @param name the field name
2044      * @return the {@code Field} object of this class specified by
2045      *         {@code name}
2046      * @throws NoSuchFieldException if a field with the specified name is
2047      *         not found.
2048      * @throws NullPointerException if {@code name} is {@code null}
2049      * @throws SecurityException
2050      *         If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and
2051      *         the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
2052      *         ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
2053      *         invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
2054      *         s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
2055      *         of this class.
2056      *
2057      * @since 1.1
2058      * @jls 8.2 Class Members
2059      * @jls 8.3 Field Declarations
2060      */
2061     @CallerSensitive
2062     public Field getField(String name)
2063         throws NoSuchFieldException, SecurityException {
2064         Objects.requireNonNull(name);
2065         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
2066         if (sm != null) {
2067             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.PUBLIC, Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
2068         }
2069         Field field = getField0(name);
2070         if (field == null) {
2071             throw new NoSuchFieldException(name);
2072         }
2073         return getReflectionFactory().copyField(field);
2074     }
2075 
2076 
2077     /**
2078      * Returns a {@code Method} object that reflects the specified public
2079      * member method of the class or interface represented by this
2080      * {@code Class} object. The {@code name} parameter is a
2081      * {@code String} specifying the simple name of the desired method. The
2082      * {@code parameterTypes} parameter is an array of {@code Class}
2083      * objects that identify the method's formal parameter types, in declared
2084      * order. If {@code parameterTypes} is {@code null}, it is
2085      * treated as if it were an empty array.
2086      *
2087      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents an array type, then this
2088      * method finds any public method inherited by the array type from
2089      * {@code Object} except method {@code clone()}.
2090      *
2091      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents an interface then this
2092      * method does not find any implicitly declared method from
2093      * {@code Object}. Therefore, if no methods are explicitly declared in
2094      * this interface or any of its superinterfaces, then this method does not
2095      * find any method.
2096      *
2097      * <p> This method does not find any method with name "{@code <init>}" or
2098      * "{@code <clinit>}".
2099      *
2100      * <p> Generally, the method to be reflected is determined by the 4 step
2101      * algorithm that follows.
2102      * Let C be the class or interface represented by this {@code Class} object:
2103      * <ol>
2104      * <li> A union of methods is composed of:
2105      *   <ol type="a">
2106      *   <li> C's declared public instance and static methods as returned by
2107      *        {@link #getDeclaredMethods()} and filtered to include only public
2108      *        methods that match given {@code name} and {@code parameterTypes}</li>
2109      *   <li> If C is a class other than {@code Object}, then include the result
2110      *        of invoking this algorithm recursively on the superclass of C.</li>
2111      *   <li> Include the results of invoking this algorithm recursively on all
2112      *        direct superinterfaces of C, but include only instance methods.</li>
2113      *   </ol></li>
2114      * <li> This union is partitioned into subsets of methods with same
2115      *      return type (the selection of methods from step 1 also guarantees that
2116      *      they have the same method name and parameter types).</li>
2117      * <li> Within each such subset only the most specific methods are selected.
2118      *      Let method M be a method from a set of methods with same VM
2119      *      signature (return type, name, parameter types).
2120      *      M is most specific if there is no such method N != M from the same
2121      *      set, such that N is more specific than M. N is more specific than M
2122      *      if:
2123      *   <ol type="a">
2124      *   <li> N is declared by a class and M is declared by an interface; or</li>
2125      *   <li> N and M are both declared by classes or both by interfaces and
2126      *        N's declaring type is the same as or a subtype of M's declaring type
2127      *        (clearly, if M's and N's declaring types are the same type, then
2128      *        M and N are the same method).</li>
2129      *   </ol></li>
2130      * <li> The result of this algorithm is chosen arbitrarily from the methods
2131      *      with most specific return type among all selected methods from step 3.
2132      *      Let R be a return type of a method M from the set of all selected methods
2133      *      from step 3. M is a method with most specific return type if there is
2134      *      no such method N != M from the same set, having return type S != R,
2135      *      such that S is a subtype of R as determined by
2136      *      R.class.{@link #isAssignableFrom}(S.class).
2137      * </ol>
2138      *
2139      * @apiNote There may be more than one method with matching name and
2140      * parameter types in a class because while the Java language forbids a
2141      * class to declare multiple methods with the same signature but different
2142      * return types, the Java virtual machine does not.  This
2143      * increased flexibility in the virtual machine can be used to
2144      * implement various language features.  For example, covariant
2145      * returns can be implemented with {@linkplain
2146      * java.lang.reflect.Method#isBridge bridge methods}; the bridge
2147      * method and the overriding method would have the same
2148      * signature but different return types. This method would return the
2149      * overriding method as it would have a more specific return type.
2150      *
2151      * @param name the name of the method
2152      * @param parameterTypes the list of parameters
2153      * @return the {@code Method} object that matches the specified
2154      *         {@code name} and {@code parameterTypes}
2155      * @throws NoSuchMethodException if a matching method is not found
2156      *         or if the name is "&lt;init&gt;"or "&lt;clinit&gt;".
2157      * @throws NullPointerException if {@code name} is {@code null}
2158      * @throws SecurityException
2159      *         If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and
2160      *         the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
2161      *         ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
2162      *         invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
2163      *         s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
2164      *         of this class.
2165      *
2166      * @jls 8.2 Class Members
2167      * @jls 8.4 Method Declarations
2168      * @since 1.1
2169      */
2170     @CallerSensitive
2171     public Method getMethod(String name, Class<?>... parameterTypes)
2172         throws NoSuchMethodException, SecurityException {
2173         Objects.requireNonNull(name);
2174         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
2175         if (sm != null) {
2176             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.PUBLIC, Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
2177         }
2178         Method method = getMethod0(name, parameterTypes);
2179         if (method == null) {
2180             throw new NoSuchMethodException(methodToString(name, parameterTypes));
2181         }
2182         return getReflectionFactory().copyMethod(method);
2183     }
2184 
2185     /**
2186      * Returns a {@code Constructor} object that reflects the specified
2187      * public constructor of the class represented by this {@code Class}
2188      * object. The {@code parameterTypes} parameter is an array of
2189      * {@code Class} objects that identify the constructor's formal
2190      * parameter types, in declared order.
2191      *
2192      * If this {@code Class} object represents an inner class
2193      * declared in a non-static context, the formal parameter types
2194      * include the explicit enclosing instance as the first parameter.
2195      *
2196      * <p> The constructor to reflect is the public constructor of the class
2197      * represented by this {@code Class} object whose formal parameter
2198      * types match those specified by {@code parameterTypes}.
2199      *
2200      * @param parameterTypes the parameter array
2201      * @return the {@code Constructor} object of the public constructor that
2202      *         matches the specified {@code parameterTypes}
2203      * @throws NoSuchMethodException if a matching method is not found.
2204      * @throws SecurityException
2205      *         If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and
2206      *         the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
2207      *         ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
2208      *         invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
2209      *         s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
2210      *         of this class.
2211      *
2212      * @since 1.1
2213      */
2214     @CallerSensitive
2215     public Constructor<T> getConstructor(Class<?>... parameterTypes)
2216         throws NoSuchMethodException, SecurityException
2217     {
2218         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
2219         if (sm != null) {
2220             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.PUBLIC, Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
2221         }
2222         return getReflectionFactory().copyConstructor(
2223             getConstructor0(parameterTypes, Member.PUBLIC));
2224     }
2225 
2226 
2227     /**
2228      * Returns an array of {@code Class} objects reflecting all the
2229      * classes and interfaces declared as members of the class represented by
2230      * this {@code Class} object. This includes public, protected, default
2231      * (package) access, and private classes and interfaces declared by the
2232      * class, but excludes inherited classes and interfaces.  This method
2233      * returns an array of length 0 if the class declares no classes or
2234      * interfaces as members, or if this {@code Class} object represents a
2235      * primitive type, an array class, or void.
2236      *
2237      * @return the array of {@code Class} objects representing all the
2238      *         declared members of this class
2239      * @throws SecurityException
2240      *         If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and any of the
2241      *         following conditions is met:
2242      *
2243      *         <ul>
2244      *
2245      *         <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as the
2246      *         class loader of this class and invocation of
2247      *         {@link SecurityManager#checkPermission
2248      *         s.checkPermission} method with
2249      *         {@code RuntimePermission("accessDeclaredMembers")}
2250      *         denies access to the declared classes within this class
2251      *
2252      *         <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
2253      *         ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
2254      *         invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
2255      *         s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
2256      *         of this class
2257      *
2258      *         </ul>
2259      *
2260      * @since 1.1
2261      */
2262     @CallerSensitive
2263     public Class<?>[] getDeclaredClasses() throws SecurityException {
2264         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
2265         if (sm != null) {
2266             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.DECLARED, Reflection.getCallerClass(), false);
2267         }
2268         return getDeclaredClasses0();
2269     }
2270 
2271 
2272     /**
2273      * Returns an array of {@code Field} objects reflecting all the fields
2274      * declared by the class or interface represented by this
2275      * {@code Class} object. This includes public, protected, default
2276      * (package) access, and private fields, but excludes inherited fields.
2277      *
2278      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents a class or interface with no
2279      * declared fields, then this method returns an array of length 0.
2280      *
2281      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents an array type, a primitive
2282      * type, or void, then this method returns an array of length 0.
2283      *
2284      * <p> The elements in the returned array are not sorted and are not in any
2285      * particular order.
2286      *
2287      * @return  the array of {@code Field} objects representing all the
2288      *          declared fields of this class
2289      * @throws  SecurityException
2290      *          If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and any of the
2291      *          following conditions is met:
2292      *
2293      *          <ul>
2294      *
2295      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as the
2296      *          class loader of this class and invocation of
2297      *          {@link SecurityManager#checkPermission
2298      *          s.checkPermission} method with
2299      *          {@code RuntimePermission("accessDeclaredMembers")}
2300      *          denies access to the declared fields within this class
2301      *
2302      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
2303      *          ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
2304      *          invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
2305      *          s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
2306      *          of this class
2307      *
2308      *          </ul>
2309      *
2310      * @since 1.1
2311      * @jls 8.2 Class Members
2312      * @jls 8.3 Field Declarations
2313      */
2314     @CallerSensitive
2315     public Field[] getDeclaredFields() throws SecurityException {
2316         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
2317         if (sm != null) {
2318             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.DECLARED, Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
2319         }
2320         return copyFields(privateGetDeclaredFields(false));
2321     }
2322 
2323     /**
2324      * {@preview Associated with records, a preview feature of the Java language.
2325      *
2326      *           This method is associated with <i>records</i>, a preview
2327      *           feature of the Java language. Preview features
2328      *           may be removed in a future release, or upgraded to permanent
2329      *           features of the Java language.}
2330      *
2331      * Returns an array of {@code RecordComponent} objects representing all the
2332      * record components of this record class, or {@code null} if this class is
2333      * not a record class.
2334      *
2335      * <p> The components are returned in the same order that they are declared
2336      * in the record header. The array is empty if this record class has no
2337      * components. If the class is not a record class, that is {@link
2338      * #isRecord()} returns {@code false}, then this method returns {@code null}.
2339      * Conversely, if {@link #isRecord()} returns {@code true}, then this method
2340      * returns a non-null value.
2341      *
2342      * @return  An array of {@code RecordComponent} objects representing all the
2343      *          record components of this record class, or {@code null} if this
2344      *          class is not a record class
2345      * @throws  SecurityException
2346      *          If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and any of the
2347      *          following conditions is met:
2348      *
2349      *          <ul>
2350      *
2351      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as the
2352      *          class loader of this class and invocation of
2353      *          {@link SecurityManager#checkPermission
2354      *          s.checkPermission} method with
2355      *          {@code RuntimePermission("accessDeclaredMembers")}
2356      *          denies access to the declared methods within this class
2357      *
2358      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
2359      *          ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
2360      *          invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
2361      *          s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
2362      *          of this class
2363      *
2364      *          </ul>
2365      *
2366      * @jls 8.10 Record Types
2367      * @since 14
2368      */
2369     @jdk.internal.PreviewFeature(feature=jdk.internal.PreviewFeature.Feature.RECORDS,
2370                                  essentialAPI=false)
2371     @SuppressWarnings("preview")
2372     @CallerSensitive
2373     public RecordComponent[] getRecordComponents() {
2374         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
2375         if (sm != null) {
2376             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.DECLARED, Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
2377         }
2378         if (!isRecord()) {
2379             return null;
2380         }
2381         RecordComponent[] recordComponents = getRecordComponents0();
2382         if (recordComponents == null) {
2383             return new RecordComponent[0];
2384         }
2385         return recordComponents;
2386     }
2387 
2388     /**
2389      * Returns an array containing {@code Method} objects reflecting all the
2390      * declared methods of the class or interface represented by this {@code
2391      * Class} object, including public, protected, default (package)
2392      * access, and private methods, but excluding inherited methods.
2393      *
2394      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents a type that has multiple
2395      * declared methods with the same name and parameter types, but different
2396      * return types, then the returned array has a {@code Method} object for
2397      * each such method.
2398      *
2399      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents a type that has a class
2400      * initialization method {@code <clinit>}, then the returned array does
2401      * <em>not</em> have a corresponding {@code Method} object.
2402      *
2403      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents a class or interface with no
2404      * declared methods, then the returned array has length 0.
2405      *
2406      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents an array type, a primitive
2407      * type, or void, then the returned array has length 0.
2408      *
2409      * <p> The elements in the returned array are not sorted and are not in any
2410      * particular order.
2411      *
2412      * @return  the array of {@code Method} objects representing all the
2413      *          declared methods of this class
2414      * @throws  SecurityException
2415      *          If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and any of the
2416      *          following conditions is met:
2417      *
2418      *          <ul>
2419      *
2420      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as the
2421      *          class loader of this class and invocation of
2422      *          {@link SecurityManager#checkPermission
2423      *          s.checkPermission} method with
2424      *          {@code RuntimePermission("accessDeclaredMembers")}
2425      *          denies access to the declared methods within this class
2426      *
2427      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
2428      *          ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
2429      *          invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
2430      *          s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
2431      *          of this class
2432      *
2433      *          </ul>
2434      *
2435      * @jls 8.2 Class Members
2436      * @jls 8.4 Method Declarations
2437      * @since 1.1
2438      */
2439     @CallerSensitive
2440     public Method[] getDeclaredMethods() throws SecurityException {
2441         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
2442         if (sm != null) {
2443             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.DECLARED, Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
2444         }
2445         return copyMethods(privateGetDeclaredMethods(false));
2446     }
2447 
2448 
2449     /**
2450      * Returns an array of {@code Constructor} objects reflecting all the
2451      * constructors declared by the class represented by this
2452      * {@code Class} object. These are public, protected, default
2453      * (package) access, and private constructors.  The elements in the array
2454      * returned are not sorted and are not in any particular order.  If the
2455      * class has a default constructor, it is included in the returned array.
2456      * This method returns an array of length 0 if this {@code Class}
2457      * object represents an interface, a primitive type, an array class, or
2458      * void.
2459      *
2460      * <p> See <cite>The Java&trade; Language Specification</cite>,
2461      * section {@jls 8.2}.
2462      *
2463      * @return  the array of {@code Constructor} objects representing all the
2464      *          declared constructors of this class
2465      * @throws  SecurityException
2466      *          If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and any of the
2467      *          following conditions is met:
2468      *
2469      *          <ul>
2470      *
2471      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as the
2472      *          class loader of this class and invocation of
2473      *          {@link SecurityManager#checkPermission
2474      *          s.checkPermission} method with
2475      *          {@code RuntimePermission("accessDeclaredMembers")}
2476      *          denies access to the declared constructors within this class
2477      *
2478      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
2479      *          ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
2480      *          invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
2481      *          s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
2482      *          of this class
2483      *
2484      *          </ul>
2485      *
2486      * @since 1.1
2487      */
2488     @CallerSensitive
2489     public Constructor<?>[] getDeclaredConstructors() throws SecurityException {
2490         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
2491         if (sm != null) {
2492             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.DECLARED, Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
2493         }
2494         return copyConstructors(privateGetDeclaredConstructors(false));
2495     }
2496 
2497 
2498     /**
2499      * Returns a {@code Field} object that reflects the specified declared
2500      * field of the class or interface represented by this {@code Class}
2501      * object. The {@code name} parameter is a {@code String} that specifies
2502      * the simple name of the desired field.
2503      *
2504      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents an array type, then this
2505      * method does not find the {@code length} field of the array type.
2506      *
2507      * @param name the name of the field
2508      * @return  the {@code Field} object for the specified field in this
2509      *          class
2510      * @throws  NoSuchFieldException if a field with the specified name is
2511      *          not found.
2512      * @throws  NullPointerException if {@code name} is {@code null}
2513      * @throws  SecurityException
2514      *          If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and any of the
2515      *          following conditions is met:
2516      *
2517      *          <ul>
2518      *
2519      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as the
2520      *          class loader of this class and invocation of
2521      *          {@link SecurityManager#checkPermission
2522      *          s.checkPermission} method with
2523      *          {@code RuntimePermission("accessDeclaredMembers")}
2524      *          denies access to the declared field
2525      *
2526      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
2527      *          ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
2528      *          invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
2529      *          s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
2530      *          of this class
2531      *
2532      *          </ul>
2533      *
2534      * @since 1.1
2535      * @jls 8.2 Class Members
2536      * @jls 8.3 Field Declarations
2537      */
2538     @CallerSensitive
2539     public Field getDeclaredField(String name)
2540         throws NoSuchFieldException, SecurityException {
2541         Objects.requireNonNull(name);
2542         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
2543         if (sm != null) {
2544             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.DECLARED, Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
2545         }
2546         Field field = searchFields(privateGetDeclaredFields(false), name);
2547         if (field == null) {
2548             throw new NoSuchFieldException(name);
2549         }
2550         return getReflectionFactory().copyField(field);
2551     }
2552 
2553 
2554     /**
2555      * Returns a {@code Method} object that reflects the specified
2556      * declared method of the class or interface represented by this
2557      * {@code Class} object. The {@code name} parameter is a
2558      * {@code String} that specifies the simple name of the desired
2559      * method, and the {@code parameterTypes} parameter is an array of
2560      * {@code Class} objects that identify the method's formal parameter
2561      * types, in declared order.  If more than one method with the same
2562      * parameter types is declared in a class, and one of these methods has a
2563      * return type that is more specific than any of the others, that method is
2564      * returned; otherwise one of the methods is chosen arbitrarily.  If the
2565      * name is "&lt;init&gt;"or "&lt;clinit&gt;" a {@code NoSuchMethodException}
2566      * is raised.
2567      *
2568      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents an array type, then this
2569      * method does not find the {@code clone()} method.
2570      *
2571      * @param name the name of the method
2572      * @param parameterTypes the parameter array
2573      * @return  the {@code Method} object for the method of this class
2574      *          matching the specified name and parameters
2575      * @throws  NoSuchMethodException if a matching method is not found.
2576      * @throws  NullPointerException if {@code name} is {@code null}
2577      * @throws  SecurityException
2578      *          If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and any of the
2579      *          following conditions is met:
2580      *
2581      *          <ul>
2582      *
2583      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as the
2584      *          class loader of this class and invocation of
2585      *          {@link SecurityManager#checkPermission
2586      *          s.checkPermission} method with
2587      *          {@code RuntimePermission("accessDeclaredMembers")}
2588      *          denies access to the declared method
2589      *
2590      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
2591      *          ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
2592      *          invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
2593      *          s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
2594      *          of this class
2595      *
2596      *          </ul>
2597      *
2598      * @jls 8.2 Class Members
2599      * @jls 8.4 Method Declarations
2600      * @since 1.1
2601      */
2602     @CallerSensitive
2603     public Method getDeclaredMethod(String name, Class<?>... parameterTypes)
2604         throws NoSuchMethodException, SecurityException {
2605         Objects.requireNonNull(name);
2606         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
2607         if (sm != null) {
2608             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.DECLARED, Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
2609         }
2610         Method method = searchMethods(privateGetDeclaredMethods(false), name, parameterTypes);
2611         if (method == null) {
2612             throw new NoSuchMethodException(methodToString(name, parameterTypes));
2613         }
2614         return getReflectionFactory().copyMethod(method);
2615     }
2616 
2617     /**
2618      * Returns the list of {@code Method} objects for the declared public
2619      * methods of this class or interface that have the specified method name
2620      * and parameter types.
2621      *
2622      * @param name the name of the method
2623      * @param parameterTypes the parameter array
2624      * @return the list of {@code Method} objects for the public methods of
2625      *         this class matching the specified name and parameters
2626      */
2627     List<Method> getDeclaredPublicMethods(String name, Class<?>... parameterTypes) {
2628         Method[] methods = privateGetDeclaredMethods(/* publicOnly */ true);
2629         ReflectionFactory factory = getReflectionFactory();
2630         List<Method> result = new ArrayList<>();
2631         for (Method method : methods) {
2632             if (method.getName().equals(name)
2633                 && Arrays.equals(
2634                     factory.getExecutableSharedParameterTypes(method),
2635                     parameterTypes)) {
2636                 result.add(factory.copyMethod(method));
2637             }
2638         }
2639         return result;
2640     }
2641 
2642     /**
2643      * Returns a {@code Constructor} object that reflects the specified
2644      * constructor of the class or interface represented by this
2645      * {@code Class} object.  The {@code parameterTypes} parameter is
2646      * an array of {@code Class} objects that identify the constructor's
2647      * formal parameter types, in declared order.
2648      *
2649      * If this {@code Class} object represents an inner class
2650      * declared in a non-static context, the formal parameter types
2651      * include the explicit enclosing instance as the first parameter.
2652      *
2653      * @param parameterTypes the parameter array
2654      * @return  The {@code Constructor} object for the constructor with the
2655      *          specified parameter list
2656      * @throws  NoSuchMethodException if a matching method is not found.
2657      * @throws  SecurityException
2658      *          If a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and any of the
2659      *          following conditions is met:
2660      *
2661      *          <ul>
2662      *
2663      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as the
2664      *          class loader of this class and invocation of
2665      *          {@link SecurityManager#checkPermission
2666      *          s.checkPermission} method with
2667      *          {@code RuntimePermission("accessDeclaredMembers")}
2668      *          denies access to the declared constructor
2669      *
2670      *          <li> the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
2671      *          ancestor of the class loader for the current class and
2672      *          invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
2673      *          s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to the package
2674      *          of this class
2675      *
2676      *          </ul>
2677      *
2678      * @since 1.1
2679      */
2680     @CallerSensitive
2681     public Constructor<T> getDeclaredConstructor(Class<?>... parameterTypes)
2682         throws NoSuchMethodException, SecurityException
2683     {
2684         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
2685         if (sm != null) {
2686             checkMemberAccess(sm, Member.DECLARED, Reflection.getCallerClass(), true);
2687         }
2688 
2689         return getReflectionFactory().copyConstructor(
2690             getConstructor0(parameterTypes, Member.DECLARED));
2691     }
2692 
2693     /**
2694      * Finds a resource with a given name.
2695      *
2696      * <p> If this class is in a named {@link Module Module} then this method
2697      * will attempt to find the resource in the module. This is done by
2698      * delegating to the module's class loader {@link
2699      * ClassLoader#findResource(String,String) findResource(String,String)}
2700      * method, invoking it with the module name and the absolute name of the
2701      * resource. Resources in named modules are subject to the rules for
2702      * encapsulation specified in the {@code Module} {@link
2703      * Module#getResourceAsStream getResourceAsStream} method and so this
2704      * method returns {@code null} when the resource is a
2705      * non-"{@code .class}" resource in a package that is not open to the
2706      * caller's module.
2707      *
2708      * <p> Otherwise, if this class is not in a named module then the rules for
2709      * searching resources associated with a given class are implemented by the
2710      * defining {@linkplain ClassLoader class loader} of the class.  This method
2711      * delegates to this {@code Class} object's class loader.
2712      * If this {@code Class} object was loaded by the bootstrap class loader,
2713      * the method delegates to {@link ClassLoader#getSystemResourceAsStream}.
2714      *
2715      * <p> Before delegation, an absolute resource name is constructed from the
2716      * given resource name using this algorithm:
2717      *
2718      * <ul>
2719      *
2720      * <li> If the {@code name} begins with a {@code '/'}
2721      * (<code>'\u002f'</code>), then the absolute name of the resource is the
2722      * portion of the {@code name} following the {@code '/'}.
2723      *
2724      * <li> Otherwise, the absolute name is of the following form:
2725      *
2726      * <blockquote>
2727      *   {@code modified_package_name/name}
2728      * </blockquote>
2729      *
2730      * <p> Where the {@code modified_package_name} is the package name of this
2731      * object with {@code '/'} substituted for {@code '.'}
2732      * (<code>'\u002e'</code>).
2733      *
2734      * </ul>
2735      *
2736      * @param  name name of the desired resource
2737      * @return  A {@link java.io.InputStream} object; {@code null} if no
2738      *          resource with this name is found, the resource is in a package
2739      *          that is not {@linkplain Module#isOpen(String, Module) open} to at
2740      *          least the caller module, or access to the resource is denied
2741      *          by the security manager.
2742      * @throws  NullPointerException If {@code name} is {@code null}
2743      *
2744      * @see Module#getResourceAsStream(String)
2745      * @since  1.1
2746      * @revised 9
2747      * @spec JPMS
2748      */
2749     @CallerSensitive
2750     public InputStream getResourceAsStream(String name) {
2751         name = resolveName(name);
2752 
2753         Module thisModule = getModule();
2754         if (thisModule.isNamed()) {
2755             // check if resource can be located by caller
2756             if (Resources.canEncapsulate(name)
2757                 && !isOpenToCaller(name, Reflection.getCallerClass())) {
2758                 return null;
2759             }
2760 
2761             // resource not encapsulated or in package open to caller
2762             String mn = thisModule.getName();
2763             ClassLoader cl = getClassLoader0();
2764             try {
2765 
2766                 // special-case built-in class loaders to avoid the
2767                 // need for a URL connection
2768                 if (cl == null) {
2769                     return BootLoader.findResourceAsStream(mn, name);
2770                 } else if (cl instanceof BuiltinClassLoader) {
2771                     return ((BuiltinClassLoader) cl).findResourceAsStream(mn, name);
2772                 } else {
2773                     URL url = cl.findResource(mn, name);
2774                     return (url != null) ? url.openStream() : null;
2775                 }
2776 
2777             } catch (IOException | SecurityException e) {
2778                 return null;
2779             }
2780         }
2781 
2782         // unnamed module
2783         ClassLoader cl = getClassLoader0();
2784         if (cl == null) {
2785             return ClassLoader.getSystemResourceAsStream(name);
2786         } else {
2787             return cl.getResourceAsStream(name);
2788         }
2789     }
2790 
2791     /**
2792      * Finds a resource with a given name.
2793      *
2794      * <p> If this class is in a named {@link Module Module} then this method
2795      * will attempt to find the resource in the module. This is done by
2796      * delegating to the module's class loader {@link
2797      * ClassLoader#findResource(String,String) findResource(String,String)}
2798      * method, invoking it with the module name and the absolute name of the
2799      * resource. Resources in named modules are subject to the rules for
2800      * encapsulation specified in the {@code Module} {@link
2801      * Module#getResourceAsStream getResourceAsStream} method and so this
2802      * method returns {@code null} when the resource is a
2803      * non-"{@code .class}" resource in a package that is not open to the
2804      * caller's module.
2805      *
2806      * <p> Otherwise, if this class is not in a named module then the rules for
2807      * searching resources associated with a given class are implemented by the
2808      * defining {@linkplain ClassLoader class loader} of the class.  This method
2809      * delegates to this {@code Class} object's class loader.
2810      * If this {@code Class} object was loaded by the bootstrap class loader,
2811      * the method delegates to {@link ClassLoader#getSystemResource}.
2812      *
2813      * <p> Before delegation, an absolute resource name is constructed from the
2814      * given resource name using this algorithm:
2815      *
2816      * <ul>
2817      *
2818      * <li> If the {@code name} begins with a {@code '/'}
2819      * (<code>'\u002f'</code>), then the absolute name of the resource is the
2820      * portion of the {@code name} following the {@code '/'}.
2821      *
2822      * <li> Otherwise, the absolute name is of the following form:
2823      *
2824      * <blockquote>
2825      *   {@code modified_package_name/name}
2826      * </blockquote>
2827      *
2828      * <p> Where the {@code modified_package_name} is the package name of this
2829      * object with {@code '/'} substituted for {@code '.'}
2830      * (<code>'\u002e'</code>).
2831      *
2832      * </ul>
2833      *
2834      * @param  name name of the desired resource
2835      * @return A {@link java.net.URL} object; {@code null} if no resource with
2836      *         this name is found, the resource cannot be located by a URL, the
2837      *         resource is in a package that is not
2838      *         {@linkplain Module#isOpen(String, Module) open} to at least the caller
2839      *         module, or access to the resource is denied by the security
2840      *         manager.
2841      * @throws NullPointerException If {@code name} is {@code null}
2842      * @since  1.1
2843      * @revised 9
2844      * @spec JPMS
2845      */
2846     @CallerSensitive
2847     public URL getResource(String name) {
2848         name = resolveName(name);
2849 
2850         Module thisModule = getModule();
2851         if (thisModule.isNamed()) {
2852             // check if resource can be located by caller
2853             if (Resources.canEncapsulate(name)
2854                 && !isOpenToCaller(name, Reflection.getCallerClass())) {
2855                 return null;
2856             }
2857 
2858             // resource not encapsulated or in package open to caller
2859             String mn = thisModule.getName();
2860             ClassLoader cl = getClassLoader0();
2861             try {
2862                 if (cl == null) {
2863                     return BootLoader.findResource(mn, name);
2864                 } else {
2865                     return cl.findResource(mn, name);
2866                 }
2867             } catch (IOException ioe) {
2868                 return null;
2869             }
2870         }
2871 
2872         // unnamed module
2873         ClassLoader cl = getClassLoader0();
2874         if (cl == null) {
2875             return ClassLoader.getSystemResource(name);
2876         } else {
2877             return cl.getResource(name);
2878         }
2879     }
2880 
2881     /**
2882      * Returns true if a resource with the given name can be located by the
2883      * given caller. All resources in a module can be located by code in
2884      * the module. For other callers, then the package needs to be open to
2885      * the caller.
2886      */
2887     private boolean isOpenToCaller(String name, Class<?> caller) {
2888         // assert getModule().isNamed();
2889         Module thisModule = getModule();
2890         Module callerModule = (caller != null) ? caller.getModule() : null;
2891         if (callerModule != thisModule) {
2892             String pn = Resources.toPackageName(name);
2893             if (thisModule.getDescriptor().packages().contains(pn)) {
2894                 if (callerModule == null && !thisModule.isOpen(pn)) {
2895                     // no caller, package not open
2896                     return false;
2897                 }
2898                 if (!thisModule.isOpen(pn, callerModule)) {
2899                     // package not open to caller
2900                     return false;
2901                 }
2902             }
2903         }
2904         return true;
2905     }
2906 
2907 
2908     /** protection domain returned when the internal domain is null */
2909     private static java.security.ProtectionDomain allPermDomain;
2910 
2911     /**
2912      * Returns the {@code ProtectionDomain} of this class.  If there is a
2913      * security manager installed, this method first calls the security
2914      * manager's {@code checkPermission} method with a
2915      * {@code RuntimePermission("getProtectionDomain")} permission to
2916      * ensure it's ok to get the
2917      * {@code ProtectionDomain}.
2918      *
2919      * @return the ProtectionDomain of this class
2920      *
2921      * @throws SecurityException
2922      *        if a security manager exists and its
2923      *        {@code checkPermission} method doesn't allow
2924      *        getting the ProtectionDomain.
2925      *
2926      * @see java.security.ProtectionDomain
2927      * @see SecurityManager#checkPermission
2928      * @see java.lang.RuntimePermission
2929      * @since 1.2
2930      */
2931     public java.security.ProtectionDomain getProtectionDomain() {
2932         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
2933         if (sm != null) {
2934             sm.checkPermission(SecurityConstants.GET_PD_PERMISSION);
2935         }
2936         return protectionDomain();
2937     }
2938 
2939     // package-private
2940     java.security.ProtectionDomain protectionDomain() {
2941         java.security.ProtectionDomain pd = getProtectionDomain0();
2942         if (pd == null) {
2943             if (allPermDomain == null) {
2944                 java.security.Permissions perms =
2945                     new java.security.Permissions();
2946                 perms.add(SecurityConstants.ALL_PERMISSION);
2947                 allPermDomain =
2948                     new java.security.ProtectionDomain(null, perms);
2949             }
2950             pd = allPermDomain;
2951         }
2952         return pd;
2953     }
2954 
2955     /**
2956      * Returns the ProtectionDomain of this class.
2957      */
2958     private native java.security.ProtectionDomain getProtectionDomain0();
2959 
2960     /*
2961      * Return the Virtual Machine's Class object for the named
2962      * primitive type.
2963      */
2964     static native Class<?> getPrimitiveClass(String name);
2965 
2966     /*
2967      * Check if client is allowed to access members.  If access is denied,
2968      * throw a SecurityException.
2969      *
2970      * This method also enforces package access.
2971      *
2972      * <p> Default policy: allow all clients access with normal Java access
2973      * control.
2974      *
2975      * <p> NOTE: should only be called if a SecurityManager is installed
2976      */
2977     private void checkMemberAccess(SecurityManager sm, int which,
2978                                    Class<?> caller, boolean checkProxyInterfaces) {
2979         /* Default policy allows access to all {@link Member#PUBLIC} members,
2980          * as well as access to classes that have the same class loader as the caller.
2981          * In all other cases, it requires RuntimePermission("accessDeclaredMembers")
2982          * permission.
2983          */
2984         final ClassLoader ccl = ClassLoader.getClassLoader(caller);
2985         if (which != Member.PUBLIC) {
2986             final ClassLoader cl = getClassLoader0();
2987             if (ccl != cl) {
2988                 sm.checkPermission(SecurityConstants.CHECK_MEMBER_ACCESS_PERMISSION);
2989             }
2990         }
2991         this.checkPackageAccess(sm, ccl, checkProxyInterfaces);
2992     }
2993 
2994     /*
2995      * Checks if a client loaded in ClassLoader ccl is allowed to access this
2996      * class under the current package access policy. If access is denied,
2997      * throw a SecurityException.
2998      *
2999      * NOTE: this method should only be called if a SecurityManager is active
3000      */
3001     private void checkPackageAccess(SecurityManager sm, final ClassLoader ccl,
3002                                     boolean checkProxyInterfaces) {
3003         final ClassLoader cl = getClassLoader0();
3004 
3005         if (ReflectUtil.needsPackageAccessCheck(ccl, cl)) {
3006             String pkg = this.getPackageName();
3007             if (pkg != null && !pkg.isEmpty()) {
3008                 // skip the package access check on a proxy class in default proxy package
3009                 if (!Proxy.isProxyClass(this) || ReflectUtil.isNonPublicProxyClass(this)) {
3010                     sm.checkPackageAccess(pkg);
3011                 }
3012             }
3013         }
3014         // check package access on the proxy interfaces
3015         if (checkProxyInterfaces && Proxy.isProxyClass(this)) {
3016             ReflectUtil.checkProxyPackageAccess(ccl, this.getInterfaces());
3017         }
3018     }
3019 
3020     /**
3021      * Add a package name prefix if the name is not absolute Remove leading "/"
3022      * if name is absolute
3023      */
3024     private String resolveName(String name) {
3025         if (!name.startsWith("/")) {
3026             Class<?> c = this;
3027             while (c.isArray()) {
3028                 c = c.getComponentType();
3029             }
3030             String baseName = c.getPackageName();
3031             if (baseName != null && !baseName.isEmpty()) {
3032                 name = baseName.replace('.', '/') + "/" + name;
3033             }
3034         } else {
3035             name = name.substring(1);
3036         }
3037         return name;
3038     }
3039 
3040     /**
3041      * Atomic operations support.
3042      */
3043     private static class Atomic {
3044         // initialize Unsafe machinery here, since we need to call Class.class instance method
3045         // and have to avoid calling it in the static initializer of the Class class...
3046         private static final Unsafe unsafe = Unsafe.getUnsafe();
3047         // offset of Class.reflectionData instance field
3048         private static final long reflectionDataOffset
3049                 = unsafe.objectFieldOffset(Class.class, "reflectionData");
3050         // offset of Class.annotationType instance field
3051         private static final long annotationTypeOffset
3052                 = unsafe.objectFieldOffset(Class.class, "annotationType");
3053         // offset of Class.annotationData instance field
3054         private static final long annotationDataOffset
3055                 = unsafe.objectFieldOffset(Class.class, "annotationData");
3056 
3057         static <T> boolean casReflectionData(Class<?> clazz,
3058                                              SoftReference<ReflectionData<T>> oldData,
3059                                              SoftReference<ReflectionData<T>> newData) {
3060             return unsafe.compareAndSetReference(clazz, reflectionDataOffset, oldData, newData);
3061         }
3062 
3063         static <T> boolean casAnnotationType(Class<?> clazz,
3064                                              AnnotationType oldType,
3065                                              AnnotationType newType) {
3066             return unsafe.compareAndSetReference(clazz, annotationTypeOffset, oldType, newType);
3067         }
3068 
3069         static <T> boolean casAnnotationData(Class<?> clazz,
3070                                              AnnotationData oldData,
3071                                              AnnotationData newData) {
3072             return unsafe.compareAndSetReference(clazz, annotationDataOffset, oldData, newData);
3073         }
3074     }
3075 
3076     /**
3077      * Reflection support.
3078      */
3079 
3080     // Reflection data caches various derived names and reflective members. Cached
3081     // values may be invalidated when JVM TI RedefineClasses() is called
3082     private static class ReflectionData<T> {
3083         volatile Field[] declaredFields;
3084         volatile Field[] publicFields;
3085         volatile Method[] declaredMethods;
3086         volatile Method[] publicMethods;
3087         volatile Constructor<T>[] declaredConstructors;
3088         volatile Constructor<T>[] publicConstructors;
3089         // Intermediate results for getFields and getMethods
3090         volatile Field[] declaredPublicFields;
3091         volatile Method[] declaredPublicMethods;
3092         volatile Class<?>[] interfaces;
3093 
3094         // Cached names
3095         String simpleName;
3096         String canonicalName;
3097         static final String NULL_SENTINEL = new String();
3098 
3099         // Value of classRedefinedCount when we created this ReflectionData instance
3100         final int redefinedCount;
3101 
3102         ReflectionData(int redefinedCount) {
3103             this.redefinedCount = redefinedCount;
3104         }
3105     }
3106 
3107     private transient volatile SoftReference<ReflectionData<T>> reflectionData;
3108 
3109     // Incremented by the VM on each call to JVM TI RedefineClasses()
3110     // that redefines this class or a superclass.
3111     private transient volatile int classRedefinedCount;
3112 
3113     // Lazily create and cache ReflectionData
3114     private ReflectionData<T> reflectionData() {
3115         SoftReference<ReflectionData<T>> reflectionData = this.reflectionData;
3116         int classRedefinedCount = this.classRedefinedCount;
3117         ReflectionData<T> rd;
3118         if (reflectionData != null &&
3119             (rd = reflectionData.get()) != null &&
3120             rd.redefinedCount == classRedefinedCount) {
3121             return rd;
3122         }
3123         // else no SoftReference or cleared SoftReference or stale ReflectionData
3124         // -> create and replace new instance
3125         return newReflectionData(reflectionData, classRedefinedCount);
3126     }
3127 
3128     private ReflectionData<T> newReflectionData(SoftReference<ReflectionData<T>> oldReflectionData,
3129                                                 int classRedefinedCount) {
3130         while (true) {
3131             ReflectionData<T> rd = new ReflectionData<>(classRedefinedCount);
3132             // try to CAS it...
3133             if (Atomic.casReflectionData(this, oldReflectionData, new SoftReference<>(rd))) {
3134                 return rd;
3135             }
3136             // else retry
3137             oldReflectionData = this.reflectionData;
3138             classRedefinedCount = this.classRedefinedCount;
3139             if (oldReflectionData != null &&
3140                 (rd = oldReflectionData.get()) != null &&
3141                 rd.redefinedCount == classRedefinedCount) {
3142                 return rd;
3143             }
3144         }
3145     }
3146 
3147     // Generic signature handling
3148     private native String getGenericSignature0();
3149 
3150     // Generic info repository; lazily initialized
3151     private transient volatile ClassRepository genericInfo;
3152 
3153     // accessor for factory
3154     private GenericsFactory getFactory() {
3155         // create scope and factory
3156         return CoreReflectionFactory.make(this, ClassScope.make(this));
3157     }
3158 
3159     // accessor for generic info repository;
3160     // generic info is lazily initialized
3161     private ClassRepository getGenericInfo() {
3162         ClassRepository genericInfo = this.genericInfo;
3163         if (genericInfo == null) {
3164             String signature = getGenericSignature0();
3165             if (signature == null) {
3166                 genericInfo = ClassRepository.NONE;
3167             } else {
3168                 genericInfo = ClassRepository.make(signature, getFactory());
3169             }
3170             this.genericInfo = genericInfo;
3171         }
3172         return (genericInfo != ClassRepository.NONE) ? genericInfo : null;
3173     }
3174 
3175     // Annotations handling
3176     native byte[] getRawAnnotations();
3177     // Since 1.8
3178     native byte[] getRawTypeAnnotations();
3179     static byte[] getExecutableTypeAnnotationBytes(Executable ex) {
3180         return getReflectionFactory().getExecutableTypeAnnotationBytes(ex);
3181     }
3182 
3183     native ConstantPool getConstantPool();
3184 
3185     //
3186     //
3187     // java.lang.reflect.Field handling
3188     //
3189     //
3190 
3191     // Returns an array of "root" fields. These Field objects must NOT
3192     // be propagated to the outside world, but must instead be copied
3193     // via ReflectionFactory.copyField.
3194     private Field[] privateGetDeclaredFields(boolean publicOnly) {
3195         Field[] res;
3196         ReflectionData<T> rd = reflectionData();
3197         if (rd != null) {
3198             res = publicOnly ? rd.declaredPublicFields : rd.declaredFields;
3199             if (res != null) return res;
3200         }
3201         // No cached value available; request value from VM
3202         res = Reflection.filterFields(this, getDeclaredFields0(publicOnly));
3203         if (rd != null) {
3204             if (publicOnly) {
3205                 rd.declaredPublicFields = res;
3206             } else {
3207                 rd.declaredFields = res;
3208             }
3209         }
3210         return res;
3211     }
3212 
3213     // Returns an array of "root" fields. These Field objects must NOT
3214     // be propagated to the outside world, but must instead be copied
3215     // via ReflectionFactory.copyField.
3216     private Field[] privateGetPublicFields() {
3217         Field[] res;
3218         ReflectionData<T> rd = reflectionData();
3219         if (rd != null) {
3220             res = rd.publicFields;
3221             if (res != null) return res;
3222         }
3223 
3224         // Use a linked hash set to ensure order is preserved and
3225         // fields from common super interfaces are not duplicated
3226         LinkedHashSet<Field> fields = new LinkedHashSet<>();
3227 
3228         // Local fields
3229         addAll(fields, privateGetDeclaredFields(true));
3230 
3231         // Direct superinterfaces, recursively
3232         for (Class<?> si : getInterfaces()) {
3233             addAll(fields, si.privateGetPublicFields());
3234         }
3235 
3236         // Direct superclass, recursively
3237         Class<?> sc = getSuperclass();
3238         if (sc != null) {
3239             addAll(fields, sc.privateGetPublicFields());
3240         }
3241 
3242         res = fields.toArray(new Field[0]);
3243         if (rd != null) {
3244             rd.publicFields = res;
3245         }
3246         return res;
3247     }
3248 
3249     private static void addAll(Collection<Field> c, Field[] o) {
3250         for (Field f : o) {
3251             c.add(f);
3252         }
3253     }
3254 
3255 
3256     //
3257     //
3258     // java.lang.reflect.Constructor handling
3259     //
3260     //
3261 
3262     // Returns an array of "root" constructors. These Constructor
3263     // objects must NOT be propagated to the outside world, but must
3264     // instead be copied via ReflectionFactory.copyConstructor.
3265     private Constructor<T>[] privateGetDeclaredConstructors(boolean publicOnly) {
3266         Constructor<T>[] res;
3267         ReflectionData<T> rd = reflectionData();
3268         if (rd != null) {
3269             res = publicOnly ? rd.publicConstructors : rd.declaredConstructors;
3270             if (res != null) return res;
3271         }
3272         // No cached value available; request value from VM
3273         if (isInterface()) {
3274             @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
3275             Constructor<T>[] temporaryRes = (Constructor<T>[]) new Constructor<?>[0];
3276             res = temporaryRes;
3277         } else {
3278             res = getDeclaredConstructors0(publicOnly);
3279         }
3280         if (rd != null) {
3281             if (publicOnly) {
3282                 rd.publicConstructors = res;
3283             } else {
3284                 rd.declaredConstructors = res;
3285             }
3286         }
3287         return res;
3288     }
3289 
3290     //
3291     //
3292     // java.lang.reflect.Method handling
3293     //
3294     //
3295 
3296     // Returns an array of "root" methods. These Method objects must NOT
3297     // be propagated to the outside world, but must instead be copied
3298     // via ReflectionFactory.copyMethod.
3299     private Method[] privateGetDeclaredMethods(boolean publicOnly) {
3300         Method[] res;
3301         ReflectionData<T> rd = reflectionData();
3302         if (rd != null) {
3303             res = publicOnly ? rd.declaredPublicMethods : rd.declaredMethods;
3304             if (res != null) return res;
3305         }
3306         // No cached value available; request value from VM
3307         res = Reflection.filterMethods(this, getDeclaredMethods0(publicOnly));
3308         if (rd != null) {
3309             if (publicOnly) {
3310                 rd.declaredPublicMethods = res;
3311             } else {
3312                 rd.declaredMethods = res;
3313             }
3314         }
3315         return res;
3316     }
3317 
3318     // Returns an array of "root" methods. These Method objects must NOT
3319     // be propagated to the outside world, but must instead be copied
3320     // via ReflectionFactory.copyMethod.
3321     private Method[] privateGetPublicMethods() {
3322         Method[] res;
3323         ReflectionData<T> rd = reflectionData();
3324         if (rd != null) {
3325             res = rd.publicMethods;
3326             if (res != null) return res;
3327         }
3328 
3329         // No cached value available; compute value recursively.
3330         // Start by fetching public declared methods...
3331         PublicMethods pms = new PublicMethods();
3332         for (Method m : privateGetDeclaredMethods(/* publicOnly */ true)) {
3333             pms.merge(m);
3334         }
3335         // ...then recur over superclass methods...
3336         Class<?> sc = getSuperclass();
3337         if (sc != null) {
3338             for (Method m : sc.privateGetPublicMethods()) {
3339                 pms.merge(m);
3340             }
3341         }
3342         // ...and finally over direct superinterfaces.
3343         for (Class<?> intf : getInterfaces(/* cloneArray */ false)) {
3344             for (Method m : intf.privateGetPublicMethods()) {
3345                 // static interface methods are not inherited
3346                 if (!Modifier.isStatic(m.getModifiers())) {
3347                     pms.merge(m);
3348                 }
3349             }
3350         }
3351 
3352         res = pms.toArray();
3353         if (rd != null) {
3354             rd.publicMethods = res;
3355         }
3356         return res;
3357     }
3358 
3359 
3360     //
3361     // Helpers for fetchers of one field, method, or constructor
3362     //
3363 
3364     // This method does not copy the returned Field object!
3365     private static Field searchFields(Field[] fields, String name) {
3366         for (Field field : fields) {
3367             if (field.getName().equals(name)) {
3368                 return field;
3369             }
3370         }
3371         return null;
3372     }
3373 
3374     // Returns a "root" Field object. This Field object must NOT
3375     // be propagated to the outside world, but must instead be copied
3376     // via ReflectionFactory.copyField.
3377     private Field getField0(String name) {
3378         // Note: the intent is that the search algorithm this routine
3379         // uses be equivalent to the ordering imposed by
3380         // privateGetPublicFields(). It fetches only the declared
3381         // public fields for each class, however, to reduce the number
3382         // of Field objects which have to be created for the common
3383         // case where the field being requested is declared in the
3384         // class which is being queried.
3385         Field res;
3386         // Search declared public fields
3387         if ((res = searchFields(privateGetDeclaredFields(true), name)) != null) {
3388             return res;
3389         }
3390         // Direct superinterfaces, recursively
3391         Class<?>[] interfaces = getInterfaces(/* cloneArray */ false);
3392         for (Class<?> c : interfaces) {
3393             if ((res = c.getField0(name)) != null) {
3394                 return res;
3395             }
3396         }
3397         // Direct superclass, recursively
3398         if (!isInterface()) {
3399             Class<?> c = getSuperclass();
3400             if (c != null) {
3401                 if ((res = c.getField0(name)) != null) {
3402                     return res;
3403                 }
3404             }
3405         }
3406         return null;
3407     }
3408 
3409     // This method does not copy the returned Method object!
3410     private static Method searchMethods(Method[] methods,
3411                                         String name,
3412                                         Class<?>[] parameterTypes)
3413     {
3414         ReflectionFactory fact = getReflectionFactory();
3415         Method res = null;
3416         for (Method m : methods) {
3417             if (m.getName().equals(name)
3418                 && arrayContentsEq(parameterTypes,
3419                                    fact.getExecutableSharedParameterTypes(m))
3420                 && (res == null
3421                     || (res.getReturnType() != m.getReturnType()
3422                         && res.getReturnType().isAssignableFrom(m.getReturnType()))))
3423                 res = m;
3424         }
3425         return res;
3426     }
3427 
3428     private static final Class<?>[] EMPTY_CLASS_ARRAY = new Class<?>[0];
3429 
3430     // Returns a "root" Method object. This Method object must NOT
3431     // be propagated to the outside world, but must instead be copied
3432     // via ReflectionFactory.copyMethod.
3433     private Method getMethod0(String name, Class<?>[] parameterTypes) {
3434         PublicMethods.MethodList res = getMethodsRecursive(
3435             name,
3436             parameterTypes == null ? EMPTY_CLASS_ARRAY : parameterTypes,
3437             /* includeStatic */ true);
3438         return res == null ? null : res.getMostSpecific();
3439     }
3440 
3441     // Returns a list of "root" Method objects. These Method objects must NOT
3442     // be propagated to the outside world, but must instead be copied
3443     // via ReflectionFactory.copyMethod.
3444     private PublicMethods.MethodList getMethodsRecursive(String name,
3445                                                          Class<?>[] parameterTypes,
3446                                                          boolean includeStatic) {
3447         // 1st check declared public methods
3448         Method[] methods = privateGetDeclaredMethods(/* publicOnly */ true);
3449         PublicMethods.MethodList res = PublicMethods.MethodList
3450             .filter(methods, name, parameterTypes, includeStatic);
3451         // if there is at least one match among declared methods, we need not
3452         // search any further as such match surely overrides matching methods
3453         // declared in superclass(es) or interface(s).
3454         if (res != null) {
3455             return res;
3456         }
3457 
3458         // if there was no match among declared methods,
3459         // we must consult the superclass (if any) recursively...
3460         Class<?> sc = getSuperclass();
3461         if (sc != null) {
3462             res = sc.getMethodsRecursive(name, parameterTypes, includeStatic);
3463         }
3464 
3465         // ...and coalesce the superclass methods with methods obtained
3466         // from directly implemented interfaces excluding static methods...
3467         for (Class<?> intf : getInterfaces(/* cloneArray */ false)) {
3468             res = PublicMethods.MethodList.merge(
3469                 res, intf.getMethodsRecursive(name, parameterTypes,
3470                                               /* includeStatic */ false));
3471         }
3472 
3473         return res;
3474     }
3475 
3476     // Returns a "root" Constructor object. This Constructor object must NOT
3477     // be propagated to the outside world, but must instead be copied
3478     // via ReflectionFactory.copyConstructor.
3479     private Constructor<T> getConstructor0(Class<?>[] parameterTypes,
3480                                         int which) throws NoSuchMethodException
3481     {
3482         ReflectionFactory fact = getReflectionFactory();
3483         Constructor<T>[] constructors = privateGetDeclaredConstructors((which == Member.PUBLIC));
3484         for (Constructor<T> constructor : constructors) {
3485             if (arrayContentsEq(parameterTypes,
3486                                 fact.getExecutableSharedParameterTypes(constructor))) {
3487                 return constructor;
3488             }
3489         }
3490         throw new NoSuchMethodException(methodToString("<init>", parameterTypes));
3491     }
3492 
3493     //
3494     // Other helpers and base implementation
3495     //
3496 
3497     private static boolean arrayContentsEq(Object[] a1, Object[] a2) {
3498         if (a1 == null) {
3499             return a2 == null || a2.length == 0;
3500         }
3501 
3502         if (a2 == null) {
3503             return a1.length == 0;
3504         }
3505 
3506         if (a1.length != a2.length) {
3507             return false;
3508         }
3509 
3510         for (int i = 0; i < a1.length; i++) {
3511             if (a1[i] != a2[i]) {
3512                 return false;
3513             }
3514         }
3515 
3516         return true;
3517     }
3518 
3519     private static Field[] copyFields(Field[] arg) {
3520         Field[] out = new Field[arg.length];
3521         ReflectionFactory fact = getReflectionFactory();
3522         for (int i = 0; i < arg.length; i++) {
3523             out[i] = fact.copyField(arg[i]);
3524         }
3525         return out;
3526     }
3527 
3528     private static Method[] copyMethods(Method[] arg) {
3529         Method[] out = new Method[arg.length];
3530         ReflectionFactory fact = getReflectionFactory();
3531         for (int i = 0; i < arg.length; i++) {
3532             out[i] = fact.copyMethod(arg[i]);
3533         }
3534         return out;
3535     }
3536 
3537     private static <U> Constructor<U>[] copyConstructors(Constructor<U>[] arg) {
3538         Constructor<U>[] out = arg.clone();
3539         ReflectionFactory fact = getReflectionFactory();
3540         for (int i = 0; i < out.length; i++) {
3541             out[i] = fact.copyConstructor(out[i]);
3542         }
3543         return out;
3544     }
3545 
3546     private native Field[]       getDeclaredFields0(boolean publicOnly);
3547     private native Method[]      getDeclaredMethods0(boolean publicOnly);
3548     private native Constructor<T>[] getDeclaredConstructors0(boolean publicOnly);
3549     private native Class<?>[]   getDeclaredClasses0();
3550     @SuppressWarnings("preview")
3551     private native RecordComponent[] getRecordComponents0();
3552     private native boolean      isRecord0();
3553 
3554     /**
3555      * Helper method to get the method name from arguments.
3556      */
3557     private String methodToString(String name, Class<?>[] argTypes) {
3558         return getName() + '.' + name +
3559                 ((argTypes == null || argTypes.length == 0) ?
3560                 "()" :
3561                 Arrays.stream(argTypes)
3562                         .map(c -> c == null ? "null" : c.getName())
3563                         .collect(Collectors.joining(",", "(", ")")));
3564     }
3565 
3566     /** use serialVersionUID from JDK 1.1 for interoperability */
3567     @java.io.Serial
3568     private static final long serialVersionUID = 3206093459760846163L;
3569 
3570 
3571     /**
3572      * Class Class is special cased within the Serialization Stream Protocol.
3573      *
3574      * A Class instance is written initially into an ObjectOutputStream in the
3575      * following format:
3576      * <pre>
3577      *      {@code TC_CLASS} ClassDescriptor
3578      *      A ClassDescriptor is a special cased serialization of
3579      *      a {@code java.io.ObjectStreamClass} instance.
3580      * </pre>
3581      * A new handle is generated for the initial time the class descriptor
3582      * is written into the stream. Future references to the class descriptor
3583      * are written as references to the initial class descriptor instance.
3584      *
3585      * @see java.io.ObjectStreamClass
3586      */
3587     @java.io.Serial
3588     private static final ObjectStreamField[] serialPersistentFields =
3589         new ObjectStreamField[0];
3590 
3591 
3592     /**
3593      * Returns the assertion status that would be assigned to this
3594      * class if it were to be initialized at the time this method is invoked.
3595      * If this class has had its assertion status set, the most recent
3596      * setting will be returned; otherwise, if any package default assertion
3597      * status pertains to this class, the most recent setting for the most
3598      * specific pertinent package default assertion status is returned;
3599      * otherwise, if this class is not a system class (i.e., it has a
3600      * class loader) its class loader's default assertion status is returned;
3601      * otherwise, the system class default assertion status is returned.
3602      *
3603      * @apiNote
3604      * Few programmers will have any need for this method; it is provided
3605      * for the benefit of the JDK itself.  (It allows a class to determine at
3606      * the time that it is initialized whether assertions should be enabled.)
3607      * Note that this method is not guaranteed to return the actual
3608      * assertion status that was (or will be) associated with the specified
3609      * class when it was (or will be) initialized.
3610      *
3611      * @return the desired assertion status of the specified class.
3612      * @see    java.lang.ClassLoader#setClassAssertionStatus
3613      * @see    java.lang.ClassLoader#setPackageAssertionStatus
3614      * @see    java.lang.ClassLoader#setDefaultAssertionStatus
3615      * @since  1.4
3616      */
3617     public boolean desiredAssertionStatus() {
3618         ClassLoader loader = getClassLoader0();
3619         // If the loader is null this is a system class, so ask the VM
3620         if (loader == null)
3621             return desiredAssertionStatus0(this);
3622 
3623         // If the classloader has been initialized with the assertion
3624         // directives, ask it. Otherwise, ask the VM.
3625         synchronized(loader.assertionLock) {
3626             if (loader.classAssertionStatus != null) {
3627                 return loader.desiredAssertionStatus(getName());
3628             }
3629         }
3630         return desiredAssertionStatus0(this);
3631     }
3632 
3633     // Retrieves the desired assertion status of this class from the VM
3634     private static native boolean desiredAssertionStatus0(Class<?> clazz);
3635 
3636     /**
3637      * Returns true if and only if this class was declared as an enum in the
3638      * source code.
3639      *
3640      * Note that {@link java.lang.Enum} is not itself an enum type.
3641      *
3642      * Also note that if an enum constant is declared with a class body,
3643      * the class of that enum constant object is an anonymous class
3644      * and <em>not</em> the class of the declaring enum type. The
3645      * {@link Enum#getDeclaringClass} method of an enum constant can
3646      * be used to get the class of the enum type declaring the
3647      * constant.
3648      *
3649      * @return true if and only if this class was declared as an enum in the
3650      *     source code
3651      * @since 1.5
3652      * @jls 8.9.1 Enum Constants
3653      */
3654     public boolean isEnum() {
3655         // An enum must both directly extend java.lang.Enum and have
3656         // the ENUM bit set; classes for specialized enum constants
3657         // don't do the former.
3658         return (this.getModifiers() & ENUM) != 0 &&
3659         this.getSuperclass() == java.lang.Enum.class;
3660     }
3661 
3662     /** java.lang.Record.class */
3663     private static final Class<?> JAVA_LANG_RECORD_CLASS = javaLangRecordClass();
3664     private static Class<?> javaLangRecordClass() {
3665         try {
3666             return Class.forName0("java.lang.Record", false, null, null);
3667         } catch (ClassNotFoundException e) {
3668             throw new InternalError("should not reach here", e);
3669         }
3670     }
3671 
3672     /**
3673      * {@preview Associated with records, a preview feature of the Java language.
3674      *
3675      *           This method is associated with <i>records</i>, a preview
3676      *           feature of the Java language. Preview features
3677      *           may be removed in a future release, or upgraded to permanent
3678      *           features of the Java language.}
3679      *
3680      * Returns {@code true} if and only if this class is a record class.
3681      *
3682      * <p> The {@linkplain #getSuperclass() direct superclass} of a record
3683      * class is {@code java.lang.Record}. A record class has (possibly zero)
3684      * record components, that is, {@link #getRecordComponents()} returns a
3685      * non-null value.
3686      *
3687      * <p> Note that class {@link Record} is not a record type and thus invoking
3688      * this method on class {@code Record} returns {@code false}.
3689      *
3690      * @return true if and only if this class is a record class, otherwise false
3691      * @jls 8.10 Record Types
3692      * @since 14
3693      */
3694     @jdk.internal.PreviewFeature(feature=jdk.internal.PreviewFeature.Feature.RECORDS,
3695                                  essentialAPI=false)
3696     public boolean isRecord() {
3697         return getSuperclass() == JAVA_LANG_RECORD_CLASS && isRecord0();
3698     }
3699 
3700     // Fetches the factory for reflective objects
3701     private static ReflectionFactory getReflectionFactory() {
3702         if (reflectionFactory == null) {
3703             reflectionFactory =
3704                 java.security.AccessController.doPrivileged
3705                     (new ReflectionFactory.GetReflectionFactoryAction());
3706         }
3707         return reflectionFactory;
3708     }
3709     private static ReflectionFactory reflectionFactory;
3710 
3711     /**
3712      * Returns the elements of this enum class or null if this
3713      * Class object does not represent an enum type.
3714      *
3715      * @return an array containing the values comprising the enum class
3716      *     represented by this {@code Class} object in the order they're
3717      *     declared, or null if this {@code Class} object does not
3718      *     represent an enum type
3719      * @since 1.5
3720      */
3721     public T[] getEnumConstants() {
3722         T[] values = getEnumConstantsShared();
3723         return (values != null) ? values.clone() : null;
3724     }
3725 
3726     /**
3727      * Returns the elements of this enum class or null if this
3728      * Class object does not represent an enum type;
3729      * identical to getEnumConstants except that the result is
3730      * uncloned, cached, and shared by all callers.
3731      */
3732     T[] getEnumConstantsShared() {
3733         T[] constants = enumConstants;
3734         if (constants == null) {
3735             if (!isEnum()) return null;
3736             try {
3737                 final Method values = getMethod("values");
3738                 java.security.AccessController.doPrivileged(
3739                     new java.security.PrivilegedAction<>() {
3740                         public Void run() {
3741                                 values.setAccessible(true);
3742                                 return null;
3743                             }
3744                         });
3745                 @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
3746                 T[] temporaryConstants = (T[])values.invoke(null);
3747                 enumConstants = constants = temporaryConstants;
3748             }
3749             // These can happen when users concoct enum-like classes
3750             // that don't comply with the enum spec.
3751             catch (InvocationTargetException | NoSuchMethodException |
3752                    IllegalAccessException ex) { return null; }
3753         }
3754         return constants;
3755     }
3756     private transient volatile T[] enumConstants;
3757 
3758     /**
3759      * Returns a map from simple name to enum constant.  This package-private
3760      * method is used internally by Enum to implement
3761      * {@code public static <T extends Enum<T>> T valueOf(Class<T>, String)}
3762      * efficiently.  Note that the map is returned by this method is
3763      * created lazily on first use.  Typically it won't ever get created.
3764      */
3765     Map<String, T> enumConstantDirectory() {
3766         Map<String, T> directory = enumConstantDirectory;
3767         if (directory == null) {
3768             T[] universe = getEnumConstantsShared();
3769             if (universe == null)
3770                 throw new IllegalArgumentException(
3771                     getName() + " is not an enum type");
3772             directory = new HashMap<>((int)(universe.length / 0.75f) + 1);
3773             for (T constant : universe) {
3774                 directory.put(((Enum<?>)constant).name(), constant);
3775             }
3776             enumConstantDirectory = directory;
3777         }
3778         return directory;
3779     }
3780     private transient volatile Map<String, T> enumConstantDirectory;
3781 
3782     /**
3783      * Casts an object to the class or interface represented
3784      * by this {@code Class} object.
3785      *
3786      * @param obj the object to be cast
3787      * @return the object after casting, or null if obj is null
3788      *
3789      * @throws ClassCastException if the object is not
3790      * null and is not assignable to the type T.
3791      *
3792      * @since 1.5
3793      */
3794     @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
3795     @HotSpotIntrinsicCandidate
3796     public T cast(Object obj) {
3797         if (obj != null && !isInstance(obj))
3798             throw new ClassCastException(cannotCastMsg(obj));
3799         return (T) obj;
3800     }
3801 
3802     private String cannotCastMsg(Object obj) {
3803         return "Cannot cast " + obj.getClass().getName() + " to " + getName();
3804     }
3805 
3806     /**
3807      * Casts this {@code Class} object to represent a subclass of the class
3808      * represented by the specified class object.  Checks that the cast
3809      * is valid, and throws a {@code ClassCastException} if it is not.  If
3810      * this method succeeds, it always returns a reference to this {@code Class} object.
3811      *
3812      * <p>This method is useful when a client needs to "narrow" the type of
3813      * a {@code Class} object to pass it to an API that restricts the
3814      * {@code Class} objects that it is willing to accept.  A cast would
3815      * generate a compile-time warning, as the correctness of the cast
3816      * could not be checked at runtime (because generic types are implemented
3817      * by erasure).
3818      *
3819      * @param <U> the type to cast this {@code Class} object to
3820      * @param clazz the class of the type to cast this {@code Class} object to
3821      * @return this {@code Class} object, cast to represent a subclass of
3822      *    the specified class object.
3823      * @throws ClassCastException if this {@code Class} object does not
3824      *    represent a subclass of the specified class (here "subclass" includes
3825      *    the class itself).
3826      * @since 1.5
3827      */
3828     @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
3829     public <U> Class<? extends U> asSubclass(Class<U> clazz) {
3830         if (clazz.isAssignableFrom(this))
3831             return (Class<? extends U>) this;
3832         else
3833             throw new ClassCastException(this.toString());
3834     }
3835 
3836     /**
3837      * {@inheritDoc}
3838      * <p>Note that any annotation returned by this method is a
3839      * declaration annotation.
3840      *
3841      * @throws NullPointerException {@inheritDoc}
3842      * @since 1.5
3843      */
3844     @Override
3845     @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
3846     public <A extends Annotation> A getAnnotation(Class<A> annotationClass) {
3847         Objects.requireNonNull(annotationClass);
3848 
3849         return (A) annotationData().annotations.get(annotationClass);
3850     }
3851 
3852     /**
3853      * {@inheritDoc}
3854      * @throws NullPointerException {@inheritDoc}
3855      * @since 1.5
3856      */
3857     @Override
3858     public boolean isAnnotationPresent(Class<? extends Annotation> annotationClass) {
3859         return GenericDeclaration.super.isAnnotationPresent(annotationClass);
3860     }
3861 
3862     /**
3863      * {@inheritDoc}
3864      * <p>Note that any annotations returned by this method are
3865      * declaration annotations.
3866      *
3867      * @throws NullPointerException {@inheritDoc}
3868      * @since 1.8
3869      */
3870     @Override
3871     public <A extends Annotation> A[] getAnnotationsByType(Class<A> annotationClass) {
3872         Objects.requireNonNull(annotationClass);
3873 
3874         AnnotationData annotationData = annotationData();
3875         return AnnotationSupport.getAssociatedAnnotations(annotationData.declaredAnnotations,
3876                                                           this,
3877                                                           annotationClass);
3878     }
3879 
3880     /**
3881      * {@inheritDoc}
3882      * <p>Note that any annotations returned by this method are
3883      * declaration annotations.
3884      *
3885      * @since 1.5
3886      */
3887     @Override
3888     public Annotation[] getAnnotations() {
3889         return AnnotationParser.toArray(annotationData().annotations);
3890     }
3891 
3892     /**
3893      * {@inheritDoc}
3894      * <p>Note that any annotation returned by this method is a
3895      * declaration annotation.
3896      *
3897      * @throws NullPointerException {@inheritDoc}
3898      * @since 1.8
3899      */
3900     @Override
3901     @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
3902     public <A extends Annotation> A getDeclaredAnnotation(Class<A> annotationClass) {
3903         Objects.requireNonNull(annotationClass);
3904 
3905         return (A) annotationData().declaredAnnotations.get(annotationClass);
3906     }
3907 
3908     /**
3909      * {@inheritDoc}
3910      * <p>Note that any annotations returned by this method are
3911      * declaration annotations.
3912      *
3913      * @throws NullPointerException {@inheritDoc}
3914      * @since 1.8
3915      */
3916     @Override
3917     public <A extends Annotation> A[] getDeclaredAnnotationsByType(Class<A> annotationClass) {
3918         Objects.requireNonNull(annotationClass);
3919 
3920         return AnnotationSupport.getDirectlyAndIndirectlyPresent(annotationData().declaredAnnotations,
3921                                                                  annotationClass);
3922     }
3923 
3924     /**
3925      * {@inheritDoc}
3926      * <p>Note that any annotations returned by this method are
3927      * declaration annotations.
3928      *
3929      * @since 1.5
3930      */
3931     @Override
3932     public Annotation[] getDeclaredAnnotations()  {
3933         return AnnotationParser.toArray(annotationData().declaredAnnotations);
3934     }
3935 
3936     // annotation data that might get invalidated when JVM TI RedefineClasses() is called
3937     private static class AnnotationData {
3938         final Map<Class<? extends Annotation>, Annotation> annotations;
3939         final Map<Class<? extends Annotation>, Annotation> declaredAnnotations;
3940 
3941         // Value of classRedefinedCount when we created this AnnotationData instance
3942         final int redefinedCount;
3943 
3944         AnnotationData(Map<Class<? extends Annotation>, Annotation> annotations,
3945                        Map<Class<? extends Annotation>, Annotation> declaredAnnotations,
3946                        int redefinedCount) {
3947             this.annotations = annotations;
3948             this.declaredAnnotations = declaredAnnotations;
3949             this.redefinedCount = redefinedCount;
3950         }
3951     }
3952 
3953     // Annotations cache
3954     @SuppressWarnings("UnusedDeclaration")
3955     private transient volatile AnnotationData annotationData;
3956 
3957     private AnnotationData annotationData() {
3958         while (true) { // retry loop
3959             AnnotationData annotationData = this.annotationData;
3960             int classRedefinedCount = this.classRedefinedCount;
3961             if (annotationData != null &&
3962                 annotationData.redefinedCount == classRedefinedCount) {
3963                 return annotationData;
3964             }
3965             // null or stale annotationData -> optimistically create new instance
3966             AnnotationData newAnnotationData = createAnnotationData(classRedefinedCount);
3967             // try to install it
3968             if (Atomic.casAnnotationData(this, annotationData, newAnnotationData)) {
3969                 // successfully installed new AnnotationData
3970                 return newAnnotationData;
3971             }
3972         }
3973     }
3974 
3975     private AnnotationData createAnnotationData(int classRedefinedCount) {
3976         Map<Class<? extends Annotation>, Annotation> declaredAnnotations =
3977             AnnotationParser.parseAnnotations(getRawAnnotations(), getConstantPool(), this);
3978         Class<?> superClass = getSuperclass();
3979         Map<Class<? extends Annotation>, Annotation> annotations = null;
3980         if (superClass != null) {
3981             Map<Class<? extends Annotation>, Annotation> superAnnotations =
3982                 superClass.annotationData().annotations;
3983             for (Map.Entry<Class<? extends Annotation>, Annotation> e : superAnnotations.entrySet()) {
3984                 Class<? extends Annotation> annotationClass = e.getKey();
3985                 if (AnnotationType.getInstance(annotationClass).isInherited()) {
3986                     if (annotations == null) { // lazy construction
3987                         annotations = new LinkedHashMap<>((Math.max(
3988                                 declaredAnnotations.size(),
3989                                 Math.min(12, declaredAnnotations.size() + superAnnotations.size())
3990                             ) * 4 + 2) / 3
3991                         );
3992                     }
3993                     annotations.put(annotationClass, e.getValue());
3994                 }
3995             }
3996         }
3997         if (annotations == null) {
3998             // no inherited annotations -> share the Map with declaredAnnotations
3999             annotations = declaredAnnotations;
4000         } else {
4001             // at least one inherited annotation -> declared may override inherited
4002             annotations.putAll(declaredAnnotations);
4003         }
4004         return new AnnotationData(annotations, declaredAnnotations, classRedefinedCount);
4005     }
4006 
4007     // Annotation types cache their internal (AnnotationType) form
4008 
4009     @SuppressWarnings("UnusedDeclaration")
4010     private transient volatile AnnotationType annotationType;
4011 
4012     boolean casAnnotationType(AnnotationType oldType, AnnotationType newType) {
4013         return Atomic.casAnnotationType(this, oldType, newType);
4014     }
4015 
4016     AnnotationType getAnnotationType() {
4017         return annotationType;
4018     }
4019 
4020     Map<Class<? extends Annotation>, Annotation> getDeclaredAnnotationMap() {
4021         return annotationData().declaredAnnotations;
4022     }
4023 
4024     /* Backing store of user-defined values pertaining to this class.
4025      * Maintained by the ClassValue class.
4026      */
4027     transient ClassValue.ClassValueMap classValueMap;
4028 
4029     /**
4030      * Returns an {@code AnnotatedType} object that represents the use of a
4031      * type to specify the superclass of the entity represented by this {@code
4032      * Class} object. (The <em>use</em> of type Foo to specify the superclass
4033      * in '...  extends Foo' is distinct from the <em>declaration</em> of type
4034      * Foo.)
4035      *
4036      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents a type whose declaration
4037      * does not explicitly indicate an annotated superclass, then the return
4038      * value is an {@code AnnotatedType} object representing an element with no
4039      * annotations.
4040      *
4041      * <p> If this {@code Class} represents either the {@code Object} class, an
4042      * interface type, an array type, a primitive type, or void, the return
4043      * value is {@code null}.
4044      *
4045      * @return an object representing the superclass
4046      * @since 1.8
4047      */
4048     public AnnotatedType getAnnotatedSuperclass() {
4049         if (this == Object.class ||
4050                 isInterface() ||
4051                 isArray() ||
4052                 isPrimitive() ||
4053                 this == Void.TYPE) {
4054             return null;
4055         }
4056 
4057         return TypeAnnotationParser.buildAnnotatedSuperclass(getRawTypeAnnotations(), getConstantPool(), this);
4058     }
4059 
4060     /**
4061      * Returns an array of {@code AnnotatedType} objects that represent the use
4062      * of types to specify superinterfaces of the entity represented by this
4063      * {@code Class} object. (The <em>use</em> of type Foo to specify a
4064      * superinterface in '... implements Foo' is distinct from the
4065      * <em>declaration</em> of type Foo.)
4066      *
4067      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents a class, the return value is
4068      * an array containing objects representing the uses of interface types to
4069      * specify interfaces implemented by the class. The order of the objects in
4070      * the array corresponds to the order of the interface types used in the
4071      * 'implements' clause of the declaration of this {@code Class} object.
4072      *
4073      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents an interface, the return
4074      * value is an array containing objects representing the uses of interface
4075      * types to specify interfaces directly extended by the interface. The
4076      * order of the objects in the array corresponds to the order of the
4077      * interface types used in the 'extends' clause of the declaration of this
4078      * {@code Class} object.
4079      *
4080      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents a class or interface whose
4081      * declaration does not explicitly indicate any annotated superinterfaces,
4082      * the return value is an array of length 0.
4083      *
4084      * <p> If this {@code Class} object represents either the {@code Object}
4085      * class, an array type, a primitive type, or void, the return value is an
4086      * array of length 0.
4087      *
4088      * @return an array representing the superinterfaces
4089      * @since 1.8
4090      */
4091     public AnnotatedType[] getAnnotatedInterfaces() {
4092          return TypeAnnotationParser.buildAnnotatedInterfaces(getRawTypeAnnotations(), getConstantPool(), this);
4093     }
4094 
4095     private native Class<?> getNestHost0();
4096 
4097     /**
4098      * Returns the nest host of the <a href=#nest>nest</a> to which the class
4099      * or interface represented by this {@code Class} object belongs.
4100      * Every class and interface belongs to exactly one nest.
4101      *
4102      * If the nest host of this class or interface has previously
4103      * been determined, then this method returns the nest host.
4104      * If the nest host of this class or interface has
4105      * not previously been determined, then this method determines the nest
4106      * host using the algorithm of JVMS 5.4.4, and returns it.
4107      *
4108      * Often, a class or interface belongs to a nest consisting only of itself,
4109      * in which case this method returns {@code this} to indicate that the class
4110      * or interface is the nest host.
4111      *
4112      * <p>If this {@code Class} object represents a primitive type, an array type,
4113      * or {@code void}, then this method returns {@code this},
4114      * indicating that the represented entity belongs to the nest consisting only of
4115      * itself, and is the nest host.
4116      *
4117      * @return the nest host of this class or interface
4118      *
4119      * @throws SecurityException
4120      *         If the returned class is not the current class, and
4121      *         if a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and the caller's
4122      *         class loader is not the same as or an ancestor of the class
4123      *         loader for the returned class and invocation of {@link
4124      *         SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess s.checkPackageAccess()}
4125      *         denies access to the package of the returned class
4126      * @since 11
4127      * @jvms 4.7.28 The {@code NestHost} Attribute
4128      * @jvms 4.7.29 The {@code NestMembers} Attribute
4129      * @jvms 5.4.4 Access Control
4130      */
4131     @CallerSensitive
4132     public Class<?> getNestHost() {
4133         if (isPrimitive() || isArray()) {
4134             return this;
4135         }
4136 
4137         Class<?> host = getNestHost0();
4138         if (host == this) {
4139             return this;
4140         }
4141         // returning a different class requires a security check
4142         SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
4143         if (sm != null) {
4144             checkPackageAccess(sm,
4145                                ClassLoader.getClassLoader(Reflection.getCallerClass()), true);
4146         }
4147         return host;
4148     }
4149 
4150     /**
4151      * Determines if the given {@code Class} is a nestmate of the
4152      * class or interface represented by this {@code Class} object.
4153      * Two classes or interfaces are nestmates
4154      * if they have the same {@linkplain #getNestHost() nest host}.
4155      *
4156      * @param c the class to check
4157      * @return {@code true} if this class and {@code c} are members of
4158      * the same nest; and {@code false} otherwise.
4159      *
4160      * @since 11
4161      */
4162     public boolean isNestmateOf(Class<?> c) {
4163         if (this == c) {
4164             return true;
4165         }
4166         if (isPrimitive() || isArray() ||
4167             c.isPrimitive() || c.isArray()) {
4168             return false;
4169         }
4170 
4171         return getNestHost() == c.getNestHost();
4172     }
4173 
4174     private native Class<?>[] getNestMembers0();
4175 
4176     /**
4177      * Returns an array containing {@code Class} objects representing all the
4178      * classes and interfaces that are members of the nest to which the class
4179      * or interface represented by this {@code Class} object belongs.
4180      *
4181      * First, this method obtains the {@linkplain #getNestHost() nest host},
4182      * {@code H}, of the nest to which the class or interface represented by
4183      * this {@code Class} object belongs. The zeroth element of the returned
4184      * array is {@code H}.
4185      *
4186      * Then, for each class or interface {@code C} which is recorded by {@code H}
4187      * as being a member of its nest, this method attempts to obtain the {@code Class}
4188      * object for {@code C} (using {@linkplain #getClassLoader() the defining class
4189      * loader} of the current {@code Class} object), and then obtains the
4190      * {@linkplain #getNestHost() nest host} of the nest to which {@code C} belongs.
4191      * The classes and interfaces which are recorded by {@code H} as being members
4192      * of its nest, and for which {@code H} can be determined as their nest host,
4193      * are indicated by subsequent elements of the returned array. The order of
4194      * such elements is unspecified. Duplicates are permitted.
4195      *
4196      * <p>If this {@code Class} object represents a primitive type, an array type,
4197      * or {@code void}, then this method returns a single-element array containing
4198      * {@code this}.
4199      *
4200      * @apiNote
4201      * The returned array includes only the nest members recorded in the {@code NestMembers}
4202      * attribute, and not any hidden classes that were added to the nest via
4203      * {@link MethodHandles.Lookup#defineHiddenClass(byte[], boolean, MethodHandles.Lookup.ClassOption...)
4204      * Lookup::defineHiddenClass}.
4205      *
4206      * @return an array of all classes and interfaces in the same nest as
4207      * this class or interface
4208      *
4209      * @throws SecurityException
4210      * If any returned class is not the current class, and
4211      * if a security manager, <i>s</i>, is present and the caller's
4212      * class loader is not the same as or an ancestor of the class
4213      * loader for that returned class and invocation of {@link
4214      * SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess s.checkPackageAccess()}
4215      * denies access to the package of that returned class
4216      *
4217      * @since 11
4218      * @see #getNestHost()
4219      * @jvms 4.7.28 The {@code NestHost} Attribute
4220      * @jvms 4.7.29 The {@code NestMembers} Attribute
4221      */
4222     @CallerSensitive
4223     public Class<?>[] getNestMembers() {
4224         if (isPrimitive() || isArray()) {
4225             return new Class<?>[] { this };
4226         }
4227         Class<?>[] members = getNestMembers0();
4228         // Can't actually enable this due to bootstrapping issues
4229         // assert(members.length != 1 || members[0] == this); // expected invariant from VM
4230 
4231         if (members.length > 1) {
4232             // If we return anything other than the current class we need
4233             // a security check
4234             SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
4235             if (sm != null) {
4236                 checkPackageAccess(sm,
4237                                    ClassLoader.getClassLoader(Reflection.getCallerClass()), true);
4238             }
4239         }
4240         return members;
4241     }
4242 
4243     /**
4244      * Returns the type descriptor string for this class.
4245      * <p>
4246      * Note that this is not a strict inverse of {@link #forName};












































4247      * distinct classes which share a common name but have different class loaders
4248      * will have identical descriptor strings.
4249      *
4250      * @return the type descriptor representation
4251      * @jvms 4.3.2 Field Descriptors
4252      * @since 12
4253      */
4254     @Override
4255     public String descriptorString() {
4256         if (isPrimitive())
4257             return Wrapper.forPrimitiveType(this).basicTypeString();
4258         else if (isArray()) {

4259             return "[" + componentType.descriptorString();
4260         }
4261         else {




4262             return "L" + getName().replace('.', '/') + ";";
4263         }
4264     }
4265 
4266     /**
4267      * Returns the component type of this {@code Class}, if it describes
4268      * an array type, or {@code null} otherwise.
4269      *
4270      * @implSpec
4271      * Equivalent to {@link Class#getComponentType()}.
4272      *
4273      * @return a {@code Class} describing the component type, or {@code null}
4274      * if this {@code Class} does not describe an array type
4275      * @since 12
4276      */
4277     @Override
4278     public Class<?> componentType() {
4279         return isArray() ? componentType : null;
4280     }
4281 
4282     /**
4283      * Returns a {@code Class} for an array type whose component type
4284      * is described by this {@linkplain Class}.
4285      *
4286      * @return a {@code Class} describing the array type
4287      * @since 12
4288      */
4289     @Override
4290     public Class<?> arrayType() {
4291         return Array.newInstance(this, 0).getClass();
4292     }
4293 
4294     /**
4295      * Returns a nominal descriptor for this instance, if one can be
4296      * constructed, or an empty {@link Optional} if one cannot be.
4297      *
4298      * @return An {@link Optional} containing the resulting nominal descriptor,
4299      * or an empty {@link Optional} if one cannot be constructed.
4300      * @since 12
4301      */
4302     @Override
4303     public Optional<ClassDesc> describeConstable() {
4304         return Optional.of(ClassDesc.ofDescriptor(descriptorString()));


4305    }
4306 
4307     /**
4308      * Returns {@code true} if and only if the underlying class is a hidden class.
4309      *
4310      * @return {@code true} if and only if this class is a hidden class.
4311      *
4312      * @since 15
4313      * @see MethodHandles.Lookup#defineHiddenClass
4314      */
4315     @HotSpotIntrinsicCandidate
4316     public native boolean isHidden();
4317 
4318 }
--- EOF ---