1 #
   2 # DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
   3 #
   4 # This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   5 # under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
   6 # published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
   7 # particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
   8 # by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
   9 #
  10 # This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  11 # ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  12 # FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  13 # version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  14 # accompanied this code).
  15 #
  16 # You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  17 # 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  18 # Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  19 #
  20 # Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  21 # or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  22 # questions.
  23 #
  24 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
  25 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
  26 
  27 # also includes Central America and the Caribbean
  28 
  29 # This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
  30 # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
  31 # tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
  32 # the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
  33 
  34 # From Paul Eggert (1999-03-22):
  35 # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
  36 # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
  37 
  38 ###############################################################################
  39 
  40 # United States
  41 
  42 # From Paul Eggert (1999-03-31):
  43 # Howse writes (pp 121-125) that time zones were invented by
  44 # Professor Charles Ferdinand Dowd (1825-1904),
  45 # Principal of Temple Grove Ladies' Seminary (Saratoga Springs, NY).
  46 # His pamphlet "A System of National Time for Railroads" (1870)
  47 # was the result of his proposals at the Convention of Railroad Trunk Lines
  48 # in New York City (1869-10).  His 1870 proposal was based on Washington, DC,
  49 # but in 1872-05 he moved the proposed origin to Greenwich.
  50 # His proposal was adopted by the railroads on 1883-11-18 at 12:00,
  51 # and the most of the country soon followed suit.
  52 
  53 # From Paul Eggert (2005-04-16):
  54 # That 1883 transition occurred at 12:00 new time, not at 12:00 old time.
  55 # See p 46 of David Prerau, Seize the daylight, Thunder's Mouth Press (2005).
  56 
  57 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
  58 # A good source for time zone historical data in the US is
  59 # Thomas G. Shanks, The American Atlas (5th edition),
  60 # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1991).
  61 # Make sure you have the errata sheet; the book is somewhat useless without it.
  62 # It is the source for most of the pre-1991 US entries below.
  63 
  64 # From Paul Eggert (2001-03-06):
  65 # Daylight Saving Time was first suggested as a joke by Benjamin Franklin
  66 # in his whimsical essay "An Economical Project for Diminishing the Cost
  67 # of Light" published in the Journal de Paris (1784-04-26).
  68 # Not everyone is happy with the results:
  69 #
  70 #       I don't really care how time is reckoned so long as there is some
  71 #       agreement about it, but I object to being told that I am saving
  72 #       daylight when my reason tells me that I am doing nothing of the kind.
  73 #       I even object to the implication that I am wasting something
  74 #       valuable if I stay in bed after the sun has risen.  As an admirer
  75 #       of moonlight I resent the bossy insistence of those who want to
  76 #       reduce my time for enjoying it.  At the back of the Daylight Saving
  77 #       scheme I detect the bony, blue-fingered hand of Puritanism, eager
  78 #       to push people into bed earlier, and get them up earlier, to make
  79 #       them healthy, wealthy and wise in spite of themselves.
  80 #
  81 #        -- Robertson Davies, The diary of Samuel Marchbanks,
  82 #          Clarke, Irwin (1947), XIX, Sunday
  83 #
  84 # For more about the first ten years of DST in the United States, see
  85 # Robert Garland, Ten years of daylight saving from the Pittsburgh standpoint
  86 # (Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, 1927).
  87 # http://www.clpgh.org/exhibit/dst.html
  88 #
  89 # Shanks says that DST was called "War Time" in the US in 1918 and 1919.
  90 # However, DST was imposed by the Standard Time Act of 1918, which
  91 # was the first nationwide legal time standard, and apparently
  92 # time was just called "Standard Time" or "Daylight Saving Time".
  93 
  94 # From Arthur David Olson:
  95 # US Daylight Saving Time ended on the last Sunday of *October* in 1974.
  96 # See, for example, the front page of the Saturday, 1974-10-26
  97 # and Sunday, 1974-10-27 editions of the Washington Post.
  98 
  99 # From Arthur David Olson:
 100 # Before the Uniform Time Act of 1966 took effect in 1967, observance of
 101 # Daylight Saving Time in the US was by local option, except during wartime.
 102 
 103 # From Arthur David Olson (2000-09-25):
 104 # Last night I heard part of a rebroadcast of a 1945 Arch Oboler radio drama.
 105 # In the introduction, Oboler spoke of "Eastern Peace Time."
 106 # An AltaVista search turned up:
 107 # http://rowayton.org/rhs/hstaug45.html
 108 # "When the time is announced over the radio now, it is 'Eastern Peace
 109 # Time' instead of the old familiar 'Eastern War Time.'  Peace is wonderful."
 110 # (August 1945) by way of confirmation.
 111 
 112 # From Joseph Gallant citing
 113 # George H. Douglas, _The Early Days of Radio Broadcasting_ (1987):
 114 # At 7 P.M. (Eastern War Time) [on 1945-08-14], the networks were set
 115 # to switch to London for Attlee's address, but the American people
 116 # never got to hear his speech live. According to one press account,
 117 # CBS' Bob Trout was first to announce the word of Japan's surrender,
 118 # but a few seconds later, NBC, ABC and Mutual also flashed the word
 119 # of surrender, all of whom interrupting the bells of Big Ben in
 120 # London which were to precede Mr. Attlee's speech.
 121 
 122 # From Paul Eggert (2003-02-09): It was Robert St John, not Bob Trout.  From
 123 # Myrna Oliver's obituary of St John on page B16 of today's Los Angeles Times:
 124 #
 125 # ... a war-weary U.S. clung to radios, awaiting word of Japan's surrender.
 126 # Any announcement from Asia would reach St. John's New York newsroom on a
 127 # wire service teletype machine, which had prescribed signals for major news.
 128 # Associated Press, for example, would ring five bells before spewing out
 129 # typed copy of an important story, and 10 bells for news "of transcendental
 130 # importance."
 131 #
 132 # On Aug. 14, stalling while talking steadily into the NBC networks' open
 133 # microphone, St. John heard five bells and waited only to hear a sixth bell,
 134 # before announcing confidently: "Ladies and gentlemen, World War II is over.
 135 # The Japanese have agreed to our surrender terms."
 136 #
 137 # He had scored a 20-second scoop on other broadcasters.
 138 
 139 # From Arthur David Olson (2005-08-22):
 140 # Paul has been careful to use the "US" rules only in those locations
 141 # that are part of the United States; this reflects the real scope of
 142 # U.S. government action.  So even though the "US" rules have changed
 143 # in the latest release, other countries won't be affected.
 144 
 145 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 146 Rule    US      1918    1919    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 147 Rule    US      1918    1919    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 148 Rule    US      1942    only    -       Feb     9       2:00    1:00    W # War
 149 Rule    US      1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace
 150 Rule    US      1945    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 151 Rule    US      1967    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 152 Rule    US      1967    1973    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 153 Rule    US      1974    only    -       Jan     6       2:00    1:00    D
 154 Rule    US      1975    only    -       Feb     23      2:00    1:00    D
 155 Rule    US      1976    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 156 Rule    US      1987    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
 157 Rule    US      2007    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
 158 Rule    US      2007    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
 159 
 160 # From Arthur David Olson, 2005-12-19
 161 # We generate the files specified below to guard against old files with
 162 # obsolete information being left in the time zone binary directory.
 163 # We limit the list to names that have appeared in previous versions of
 164 # this time zone package.
 165 # We do these as separate Zones rather than as Links to avoid problems if
 166 # a particular place changes whether it observes DST.
 167 # We put these specifications here in the northamerica file both to
 168 # increase the chances that they'll actually get compiled and to
 169 # avoid the need to duplicate the US rules in another file.
 170 
 171 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 172 Zone    EST              -5:00  -       EST
 173 Zone    MST              -7:00  -       MST
 174 Zone    HST             -10:00  -       HST
 175 Zone    EST5EDT          -5:00  US      E%sT
 176 Zone    CST6CDT          -6:00  US      C%sT
 177 Zone    MST7MDT          -7:00  US      M%sT
 178 Zone    PST8PDT          -8:00  US      P%sT
 179 
 180 # From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
 181 # ...Alaska (and Hawaii) had the timezone names changed in 1967.
 182 #    old                         new
 183 #    Pacific Standard Time(PST)  -same-
 184 #    Yukon Standard Time(YST)    -same-
 185 #    Central Alaska S.T. (CAT)   Alaska-Hawaii St[an]dard Time (AHST)
 186 #    Nome Standard Time (NT)     Bering Standard Time (BST)
 187 #
 188 # ...Alaska's timezone lines were redrawn in 1983 to give only 2 tz.
 189 #    The YST zone now covers nearly all of the state, AHST just part
 190 #    of the Aleutian islands.   No DST.
 191 
 192 # From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19):
 193 # The tables below use 'NST', not 'NT', for Nome Standard Time.
 194 # I invented 'CAWT' for Central Alaska War Time.
 195 
 196 # From U. S. Naval Observatory (1989-01-19):
 197 # USA  EASTERN       5 H  BEHIND UTC    NEW YORK, WASHINGTON
 198 # USA  EASTERN       4 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30
 199 # USA  CENTRAL       6 H  BEHIND UTC    CHICAGO, HOUSTON
 200 # USA  CENTRAL       5 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30
 201 # USA  MOUNTAIN      7 H  BEHIND UTC    DENVER
 202 # USA  MOUNTAIN      6 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30
 203 # USA  PACIFIC       8 H  BEHIND UTC    L.A., SAN FRANCISCO
 204 # USA  PACIFIC       7 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30
 205 # USA  ALASKA STD    9 H  BEHIND UTC    MOST OF ALASKA     (AKST)
 206 # USA  ALASKA STD    8 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30 (AKDT)
 207 # USA  ALEUTIAN     10 H  BEHIND UTC    ISLANDS WEST OF 170W
 208 # USA    "           9 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30
 209 # USA  HAWAII       10 H  BEHIND UTC
 210 # USA  BERING       11 H  BEHIND UTC    SAMOA, MIDWAY
 211 
 212 # From Arthur David Olson (1989-01-21):
 213 # The above dates are for 1988.
 214 # Note the "AKST" and "AKDT" abbreviations, the claim that there's
 215 # no DST in Samoa, and the claim that there is DST in Alaska and the
 216 # Aleutians.
 217 
 218 # From Arthur David Olson (1988-02-13):
 219 # Legal standard time zone names, from United States Code (1982 Edition and
 220 # Supplement III), Title 15, Chapter 6, Section 260 and forward.  First, names
 221 # up to 1967-04-01 (when most provisions of the Uniform Time Act of 1966
 222 # took effect), as explained in sections 263 and 261:
 223 #       (none)
 224 #       United States standard eastern time
 225 #       United States standard mountain time
 226 #       United States standard central time
 227 #       United States standard Pacific time
 228 #       (none)
 229 #       United States standard Alaska time
 230 #       (none)
 231 # Next, names from 1967-04-01 until 1983-11-30 (the date for
 232 # public law 98-181):
 233 #       Atlantic standard time
 234 #       eastern standard time
 235 #       central standard time
 236 #       mountain standard time
 237 #       Pacific standard time
 238 #       Yukon standard time
 239 #       Alaska-Hawaii standard time
 240 #       Bering standard time
 241 # And after 1983-11-30:
 242 #       Atlantic standard time
 243 #       eastern standard time
 244 #       central standard time
 245 #       mountain standard time
 246 #       Pacific standard time
 247 #       Alaska standard time
 248 #       Hawaii-Aleutian standard time
 249 #       Samoa standard time
 250 # The law doesn't give abbreviations.
 251 #
 252 # From Paul Eggert (2000-01-08), following a heads-up from Rives McDow:
 253 # Public law 106-564 (2000-12-23) introduced ... "Chamorro Standard Time"
 254 # for time in Guam and the Northern Marianas.  See the file "australasia".
 255 #
 256 # From Paul Eggert (2015-04-17):
 257 # HST and HDT are standardized abbreviations for Hawaii-Aleutian
 258 # standard and daylight times.  See section 9.47 (p 234) of the
 259 # U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual (2008)
 260 # http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/GPO-STYLEMANUAL-2008/pdf/GPO-STYLEMANUAL-2008.pdf
 261 
 262 # From Arthur David Olson, 2005-08-09
 263 # The following was signed into law on 2005-08-08.
 264 #
 265 # H.R. 6, Energy Policy Act of 2005, SEC. 110. DAYLIGHT SAVINGS.
 266 #   (a) Amendment.--Section 3(a) of the Uniform Time Act of 1966 (15
 267 #   U.S.C. 260a(a)) is amended--
 268 #     (1) by striking "first Sunday of April" and inserting "second
 269 #     Sunday of March"; and
 270 #     (2) by striking "last Sunday of October" and inserting "first
 271 #     Sunday of November'.
 272 #   (b) Effective Date.--Subsection (a) shall take effect 1 year after the
 273 #   date of enactment of this Act or March 1, 2007, whichever is later.
 274 #   (c) Report to Congress.--Not later than 9 months after the effective
 275 #   date stated in subsection (b), the Secretary shall report to Congress
 276 #   on the impact of this section on energy consumption in the United
 277 #   States.
 278 #   (d) Right to Revert.--Congress retains the right to revert the
 279 #   Daylight Saving Time back to the 2005 time schedules once the
 280 #   Department study is complete.
 281 
 282 # US eastern time, represented by New York
 283 
 284 # Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, most of Florida,
 285 # Georgia, southeast Indiana (Dearborn and Ohio counties), eastern Kentucky
 286 # (except America/Kentucky/Louisville below), Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts,
 287 # New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio,
 288 # Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, eastern Tennessee,
 289 # Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia
 290 
 291 # From Dave Cantor (2004-11-02):
 292 # Early this summer I had the occasion to visit the Mount Washington
 293 # Observatory weather station atop (of course!) Mount Washington [, NH]....
 294 # One of the staff members said that the station was on Eastern Standard Time
 295 # and didn't change their clocks for Daylight Saving ... so that their
 296 # reports will always have times which are 5 hours behind UTC.
 297 
 298 # From Paul Eggert (2005-08-26):
 299 # According to today's Huntsville Times
 300 # http://www.al.com/news/huntsvilletimes/index.ssf?/base/news/1125047783228320.xml&coll=1
 301 # a few towns on Alabama's "eastern border with Georgia, such as Phenix City
 302 # in Russell County, Lanett in Chambers County and some towns in Lee County,
 303 # set their watches and clocks on Eastern time."  It quotes H.H. "Bubba"
 304 # Roberts, city administrator in Phenix City. as saying "We are in the Central
 305 # time zone, but we do go by the Eastern time zone because so many people work
 306 # in Columbus."
 307 
 308 # From Paul Eggert (2014-09-06):
 309 # Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 44, 4 (1884-02-08), 208
 310 # says that New York City Hall time was 3 minutes 58.4 seconds fast of
 311 # Eastern time (i.e., -4:56:01.6) just before the 1883 switch.  Round to the
 312 # nearest second.
 313 
 314 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 315 Rule    NYC     1920    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 316 Rule    NYC     1920    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 317 Rule    NYC     1921    1966    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 318 Rule    NYC     1921    1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 319 Rule    NYC     1955    1966    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 320 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 321 Zone America/New_York   -4:56:02 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:03:58
 322                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1920
 323                         -5:00   NYC     E%sT    1942
 324                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1946
 325                         -5:00   NYC     E%sT    1967
 326                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 327 
 328 # US central time, represented by Chicago
 329 
 330 # Alabama, Arkansas, Florida panhandle (Bay, Calhoun, Escambia,
 331 # Gulf, Holmes, Jackson, Okaloosa, Santa Rosa, Walton, and
 332 # Washington counties), Illinois, western Indiana
 333 # (Gibson, Jasper, Lake, LaPorte, Newton, Porter, Posey, Spencer,
 334 # Vanderburgh, and Warrick counties), Iowa, most of Kansas, western
 335 # Kentucky, Louisiana, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, eastern
 336 # Nebraska, eastern North Dakota, Oklahoma, eastern South Dakota,
 337 # western Tennessee, most of Texas, Wisconsin
 338 
 339 # From Larry M. Smith (2006-04-26) re Wisconsin:
 340 # http://www.legis.state.wi.us/statutes/Stat0175.pdf ...
 341 # is currently enforced at the 01:00 time of change.  Because the local
 342 # "bar time" in the state corresponds to 02:00, a number of citations
 343 # are issued for the "sale of class 'B' alcohol after prohibited
 344 # hours" within the deviated hour of this change every year....
 345 #
 346 # From Douglas R. Bomberg (2007-03-12):
 347 # Wisconsin has enacted (nearly eleventh-hour) legislation to get WI
 348 # Statue 175 closer in synch with the US Congress' intent....
 349 # http://www.legis.state.wi.us/2007/data/acts/07Act3.pdf
 350 










 351 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 352 Rule    Chicago 1920    only    -       Jun     13      2:00    1:00    D
 353 Rule    Chicago 1920    1921    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 354 Rule    Chicago 1921    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 355 Rule    Chicago 1922    1966    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 356 Rule    Chicago 1922    1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 357 Rule    Chicago 1955    1966    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 358 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 359 Zone America/Chicago    -5:50:36 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:09:24
 360                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1920
 361                         -6:00   Chicago C%sT    1936 Mar  1  2:00
 362                         -5:00   -       EST     1936 Nov 15  2:00
 363                         -6:00   Chicago C%sT    1942
 364                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
 365                         -6:00   Chicago C%sT    1967
 366                         -6:00   US      C%sT
 367 # Oliver County, ND switched from mountain to central time on 1992-10-25.
 368 Zone America/North_Dakota/Center -6:45:12 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:14:48
 369                         -7:00   US      M%sT    1992 Oct 25  2:00
 370                         -6:00   US      C%sT
 371 # Morton County, ND, switched from mountain to central time on
 372 # 2003-10-26, except for the area around Mandan which was already central time.
 373 # See <http://dmses.dot.gov/docimages/p63/135818.pdf>.
 374 # Officially this switch also included part of Sioux County, and
 375 # Jones, Mellette, and Todd Counties in South Dakota;
 376 # but in practice these other counties were already observing central time.
 377 # See <http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/EPA-IMPACT/2003/October/Day-28/i27056.htm>.
 378 Zone America/North_Dakota/New_Salem -6:45:39 - LMT      1883 Nov 18 12:14:21
 379                         -7:00   US      M%sT    2003 Oct 26  2:00
 380                         -6:00   US      C%sT
 381 
 382 # From Josh Findley (2011-01-21):
 383 # ...it appears that Mercer County, North Dakota, changed from the
 384 # mountain time zone to the central time zone at the last transition from
 385 # daylight-saving to standard time (on Nov. 7, 2010):
 386 # http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-29/html/2010-24376.htm
 387 # http://www.bismarcktribune.com/news/local/article_1eb1b588-c758-11df-b472-001cc4c03286.html
 388 
 389 # From Andy Lipscomb (2011-01-24):
 390 # ...according to the Census Bureau, the largest city is Beulah (although
 391 # it's commonly referred to as Beulah-Hazen, with Hazen being the next
 392 # largest city in Mercer County).  Google Maps places Beulah's city hall
 393 # at 47 degrees 15' 51" N, 101 degrees 46' 40" W, which yields an offset
 394 # of 6h47'07".
 395 
 396 Zone America/North_Dakota/Beulah -6:47:07 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:12:53
 397                         -7:00   US      M%sT    2010 Nov  7  2:00
 398                         -6:00   US      C%sT
 399 
 400 # US mountain time, represented by Denver
 401 #
 402 # Colorado, far western Kansas, Montana, western
 403 # Nebraska, Nevada border (Jackpot, Owyhee, and Mountain City),
 404 # New Mexico, southwestern North Dakota,
 405 # western South Dakota, far western Texas (El Paso County, Hudspeth County,
 406 # and Pine Springs and Nickel Creek in Culberson County), Utah, Wyoming
 407 #
 408 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 409 Rule    Denver  1920    1921    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 410 Rule    Denver  1920    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 411 Rule    Denver  1921    only    -       May     22      2:00    0       S
 412 Rule    Denver  1965    1966    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 413 Rule    Denver  1965    1966    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 414 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 415 Zone America/Denver     -6:59:56 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:00:04
 416                         -7:00   US      M%sT    1920
 417                         -7:00   Denver  M%sT    1942
 418                         -7:00   US      M%sT    1946
 419                         -7:00   Denver  M%sT    1967
 420                         -7:00   US      M%sT
 421 
 422 # US Pacific time, represented by Los Angeles
 423 #
 424 # California, northern Idaho (Benewah, Bonner, Boundary, Clearwater,
 425 # Kootenai, Latah, Lewis, Nez Perce, and Shoshone counties, Idaho county
 426 # north of the Salmon River, and the towns of Burgdorf and Warren),
 427 # Nevada (except West Wendover), Oregon (except the northern 3/4 of
 428 # Malheur county), and Washington
 429 #
 430 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 431 Rule    CA      1948    only    -       Mar     14      2:00    1:00    D
 432 Rule    CA      1949    only    -       Jan      1      2:00    0       S
 433 Rule    CA      1950    1966    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 434 Rule    CA      1950    1961    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 435 Rule    CA      1962    1966    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 436 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 437 Zone America/Los_Angeles -7:52:58 -     LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:07:02
 438                         -8:00   US      P%sT    1946
 439                         -8:00   CA      P%sT    1967
 440                         -8:00   US      P%sT
 441 
 442 # Alaska
 443 # AK%sT is the modern abbreviation for -9:00 per USNO.
 444 #
 445 # From Paul Eggert (2001-05-30):
 446 # Howse writes that Alaska switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar,
 447 # and from east-of-GMT to west-of-GMT days, when the US bought it from Russia.
 448 # This was on 1867-10-18, a Friday; the previous day was 1867-10-06 Julian,
 449 # also a Friday.  Include only the time zone part of this transition,
 450 # ignoring the switch from Julian to Gregorian, since we can't represent
 451 # the Julian calendar.
 452 #
 453 # As far as we know, none of the exact locations mentioned below were
 454 # permanently inhabited in 1867 by anyone using either calendar.
 455 # (Yakutat was colonized by the Russians in 1799, but the settlement
 456 # was destroyed in 1805 by a Yakutat-kon war party.)  However, there
 457 # were nearby inhabitants in some cases and for our purposes perhaps
 458 # it's best to simply use the official transition.
 459 
 460 # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-18):
 461 # One opinion of the early-1980s turmoil in Alaska over time zones and
 462 # daylight saving time appeared as graffiti on a Juneau airport wall:
 463 # "Welcome to Juneau.  Please turn your watch back to the 19th century."
 464 # See: Turner W. Alaska's four time zones now two. NY Times 1983-11-01.
 465 # http://www.nytimes.com/1983/11/01/us/alaska-s-four-time-zones-now-two.html
 466 #
 467 # Steve Ferguson (2011-01-31) referred to the following source:
 468 # Norris F. Keeping time in Alaska: national directives, local response.
 469 # Alaska History 2001;16(1-2).
 470 # http://alaskahistoricalsociety.org/discover-alaska/glimpses-of-the-past/keeping-time-in-alaska/
 471 
 472 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-02-01):
 473 # Here's database-relevant material from the 2001 "Alaska History" article:
 474 #
 475 # On September 20 [1979]...DOT...officials decreed that on April 27,
 476 # 1980, Juneau and other nearby communities would move to Yukon Time.
 477 # Sitka, Petersburg, Wrangell, and Ketchikan, however, would remain on
 478 # Pacific Time.
 479 #
 480 # ...on September 22, 1980, DOT Secretary Neil E. Goldschmidt rescinded the
 481 # Department's September 1979 decision. Juneau and other communities in
 482 # northern Southeast reverted to Pacific Time on October 26.
 483 #
 484 # On October 28 [1983]...the Metlakatla Indian Community Council voted
 485 # unanimously to keep the reservation on Pacific Time.
 486 #
 487 # According to DOT official Joanne Petrie, Indian reservations are not
 488 # bound to follow time zones imposed by neighboring jurisdictions.
 489 #
 490 # (The last is consistent with how the database now handles the Navajo
 491 # Nation.)
 492 
 493 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-02-09):
 494 # I just spoke by phone with a staff member at the Metlakatla Indian
 495 # Community office (using contact information available at
 496 # http://www.commerce.state.ak.us/dca/commdb/CIS.cfm?Comm_Boro_name=Metlakatla
 497 # It's shortly after 1:00 here on the east coast of the United States;
 498 # the staffer said it was shortly after 10:00 there. When I asked whether
 499 # that meant they were on Pacific time, they said no - they were on their
 500 # own time. I asked about daylight saving; they said it wasn't used. I
 501 # did not inquire about practices in the past.
 502 
 503 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-08-17):
 504 # For lack of better information, assume that Metlakatla's
 505 # abandonment of use of daylight saving resulted from the 1983 vote.
 506 






 507 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 508 Zone America/Juneau      15:02:19 -     LMT     1867 Oct 18
 509                          -8:57:41 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00
 510                          -8:00  -       PST     1942
 511                          -8:00  US      P%sT    1946
 512                          -8:00  -       PST     1969
 513                          -8:00  US      P%sT    1980 Apr 27  2:00
 514                          -9:00  US      Y%sT    1980 Oct 26  2:00
 515                          -8:00  US      P%sT    1983 Oct 30  2:00
 516                          -9:00  US      Y%sT    1983 Nov 30
 517                          -9:00  US      AK%sT
 518 Zone America/Sitka       14:58:47 -     LMT     1867 Oct 18
 519                          -9:01:13 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00
 520                          -8:00  -       PST     1942
 521                          -8:00  US      P%sT    1946
 522                          -8:00  -       PST     1969
 523                          -8:00  US      P%sT    1983 Oct 30  2:00
 524                          -9:00  US      Y%sT    1983 Nov 30
 525                          -9:00  US      AK%sT
 526 Zone America/Metlakatla  15:13:42 -     LMT     1867 Oct 18
 527                          -8:46:18 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00
 528                          -8:00  -       PST     1942
 529                          -8:00  US      P%sT    1946
 530                          -8:00  -       PST     1969
 531                          -8:00  US      P%sT    1983 Oct 30  2:00
 532                          -8:00  -       PST

 533 Zone America/Yakutat     14:41:05 -     LMT     1867 Oct 18
 534                          -9:18:55 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00
 535                          -9:00  -       YST     1942
 536                          -9:00  US      Y%sT    1946
 537                          -9:00  -       YST     1969
 538                          -9:00  US      Y%sT    1983 Nov 30
 539                          -9:00  US      AK%sT
 540 Zone America/Anchorage   14:00:24 -     LMT     1867 Oct 18
 541                          -9:59:36 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00
 542                         -10:00  -       CAT     1942
 543                         -10:00  US      CAT/CAWT 1945 Aug 14 23:00u
 544                         -10:00  US      CAT/CAPT 1946 # Peace
 545                         -10:00  -       CAT     1967 Apr
 546                         -10:00  -       AHST    1969
 547                         -10:00  US      AH%sT   1983 Oct 30  2:00
 548                          -9:00  US      Y%sT    1983 Nov 30
 549                          -9:00  US      AK%sT
 550 Zone America/Nome        12:58:21 -     LMT     1867 Oct 18
 551                         -11:01:38 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00
 552                         -11:00  -       NST     1942
 553                         -11:00  US      N%sT    1946
 554                         -11:00  -       NST     1967 Apr
 555                         -11:00  -       BST     1969
 556                         -11:00  US      B%sT    1983 Oct 30  2:00
 557                          -9:00  US      Y%sT    1983 Nov 30
 558                          -9:00  US      AK%sT
 559 Zone America/Adak        12:13:21 -     LMT     1867 Oct 18
 560                         -11:46:38 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00
 561                         -11:00  -       NST     1942
 562                         -11:00  US      N%sT    1946
 563                         -11:00  -       NST     1967 Apr
 564                         -11:00  -       BST     1969
 565                         -11:00  US      B%sT    1983 Oct 30  2:00
 566                         -10:00  US      AH%sT   1983 Nov 30
 567                         -10:00  US      H%sT
 568 # The following switches don't quite make our 1970 cutoff.
 569 #
 570 # Shanks writes that part of southwest Alaska (e.g. Aniak)
 571 # switched from -11:00 to -10:00 on 1968-09-22 at 02:00,
 572 # and another part (e.g. Akiak) made the same switch five weeks later.
 573 #
 574 # From David Flater (2004-11-09):
 575 # In e-mail, 2004-11-02, Ray Hudson, historian/liaison to the Unalaska
 576 # Historic Preservation Commission, provided this information, which
 577 # suggests that Unalaska deviated from statutory time from early 1967
 578 # possibly until 1983:
 579 #
 580 #  Minutes of the Unalaska City Council Meeting, January 10, 1967:
 581 #  "Except for St. Paul and Akutan, Unalaska is the only important
 582 #  location not on Alaska Standard Time.  The following resolution was
 583 #  made by William Robinson and seconded by Henry Swanson: Be it
 584 #  resolved that the City of Unalaska hereby goes to Alaska Standard
 585 #  Time as of midnight Friday, January 13, 1967 (1 A.M. Saturday,
 586 #  January 14, Alaska Standard Time.)  This resolution was passed with
 587 #  three votes for and one against."
 588 
 589 # Hawaii
 590 
 591 # From Arthur David Olson (2010-12-09):
 592 # "Hawaiian Time" by Robert C. Schmitt and Doak C. Cox appears on pages 207-225
 593 # of volume 26 of The Hawaiian Journal of History (1992). As of 2010-12-09,
 594 # the article is available at
 595 # http://evols.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10524/239/2/JL26215.pdf
 596 # and indicates that standard time was adopted effective noon, January
 597 # 13, 1896 (page 218), that in "1933, the Legislature decreed daylight
 598 # saving for the period between the last Sunday of each April and the
 599 # last Sunday of each September, but less than a month later repealed the
 600 # act," (page 220), that year-round daylight saving time was in effect
 601 # from 1942-02-09 to 1945-09-30 (page 221, with no time of day given for
 602 # when clocks changed) and that clocks were changed by 30 minutes
 603 # effective the second Sunday of June, 1947 (page 219, with no time of
 604 # day given for when clocks changed). A footnote for the 1933 changes
 605 # cites Session Laws of Hawaii 1933, "Act. 90 (approved 26 Apr. 1933)
 606 # and Act 163 (approved 21 May 1933)."
 607 
 608 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-01-19):
 609 # The following is from "Laws of the Territory of Hawaii Passed by the
 610 # Seventeenth Legislature: Regular Session 1933," available (as of
 611 # 2011-01-19) at American University's Pence Law Library. Page 85: "Act
 612 # 90...At 2 o'clock ante meridian of the last Sunday in April of each
 613 # year, the standard time of this Territory shall be advanced one
 614 # hour...This Act shall take effect upon its approval. Approved this 26th
 615 # day of April, A. D. 1933. LAWRENCE M JUDD, Governor of the Territory of
 616 # Hawaii." Page 172: "Act 163...Act 90 of the Session Laws of 1933 is
 617 # hereby repealed...This Act shall take effect upon its approval, upon
 618 # which date the standard time of this Territory shall be restored to
 619 # that existing immediately prior to the taking effect of said Act 90.
 620 # Approved this 21st day of May, A. D. 1933. LAWRENCE M. JUDD, Governor
 621 # of the Territory of Hawaii."
 622 #
 623 # Note that 1933-05-21 was a Sunday.
 624 # We're left to guess the time of day when Act 163 was approved; guess noon.
 625 
 626 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 627 Zone Pacific/Honolulu   -10:31:26 -     LMT     1896 Jan 13 12:00
 628                         -10:30  -       HST     1933 Apr 30  2:00
 629                         -10:30  1:00    HDT     1933 May 21 12:00
 630                         -10:30  -       HST     1942 Feb  9  2:00
 631                         -10:30  1:00    HDT     1945 Sep 30  2:00
 632                         -10:30  -       HST     1947 Jun  8  2:00
 633                         -10:00  -       HST
 634 Link Pacific/Honolulu Pacific/Johnston
 635 
 636 # Now we turn to US areas that have diverged from the consensus since 1970.
 637 
 638 # Arizona mostly uses MST.
 639 
 640 # From Paul Eggert (2002-10-20):
 641 #
 642 # The information in the rest of this paragraph is derived from the
 643 # Daylight Saving Time web page
 644 # <http://www.dlapr.lib.az.us/links/daylight.htm> (2002-01-23)
 645 # maintained by the Arizona State Library, Archives and Public Records.
 646 # Between 1944-01-01 and 1944-04-01 the State of Arizona used standard
 647 # time, but by federal law railroads, airlines, bus lines, military
 648 # personnel, and some engaged in interstate commerce continued to
 649 # observe war (i.e., daylight saving) time.  The 1944-03-17 Phoenix
 650 # Gazette says that was the date the law changed, and that 04-01 was
 651 # the date the state's clocks would change.  In 1945 the State of
 652 # Arizona used standard time all year, again with exceptions only as
 653 # mandated by federal law.  Arizona observed DST in 1967, but Arizona
 654 # Laws 1968, ch. 183 (effective 1968-03-21) repealed DST.
 655 #
 656 # Shanks says the 1944 experiment came to an end on 1944-03-17.
 657 # Go with the Arizona State Library instead.
 658 
 659 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 660 Zone America/Phoenix    -7:28:18 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 11:31:42
 661                         -7:00   US      M%sT    1944 Jan  1  0:01
 662                         -7:00   -       MST     1944 Apr  1  0:01
 663                         -7:00   US      M%sT    1944 Oct  1  0:01
 664                         -7:00   -       MST     1967
 665                         -7:00   US      M%sT    1968 Mar 21
 666                         -7:00   -       MST
 667 # From Arthur David Olson (1988-02-13):
 668 # A writer from the Inter Tribal Council of Arizona, Inc.,
 669 # notes in private correspondence dated 1987-12-28 that "Presently, only the
 670 # Navajo Nation participates in the Daylight Saving Time policy, due to its
 671 # large size and location in three states."  (The "only" means that other
 672 # tribal nations don't use DST.)
 673 #
 674 # From Paul Eggert (2013-08-26):
 675 # See America/Denver for a zone appropriate for the Navajo Nation.
 676 
 677 # Southern Idaho (Ada, Adams, Bannock, Bear Lake, Bingham, Blaine,
 678 # Boise, Bonneville, Butte, Camas, Canyon, Caribou, Cassia, Clark,
 679 # Custer, Elmore, Franklin, Fremont, Gem, Gooding, Jefferson, Jerome,
 680 # Lemhi, Lincoln, Madison, Minidoka, Oneida, Owyhee, Payette, Power,
 681 # Teton, Twin Falls, Valley, Washington counties, and the southern
 682 # quarter of Idaho county) and eastern Oregon (most of Malheur County)
 683 # switched four weeks late in 1974.
 684 #
 685 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 686 Zone America/Boise      -7:44:49 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:15:11
 687                         -8:00   US      P%sT    1923 May 13  2:00
 688                         -7:00   US      M%sT    1974
 689                         -7:00   -       MST     1974 Feb  3  2:00
 690                         -7:00   US      M%sT
 691 
 692 # Indiana
 693 #
 694 # For a map of Indiana's time zone regions, see:
 695 # http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_in_Indiana
 696 #
 697 # From Paul Eggert (2007-08-17):
 698 # Since 1970, most of Indiana has been like America/Indiana/Indianapolis,
 699 # with the following exceptions:
 700 #
 701 # - Gibson, Jasper, Lake, LaPorte, Newton, Porter, Posey, Spencer,
 702 #   Vanderburgh, and Warrick counties have been like America/Chicago.
 703 #
 704 # - Dearborn and Ohio counties have been like America/New_York.
 705 #
 706 # - Clark, Floyd, and Harrison counties have been like
 707 #   America/Kentucky/Louisville.
 708 #
 709 # - Crawford, Daviess, Dubois, Knox, Martin, Perry, Pike, Pulaski, Starke,
 710 #   and Switzerland counties have their own time zone histories as noted below.
 711 #
 712 # Shanks partitioned Indiana into 345 regions, each with its own time history,
 713 # and wrote "Even newspaper reports present contradictory information."
 714 # Those Hoosiers!  Such a flighty and changeable people!
 715 # Fortunately, most of the complexity occurred before our cutoff date of 1970.
 716 #
 717 # Other than Indianapolis, the Indiana place names are so nondescript
 718 # that they would be ambiguous if we left them at the 'America' level.
 719 # So we reluctantly put them all in a subdirectory 'America/Indiana'.
 720 
 721 # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-26):
 722 # https://www.federalregister.gov/articles/2006/01/20/06-563/standard-time-zone-boundary-in-the-state-of-indiana
 723 # says "DOT is relocating the time zone boundary in Indiana to move Starke,
 724 # Pulaski, Knox, Daviess, Martin, Pike, Dubois, and Perry Counties from the
 725 # Eastern Time Zone to the Central Time Zone.... The effective date of
 726 # this rule is 2 a.m. EST Sunday, April 2, 2006, which is the
 727 # changeover date from standard time to Daylight Saving Time."
 728 # Strictly speaking, this meant the affected counties changed their
 729 # clocks twice that night, but this obviously was in error.  The intent
 730 # was that 01:59:59 EST be followed by 02:00:00 CDT.
 731 
 732 # From Gwillim Law (2007-02-10):
 733 # The Associated Press has been reporting that Pulaski County, Indiana is
 734 # going to switch from Central to Eastern Time on March 11, 2007....
 735 # http://www.indystar.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070207/LOCAL190108/702070524/0/LOCAL
 736 
 737 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 738 Rule Indianapolis 1941  only    -       Jun     22      2:00    1:00    D
 739 Rule Indianapolis 1941  1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 740 Rule Indianapolis 1946  1954    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 741 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 742 Zone America/Indiana/Indianapolis -5:44:38 - LMT        1883 Nov 18 12:15:22
 743                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1920
 744                         -6:00 Indianapolis C%sT 1942
 745                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
 746                         -6:00 Indianapolis C%sT 1955 Apr 24  2:00
 747                         -5:00   -       EST     1957 Sep 29  2:00
 748                         -6:00   -       CST     1958 Apr 27  2:00
 749                         -5:00   -       EST     1969
 750                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1971
 751                         -5:00   -       EST     2006
 752                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 753 #
 754 # Eastern Crawford County, Indiana, left its clocks alone in 1974,
 755 # as well as from 1976 through 2005.
 756 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 757 Rule    Marengo 1951    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 758 Rule    Marengo 1951    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 759 Rule    Marengo 1954    1960    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 760 Rule    Marengo 1954    1960    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 761 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 762 Zone America/Indiana/Marengo -5:45:23 - LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:14:37
 763                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1951
 764                         -6:00   Marengo C%sT    1961 Apr 30  2:00
 765                         -5:00   -       EST     1969
 766                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1974 Jan  6  2:00
 767                         -6:00   1:00    CDT     1974 Oct 27  2:00
 768                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1976
 769                         -5:00   -       EST     2006
 770                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 771 #
 772 # Daviess, Dubois, Knox, and Martin Counties, Indiana,
 773 # switched from eastern to central time in April 2006, then switched back
 774 # in November 2007.
 775 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 776 Rule Vincennes  1946    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 777 Rule Vincennes  1946    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 778 Rule Vincennes  1953    1954    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 779 Rule Vincennes  1953    1959    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 780 Rule Vincennes  1955    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D
 781 Rule Vincennes  1956    1963    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 782 Rule Vincennes  1960    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 783 Rule Vincennes  1961    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 784 Rule Vincennes  1962    1963    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 785 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 786 Zone America/Indiana/Vincennes -5:50:07 - LMT   1883 Nov 18 12:09:53
 787                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
 788                         -6:00 Vincennes C%sT    1964 Apr 26  2:00
 789                         -5:00   -       EST     1969
 790                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1971
 791                         -5:00   -       EST     2006 Apr  2  2:00
 792                         -6:00   US      C%sT    2007 Nov  4  2:00
 793                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 794 #
 795 # Perry County, Indiana, switched from eastern to central time in April 2006.
 796 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 797 Rule Perry      1946    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 798 Rule Perry      1946    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 799 Rule Perry      1953    1954    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 800 Rule Perry      1953    1959    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 801 Rule Perry      1955    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D
 802 Rule Perry      1956    1963    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 803 Rule Perry      1960    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 804 Rule Perry      1961    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 805 Rule Perry      1962    1963    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 806 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 807 Zone America/Indiana/Tell_City -5:47:03 - LMT   1883 Nov 18 12:12:57
 808                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
 809                         -6:00 Perry     C%sT    1964 Apr 26  2:00
 810                         -5:00   -       EST     1969
 811                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1971
 812                         -5:00   -       EST     2006 Apr  2  2:00
 813                         -6:00   US      C%sT
 814 #
 815 # Pike County, Indiana moved from central to eastern time in 1977,
 816 # then switched back in 2006, then switched back again in 2007.
 817 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 818 Rule    Pike    1955    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D
 819 Rule    Pike    1955    1960    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 820 Rule    Pike    1956    1964    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 821 Rule    Pike    1961    1964    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 822 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 823 Zone America/Indiana/Petersburg -5:49:07 - LMT  1883 Nov 18 12:10:53
 824                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1955
 825                         -6:00   Pike    C%sT    1965 Apr 25  2:00
 826                         -5:00   -       EST     1966 Oct 30  2:00
 827                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1977 Oct 30  2:00
 828                         -5:00   -       EST     2006 Apr  2  2:00
 829                         -6:00   US      C%sT    2007 Nov  4  2:00
 830                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 831 #
 832 # Starke County, Indiana moved from central to eastern time in 1991,
 833 # then switched back in 2006.
 834 # From Arthur David Olson (1991-10-28):
 835 # An article on page A3 of the Sunday, 1991-10-27 Washington Post
 836 # notes that Starke County switched from Central time to Eastern time as of
 837 # 1991-10-27.
 838 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 839 Rule    Starke  1947    1961    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 840 Rule    Starke  1947    1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 841 Rule    Starke  1955    1956    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 842 Rule    Starke  1957    1958    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 843 Rule    Starke  1959    1961    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 844 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 845 Zone America/Indiana/Knox -5:46:30 -    LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:13:30
 846                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1947
 847                         -6:00   Starke  C%sT    1962 Apr 29  2:00
 848                         -5:00   -       EST     1963 Oct 27  2:00
 849                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1991 Oct 27  2:00
 850                         -5:00   -       EST     2006 Apr  2  2:00
 851                         -6:00   US      C%sT
 852 #
 853 # Pulaski County, Indiana, switched from eastern to central time in
 854 # April 2006 and then switched back in March 2007.
 855 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 856 Rule    Pulaski 1946    1960    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 857 Rule    Pulaski 1946    1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 858 Rule    Pulaski 1955    1956    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 859 Rule    Pulaski 1957    1960    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 860 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 861 Zone America/Indiana/Winamac -5:46:25 - LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:13:35
 862                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
 863                         -6:00   Pulaski C%sT    1961 Apr 30  2:00
 864                         -5:00   -       EST     1969
 865                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1971
 866                         -5:00   -       EST     2006 Apr  2  2:00
 867                         -6:00   US      C%sT    2007 Mar 11  2:00
 868                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 869 #
 870 # Switzerland County, Indiana, did not observe DST from 1973 through 2005.
 871 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 872 Zone America/Indiana/Vevay -5:40:16 -   LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:19:44
 873                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1954 Apr 25  2:00
 874                         -5:00   -       EST     1969
 875                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1973
 876                         -5:00   -       EST     2006
 877                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 878 
 879 # Part of Kentucky left its clocks alone in 1974.
 880 # This also includes Clark, Floyd, and Harrison counties in Indiana.
 881 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 882 Rule Louisville 1921    only    -       May     1       2:00    1:00    D
 883 Rule Louisville 1921    only    -       Sep     1       2:00    0       S
 884 Rule Louisville 1941    1961    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 885 Rule Louisville 1941    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 886 Rule Louisville 1946    only    -       Jun     2       2:00    0       S
 887 Rule Louisville 1950    1955    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 888 Rule Louisville 1956    1960    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 889 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 890 Zone America/Kentucky/Louisville -5:43:02 -     LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:16:58
 891                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1921
 892                         -6:00 Louisville C%sT   1942
 893                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
 894                         -6:00 Louisville C%sT   1961 Jul 23  2:00
 895                         -5:00   -       EST     1968
 896                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1974 Jan  6  2:00
 897                         -6:00   1:00    CDT     1974 Oct 27  2:00
 898                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 899 #
 900 # Wayne County, Kentucky
 901 #
 902 # From Lake Cumberland LIFE
 903 # http://www.lake-cumberland.com/life/archive/news990129time.shtml
 904 # (1999-01-29) via WKYM-101.7:
 905 # Clinton County has joined Wayne County in asking the DoT to change from
 906 # the Central to the Eastern time zone....  The Wayne County government made
 907 # the same request in December.  And while Russell County officials have not
 908 # taken action, the majority of respondents to a poll conducted there in
 909 # August indicated they would like to change to "fast time" also.
 910 # The three Lake Cumberland counties are the farthest east of any U.S.
 911 # location in the Central time zone.
 912 #
 913 # From Rich Wales (2000-08-29):
 914 # After prolonged debate, and despite continuing deep differences of opinion,
 915 # Wayne County (central Kentucky) is switching from Central (-0600) to Eastern
 916 # (-0500) time.  They won't "fall back" this year.  See Sara Shipley,
 917 # The difference an hour makes, Nando Times (2000-08-29 15:33 -0400).
 918 #
 919 # From Paul Eggert (2001-07-16):
 920 # The final rule was published in the
 921 # Federal Register 65, 160 (2000-08-17), pp 50154-50158.
 922 # http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=2000_register&docid=fr17au00-22
 923 #
 924 Zone America/Kentucky/Monticello -5:39:24 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:20:36
 925                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
 926                         -6:00   -       CST     1968
 927                         -6:00   US      C%sT    2000 Oct 29  2:00
 928                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 929 
 930 
 931 # From Rives McDow (2000-08-30):
 932 # Here ... are all the changes in the US since 1985.
 933 # Kearny County, KS (put all of county on central;
 934 #       previously split between MST and CST) ... 1990-10
 935 # Starke County, IN (from CST to EST) ... 1991-10
 936 # Oliver County, ND (from MST to CST) ... 1992-10
 937 # West Wendover, NV (from PST TO MST) ... 1999-10
 938 # Wayne County, KY (from CST to EST) ... 2000-10
 939 #
 940 # From Paul Eggert (2001-07-17):
 941 # We don't know where the line used to be within Kearny County, KS,
 942 # so omit that change for now.
 943 # See America/Indiana/Knox for the Starke County, IN change.
 944 # See America/North_Dakota/Center for the Oliver County, ND change.
 945 # West Wendover, NV officially switched from Pacific to mountain time on
 946 # 1999-10-31.  See the
 947 # Federal Register 64, 203 (1999-10-21), pp 56705-56707.
 948 # http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=1999_register&docid=fr21oc99-15
 949 # However, the Federal Register says that West Wendover already operated
 950 # on mountain time, and the rule merely made this official;
 951 # hence a separate tz entry is not needed.
 952 
 953 # Michigan
 954 #
 955 # From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
 956 # Michigan didn't observe DST from 1968 to 1973.
 957 #
 958 # From Paul Eggert (1999-03-31):
 959 # Shanks writes that Michigan started using standard time on 1885-09-18,
 960 # but Howse writes (pp 124-125, referring to Popular Astronomy, 1901-01)
 961 # that Detroit kept
 962 #
 963 #       local time until 1900 when the City Council decreed that clocks should
 964 #       be put back twenty-eight minutes to Central Standard Time.  Half the
 965 #       city obeyed, half refused.  After considerable debate, the decision
 966 #       was rescinded and the city reverted to Sun time.  A derisive offer to
 967 #       erect a sundial in front of the city hall was referred to the
 968 #       Committee on Sewers.  Then, in 1905, Central time was adopted
 969 #       by city vote.
 970 #
 971 # This story is too entertaining to be false, so go with Howse over Shanks.
 972 #
 973 # From Paul Eggert (2001-03-06):
 974 # Garland (1927) writes "Cleveland and Detroit advanced their clocks
 975 # one hour in 1914."  This change is not in Shanks.  We have no more
 976 # info, so omit this for now.
 977 #
 978 # Most of Michigan observed DST from 1973 on, but was a bit late in 1975.
 979 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 980 Rule    Detroit 1948    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 981 Rule    Detroit 1948    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 982 Rule    Detroit 1967    only    -       Jun     14      2:00    1:00    D
 983 Rule    Detroit 1967    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 984 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 985 Zone America/Detroit    -5:32:11 -      LMT     1905
 986                         -6:00   -       CST     1915 May 15  2:00
 987                         -5:00   -       EST     1942
 988                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1946
 989                         -5:00   Detroit E%sT    1973
 990                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1975
 991                         -5:00   -       EST     1975 Apr 27  2:00
 992                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 993 #
 994 # Dickinson, Gogebic, Iron, and Menominee Counties, Michigan,
 995 # switched from EST to CST/CDT in 1973.
 996 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 997 Rule Menominee  1946    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 998 Rule Menominee  1946    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 999 Rule Menominee  1966    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1000 Rule Menominee  1966    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1001 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1002 Zone America/Menominee  -5:50:27 -      LMT     1885 Sep 18 12:00
1003                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
1004                         -6:00 Menominee C%sT    1969 Apr 27  2:00
1005                         -5:00   -       EST     1973 Apr 29  2:00
1006                         -6:00   US      C%sT
1007 
1008 # Navassa
1009 # administered by the US Fish and Wildlife Service
1010 # claimed by US under the provisions of the 1856 Guano Islands Act
1011 # also claimed by Haiti
1012 # occupied 1857/1900 by the Navassa Phosphate Co
1013 # US lighthouse 1917/1996-09
1014 # currently uninhabited
1015 # see Mark Fineman, "An Isle Rich in Guano and Discord",
1016 # _Los Angeles Times_ (1998-11-10), A1, A10; it cites
1017 # Jimmy Skaggs, _The Great Guano Rush_ (1994).
1018 
1019 ################################################################################
1020 
1021 
1022 # From Paul Eggert (2014-10-31):
1023 #
1024 # Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:
1025 # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
1026 # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
1027 # Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.
1028 #
1029 # Gwillim Law writes that a good source
1030 # for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
1031 # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
1032 # published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
1033 # of the IATA's data after 1990.  Except where otherwise noted,
1034 # IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.
1035 #
1036 # Other sources occasionally used include:
1037 #
1038 #       Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
1039 #       Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated),
1040 #       which I found in the UCLA library.
1041 #
1042 #       William Willett, The Waste of Daylight, 19th edition
1043 #       <http://cs.ucla.edu/~eggert/The-Waste-of-Daylight-19th.pdf>
1044 #       [PDF] (1914-03)
1045 #
1046 #       Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94
1047 #       <http://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359>.
1048 #
1049 # See the 'europe' file for Greenland.
1050 
1051 # Canada
1052 
1053 # From Alain LaBonté (1994-11-14):
1054 # I post here the time zone abbreviations standardized in Canada
1055 # for both English and French in the CAN/CSA-Z234.4-89 standard....
1056 #
1057 #       UTC     Standard time   Daylight saving time
1058 #       offset  French  English French  English
1059 #       -2:30   -       -       HAT     NDT
1060 #       -3      -       -       HAA     ADT
1061 #       -3:30   HNT     NST     -       -
1062 #       -4      HNA     AST     HAE     EDT
1063 #       -5      HNE     EST     HAC     CDT
1064 #       -6      HNC     CST     HAR     MDT
1065 #       -7      HNR     MST     HAP     PDT
1066 #       -8      HNP     PST     HAY     YDT
1067 #       -9      HNY     YST     -       -
1068 #
1069 #       HN: Heure Normale       ST: Standard Time
1070 #       HA: Heure Avancée      DT: Daylight saving Time
1071 #
1072 #       A: de l'Atlantique      Atlantic
1073 #       C: du Centre            Central
1074 #       E: de l'Est             Eastern
1075 #       M:                      Mountain
1076 #       N:                      Newfoundland
1077 #       P: du Pacifique         Pacific
1078 #       R: des Rocheuses
1079 #       T: de Terre-Neuve
1080 #       Y: du Yukon             Yukon
1081 #
1082 # From Paul Eggert (1994-11-22):
1083 # Alas, this sort of thing must be handled by localization software.
1084 
1085 # Unless otherwise specified, the data entries for Canada are all from Shanks
1086 # & Pottenger.
1087 
1088 # From Chris Walton (2006-04-01, 2006-04-25, 2006-06-26, 2007-01-31,
1089 # 2007-03-01):
1090 # The British Columbia government announced yesterday that it will
1091 # adjust daylight savings next year to align with changes in the
1092 # U.S. and the rest of Canada....
1093 # http://www2.news.gov.bc.ca/news_releases_2005-2009/2006AG0014-000330.htm
1094 # ...
1095 # Nova Scotia
1096 # Daylight saving time will be extended by four weeks starting in 2007....
1097 # http://www.gov.ns.ca/just/regulations/rg2/2006/ma1206.pdf
1098 #
1099 # [For New Brunswick] the new legislation dictates that the time change is to
1100 # be done at 02:00 instead of 00:01.
1101 # http://www.gnb.ca/0062/acts/BBA-2006/Chap-19.pdf
1102 # ...
1103 # Manitoba has traditionally changed the clock every fall at 03:00.
1104 # As of 2006, the transition is to take place one hour earlier at 02:00.
1105 # http://web2.gov.mb.ca/laws/statutes/ccsm/o030e.php
1106 # ...
1107 # [Alberta, Ontario, Quebec] will follow US rules.
1108 # http://www.qp.gov.ab.ca/documents/spring/CH03_06.CFM
1109 # http://www.e-laws.gov.on.ca/DBLaws/Source/Regs/English/2006/R06111_e.htm
1110 # http://www2.publicationsduquebec.gouv.qc.ca/dynamicSearch/telecharge.php?type=5&file=2006C39A.PDF
1111 # ...
1112 # P.E.I. will follow US rules....
1113 # http://www.assembly.pe.ca/bills/pdf_chapter/62/3/chapter-41.pdf
1114 # ...
1115 # Province of Newfoundland and Labrador....
1116 # http://www.hoa.gov.nl.ca/hoa/bills/Bill0634.htm
1117 # ...
1118 # Yukon
1119 # http://www.gov.yk.ca/legislation/regs/oic2006_127.pdf
1120 # ...
1121 # N.W.T. will follow US rules.  Whoever maintains the government web site
1122 # does not seem to believe in bookmarks.  To see the news release, click the
1123 # following link and search for "Daylight Savings Time Change".  Press the
1124 # "Daylight Savings Time Change" link; it will fire off a popup using
1125 # JavaScript.
1126 # http://www.exec.gov.nt.ca/currentnews/currentPR.asp?mode=archive
1127 # ...
1128 # Nunavut
1129 # An amendment to the Interpretation Act was registered on February 19/2007....
1130 # http://action.attavik.ca/home/justice-gn/attach/2007/gaz02part2.pdf
1131 
1132 # From Paul Eggert (2014-10-18):
1133 # H. David Matthews and Mary Vincent's map
1134 # "It's about TIME", _Canadian Geographic_ (September-October 1998)
1135 # http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/Magazine/SO98/alacarte.asp
1136 # contains detailed boundaries for regions observing nonstandard
1137 # time and daylight saving time arrangements in Canada circa 1998.
1138 #
1139 # National Research Council Canada maintains info about time zones and DST.
1140 # http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/services/time/time_zones.html
1141 # http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/services/time/faq/index.html#Q5
1142 # Its unofficial information is often taken from Matthews and Vincent.
1143 
1144 # From Paul Eggert (2006-06-27):
1145 # For now, assume all of DST-observing Canada will fall into line with the
1146 # new US DST rules,
1147 
1148 # From Chris Walton (2011-12-01)
1149 # In the first of Tammy Hardwick's articles
1150 # http://www.ilovecreston.com/?p=articles&t=spec&ar=260
1151 # she quotes the Friday November 1/1918 edition of the Creston Review.
1152 # The quote includes these two statements:
1153 # 'Sunday the CPR went back to the old system of time...'
1154 # '... The daylight saving scheme was dropped all over Canada at the same time,'
1155 # These statements refer to a transition from daylight time to standard time
1156 # that occurred nationally on Sunday October 27/1918.  This transition was
1157 # also documented in the Saturday October 26/1918 edition of the Toronto Star.
1158 
1159 # In light of that evidence, we alter the date from the earlier believed
1160 # Oct 31, to Oct 27, 1918 (and Sunday is a more likely transition day
1161 # than Thursday) in all Canadian rulesets.
1162 
1163 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1164 Rule    Canada  1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D
1165 Rule    Canada  1918    only    -       Oct     27      2:00    0       S
1166 Rule    Canada  1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War
1167 Rule    Canada  1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace
1168 Rule    Canada  1945    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S
1169 Rule    Canada  1974    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1170 Rule    Canada  1974    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1171 Rule    Canada  1987    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
1172 Rule    Canada  2007    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
1173 Rule    Canada  2007    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
1174 
1175 
1176 # Newfoundland and Labrador
1177 
1178 # From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
1179 # Matthews and Vincent (1998) write that Labrador should use NST/NDT,
1180 # but the only part of Labrador that follows the rules is the
1181 # southeast corner, including Port Hope Simpson and Mary's Harbour,
1182 # but excluding, say, Black Tickle.
1183 
1184 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1185 Rule    StJohns 1917    only    -       Apr      8      2:00    1:00    D
1186 Rule    StJohns 1917    only    -       Sep     17      2:00    0       S
1187 # Whitman gives 1919 Apr 5 and 1920 Apr 5; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1188 Rule    StJohns 1919    only    -       May      5      23:00   1:00    D
1189 Rule    StJohns 1919    only    -       Aug     12      23:00   0       S
1190 # For 1931-1935 Whitman gives Apr same date; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1191 Rule    StJohns 1920    1935    -       May     Sun>=1       23:00   1:00    D
1192 Rule    StJohns 1920    1935    -       Oct     lastSun 23:00   0       S
1193 # For 1936-1941 Whitman gives May Sun>=8 and Oct Sun>=1; go with Shanks &
1194 # Pottenger.
1195 Rule    StJohns 1936    1941    -       May     Mon>=9       0:00    1:00    D
1196 Rule    StJohns 1936    1941    -       Oct     Mon>=2       0:00    0       S
1197 # Whitman gives the following transitions:
1198 # 1942 03-01/12-31, 1943 05-30/09-05, 1944 07-10/09-02, 1945 01-01/10-07
1199 # but go with Shanks & Pottenger and assume they used Canadian rules.
1200 # For 1946-9 Whitman gives May 5,4,9,1 - Oct 1,5,3,2, and for 1950 he gives
1201 # Apr 30 - Sep 24; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1202 Rule    StJohns 1946    1950    -       May     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
1203 Rule    StJohns 1946    1950    -       Oct     Sun>=2       2:00    0       S
1204 Rule    StJohns 1951    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1205 Rule    StJohns 1951    1959    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1206 Rule    StJohns 1960    1986    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1207 # From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
1208 # INMS (2000-09-12) says that, since 1988 at least, Newfoundland switches
1209 # at 00:01 local time.  For now, assume it started in 1987.
1210 
1211 # From Michael Pelley (2011-09-12):
1212 # We received today, Monday, September 12, 2011, notification that the
1213 # changes to the Newfoundland Standard Time Act have been proclaimed.
1214 # The change in the Act stipulates that the change from Daylight Savings
1215 # Time to Standard Time and from Standard Time to Daylight Savings Time
1216 # now occurs at 2:00AM.
1217 # ...
1218 # http://www.assembly.nl.ca/legislation/sr/annualstatutes/2011/1106.chp.htm
1219 # ...
1220 # MICHAEL PELLEY  |  Manager of Enterprise Architecture - Solution Delivery
1221 # Office of the Chief Information Officer
1222 # Executive Council
1223 # Government of Newfoundland & Labrador
1224 
1225 Rule    StJohns 1987    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:01    1:00    D
1226 Rule    StJohns 1987    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 0:01    0       S
1227 Rule    StJohns 1988    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:01    2:00    DD
1228 Rule    StJohns 1989    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:01    1:00    D
1229 Rule    StJohns 2007    2011    -       Mar     Sun>=8       0:01    1:00    D
1230 Rule    StJohns 2007    2010    -       Nov     Sun>=1       0:01    0       S
1231 #
1232 # St John's has an apostrophe, but Posix file names can't have apostrophes.
1233 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1234 Zone America/St_Johns   -3:30:52 -      LMT     1884
1235                         -3:30:52 StJohns N%sT   1918
1236                         -3:30:52 Canada N%sT    1919
1237                         -3:30:52 StJohns N%sT   1935 Mar 30
1238                         -3:30   StJohns N%sT    1942 May 11
1239                         -3:30   Canada  N%sT    1946
1240                         -3:30   StJohns N%sT    2011 Nov
1241                         -3:30   Canada  N%sT
1242 
1243 # most of east Labrador
1244 
1245 # The name 'Happy Valley-Goose Bay' is too long; use 'Goose Bay'.
1246 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1247 Zone America/Goose_Bay  -4:01:40 -      LMT     1884 # Happy Valley-Goose Bay
1248                         -3:30:52 -      NST     1918
1249                         -3:30:52 Canada N%sT    1919
1250                         -3:30:52 -      NST     1935 Mar 30
1251                         -3:30   -       NST     1936
1252                         -3:30   StJohns N%sT    1942 May 11
1253                         -3:30   Canada  N%sT    1946
1254                         -3:30   StJohns N%sT    1966 Mar 15  2:00
1255                         -4:00   StJohns A%sT    2011 Nov
1256                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT
1257 
1258 
1259 # west Labrador, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward I
1260 
1261 # From Brian Inglis (2015-07-20):
1262 # From the historical weather station records available at:
1263 # https://weatherspark.com/history/28351/1971/Sydney-Nova-Scotia-Canada
1264 # Sydney shares the same time history as Glace Bay, so was
1265 # likely to be the same across the island....
1266 # Sydney, as the capital and most populous location, or Cape Breton, would
1267 # have been better names for the zone had we known this in 1996.
1268 
1269 # From Paul Eggert (2015-07-20):
1270 # Shanks & Pottenger write that since 1970 most of this region has been like
1271 # Halifax.  Many locales did not observe peacetime DST until 1972;
1272 # the Cape Breton area, represented by Glace Bay, is the largest we know of
1273 # (Glace Bay was perhaps not the best name choice but no point changing now).
1274 # Shanks & Pottenger also write that Liverpool, NS was the only town
1275 # in Canada to observe DST in 1971 but not 1970; for now we'll assume
1276 # this is a typo.
1277 
1278 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1279 Rule    Halifax 1916    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    D
1280 Rule    Halifax 1916    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       S
1281 Rule    Halifax 1920    only    -       May      9      0:00    1:00    D
1282 Rule    Halifax 1920    only    -       Aug     29      0:00    0       S
1283 Rule    Halifax 1921    only    -       May      6      0:00    1:00    D
1284 Rule    Halifax 1921    1922    -       Sep      5      0:00    0       S
1285 Rule    Halifax 1922    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    D
1286 Rule    Halifax 1923    1925    -       May     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
1287 Rule    Halifax 1923    only    -       Sep      4      0:00    0       S
1288 Rule    Halifax 1924    only    -       Sep     15      0:00    0       S
1289 Rule    Halifax 1925    only    -       Sep     28      0:00    0       S
1290 Rule    Halifax 1926    only    -       May     16      0:00    1:00    D
1291 Rule    Halifax 1926    only    -       Sep     13      0:00    0       S
1292 Rule    Halifax 1927    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D
1293 Rule    Halifax 1927    only    -       Sep     26      0:00    0       S
1294 Rule    Halifax 1928    1931    -       May     Sun>=8       0:00    1:00    D
1295 Rule    Halifax 1928    only    -       Sep      9      0:00    0       S
1296 Rule    Halifax 1929    only    -       Sep      3      0:00    0       S
1297 Rule    Halifax 1930    only    -       Sep     15      0:00    0       S
1298 Rule    Halifax 1931    1932    -       Sep     Mon>=24      0:00    0       S
1299 Rule    Halifax 1932    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D
1300 Rule    Halifax 1933    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    D
1301 Rule    Halifax 1933    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       S
1302 Rule    Halifax 1934    only    -       May     20      0:00    1:00    D
1303 Rule    Halifax 1934    only    -       Sep     16      0:00    0       S
1304 Rule    Halifax 1935    only    -       Jun      2      0:00    1:00    D
1305 Rule    Halifax 1935    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       S
1306 Rule    Halifax 1936    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    D
1307 Rule    Halifax 1936    only    -       Sep     14      0:00    0       S
1308 Rule    Halifax 1937    1938    -       May     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
1309 Rule    Halifax 1937    1941    -       Sep     Mon>=24      0:00    0       S
1310 Rule    Halifax 1939    only    -       May     28      0:00    1:00    D
1311 Rule    Halifax 1940    1941    -       May     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
1312 Rule    Halifax 1946    1949    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1313 Rule    Halifax 1946    1949    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1314 Rule    Halifax 1951    1954    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1315 Rule    Halifax 1951    1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1316 Rule    Halifax 1956    1959    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1317 Rule    Halifax 1956    1959    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1318 Rule    Halifax 1962    1973    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1319 Rule    Halifax 1962    1973    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1320 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1321 Zone America/Halifax    -4:14:24 -      LMT     1902 Jun 15
1322                         -4:00   Halifax A%sT    1918
1323                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1919
1324                         -4:00   Halifax A%sT    1942 Feb  9  2:00s
1325                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1946
1326                         -4:00   Halifax A%sT    1974
1327                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT
1328 Zone America/Glace_Bay  -3:59:48 -      LMT     1902 Jun 15
1329                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1953
1330                         -4:00   Halifax A%sT    1954
1331                         -4:00   -       AST     1972
1332                         -4:00   Halifax A%sT    1974
1333                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT
1334 
1335 # New Brunswick
1336 
1337 # From Paul Eggert (2007-01-31):
1338 # The Time Definition Act <http://www.gnb.ca/0062/PDF-acts/t-06.pdf>
1339 # says they changed at 00:01 through 2006, and
1340 # <http://www.canlii.org/nb/laws/sta/t-6/20030127/whole.html> makes it
1341 # clear that this was the case since at least 1993.
1342 # For now, assume it started in 1993.
1343 
1344 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1345 Rule    Moncton 1933    1935    -       Jun     Sun>=8       1:00    1:00    D
1346 Rule    Moncton 1933    1935    -       Sep     Sun>=8       1:00    0       S
1347 Rule    Moncton 1936    1938    -       Jun     Sun>=1       1:00    1:00    D
1348 Rule    Moncton 1936    1938    -       Sep     Sun>=1       1:00    0       S
1349 Rule    Moncton 1939    only    -       May     27      1:00    1:00    D
1350 Rule    Moncton 1939    1941    -       Sep     Sat>=21      1:00    0       S
1351 Rule    Moncton 1940    only    -       May     19      1:00    1:00    D
1352 Rule    Moncton 1941    only    -       May      4      1:00    1:00    D
1353 Rule    Moncton 1946    1972    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1354 Rule    Moncton 1946    1956    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1355 Rule    Moncton 1957    1972    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1356 Rule    Moncton 1993    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:01    1:00    D
1357 Rule    Moncton 1993    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 0:01    0       S
1358 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1359 Zone America/Moncton    -4:19:08 -      LMT     1883 Dec  9
1360                         -5:00   -       EST     1902 Jun 15
1361                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1933
1362                         -4:00   Moncton A%sT    1942
1363                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1946
1364                         -4:00   Moncton A%sT    1973
1365                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1993
1366                         -4:00   Moncton A%sT    2007
1367                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT
1368 
1369 # Quebec
1370 
1371 # From Paul Eggert (2015-03-24):
1372 # See America/Toronto for most of Quebec, including Montreal.
1373 #
1374 # Matthews and Vincent (1998) also write that Quebec east of the -63
1375 # meridian is supposed to observe AST, but residents as far east as
1376 # Natashquan use EST/EDT, and residents east of Natashquan use AST.
1377 # The Quebec department of justice writes in
1378 # "The situation in Minganie and Basse-Côte-Nord"
1379 # http://www.justice.gouv.qc.ca/english/publications/generale/temps-minganie-a.htm
1380 # that the coastal strip from just east of Natashquan to Blanc-Sablon
1381 # observes Atlantic standard time all year round.
1382 # http://www.assnat.qc.ca/Media/Process.aspx?MediaId=ANQ.Vigie.Bll.DocumentGenerique_8845en
1383 # says this common practice was codified into law as of 2007.
1384 # For lack of better info, guess this practice began around 1970, contra to
1385 # Shanks & Pottenger who have this region observing AST/ADT.
1386 
1387 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1388 Zone America/Blanc-Sablon -3:48:28 -    LMT     1884
1389                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1970
1390                         -4:00   -       AST
1391 
1392 # Ontario
1393 
1394 # From Paul Eggert (2006-07-09):
1395 # Shanks & Pottenger write that since 1970 most of Ontario has been like
1396 # Toronto.
1397 # Thunder Bay skipped DST in 1973.
1398 # Many smaller locales did not observe peacetime DST until 1974;
1399 # Nipigon (EST) and Rainy River (CST) are the largest that we know of.
1400 # Far west Ontario is like Winnipeg; far east Quebec is like Halifax.
1401 
1402 # From Mark Brader (2003-07-26):
1403 # [According to the Toronto Star] Orillia, Ontario, adopted DST
1404 # effective Saturday, 1912-06-22, 22:00; the article mentions that
1405 # Port Arthur (now part of Thunder Bay, Ontario) as well as Moose Jaw
1406 # have already done so.  In Orillia DST was to run until Saturday,
1407 # 1912-08-31 (no time mentioned), but it was met with considerable
1408 # hostility from certain segments of the public, and was revoked after
1409 # only two weeks - I copied it as Saturday, 1912-07-07, 22:00, but
1410 # presumably that should be -07-06.  (1912-06-19, -07-12; also letters
1411 # earlier in June).
1412 #
1413 # Kenora, Ontario, was to abandon DST on 1914-06-01 (-05-21).
1414 
1415 # From Paul Eggert (1997-10-17):
1416 # Mark Brader writes that an article in the 1997-10-14 Toronto Star
1417 # says that Atikokan, Ontario currently does not observe DST,
1418 # but will vote on 11-10 whether to use EST/EDT.
1419 # He also writes that the Ontario Time Act (1990, Chapter T.9)
1420 # http://www.gov.on.ca/MBS/english/publications/statregs/conttext.html
1421 # says that Ontario east of 90W uses EST/EDT, and west of 90W uses CST/CDT.
1422 # Officially Atikokan is therefore on CST/CDT, and most likely this report
1423 # concerns a non-official time observed as a matter of local practice.
1424 #
1425 # From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
1426 # Matthews and Vincent (1998) write that Atikokan, Pickle Lake, and
1427 # New Osnaburgh observe CST all year, that Big Trout Lake observes
1428 # CST/CDT, and that Upsala and Shebandowan observe EST/EDT, all in
1429 # violation of the official Ontario rules.
1430 #
1431 # From Paul Eggert (2006-07-09):
1432 # Chris Walton (2006-07-06) mentioned an article by Stephanie MacLellan in the
1433 # 2005-07-21 Chronicle-Journal, which said:
1434 #
1435 #       The clocks in Atikokan stay set on standard time year-round.
1436 #       This means they spend about half the time on central time and
1437 #       the other half on eastern time.
1438 #
1439 #       For the most part, the system works, Mayor Dennis Brown said.
1440 #
1441 #       "The majority of businesses in Atikokan deal more with Eastern
1442 #       Canada, but there are some that deal with Western Canada," he
1443 #       said.  "I don't see any changes happening here."
1444 #
1445 # Walton also writes "Supposedly Pickle Lake and Mishkeegogamang
1446 # [New Osnaburgh] follow the same practice."
1447 
1448 # From Garry McKinnon (2006-07-14) via Chris Walton:
1449 # I chatted with a member of my board who has an outstanding memory
1450 # and a long history in Atikokan (and in the telecom industry) and he
1451 # can say for certain that Atikokan has been practicing the current
1452 # time keeping since 1952, at least.
1453 
1454 # From Paul Eggert (2006-07-17):
1455 # Shanks & Pottenger say that Atikokan has agreed with Rainy River
1456 # ever since standard time was introduced, but the information from
1457 # McKinnon sounds more authoritative.  For now, assume that Atikokan
1458 # switched to EST immediately after WWII era daylight saving time
1459 # ended.  This matches the old (less-populous) America/Coral_Harbour
1460 # entry since our cutoff date of 1970, so we can move
1461 # America/Coral_Harbour to the 'backward' file.
1462 
1463 # From Mark Brader (2010-03-06):
1464 #
1465 # Currently the database has:
1466 #
1467 # # Ontario
1468 #
1469 # # From Paul Eggert (2006-07-09):
1470 # # Shanks & Pottenger write that since 1970 most of Ontario has been like
1471 # # Toronto.
1472 # # Thunder Bay skipped DST in 1973.
1473 # # Many smaller locales did not observe peacetime DST until 1974;
1474 # # Nipigon (EST) and Rainy River (CST) are the largest that we know of.
1475 #
1476 # In the (Toronto) Globe and Mail for Saturday, 1955-09-24, in the bottom
1477 # right corner of page 1, it says that Toronto will return to standard
1478 # time at 2 am Sunday morning (which agrees with the database), and that:
1479 #
1480 #     The one-hour setback will go into effect throughout most of Ontario,
1481 #     except in areas like Windsor which remains on standard time all year.
1482 #
1483 # Windsor is, of course, a lot larger than Nipigon.
1484 #
1485 # I only came across this incidentally.  I don't know if Windsor began
1486 # observing DST when Detroit did, or in 1974, or on some other date.
1487 #
1488 # By the way, the article continues by noting that:
1489 #
1490 #     Some cities in the United States have pushed the deadline back
1491 #     three weeks and will change over from daylight saving in October.
1492 
1493 # From Arthur David Olson (2010-07-17):
1494 #
1495 # "Standard Time and Time Zones in Canada" appeared in
1496 # The Journal of The Royal Astronomical Society of Canada,
1497 # volume 26, number 2 (February 1932) and, as of 2010-07-17,
1498 # was available at
1499 # http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1932JRASC..26...49S
1500 #
1501 # It includes the text below (starting on page 57):
1502 #
1503 #   A list of the places in Canada using daylight saving time would
1504 # require yearly revision. From information kindly furnished by
1505 # the provincial governments and by the postmasters in many cities
1506 # and towns, it is found that the following places used daylight sav-
1507 # ing in 1930. The information for the province of Quebec is definite,
1508 # for the other provinces only approximate:
1509 #
1510 #       Province        Daylight saving time used
1511 # Prince Edward Island  Not used.
1512 # Nova Scotia           In Halifax only.
1513 # New Brunswick         In St. John only.
1514 # Quebec                In the following places:
1515 #                       Montreal        Lachine
1516 #                       Quebec          Mont-Royal
1517 #                       Lévis          Iberville
1518 #                       St. Lambert     Cap de la Madelèine
1519 #                       Verdun          Loretteville
1520 #                       Westmount       Richmond
1521 #                       Outremont       St. Jérôme
1522 #                       Longueuil       Greenfield Park
1523 #                       Arvida          Waterloo
1524 #                       Chambly-Canton  Beaulieu
1525 #                       Melbourne       La Tuque
1526 #                       St. Théophile  Buckingham
1527 # Ontario               Used generally in the cities and towns along
1528 #                       the southerly part of the province. Not
1529 #                       used in the northwesterly part.
1530 # Manitoba              Not used.
1531 # Saskatchewan          In Regina only.
1532 # Alberta               Not used.
1533 # British Columbia      Not used.
1534 #
1535 #   With some exceptions, the use of daylight saving may be said to be limited
1536 # to those cities and towns lying between Quebec city and Windsor, Ont.
1537 
1538 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1539 Rule    Toronto 1919    only    -       Mar     30      23:30   1:00    D
1540 Rule    Toronto 1919    only    -       Oct     26      0:00    0       S
1541 Rule    Toronto 1920    only    -       May      2      2:00    1:00    D
1542 Rule    Toronto 1920    only    -       Sep     26      0:00    0       S
1543 Rule    Toronto 1921    only    -       May     15      2:00    1:00    D
1544 Rule    Toronto 1921    only    -       Sep     15      2:00    0       S
1545 Rule    Toronto 1922    1923    -       May     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
1546 # Shanks & Pottenger say 1923-09-19; assume it's a typo and that "-16"
1547 # was meant.
1548 Rule    Toronto 1922    1926    -       Sep     Sun>=15      2:00    0       S
1549 Rule    Toronto 1924    1927    -       May     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
1550 # The 1927-to-1939 rules can be expressed more simply as
1551 # Rule  Toronto 1927    1937    -       Sep     Sun>=25      2:00    0       S
1552 # Rule  Toronto 1928    1937    -       Apr     Sun>=25      2:00    1:00    D
1553 # Rule  Toronto 1938    1940    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1554 # Rule  Toronto 1938    1939    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1555 # The rules below avoid use of Sun>=25
1556 # (which pre-2004 versions of zic cannot handle).
1557 Rule    Toronto 1927    1932    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1558 Rule    Toronto 1928    1931    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1559 Rule    Toronto 1932    only    -       May     1       2:00    1:00    D
1560 Rule    Toronto 1933    1940    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1561 Rule    Toronto 1933    only    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       S
1562 Rule    Toronto 1934    1939    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1563 Rule    Toronto 1945    1946    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1564 Rule    Toronto 1946    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1565 Rule    Toronto 1947    1949    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    1:00    D
1566 Rule    Toronto 1947    1948    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       S
1567 Rule    Toronto 1949    only    -       Nov     lastSun 0:00    0       S
1568 Rule    Toronto 1950    1973    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1569 Rule    Toronto 1950    only    -       Nov     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1570 Rule    Toronto 1951    1956    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1571 # Shanks & Pottenger say Toronto ended DST a week early in 1971,
1572 # namely on 1971-10-24, but Mark Brader wrote (2003-05-31) that this
1573 # is wrong, and that he had confirmed it by checking the 1971-10-30
1574 # Toronto Star, which said that DST was ending 1971-10-31 as usual.
1575 Rule    Toronto 1957    1973    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1576 
1577 # From Paul Eggert (2003-07-27):
1578 # Willett (1914-03) writes (p. 17) "In the Cities of Fort William, and
1579 # Port Arthur, Ontario, the principle of the Bill has been in
1580 # operation for the past three years, and in the City of Moose Jaw,
1581 # Saskatchewan, for one year."
1582 
1583 # From David Bryan via Tory Tronrud, Director/Curator,
1584 # Thunder Bay Museum (2003-11-12):
1585 # There is some suggestion, however, that, by-law or not, daylight
1586 # savings time was being practiced in Fort William and Port Arthur
1587 # before 1909.... [I]n 1910, the line between the Eastern and Central
1588 # Time Zones was permanently moved about two hundred miles west to
1589 # include the Thunder Bay area....  When Canada adopted daylight
1590 # savings time in 1916, Fort William and Port Arthur, having done so
1591 # already, did not change their clocks....  During the Second World
1592 # War,... [t]he cities agreed to implement DST during the summer
1593 # months for the remainder of the war years.
1594 
1595 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1596 Zone America/Toronto    -5:17:32 -      LMT     1895
1597                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1919
1598                         -5:00   Toronto E%sT    1942 Feb  9  2:00s
1599                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1946
1600                         -5:00   Toronto E%sT    1974
1601                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT
1602 Zone America/Thunder_Bay -5:57:00 -     LMT     1895
1603                         -6:00   -       CST     1910
1604                         -5:00   -       EST     1942
1605                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1970
1606                         -5:00   Toronto E%sT    1973
1607                         -5:00   -       EST     1974
1608                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT
1609 Zone America/Nipigon    -5:53:04 -      LMT     1895
1610                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1940 Sep 29
1611                         -5:00   1:00    EDT     1942 Feb  9  2:00s
1612                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT
1613 Zone America/Rainy_River -6:18:16 -     LMT     1895
1614                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT    1940 Sep 29
1615                         -6:00   1:00    CDT     1942 Feb  9  2:00s
1616                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT
1617 Zone America/Atikokan   -6:06:28 -      LMT     1895
1618                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT    1940 Sep 29
1619                         -6:00   1:00    CDT     1942 Feb  9  2:00s
1620                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT    1945 Sep 30  2:00
1621                         -5:00   -       EST
1622 
1623 
1624 # Manitoba
1625 
1626 # From Rob Douglas (2006-04-06):
1627 # the old Manitoba Time Act - as amended by Bill 2, assented to
1628 # March 27, 1987 ... said ...
1629 # "between two o'clock Central Standard Time in the morning of
1630 # the first Sunday of April of each year and two o'clock Central
1631 # Standard Time in the morning of the last Sunday of October next
1632 # following, one hour in advance of Central Standard Time."...
1633 # I believe that the English legislation [of the old time act] had
1634 # been assented to (March 22, 1967)....
1635 # Also, as far as I can tell, there was no order-in-council varying
1636 # the time of Daylight Saving Time for 2005 and so the provisions of
1637 # the 1987 version would apply - the changeover was at 2:00 Central
1638 # Standard Time (i.e. not until 3:00 Central Daylight Time).
1639 
1640 # From Paul Eggert (2006-04-10):
1641 # Shanks & Pottenger say Manitoba switched at 02:00 (not 02:00s)
1642 # starting 1966.  Since 02:00s is clearly correct for 1967 on, assume
1643 # it was also 02:00s in 1966.
1644 
1645 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1646 Rule    Winn    1916    only    -       Apr     23      0:00    1:00    D
1647 Rule    Winn    1916    only    -       Sep     17      0:00    0       S
1648 Rule    Winn    1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D
1649 Rule    Winn    1918    only    -       Oct     27      2:00    0       S
1650 Rule    Winn    1937    only    -       May     16      2:00    1:00    D
1651 Rule    Winn    1937    only    -       Sep     26      2:00    0       S
1652 Rule    Winn    1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War
1653 Rule    Winn    1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace
1654 Rule    Winn    1945    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1655 Rule    Winn    1946    only    -       May     12      2:00    1:00    D
1656 Rule    Winn    1946    only    -       Oct     13      2:00    0       S
1657 Rule    Winn    1947    1949    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1658 Rule    Winn    1947    1949    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1659 Rule    Winn    1950    only    -       May      1      2:00    1:00    D
1660 Rule    Winn    1950    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S
1661 Rule    Winn    1951    1960    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1662 Rule    Winn    1951    1958    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1663 Rule    Winn    1959    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1664 Rule    Winn    1960    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1665 Rule    Winn    1963    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1666 Rule    Winn    1963    only    -       Sep     22      2:00    0       S
1667 Rule    Winn    1966    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
1668 Rule    Winn    1966    2005    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
1669 Rule    Winn    1987    2005    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
1670 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1671 Zone America/Winnipeg   -6:28:36 -      LMT     1887 Jul 16
1672                         -6:00   Winn    C%sT    2006
1673                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT
1674 
1675 
1676 # Saskatchewan
1677 
1678 # From Mark Brader (2003-07-26):
1679 # The first actual adoption of DST in Canada was at the municipal
1680 # level.  As the [Toronto] Star put it (1912-06-07), "While people
1681 # elsewhere have long been talking of legislation to save daylight,
1682 # the city of Moose Jaw [Saskatchewan] has acted on its own hook."
1683 # DST in Moose Jaw began on Saturday, 1912-06-01 (no time mentioned:
1684 # presumably late evening, as below), and would run until "the end of
1685 # the summer".  The discrepancy between municipal time and railroad
1686 # time was noted.
1687 
1688 # From Paul Eggert (2003-07-27):
1689 # Willett (1914-03) notes that DST "has been in operation ... in the
1690 # City of Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, for one year."
1691 
1692 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1693 # Shanks & Pottenger say that since 1970 this region has mostly been as Regina.
1694 # Some western towns (e.g. Swift Current) switched from MST/MDT to CST in 1972.
1695 # Other western towns (e.g. Lloydminster) are like Edmonton.
1696 # Matthews and Vincent (1998) write that Denare Beach and Creighton
1697 # are like Winnipeg, in violation of Saskatchewan law.
1698 
1699 # From W. Jones (1992-11-06):
1700 # The. . .below is based on information I got from our law library, the
1701 # provincial archives, and the provincial Community Services department.
1702 # A precise history would require digging through newspaper archives, and
1703 # since you didn't say what you wanted, I didn't bother.
1704 #
1705 # Saskatchewan is split by a time zone meridian (105W) and over the years
1706 # the boundary became pretty ragged as communities near it reevaluated
1707 # their affiliations in one direction or the other.  In 1965 a provincial
1708 # referendum favoured legislating common time practices.
1709 #
1710 # On 15 April 1966 the Time Act (c. T-14, Revised Statutes of
1711 # Saskatchewan 1978) was proclaimed, and established that the eastern
1712 # part of Saskatchewan would use CST year round, that districts in
1713 # northwest Saskatchewan would by default follow CST but could opt to
1714 # follow Mountain Time rules (thus 1 hour difference in the winter and
1715 # zero in the summer), and that districts in southwest Saskatchewan would
1716 # by default follow MT but could opt to follow CST.
1717 #
1718 # It took a few years for the dust to settle (I know one story of a town
1719 # on one time zone having its school in another, such that a mom had to
1720 # serve her family lunch in two shifts), but presently it seems that only
1721 # a few towns on the border with Alberta (e.g. Lloydminster) follow MT
1722 # rules any more; all other districts appear to have used CST year round
1723 # since sometime in the 1960s.
1724 
1725 # From Chris Walton (2006-06-26):
1726 # The Saskatchewan time act which was last updated in 1996 is about 30 pages
1727 # long and rather painful to read.
1728 # http://www.qp.gov.sk.ca/documents/English/Statutes/Statutes/T14.pdf
1729 
1730 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1731 Rule    Regina  1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D
1732 Rule    Regina  1918    only    -       Oct     27      2:00    0       S
1733 Rule    Regina  1930    1934    -       May     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
1734 Rule    Regina  1930    1934    -       Oct     Sun>=1       0:00    0       S
1735 Rule    Regina  1937    1941    -       Apr     Sun>=8       0:00    1:00    D
1736 Rule    Regina  1937    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8       0:00    0       S
1737 Rule    Regina  1938    only    -       Oct     Sun>=1       0:00    0       S
1738 Rule    Regina  1939    1941    -       Oct     Sun>=8       0:00    0       S
1739 Rule    Regina  1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War
1740 Rule    Regina  1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace
1741 Rule    Regina  1945    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1742 Rule    Regina  1946    only    -       Apr     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
1743 Rule    Regina  1946    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8       2:00    0       S
1744 Rule    Regina  1947    1957    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1745 Rule    Regina  1947    1957    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1746 Rule    Regina  1959    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1747 Rule    Regina  1959    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1748 #
1749 Rule    Swift   1957    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1750 Rule    Swift   1957    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1751 Rule    Swift   1959    1961    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1752 Rule    Swift   1959    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1753 Rule    Swift   1960    1961    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1754 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1755 Zone America/Regina     -6:58:36 -      LMT     1905 Sep
1756                         -7:00   Regina  M%sT    1960 Apr lastSun  2:00
1757                         -6:00   -       CST
1758 Zone America/Swift_Current -7:11:20 -   LMT     1905 Sep
1759                         -7:00   Canada  M%sT    1946 Apr lastSun  2:00
1760                         -7:00   Regina  M%sT    1950
1761                         -7:00   Swift   M%sT    1972 Apr lastSun  2:00
1762                         -6:00   -       CST
1763 
1764 
1765 # Alberta
1766 
1767 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1768 Rule    Edm     1918    1919    -       Apr     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
1769 Rule    Edm     1918    only    -       Oct     27      2:00    0       S
1770 Rule    Edm     1919    only    -       May     27      2:00    0       S
1771 Rule    Edm     1920    1923    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1772 Rule    Edm     1920    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1773 Rule    Edm     1921    1923    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1774 Rule    Edm     1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War
1775 Rule    Edm     1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace
1776 Rule    Edm     1945    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1777 Rule    Edm     1947    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1778 Rule    Edm     1947    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1779 Rule    Edm     1967    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1780 Rule    Edm     1967    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1781 Rule    Edm     1969    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1782 Rule    Edm     1969    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1783 Rule    Edm     1972    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1784 Rule    Edm     1972    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1785 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1786 Zone America/Edmonton   -7:33:52 -      LMT     1906 Sep
1787                         -7:00   Edm     M%sT    1987
1788                         -7:00   Canada  M%sT
1789 
1790 
1791 # British Columbia
1792 
1793 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1794 # Shanks & Pottenger write that since 1970 most of this region has
1795 # been like Vancouver.
1796 # Dawson Creek uses MST.  Much of east BC is like Edmonton.
1797 # Matthews and Vincent (1998) write that Creston is like Dawson Creek.
1798 
1799 # It seems though that (re: Creston) is not entirely correct:
1800 
1801 # From Chris Walton (2011-12-01):
1802 # There are two areas within the Canadian province of British Columbia
1803 # that do not currently observe daylight saving:
1804 # a) The Creston Valley (includes the town of Creston and surrounding area)
1805 # b) The eastern half of the Peace River Regional District
1806 # (includes the cities of Dawson Creek and Fort St. John)
1807 
1808 # Earlier this year I stumbled across a detailed article about the time
1809 # keeping history of Creston; it was written by Tammy Hardwick who is the
1810 # manager of the Creston & District Museum. The article was written in May 2009.
1811 # http://www.ilovecreston.com/?p=articles&t=spec&ar=260
1812 # According to the article, Creston has not changed its clocks since June 1918.
1813 # i.e. Creston has been stuck on UTC-7 for 93 years.
1814 # Dawson Creek, on the other hand, changed its clocks as recently as April 1972.
1815 
1816 # Unfortunately the exact date for the time change in June 1918 remains
1817 # unknown and will be difficult to ascertain.  I e-mailed Tammy a few months
1818 # ago to ask if Sunday June 2 was a reasonable guess.  She said it was just
1819 # as plausible as any other date (in June).  She also said that after writing
1820 # the article she had discovered another time change in 1916; this is the
1821 # subject of another article which she wrote in October 2010.
1822 # http://www.creston.museum.bc.ca/index.php?module=comments&uop=view_comment&cm+id=56
1823 
1824 # Here is a summary of the three clock change events in Creston's history:
1825 # 1. 1884 or 1885: adoption of Mountain Standard Time (GMT-7)
1826 # Exact date unknown
1827 # 2. Oct 1916: switch to Pacific Standard Time (GMT-8)
1828 # Exact date in October unknown; Sunday October 1 is a reasonable guess.
1829 # 3. June 1918: switch to Pacific Daylight Time (GMT-7)
1830 # Exact date in June unknown; Sunday June 2 is a reasonable guess.
1831 # note 1:
1832 # On Oct 27/1918 when daylight saving ended in the rest of Canada,
1833 # Creston did not change its clocks.
1834 # note 2:
1835 # During WWII when the Federal Government legislated a mandatory clock change,
1836 # Creston did not oblige.
1837 # note 3:
1838 # There is no guarantee that Creston will remain on Mountain Standard Time
1839 # (UTC-7) forever.
1840 # The subject was debated at least once this year by the town Council.
1841 # http://www.bclocalnews.com/kootenay_rockies/crestonvalleyadvance/news/116760809.html
1842 
1843 # During a period WWII, summer time (Daylight saying) was mandatory in Canada.
1844 # In Creston, that was handled by shifting the area to PST (-8:00) then applying
1845 # summer time to cause the offset to be -7:00, the same as it had been before
1846 # the change.  It can be argued that the timezone abbreviation during this
1847 # period should be PDT rather than MST, but that doesn't seem important enough
1848 # (to anyone) to further complicate the rules.
1849 
1850 # The transition dates (and times) are guesses.
1851 
1852 # From Matt Johnson (2015-09-21):
1853 # Fort Nelson, BC, Canada will cancel DST this year.  So while previously they
1854 # were aligned with America/Vancouver, they're now aligned with
1855 # America/Dawson_Creek.
1856 # http://www.northernrockies.ca/EN/meta/news/archives/2015/northern-rockies-time-change.html
1857 #
1858 # From Tim Parenti (2015-09-23):
1859 # This requires a new zone for the Northern Rockies Regional Municipality,
1860 # America/Fort_Nelson.  The resolution of 2014-12-08 was reached following a
1861 # 2014-11-15 poll with nearly 75% support.  Effectively, the municipality has
1862 # been on MST (-0700) like Dawson Creek since it advanced its clocks on
1863 # 2015-03-08.
1864 #
1865 # From Paul Eggert (2015-09-23):
1866 # Shanks says Fort Nelson did not observe DST in 1946, unlike Vancouver.
1867 
1868 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1869 Rule    Vanc    1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D
1870 Rule    Vanc    1918    only    -       Oct     27      2:00    0       S
1871 Rule    Vanc    1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War
1872 Rule    Vanc    1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace
1873 Rule    Vanc    1945    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S
1874 Rule    Vanc    1946    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1875 Rule    Vanc    1946    only    -       Oct     13      2:00    0       S
1876 Rule    Vanc    1947    1961    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1877 Rule    Vanc    1962    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1878 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1879 Zone America/Vancouver  -8:12:28 -      LMT     1884
1880                         -8:00   Vanc    P%sT    1987
1881                         -8:00   Canada  P%sT
1882 Zone America/Dawson_Creek -8:00:56 -    LMT     1884
1883                         -8:00   Canada  P%sT    1947
1884                         -8:00   Vanc    P%sT    1972 Aug 30  2:00
1885                         -7:00   -       MST
1886 Zone America/Fort_Nelson        -8:10:47 -      LMT     1884
1887                         -8:00   Vanc    P%sT    1946
1888                         -8:00   -       PST     1947
1889                         -8:00   Vanc    P%sT    1987
1890                         -8:00   Canada  P%sT    2015 Mar  8  2:00
1891                         -7:00   -       MST
1892 Zone America/Creston    -7:46:04 -      LMT     1884
1893                         -7:00   -       MST     1916 Oct 1
1894                         -8:00   -       PST     1918 Jun 2
1895                         -7:00   -       MST
1896 
1897 # Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Yukon
1898 
1899 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1900 # Dawson switched to PST in 1973.  Inuvik switched to MST in 1979.
1901 # Mathew Englander (1996-10-07) gives the following refs:
1902 #       * 1967. Paragraph 28(34)(g) of the Interpretation Act, S.C. 1967-68,
1903 #       c. 7 defines Yukon standard time as UTC-9....
1904 #       see Interpretation Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. I-21, s. 35(1).
1905 #       [http://canlii.ca/t/7vhg]
1906 #       * C.O. 1973/214 switched Yukon to PST on 1973-10-28 00:00.
1907 #       * O.I.C. 1980/02 established DST.
1908 #       * O.I.C. 1987/056 changed DST to Apr firstSun 2:00 to Oct lastSun 2:00.
1909 
1910 # From Brian Inglis (2015-04-14):
1911 #
1912 # I tried to trace the history of Yukon time and found the following
1913 # regulations, giving the reference title and URL if found, regulation name,
1914 # and relevant quote if available.  Each regulation specifically revokes its
1915 # predecessor.  The final reference is to the current Interpretation Act
1916 # authorizing and resulting from these regulatory changes.
1917 #
1918 # Only recent regulations were retrievable via Yukon government site search or
1919 # index, and only some via Canadian legal sources.  Other sources used include
1920 # articles titled "Standard Time and Time Zones in Canada" from JRASC via ADS
1921 # Abstracts, cited by ADO for 1932 ..., and updated versions from 1958 and
1922 # 1970 quoted below; each article includes current extracts from provincial
1923 # and territorial ST and DST regulations at the end, summaries and details of
1924 # standard times and daylight saving time at many locations across Canada,
1925 # with time zone maps, tables and calculations for Canadian Sunrise, Sunset,
1926 # and LMST; they also cover many countries and global locations, with a chart
1927 # and table showing current Universal Time offsets, and may be useful as
1928 # another source of information for 1970 and earlier.
1929 #
1930 # * Standard Time and Time Zones in Canada; Smith, C.C.; JRASC, Vol. 26,
1931 #   pp.49-77; February 1932; SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
1932 #   http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1932JRASC..26...49S from p.75:
1933 #   Yukon Interpretation Ordinance
1934 #   Yukon standard time is the local mean time at the one hundred and
1935 #   thirty-fifth meridian.
1936 #
1937 # * Standard Time and Time Zones in Canada; Smith, C.C.; Thomson, Malcolm M.;
1938 #   JRASC, Vol. 52, pp.193-223; October 1958; SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System
1939 #   (ADS) http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1958JRASC..52..193S from pp.220-1:
1940 #   Yukon Interpretation Ordinance, 1955, Chap. 16.
1941 #
1942 #     (1) Subject to this section, standard time shall be reckoned as nine
1943 #     hours behind Greenwich Time and called Yukon Standard Time.
1944 #
1945 #     (2) Notwithstanding subsection (1), the Commissioner may make regulations
1946 #     varying the manner of reckoning standard time.
1947 #
1948 # * Yukon Territory Commissioner's Order 1966-20 Interpretation Ordinance
1949 #   http://? - no online source found
1950 #
1951 # * Standard Time and Time Zones in Canada; Thomson, Malcolm M.; JRASC,
1952 #   Vol. 64, pp.129-162; June 1970; SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
1953 #   http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1970JRASC..64..129T from p.156: Yukon
1954 #   Territory Commissioner's Order 1967-59 Interpretation Ordinance ...
1955 #
1956 #     1. Commissioner's Order 1966-20 dated at Whitehorse in the Yukon
1957 #     Territory on 27th January, 1966, is hereby revoked.
1958 #
1959 #     2. Yukon (East) Standard Time as defined by section 36 of the
1960 #     Interpretation Ordinance from and after mid-night on the 28th day of May,
1961 #     1967 shall be reckoned in the same manner as Pacific Standard Time, that
1962 #     is to say, eight hours behind Greenwich Time in the area of the Yukon
1963 #     Territory lying east of the 138th degree longitude west.
1964 #
1965 #     3. In the remainder of the Territory, lying west of the 138th degree
1966 #     longitude west, Yukon (West) Standard Time shall be reckoned as nine
1967 #     hours behind Greenwich Time.
1968 #
1969 # * Yukon Standard Time defined as Pacific Standard Time, YCO 1973/214
1970 #   http://www.canlii.org/en/yk/laws/regu/yco-1973-214/latest/yco-1973-214.html
1971 #   C.O. 1973/214 INTERPRETATION ACT ...
1972 #
1973 #     1. Effective October 28, 1973 Commissioner's Order 1967/59 is hereby
1974 #     revoked.
1975 #
1976 #     2. Yukon Standard Time as defined by section 36 of the Interpretation
1977 #     Act from and after midnight on the twenty-eighth day of October, 1973
1978 #     shall be reckoned in the same manner as Pacific Standard Time, that is
1979 #     to say eight hours behind Greenwich Time.
1980 #
1981 # * O.I.C. 1980/02 INTERPRETATION ACT
1982 #   http://? - no online source found
1983 #
1984 # * Yukon Daylight Saving Time, YOIC 1987/56
1985 #   http://www.canlii.org/en/yk/laws/regu/yoic-1987-56/latest/yoic-1987-56.html
1986 #   O.I.C. 1987/056 INTERPRETATION ACT ...
1987 #
1988 #   In every year between
1989 #     (a) two o'clock in the morning in the first Sunday in April, and
1990 #     (b) two o'clock in the morning in the last Sunday in October,
1991 #   Standard Time shall be reckoned as seven hours behind Greenwich Time and
1992 #   called Yukon Daylight Saving Time.
1993 #   ...
1994 #   Dated ... 9th day of March, A.D., 1987.
1995 #
1996 # * Yukon Daylight Saving Time 2006, YOIC 2006/127
1997 #   http://www.canlii.org/en/yk/laws/regu/yoic-2006-127/latest/yoic-2006-127.html
1998 #   O.I.C. 2006/127 INTERPRETATION ACT ...
1999 #
2000 #     1. In Yukon each year the time for general purposes shall be 7 hours
2001 #     behind Greenwich mean time during the period commencing at two o'clock
2002 #     in the forenoon on the second Sunday of March and ending at two o'clock
2003 #     in the forenoon on the first Sunday of November and shall be called
2004 #     Yukon Daylight Saving Time.
2005 #
2006 #     2. Order-in-Council 1987/56 is revoked.
2007 #
2008 #     3. This order comes into force January 1, 2007.
2009 #
2010 # * Interpretation Act, RSY 2002, c 125
2011 # http://www.canlii.org/en/yk/laws/stat/rsy-2002-c-125/latest/rsy-2002-c-125.html
2012 
2013 # From Rives McDow (1999-09-04):
2014 # Nunavut ... moved ... to incorporate the whole territory into one time zone.
2015 # Nunavut moves to single time zone Oct. 31
2016 # http://www.nunatsiaq.com/nunavut/nvt90903_13.html
2017 #
2018 # From Antoine Leca (1999-09-06):
2019 # We then need to create a new timezone for the Kitikmeot region of Nunavut
2020 # to differentiate it from the Yellowknife region.
2021 
2022 # From Paul Eggert (1999-09-20):
2023 # Basic Facts: The New Territory
2024 # http://www.nunavut.com/basicfacts/english/basicfacts_1territory.html
2025 # (1999) reports that Pangnirtung operates on eastern time,
2026 # and that Coral Harbour does not observe DST.  We don't know when
2027 # Pangnirtung switched to eastern time; we'll guess 1995.
2028 
2029 # From Rives McDow (1999-11-08):
2030 # On October 31, when the rest of Nunavut went to Central time,
2031 # Pangnirtung wobbled.  Here is the result of their wobble:
2032 #
2033 # The following businesses and organizations in Pangnirtung use Central Time:
2034 #
2035 #       First Air, Power Corp, Nunavut Construction, Health Center, RCMP,
2036 #       Eastern Arctic National Parks, A & D Specialist
2037 #
2038 # The following businesses and organizations in Pangnirtung use Eastern Time:
2039 #
2040 #       Hamlet office, All other businesses, Both schools, Airport operator
2041 #
2042 # This has made for an interesting situation there, which warranted the news.
2043 # No one there that I spoke with seems concerned, or has plans to
2044 # change the local methods of keeping time, as it evidently does not
2045 # really interfere with any activities or make things difficult locally.
2046 # They plan to celebrate New Year's turn-over twice, one hour apart,
2047 # so it appears that the situation will last at least that long.
2048 # The Nunavut Intergovernmental Affairs hopes that they will "come to
2049 # their senses", but the locals evidently don't see any problem with
2050 # the current state of affairs.
2051 
2052 # From Michaela Rodrigue, writing in the
2053 # Nunatsiaq News (1999-11-19):
2054 # http://www.nunatsiaq.com/archives/nunavut991130/nvt91119_17.html
2055 # Clyde River, Pangnirtung and Sanikiluaq now operate with two time zones,
2056 # central - or Nunavut time - for government offices, and eastern time
2057 # for municipal offices and schools....  Igloolik [was similar but then]
2058 # made the switch to central time on Saturday, Nov. 6.
2059 
2060 # From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
2061 # Matthews and Vincent (1998) say the following, but we lack histories
2062 # for these potential new Zones.
2063 #
2064 # The Canadian Forces station at Alert uses Eastern Time while the
2065 # handful of residents at the Eureka weather station [in the Central
2066 # zone] skip daylight savings.  Baffin Island, which is crossed by the
2067 # Central, Eastern and Atlantic Time zones only uses Eastern Time.
2068 # Gjoa Haven, Taloyoak and Pelly Bay all use Mountain instead of
2069 # Central Time and Southampton Island [in the Central zone] is not
2070 # required to use daylight savings.
2071 
2072 # From <http://www.nunatsiaq.com/archives/nunavut001130/nvt21110_02.html>
2073 # Nunavut now has two time zones (2000-11-10):
2074 # The Nunavut government would allow its employees in Kugluktuk and
2075 # Cambridge Bay to operate on central time year-round, putting them
2076 # one hour behind the rest of Nunavut for six months during the winter.
2077 # At the end of October the two communities had rebelled against
2078 # Nunavut's unified time zone, refusing to shift to eastern time with
2079 # the rest of the territory for the winter.  Cambridge Bay remained on
2080 # central time, while Kugluktuk, even farther west, reverted to
2081 # mountain time, which they had used before the advent of Nunavut's
2082 # unified time zone in 1999.
2083 #
2084 # From Rives McDow (2001-01-20), quoting the Nunavut government:
2085 # The preceding decision came into effect at midnight, Saturday Nov 4, 2000.
2086 
2087 # From Paul Eggert (2000-12-04):
2088 # Let's just keep track of the official times for now.
2089 
2090 # From Rives McDow (2001-03-07):
2091 # The premier of Nunavut has issued a ministerial statement advising
2092 # that effective 2001-04-01, the territory of Nunavut will revert
2093 # back to three time zones (mountain, central, and eastern).  Of the
2094 # cities in Nunavut, Coral Harbor is the only one that I know of that
2095 # has said it will not observe dst, staying on EST year round.  I'm
2096 # checking for more info, and will get back to you if I come up with
2097 # more.
2098 # [Also see <http://www.nunatsiaq.com/nunavut/nvt10309_06.html> (2001-03-09).]
2099 
2100 # From Gwillim Law (2005-05-21):
2101 # According to ...
2102 # http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/Magazine/SO98/geomap.asp
2103 # (from a 1998 Canadian Geographic article), the de facto and de jure time
2104 # for Southampton Island (at the north end of Hudson Bay) is UTC-5 all year
2105 # round.  Using Google, it's easy to find other websites that confirm this.
2106 # I wasn't able to find how far back this time regimen goes, but since it
2107 # predates the creation of Nunavut, it probably goes back many years....
2108 # The Inuktitut name of Coral Harbour is Sallit, but it's rarely used.
2109 #
2110 # From Paul Eggert (2014-10-17):
2111 # For lack of better information, assume that Southampton Island observed
2112 # daylight saving only during wartime.  Gwillim Law's email also
2113 # mentioned maps now maintained by National Research Council Canada;
2114 # see above for an up-to-date link.
2115 
2116 # From Chris Walton (2007-03-01):
2117 # ... the community of Resolute (located on Cornwallis Island in
2118 # Nunavut) moved from Central Time to Eastern Time last November.
2119 # Basically the community did not change its clocks at the end of
2120 # daylight saving....
2121 # http://www.nnsl.com/frames/newspapers/2006-11/nov13_06none.html
2122 
2123 # From Chris Walton (2011-03-21):
2124 # Back in 2007 I initiated the creation of a new "zone file" for Resolute
2125 # Bay. Resolute Bay is a small community located about 900km north of
2126 # the Arctic Circle. The zone file was required because Resolute Bay had
2127 # decided to use UTC-5 instead of UTC-6 for the winter of 2006-2007.
2128 #
2129 # According to new information which I received last week, Resolute Bay
2130 # went back to using UTC-6 in the winter of 2007-2008...
2131 #
2132 # On March 11/2007 most of Canada went onto daylight saving. On March
2133 # 14/2007 I phoned the Resolute Bay hamlet office to do a "time check." I
2134 # talked to somebody that was both knowledgeable and helpful. I was able
2135 # to confirm that Resolute Bay was still operating on UTC-5. It was
2136 # explained to me that Resolute Bay had been on the Eastern Time zone
2137 # (EST) in the winter, and was now back on the Central Time zone (CDT).
2138 # i.e. the time zone had changed twice in the last year but the clocks
2139 # had not moved. The residents had to know which time zone they were in
2140 # so they could follow the correct TV schedule...
2141 #
2142 # On Nov 02/2008 most of Canada went onto standard time. On Nov 03/2008 I
2143 # phoned the Resolute Bay hamlet office...[D]ue to the challenging nature
2144 # of the phone call, I decided to seek out an alternate source of
2145 # information. I found an e-mail address for somebody by the name of
2146 # Stephanie Adams whose job was listed as "Inns North Support Officer for
2147 # Arctic Co-operatives." I was under the impression that Stephanie lived
2148 # and worked in Resolute Bay...
2149 #
2150 # On March 14/2011 I phoned the hamlet office again. I was told that
2151 # Resolute Bay had been using Central Standard Time over the winter of
2152 # 2010-2011 and that the clocks had therefore been moved one hour ahead
2153 # on March 13/2011. The person I talked to was aware that Resolute Bay
2154 # had previously experimented with Eastern Standard Time but he could not
2155 # tell me when the practice had stopped.
2156 #
2157 # On March 17/2011 I searched the Web to find an e-mail address of
2158 # somebody that might be able to tell me exactly when Resolute Bay went
2159 # off Eastern Standard Time. I stumbled on the name "Aziz Kheraj." Aziz
2160 # used to be the mayor of Resolute Bay and he apparently owns half the
2161 # businesses including "South Camp Inn." This website has some info on
2162 # Aziz:
2163 # http://www.uphere.ca/node/493
2164 #
2165 # I sent Aziz an e-mail asking when Resolute Bay had stopped using
2166 # Eastern Standard Time.
2167 #
2168 # Aziz responded quickly with this: "hi, The time was not changed for the
2169 # 1 year only, the following year, the community went back to the old way
2170 # of "spring ahead-fall behind" currently we are zulu plus 5 hrs and in
2171 # the winter Zulu plus 6 hrs"
2172 #
2173 # This of course conflicted with everything I had ascertained in November 2008.
2174 #
2175 # I sent Aziz a copy of my 2008 e-mail exchange with Stephanie. Aziz
2176 # responded with this: "Hi, Stephanie lives in Winnipeg. I live here, You
2177 # may want to check with the weather office in Resolute Bay or do a
2178 # search on the weather through Env. Canada. web site"
2179 #
2180 # If I had realized the Stephanie did not live in Resolute Bay I would
2181 # never have contacted her.  I now believe that all the information I
2182 # obtained in November 2008 should be ignored...
2183 # I apologize for reporting incorrect information in 2008.
2184 
2185 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2186 Rule    NT_YK   1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D
2187 Rule    NT_YK   1918    only    -       Oct     27      2:00    0       S
2188 Rule    NT_YK   1919    only    -       May     25      2:00    1:00    D
2189 Rule    NT_YK   1919    only    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       S
2190 Rule    NT_YK   1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War
2191 Rule    NT_YK   1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace
2192 Rule    NT_YK   1945    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S
2193 Rule    NT_YK   1965    only    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    2:00    DD
2194 Rule    NT_YK   1965    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
2195 Rule    NT_YK   1980    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
2196 Rule    NT_YK   1980    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
2197 Rule    NT_YK   1987    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
2198 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2199 # aka Panniqtuuq
2200 Zone America/Pangnirtung 0      -       zzz     1921 # trading post est.
2201                         -4:00   NT_YK   A%sT    1995 Apr Sun>=1  2:00
2202                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1999 Oct 31  2:00
2203                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT    2000 Oct 29  2:00
2204                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT
2205 # formerly Frobisher Bay
2206 Zone America/Iqaluit    0       -       zzz     1942 Aug # Frobisher Bay est.
2207                         -5:00   NT_YK   E%sT    1999 Oct 31  2:00
2208                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT    2000 Oct 29  2:00
2209                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT
2210 # aka Qausuittuq
2211 Zone America/Resolute   0       -       zzz     1947 Aug 31 # Resolute founded
2212                         -6:00   NT_YK   C%sT    2000 Oct 29  2:00
2213                         -5:00   -       EST     2001 Apr  1  3:00
2214                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT    2006 Oct 29  2:00
2215                         -5:00   -       EST     2007 Mar 11  3:00
2216                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT
2217 # aka Kangiqiniq
2218 Zone America/Rankin_Inlet 0     -       zzz     1957 # Rankin Inlet founded
2219                         -6:00   NT_YK   C%sT    2000 Oct 29  2:00
2220                         -5:00   -       EST     2001 Apr  1  3:00
2221                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT
2222 # aka Iqaluktuuttiaq
2223 Zone America/Cambridge_Bay 0    -       zzz     1920 # trading post est.?
2224                         -7:00   NT_YK   M%sT    1999 Oct 31  2:00
2225                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT    2000 Oct 29  2:00
2226                         -5:00   -       EST     2000 Nov  5  0:00
2227                         -6:00   -       CST     2001 Apr  1  3:00
2228                         -7:00   Canada  M%sT
2229 Zone America/Yellowknife 0      -       zzz     1935 # Yellowknife founded?
2230                         -7:00   NT_YK   M%sT    1980
2231                         -7:00   Canada  M%sT
2232 Zone America/Inuvik     0       -       zzz     1953 # Inuvik founded
2233                         -8:00   NT_YK   P%sT    1979 Apr lastSun  2:00
2234                         -7:00   NT_YK   M%sT    1980
2235                         -7:00   Canada  M%sT
2236 Zone America/Whitehorse -9:00:12 -      LMT     1900 Aug 20
2237                         -9:00   NT_YK   Y%sT    1967 May 28  0:00
2238                         -8:00   NT_YK   P%sT    1980
2239                         -8:00   Canada  P%sT
2240 Zone America/Dawson     -9:17:40 -      LMT     1900 Aug 20
2241                         -9:00   NT_YK   Y%sT    1973 Oct 28  0:00
2242                         -8:00   NT_YK   P%sT    1980
2243                         -8:00   Canada  P%sT
2244 
2245 
2246 ###############################################################################
2247 
2248 # Mexico
2249 
2250 # From Paul Eggert (2014-12-07):
2251 # The Investigation and Analysis Service of the
2252 # Mexican Library of Congress (MLoC) has published a
2253 # history of Mexican local time (in Spanish)
2254 # http://www.diputados.gob.mx/bibliot/publica/inveyana/polisoc/horver/index.htm
2255 #
2256 # Here are the discrepancies between Shanks & Pottenger (S&P) and the MLoC.
2257 # (In all cases we go with the MLoC.)
2258 # S&P report that Baja was at -8:00 in 1922/1923.
2259 # S&P say the 1930 transition in Baja was 1930-11-16.
2260 # S&P report no DST during summer 1931.
2261 # S&P report a transition at 1932-03-30 23:00, not 1932-04-01.
2262 
2263 # From Gwillim Law (2001-02-20):
2264 # There are some other discrepancies between the Decrees page and the
2265 # tz database.  I think they can best be explained by supposing that
2266 # the researchers who prepared the Decrees page failed to find some of
2267 # the relevant documents.
2268 
2269 # From Alan Perry (1996-02-15):
2270 # A guy from our Mexico subsidiary finally found the Presidential Decree
2271 # outlining the timezone changes in Mexico.
2272 #
2273 # ------------- Begin Forwarded Message -------------
2274 #
2275 # I finally got my hands on the Official Presidential Decree that sets up the
2276 # rules for the DST changes. The rules are:
2277 #
2278 # 1. The country is divided in 3 timezones:
2279 #    - Baja California Norte (the Mexico/BajaNorte TZ)
2280 #    - Baja California Sur, Nayarit, Sinaloa and Sonora (the Mexico/BajaSur TZ)
2281 #    - The rest of the country (the Mexico/General TZ)
2282 #
2283 # 2. From the first Sunday in April at 2:00 AM to the last Sunday in October
2284 #    at 2:00 AM, the times in each zone are as follows:
2285 #    BajaNorte: GMT+7
2286 #    BajaSur:   GMT+6
2287 #    General:   GMT+5
2288 #
2289 # 3. The rest of the year, the times are as follows:
2290 #    BajaNorte: GMT+8
2291 #    BajaSur:   GMT+7
2292 #    General:   GMT+6
2293 #
2294 # The Decree was published in Mexico's Official Newspaper on January 4th.
2295 #
2296 # -------------- End Forwarded Message --------------
2297 # From Paul Eggert (1996-06-12):
2298 # For an English translation of the decree, see
2299 # "Diario Oficial: Time Zone Changeover" (1996-01-04).
2300 # http://mexico-travel.com/extra/timezone_eng.html
2301 
2302 # From Rives McDow (1998-10-08):
2303 # The State of Quintana Roo has reverted back to central STD and DST times
2304 # (i.e. UTC -0600 and -0500 as of 1998-08-02).
2305 
2306 # From Rives McDow (2000-01-10):
2307 # Effective April 4, 1999 at 2:00 AM local time, Sonora changed to the time
2308 # zone 5 hours from the International Date Line, and will not observe daylight
2309 # savings time so as to stay on the same time zone as the southern part of
2310 # Arizona year round.
2311 
2312 # From Jesper Nørgaard, translating
2313 # <http://www.reforma.com/nacional/articulo/064327/> (2001-01-17):
2314 # In Oaxaca, the 55.000 teachers from the Section 22 of the National
2315 # Syndicate of Education Workers, refuse to apply daylight saving each
2316 # year, so that the more than 10,000 schools work at normal hour the
2317 # whole year.
2318 
2319 # From Gwillim Law (2001-01-19):
2320 # <http://www.reforma.com/negocios_y_dinero/articulo/064481/> ... says
2321 # (translated):...
2322 # January 17, 2000 - The Energy Secretary, Ernesto Martens, announced
2323 # that Summer Time will be reduced from seven to five months, starting
2324 # this year....
2325 # http://www.publico.com.mx/scripts/texto3.asp?action=pagina&pag=21&pos=p&secc=naci&date=01/17/2001
2326 # [translated], says "summer time will ... take effect on the first Sunday
2327 # in May, and end on the last Sunday of September.
2328 
2329 # From Arthur David Olson (2001-01-25):
2330 # The 2001-01-24 traditional Washington Post contained the page one
2331 # story "Timely Issue Divides Mexicans."...
2332 # http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A37383-2001Jan23.html
2333 # ... Mexico City Mayor López Obrador "...is threatening to keep
2334 # Mexico City and its 20 million residents on a different time than
2335 # the rest of the country..." In particular, López Obrador would abolish
2336 # observation of Daylight Saving Time.
2337 
2338 # Official statute published by the Energy Department
2339 # http://www.conae.gob.mx/ahorro/decretohorver2001.html#decre
2340 # (2001-02-01) shows Baja and Chihauhua as still using US DST rules,
2341 # and Sonora with no DST.  This was reported by Jesper Nørgaard (2001-02-03).
2342 
2343 # From Paul Eggert (2001-03-03):
2344 #
2345 # http://www.latimes.com/news/nation/20010303/t000018766.html
2346 # James F. Smith writes in today's LA Times
2347 # * Sonora will continue to observe standard time.
2348 # * Last week Mexico City's mayor Andrés Manuel López Obrador decreed that
2349 #   the Federal District will not adopt DST.
2350 # * 4 of 16 district leaders announced they'll ignore the decree.
2351 # * The decree does not affect federal-controlled facilities including
2352 #   the airport, banks, hospitals, and schools.
2353 #
2354 # For now we'll assume that the Federal District will bow to federal rules.
2355 
2356 # From Jesper Nørgaard (2001-04-01):
2357 # I found some references to the Mexican application of daylight
2358 # saving, which modifies what I had already sent you, stating earlier
2359 # that a number of northern Mexican states would go on daylight
2360 # saving. The modification reverts this to only cover Baja California
2361 # (Norte), while all other states (except Sonora, who has no daylight
2362 # saving all year) will follow the original decree of president
2363 # Vicente Fox, starting daylight saving May 6, 2001 and ending
2364 # September 30, 2001.
2365 # References: "Diario de Monterrey" <http://www.diariodemonterrey.com/index.asp>
2366 # Palabra <http://palabra.infosel.com/010331/primera/ppri3101.pdf> (2001-03-31)
2367 
2368 # From Reuters (2001-09-04):
2369 # Mexico's Supreme Court on Tuesday declared that daylight savings was
2370 # unconstitutional in Mexico City, creating the possibility the
2371 # capital will be in a different time zone from the rest of the nation
2372 # next year....  The Supreme Court's ruling takes effect at 2:00
2373 # a.m. (0800 GMT) on Sept. 30, when Mexico is scheduled to revert to
2374 # standard time. "This is so residents of the Federal District are not
2375 # subject to unexpected time changes," a statement from the court said.
2376 
2377 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2002-03-12):
2378 # ... consulting my local grocery store(!) and my coworkers, they all insisted
2379 # that a new decision had been made to reinstate US style DST in Mexico....
2380 # http://www.conae.gob.mx/ahorro/horaver2001_m1_2002.html (2002-02-20)
2381 # confirms this.  Sonora as usual is the only state where DST is not applied.
2382 
2383 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-12-28):
2384 #
2385 # Steffen Thorsen wrote:
2386 # > Mexico's House of Representatives has approved a proposal for northern
2387 # > Mexico's border cities to share the same daylight saving schedule as
2388 # > the United States.
2389 # Now this has passed both the Congress and the Senate, so starting from
2390 # 2010, some border regions will be the same:
2391 # http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/2009/dec/28/clocks-will-match-both-sides-border/
2392 # http://www.elmananarey.com/diario/noticia/nacional/noticias/empatan_horario_de_frontera_con_eu/621939
2393 # (Spanish)
2394 #
2395 # Could not find the new law text, but the proposed law text changes are here:
2396 # http://gaceta.diputados.gob.mx/Gaceta/61/2009/dic/20091210-V.pdf
2397 # (Gaceta Parlamentaria)
2398 #
2399 # There is also a list of the votes here:
2400 # http://gaceta.diputados.gob.mx/Gaceta/61/2009/dic/V2-101209.html
2401 #
2402 # Our page:
2403 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/north-mexico-dst-change.html
2404 
2405 # From Arthur David Olson (2010-01-20):
2406 # The page
2407 # http://dof.gob.mx/nota_detalle.php?codigo=5127480&fecha=06/01/2010
2408 # includes this text:
2409 # En los municipios fronterizos de Tijuana y Mexicali en Baja California;
2410 # Juárez y Ojinaga en Chihuahua; Acuña y Piedras Negras en Coahuila;
2411 # Anáhuac en Nuevo León; y Nuevo Laredo, Reynosa y Matamoros en
2412 # Tamaulipas, la aplicación de este horario estacional surtirá efecto
2413 # desde las dos horas del segundo domingo de marzo y concluirá a las dos
2414 # horas del primer domingo de noviembre.
2415 # En los municipios fronterizos que se encuentren ubicados en la franja
2416 # fronteriza norte en el territorio comprendido entre la línea
2417 # internacional y la línea paralela ubicada a una distancia de veinte
2418 # kilómetros, así como la Ciudad de Ensenada, Baja California, hacia el
2419 # interior del país, la aplicación de este horario estacional surtirá
2420 # efecto desde las dos horas del segundo domingo de marzo y concluirá a
2421 # las dos horas del primer domingo de noviembre.
2422 
2423 # From Steffen Thorsen (2014-12-08), translated by Gwillim Law:
2424 # The Mexican state of Quintana Roo will likely change to EST in 2015.
2425 #
2426 # http://www.unioncancun.mx/articulo/2014/12/04/medio-ambiente/congreso-aprueba-una-hora-mas-de-sol-en-qroo
2427 # "With this change, the time conflict that has existed between the municipios
2428 # of Quintana Roo and the municipio of Felipe Carrillo Puerto may come to an
2429 # end. The latter declared itself in rebellion 15 years ago when a time change
2430 # was initiated in Mexico, and since then it has refused to change its time
2431 # zone along with the rest of the country."
2432 #
2433 # From Steffen Thorsen (2015-01-14), translated by Gwillim Law:
2434 # http://sipse.com/novedades/confirman-aplicacion-de-nueva-zona-horaria-para-quintana-roo-132331.html
2435 # "...the new time zone will come into effect at two o'clock on the first Sunday
2436 # of February, when we will have to advance the clock one hour from its current
2437 # time..."
2438 # Also, the new zone will not use DST.
2439 #
2440 # From Carlos Raúl Perasso (2015-02-02):
2441 # The decree that modifies the Mexican Hour System Law has finally
2442 # been published at the Diario Oficial de la Federación
2443 # http://www.dof.gob.mx/nota_detalle.php?codigo=5380123&fecha=31/01/2015
2444 # It establishes 5 zones for Mexico:
2445 # 1- Zona Centro (Central Zone): Corresponds to longitude 90 W,
2446 #    includes most of Mexico, excluding what's mentioned below.
2447 # 2- Zona Pacífico (Pacific Zone): Longitude 105 W, includes the
2448 #    states of Baja California Sur; Chihuahua; Nayarit (excluding Bahía
2449 #    de Banderas which lies in Central Zone); Sinaloa and Sonora.
2450 # 3- Zona Noroeste (Northwest Zone): Longitude 120 W, includes the
2451 #    state of Baja California.
2452 # 4- Zona Sureste (Southeast Zone): Longitude 75 W, includes the state
2453 #    of Quintana Roo.
2454 # 5- The islands, reefs and keys shall take their timezone from the
2455 #    longitude they are located at.
2456 
2457 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2458 Rule    Mexico  1939    only    -       Feb     5       0:00    1:00    D
2459 Rule    Mexico  1939    only    -       Jun     25      0:00    0       S
2460 Rule    Mexico  1940    only    -       Dec     9       0:00    1:00    D
2461 Rule    Mexico  1941    only    -       Apr     1       0:00    0       S
2462 Rule    Mexico  1943    only    -       Dec     16      0:00    1:00    W # War
2463 Rule    Mexico  1944    only    -       May     1       0:00    0       S
2464 Rule    Mexico  1950    only    -       Feb     12      0:00    1:00    D
2465 Rule    Mexico  1950    only    -       Jul     30      0:00    0       S
2466 Rule    Mexico  1996    2000    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
2467 Rule    Mexico  1996    2000    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
2468 Rule    Mexico  2001    only    -       May     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
2469 Rule    Mexico  2001    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
2470 Rule    Mexico  2002    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
2471 Rule    Mexico  2002    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
2472 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2473 # Quintana Roo; represented by Cancún
2474 Zone America/Cancun     -5:47:04 -      LMT     1922 Jan  1  0:12:56
2475                         -6:00   -       CST     1981 Dec 23
2476                         -5:00   Mexico  E%sT    1998 Aug  2  2:00
2477                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT    2015 Feb  1  2:00
2478                         -5:00   -       EST
2479 # Campeche, Yucatán; represented by Mérida
2480 Zone America/Merida     -5:58:28 -      LMT     1922 Jan  1  0:01:32
2481                         -6:00   -       CST     1981 Dec 23
2482                         -5:00   -       EST     1982 Dec  2
2483                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT
2484 # Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas (near US border)
2485 Zone America/Matamoros  -6:40:00 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:20:00
2486                         -6:00   -       CST     1988
2487                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1989
2488                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT    2010
2489                         -6:00   US      C%sT
2490 # Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas (away from US border)
2491 Zone America/Monterrey  -6:41:16 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:18:44
2492                         -6:00   -       CST     1988
2493                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1989
2494                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT
2495 # Central Mexico
2496 Zone America/Mexico_City -6:36:36 -     LMT     1922 Jan  1  0:23:24
2497                         -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00
2498                         -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15
2499                         -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00
2500                         -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct
2501                         -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1
2502                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT    2001 Sep 30  2:00
2503                         -6:00   -       CST     2002 Feb 20
2504                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT
2505 # Chihuahua (near US border)
2506 Zone America/Ojinaga    -6:57:40 -      LMT     1922 Jan  1  0:02:20
2507                         -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00
2508                         -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15
2509                         -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00
2510                         -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct
2511                         -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1
2512                         -6:00   -       CST     1996
2513                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT    1998
2514                         -6:00   -       CST     1998 Apr Sun>=1  3:00
2515                         -7:00   Mexico  M%sT    2010
2516                         -7:00   US      M%sT
2517 # Chihuahua (away from US border)
2518 Zone America/Chihuahua  -7:04:20 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:55:40
2519                         -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00
2520                         -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15
2521                         -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00
2522                         -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct
2523                         -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1
2524                         -6:00   -       CST     1996
2525                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT    1998
2526                         -6:00   -       CST     1998 Apr Sun>=1  3:00
2527                         -7:00   Mexico  M%sT
2528 # Sonora
2529 Zone America/Hermosillo -7:23:52 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:36:08
2530                         -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00
2531                         -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15
2532                         -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00
2533                         -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct
2534                         -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1
2535                         -6:00   -       CST     1942 Apr 24
2536                         -7:00   -       MST     1949 Jan 14
2537                         -8:00   -       PST     1970
2538                         -7:00   Mexico  M%sT    1999
2539                         -7:00   -       MST
2540 
2541 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-04-21):
2542 # According to news, Bahía de Banderas (Mexican state of Nayarit)
2543 # changed time zone UTC-7 to new time zone UTC-6 on April 4, 2010 (to
2544 # share the same time zone as nearby city Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco).
2545 #
2546 # (Spanish)
2547 # Bahía de Banderas homologa su horario al del centro del
2548 # país, a partir de este domingo
2549 # http://www.nayarit.gob.mx/notes.asp?id=20748
2550 #
2551 # Bahía de Banderas homologa su horario con el del Centro del
2552 # País
2553 # http://www.bahiadebanderas.gob.mx/principal/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=261:bahia-de-banderas-homologa-su-horario-con-el-del-centro-del-pais&catid=42:comunicacion-social&Itemid=50
2554 #
2555 # (English)
2556 # Puerto Vallarta and Bahía de Banderas: One Time Zone
2557 # http://virtualvallarta.com/puertovallarta/puertovallarta/localnews/2009-12-03-Puerto-Vallarta-and-Bahia-de-Banderas-One-Time-Zone.shtml
2558 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_mexico08.html
2559 #
2560 # "Mexico's Senate approved the amendments to the Mexican Schedule System that
2561 # will allow Bahía de Banderas and Puerto Vallarta to share the same time
2562 # zone ..."
2563 # Baja California Sur, Nayarit, Sinaloa
2564 
2565 # From Arthur David Olson (2010-05-01):
2566 # Use "Bahia_Banderas" to keep the name to fourteen characters.
2567 
2568 # Mazatlán
2569 Zone America/Mazatlan   -7:05:40 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:54:20
2570                         -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00
2571                         -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15
2572                         -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00
2573                         -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct
2574                         -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1
2575                         -6:00   -       CST     1942 Apr 24
2576                         -7:00   -       MST     1949 Jan 14
2577                         -8:00   -       PST     1970
2578                         -7:00   Mexico  M%sT
2579 
2580 # Bahía de Banderas
2581 Zone America/Bahia_Banderas     -7:01:00 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:59:00
2582                         -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00
2583                         -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15
2584                         -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00
2585                         -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct
2586                         -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1
2587                         -6:00   -       CST     1942 Apr 24
2588                         -7:00   -       MST     1949 Jan 14
2589                         -8:00   -       PST     1970
2590                         -7:00   Mexico  M%sT    2010 Apr  4  2:00
2591                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT
2592 
2593 # Baja California (near US border)
2594 Zone America/Tijuana    -7:48:04 -      LMT     1922 Jan  1  0:11:56
2595                         -7:00   -       MST     1924
2596                         -8:00   -       PST     1927 Jun 10 23:00
2597                         -7:00   -       MST     1930 Nov 15
2598                         -8:00   -       PST     1931 Apr  1
2599                         -8:00   1:00    PDT     1931 Sep 30
2600                         -8:00   -       PST     1942 Apr 24
2601                         -8:00   1:00    PWT     1945 Aug 14 23:00u
2602                         -8:00   1:00    PPT     1945 Nov 12 # Peace
2603                         -8:00   -       PST     1948 Apr  5
2604                         -8:00   1:00    PDT     1949 Jan 14
2605                         -8:00   -       PST     1954
2606                         -8:00   CA      P%sT    1961
2607                         -8:00   -       PST     1976
2608                         -8:00   US      P%sT    1996
2609                         -8:00   Mexico  P%sT    2001
2610                         -8:00   US      P%sT    2002 Feb 20
2611                         -8:00   Mexico  P%sT    2010
2612                         -8:00   US      P%sT
2613 # Baja California (away from US border)
2614 Zone America/Santa_Isabel       -7:39:28 -      LMT     1922 Jan  1  0:20:32
2615                         -7:00   -       MST     1924
2616                         -8:00   -       PST     1927 Jun 10 23:00
2617                         -7:00   -       MST     1930 Nov 15
2618                         -8:00   -       PST     1931 Apr  1
2619                         -8:00   1:00    PDT     1931 Sep 30
2620                         -8:00   -       PST     1942 Apr 24
2621                         -8:00   1:00    PWT     1945 Aug 14 23:00u
2622                         -8:00   1:00    PPT     1945 Nov 12 # Peace
2623                         -8:00   -       PST     1948 Apr  5
2624                         -8:00   1:00    PDT     1949 Jan 14
2625                         -8:00   -       PST     1954
2626                         -8:00   CA      P%sT    1961
2627                         -8:00   -       PST     1976
2628                         -8:00   US      P%sT    1996
2629                         -8:00   Mexico  P%sT    2001
2630                         -8:00   US      P%sT    2002 Feb 20
2631                         -8:00   Mexico  P%sT
2632 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
2633 # Formerly there was an America/Ensenada zone, which differed from
2634 # America/Tijuana only in that it did not observe DST from 1976
2635 # through 1995.  This was as per Shanks (1999).  But Shanks & Pottenger say
2636 # Ensenada did not observe DST from 1948 through 1975.  Guy Harris reports
2637 # that the 1987 OAG says "Only Ensenada, Mexicali, San Felipe and
2638 # Tijuana observe DST," which agrees with Shanks & Pottenger but implies that
2639 # DST-observance was a town-by-town matter back then.  This concerns
2640 # data after 1970 so most likely there should be at least one Zone
2641 # other than America/Tijuana for Baja, but it's not clear yet what its
2642 # name or contents should be.
2643 #







2644 # Revillagigedo Is
2645 # no information
2646 
2647 ###############################################################################
2648 
2649 # Anguilla
2650 # Antigua and Barbuda
2651 # See America/Port_of_Spain.
2652 
2653 # Bahamas
2654 #
2655 # For 1899 Milne gives -5:09:29.5; round that.
2656 #
2657 # From Sue Williams (2006-12-07):
2658 # The Bahamas announced about a month ago that they plan to change their DST
2659 # rules to sync with the U.S. starting in 2007....
2660 # http://www.jonesbahamas.com/?c=45&a=10412
2661 
2662 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2663 Rule    Bahamas 1964    1975    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
2664 Rule    Bahamas 1964    1975    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
2665 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2666 Zone    America/Nassau  -5:09:30 -      LMT     1912 Mar 2
2667                         -5:00   Bahamas E%sT    1976
2668                         -5:00   US      E%sT
2669 
2670 # Barbados
2671 
2672 # For 1899 Milne gives -3:58:29.2; round that.
2673 
2674 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2675 Rule    Barb    1977    only    -       Jun     12      2:00    1:00    D
2676 Rule    Barb    1977    1978    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
2677 Rule    Barb    1978    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=15      2:00    1:00    D
2678 Rule    Barb    1979    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S
2679 Rule    Barb    1980    only    -       Sep     25      2:00    0       S
2680 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2681 Zone America/Barbados   -3:58:29 -      LMT     1924 # Bridgetown
2682                         -3:58:29 -      BMT     1932 # Bridgetown Mean Time
2683                         -4:00   Barb    A%sT
2684 
2685 # Belize
2686 # Whitman entirely disagrees with Shanks; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2687 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2688 Rule    Belize  1918    1942    -       Oct     Sun>=2       0:00    0:30    HD
2689 Rule    Belize  1919    1943    -       Feb     Sun>=9       0:00    0       S
2690 Rule    Belize  1973    only    -       Dec      5      0:00    1:00    D
2691 Rule    Belize  1974    only    -       Feb      9      0:00    0       S
2692 Rule    Belize  1982    only    -       Dec     18      0:00    1:00    D
2693 Rule    Belize  1983    only    -       Feb     12      0:00    0       S
2694 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2695 Zone    America/Belize  -5:52:48 -      LMT     1912 Apr
2696                         -6:00   Belize  C%sT
2697 
2698 # Bermuda
2699 
2700 # For 1899 Milne gives -4:19:18.3 as the meridian of the clock tower,
2701 # Bermuda dockyard, Ireland I; round that.
2702 
2703 # From Dan Jones, reporting in The Royal Gazette (2006-06-26):
2704 
2705 # Next year, however, clocks in the US will go forward on the second Sunday
2706 # in March, until the first Sunday in November.  And, after the Time Zone
2707 # (Seasonal Variation) Bill 2006 was passed in the House of Assembly on
2708 # Friday, the same thing will happen in Bermuda.
2709 # http://www.theroyalgazette.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060529/NEWS/105290135
2710 
2711 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2712 Zone Atlantic/Bermuda   -4:19:18 -      LMT     1930 Jan  1  2:00 # Hamilton
2713                         -4:00   -       AST     1974 Apr 28  2:00
2714                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1976
2715                         -4:00   US      A%sT
2716 
2717 # Cayman Is
2718 
2719 # From Paul Eggert (2015-05-15):
2720 # The Cayman government has decided to introduce DST in 2016, the idea being
2721 # to keep in sync with New York.  The legislation hasn't passed but the change
2722 # seems quite likely.  See: Meade B. Cayman 27.
2723 # http://www.cayman27.com.ky/2015/05/15/clock-ticks-toward-daylight-saving-time-in-cayman
2724 
2725 Zone    America/Cayman  -5:25:32 -      LMT     1890     # Georgetown
2726                         -5:07:11 -      KMT     1912 Feb # Kingston Mean Time
2727                         -5:00   -       EST     2016
2728                         -5:00   US      E%sT
2729 
2730 # Costa Rica
2731 
2732 # Milne gives -5:36:13.3 as San José mean time; round to nearest.
2733 
2734 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2735 Rule    CR      1979    1980    -       Feb     lastSun 0:00    1:00    D
2736 Rule    CR      1979    1980    -       Jun     Sun>=1       0:00    0       S
2737 Rule    CR      1991    1992    -       Jan     Sat>=15      0:00    1:00    D
2738 # IATA SSIM (1991-09) says the following was at 1:00;
2739 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2740 Rule    CR      1991    only    -       Jul      1      0:00    0       S
2741 Rule    CR      1992    only    -       Mar     15      0:00    0       S
2742 # There are too many San Josés elsewhere, so we'll use 'Costa Rica'.
2743 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2744 Zone America/Costa_Rica -5:36:13 -      LMT     1890        # San José
2745                         -5:36:13 -      SJMT    1921 Jan 15 # San José Mean Time
2746                         -6:00   CR      C%sT
2747 # Coco
2748 # no information; probably like America/Costa_Rica
2749 
2750 # Cuba
2751 
2752 # From Paul Eggert (2013-02-21):
2753 # Milne gives -5:28:50.45 for the observatory at Havana, -5:29:23.57
2754 # for the port, and -5:30 for meteorological observations.
2755 # For now, stick with Shanks & Pottenger.
2756 
2757 # From Arthur David Olson (1999-03-29):
2758 # The 1999-03-28 exhibition baseball game held in Havana, Cuba, between
2759 # the Cuban National Team and the Baltimore Orioles was carried live on
2760 # the Orioles Radio Network, including affiliate WTOP in Washington, DC.
2761 # During the game, play-by-play announcer Jim Hunter noted that
2762 # "We'll be losing two hours of sleep...Cuba switched to Daylight Saving
2763 # Time today."  (The "two hour" remark referred to losing one hour of
2764 # sleep on 1999-03-28 - when the announcers were in Cuba as it switched
2765 # to DST - and one more hour on 1999-04-04 - when the announcers will have
2766 # returned to Baltimore, which switches on that date.)
2767 
2768 # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-11-11):
2769 # DST start in Cuba in 2004 ... does not follow the same rules as the
2770 # years before.  The correct date should be Sunday 2004-03-28 00:00 ...
2771 # https://web.archive.org/web/20040402060750/http://www.granma.cu/espanol/2004/marzo/sab27/reloj.html
2772 
2773 # From Evert van der Veer via Steffen Thorsen (2004-10-28):
2774 # Cuba is not going back to standard time this year.
2775 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
2776 # http://www.granma.cu/ingles/2004/septiembre/juev30/41medid-i.html
2777 # says that it's due to a problem at the Antonio Guiteras
2778 # thermoelectric plant, and says "This October there will be no return
2779 # to normal hours (after daylight saving time)".
2780 # For now, let's assume that it's a temporary measure.
2781 
2782 # From Carlos A. Carnero Delgado (2005-11-12):
2783 # This year (just like in 2004-2005) there's no change in time zone
2784 # adjustment in Cuba.  We will stay in daylight saving time:
2785 # http://www.granma.cu/espanol/2005/noviembre/mier9/horario.html
2786 
2787 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-10-21):
2788 # An article in GRANMA INTERNACIONAL claims that Cuba will end
2789 # the 3 years of permanent DST next weekend, see
2790 # http://www.granma.cu/ingles/2006/octubre/lun16/43horario.html
2791 # "On Saturday night, October 28 going into Sunday, October 29, at 01:00,
2792 # watches should be set back one hour - going back to 00:00 hours - returning
2793 # to the normal schedule....
2794 
2795 # From Paul Eggert (2007-03-02):
2796 # <http://www.granma.cubaweb.cu/english/news/art89.html>, dated yesterday,
2797 # says Cuban clocks will advance at midnight on March 10.
2798 # For lack of better information, assume Cuba will use US rules,
2799 # except that it switches at midnight standard time as usual.
2800 #
2801 # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-10-25):
2802 # Carlos Alberto Fonseca Arauz informed me that Cuba will end DST one week
2803 # earlier - on the last Sunday of October, just like in 2006.
2804 #
2805 # He supplied these references:
2806 #
2807 # http://www.prensalatina.com.mx/article.asp?ID=%7B4CC32C1B-A9F7-42FB-8A07-8631AFC923AF%7D&language=ES
2808 # http://actualidad.terra.es/sociedad/articulo/cuba_llama_ahorrar_energia_cambio_1957044.htm
2809 #
2810 # From Alex Krivenyshev (2007-10-25):
2811 # Here is also article from Granma (Cuba):
2812 #
2813 # Regirá el Horario Normal desde el próximo domingo 28 de octubre
2814 # http://www.granma.cubaweb.cu/2007/10/24/nacional/artic07.html
2815 #
2816 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_cuba03.html
2817 
2818 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-09):
2819 # I'm in Maryland which is now observing United States Eastern Daylight
2820 # Time. At 9:44 local time I used RealPlayer to listen to
2821 # http://media.enet.cu/radioreloj
2822 # a Cuban information station, and heard
2823 # the time announced as "ocho cuarenta y cuatro" ("eight forty-four"),
2824 # indicating that Cuba is still on standard time.
2825 
2826 # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-03-12):
2827 # It seems that Cuba will start DST on Sunday, 2007-03-16...
2828 # It was announced yesterday, according to this source (in Spanish):
2829 # http://www.nnc.cubaweb.cu/marzo-2008/cien-1-11-3-08.htm
2830 #
2831 # Some more background information is posted here:
2832 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-starts-dst-march-16.html
2833 #
2834 # The article also says that Cuba has been observing DST since 1963,
2835 # while Shanks (and tzdata) has 1965 as the first date (except in the
2836 # 1940's). Many other web pages in Cuba also claim that it has been
2837 # observed since 1963, but with the exception of 1970 - an exception
2838 # which is not present in tzdata/Shanks. So there is a chance we need to
2839 # change some historic records as well.
2840 #
2841 # One example:
2842 # http://www.radiohc.cu/espanol/noticias/mar07/11mar/hor.htm
2843 
2844 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2008-03-13):
2845 # The Cuban time change has just been confirmed on the most authoritative
2846 # web site, the Granma.  Please check out
2847 # http://www.granma.cubaweb.cu/2008/03/13/nacional/artic10.html
2848 #
2849 # Basically as expected after Steffen Thorsen's information, the change
2850 # will take place midnight between Saturday and Sunday.
2851 
2852 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-12):
2853 # Assume Sun>=15 (third Sunday) going forward.
2854 
2855 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-04)
2856 # According to the Radio Reloj - Cuba will start Daylight Saving Time on
2857 # midnight between Saturday, March 07, 2009 and Sunday, March 08, 2009-
2858 # not on midnight March 14 / March 15 as previously thought.
2859 #
2860 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_cuba05.html
2861 # (in Spanish)
2862 
2863 # From Arthur David Olson (2009-03-09)
2864 # I listened over the Internet to
2865 # http://media.enet.cu/readioreloj
2866 # this morning; when it was 10:05 a. m. here in Bethesda, Maryland the
2867 # the time was announced as "diez cinco" - the same time as here, indicating
2868 # that has indeed switched to DST. Assume second Sunday from 2009 forward.
2869 
2870 # From Steffen Thorsen (2011-03-08):
2871 # Granma announced that Cuba is going to start DST on 2011-03-20 00:00:00
2872 # this year. Nothing about the end date known so far (if that has
2873 # changed at all).
2874 #
2875 # Source:
2876 # http://granma.co.cu/2011/03/08/nacional/artic01.html
2877 #
2878 # Our info:
2879 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-starts-dst-2011.html
2880 #
2881 # From Steffen Thorsen (2011-10-30)
2882 # Cuba will end DST two weeks later this year. Instead of going back
2883 # tonight, it has been delayed to 2011-11-13 at 01:00.
2884 #
2885 # One source (Spanish)
2886 # http://www.radioangulo.cu/noticias/cuba/17105-cuba-restablecera-el-horario-del-meridiano-de-greenwich.html
2887 #
2888 # Our page:
2889 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-time-changes-2011.html
2890 #
2891 # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-01)
2892 # According to Radio Reloj, Cuba will start DST on Midnight between March
2893 # 31 and April 1.
2894 #
2895 # Radio Reloj has the following info (Spanish):
2896 # http://www.radioreloj.cu/index.php/noticias-radio-reloj/71-miscelaneas/7529-cuba-aplicara-el-horario-de-verano-desde-el-1-de-abril
2897 #
2898 # Our info on it:
2899 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-starts-dst-2012.html
2900 
2901 # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-11-03):
2902 # Radio Reloj and many other sources report that Cuba is changing back
2903 # to standard time on 2012-11-04:
2904 # http://www.radioreloj.cu/index.php/noticias-radio-reloj/36-nacionales/9961-regira-horario-normal-en-cuba-desde-el-domingo-cuatro-de-noviembre
2905 # From Paul Eggert (2012-11-03):
2906 # For now, assume the future rule is first Sunday in November.
2907 
2908 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2909 Rule    Cuba    1928    only    -       Jun     10      0:00    1:00    D
2910 Rule    Cuba    1928    only    -       Oct     10      0:00    0       S
2911 Rule    Cuba    1940    1942    -       Jun     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
2912 Rule    Cuba    1940    1942    -       Sep     Sun>=1       0:00    0       S
2913 Rule    Cuba    1945    1946    -       Jun     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
2914 Rule    Cuba    1945    1946    -       Sep     Sun>=1       0:00    0       S
2915 Rule    Cuba    1965    only    -       Jun     1       0:00    1:00    D
2916 Rule    Cuba    1965    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       S
2917 Rule    Cuba    1966    only    -       May     29      0:00    1:00    D
2918 Rule    Cuba    1966    only    -       Oct     2       0:00    0       S
2919 Rule    Cuba    1967    only    -       Apr     8       0:00    1:00    D
2920 Rule    Cuba    1967    1968    -       Sep     Sun>=8       0:00    0       S
2921 Rule    Cuba    1968    only    -       Apr     14      0:00    1:00    D
2922 Rule    Cuba    1969    1977    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    1:00    D
2923 Rule    Cuba    1969    1971    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       S
2924 Rule    Cuba    1972    1974    -       Oct     8       0:00    0       S
2925 Rule    Cuba    1975    1977    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       S
2926 Rule    Cuba    1978    only    -       May     7       0:00    1:00    D
2927 Rule    Cuba    1978    1990    -       Oct     Sun>=8       0:00    0       S
2928 Rule    Cuba    1979    1980    -       Mar     Sun>=15      0:00    1:00    D
2929 Rule    Cuba    1981    1985    -       May     Sun>=5       0:00    1:00    D
2930 Rule    Cuba    1986    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=14      0:00    1:00    D
2931 Rule    Cuba    1990    1997    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
2932 Rule    Cuba    1991    1995    -       Oct     Sun>=8       0:00s   0       S
2933 Rule    Cuba    1996    only    -       Oct      6      0:00s   0       S
2934 Rule    Cuba    1997    only    -       Oct     12      0:00s   0       S
2935 Rule    Cuba    1998    1999    -       Mar     lastSun 0:00s   1:00    D
2936 Rule    Cuba    1998    2003    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00s   0       S
2937 Rule    Cuba    2000    2003    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:00s   1:00    D
2938 Rule    Cuba    2004    only    -       Mar     lastSun 0:00s   1:00    D
2939 Rule    Cuba    2006    2010    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00s   0       S
2940 Rule    Cuba    2007    only    -       Mar     Sun>=8       0:00s   1:00    D
2941 Rule    Cuba    2008    only    -       Mar     Sun>=15      0:00s   1:00    D
2942 Rule    Cuba    2009    2010    -       Mar     Sun>=8       0:00s   1:00    D
2943 Rule    Cuba    2011    only    -       Mar     Sun>=15      0:00s   1:00    D
2944 Rule    Cuba    2011    only    -       Nov     13      0:00s   0       S
2945 Rule    Cuba    2012    only    -       Apr     1       0:00s   1:00    D
2946 Rule    Cuba    2012    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1       0:00s   0       S
2947 Rule    Cuba    2013    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8       0:00s   1:00    D
2948 
2949 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2950 Zone    America/Havana  -5:29:28 -      LMT     1890
2951                         -5:29:36 -      HMT     1925 Jul 19 12:00 # Havana MT
2952                         -5:00   Cuba    C%sT
2953 
2954 # Dominica
2955 # See America/Port_of_Spain.
2956 
2957 # Dominican Republic
2958 
2959 # From Steffen Thorsen (2000-10-30):
2960 # Enrique Morales reported to me that the Dominican Republic has changed the
2961 # time zone to Eastern Standard Time as of Sunday 29 at 2 am....
2962 # http://www.listin.com.do/antes/261000/republica/princi.html
2963 
2964 # From Paul Eggert (2000-12-04):
2965 # That URL (2000-10-26, in Spanish) says they planned to use US-style DST.
2966 
2967 # From Rives McDow (2000-12-01):
2968 # Dominican Republic changed its mind and presidential decree on Tuesday,
2969 # November 28, 2000, with a new decree.  On Sunday, December 3 at 1:00 AM the
2970 # Dominican Republic will be reverting to 8 hours from the International Date
2971 # Line, and will not be using DST in the foreseeable future.  The reason they
2972 # decided to use DST was to be in synch with Puerto Rico, who was also going
2973 # to implement DST.  When Puerto Rico didn't implement DST, the president
2974 # decided to revert.
2975 
2976 
2977 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2978 Rule    DR      1966    only    -       Oct     30      0:00    1:00    D
2979 Rule    DR      1967    only    -       Feb     28      0:00    0       S
2980 Rule    DR      1969    1973    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0:30    HD
2981 Rule    DR      1970    only    -       Feb     21      0:00    0       S
2982 Rule    DR      1971    only    -       Jan     20      0:00    0       S
2983 Rule    DR      1972    1974    -       Jan     21      0:00    0       S
2984 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2985 Zone America/Santo_Domingo -4:39:36 -   LMT     1890
2986                         -4:40   -       SDMT    1933 Apr  1 12:00 # S. Dom. MT
2987                         -5:00   DR      E%sT    1974 Oct 27
2988                         -4:00   -       AST     2000 Oct 29  2:00
2989                         -5:00   US      E%sT    2000 Dec  3  1:00
2990                         -4:00   -       AST
2991 
2992 # El Salvador
2993 
2994 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2995 Rule    Salv    1987    1988    -       May     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
2996 Rule    Salv    1987    1988    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       S
2997 # There are too many San Salvadors elsewhere, so use America/El_Salvador
2998 # instead of America/San_Salvador.
2999 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3000 Zone America/El_Salvador -5:56:48 -     LMT     1921 # San Salvador
3001                         -6:00   Salv    C%sT
3002 
3003 # Grenada
3004 # Guadeloupe
3005 # St Barthélemy
3006 # St Martin (French part)
3007 # See America/Port_of_Spain.
3008 
3009 # Guatemala
3010 #
3011 # From Gwillim Law (2006-04-22), after a heads-up from Oscar van Vlijmen:
3012 # Diario Co Latino, at
3013 # <http://www.diariocolatino.com/internacionales/detalles.asp?NewsID=8079>,
3014 # says in an article dated 2006-04-19 that the Guatemalan government had
3015 # decided on that date to advance official time by 60 minutes, to lessen the
3016 # impact of the elevated cost of oil....  Daylight saving time will last from
3017 # 2006-04-29 24:00 (Guatemalan standard time) to 2006-09-30 (time unspecified).
3018 # From Paul Eggert (2006-06-22):
3019 # The Ministry of Energy and Mines, press release CP-15/2006
3020 # (2006-04-19), says DST ends at 24:00.  See
3021 # http://www.sieca.org.gt/Sitio_publico/Energeticos/Doc/Medidas/Cambio_Horario_Nac_190406.pdf
3022 
3023 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3024 Rule    Guat    1973    only    -       Nov     25      0:00    1:00    D
3025 Rule    Guat    1974    only    -       Feb     24      0:00    0       S
3026 Rule    Guat    1983    only    -       May     21      0:00    1:00    D
3027 Rule    Guat    1983    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
3028 Rule    Guat    1991    only    -       Mar     23      0:00    1:00    D
3029 Rule    Guat    1991    only    -       Sep      7      0:00    0       S
3030 Rule    Guat    2006    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    D
3031 Rule    Guat    2006    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       S
3032 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3033 Zone America/Guatemala  -6:02:04 -      LMT     1918 Oct 5
3034                         -6:00   Guat    C%sT
3035 
3036 # Haiti
3037 # From Gwillim Law (2005-04-15):
3038 # Risto O. Nykänen wrote me that Haiti is now on DST.
3039 # I searched for confirmation, and I found a press release
3040 # on the Web page of the Haitian Consulate in Chicago (2005-03-31),
3041 # <http://www.haitianconsulate.org/time.doc>.  Translated from French, it says:
3042 #
3043 #  "The Prime Minister's Communication Office notifies the public in general
3044 #   and the press in particular that, following a decision of the Interior
3045 #   Ministry and the Territorial Collectivities [I suppose that means the
3046 #   provinces], Haiti will move to Eastern Daylight Time in the night from next
3047 #   Saturday the 2nd to Sunday the 3rd.
3048 #
3049 #  "Consequently, the Prime Minister's Communication Office wishes to inform
3050 #   the population that the country's clocks will be set forward one hour
3051 #   starting at midnight.  This provision will hold until the last Saturday in
3052 #   October 2005.
3053 #
3054 #  "Port-au-Prince, March 31, 2005"
3055 #
3056 # From Steffen Thorsen (2006-04-04):
3057 # I have been informed by users that Haiti observes DST this year like
3058 # last year, so the current "only" rule for 2005 might be changed to a
3059 # "max" rule or to last until 2006. (Who knows if they will observe DST
3060 # next year or if they will extend their DST like US/Canada next year).
3061 #
3062 # I have found this article about it (in French):
3063 # http://www.haitipressnetwork.com/news.cfm?articleID=7612
3064 #
3065 # The reason seems to be an energy crisis.
3066 
3067 # From Stephen Colebourne (2007-02-22):
3068 # Some IATA info: Haiti won't be having DST in 2007.
3069 
3070 # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-11):
3071 # According to several news sources, Haiti will observe DST this year,
3072 # apparently using the same start and end date as USA/Canada.
3073 # So this means they have already changed their time.
3074 #
3075 # http://www.alterpresse.org/spip.php?article12510
3076 # http://radiovision2000haiti.net/home/?p=13253
3077 #
3078 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-11):
3079 # The alterpresse.org source seems to show a US-style leap from 2:00 a.m. to
3080 # 3:00 a.m. rather than the traditional Haitian jump at midnight.
3081 # Assume a US-style fall back as well.
3082 
3083 # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-03-10):
3084 # It appears that Haiti is observing DST this year as well, same rules
3085 # as US/Canada.  They did it last year as well, and it looks like they
3086 # are going to observe DST every year now...
3087 #
3088 # http://radiovision2000haiti.net/public/haiti-avis-changement-dheure-dimanche/
3089 # http://www.canalplushaiti.net/?p=6714
3090 
3091 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3092 Rule    Haiti   1983    only    -       May     8       0:00    1:00    D
3093 Rule    Haiti   1984    1987    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    1:00    D
3094 Rule    Haiti   1983    1987    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       S
3095 # Shanks & Pottenger say AT is 2:00, but IATA SSIM (1991/1997) says 1:00s.
3096 # Go with IATA.
3097 Rule    Haiti   1988    1997    -       Apr     Sun>=1       1:00s   1:00    D
3098 Rule    Haiti   1988    1997    -       Oct     lastSun 1:00s   0       S
3099 Rule    Haiti   2005    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
3100 Rule    Haiti   2005    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       S
3101 Rule    Haiti   2012    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
3102 Rule    Haiti   2012    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
3103 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3104 Zone America/Port-au-Prince -4:49:20 -  LMT     1890
3105                         -4:49   -       PPMT    1917 Jan 24 12:00 # P-a-P MT
3106                         -5:00   Haiti   E%sT
3107 
3108 # Honduras
3109 # Shanks & Pottenger say 1921 Jan 1; go with Whitman's more precise Apr 1.
3110 
3111 # From Paul Eggert (2006-05-05):
3112 # worldtimezone.com reports a 2006-05-02 Spanish-language AP article
3113 # saying Honduras will start using DST midnight Saturday, effective 4
3114 # months until September.  La Tribuna reported today
3115 # <http://www.latribuna.hn/99299.html> that Manuel Zelaya, the president
3116 # of Honduras, refused to back down on this.
3117 
3118 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-08-08):
3119 # It seems that Honduras has returned from DST to standard time this Monday at
3120 # 00:00 hours (prolonging Sunday to 25 hours duration).
3121 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_honduras04.html
3122 
3123 # From Paul Eggert (2006-08-08):
3124 # Also see Diario El Heraldo, The country returns to standard time (2006-08-08).
3125 # http://www.elheraldo.hn/nota.php?nid=54941&sec=12
3126 # It mentions executive decree 18-2006.
3127 
3128 # From Steffen Thorsen (2006-08-17):
3129 # Honduras will observe DST from 2007 to 2009, exact dates are not
3130 # published, I have located this authoritative source:
3131 # http://www.presidencia.gob.hn/noticia.aspx?nId=47
3132 
3133 # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-03-30):
3134 # http://www.laprensahn.com/pais_nota.php?id04962=7386
3135 # So it seems that Honduras will not enter DST this year....
3136 
3137 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3138 Rule    Hond    1987    1988    -       May     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
3139 Rule    Hond    1987    1988    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       S
3140 Rule    Hond    2006    only    -       May     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
3141 Rule    Hond    2006    only    -       Aug     Mon>=1       0:00    0       S
3142 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3143 Zone America/Tegucigalpa -5:48:52 -     LMT     1921 Apr
3144                         -6:00   Hond    C%sT
3145 #
3146 # Great Swan I ceded by US to Honduras in 1972
3147 
3148 # Jamaica
3149 # Shanks & Pottenger give -5:07:12, but Milne records -5:07:10.41 from an
3150 # unspecified official document, and says "This time is used throughout the
3151 # island".  Go with Milne.  Round to the nearest second as required by zic.
3152 #
3153 # Shanks & Pottenger give April 28 for the 1974 spring-forward transition, but
3154 # Lance Neita writes that Prime Minister Michael Manley decreed it January 5.
3155 # Assume Neita meant Jan 6 02:00, the same as the US.  Neita also writes that
3156 # Manley's supporters associated this act with Manley's nickname "Joshua"
3157 # (recall that in the Bible the sun stood still at Joshua's request),
3158 # and with the Rod of Correction which Manley said he had received from
3159 # Haile Selassie, Emperor of Ethiopia.  See:
3160 # Neita L. The politician in all of us. Jamaica Observer 2014-09-20
3161 # http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/columns/The-politician-in-all-of-us_17573647
3162 #
3163 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3164 Zone    America/Jamaica -5:07:11 -      LMT     1890        # Kingston
3165                         -5:07:11 -      KMT     1912 Feb    # Kingston Mean Time
3166                         -5:00   -       EST     1974
3167                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1984
3168                         -5:00   -       EST
3169 
3170 # Martinique
3171 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3172 Zone America/Martinique -4:04:20 -      LMT     1890        # Fort-de-France
3173                         -4:04:20 -      FFMT    1911 May    # Fort-de-France MT
3174                         -4:00   -       AST     1980 Apr  6
3175                         -4:00   1:00    ADT     1980 Sep 28
3176                         -4:00   -       AST
3177 
3178 # Montserrat
3179 # See America/Port_of_Spain.
3180 
3181 # Nicaragua
3182 #
3183 # This uses Shanks & Pottenger for times before 2005.
3184 #
3185 # From Steffen Thorsen (2005-04-12):
3186 # I've got reports from 8 different people that Nicaragua just started
3187 # DST on Sunday 2005-04-10, in order to save energy because of
3188 # expensive petroleum.  The exact end date for DST is not yet
3189 # announced, only "September" but some sites also say "mid-September".
3190 # Some background information is available on the President's official site:
3191 # http://www.presidencia.gob.ni/Presidencia/Files_index/Secretaria/Notas%20de%20Prensa/Presidente/2005/ABRIL/Gobierno-de-nicaragua-adelanta-hora-oficial-06abril.htm
3192 # The Decree, no 23-2005 is available here:
3193 # http://www.presidencia.gob.ni/buscador_gaceta/BD/DECRETOS/2005/Decreto%2023-2005%20Se%20adelanta%20en%20una%20hora%20en%20todo%20el%20territorio%20nacional%20apartir%20de%20las%2024horas%20del%2009%20de%20Abril.pdf
3194 #
3195 # From Paul Eggert (2005-05-01):
3196 # The decree doesn't say anything about daylight saving, but for now let's
3197 # assume that it is daylight saving....
3198 #
3199 # From Gwillim Law (2005-04-21):
3200 # The Associated Press story on the time change, which can be found at
3201 # http://www.lapalmainteractivo.com/guias/content/gen/ap/America_Latina/AMC_GEN_NICARAGUA_HORA.html
3202 # and elsewhere, says (fifth paragraph, translated from Spanish): "The last
3203 # time that a change of clocks was applied to save energy was in the year 2000
3204 # during the Arnoldo Alemán administration."...
3205 # The northamerica file says that Nicaragua has been on UTC-6 continuously
3206 # since December 1998.  I wasn't able to find any details of Nicaraguan time
3207 # changes in 2000.  Perhaps a note could be added to the northamerica file, to
3208 # the effect that we have indirect evidence that DST was observed in 2000.
3209 #
3210 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-11-02):
3211 # Nicaragua left DST the 2005-10-02 at 00:00 (local time).
3212 # http://www.presidencia.gob.ni/presidencia/files_index/secretaria/comunicados/2005/septiembre/26septiembre-cambio-hora.htm
3213 # (2005-09-26)
3214 #
3215 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-05-05):
3216 # http://www.elnuevodiario.com.ni/2006/05/01/nacionales/18410
3217 # (my informal translation)
3218 # By order of the president of the republic, Enrique Bolaños, Nicaragua
3219 # advanced by sixty minutes their official time, yesterday at 2 in the
3220 # morning, and will stay that way until 30th of September.
3221 #
3222 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-09-30):
3223 # http://www.presidencia.gob.ni/buscador_gaceta/BD/DECRETOS/2006/D-063-2006P-PRN-Cambio-Hora.pdf
3224 # My informal translation runs:
3225 # The natural sun time is restored in all the national territory, in that the
3226 # time is returned one hour at 01:00 am of October 1 of 2006.
3227 #
3228 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3229 Rule    Nic     1979    1980    -       Mar     Sun>=16      0:00    1:00    D
3230 Rule    Nic     1979    1980    -       Jun     Mon>=23      0:00    0       S
3231 Rule    Nic     2005    only    -       Apr     10      0:00    1:00    D
3232 Rule    Nic     2005    only    -       Oct     Sun>=1       0:00    0       S
3233 Rule    Nic     2006    only    -       Apr     30      2:00    1:00    D
3234 Rule    Nic     2006    only    -       Oct     Sun>=1       1:00    0       S
3235 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3236 Zone    America/Managua -5:45:08 -      LMT     1890
3237                         -5:45:12 -      MMT     1934 Jun 23 # Managua Mean Time?
3238                         -6:00   -       CST     1973 May
3239                         -5:00   -       EST     1975 Feb 16
3240                         -6:00   Nic     C%sT    1992 Jan  1  4:00
3241                         -5:00   -       EST     1992 Sep 24
3242                         -6:00   -       CST     1993
3243                         -5:00   -       EST     1997
3244                         -6:00   Nic     C%sT
3245 
3246 # Panama
3247 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3248 Zone    America/Panama  -5:18:08 -      LMT     1890
3249                         -5:19:36 -      CMT     1908 Apr 22 # Colón Mean Time
3250                         -5:00   -       EST

3251 
3252 # Puerto Rico
3253 # There are too many San Juans elsewhere, so we'll use 'Puerto_Rico'.
3254 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3255 Zone America/Puerto_Rico -4:24:25 -     LMT     1899 Mar 28 12:00 # San Juan
3256                         -4:00   -       AST     1942 May  3
3257                         -4:00   US      A%sT    1946
3258                         -4:00   -       AST
3259 
3260 # St Kitts-Nevis
3261 # St Lucia
3262 # See America/Port_of_Spain.
3263 
3264 # St Pierre and Miquelon
3265 # There are too many St Pierres elsewhere, so we'll use 'Miquelon'.
3266 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3267 Zone America/Miquelon   -3:44:40 -      LMT     1911 May 15 # St Pierre
3268                         -4:00   -       AST     1980 May
3269                         -3:00   -       PMST    1987 # Pierre & Miquelon Time
3270                         -3:00   Canada  PM%sT
3271 
3272 # St Vincent and the Grenadines
3273 # See America/Port_of_Spain.
3274 
3275 # Turks and Caicos
3276 #
3277 # From Chris Dunn in
3278 # http://bugs.debian.org/cgi-bin/bugreport.cgi?bug=415007
3279 # (2007-03-15): In the Turks & Caicos Islands (America/Grand_Turk) the
3280 # daylight saving dates for time changes have been adjusted to match
3281 # the recent U.S. change of dates.
3282 #
3283 # From Brian Inglis (2007-04-28):
3284 # http://www.turksandcaicos.tc/calendar/index.htm [2007-04-26]
3285 # there is an entry for Nov 4 "Daylight Savings Time Ends 2007" and three
3286 # rows before that there is an out of date entry for Oct:
3287 # "Eastern Standard Times Begins 2007
3288 # Clocks are set back one hour at 2:00 a.m. local Daylight Saving Time"
3289 # indicating that the normal ET rules are followed.
3290 #
3291 # From Paul Eggert (2014-08-19):
3292 # The 2014-08-13 Cabinet meeting decided to stay on UTC-4 year-round.  See:
3293 # http://tcweeklynews.com/daylight-savings-time-to-be-maintained-p5353-127.htm
3294 # Model this as a switch from EST/EDT to AST ...
3295 # From Chris Walton (2014-11-04):
3296 # ... the TCI government appears to have delayed the switch to
3297 # "permanent daylight saving time" by one year....
3298 # http://tcweeklynews.com/time-change-to-go-ahead-this-november-p5437-127.htm
3299 #
3300 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3301 Zone America/Grand_Turk -4:44:32 -      LMT     1890
3302                         -5:07:11 -      KMT     1912 Feb # Kingston Mean Time
3303                         -5:00   -       EST     1979
3304                         -5:00   US      E%sT    2015 Nov Sun>=1 2:00
3305                         -4:00   -       AST
3306 
3307 # British Virgin Is
3308 # Virgin Is
3309 # See America/Port_of_Spain.
3310 
3311 
3312 # Local Variables:
3313 # coding: utf-8
3314 # End:
--- EOF ---