1 #
   2 # DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
   3 #
   4 # This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   5 # under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
   6 # published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
   7 # particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
   8 # by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
   9 #
  10 # This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  11 # ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  12 # FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  13 # version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  14 # accompanied this code).
  15 #
  16 # You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  17 # 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  18 # Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  19 #
  20 # Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  21 # or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  22 # questions.
  23 #
  24 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
  25 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
  26 
  27 # also includes Central America and the Caribbean
  28 
  29 # This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
  30 # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
  31 # tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
  32 # the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
  33 
  34 # From Paul Eggert (1999-03-22):
  35 # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
  36 # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
  37 
  38 ###############################################################################
  39 
  40 # United States
  41 
  42 # From Paul Eggert (1999-03-31):
  43 # Howse writes (pp 121-125) that time zones were invented by
  44 # Professor Charles Ferdinand Dowd (1825-1904),
  45 # Principal of Temple Grove Ladies' Seminary (Saratoga Springs, NY).
  46 # His pamphlet "A System of National Time for Railroads" (1870)
  47 # was the result of his proposals at the Convention of Railroad Trunk Lines
  48 # in New York City (1869-10).  His 1870 proposal was based on Washington, DC,
  49 # but in 1872-05 he moved the proposed origin to Greenwich.
  50 # His proposal was adopted by the railroads on 1883-11-18 at 12:00,
  51 # and the most of the country soon followed suit.
  52 
  53 # From Paul Eggert (2005-04-16):
  54 # That 1883 transition occurred at 12:00 new time, not at 12:00 old time.
  55 # See p 46 of David Prerau, Seize the daylight, Thunder's Mouth Press (2005).
  56 
  57 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
  58 # A good source for time zone historical data in the US is
  59 # Thomas G. Shanks, The American Atlas (5th edition),
  60 # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1991).
  61 # Make sure you have the errata sheet; the book is somewhat useless without it.
  62 # It is the source for most of the pre-1991 US entries below.
  63 
  64 # From Paul Eggert (2001-03-06):
  65 # Daylight Saving Time was first suggested as a joke by Benjamin Franklin
  66 # in his whimsical essay "An Economical Project for Diminishing the Cost
  67 # of Light" published in the Journal de Paris (1784-04-26).
  68 # Not everyone is happy with the results:
  69 #
  70 #       I don't really care how time is reckoned so long as there is some
  71 #       agreement about it, but I object to being told that I am saving
  72 #       daylight when my reason tells me that I am doing nothing of the kind.
  73 #       I even object to the implication that I am wasting something
  74 #       valuable if I stay in bed after the sun has risen.  As an admirer
  75 #       of moonlight I resent the bossy insistence of those who want to
  76 #       reduce my time for enjoying it.  At the back of the Daylight Saving
  77 #       scheme I detect the bony, blue-fingered hand of Puritanism, eager
  78 #       to push people into bed earlier, and get them up earlier, to make
  79 #       them healthy, wealthy and wise in spite of themselves.
  80 #
  81 #        -- Robertson Davies, The diary of Samuel Marchbanks,
  82 #          Clarke, Irwin (1947), XIX, Sunday
  83 #
  84 # For more about the first ten years of DST in the United States, see
  85 # Robert Garland, Ten years of daylight saving from the Pittsburgh standpoint
  86 # (Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, 1927).
  87 # http://www.clpgh.org/exhibit/dst.html
  88 #
  89 # Shanks says that DST was called "War Time" in the US in 1918 and 1919.
  90 # However, DST was imposed by the Standard Time Act of 1918, which
  91 # was the first nationwide legal time standard, and apparently
  92 # time was just called "Standard Time" or "Daylight Saving Time".
  93 
  94 # From Arthur David Olson:
  95 # US Daylight Saving Time ended on the last Sunday of *October* in 1974.
  96 # See, for example, the front page of the Saturday, 1974-10-26
  97 # and Sunday, 1974-10-27 editions of the Washington Post.
  98 
  99 # From Arthur David Olson:
 100 # Before the Uniform Time Act of 1966 took effect in 1967, observance of
 101 # Daylight Saving Time in the US was by local option, except during wartime.
 102 
 103 # From Arthur David Olson (2000-09-25):
 104 # Last night I heard part of a rebroadcast of a 1945 Arch Oboler radio drama.
 105 # In the introduction, Oboler spoke of "Eastern Peace Time."
 106 # An AltaVista search turned up:
 107 # http://rowayton.org/rhs/hstaug45.html
 108 # "When the time is announced over the radio now, it is 'Eastern Peace
 109 # Time' instead of the old familiar 'Eastern War Time.'  Peace is wonderful."
 110 # (August 1945) by way of confirmation.
 111 
 112 # From Joseph Gallant citing
 113 # George H. Douglas, _The Early Days of Radio Broadcasting_ (1987):
 114 # At 7 P.M. (Eastern War Time) [on 1945-08-14], the networks were set
 115 # to switch to London for Attlee's address, but the American people
 116 # never got to hear his speech live. According to one press account,
 117 # CBS' Bob Trout was first to announce the word of Japan's surrender,
 118 # but a few seconds later, NBC, ABC and Mutual also flashed the word
 119 # of surrender, all of whom interrupting the bells of Big Ben in
 120 # London which were to precede Mr. Attlee's speech.
 121 
 122 # From Paul Eggert (2003-02-09): It was Robert St John, not Bob Trout.  From
 123 # Myrna Oliver's obituary of St John on page B16 of today's Los Angeles Times:
 124 #
 125 # ... a war-weary U.S. clung to radios, awaiting word of Japan's surrender.
 126 # Any announcement from Asia would reach St. John's New York newsroom on a
 127 # wire service teletype machine, which had prescribed signals for major news.
 128 # Associated Press, for example, would ring five bells before spewing out
 129 # typed copy of an important story, and 10 bells for news "of transcendental
 130 # importance."
 131 #
 132 # On Aug. 14, stalling while talking steadily into the NBC networks' open
 133 # microphone, St. John heard five bells and waited only to hear a sixth bell,
 134 # before announcing confidently: "Ladies and gentlemen, World War II is over.
 135 # The Japanese have agreed to our surrender terms."
 136 #
 137 # He had scored a 20-second scoop on other broadcasters.
 138 
 139 # From Arthur David Olson (2005-08-22):
 140 # Paul has been careful to use the "US" rules only in those locations
 141 # that are part of the United States; this reflects the real scope of
 142 # U.S. government action.  So even though the "US" rules have changed
 143 # in the latest release, other countries won't be affected.
 144 
 145 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 146 Rule    US      1918    1919    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 147 Rule    US      1918    1919    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 148 Rule    US      1942    only    -       Feb     9       2:00    1:00    W # War
 149 Rule    US      1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace
 150 Rule    US      1945    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 151 Rule    US      1967    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 152 Rule    US      1967    1973    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 153 Rule    US      1974    only    -       Jan     6       2:00    1:00    D
 154 Rule    US      1975    only    -       Feb     23      2:00    1:00    D
 155 Rule    US      1976    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 156 Rule    US      1987    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
 157 Rule    US      2007    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
 158 Rule    US      2007    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
 159 
 160 # From Arthur David Olson, 2005-12-19
 161 # We generate the files specified below to guard against old files with
 162 # obsolete information being left in the time zone binary directory.
 163 # We limit the list to names that have appeared in previous versions of
 164 # this time zone package.
 165 # We do these as separate Zones rather than as Links to avoid problems if
 166 # a particular place changes whether it observes DST.
 167 # We put these specifications here in the northamerica file both to
 168 # increase the chances that they'll actually get compiled and to
 169 # avoid the need to duplicate the US rules in another file.
 170 
 171 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 172 Zone    EST              -5:00  -       EST
 173 Zone    MST              -7:00  -       MST
 174 Zone    HST             -10:00  -       HST
 175 Zone    EST5EDT          -5:00  US      E%sT
 176 Zone    CST6CDT          -6:00  US      C%sT
 177 Zone    MST7MDT          -7:00  US      M%sT
 178 Zone    PST8PDT          -8:00  US      P%sT
 179 
 180 # From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
 181 # ...Alaska (and Hawaii) had the timezone names changed in 1967.
 182 #    old                         new
 183 #    Pacific Standard Time(PST)  -same-
 184 #    Yukon Standard Time(YST)    -same-
 185 #    Central Alaska S.T. (CAT)   Alaska-Hawaii St[an]dard Time (AHST)
 186 #    Nome Standard Time (NT)     Bering Standard Time (BST)
 187 #
 188 # ...Alaska's timezone lines were redrawn in 1983 to give only 2 tz.
 189 #    The YST zone now covers nearly all of the state, AHST just part
 190 #    of the Aleutian islands.   No DST.
 191 
 192 # From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19):
 193 # The tables below use 'NST', not 'NT', for Nome Standard Time.
 194 # I invented 'CAWT' for Central Alaska War Time.
 195 
 196 # From U. S. Naval Observatory (1989-01-19):
 197 # USA  EASTERN       5 H  BEHIND UTC    NEW YORK, WASHINGTON
 198 # USA  EASTERN       4 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30
 199 # USA  CENTRAL       6 H  BEHIND UTC    CHICAGO, HOUSTON
 200 # USA  CENTRAL       5 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30
 201 # USA  MOUNTAIN      7 H  BEHIND UTC    DENVER
 202 # USA  MOUNTAIN      6 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30
 203 # USA  PACIFIC       8 H  BEHIND UTC    L.A., SAN FRANCISCO
 204 # USA  PACIFIC       7 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30
 205 # USA  ALASKA STD    9 H  BEHIND UTC    MOST OF ALASKA     (AKST)
 206 # USA  ALASKA STD    8 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30 (AKDT)
 207 # USA  ALEUTIAN     10 H  BEHIND UTC    ISLANDS WEST OF 170W
 208 # USA    "           9 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30
 209 # USA  HAWAII       10 H  BEHIND UTC
 210 # USA  BERING       11 H  BEHIND UTC    SAMOA, MIDWAY
 211 
 212 # From Arthur David Olson (1989-01-21):
 213 # The above dates are for 1988.
 214 # Note the "AKST" and "AKDT" abbreviations, the claim that there's
 215 # no DST in Samoa, and the claim that there is DST in Alaska and the
 216 # Aleutians.
 217 
 218 # From Arthur David Olson (1988-02-13):
 219 # Legal standard time zone names, from United States Code (1982 Edition and
 220 # Supplement III), Title 15, Chapter 6, Section 260 and forward.  First, names
 221 # up to 1967-04-01 (when most provisions of the Uniform Time Act of 1966
 222 # took effect), as explained in sections 263 and 261:
 223 #       (none)
 224 #       United States standard eastern time
 225 #       United States standard mountain time
 226 #       United States standard central time
 227 #       United States standard Pacific time
 228 #       (none)
 229 #       United States standard Alaska time
 230 #       (none)
 231 # Next, names from 1967-04-01 until 1983-11-30 (the date for
 232 # public law 98-181):
 233 #       Atlantic standard time
 234 #       eastern standard time
 235 #       central standard time
 236 #       mountain standard time
 237 #       Pacific standard time
 238 #       Yukon standard time
 239 #       Alaska-Hawaii standard time
 240 #       Bering standard time
 241 # And after 1983-11-30:
 242 #       Atlantic standard time
 243 #       eastern standard time
 244 #       central standard time
 245 #       mountain standard time
 246 #       Pacific standard time
 247 #       Alaska standard time
 248 #       Hawaii-Aleutian standard time
 249 #       Samoa standard time
 250 # The law doesn't give abbreviations.
 251 #
 252 # From Paul Eggert (2000-01-08), following a heads-up from Rives McDow:
 253 # Public law 106-564 (2000-12-23) introduced ... "Chamorro Standard Time"
 254 # for time in Guam and the Northern Marianas.  See the file "australasia".
 255 #
 256 # From Paul Eggert (2015-04-17):
 257 # HST and HDT are standardized abbreviations for Hawaii-Aleutian
 258 # standard and daylight times.  See section 9.47 (p 234) of the
 259 # U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual (2008)
 260 # http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/GPO-STYLEMANUAL-2008/pdf/GPO-STYLEMANUAL-2008.pdf
 261 
 262 # From Arthur David Olson, 2005-08-09
 263 # The following was signed into law on 2005-08-08.
 264 #
 265 # H.R. 6, Energy Policy Act of 2005, SEC. 110. DAYLIGHT SAVINGS.
 266 #   (a) Amendment.--Section 3(a) of the Uniform Time Act of 1966 (15
 267 #   U.S.C. 260a(a)) is amended--
 268 #     (1) by striking "first Sunday of April" and inserting "second
 269 #     Sunday of March"; and
 270 #     (2) by striking "last Sunday of October" and inserting "first
 271 #     Sunday of November'.
 272 #   (b) Effective Date.--Subsection (a) shall take effect 1 year after the
 273 #   date of enactment of this Act or March 1, 2007, whichever is later.
 274 #   (c) Report to Congress.--Not later than 9 months after the effective
 275 #   date stated in subsection (b), the Secretary shall report to Congress
 276 #   on the impact of this section on energy consumption in the United
 277 #   States.
 278 #   (d) Right to Revert.--Congress retains the right to revert the
 279 #   Daylight Saving Time back to the 2005 time schedules once the
 280 #   Department study is complete.
 281 
 282 # US eastern time, represented by New York
 283 
 284 # Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, most of Florida,
 285 # Georgia, southeast Indiana (Dearborn and Ohio counties), eastern Kentucky
 286 # (except America/Kentucky/Louisville below), Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts,
 287 # New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio,
 288 # Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, eastern Tennessee,
 289 # Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia
 290 
 291 # From Dave Cantor (2004-11-02):
 292 # Early this summer I had the occasion to visit the Mount Washington
 293 # Observatory weather station atop (of course!) Mount Washington [, NH]....
 294 # One of the staff members said that the station was on Eastern Standard Time
 295 # and didn't change their clocks for Daylight Saving ... so that their
 296 # reports will always have times which are 5 hours behind UTC.
 297 
 298 # From Paul Eggert (2005-08-26):
 299 # According to today's Huntsville Times
 300 # http://www.al.com/news/huntsvilletimes/index.ssf?/base/news/1125047783228320.xml&coll=1
 301 # a few towns on Alabama's "eastern border with Georgia, such as Phenix City
 302 # in Russell County, Lanett in Chambers County and some towns in Lee County,
 303 # set their watches and clocks on Eastern time."  It quotes H.H. "Bubba"
 304 # Roberts, city administrator in Phenix City. as saying "We are in the Central
 305 # time zone, but we do go by the Eastern time zone because so many people work
 306 # in Columbus."
 307 
 308 # From Paul Eggert (2014-09-06):
 309 # Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 44, 4 (1884-02-08), 208
 310 # says that New York City Hall time was 3 minutes 58.4 seconds fast of
 311 # Eastern time (i.e., -4:56:01.6) just before the 1883 switch.  Round to the
 312 # nearest second.
 313 
 314 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 315 Rule    NYC     1920    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 316 Rule    NYC     1920    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 317 Rule    NYC     1921    1966    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 318 Rule    NYC     1921    1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 319 Rule    NYC     1955    1966    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 320 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 321 Zone America/New_York   -4:56:02 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:03:58
 322                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1920
 323                         -5:00   NYC     E%sT    1942
 324                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1946
 325                         -5:00   NYC     E%sT    1967
 326                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 327 
 328 # US central time, represented by Chicago
 329 
 330 # Alabama, Arkansas, Florida panhandle (Bay, Calhoun, Escambia,
 331 # Gulf, Holmes, Jackson, Okaloosa, Santa Rosa, Walton, and
 332 # Washington counties), Illinois, western Indiana
 333 # (Gibson, Jasper, Lake, LaPorte, Newton, Porter, Posey, Spencer,
 334 # Vanderburgh, and Warrick counties), Iowa, most of Kansas, western
 335 # Kentucky, Louisiana, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, eastern
 336 # Nebraska, eastern North Dakota, Oklahoma, eastern South Dakota,
 337 # western Tennessee, most of Texas, Wisconsin
 338 
 339 # From Larry M. Smith (2006-04-26) re Wisconsin:
 340 # http://www.legis.state.wi.us/statutes/Stat0175.pdf ...
 341 # is currently enforced at the 01:00 time of change.  Because the local
 342 # "bar time" in the state corresponds to 02:00, a number of citations
 343 # are issued for the "sale of class 'B' alcohol after prohibited
 344 # hours" within the deviated hour of this change every year....
 345 #
 346 # From Douglas R. Bomberg (2007-03-12):
 347 # Wisconsin has enacted (nearly eleventh-hour) legislation to get WI
 348 # Statue 175 closer in synch with the US Congress' intent....
 349 # http://www.legis.state.wi.us/2007/data/acts/07Act3.pdf
 350 
 351 # From an email administrator of the City of Fort Pierre, SD (2015-12-21):
 352 # Fort Pierre is technically located in the Mountain time zone as is
 353 # the rest of Stanley County.  Most of Stanley County and Fort Pierre
 354 # uses the Central time zone due to doing most of their business in
 355 # Pierre so it simplifies schedules.  I have lived in Stanley County
 356 # all my life and it has been that way since I can remember.  (43 years!)
 357 #
 358 # From Paul Eggert (2015-12-25):
 359 # Assume this practice predates 1970, so Fort Pierre can use America/Chicago.
 360 
 361 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 362 Rule    Chicago 1920    only    -       Jun     13      2:00    1:00    D
 363 Rule    Chicago 1920    1921    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 364 Rule    Chicago 1921    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 365 Rule    Chicago 1922    1966    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 366 Rule    Chicago 1922    1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 367 Rule    Chicago 1955    1966    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 368 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 369 Zone America/Chicago    -5:50:36 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:09:24
 370                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1920
 371                         -6:00   Chicago C%sT    1936 Mar  1  2:00
 372                         -5:00   -       EST     1936 Nov 15  2:00
 373                         -6:00   Chicago C%sT    1942
 374                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
 375                         -6:00   Chicago C%sT    1967
 376                         -6:00   US      C%sT
 377 # Oliver County, ND switched from mountain to central time on 1992-10-25.
 378 Zone America/North_Dakota/Center -6:45:12 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:14:48
 379                         -7:00   US      M%sT    1992 Oct 25  2:00
 380                         -6:00   US      C%sT
 381 # Morton County, ND, switched from mountain to central time on
 382 # 2003-10-26, except for the area around Mandan which was already central time.
 383 # See <http://dmses.dot.gov/docimages/p63/135818.pdf>.
 384 # Officially this switch also included part of Sioux County, and
 385 # Jones, Mellette, and Todd Counties in South Dakota;
 386 # but in practice these other counties were already observing central time.
 387 # See <http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/EPA-IMPACT/2003/October/Day-28/i27056.htm>.
 388 Zone America/North_Dakota/New_Salem -6:45:39 - LMT      1883 Nov 18 12:14:21
 389                         -7:00   US      M%sT    2003 Oct 26  2:00
 390                         -6:00   US      C%sT
 391 
 392 # From Josh Findley (2011-01-21):
 393 # ...it appears that Mercer County, North Dakota, changed from the
 394 # mountain time zone to the central time zone at the last transition from
 395 # daylight-saving to standard time (on Nov. 7, 2010):
 396 # http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-29/html/2010-24376.htm
 397 # http://www.bismarcktribune.com/news/local/article_1eb1b588-c758-11df-b472-001cc4c03286.html
 398 
 399 # From Andy Lipscomb (2011-01-24):
 400 # ...according to the Census Bureau, the largest city is Beulah (although
 401 # it's commonly referred to as Beulah-Hazen, with Hazen being the next
 402 # largest city in Mercer County).  Google Maps places Beulah's city hall
 403 # at 47 degrees 15' 51" N, 101 degrees 46' 40" W, which yields an offset
 404 # of 6h47'07".
 405 
 406 Zone America/North_Dakota/Beulah -6:47:07 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:12:53
 407                         -7:00   US      M%sT    2010 Nov  7  2:00
 408                         -6:00   US      C%sT
 409 
 410 # US mountain time, represented by Denver
 411 #
 412 # Colorado, far western Kansas, Montana, western
 413 # Nebraska, Nevada border (Jackpot, Owyhee, and Mountain City),
 414 # New Mexico, southwestern North Dakota,
 415 # western South Dakota, far western Texas (El Paso County, Hudspeth County,
 416 # and Pine Springs and Nickel Creek in Culberson County), Utah, Wyoming
 417 #
 418 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 419 Rule    Denver  1920    1921    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 420 Rule    Denver  1920    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 421 Rule    Denver  1921    only    -       May     22      2:00    0       S
 422 Rule    Denver  1965    1966    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 423 Rule    Denver  1965    1966    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 424 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 425 Zone America/Denver     -6:59:56 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:00:04
 426                         -7:00   US      M%sT    1920
 427                         -7:00   Denver  M%sT    1942
 428                         -7:00   US      M%sT    1946
 429                         -7:00   Denver  M%sT    1967
 430                         -7:00   US      M%sT
 431 
 432 # US Pacific time, represented by Los Angeles
 433 #
 434 # California, northern Idaho (Benewah, Bonner, Boundary, Clearwater,
 435 # Kootenai, Latah, Lewis, Nez Perce, and Shoshone counties, Idaho county
 436 # north of the Salmon River, and the towns of Burgdorf and Warren),
 437 # Nevada (except West Wendover), Oregon (except the northern 3/4 of
 438 # Malheur county), and Washington
 439 #
 440 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 441 Rule    CA      1948    only    -       Mar     14      2:00    1:00    D
 442 Rule    CA      1949    only    -       Jan      1      2:00    0       S
 443 Rule    CA      1950    1966    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 444 Rule    CA      1950    1961    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 445 Rule    CA      1962    1966    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 446 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 447 Zone America/Los_Angeles -7:52:58 -     LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:07:02
 448                         -8:00   US      P%sT    1946
 449                         -8:00   CA      P%sT    1967
 450                         -8:00   US      P%sT
 451 
 452 # Alaska
 453 # AK%sT is the modern abbreviation for -9:00 per USNO.
 454 #
 455 # From Paul Eggert (2001-05-30):
 456 # Howse writes that Alaska switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar,
 457 # and from east-of-GMT to west-of-GMT days, when the US bought it from Russia.
 458 # This was on 1867-10-18, a Friday; the previous day was 1867-10-06 Julian,
 459 # also a Friday.  Include only the time zone part of this transition,
 460 # ignoring the switch from Julian to Gregorian, since we can't represent
 461 # the Julian calendar.
 462 #
 463 # As far as we know, none of the exact locations mentioned below were
 464 # permanently inhabited in 1867 by anyone using either calendar.
 465 # (Yakutat was colonized by the Russians in 1799, but the settlement
 466 # was destroyed in 1805 by a Yakutat-kon war party.)  However, there
 467 # were nearby inhabitants in some cases and for our purposes perhaps
 468 # it's best to simply use the official transition.
 469 
 470 # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-18):
 471 # One opinion of the early-1980s turmoil in Alaska over time zones and
 472 # daylight saving time appeared as graffiti on a Juneau airport wall:
 473 # "Welcome to Juneau.  Please turn your watch back to the 19th century."
 474 # See: Turner W. Alaska's four time zones now two. NY Times 1983-11-01.
 475 # http://www.nytimes.com/1983/11/01/us/alaska-s-four-time-zones-now-two.html
 476 #
 477 # Steve Ferguson (2011-01-31) referred to the following source:
 478 # Norris F. Keeping time in Alaska: national directives, local response.
 479 # Alaska History 2001;16(1-2).
 480 # http://alaskahistoricalsociety.org/discover-alaska/glimpses-of-the-past/keeping-time-in-alaska/
 481 
 482 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-02-01):
 483 # Here's database-relevant material from the 2001 "Alaska History" article:
 484 #
 485 # On September 20 [1979]...DOT...officials decreed that on April 27,
 486 # 1980, Juneau and other nearby communities would move to Yukon Time.
 487 # Sitka, Petersburg, Wrangell, and Ketchikan, however, would remain on
 488 # Pacific Time.
 489 #
 490 # ...on September 22, 1980, DOT Secretary Neil E. Goldschmidt rescinded the
 491 # Department's September 1979 decision. Juneau and other communities in
 492 # northern Southeast reverted to Pacific Time on October 26.
 493 #
 494 # On October 28 [1983]...the Metlakatla Indian Community Council voted
 495 # unanimously to keep the reservation on Pacific Time.
 496 #
 497 # According to DOT official Joanne Petrie, Indian reservations are not
 498 # bound to follow time zones imposed by neighboring jurisdictions.
 499 #
 500 # (The last is consistent with how the database now handles the Navajo
 501 # Nation.)
 502 
 503 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-02-09):
 504 # I just spoke by phone with a staff member at the Metlakatla Indian
 505 # Community office (using contact information available at
 506 # http://www.commerce.state.ak.us/dca/commdb/CIS.cfm?Comm_Boro_name=Metlakatla
 507 # It's shortly after 1:00 here on the east coast of the United States;
 508 # the staffer said it was shortly after 10:00 there. When I asked whether
 509 # that meant they were on Pacific time, they said no - they were on their
 510 # own time. I asked about daylight saving; they said it wasn't used. I
 511 # did not inquire about practices in the past.
 512 
 513 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-08-17):
 514 # For lack of better information, assume that Metlakatla's
 515 # abandonment of use of daylight saving resulted from the 1983 vote.
 516 
 517 # From Steffen Thorsen (2015-11-09):
 518 # It seems Metlakatla did go off PST on Sunday, November 1, changing
 519 # their time to AKST and are going to follow Alaska's DST, switching
 520 # between AKST and AKDT from now on....
 521 # http://www.krbd.org/2015/10/30/annette-island-times-they-are-a-changing/
 522 
 523 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 524 Zone America/Juneau      15:02:19 -     LMT     1867 Oct 18
 525                          -8:57:41 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00
 526                          -8:00  -       PST     1942
 527                          -8:00  US      P%sT    1946
 528                          -8:00  -       PST     1969
 529                          -8:00  US      P%sT    1980 Apr 27  2:00
 530                          -9:00  US      Y%sT    1980 Oct 26  2:00
 531                          -8:00  US      P%sT    1983 Oct 30  2:00
 532                          -9:00  US      Y%sT    1983 Nov 30
 533                          -9:00  US      AK%sT
 534 Zone America/Sitka       14:58:47 -     LMT     1867 Oct 18
 535                          -9:01:13 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00
 536                          -8:00  -       PST     1942
 537                          -8:00  US      P%sT    1946
 538                          -8:00  -       PST     1969
 539                          -8:00  US      P%sT    1983 Oct 30  2:00
 540                          -9:00  US      Y%sT    1983 Nov 30
 541                          -9:00  US      AK%sT
 542 Zone America/Metlakatla  15:13:42 -     LMT     1867 Oct 18
 543                          -8:46:18 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00
 544                          -8:00  -       PST     1942
 545                          -8:00  US      P%sT    1946
 546                          -8:00  -       PST     1969
 547                          -8:00  US      P%sT    1983 Oct 30  2:00
 548                          -8:00  -       PST     2015 Nov  1  2:00
 549                          -9:00  US      AK%sT
 550 Zone America/Yakutat     14:41:05 -     LMT     1867 Oct 18
 551                          -9:18:55 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00
 552                          -9:00  -       YST     1942
 553                          -9:00  US      Y%sT    1946
 554                          -9:00  -       YST     1969
 555                          -9:00  US      Y%sT    1983 Nov 30
 556                          -9:00  US      AK%sT
 557 Zone America/Anchorage   14:00:24 -     LMT     1867 Oct 18
 558                          -9:59:36 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00
 559                         -10:00  -       CAT     1942
 560                         -10:00  US      CAT/CAWT 1945 Aug 14 23:00u
 561                         -10:00  US      CAT/CAPT 1946 # Peace
 562                         -10:00  -       CAT     1967 Apr
 563                         -10:00  -       AHST    1969
 564                         -10:00  US      AH%sT   1983 Oct 30  2:00
 565                          -9:00  US      Y%sT    1983 Nov 30
 566                          -9:00  US      AK%sT
 567 Zone America/Nome        12:58:21 -     LMT     1867 Oct 18
 568                         -11:01:38 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00
 569                         -11:00  -       NST     1942
 570                         -11:00  US      N%sT    1946
 571                         -11:00  -       NST     1967 Apr
 572                         -11:00  -       BST     1969
 573                         -11:00  US      B%sT    1983 Oct 30  2:00
 574                          -9:00  US      Y%sT    1983 Nov 30
 575                          -9:00  US      AK%sT
 576 Zone America/Adak        12:13:21 -     LMT     1867 Oct 18
 577                         -11:46:38 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00
 578                         -11:00  -       NST     1942
 579                         -11:00  US      N%sT    1946
 580                         -11:00  -       NST     1967 Apr
 581                         -11:00  -       BST     1969
 582                         -11:00  US      B%sT    1983 Oct 30  2:00
 583                         -10:00  US      AH%sT   1983 Nov 30
 584                         -10:00  US      H%sT
 585 # The following switches don't quite make our 1970 cutoff.
 586 #
 587 # Shanks writes that part of southwest Alaska (e.g. Aniak)
 588 # switched from -11:00 to -10:00 on 1968-09-22 at 02:00,
 589 # and another part (e.g. Akiak) made the same switch five weeks later.
 590 #
 591 # From David Flater (2004-11-09):
 592 # In e-mail, 2004-11-02, Ray Hudson, historian/liaison to the Unalaska
 593 # Historic Preservation Commission, provided this information, which
 594 # suggests that Unalaska deviated from statutory time from early 1967
 595 # possibly until 1983:
 596 #
 597 #  Minutes of the Unalaska City Council Meeting, January 10, 1967:
 598 #  "Except for St. Paul and Akutan, Unalaska is the only important
 599 #  location not on Alaska Standard Time.  The following resolution was
 600 #  made by William Robinson and seconded by Henry Swanson: Be it
 601 #  resolved that the City of Unalaska hereby goes to Alaska Standard
 602 #  Time as of midnight Friday, January 13, 1967 (1 A.M. Saturday,
 603 #  January 14, Alaska Standard Time.)  This resolution was passed with
 604 #  three votes for and one against."
 605 
 606 # Hawaii
 607 
 608 # From Arthur David Olson (2010-12-09):
 609 # "Hawaiian Time" by Robert C. Schmitt and Doak C. Cox appears on pages 207-225
 610 # of volume 26 of The Hawaiian Journal of History (1992). As of 2010-12-09,
 611 # the article is available at
 612 # http://evols.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10524/239/2/JL26215.pdf
 613 # and indicates that standard time was adopted effective noon, January
 614 # 13, 1896 (page 218), that in "1933, the Legislature decreed daylight
 615 # saving for the period between the last Sunday of each April and the
 616 # last Sunday of each September, but less than a month later repealed the
 617 # act," (page 220), that year-round daylight saving time was in effect
 618 # from 1942-02-09 to 1945-09-30 (page 221, with no time of day given for
 619 # when clocks changed) and that clocks were changed by 30 minutes
 620 # effective the second Sunday of June, 1947 (page 219, with no time of
 621 # day given for when clocks changed). A footnote for the 1933 changes
 622 # cites Session Laws of Hawaii 1933, "Act. 90 (approved 26 Apr. 1933)
 623 # and Act 163 (approved 21 May 1933)."
 624 
 625 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-01-19):
 626 # The following is from "Laws of the Territory of Hawaii Passed by the
 627 # Seventeenth Legislature: Regular Session 1933," available (as of
 628 # 2011-01-19) at American University's Pence Law Library. Page 85: "Act
 629 # 90...At 2 o'clock ante meridian of the last Sunday in April of each
 630 # year, the standard time of this Territory shall be advanced one
 631 # hour...This Act shall take effect upon its approval. Approved this 26th
 632 # day of April, A. D. 1933. LAWRENCE M JUDD, Governor of the Territory of
 633 # Hawaii." Page 172: "Act 163...Act 90 of the Session Laws of 1933 is
 634 # hereby repealed...This Act shall take effect upon its approval, upon
 635 # which date the standard time of this Territory shall be restored to
 636 # that existing immediately prior to the taking effect of said Act 90.
 637 # Approved this 21st day of May, A. D. 1933. LAWRENCE M. JUDD, Governor
 638 # of the Territory of Hawaii."
 639 #
 640 # Note that 1933-05-21 was a Sunday.
 641 # We're left to guess the time of day when Act 163 was approved; guess noon.
 642 
 643 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 644 Zone Pacific/Honolulu   -10:31:26 -     LMT     1896 Jan 13 12:00
 645                         -10:30  -       HST     1933 Apr 30  2:00
 646                         -10:30  1:00    HDT     1933 May 21 12:00
 647                         -10:30  -       HST     1942 Feb  9  2:00
 648                         -10:30  1:00    HDT     1945 Sep 30  2:00
 649                         -10:30  -       HST     1947 Jun  8  2:00
 650                         -10:00  -       HST
 651 Link Pacific/Honolulu Pacific/Johnston
 652 
 653 # Now we turn to US areas that have diverged from the consensus since 1970.
 654 
 655 # Arizona mostly uses MST.
 656 
 657 # From Paul Eggert (2002-10-20):
 658 #
 659 # The information in the rest of this paragraph is derived from the
 660 # Daylight Saving Time web page
 661 # <http://www.dlapr.lib.az.us/links/daylight.htm> (2002-01-23)
 662 # maintained by the Arizona State Library, Archives and Public Records.
 663 # Between 1944-01-01 and 1944-04-01 the State of Arizona used standard
 664 # time, but by federal law railroads, airlines, bus lines, military
 665 # personnel, and some engaged in interstate commerce continued to
 666 # observe war (i.e., daylight saving) time.  The 1944-03-17 Phoenix
 667 # Gazette says that was the date the law changed, and that 04-01 was
 668 # the date the state's clocks would change.  In 1945 the State of
 669 # Arizona used standard time all year, again with exceptions only as
 670 # mandated by federal law.  Arizona observed DST in 1967, but Arizona
 671 # Laws 1968, ch. 183 (effective 1968-03-21) repealed DST.
 672 #
 673 # Shanks says the 1944 experiment came to an end on 1944-03-17.
 674 # Go with the Arizona State Library instead.
 675 
 676 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 677 Zone America/Phoenix    -7:28:18 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 11:31:42
 678                         -7:00   US      M%sT    1944 Jan  1  0:01
 679                         -7:00   -       MST     1944 Apr  1  0:01
 680                         -7:00   US      M%sT    1944 Oct  1  0:01
 681                         -7:00   -       MST     1967
 682                         -7:00   US      M%sT    1968 Mar 21
 683                         -7:00   -       MST
 684 # From Arthur David Olson (1988-02-13):
 685 # A writer from the Inter Tribal Council of Arizona, Inc.,
 686 # notes in private correspondence dated 1987-12-28 that "Presently, only the
 687 # Navajo Nation participates in the Daylight Saving Time policy, due to its
 688 # large size and location in three states."  (The "only" means that other
 689 # tribal nations don't use DST.)
 690 #
 691 # From Paul Eggert (2013-08-26):
 692 # See America/Denver for a zone appropriate for the Navajo Nation.
 693 
 694 # Southern Idaho (Ada, Adams, Bannock, Bear Lake, Bingham, Blaine,
 695 # Boise, Bonneville, Butte, Camas, Canyon, Caribou, Cassia, Clark,
 696 # Custer, Elmore, Franklin, Fremont, Gem, Gooding, Jefferson, Jerome,
 697 # Lemhi, Lincoln, Madison, Minidoka, Oneida, Owyhee, Payette, Power,
 698 # Teton, Twin Falls, Valley, Washington counties, and the southern
 699 # quarter of Idaho county) and eastern Oregon (most of Malheur County)
 700 # switched four weeks late in 1974.
 701 #
 702 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 703 Zone America/Boise      -7:44:49 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:15:11
 704                         -8:00   US      P%sT    1923 May 13  2:00
 705                         -7:00   US      M%sT    1974
 706                         -7:00   -       MST     1974 Feb  3  2:00
 707                         -7:00   US      M%sT
 708 
 709 # Indiana
 710 #
 711 # For a map of Indiana's time zone regions, see:
 712 # http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_in_Indiana
 713 #
 714 # From Paul Eggert (2007-08-17):
 715 # Since 1970, most of Indiana has been like America/Indiana/Indianapolis,
 716 # with the following exceptions:
 717 #
 718 # - Gibson, Jasper, Lake, LaPorte, Newton, Porter, Posey, Spencer,
 719 #   Vanderburgh, and Warrick counties have been like America/Chicago.
 720 #
 721 # - Dearborn and Ohio counties have been like America/New_York.
 722 #
 723 # - Clark, Floyd, and Harrison counties have been like
 724 #   America/Kentucky/Louisville.
 725 #
 726 # - Crawford, Daviess, Dubois, Knox, Martin, Perry, Pike, Pulaski, Starke,
 727 #   and Switzerland counties have their own time zone histories as noted below.
 728 #
 729 # Shanks partitioned Indiana into 345 regions, each with its own time history,
 730 # and wrote "Even newspaper reports present contradictory information."
 731 # Those Hoosiers!  Such a flighty and changeable people!
 732 # Fortunately, most of the complexity occurred before our cutoff date of 1970.
 733 #
 734 # Other than Indianapolis, the Indiana place names are so nondescript
 735 # that they would be ambiguous if we left them at the 'America' level.
 736 # So we reluctantly put them all in a subdirectory 'America/Indiana'.
 737 
 738 # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-26):
 739 # https://www.federalregister.gov/articles/2006/01/20/06-563/standard-time-zone-boundary-in-the-state-of-indiana
 740 # says "DOT is relocating the time zone boundary in Indiana to move Starke,
 741 # Pulaski, Knox, Daviess, Martin, Pike, Dubois, and Perry Counties from the
 742 # Eastern Time Zone to the Central Time Zone.... The effective date of
 743 # this rule is 2 a.m. EST Sunday, April 2, 2006, which is the
 744 # changeover date from standard time to Daylight Saving Time."
 745 # Strictly speaking, this meant the affected counties changed their
 746 # clocks twice that night, but this obviously was in error.  The intent
 747 # was that 01:59:59 EST be followed by 02:00:00 CDT.
 748 
 749 # From Gwillim Law (2007-02-10):
 750 # The Associated Press has been reporting that Pulaski County, Indiana is
 751 # going to switch from Central to Eastern Time on March 11, 2007....
 752 # http://www.indystar.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070207/LOCAL190108/702070524/0/LOCAL
 753 
 754 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 755 Rule Indianapolis 1941  only    -       Jun     22      2:00    1:00    D
 756 Rule Indianapolis 1941  1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 757 Rule Indianapolis 1946  1954    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 758 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 759 Zone America/Indiana/Indianapolis -5:44:38 - LMT        1883 Nov 18 12:15:22
 760                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1920
 761                         -6:00 Indianapolis C%sT 1942
 762                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
 763                         -6:00 Indianapolis C%sT 1955 Apr 24  2:00
 764                         -5:00   -       EST     1957 Sep 29  2:00
 765                         -6:00   -       CST     1958 Apr 27  2:00
 766                         -5:00   -       EST     1969
 767                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1971
 768                         -5:00   -       EST     2006
 769                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 770 #
 771 # Eastern Crawford County, Indiana, left its clocks alone in 1974,
 772 # as well as from 1976 through 2005.
 773 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 774 Rule    Marengo 1951    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 775 Rule    Marengo 1951    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 776 Rule    Marengo 1954    1960    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 777 Rule    Marengo 1954    1960    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 778 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 779 Zone America/Indiana/Marengo -5:45:23 - LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:14:37
 780                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1951
 781                         -6:00   Marengo C%sT    1961 Apr 30  2:00
 782                         -5:00   -       EST     1969
 783                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1974 Jan  6  2:00
 784                         -6:00   1:00    CDT     1974 Oct 27  2:00
 785                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1976
 786                         -5:00   -       EST     2006
 787                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 788 #
 789 # Daviess, Dubois, Knox, and Martin Counties, Indiana,
 790 # switched from eastern to central time in April 2006, then switched back
 791 # in November 2007.
 792 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 793 Rule Vincennes  1946    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 794 Rule Vincennes  1946    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 795 Rule Vincennes  1953    1954    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 796 Rule Vincennes  1953    1959    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 797 Rule Vincennes  1955    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D
 798 Rule Vincennes  1956    1963    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 799 Rule Vincennes  1960    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 800 Rule Vincennes  1961    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 801 Rule Vincennes  1962    1963    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 802 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 803 Zone America/Indiana/Vincennes -5:50:07 - LMT   1883 Nov 18 12:09:53
 804                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
 805                         -6:00 Vincennes C%sT    1964 Apr 26  2:00
 806                         -5:00   -       EST     1969
 807                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1971
 808                         -5:00   -       EST     2006 Apr  2  2:00
 809                         -6:00   US      C%sT    2007 Nov  4  2:00
 810                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 811 #
 812 # Perry County, Indiana, switched from eastern to central time in April 2006.
 813 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 814 Rule Perry      1946    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 815 Rule Perry      1946    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 816 Rule Perry      1953    1954    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 817 Rule Perry      1953    1959    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 818 Rule Perry      1955    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D
 819 Rule Perry      1956    1963    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 820 Rule Perry      1960    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 821 Rule Perry      1961    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 822 Rule Perry      1962    1963    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 823 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 824 Zone America/Indiana/Tell_City -5:47:03 - LMT   1883 Nov 18 12:12:57
 825                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
 826                         -6:00 Perry     C%sT    1964 Apr 26  2:00
 827                         -5:00   -       EST     1969
 828                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1971
 829                         -5:00   -       EST     2006 Apr  2  2:00
 830                         -6:00   US      C%sT
 831 #
 832 # Pike County, Indiana moved from central to eastern time in 1977,
 833 # then switched back in 2006, then switched back again in 2007.
 834 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 835 Rule    Pike    1955    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D
 836 Rule    Pike    1955    1960    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 837 Rule    Pike    1956    1964    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 838 Rule    Pike    1961    1964    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 839 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 840 Zone America/Indiana/Petersburg -5:49:07 - LMT  1883 Nov 18 12:10:53
 841                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1955
 842                         -6:00   Pike    C%sT    1965 Apr 25  2:00
 843                         -5:00   -       EST     1966 Oct 30  2:00
 844                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1977 Oct 30  2:00
 845                         -5:00   -       EST     2006 Apr  2  2:00
 846                         -6:00   US      C%sT    2007 Nov  4  2:00
 847                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 848 #
 849 # Starke County, Indiana moved from central to eastern time in 1991,
 850 # then switched back in 2006.
 851 # From Arthur David Olson (1991-10-28):
 852 # An article on page A3 of the Sunday, 1991-10-27 Washington Post
 853 # notes that Starke County switched from Central time to Eastern time as of
 854 # 1991-10-27.
 855 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 856 Rule    Starke  1947    1961    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 857 Rule    Starke  1947    1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 858 Rule    Starke  1955    1956    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 859 Rule    Starke  1957    1958    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 860 Rule    Starke  1959    1961    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 861 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 862 Zone America/Indiana/Knox -5:46:30 -    LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:13:30
 863                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1947
 864                         -6:00   Starke  C%sT    1962 Apr 29  2:00
 865                         -5:00   -       EST     1963 Oct 27  2:00
 866                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1991 Oct 27  2:00
 867                         -5:00   -       EST     2006 Apr  2  2:00
 868                         -6:00   US      C%sT
 869 #
 870 # Pulaski County, Indiana, switched from eastern to central time in
 871 # April 2006 and then switched back in March 2007.
 872 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 873 Rule    Pulaski 1946    1960    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 874 Rule    Pulaski 1946    1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 875 Rule    Pulaski 1955    1956    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 876 Rule    Pulaski 1957    1960    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 877 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 878 Zone America/Indiana/Winamac -5:46:25 - LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:13:35
 879                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
 880                         -6:00   Pulaski C%sT    1961 Apr 30  2:00
 881                         -5:00   -       EST     1969
 882                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1971
 883                         -5:00   -       EST     2006 Apr  2  2:00
 884                         -6:00   US      C%sT    2007 Mar 11  2:00
 885                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 886 #
 887 # Switzerland County, Indiana, did not observe DST from 1973 through 2005.
 888 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 889 Zone America/Indiana/Vevay -5:40:16 -   LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:19:44
 890                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1954 Apr 25  2:00
 891                         -5:00   -       EST     1969
 892                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1973
 893                         -5:00   -       EST     2006
 894                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 895 
 896 # Part of Kentucky left its clocks alone in 1974.
 897 # This also includes Clark, Floyd, and Harrison counties in Indiana.
 898 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 899 Rule Louisville 1921    only    -       May     1       2:00    1:00    D
 900 Rule Louisville 1921    only    -       Sep     1       2:00    0       S
 901 Rule Louisville 1941    1961    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 902 Rule Louisville 1941    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 903 Rule Louisville 1946    only    -       Jun     2       2:00    0       S
 904 Rule Louisville 1950    1955    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 905 Rule Louisville 1956    1960    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 906 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 907 Zone America/Kentucky/Louisville -5:43:02 -     LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:16:58
 908                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1921
 909                         -6:00 Louisville C%sT   1942
 910                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
 911                         -6:00 Louisville C%sT   1961 Jul 23  2:00
 912                         -5:00   -       EST     1968
 913                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1974 Jan  6  2:00
 914                         -6:00   1:00    CDT     1974 Oct 27  2:00
 915                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 916 #
 917 # Wayne County, Kentucky
 918 #
 919 # From Lake Cumberland LIFE
 920 # http://www.lake-cumberland.com/life/archive/news990129time.shtml
 921 # (1999-01-29) via WKYM-101.7:
 922 # Clinton County has joined Wayne County in asking the DoT to change from
 923 # the Central to the Eastern time zone....  The Wayne County government made
 924 # the same request in December.  And while Russell County officials have not
 925 # taken action, the majority of respondents to a poll conducted there in
 926 # August indicated they would like to change to "fast time" also.
 927 # The three Lake Cumberland counties are the farthest east of any U.S.
 928 # location in the Central time zone.
 929 #
 930 # From Rich Wales (2000-08-29):
 931 # After prolonged debate, and despite continuing deep differences of opinion,
 932 # Wayne County (central Kentucky) is switching from Central (-0600) to Eastern
 933 # (-0500) time.  They won't "fall back" this year.  See Sara Shipley,
 934 # The difference an hour makes, Nando Times (2000-08-29 15:33 -0400).
 935 #
 936 # From Paul Eggert (2001-07-16):
 937 # The final rule was published in the
 938 # Federal Register 65, 160 (2000-08-17), pp 50154-50158.
 939 # http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=2000_register&docid=fr17au00-22
 940 #
 941 Zone America/Kentucky/Monticello -5:39:24 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:20:36
 942                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
 943                         -6:00   -       CST     1968
 944                         -6:00   US      C%sT    2000 Oct 29  2:00
 945                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 946 
 947 
 948 # From Rives McDow (2000-08-30):
 949 # Here ... are all the changes in the US since 1985.
 950 # Kearny County, KS (put all of county on central;
 951 #       previously split between MST and CST) ... 1990-10
 952 # Starke County, IN (from CST to EST) ... 1991-10
 953 # Oliver County, ND (from MST to CST) ... 1992-10
 954 # West Wendover, NV (from PST TO MST) ... 1999-10
 955 # Wayne County, KY (from CST to EST) ... 2000-10
 956 #
 957 # From Paul Eggert (2001-07-17):
 958 # We don't know where the line used to be within Kearny County, KS,
 959 # so omit that change for now.
 960 # See America/Indiana/Knox for the Starke County, IN change.
 961 # See America/North_Dakota/Center for the Oliver County, ND change.
 962 # West Wendover, NV officially switched from Pacific to mountain time on
 963 # 1999-10-31.  See the
 964 # Federal Register 64, 203 (1999-10-21), pp 56705-56707.
 965 # http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=1999_register&docid=fr21oc99-15
 966 # However, the Federal Register says that West Wendover already operated
 967 # on mountain time, and the rule merely made this official;
 968 # hence a separate tz entry is not needed.
 969 
 970 # Michigan
 971 #
 972 # From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
 973 # Michigan didn't observe DST from 1968 to 1973.
 974 #
 975 # From Paul Eggert (1999-03-31):
 976 # Shanks writes that Michigan started using standard time on 1885-09-18,
 977 # but Howse writes (pp 124-125, referring to Popular Astronomy, 1901-01)
 978 # that Detroit kept
 979 #
 980 #       local time until 1900 when the City Council decreed that clocks should
 981 #       be put back twenty-eight minutes to Central Standard Time.  Half the
 982 #       city obeyed, half refused.  After considerable debate, the decision
 983 #       was rescinded and the city reverted to Sun time.  A derisive offer to
 984 #       erect a sundial in front of the city hall was referred to the
 985 #       Committee on Sewers.  Then, in 1905, Central time was adopted
 986 #       by city vote.
 987 #
 988 # This story is too entertaining to be false, so go with Howse over Shanks.
 989 #
 990 # From Paul Eggert (2001-03-06):
 991 # Garland (1927) writes "Cleveland and Detroit advanced their clocks
 992 # one hour in 1914."  This change is not in Shanks.  We have no more
 993 # info, so omit this for now.
 994 #
 995 # Most of Michigan observed DST from 1973 on, but was a bit late in 1975.
 996 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 997 Rule    Detroit 1948    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 998 Rule    Detroit 1948    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 999 Rule    Detroit 1967    only    -       Jun     14      2:00    1:00    D
1000 Rule    Detroit 1967    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1001 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1002 Zone America/Detroit    -5:32:11 -      LMT     1905
1003                         -6:00   -       CST     1915 May 15  2:00
1004                         -5:00   -       EST     1942
1005                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1946
1006                         -5:00   Detroit E%sT    1973
1007                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1975
1008                         -5:00   -       EST     1975 Apr 27  2:00
1009                         -5:00   US      E%sT
1010 #
1011 # Dickinson, Gogebic, Iron, and Menominee Counties, Michigan,
1012 # switched from EST to CST/CDT in 1973.
1013 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
1014 Rule Menominee  1946    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1015 Rule Menominee  1946    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1016 Rule Menominee  1966    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1017 Rule Menominee  1966    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1018 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1019 Zone America/Menominee  -5:50:27 -      LMT     1885 Sep 18 12:00
1020                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
1021                         -6:00 Menominee C%sT    1969 Apr 27  2:00
1022                         -5:00   -       EST     1973 Apr 29  2:00
1023                         -6:00   US      C%sT
1024 
1025 # Navassa
1026 # administered by the US Fish and Wildlife Service
1027 # claimed by US under the provisions of the 1856 Guano Islands Act
1028 # also claimed by Haiti
1029 # occupied 1857/1900 by the Navassa Phosphate Co
1030 # US lighthouse 1917/1996-09
1031 # currently uninhabited
1032 # see Mark Fineman, "An Isle Rich in Guano and Discord",
1033 # _Los Angeles Times_ (1998-11-10), A1, A10; it cites
1034 # Jimmy Skaggs, _The Great Guano Rush_ (1994).
1035 
1036 ################################################################################
1037 
1038 
1039 # From Paul Eggert (2014-10-31):
1040 #
1041 # Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:
1042 # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
1043 # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
1044 # Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.
1045 #
1046 # Gwillim Law writes that a good source
1047 # for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
1048 # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
1049 # published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
1050 # of the IATA's data after 1990.  Except where otherwise noted,
1051 # IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.
1052 #
1053 # Other sources occasionally used include:
1054 #
1055 #       Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
1056 #       Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated),
1057 #       which I found in the UCLA library.
1058 #
1059 #       William Willett, The Waste of Daylight, 19th edition
1060 #       <http://cs.ucla.edu/~eggert/The-Waste-of-Daylight-19th.pdf>
1061 #       [PDF] (1914-03)
1062 #
1063 #       Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94
1064 #       <http://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359>.
1065 #
1066 # See the 'europe' file for Greenland.
1067 
1068 # Canada
1069 
1070 # From Alain LaBonté (1994-11-14):
1071 # I post here the time zone abbreviations standardized in Canada
1072 # for both English and French in the CAN/CSA-Z234.4-89 standard....
1073 #
1074 #       UTC     Standard time   Daylight saving time
1075 #       offset  French  English French  English
1076 #       -2:30   -       -       HAT     NDT
1077 #       -3      -       -       HAA     ADT
1078 #       -3:30   HNT     NST     -       -
1079 #       -4      HNA     AST     HAE     EDT
1080 #       -5      HNE     EST     HAC     CDT
1081 #       -6      HNC     CST     HAR     MDT
1082 #       -7      HNR     MST     HAP     PDT
1083 #       -8      HNP     PST     HAY     YDT
1084 #       -9      HNY     YST     -       -
1085 #
1086 #       HN: Heure Normale       ST: Standard Time
1087 #       HA: Heure Avancée      DT: Daylight saving Time
1088 #
1089 #       A: de l'Atlantique      Atlantic
1090 #       C: du Centre            Central
1091 #       E: de l'Est             Eastern
1092 #       M:                      Mountain
1093 #       N:                      Newfoundland
1094 #       P: du Pacifique         Pacific
1095 #       R: des Rocheuses
1096 #       T: de Terre-Neuve
1097 #       Y: du Yukon             Yukon
1098 #
1099 # From Paul Eggert (1994-11-22):
1100 # Alas, this sort of thing must be handled by localization software.
1101 
1102 # Unless otherwise specified, the data entries for Canada are all from Shanks
1103 # & Pottenger.
1104 
1105 # From Chris Walton (2006-04-01, 2006-04-25, 2006-06-26, 2007-01-31,
1106 # 2007-03-01):
1107 # The British Columbia government announced yesterday that it will
1108 # adjust daylight savings next year to align with changes in the
1109 # U.S. and the rest of Canada....
1110 # http://www2.news.gov.bc.ca/news_releases_2005-2009/2006AG0014-000330.htm
1111 # ...
1112 # Nova Scotia
1113 # Daylight saving time will be extended by four weeks starting in 2007....
1114 # http://www.gov.ns.ca/just/regulations/rg2/2006/ma1206.pdf
1115 #
1116 # [For New Brunswick] the new legislation dictates that the time change is to
1117 # be done at 02:00 instead of 00:01.
1118 # http://www.gnb.ca/0062/acts/BBA-2006/Chap-19.pdf
1119 # ...
1120 # Manitoba has traditionally changed the clock every fall at 03:00.
1121 # As of 2006, the transition is to take place one hour earlier at 02:00.
1122 # http://web2.gov.mb.ca/laws/statutes/ccsm/o030e.php
1123 # ...
1124 # [Alberta, Ontario, Quebec] will follow US rules.
1125 # http://www.qp.gov.ab.ca/documents/spring/CH03_06.CFM
1126 # http://www.e-laws.gov.on.ca/DBLaws/Source/Regs/English/2006/R06111_e.htm
1127 # http://www2.publicationsduquebec.gouv.qc.ca/dynamicSearch/telecharge.php?type=5&file=2006C39A.PDF
1128 # ...
1129 # P.E.I. will follow US rules....
1130 # http://www.assembly.pe.ca/bills/pdf_chapter/62/3/chapter-41.pdf
1131 # ...
1132 # Province of Newfoundland and Labrador....
1133 # http://www.hoa.gov.nl.ca/hoa/bills/Bill0634.htm
1134 # ...
1135 # Yukon
1136 # http://www.gov.yk.ca/legislation/regs/oic2006_127.pdf
1137 # ...
1138 # N.W.T. will follow US rules.  Whoever maintains the government web site
1139 # does not seem to believe in bookmarks.  To see the news release, click the
1140 # following link and search for "Daylight Savings Time Change".  Press the
1141 # "Daylight Savings Time Change" link; it will fire off a popup using
1142 # JavaScript.
1143 # http://www.exec.gov.nt.ca/currentnews/currentPR.asp?mode=archive
1144 # ...
1145 # Nunavut
1146 # An amendment to the Interpretation Act was registered on February 19/2007....
1147 # http://action.attavik.ca/home/justice-gn/attach/2007/gaz02part2.pdf
1148 
1149 # From Paul Eggert (2014-10-18):
1150 # H. David Matthews and Mary Vincent's map
1151 # "It's about TIME", _Canadian Geographic_ (September-October 1998)
1152 # http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/Magazine/SO98/alacarte.asp
1153 # contains detailed boundaries for regions observing nonstandard
1154 # time and daylight saving time arrangements in Canada circa 1998.
1155 #
1156 # National Research Council Canada maintains info about time zones and DST.
1157 # http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/services/time/time_zones.html
1158 # http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/services/time/faq/index.html#Q5
1159 # Its unofficial information is often taken from Matthews and Vincent.
1160 
1161 # From Paul Eggert (2006-06-27):
1162 # For now, assume all of DST-observing Canada will fall into line with the
1163 # new US DST rules,
1164 
1165 # From Chris Walton (2011-12-01)
1166 # In the first of Tammy Hardwick's articles
1167 # http://www.ilovecreston.com/?p=articles&t=spec&ar=260
1168 # she quotes the Friday November 1/1918 edition of the Creston Review.
1169 # The quote includes these two statements:
1170 # 'Sunday the CPR went back to the old system of time...'
1171 # '... The daylight saving scheme was dropped all over Canada at the same time,'
1172 # These statements refer to a transition from daylight time to standard time
1173 # that occurred nationally on Sunday October 27/1918.  This transition was
1174 # also documented in the Saturday October 26/1918 edition of the Toronto Star.
1175 
1176 # In light of that evidence, we alter the date from the earlier believed
1177 # Oct 31, to Oct 27, 1918 (and Sunday is a more likely transition day
1178 # than Thursday) in all Canadian rulesets.
1179 
1180 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1181 Rule    Canada  1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D
1182 Rule    Canada  1918    only    -       Oct     27      2:00    0       S
1183 Rule    Canada  1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War
1184 Rule    Canada  1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace
1185 Rule    Canada  1945    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S
1186 Rule    Canada  1974    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1187 Rule    Canada  1974    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1188 Rule    Canada  1987    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
1189 Rule    Canada  2007    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
1190 Rule    Canada  2007    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
1191 
1192 
1193 # Newfoundland and Labrador
1194 
1195 # From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
1196 # Matthews and Vincent (1998) write that Labrador should use NST/NDT,
1197 # but the only part of Labrador that follows the rules is the
1198 # southeast corner, including Port Hope Simpson and Mary's Harbour,
1199 # but excluding, say, Black Tickle.
1200 
1201 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1202 Rule    StJohns 1917    only    -       Apr      8      2:00    1:00    D
1203 Rule    StJohns 1917    only    -       Sep     17      2:00    0       S
1204 # Whitman gives 1919 Apr 5 and 1920 Apr 5; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1205 Rule    StJohns 1919    only    -       May      5      23:00   1:00    D
1206 Rule    StJohns 1919    only    -       Aug     12      23:00   0       S
1207 # For 1931-1935 Whitman gives Apr same date; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1208 Rule    StJohns 1920    1935    -       May     Sun>=1       23:00   1:00    D
1209 Rule    StJohns 1920    1935    -       Oct     lastSun 23:00   0       S
1210 # For 1936-1941 Whitman gives May Sun>=8 and Oct Sun>=1; go with Shanks &
1211 # Pottenger.
1212 Rule    StJohns 1936    1941    -       May     Mon>=9       0:00    1:00    D
1213 Rule    StJohns 1936    1941    -       Oct     Mon>=2       0:00    0       S
1214 # Whitman gives the following transitions:
1215 # 1942 03-01/12-31, 1943 05-30/09-05, 1944 07-10/09-02, 1945 01-01/10-07
1216 # but go with Shanks & Pottenger and assume they used Canadian rules.
1217 # For 1946-9 Whitman gives May 5,4,9,1 - Oct 1,5,3,2, and for 1950 he gives
1218 # Apr 30 - Sep 24; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1219 Rule    StJohns 1946    1950    -       May     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
1220 Rule    StJohns 1946    1950    -       Oct     Sun>=2       2:00    0       S
1221 Rule    StJohns 1951    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1222 Rule    StJohns 1951    1959    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1223 Rule    StJohns 1960    1986    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1224 # From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
1225 # INMS (2000-09-12) says that, since 1988 at least, Newfoundland switches
1226 # at 00:01 local time.  For now, assume it started in 1987.
1227 
1228 # From Michael Pelley (2011-09-12):
1229 # We received today, Monday, September 12, 2011, notification that the
1230 # changes to the Newfoundland Standard Time Act have been proclaimed.
1231 # The change in the Act stipulates that the change from Daylight Savings
1232 # Time to Standard Time and from Standard Time to Daylight Savings Time
1233 # now occurs at 2:00AM.
1234 # ...
1235 # http://www.assembly.nl.ca/legislation/sr/annualstatutes/2011/1106.chp.htm
1236 # ...
1237 # MICHAEL PELLEY  |  Manager of Enterprise Architecture - Solution Delivery
1238 # Office of the Chief Information Officer
1239 # Executive Council
1240 # Government of Newfoundland & Labrador
1241 
1242 Rule    StJohns 1987    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:01    1:00    D
1243 Rule    StJohns 1987    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 0:01    0       S
1244 Rule    StJohns 1988    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:01    2:00    DD
1245 Rule    StJohns 1989    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:01    1:00    D
1246 Rule    StJohns 2007    2011    -       Mar     Sun>=8       0:01    1:00    D
1247 Rule    StJohns 2007    2010    -       Nov     Sun>=1       0:01    0       S
1248 #
1249 # St John's has an apostrophe, but Posix file names can't have apostrophes.
1250 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1251 Zone America/St_Johns   -3:30:52 -      LMT     1884
1252                         -3:30:52 StJohns N%sT   1918
1253                         -3:30:52 Canada N%sT    1919
1254                         -3:30:52 StJohns N%sT   1935 Mar 30
1255                         -3:30   StJohns N%sT    1942 May 11
1256                         -3:30   Canada  N%sT    1946
1257                         -3:30   StJohns N%sT    2011 Nov
1258                         -3:30   Canada  N%sT
1259 
1260 # most of east Labrador
1261 
1262 # The name 'Happy Valley-Goose Bay' is too long; use 'Goose Bay'.
1263 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1264 Zone America/Goose_Bay  -4:01:40 -      LMT     1884 # Happy Valley-Goose Bay
1265                         -3:30:52 -      NST     1918
1266                         -3:30:52 Canada N%sT    1919
1267                         -3:30:52 -      NST     1935 Mar 30
1268                         -3:30   -       NST     1936
1269                         -3:30   StJohns N%sT    1942 May 11
1270                         -3:30   Canada  N%sT    1946
1271                         -3:30   StJohns N%sT    1966 Mar 15  2:00
1272                         -4:00   StJohns A%sT    2011 Nov
1273                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT
1274 
1275 
1276 # west Labrador, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward I
1277 
1278 # From Brian Inglis (2015-07-20):
1279 # From the historical weather station records available at:
1280 # https://weatherspark.com/history/28351/1971/Sydney-Nova-Scotia-Canada
1281 # Sydney shares the same time history as Glace Bay, so was
1282 # likely to be the same across the island....
1283 # Sydney, as the capital and most populous location, or Cape Breton, would
1284 # have been better names for the zone had we known this in 1996.
1285 
1286 # From Paul Eggert (2015-07-20):
1287 # Shanks & Pottenger write that since 1970 most of this region has been like
1288 # Halifax.  Many locales did not observe peacetime DST until 1972;
1289 # the Cape Breton area, represented by Glace Bay, is the largest we know of
1290 # (Glace Bay was perhaps not the best name choice but no point changing now).
1291 # Shanks & Pottenger also write that Liverpool, NS was the only town
1292 # in Canada to observe DST in 1971 but not 1970; for now we'll assume
1293 # this is a typo.
1294 
1295 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1296 Rule    Halifax 1916    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    D
1297 Rule    Halifax 1916    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       S
1298 Rule    Halifax 1920    only    -       May      9      0:00    1:00    D
1299 Rule    Halifax 1920    only    -       Aug     29      0:00    0       S
1300 Rule    Halifax 1921    only    -       May      6      0:00    1:00    D
1301 Rule    Halifax 1921    1922    -       Sep      5      0:00    0       S
1302 Rule    Halifax 1922    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    D
1303 Rule    Halifax 1923    1925    -       May     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
1304 Rule    Halifax 1923    only    -       Sep      4      0:00    0       S
1305 Rule    Halifax 1924    only    -       Sep     15      0:00    0       S
1306 Rule    Halifax 1925    only    -       Sep     28      0:00    0       S
1307 Rule    Halifax 1926    only    -       May     16      0:00    1:00    D
1308 Rule    Halifax 1926    only    -       Sep     13      0:00    0       S
1309 Rule    Halifax 1927    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D
1310 Rule    Halifax 1927    only    -       Sep     26      0:00    0       S
1311 Rule    Halifax 1928    1931    -       May     Sun>=8       0:00    1:00    D
1312 Rule    Halifax 1928    only    -       Sep      9      0:00    0       S
1313 Rule    Halifax 1929    only    -       Sep      3      0:00    0       S
1314 Rule    Halifax 1930    only    -       Sep     15      0:00    0       S
1315 Rule    Halifax 1931    1932    -       Sep     Mon>=24      0:00    0       S
1316 Rule    Halifax 1932    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D
1317 Rule    Halifax 1933    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    D
1318 Rule    Halifax 1933    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       S
1319 Rule    Halifax 1934    only    -       May     20      0:00    1:00    D
1320 Rule    Halifax 1934    only    -       Sep     16      0:00    0       S
1321 Rule    Halifax 1935    only    -       Jun      2      0:00    1:00    D
1322 Rule    Halifax 1935    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       S
1323 Rule    Halifax 1936    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    D
1324 Rule    Halifax 1936    only    -       Sep     14      0:00    0       S
1325 Rule    Halifax 1937    1938    -       May     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
1326 Rule    Halifax 1937    1941    -       Sep     Mon>=24      0:00    0       S
1327 Rule    Halifax 1939    only    -       May     28      0:00    1:00    D
1328 Rule    Halifax 1940    1941    -       May     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
1329 Rule    Halifax 1946    1949    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1330 Rule    Halifax 1946    1949    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1331 Rule    Halifax 1951    1954    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1332 Rule    Halifax 1951    1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1333 Rule    Halifax 1956    1959    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1334 Rule    Halifax 1956    1959    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1335 Rule    Halifax 1962    1973    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1336 Rule    Halifax 1962    1973    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1337 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1338 Zone America/Halifax    -4:14:24 -      LMT     1902 Jun 15
1339                         -4:00   Halifax A%sT    1918
1340                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1919
1341                         -4:00   Halifax A%sT    1942 Feb  9  2:00s
1342                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1946
1343                         -4:00   Halifax A%sT    1974
1344                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT
1345 Zone America/Glace_Bay  -3:59:48 -      LMT     1902 Jun 15
1346                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1953
1347                         -4:00   Halifax A%sT    1954
1348                         -4:00   -       AST     1972
1349                         -4:00   Halifax A%sT    1974
1350                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT
1351 
1352 # New Brunswick
1353 
1354 # From Paul Eggert (2007-01-31):
1355 # The Time Definition Act <http://www.gnb.ca/0062/PDF-acts/t-06.pdf>
1356 # says they changed at 00:01 through 2006, and
1357 # <http://www.canlii.org/nb/laws/sta/t-6/20030127/whole.html> makes it
1358 # clear that this was the case since at least 1993.
1359 # For now, assume it started in 1993.
1360 
1361 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1362 Rule    Moncton 1933    1935    -       Jun     Sun>=8       1:00    1:00    D
1363 Rule    Moncton 1933    1935    -       Sep     Sun>=8       1:00    0       S
1364 Rule    Moncton 1936    1938    -       Jun     Sun>=1       1:00    1:00    D
1365 Rule    Moncton 1936    1938    -       Sep     Sun>=1       1:00    0       S
1366 Rule    Moncton 1939    only    -       May     27      1:00    1:00    D
1367 Rule    Moncton 1939    1941    -       Sep     Sat>=21      1:00    0       S
1368 Rule    Moncton 1940    only    -       May     19      1:00    1:00    D
1369 Rule    Moncton 1941    only    -       May      4      1:00    1:00    D
1370 Rule    Moncton 1946    1972    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1371 Rule    Moncton 1946    1956    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1372 Rule    Moncton 1957    1972    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1373 Rule    Moncton 1993    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:01    1:00    D
1374 Rule    Moncton 1993    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 0:01    0       S
1375 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1376 Zone America/Moncton    -4:19:08 -      LMT     1883 Dec  9
1377                         -5:00   -       EST     1902 Jun 15
1378                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1933
1379                         -4:00   Moncton A%sT    1942
1380                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1946
1381                         -4:00   Moncton A%sT    1973
1382                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1993
1383                         -4:00   Moncton A%sT    2007
1384                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT
1385 
1386 # Quebec
1387 
1388 # From Paul Eggert (2015-03-24):
1389 # See America/Toronto for most of Quebec, including Montreal.
1390 #
1391 # Matthews and Vincent (1998) also write that Quebec east of the -63
1392 # meridian is supposed to observe AST, but residents as far east as
1393 # Natashquan use EST/EDT, and residents east of Natashquan use AST.
1394 # The Quebec department of justice writes in
1395 # "The situation in Minganie and Basse-Côte-Nord"
1396 # http://www.justice.gouv.qc.ca/english/publications/generale/temps-minganie-a.htm
1397 # that the coastal strip from just east of Natashquan to Blanc-Sablon
1398 # observes Atlantic standard time all year round.
1399 # http://www.assnat.qc.ca/Media/Process.aspx?MediaId=ANQ.Vigie.Bll.DocumentGenerique_8845en
1400 # says this common practice was codified into law as of 2007.
1401 # For lack of better info, guess this practice began around 1970, contra to
1402 # Shanks & Pottenger who have this region observing AST/ADT.
1403 
1404 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1405 Zone America/Blanc-Sablon -3:48:28 -    LMT     1884
1406                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1970
1407                         -4:00   -       AST
1408 
1409 # Ontario
1410 
1411 # From Paul Eggert (2006-07-09):
1412 # Shanks & Pottenger write that since 1970 most of Ontario has been like
1413 # Toronto.
1414 # Thunder Bay skipped DST in 1973.
1415 # Many smaller locales did not observe peacetime DST until 1974;
1416 # Nipigon (EST) and Rainy River (CST) are the largest that we know of.
1417 # Far west Ontario is like Winnipeg; far east Quebec is like Halifax.
1418 
1419 # From Mark Brader (2003-07-26):
1420 # [According to the Toronto Star] Orillia, Ontario, adopted DST
1421 # effective Saturday, 1912-06-22, 22:00; the article mentions that
1422 # Port Arthur (now part of Thunder Bay, Ontario) as well as Moose Jaw
1423 # have already done so.  In Orillia DST was to run until Saturday,
1424 # 1912-08-31 (no time mentioned), but it was met with considerable
1425 # hostility from certain segments of the public, and was revoked after
1426 # only two weeks - I copied it as Saturday, 1912-07-07, 22:00, but
1427 # presumably that should be -07-06.  (1912-06-19, -07-12; also letters
1428 # earlier in June).
1429 #
1430 # Kenora, Ontario, was to abandon DST on 1914-06-01 (-05-21).
1431 
1432 # From Paul Eggert (1997-10-17):
1433 # Mark Brader writes that an article in the 1997-10-14 Toronto Star
1434 # says that Atikokan, Ontario currently does not observe DST,
1435 # but will vote on 11-10 whether to use EST/EDT.
1436 # He also writes that the Ontario Time Act (1990, Chapter T.9)
1437 # http://www.gov.on.ca/MBS/english/publications/statregs/conttext.html
1438 # says that Ontario east of 90W uses EST/EDT, and west of 90W uses CST/CDT.
1439 # Officially Atikokan is therefore on CST/CDT, and most likely this report
1440 # concerns a non-official time observed as a matter of local practice.
1441 #
1442 # From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
1443 # Matthews and Vincent (1998) write that Atikokan, Pickle Lake, and
1444 # New Osnaburgh observe CST all year, that Big Trout Lake observes
1445 # CST/CDT, and that Upsala and Shebandowan observe EST/EDT, all in
1446 # violation of the official Ontario rules.
1447 #
1448 # From Paul Eggert (2006-07-09):
1449 # Chris Walton (2006-07-06) mentioned an article by Stephanie MacLellan in the
1450 # 2005-07-21 Chronicle-Journal, which said:
1451 #
1452 #       The clocks in Atikokan stay set on standard time year-round.
1453 #       This means they spend about half the time on central time and
1454 #       the other half on eastern time.
1455 #
1456 #       For the most part, the system works, Mayor Dennis Brown said.
1457 #
1458 #       "The majority of businesses in Atikokan deal more with Eastern
1459 #       Canada, but there are some that deal with Western Canada," he
1460 #       said.  "I don't see any changes happening here."
1461 #
1462 # Walton also writes "Supposedly Pickle Lake and Mishkeegogamang
1463 # [New Osnaburgh] follow the same practice."
1464 
1465 # From Garry McKinnon (2006-07-14) via Chris Walton:
1466 # I chatted with a member of my board who has an outstanding memory
1467 # and a long history in Atikokan (and in the telecom industry) and he
1468 # can say for certain that Atikokan has been practicing the current
1469 # time keeping since 1952, at least.
1470 
1471 # From Paul Eggert (2006-07-17):
1472 # Shanks & Pottenger say that Atikokan has agreed with Rainy River
1473 # ever since standard time was introduced, but the information from
1474 # McKinnon sounds more authoritative.  For now, assume that Atikokan
1475 # switched to EST immediately after WWII era daylight saving time
1476 # ended.  This matches the old (less-populous) America/Coral_Harbour
1477 # entry since our cutoff date of 1970, so we can move
1478 # America/Coral_Harbour to the 'backward' file.
1479 
1480 # From Mark Brader (2010-03-06):
1481 #
1482 # Currently the database has:
1483 #
1484 # # Ontario
1485 #
1486 # # From Paul Eggert (2006-07-09):
1487 # # Shanks & Pottenger write that since 1970 most of Ontario has been like
1488 # # Toronto.
1489 # # Thunder Bay skipped DST in 1973.
1490 # # Many smaller locales did not observe peacetime DST until 1974;
1491 # # Nipigon (EST) and Rainy River (CST) are the largest that we know of.
1492 #
1493 # In the (Toronto) Globe and Mail for Saturday, 1955-09-24, in the bottom
1494 # right corner of page 1, it says that Toronto will return to standard
1495 # time at 2 am Sunday morning (which agrees with the database), and that:
1496 #
1497 #     The one-hour setback will go into effect throughout most of Ontario,
1498 #     except in areas like Windsor which remains on standard time all year.
1499 #
1500 # Windsor is, of course, a lot larger than Nipigon.
1501 #
1502 # I only came across this incidentally.  I don't know if Windsor began
1503 # observing DST when Detroit did, or in 1974, or on some other date.
1504 #
1505 # By the way, the article continues by noting that:
1506 #
1507 #     Some cities in the United States have pushed the deadline back
1508 #     three weeks and will change over from daylight saving in October.
1509 
1510 # From Arthur David Olson (2010-07-17):
1511 #
1512 # "Standard Time and Time Zones in Canada" appeared in
1513 # The Journal of The Royal Astronomical Society of Canada,
1514 # volume 26, number 2 (February 1932) and, as of 2010-07-17,
1515 # was available at
1516 # http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1932JRASC..26...49S
1517 #
1518 # It includes the text below (starting on page 57):
1519 #
1520 #   A list of the places in Canada using daylight saving time would
1521 # require yearly revision. From information kindly furnished by
1522 # the provincial governments and by the postmasters in many cities
1523 # and towns, it is found that the following places used daylight sav-
1524 # ing in 1930. The information for the province of Quebec is definite,
1525 # for the other provinces only approximate:
1526 #
1527 #       Province        Daylight saving time used
1528 # Prince Edward Island  Not used.
1529 # Nova Scotia           In Halifax only.
1530 # New Brunswick         In St. John only.
1531 # Quebec                In the following places:
1532 #                       Montreal        Lachine
1533 #                       Quebec          Mont-Royal
1534 #                       Lévis          Iberville
1535 #                       St. Lambert     Cap de la Madelèine
1536 #                       Verdun          Loretteville
1537 #                       Westmount       Richmond
1538 #                       Outremont       St. Jérôme
1539 #                       Longueuil       Greenfield Park
1540 #                       Arvida          Waterloo
1541 #                       Chambly-Canton  Beaulieu
1542 #                       Melbourne       La Tuque
1543 #                       St. Théophile  Buckingham
1544 # Ontario               Used generally in the cities and towns along
1545 #                       the southerly part of the province. Not
1546 #                       used in the northwesterly part.
1547 # Manitoba              Not used.
1548 # Saskatchewan          In Regina only.
1549 # Alberta               Not used.
1550 # British Columbia      Not used.
1551 #
1552 #   With some exceptions, the use of daylight saving may be said to be limited
1553 # to those cities and towns lying between Quebec city and Windsor, Ont.
1554 
1555 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1556 Rule    Toronto 1919    only    -       Mar     30      23:30   1:00    D
1557 Rule    Toronto 1919    only    -       Oct     26      0:00    0       S
1558 Rule    Toronto 1920    only    -       May      2      2:00    1:00    D
1559 Rule    Toronto 1920    only    -       Sep     26      0:00    0       S
1560 Rule    Toronto 1921    only    -       May     15      2:00    1:00    D
1561 Rule    Toronto 1921    only    -       Sep     15      2:00    0       S
1562 Rule    Toronto 1922    1923    -       May     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
1563 # Shanks & Pottenger say 1923-09-19; assume it's a typo and that "-16"
1564 # was meant.
1565 Rule    Toronto 1922    1926    -       Sep     Sun>=15      2:00    0       S
1566 Rule    Toronto 1924    1927    -       May     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
1567 # The 1927-to-1939 rules can be expressed more simply as
1568 # Rule  Toronto 1927    1937    -       Sep     Sun>=25      2:00    0       S
1569 # Rule  Toronto 1928    1937    -       Apr     Sun>=25      2:00    1:00    D
1570 # Rule  Toronto 1938    1940    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1571 # Rule  Toronto 1938    1939    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1572 # The rules below avoid use of Sun>=25
1573 # (which pre-2004 versions of zic cannot handle).
1574 Rule    Toronto 1927    1932    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1575 Rule    Toronto 1928    1931    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1576 Rule    Toronto 1932    only    -       May     1       2:00    1:00    D
1577 Rule    Toronto 1933    1940    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1578 Rule    Toronto 1933    only    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       S
1579 Rule    Toronto 1934    1939    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1580 Rule    Toronto 1945    1946    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1581 Rule    Toronto 1946    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1582 Rule    Toronto 1947    1949    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    1:00    D
1583 Rule    Toronto 1947    1948    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       S
1584 Rule    Toronto 1949    only    -       Nov     lastSun 0:00    0       S
1585 Rule    Toronto 1950    1973    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1586 Rule    Toronto 1950    only    -       Nov     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1587 Rule    Toronto 1951    1956    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1588 # Shanks & Pottenger say Toronto ended DST a week early in 1971,
1589 # namely on 1971-10-24, but Mark Brader wrote (2003-05-31) that this
1590 # is wrong, and that he had confirmed it by checking the 1971-10-30
1591 # Toronto Star, which said that DST was ending 1971-10-31 as usual.
1592 Rule    Toronto 1957    1973    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1593 
1594 # From Paul Eggert (2003-07-27):
1595 # Willett (1914-03) writes (p. 17) "In the Cities of Fort William, and
1596 # Port Arthur, Ontario, the principle of the Bill has been in
1597 # operation for the past three years, and in the City of Moose Jaw,
1598 # Saskatchewan, for one year."
1599 
1600 # From David Bryan via Tory Tronrud, Director/Curator,
1601 # Thunder Bay Museum (2003-11-12):
1602 # There is some suggestion, however, that, by-law or not, daylight
1603 # savings time was being practiced in Fort William and Port Arthur
1604 # before 1909.... [I]n 1910, the line between the Eastern and Central
1605 # Time Zones was permanently moved about two hundred miles west to
1606 # include the Thunder Bay area....  When Canada adopted daylight
1607 # savings time in 1916, Fort William and Port Arthur, having done so
1608 # already, did not change their clocks....  During the Second World
1609 # War,... [t]he cities agreed to implement DST during the summer
1610 # months for the remainder of the war years.
1611 
1612 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1613 Zone America/Toronto    -5:17:32 -      LMT     1895
1614                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1919
1615                         -5:00   Toronto E%sT    1942 Feb  9  2:00s
1616                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1946
1617                         -5:00   Toronto E%sT    1974
1618                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT
1619 Zone America/Thunder_Bay -5:57:00 -     LMT     1895
1620                         -6:00   -       CST     1910
1621                         -5:00   -       EST     1942
1622                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1970
1623                         -5:00   Toronto E%sT    1973
1624                         -5:00   -       EST     1974
1625                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT
1626 Zone America/Nipigon    -5:53:04 -      LMT     1895
1627                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1940 Sep 29
1628                         -5:00   1:00    EDT     1942 Feb  9  2:00s
1629                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT
1630 Zone America/Rainy_River -6:18:16 -     LMT     1895
1631                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT    1940 Sep 29
1632                         -6:00   1:00    CDT     1942 Feb  9  2:00s
1633                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT
1634 Zone America/Atikokan   -6:06:28 -      LMT     1895
1635                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT    1940 Sep 29
1636                         -6:00   1:00    CDT     1942 Feb  9  2:00s
1637                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT    1945 Sep 30  2:00
1638                         -5:00   -       EST
1639 
1640 
1641 # Manitoba
1642 
1643 # From Rob Douglas (2006-04-06):
1644 # the old Manitoba Time Act - as amended by Bill 2, assented to
1645 # March 27, 1987 ... said ...
1646 # "between two o'clock Central Standard Time in the morning of
1647 # the first Sunday of April of each year and two o'clock Central
1648 # Standard Time in the morning of the last Sunday of October next
1649 # following, one hour in advance of Central Standard Time."...
1650 # I believe that the English legislation [of the old time act] had
1651 # been assented to (March 22, 1967)....
1652 # Also, as far as I can tell, there was no order-in-council varying
1653 # the time of Daylight Saving Time for 2005 and so the provisions of
1654 # the 1987 version would apply - the changeover was at 2:00 Central
1655 # Standard Time (i.e. not until 3:00 Central Daylight Time).
1656 
1657 # From Paul Eggert (2006-04-10):
1658 # Shanks & Pottenger say Manitoba switched at 02:00 (not 02:00s)
1659 # starting 1966.  Since 02:00s is clearly correct for 1967 on, assume
1660 # it was also 02:00s in 1966.
1661 
1662 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1663 Rule    Winn    1916    only    -       Apr     23      0:00    1:00    D
1664 Rule    Winn    1916    only    -       Sep     17      0:00    0       S
1665 Rule    Winn    1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D
1666 Rule    Winn    1918    only    -       Oct     27      2:00    0       S
1667 Rule    Winn    1937    only    -       May     16      2:00    1:00    D
1668 Rule    Winn    1937    only    -       Sep     26      2:00    0       S
1669 Rule    Winn    1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War
1670 Rule    Winn    1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace
1671 Rule    Winn    1945    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1672 Rule    Winn    1946    only    -       May     12      2:00    1:00    D
1673 Rule    Winn    1946    only    -       Oct     13      2:00    0       S
1674 Rule    Winn    1947    1949    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1675 Rule    Winn    1947    1949    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1676 Rule    Winn    1950    only    -       May      1      2:00    1:00    D
1677 Rule    Winn    1950    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S
1678 Rule    Winn    1951    1960    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1679 Rule    Winn    1951    1958    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1680 Rule    Winn    1959    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1681 Rule    Winn    1960    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1682 Rule    Winn    1963    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1683 Rule    Winn    1963    only    -       Sep     22      2:00    0       S
1684 Rule    Winn    1966    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
1685 Rule    Winn    1966    2005    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
1686 Rule    Winn    1987    2005    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
1687 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1688 Zone America/Winnipeg   -6:28:36 -      LMT     1887 Jul 16
1689                         -6:00   Winn    C%sT    2006
1690                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT
1691 
1692 
1693 # Saskatchewan
1694 
1695 # From Mark Brader (2003-07-26):
1696 # The first actual adoption of DST in Canada was at the municipal
1697 # level.  As the [Toronto] Star put it (1912-06-07), "While people
1698 # elsewhere have long been talking of legislation to save daylight,
1699 # the city of Moose Jaw [Saskatchewan] has acted on its own hook."
1700 # DST in Moose Jaw began on Saturday, 1912-06-01 (no time mentioned:
1701 # presumably late evening, as below), and would run until "the end of
1702 # the summer".  The discrepancy between municipal time and railroad
1703 # time was noted.
1704 
1705 # From Paul Eggert (2003-07-27):
1706 # Willett (1914-03) notes that DST "has been in operation ... in the
1707 # City of Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, for one year."
1708 
1709 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1710 # Shanks & Pottenger say that since 1970 this region has mostly been as Regina.
1711 # Some western towns (e.g. Swift Current) switched from MST/MDT to CST in 1972.
1712 # Other western towns (e.g. Lloydminster) are like Edmonton.
1713 # Matthews and Vincent (1998) write that Denare Beach and Creighton
1714 # are like Winnipeg, in violation of Saskatchewan law.
1715 
1716 # From W. Jones (1992-11-06):
1717 # The. . .below is based on information I got from our law library, the
1718 # provincial archives, and the provincial Community Services department.
1719 # A precise history would require digging through newspaper archives, and
1720 # since you didn't say what you wanted, I didn't bother.
1721 #
1722 # Saskatchewan is split by a time zone meridian (105W) and over the years
1723 # the boundary became pretty ragged as communities near it reevaluated
1724 # their affiliations in one direction or the other.  In 1965 a provincial
1725 # referendum favoured legislating common time practices.
1726 #
1727 # On 15 April 1966 the Time Act (c. T-14, Revised Statutes of
1728 # Saskatchewan 1978) was proclaimed, and established that the eastern
1729 # part of Saskatchewan would use CST year round, that districts in
1730 # northwest Saskatchewan would by default follow CST but could opt to
1731 # follow Mountain Time rules (thus 1 hour difference in the winter and
1732 # zero in the summer), and that districts in southwest Saskatchewan would
1733 # by default follow MT but could opt to follow CST.
1734 #
1735 # It took a few years for the dust to settle (I know one story of a town
1736 # on one time zone having its school in another, such that a mom had to
1737 # serve her family lunch in two shifts), but presently it seems that only
1738 # a few towns on the border with Alberta (e.g. Lloydminster) follow MT
1739 # rules any more; all other districts appear to have used CST year round
1740 # since sometime in the 1960s.
1741 
1742 # From Chris Walton (2006-06-26):
1743 # The Saskatchewan time act which was last updated in 1996 is about 30 pages
1744 # long and rather painful to read.
1745 # http://www.qp.gov.sk.ca/documents/English/Statutes/Statutes/T14.pdf
1746 
1747 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1748 Rule    Regina  1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D
1749 Rule    Regina  1918    only    -       Oct     27      2:00    0       S
1750 Rule    Regina  1930    1934    -       May     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
1751 Rule    Regina  1930    1934    -       Oct     Sun>=1       0:00    0       S
1752 Rule    Regina  1937    1941    -       Apr     Sun>=8       0:00    1:00    D
1753 Rule    Regina  1937    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8       0:00    0       S
1754 Rule    Regina  1938    only    -       Oct     Sun>=1       0:00    0       S
1755 Rule    Regina  1939    1941    -       Oct     Sun>=8       0:00    0       S
1756 Rule    Regina  1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War
1757 Rule    Regina  1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace
1758 Rule    Regina  1945    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1759 Rule    Regina  1946    only    -       Apr     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
1760 Rule    Regina  1946    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8       2:00    0       S
1761 Rule    Regina  1947    1957    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1762 Rule    Regina  1947    1957    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1763 Rule    Regina  1959    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1764 Rule    Regina  1959    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1765 #
1766 Rule    Swift   1957    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1767 Rule    Swift   1957    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1768 Rule    Swift   1959    1961    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1769 Rule    Swift   1959    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1770 Rule    Swift   1960    1961    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1771 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1772 Zone America/Regina     -6:58:36 -      LMT     1905 Sep
1773                         -7:00   Regina  M%sT    1960 Apr lastSun  2:00
1774                         -6:00   -       CST
1775 Zone America/Swift_Current -7:11:20 -   LMT     1905 Sep
1776                         -7:00   Canada  M%sT    1946 Apr lastSun  2:00
1777                         -7:00   Regina  M%sT    1950
1778                         -7:00   Swift   M%sT    1972 Apr lastSun  2:00
1779                         -6:00   -       CST
1780 
1781 
1782 # Alberta
1783 
1784 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1785 Rule    Edm     1918    1919    -       Apr     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
1786 Rule    Edm     1918    only    -       Oct     27      2:00    0       S
1787 Rule    Edm     1919    only    -       May     27      2:00    0       S
1788 Rule    Edm     1920    1923    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1789 Rule    Edm     1920    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1790 Rule    Edm     1921    1923    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1791 Rule    Edm     1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War
1792 Rule    Edm     1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace
1793 Rule    Edm     1945    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1794 Rule    Edm     1947    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1795 Rule    Edm     1947    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1796 Rule    Edm     1967    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1797 Rule    Edm     1967    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1798 Rule    Edm     1969    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1799 Rule    Edm     1969    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1800 Rule    Edm     1972    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1801 Rule    Edm     1972    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1802 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1803 Zone America/Edmonton   -7:33:52 -      LMT     1906 Sep
1804                         -7:00   Edm     M%sT    1987
1805                         -7:00   Canada  M%sT
1806 
1807 
1808 # British Columbia
1809 
1810 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1811 # Shanks & Pottenger write that since 1970 most of this region has
1812 # been like Vancouver.
1813 # Dawson Creek uses MST.  Much of east BC is like Edmonton.
1814 # Matthews and Vincent (1998) write that Creston is like Dawson Creek.
1815 
1816 # It seems though that (re: Creston) is not entirely correct:
1817 
1818 # From Chris Walton (2011-12-01):
1819 # There are two areas within the Canadian province of British Columbia
1820 # that do not currently observe daylight saving:
1821 # a) The Creston Valley (includes the town of Creston and surrounding area)
1822 # b) The eastern half of the Peace River Regional District
1823 # (includes the cities of Dawson Creek and Fort St. John)
1824 
1825 # Earlier this year I stumbled across a detailed article about the time
1826 # keeping history of Creston; it was written by Tammy Hardwick who is the
1827 # manager of the Creston & District Museum. The article was written in May 2009.
1828 # http://www.ilovecreston.com/?p=articles&t=spec&ar=260
1829 # According to the article, Creston has not changed its clocks since June 1918.
1830 # i.e. Creston has been stuck on UTC-7 for 93 years.
1831 # Dawson Creek, on the other hand, changed its clocks as recently as April 1972.
1832 
1833 # Unfortunately the exact date for the time change in June 1918 remains
1834 # unknown and will be difficult to ascertain.  I e-mailed Tammy a few months
1835 # ago to ask if Sunday June 2 was a reasonable guess.  She said it was just
1836 # as plausible as any other date (in June).  She also said that after writing
1837 # the article she had discovered another time change in 1916; this is the
1838 # subject of another article which she wrote in October 2010.
1839 # http://www.creston.museum.bc.ca/index.php?module=comments&uop=view_comment&cm+id=56
1840 
1841 # Here is a summary of the three clock change events in Creston's history:
1842 # 1. 1884 or 1885: adoption of Mountain Standard Time (GMT-7)
1843 # Exact date unknown
1844 # 2. Oct 1916: switch to Pacific Standard Time (GMT-8)
1845 # Exact date in October unknown; Sunday October 1 is a reasonable guess.
1846 # 3. June 1918: switch to Pacific Daylight Time (GMT-7)
1847 # Exact date in June unknown; Sunday June 2 is a reasonable guess.
1848 # note 1:
1849 # On Oct 27/1918 when daylight saving ended in the rest of Canada,
1850 # Creston did not change its clocks.
1851 # note 2:
1852 # During WWII when the Federal Government legislated a mandatory clock change,
1853 # Creston did not oblige.
1854 # note 3:
1855 # There is no guarantee that Creston will remain on Mountain Standard Time
1856 # (UTC-7) forever.
1857 # The subject was debated at least once this year by the town Council.
1858 # http://www.bclocalnews.com/kootenay_rockies/crestonvalleyadvance/news/116760809.html
1859 
1860 # During a period WWII, summer time (Daylight saying) was mandatory in Canada.
1861 # In Creston, that was handled by shifting the area to PST (-8:00) then applying
1862 # summer time to cause the offset to be -7:00, the same as it had been before
1863 # the change.  It can be argued that the timezone abbreviation during this
1864 # period should be PDT rather than MST, but that doesn't seem important enough
1865 # (to anyone) to further complicate the rules.
1866 
1867 # The transition dates (and times) are guesses.
1868 
1869 # From Matt Johnson (2015-09-21):
1870 # Fort Nelson, BC, Canada will cancel DST this year.  So while previously they
1871 # were aligned with America/Vancouver, they're now aligned with
1872 # America/Dawson_Creek.
1873 # http://www.northernrockies.ca/EN/meta/news/archives/2015/northern-rockies-time-change.html
1874 #
1875 # From Tim Parenti (2015-09-23):
1876 # This requires a new zone for the Northern Rockies Regional Municipality,
1877 # America/Fort_Nelson.  The resolution of 2014-12-08 was reached following a
1878 # 2014-11-15 poll with nearly 75% support.  Effectively, the municipality has
1879 # been on MST (-0700) like Dawson Creek since it advanced its clocks on
1880 # 2015-03-08.
1881 #
1882 # From Paul Eggert (2015-09-23):
1883 # Shanks says Fort Nelson did not observe DST in 1946, unlike Vancouver.
1884 
1885 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1886 Rule    Vanc    1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D
1887 Rule    Vanc    1918    only    -       Oct     27      2:00    0       S
1888 Rule    Vanc    1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War
1889 Rule    Vanc    1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace
1890 Rule    Vanc    1945    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S
1891 Rule    Vanc    1946    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1892 Rule    Vanc    1946    only    -       Oct     13      2:00    0       S
1893 Rule    Vanc    1947    1961    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1894 Rule    Vanc    1962    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1895 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1896 Zone America/Vancouver  -8:12:28 -      LMT     1884
1897                         -8:00   Vanc    P%sT    1987
1898                         -8:00   Canada  P%sT
1899 Zone America/Dawson_Creek -8:00:56 -    LMT     1884
1900                         -8:00   Canada  P%sT    1947
1901                         -8:00   Vanc    P%sT    1972 Aug 30  2:00
1902                         -7:00   -       MST
1903 Zone America/Fort_Nelson        -8:10:47 -      LMT     1884
1904                         -8:00   Vanc    P%sT    1946
1905                         -8:00   -       PST     1947
1906                         -8:00   Vanc    P%sT    1987
1907                         -8:00   Canada  P%sT    2015 Mar  8  2:00
1908                         -7:00   -       MST
1909 Zone America/Creston    -7:46:04 -      LMT     1884
1910                         -7:00   -       MST     1916 Oct 1
1911                         -8:00   -       PST     1918 Jun 2
1912                         -7:00   -       MST
1913 
1914 # Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Yukon
1915 
1916 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1917 # Dawson switched to PST in 1973.  Inuvik switched to MST in 1979.
1918 # Mathew Englander (1996-10-07) gives the following refs:
1919 #       * 1967. Paragraph 28(34)(g) of the Interpretation Act, S.C. 1967-68,
1920 #       c. 7 defines Yukon standard time as UTC-9....
1921 #       see Interpretation Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. I-21, s. 35(1).
1922 #       [http://canlii.ca/t/7vhg]
1923 #       * C.O. 1973/214 switched Yukon to PST on 1973-10-28 00:00.
1924 #       * O.I.C. 1980/02 established DST.
1925 #       * O.I.C. 1987/056 changed DST to Apr firstSun 2:00 to Oct lastSun 2:00.
1926 
1927 # From Brian Inglis (2015-04-14):
1928 #
1929 # I tried to trace the history of Yukon time and found the following
1930 # regulations, giving the reference title and URL if found, regulation name,
1931 # and relevant quote if available.  Each regulation specifically revokes its
1932 # predecessor.  The final reference is to the current Interpretation Act
1933 # authorizing and resulting from these regulatory changes.
1934 #
1935 # Only recent regulations were retrievable via Yukon government site search or
1936 # index, and only some via Canadian legal sources.  Other sources used include
1937 # articles titled "Standard Time and Time Zones in Canada" from JRASC via ADS
1938 # Abstracts, cited by ADO for 1932 ..., and updated versions from 1958 and
1939 # 1970 quoted below; each article includes current extracts from provincial
1940 # and territorial ST and DST regulations at the end, summaries and details of
1941 # standard times and daylight saving time at many locations across Canada,
1942 # with time zone maps, tables and calculations for Canadian Sunrise, Sunset,
1943 # and LMST; they also cover many countries and global locations, with a chart
1944 # and table showing current Universal Time offsets, and may be useful as
1945 # another source of information for 1970 and earlier.
1946 #
1947 # * Standard Time and Time Zones in Canada; Smith, C.C.; JRASC, Vol. 26,
1948 #   pp.49-77; February 1932; SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
1949 #   http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1932JRASC..26...49S from p.75:
1950 #   Yukon Interpretation Ordinance
1951 #   Yukon standard time is the local mean time at the one hundred and
1952 #   thirty-fifth meridian.
1953 #
1954 # * Standard Time and Time Zones in Canada; Smith, C.C.; Thomson, Malcolm M.;
1955 #   JRASC, Vol. 52, pp.193-223; October 1958; SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System
1956 #   (ADS) http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1958JRASC..52..193S from pp.220-1:
1957 #   Yukon Interpretation Ordinance, 1955, Chap. 16.
1958 #
1959 #     (1) Subject to this section, standard time shall be reckoned as nine
1960 #     hours behind Greenwich Time and called Yukon Standard Time.
1961 #
1962 #     (2) Notwithstanding subsection (1), the Commissioner may make regulations
1963 #     varying the manner of reckoning standard time.
1964 #
1965 # * Yukon Territory Commissioner's Order 1966-20 Interpretation Ordinance
1966 #   http://? - no online source found
1967 #
1968 # * Standard Time and Time Zones in Canada; Thomson, Malcolm M.; JRASC,
1969 #   Vol. 64, pp.129-162; June 1970; SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
1970 #   http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1970JRASC..64..129T from p.156: Yukon
1971 #   Territory Commissioner's Order 1967-59 Interpretation Ordinance ...
1972 #
1973 #     1. Commissioner's Order 1966-20 dated at Whitehorse in the Yukon
1974 #     Territory on 27th January, 1966, is hereby revoked.
1975 #
1976 #     2. Yukon (East) Standard Time as defined by section 36 of the
1977 #     Interpretation Ordinance from and after mid-night on the 28th day of May,
1978 #     1967 shall be reckoned in the same manner as Pacific Standard Time, that
1979 #     is to say, eight hours behind Greenwich Time in the area of the Yukon
1980 #     Territory lying east of the 138th degree longitude west.
1981 #
1982 #     3. In the remainder of the Territory, lying west of the 138th degree
1983 #     longitude west, Yukon (West) Standard Time shall be reckoned as nine
1984 #     hours behind Greenwich Time.
1985 #
1986 # * Yukon Standard Time defined as Pacific Standard Time, YCO 1973/214
1987 #   http://www.canlii.org/en/yk/laws/regu/yco-1973-214/latest/yco-1973-214.html
1988 #   C.O. 1973/214 INTERPRETATION ACT ...
1989 #
1990 #     1. Effective October 28, 1973 Commissioner's Order 1967/59 is hereby
1991 #     revoked.
1992 #
1993 #     2. Yukon Standard Time as defined by section 36 of the Interpretation
1994 #     Act from and after midnight on the twenty-eighth day of October, 1973
1995 #     shall be reckoned in the same manner as Pacific Standard Time, that is
1996 #     to say eight hours behind Greenwich Time.
1997 #
1998 # * O.I.C. 1980/02 INTERPRETATION ACT
1999 #   http://? - no online source found
2000 #
2001 # * Yukon Daylight Saving Time, YOIC 1987/56
2002 #   http://www.canlii.org/en/yk/laws/regu/yoic-1987-56/latest/yoic-1987-56.html
2003 #   O.I.C. 1987/056 INTERPRETATION ACT ...
2004 #
2005 #   In every year between
2006 #     (a) two o'clock in the morning in the first Sunday in April, and
2007 #     (b) two o'clock in the morning in the last Sunday in October,
2008 #   Standard Time shall be reckoned as seven hours behind Greenwich Time and
2009 #   called Yukon Daylight Saving Time.
2010 #   ...
2011 #   Dated ... 9th day of March, A.D., 1987.
2012 #
2013 # * Yukon Daylight Saving Time 2006, YOIC 2006/127
2014 #   http://www.canlii.org/en/yk/laws/regu/yoic-2006-127/latest/yoic-2006-127.html
2015 #   O.I.C. 2006/127 INTERPRETATION ACT ...
2016 #
2017 #     1. In Yukon each year the time for general purposes shall be 7 hours
2018 #     behind Greenwich mean time during the period commencing at two o'clock
2019 #     in the forenoon on the second Sunday of March and ending at two o'clock
2020 #     in the forenoon on the first Sunday of November and shall be called
2021 #     Yukon Daylight Saving Time.
2022 #
2023 #     2. Order-in-Council 1987/56 is revoked.
2024 #
2025 #     3. This order comes into force January 1, 2007.
2026 #
2027 # * Interpretation Act, RSY 2002, c 125
2028 # http://www.canlii.org/en/yk/laws/stat/rsy-2002-c-125/latest/rsy-2002-c-125.html
2029 
2030 # From Rives McDow (1999-09-04):
2031 # Nunavut ... moved ... to incorporate the whole territory into one time zone.
2032 # Nunavut moves to single time zone Oct. 31
2033 # http://www.nunatsiaq.com/nunavut/nvt90903_13.html
2034 #
2035 # From Antoine Leca (1999-09-06):
2036 # We then need to create a new timezone for the Kitikmeot region of Nunavut
2037 # to differentiate it from the Yellowknife region.
2038 
2039 # From Paul Eggert (1999-09-20):
2040 # Basic Facts: The New Territory
2041 # http://www.nunavut.com/basicfacts/english/basicfacts_1territory.html
2042 # (1999) reports that Pangnirtung operates on eastern time,
2043 # and that Coral Harbour does not observe DST.  We don't know when
2044 # Pangnirtung switched to eastern time; we'll guess 1995.
2045 
2046 # From Rives McDow (1999-11-08):
2047 # On October 31, when the rest of Nunavut went to Central time,
2048 # Pangnirtung wobbled.  Here is the result of their wobble:
2049 #
2050 # The following businesses and organizations in Pangnirtung use Central Time:
2051 #
2052 #       First Air, Power Corp, Nunavut Construction, Health Center, RCMP,
2053 #       Eastern Arctic National Parks, A & D Specialist
2054 #
2055 # The following businesses and organizations in Pangnirtung use Eastern Time:
2056 #
2057 #       Hamlet office, All other businesses, Both schools, Airport operator
2058 #
2059 # This has made for an interesting situation there, which warranted the news.
2060 # No one there that I spoke with seems concerned, or has plans to
2061 # change the local methods of keeping time, as it evidently does not
2062 # really interfere with any activities or make things difficult locally.
2063 # They plan to celebrate New Year's turn-over twice, one hour apart,
2064 # so it appears that the situation will last at least that long.
2065 # The Nunavut Intergovernmental Affairs hopes that they will "come to
2066 # their senses", but the locals evidently don't see any problem with
2067 # the current state of affairs.
2068 
2069 # From Michaela Rodrigue, writing in the
2070 # Nunatsiaq News (1999-11-19):
2071 # http://www.nunatsiaq.com/archives/nunavut991130/nvt91119_17.html
2072 # Clyde River, Pangnirtung and Sanikiluaq now operate with two time zones,
2073 # central - or Nunavut time - for government offices, and eastern time
2074 # for municipal offices and schools....  Igloolik [was similar but then]
2075 # made the switch to central time on Saturday, Nov. 6.
2076 
2077 # From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
2078 # Matthews and Vincent (1998) say the following, but we lack histories
2079 # for these potential new Zones.
2080 #
2081 # The Canadian Forces station at Alert uses Eastern Time while the
2082 # handful of residents at the Eureka weather station [in the Central
2083 # zone] skip daylight savings.  Baffin Island, which is crossed by the
2084 # Central, Eastern and Atlantic Time zones only uses Eastern Time.
2085 # Gjoa Haven, Taloyoak and Pelly Bay all use Mountain instead of
2086 # Central Time and Southampton Island [in the Central zone] is not
2087 # required to use daylight savings.
2088 
2089 # From <http://www.nunatsiaq.com/archives/nunavut001130/nvt21110_02.html>
2090 # Nunavut now has two time zones (2000-11-10):
2091 # The Nunavut government would allow its employees in Kugluktuk and
2092 # Cambridge Bay to operate on central time year-round, putting them
2093 # one hour behind the rest of Nunavut for six months during the winter.
2094 # At the end of October the two communities had rebelled against
2095 # Nunavut's unified time zone, refusing to shift to eastern time with
2096 # the rest of the territory for the winter.  Cambridge Bay remained on
2097 # central time, while Kugluktuk, even farther west, reverted to
2098 # mountain time, which they had used before the advent of Nunavut's
2099 # unified time zone in 1999.
2100 #
2101 # From Rives McDow (2001-01-20), quoting the Nunavut government:
2102 # The preceding decision came into effect at midnight, Saturday Nov 4, 2000.
2103 
2104 # From Paul Eggert (2000-12-04):
2105 # Let's just keep track of the official times for now.
2106 
2107 # From Rives McDow (2001-03-07):
2108 # The premier of Nunavut has issued a ministerial statement advising
2109 # that effective 2001-04-01, the territory of Nunavut will revert
2110 # back to three time zones (mountain, central, and eastern).  Of the
2111 # cities in Nunavut, Coral Harbor is the only one that I know of that
2112 # has said it will not observe dst, staying on EST year round.  I'm
2113 # checking for more info, and will get back to you if I come up with
2114 # more.
2115 # [Also see <http://www.nunatsiaq.com/nunavut/nvt10309_06.html> (2001-03-09).]
2116 
2117 # From Gwillim Law (2005-05-21):
2118 # According to ...
2119 # http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/Magazine/SO98/geomap.asp
2120 # (from a 1998 Canadian Geographic article), the de facto and de jure time
2121 # for Southampton Island (at the north end of Hudson Bay) is UTC-5 all year
2122 # round.  Using Google, it's easy to find other websites that confirm this.
2123 # I wasn't able to find how far back this time regimen goes, but since it
2124 # predates the creation of Nunavut, it probably goes back many years....
2125 # The Inuktitut name of Coral Harbour is Sallit, but it's rarely used.
2126 #
2127 # From Paul Eggert (2014-10-17):
2128 # For lack of better information, assume that Southampton Island observed
2129 # daylight saving only during wartime.  Gwillim Law's email also
2130 # mentioned maps now maintained by National Research Council Canada;
2131 # see above for an up-to-date link.
2132 
2133 # From Chris Walton (2007-03-01):
2134 # ... the community of Resolute (located on Cornwallis Island in
2135 # Nunavut) moved from Central Time to Eastern Time last November.
2136 # Basically the community did not change its clocks at the end of
2137 # daylight saving....
2138 # http://www.nnsl.com/frames/newspapers/2006-11/nov13_06none.html
2139 
2140 # From Chris Walton (2011-03-21):
2141 # Back in 2007 I initiated the creation of a new "zone file" for Resolute
2142 # Bay. Resolute Bay is a small community located about 900km north of
2143 # the Arctic Circle. The zone file was required because Resolute Bay had
2144 # decided to use UTC-5 instead of UTC-6 for the winter of 2006-2007.
2145 #
2146 # According to new information which I received last week, Resolute Bay
2147 # went back to using UTC-6 in the winter of 2007-2008...
2148 #
2149 # On March 11/2007 most of Canada went onto daylight saving. On March
2150 # 14/2007 I phoned the Resolute Bay hamlet office to do a "time check." I
2151 # talked to somebody that was both knowledgeable and helpful. I was able
2152 # to confirm that Resolute Bay was still operating on UTC-5. It was
2153 # explained to me that Resolute Bay had been on the Eastern Time zone
2154 # (EST) in the winter, and was now back on the Central Time zone (CDT).
2155 # i.e. the time zone had changed twice in the last year but the clocks
2156 # had not moved. The residents had to know which time zone they were in
2157 # so they could follow the correct TV schedule...
2158 #
2159 # On Nov 02/2008 most of Canada went onto standard time. On Nov 03/2008 I
2160 # phoned the Resolute Bay hamlet office...[D]ue to the challenging nature
2161 # of the phone call, I decided to seek out an alternate source of
2162 # information. I found an e-mail address for somebody by the name of
2163 # Stephanie Adams whose job was listed as "Inns North Support Officer for
2164 # Arctic Co-operatives." I was under the impression that Stephanie lived
2165 # and worked in Resolute Bay...
2166 #
2167 # On March 14/2011 I phoned the hamlet office again. I was told that
2168 # Resolute Bay had been using Central Standard Time over the winter of
2169 # 2010-2011 and that the clocks had therefore been moved one hour ahead
2170 # on March 13/2011. The person I talked to was aware that Resolute Bay
2171 # had previously experimented with Eastern Standard Time but he could not
2172 # tell me when the practice had stopped.
2173 #
2174 # On March 17/2011 I searched the Web to find an e-mail address of
2175 # somebody that might be able to tell me exactly when Resolute Bay went
2176 # off Eastern Standard Time. I stumbled on the name "Aziz Kheraj." Aziz
2177 # used to be the mayor of Resolute Bay and he apparently owns half the
2178 # businesses including "South Camp Inn." This website has some info on
2179 # Aziz:
2180 # http://www.uphere.ca/node/493
2181 #
2182 # I sent Aziz an e-mail asking when Resolute Bay had stopped using
2183 # Eastern Standard Time.
2184 #
2185 # Aziz responded quickly with this: "hi, The time was not changed for the
2186 # 1 year only, the following year, the community went back to the old way
2187 # of "spring ahead-fall behind" currently we are zulu plus 5 hrs and in
2188 # the winter Zulu plus 6 hrs"
2189 #
2190 # This of course conflicted with everything I had ascertained in November 2008.
2191 #
2192 # I sent Aziz a copy of my 2008 e-mail exchange with Stephanie. Aziz
2193 # responded with this: "Hi, Stephanie lives in Winnipeg. I live here, You
2194 # may want to check with the weather office in Resolute Bay or do a
2195 # search on the weather through Env. Canada. web site"
2196 #
2197 # If I had realized the Stephanie did not live in Resolute Bay I would
2198 # never have contacted her.  I now believe that all the information I
2199 # obtained in November 2008 should be ignored...
2200 # I apologize for reporting incorrect information in 2008.
2201 
2202 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2203 Rule    NT_YK   1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D
2204 Rule    NT_YK   1918    only    -       Oct     27      2:00    0       S
2205 Rule    NT_YK   1919    only    -       May     25      2:00    1:00    D
2206 Rule    NT_YK   1919    only    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       S
2207 Rule    NT_YK   1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War
2208 Rule    NT_YK   1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace
2209 Rule    NT_YK   1945    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S
2210 Rule    NT_YK   1965    only    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    2:00    DD
2211 Rule    NT_YK   1965    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
2212 Rule    NT_YK   1980    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
2213 Rule    NT_YK   1980    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
2214 Rule    NT_YK   1987    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
2215 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2216 # aka Panniqtuuq
2217 Zone America/Pangnirtung 0      -       zzz     1921 # trading post est.
2218                         -4:00   NT_YK   A%sT    1995 Apr Sun>=1  2:00
2219                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1999 Oct 31  2:00
2220                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT    2000 Oct 29  2:00
2221                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT
2222 # formerly Frobisher Bay
2223 Zone America/Iqaluit    0       -       zzz     1942 Aug # Frobisher Bay est.
2224                         -5:00   NT_YK   E%sT    1999 Oct 31  2:00
2225                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT    2000 Oct 29  2:00
2226                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT
2227 # aka Qausuittuq
2228 Zone America/Resolute   0       -       zzz     1947 Aug 31 # Resolute founded
2229                         -6:00   NT_YK   C%sT    2000 Oct 29  2:00
2230                         -5:00   -       EST     2001 Apr  1  3:00
2231                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT    2006 Oct 29  2:00
2232                         -5:00   -       EST     2007 Mar 11  3:00
2233                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT
2234 # aka Kangiqiniq
2235 Zone America/Rankin_Inlet 0     -       zzz     1957 # Rankin Inlet founded
2236                         -6:00   NT_YK   C%sT    2000 Oct 29  2:00
2237                         -5:00   -       EST     2001 Apr  1  3:00
2238                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT
2239 # aka Iqaluktuuttiaq
2240 Zone America/Cambridge_Bay 0    -       zzz     1920 # trading post est.?
2241                         -7:00   NT_YK   M%sT    1999 Oct 31  2:00
2242                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT    2000 Oct 29  2:00
2243                         -5:00   -       EST     2000 Nov  5  0:00
2244                         -6:00   -       CST     2001 Apr  1  3:00
2245                         -7:00   Canada  M%sT
2246 Zone America/Yellowknife 0      -       zzz     1935 # Yellowknife founded?
2247                         -7:00   NT_YK   M%sT    1980
2248                         -7:00   Canada  M%sT
2249 Zone America/Inuvik     0       -       zzz     1953 # Inuvik founded
2250                         -8:00   NT_YK   P%sT    1979 Apr lastSun  2:00
2251                         -7:00   NT_YK   M%sT    1980
2252                         -7:00   Canada  M%sT
2253 Zone America/Whitehorse -9:00:12 -      LMT     1900 Aug 20
2254                         -9:00   NT_YK   Y%sT    1967 May 28  0:00
2255                         -8:00   NT_YK   P%sT    1980
2256                         -8:00   Canada  P%sT
2257 Zone America/Dawson     -9:17:40 -      LMT     1900 Aug 20
2258                         -9:00   NT_YK   Y%sT    1973 Oct 28  0:00
2259                         -8:00   NT_YK   P%sT    1980
2260                         -8:00   Canada  P%sT
2261 
2262 
2263 ###############################################################################
2264 
2265 # Mexico
2266 
2267 # From Paul Eggert (2014-12-07):
2268 # The Investigation and Analysis Service of the
2269 # Mexican Library of Congress (MLoC) has published a
2270 # history of Mexican local time (in Spanish)
2271 # http://www.diputados.gob.mx/bibliot/publica/inveyana/polisoc/horver/index.htm
2272 #
2273 # Here are the discrepancies between Shanks & Pottenger (S&P) and the MLoC.
2274 # (In all cases we go with the MLoC.)
2275 # S&P report that Baja was at -8:00 in 1922/1923.
2276 # S&P say the 1930 transition in Baja was 1930-11-16.
2277 # S&P report no DST during summer 1931.
2278 # S&P report a transition at 1932-03-30 23:00, not 1932-04-01.
2279 
2280 # From Gwillim Law (2001-02-20):
2281 # There are some other discrepancies between the Decrees page and the
2282 # tz database.  I think they can best be explained by supposing that
2283 # the researchers who prepared the Decrees page failed to find some of
2284 # the relevant documents.
2285 
2286 # From Alan Perry (1996-02-15):
2287 # A guy from our Mexico subsidiary finally found the Presidential Decree
2288 # outlining the timezone changes in Mexico.
2289 #
2290 # ------------- Begin Forwarded Message -------------
2291 #
2292 # I finally got my hands on the Official Presidential Decree that sets up the
2293 # rules for the DST changes. The rules are:
2294 #
2295 # 1. The country is divided in 3 timezones:
2296 #    - Baja California Norte (the Mexico/BajaNorte TZ)
2297 #    - Baja California Sur, Nayarit, Sinaloa and Sonora (the Mexico/BajaSur TZ)
2298 #    - The rest of the country (the Mexico/General TZ)
2299 #
2300 # 2. From the first Sunday in April at 2:00 AM to the last Sunday in October
2301 #    at 2:00 AM, the times in each zone are as follows:
2302 #    BajaNorte: GMT+7
2303 #    BajaSur:   GMT+6
2304 #    General:   GMT+5
2305 #
2306 # 3. The rest of the year, the times are as follows:
2307 #    BajaNorte: GMT+8
2308 #    BajaSur:   GMT+7
2309 #    General:   GMT+6
2310 #
2311 # The Decree was published in Mexico's Official Newspaper on January 4th.
2312 #
2313 # -------------- End Forwarded Message --------------
2314 # From Paul Eggert (1996-06-12):
2315 # For an English translation of the decree, see
2316 # "Diario Oficial: Time Zone Changeover" (1996-01-04).
2317 # http://mexico-travel.com/extra/timezone_eng.html
2318 
2319 # From Rives McDow (1998-10-08):
2320 # The State of Quintana Roo has reverted back to central STD and DST times
2321 # (i.e. UTC -0600 and -0500 as of 1998-08-02).
2322 
2323 # From Rives McDow (2000-01-10):
2324 # Effective April 4, 1999 at 2:00 AM local time, Sonora changed to the time
2325 # zone 5 hours from the International Date Line, and will not observe daylight
2326 # savings time so as to stay on the same time zone as the southern part of
2327 # Arizona year round.
2328 
2329 # From Jesper Nørgaard, translating
2330 # <http://www.reforma.com/nacional/articulo/064327/> (2001-01-17):
2331 # In Oaxaca, the 55.000 teachers from the Section 22 of the National
2332 # Syndicate of Education Workers, refuse to apply daylight saving each
2333 # year, so that the more than 10,000 schools work at normal hour the
2334 # whole year.
2335 
2336 # From Gwillim Law (2001-01-19):
2337 # <http://www.reforma.com/negocios_y_dinero/articulo/064481/> ... says
2338 # (translated):...
2339 # January 17, 2000 - The Energy Secretary, Ernesto Martens, announced
2340 # that Summer Time will be reduced from seven to five months, starting
2341 # this year....
2342 # http://www.publico.com.mx/scripts/texto3.asp?action=pagina&pag=21&pos=p&secc=naci&date=01/17/2001
2343 # [translated], says "summer time will ... take effect on the first Sunday
2344 # in May, and end on the last Sunday of September.
2345 
2346 # From Arthur David Olson (2001-01-25):
2347 # The 2001-01-24 traditional Washington Post contained the page one
2348 # story "Timely Issue Divides Mexicans."...
2349 # http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A37383-2001Jan23.html
2350 # ... Mexico City Mayor López Obrador "...is threatening to keep
2351 # Mexico City and its 20 million residents on a different time than
2352 # the rest of the country..." In particular, López Obrador would abolish
2353 # observation of Daylight Saving Time.
2354 
2355 # Official statute published by the Energy Department
2356 # http://www.conae.gob.mx/ahorro/decretohorver2001.html#decre
2357 # (2001-02-01) shows Baja and Chihauhua as still using US DST rules,
2358 # and Sonora with no DST.  This was reported by Jesper Nørgaard (2001-02-03).
2359 
2360 # From Paul Eggert (2001-03-03):
2361 #
2362 # http://www.latimes.com/news/nation/20010303/t000018766.html
2363 # James F. Smith writes in today's LA Times
2364 # * Sonora will continue to observe standard time.
2365 # * Last week Mexico City's mayor Andrés Manuel López Obrador decreed that
2366 #   the Federal District will not adopt DST.
2367 # * 4 of 16 district leaders announced they'll ignore the decree.
2368 # * The decree does not affect federal-controlled facilities including
2369 #   the airport, banks, hospitals, and schools.
2370 #
2371 # For now we'll assume that the Federal District will bow to federal rules.
2372 
2373 # From Jesper Nørgaard (2001-04-01):
2374 # I found some references to the Mexican application of daylight
2375 # saving, which modifies what I had already sent you, stating earlier
2376 # that a number of northern Mexican states would go on daylight
2377 # saving. The modification reverts this to only cover Baja California
2378 # (Norte), while all other states (except Sonora, who has no daylight
2379 # saving all year) will follow the original decree of president
2380 # Vicente Fox, starting daylight saving May 6, 2001 and ending
2381 # September 30, 2001.
2382 # References: "Diario de Monterrey" <http://www.diariodemonterrey.com/index.asp>
2383 # Palabra <http://palabra.infosel.com/010331/primera/ppri3101.pdf> (2001-03-31)
2384 
2385 # From Reuters (2001-09-04):
2386 # Mexico's Supreme Court on Tuesday declared that daylight savings was
2387 # unconstitutional in Mexico City, creating the possibility the
2388 # capital will be in a different time zone from the rest of the nation
2389 # next year....  The Supreme Court's ruling takes effect at 2:00
2390 # a.m. (0800 GMT) on Sept. 30, when Mexico is scheduled to revert to
2391 # standard time. "This is so residents of the Federal District are not
2392 # subject to unexpected time changes," a statement from the court said.
2393 
2394 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2002-03-12):
2395 # ... consulting my local grocery store(!) and my coworkers, they all insisted
2396 # that a new decision had been made to reinstate US style DST in Mexico....
2397 # http://www.conae.gob.mx/ahorro/horaver2001_m1_2002.html (2002-02-20)
2398 # confirms this.  Sonora as usual is the only state where DST is not applied.
2399 
2400 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-12-28):
2401 #
2402 # Steffen Thorsen wrote:
2403 # > Mexico's House of Representatives has approved a proposal for northern
2404 # > Mexico's border cities to share the same daylight saving schedule as
2405 # > the United States.
2406 # Now this has passed both the Congress and the Senate, so starting from
2407 # 2010, some border regions will be the same:
2408 # http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/2009/dec/28/clocks-will-match-both-sides-border/
2409 # http://www.elmananarey.com/diario/noticia/nacional/noticias/empatan_horario_de_frontera_con_eu/621939
2410 # (Spanish)
2411 #
2412 # Could not find the new law text, but the proposed law text changes are here:
2413 # http://gaceta.diputados.gob.mx/Gaceta/61/2009/dic/20091210-V.pdf
2414 # (Gaceta Parlamentaria)
2415 #
2416 # There is also a list of the votes here:
2417 # http://gaceta.diputados.gob.mx/Gaceta/61/2009/dic/V2-101209.html
2418 #
2419 # Our page:
2420 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/north-mexico-dst-change.html
2421 
2422 # From Arthur David Olson (2010-01-20):
2423 # The page
2424 # http://dof.gob.mx/nota_detalle.php?codigo=5127480&fecha=06/01/2010
2425 # includes this text:
2426 # En los municipios fronterizos de Tijuana y Mexicali en Baja California;
2427 # Juárez y Ojinaga en Chihuahua; Acuña y Piedras Negras en Coahuila;
2428 # Anáhuac en Nuevo León; y Nuevo Laredo, Reynosa y Matamoros en
2429 # Tamaulipas, la aplicación de este horario estacional surtirá efecto
2430 # desde las dos horas del segundo domingo de marzo y concluirá a las dos
2431 # horas del primer domingo de noviembre.
2432 # En los municipios fronterizos que se encuentren ubicados en la franja
2433 # fronteriza norte en el territorio comprendido entre la línea
2434 # internacional y la línea paralela ubicada a una distancia de veinte
2435 # kilómetros, así como la Ciudad de Ensenada, Baja California, hacia el
2436 # interior del país, la aplicación de este horario estacional surtirá
2437 # efecto desde las dos horas del segundo domingo de marzo y concluirá a
2438 # las dos horas del primer domingo de noviembre.
2439 
2440 # From Steffen Thorsen (2014-12-08), translated by Gwillim Law:
2441 # The Mexican state of Quintana Roo will likely change to EST in 2015.
2442 #
2443 # http://www.unioncancun.mx/articulo/2014/12/04/medio-ambiente/congreso-aprueba-una-hora-mas-de-sol-en-qroo
2444 # "With this change, the time conflict that has existed between the municipios
2445 # of Quintana Roo and the municipio of Felipe Carrillo Puerto may come to an
2446 # end. The latter declared itself in rebellion 15 years ago when a time change
2447 # was initiated in Mexico, and since then it has refused to change its time
2448 # zone along with the rest of the country."
2449 #
2450 # From Steffen Thorsen (2015-01-14), translated by Gwillim Law:
2451 # http://sipse.com/novedades/confirman-aplicacion-de-nueva-zona-horaria-para-quintana-roo-132331.html
2452 # "...the new time zone will come into effect at two o'clock on the first Sunday
2453 # of February, when we will have to advance the clock one hour from its current
2454 # time..."
2455 # Also, the new zone will not use DST.
2456 #
2457 # From Carlos Raúl Perasso (2015-02-02):
2458 # The decree that modifies the Mexican Hour System Law has finally
2459 # been published at the Diario Oficial de la Federación
2460 # http://www.dof.gob.mx/nota_detalle.php?codigo=5380123&fecha=31/01/2015
2461 # It establishes 5 zones for Mexico:
2462 # 1- Zona Centro (Central Zone): Corresponds to longitude 90 W,
2463 #    includes most of Mexico, excluding what's mentioned below.
2464 # 2- Zona Pacífico (Pacific Zone): Longitude 105 W, includes the
2465 #    states of Baja California Sur; Chihuahua; Nayarit (excluding Bahía
2466 #    de Banderas which lies in Central Zone); Sinaloa and Sonora.
2467 # 3- Zona Noroeste (Northwest Zone): Longitude 120 W, includes the
2468 #    state of Baja California.
2469 # 4- Zona Sureste (Southeast Zone): Longitude 75 W, includes the state
2470 #    of Quintana Roo.
2471 # 5- The islands, reefs and keys shall take their timezone from the
2472 #    longitude they are located at.
2473 
2474 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2475 Rule    Mexico  1939    only    -       Feb     5       0:00    1:00    D
2476 Rule    Mexico  1939    only    -       Jun     25      0:00    0       S
2477 Rule    Mexico  1940    only    -       Dec     9       0:00    1:00    D
2478 Rule    Mexico  1941    only    -       Apr     1       0:00    0       S
2479 Rule    Mexico  1943    only    -       Dec     16      0:00    1:00    W # War
2480 Rule    Mexico  1944    only    -       May     1       0:00    0       S
2481 Rule    Mexico  1950    only    -       Feb     12      0:00    1:00    D
2482 Rule    Mexico  1950    only    -       Jul     30      0:00    0       S
2483 Rule    Mexico  1996    2000    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
2484 Rule    Mexico  1996    2000    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
2485 Rule    Mexico  2001    only    -       May     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
2486 Rule    Mexico  2001    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
2487 Rule    Mexico  2002    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
2488 Rule    Mexico  2002    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
2489 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2490 # Quintana Roo; represented by Cancún
2491 Zone America/Cancun     -5:47:04 -      LMT     1922 Jan  1  0:12:56
2492                         -6:00   -       CST     1981 Dec 23
2493                         -5:00   Mexico  E%sT    1998 Aug  2  2:00
2494                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT    2015 Feb  1  2:00
2495                         -5:00   -       EST
2496 # Campeche, Yucatán; represented by Mérida
2497 Zone America/Merida     -5:58:28 -      LMT     1922 Jan  1  0:01:32
2498                         -6:00   -       CST     1981 Dec 23
2499                         -5:00   -       EST     1982 Dec  2
2500                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT
2501 # Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas (near US border)
2502 Zone America/Matamoros  -6:40:00 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:20:00
2503                         -6:00   -       CST     1988
2504                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1989
2505                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT    2010
2506                         -6:00   US      C%sT
2507 # Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas (away from US border)
2508 Zone America/Monterrey  -6:41:16 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:18:44
2509                         -6:00   -       CST     1988
2510                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1989
2511                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT
2512 # Central Mexico
2513 Zone America/Mexico_City -6:36:36 -     LMT     1922 Jan  1  0:23:24
2514                         -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00
2515                         -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15
2516                         -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00
2517                         -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct
2518                         -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1
2519                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT    2001 Sep 30  2:00
2520                         -6:00   -       CST     2002 Feb 20
2521                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT
2522 # Chihuahua (near US border)
2523 Zone America/Ojinaga    -6:57:40 -      LMT     1922 Jan  1  0:02:20
2524                         -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00
2525                         -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15
2526                         -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00
2527                         -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct
2528                         -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1
2529                         -6:00   -       CST     1996
2530                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT    1998
2531                         -6:00   -       CST     1998 Apr Sun>=1  3:00
2532                         -7:00   Mexico  M%sT    2010
2533                         -7:00   US      M%sT
2534 # Chihuahua (away from US border)
2535 Zone America/Chihuahua  -7:04:20 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:55:40
2536                         -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00
2537                         -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15
2538                         -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00
2539                         -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct
2540                         -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1
2541                         -6:00   -       CST     1996
2542                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT    1998
2543                         -6:00   -       CST     1998 Apr Sun>=1  3:00
2544                         -7:00   Mexico  M%sT
2545 # Sonora
2546 Zone America/Hermosillo -7:23:52 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:36:08
2547                         -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00
2548                         -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15
2549                         -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00
2550                         -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct
2551                         -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1
2552                         -6:00   -       CST     1942 Apr 24
2553                         -7:00   -       MST     1949 Jan 14
2554                         -8:00   -       PST     1970
2555                         -7:00   Mexico  M%sT    1999
2556                         -7:00   -       MST
2557 
2558 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-04-21):
2559 # According to news, Bahía de Banderas (Mexican state of Nayarit)
2560 # changed time zone UTC-7 to new time zone UTC-6 on April 4, 2010 (to
2561 # share the same time zone as nearby city Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco).
2562 #
2563 # (Spanish)
2564 # Bahía de Banderas homologa su horario al del centro del
2565 # país, a partir de este domingo
2566 # http://www.nayarit.gob.mx/notes.asp?id=20748
2567 #
2568 # Bahía de Banderas homologa su horario con el del Centro del
2569 # País
2570 # http://www.bahiadebanderas.gob.mx/principal/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=261:bahia-de-banderas-homologa-su-horario-con-el-del-centro-del-pais&catid=42:comunicacion-social&Itemid=50
2571 #
2572 # (English)
2573 # Puerto Vallarta and Bahía de Banderas: One Time Zone
2574 # http://virtualvallarta.com/puertovallarta/puertovallarta/localnews/2009-12-03-Puerto-Vallarta-and-Bahia-de-Banderas-One-Time-Zone.shtml
2575 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_mexico08.html
2576 #
2577 # "Mexico's Senate approved the amendments to the Mexican Schedule System that
2578 # will allow Bahía de Banderas and Puerto Vallarta to share the same time
2579 # zone ..."
2580 # Baja California Sur, Nayarit, Sinaloa
2581 
2582 # From Arthur David Olson (2010-05-01):
2583 # Use "Bahia_Banderas" to keep the name to fourteen characters.
2584 
2585 # Mazatlán
2586 Zone America/Mazatlan   -7:05:40 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:54:20
2587                         -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00
2588                         -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15
2589                         -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00
2590                         -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct
2591                         -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1
2592                         -6:00   -       CST     1942 Apr 24
2593                         -7:00   -       MST     1949 Jan 14
2594                         -8:00   -       PST     1970
2595                         -7:00   Mexico  M%sT
2596 
2597 # Bahía de Banderas
2598 Zone America/Bahia_Banderas     -7:01:00 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:59:00
2599                         -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00
2600                         -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15
2601                         -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00
2602                         -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct
2603                         -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1
2604                         -6:00   -       CST     1942 Apr 24
2605                         -7:00   -       MST     1949 Jan 14
2606                         -8:00   -       PST     1970
2607                         -7:00   Mexico  M%sT    2010 Apr  4  2:00
2608                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT
2609 
2610 # Baja California (near US border)
2611 Zone America/Tijuana    -7:48:04 -      LMT     1922 Jan  1  0:11:56
2612                         -7:00   -       MST     1924
2613                         -8:00   -       PST     1927 Jun 10 23:00
2614                         -7:00   -       MST     1930 Nov 15
2615                         -8:00   -       PST     1931 Apr  1
2616                         -8:00   1:00    PDT     1931 Sep 30
2617                         -8:00   -       PST     1942 Apr 24
2618                         -8:00   1:00    PWT     1945 Aug 14 23:00u
2619                         -8:00   1:00    PPT     1945 Nov 12 # Peace
2620                         -8:00   -       PST     1948 Apr  5
2621                         -8:00   1:00    PDT     1949 Jan 14
2622                         -8:00   -       PST     1954
2623                         -8:00   CA      P%sT    1961
2624                         -8:00   -       PST     1976
2625                         -8:00   US      P%sT    1996
2626                         -8:00   Mexico  P%sT    2001
2627                         -8:00   US      P%sT    2002 Feb 20
2628                         -8:00   Mexico  P%sT    2010
2629                         -8:00   US      P%sT



















2630 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
2631 # Formerly there was an America/Ensenada zone, which differed from
2632 # America/Tijuana only in that it did not observe DST from 1976
2633 # through 1995.  This was as per Shanks (1999).  But Shanks & Pottenger say
2634 # Ensenada did not observe DST from 1948 through 1975.  Guy Harris reports
2635 # that the 1987 OAG says "Only Ensenada, Mexicali, San Felipe and
2636 # Tijuana observe DST," which agrees with Shanks & Pottenger but implies that
2637 # DST-observance was a town-by-town matter back then.  This concerns
2638 # data after 1970 so most likely there should be at least one Zone
2639 # other than America/Tijuana for Baja, but it's not clear yet what its
2640 # name or contents should be.
2641 #
2642 # From Paul Eggert (2015-10-08):
2643 # Formerly there was an America/Santa_Isabel zone, but this appears to
2644 # have come from a misreading of
2645 # http://dof.gob.mx/nota_detalle.php?codigo=5127480&fecha=06/01/2010
2646 # It has been moved to the 'backward' file.
2647 #
2648 #
2649 # Revillagigedo Is
2650 # no information
2651 
2652 ###############################################################################
2653 
2654 # Anguilla
2655 # Antigua and Barbuda
2656 # See America/Port_of_Spain.
2657 
2658 # Bahamas
2659 #
2660 # For 1899 Milne gives -5:09:29.5; round that.
2661 #
2662 # From Sue Williams (2006-12-07):
2663 # The Bahamas announced about a month ago that they plan to change their DST
2664 # rules to sync with the U.S. starting in 2007....
2665 # http://www.jonesbahamas.com/?c=45&a=10412
2666 
2667 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2668 Rule    Bahamas 1964    1975    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
2669 Rule    Bahamas 1964    1975    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
2670 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2671 Zone    America/Nassau  -5:09:30 -      LMT     1912 Mar 2
2672                         -5:00   Bahamas E%sT    1976
2673                         -5:00   US      E%sT
2674 
2675 # Barbados
2676 
2677 # For 1899 Milne gives -3:58:29.2; round that.
2678 
2679 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2680 Rule    Barb    1977    only    -       Jun     12      2:00    1:00    D
2681 Rule    Barb    1977    1978    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
2682 Rule    Barb    1978    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=15      2:00    1:00    D
2683 Rule    Barb    1979    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S
2684 Rule    Barb    1980    only    -       Sep     25      2:00    0       S
2685 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2686 Zone America/Barbados   -3:58:29 -      LMT     1924 # Bridgetown
2687                         -3:58:29 -      BMT     1932 # Bridgetown Mean Time
2688                         -4:00   Barb    A%sT
2689 
2690 # Belize
2691 # Whitman entirely disagrees with Shanks; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2692 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2693 Rule    Belize  1918    1942    -       Oct     Sun>=2       0:00    0:30    HD
2694 Rule    Belize  1919    1943    -       Feb     Sun>=9       0:00    0       S
2695 Rule    Belize  1973    only    -       Dec      5      0:00    1:00    D
2696 Rule    Belize  1974    only    -       Feb      9      0:00    0       S
2697 Rule    Belize  1982    only    -       Dec     18      0:00    1:00    D
2698 Rule    Belize  1983    only    -       Feb     12      0:00    0       S
2699 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2700 Zone    America/Belize  -5:52:48 -      LMT     1912 Apr
2701                         -6:00   Belize  C%sT
2702 
2703 # Bermuda
2704 
2705 # For 1899 Milne gives -4:19:18.3 as the meridian of the clock tower,
2706 # Bermuda dockyard, Ireland I; round that.
2707 
2708 # From Dan Jones, reporting in The Royal Gazette (2006-06-26):
2709 
2710 # Next year, however, clocks in the US will go forward on the second Sunday
2711 # in March, until the first Sunday in November.  And, after the Time Zone
2712 # (Seasonal Variation) Bill 2006 was passed in the House of Assembly on
2713 # Friday, the same thing will happen in Bermuda.
2714 # http://www.theroyalgazette.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060529/NEWS/105290135
2715 
2716 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2717 Zone Atlantic/Bermuda   -4:19:18 -      LMT     1930 Jan  1  2:00 # Hamilton
2718                         -4:00   -       AST     1974 Apr 28  2:00
2719                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1976
2720                         -4:00   US      A%sT
2721 
2722 # Cayman Is
2723 # See America/Panama.










2724 
2725 # Costa Rica
2726 
2727 # Milne gives -5:36:13.3 as San José mean time; round to nearest.
2728 
2729 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2730 Rule    CR      1979    1980    -       Feb     lastSun 0:00    1:00    D
2731 Rule    CR      1979    1980    -       Jun     Sun>=1       0:00    0       S
2732 Rule    CR      1991    1992    -       Jan     Sat>=15      0:00    1:00    D
2733 # IATA SSIM (1991-09) says the following was at 1:00;
2734 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2735 Rule    CR      1991    only    -       Jul      1      0:00    0       S
2736 Rule    CR      1992    only    -       Mar     15      0:00    0       S
2737 # There are too many San Josés elsewhere, so we'll use 'Costa Rica'.
2738 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2739 Zone America/Costa_Rica -5:36:13 -      LMT     1890        # San José
2740                         -5:36:13 -      SJMT    1921 Jan 15 # San José Mean Time
2741                         -6:00   CR      C%sT
2742 # Coco
2743 # no information; probably like America/Costa_Rica
2744 
2745 # Cuba
2746 
2747 # From Paul Eggert (2013-02-21):
2748 # Milne gives -5:28:50.45 for the observatory at Havana, -5:29:23.57
2749 # for the port, and -5:30 for meteorological observations.
2750 # For now, stick with Shanks & Pottenger.
2751 
2752 # From Arthur David Olson (1999-03-29):
2753 # The 1999-03-28 exhibition baseball game held in Havana, Cuba, between
2754 # the Cuban National Team and the Baltimore Orioles was carried live on
2755 # the Orioles Radio Network, including affiliate WTOP in Washington, DC.
2756 # During the game, play-by-play announcer Jim Hunter noted that
2757 # "We'll be losing two hours of sleep...Cuba switched to Daylight Saving
2758 # Time today."  (The "two hour" remark referred to losing one hour of
2759 # sleep on 1999-03-28 - when the announcers were in Cuba as it switched
2760 # to DST - and one more hour on 1999-04-04 - when the announcers will have
2761 # returned to Baltimore, which switches on that date.)
2762 
2763 # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-11-11):
2764 # DST start in Cuba in 2004 ... does not follow the same rules as the
2765 # years before.  The correct date should be Sunday 2004-03-28 00:00 ...
2766 # https://web.archive.org/web/20040402060750/http://www.granma.cu/espanol/2004/marzo/sab27/reloj.html
2767 
2768 # From Evert van der Veer via Steffen Thorsen (2004-10-28):
2769 # Cuba is not going back to standard time this year.
2770 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
2771 # http://www.granma.cu/ingles/2004/septiembre/juev30/41medid-i.html
2772 # says that it's due to a problem at the Antonio Guiteras
2773 # thermoelectric plant, and says "This October there will be no return
2774 # to normal hours (after daylight saving time)".
2775 # For now, let's assume that it's a temporary measure.
2776 
2777 # From Carlos A. Carnero Delgado (2005-11-12):
2778 # This year (just like in 2004-2005) there's no change in time zone
2779 # adjustment in Cuba.  We will stay in daylight saving time:
2780 # http://www.granma.cu/espanol/2005/noviembre/mier9/horario.html
2781 
2782 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-10-21):
2783 # An article in GRANMA INTERNACIONAL claims that Cuba will end
2784 # the 3 years of permanent DST next weekend, see
2785 # http://www.granma.cu/ingles/2006/octubre/lun16/43horario.html
2786 # "On Saturday night, October 28 going into Sunday, October 29, at 01:00,
2787 # watches should be set back one hour - going back to 00:00 hours - returning
2788 # to the normal schedule....
2789 
2790 # From Paul Eggert (2007-03-02):
2791 # <http://www.granma.cubaweb.cu/english/news/art89.html>, dated yesterday,
2792 # says Cuban clocks will advance at midnight on March 10.
2793 # For lack of better information, assume Cuba will use US rules,
2794 # except that it switches at midnight standard time as usual.
2795 #
2796 # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-10-25):
2797 # Carlos Alberto Fonseca Arauz informed me that Cuba will end DST one week
2798 # earlier - on the last Sunday of October, just like in 2006.
2799 #
2800 # He supplied these references:
2801 #
2802 # http://www.prensalatina.com.mx/article.asp?ID=%7B4CC32C1B-A9F7-42FB-8A07-8631AFC923AF%7D&language=ES
2803 # http://actualidad.terra.es/sociedad/articulo/cuba_llama_ahorrar_energia_cambio_1957044.htm
2804 #
2805 # From Alex Krivenyshev (2007-10-25):
2806 # Here is also article from Granma (Cuba):
2807 #
2808 # Regirá el Horario Normal desde el próximo domingo 28 de octubre
2809 # http://www.granma.cubaweb.cu/2007/10/24/nacional/artic07.html
2810 #
2811 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_cuba03.html
2812 
2813 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-09):
2814 # I'm in Maryland which is now observing United States Eastern Daylight
2815 # Time. At 9:44 local time I used RealPlayer to listen to
2816 # http://media.enet.cu/radioreloj
2817 # a Cuban information station, and heard
2818 # the time announced as "ocho cuarenta y cuatro" ("eight forty-four"),
2819 # indicating that Cuba is still on standard time.
2820 
2821 # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-03-12):
2822 # It seems that Cuba will start DST on Sunday, 2007-03-16...
2823 # It was announced yesterday, according to this source (in Spanish):
2824 # http://www.nnc.cubaweb.cu/marzo-2008/cien-1-11-3-08.htm
2825 #
2826 # Some more background information is posted here:
2827 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-starts-dst-march-16.html
2828 #
2829 # The article also says that Cuba has been observing DST since 1963,
2830 # while Shanks (and tzdata) has 1965 as the first date (except in the
2831 # 1940's). Many other web pages in Cuba also claim that it has been
2832 # observed since 1963, but with the exception of 1970 - an exception
2833 # which is not present in tzdata/Shanks. So there is a chance we need to
2834 # change some historic records as well.
2835 #
2836 # One example:
2837 # http://www.radiohc.cu/espanol/noticias/mar07/11mar/hor.htm
2838 
2839 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2008-03-13):
2840 # The Cuban time change has just been confirmed on the most authoritative
2841 # web site, the Granma.  Please check out
2842 # http://www.granma.cubaweb.cu/2008/03/13/nacional/artic10.html
2843 #
2844 # Basically as expected after Steffen Thorsen's information, the change
2845 # will take place midnight between Saturday and Sunday.
2846 
2847 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-12):
2848 # Assume Sun>=15 (third Sunday) going forward.
2849 
2850 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-04)
2851 # According to the Radio Reloj - Cuba will start Daylight Saving Time on
2852 # midnight between Saturday, March 07, 2009 and Sunday, March 08, 2009-
2853 # not on midnight March 14 / March 15 as previously thought.
2854 #
2855 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_cuba05.html
2856 # (in Spanish)
2857 
2858 # From Arthur David Olson (2009-03-09)
2859 # I listened over the Internet to
2860 # http://media.enet.cu/readioreloj
2861 # this morning; when it was 10:05 a. m. here in Bethesda, Maryland the
2862 # the time was announced as "diez cinco" - the same time as here, indicating
2863 # that has indeed switched to DST. Assume second Sunday from 2009 forward.
2864 
2865 # From Steffen Thorsen (2011-03-08):
2866 # Granma announced that Cuba is going to start DST on 2011-03-20 00:00:00
2867 # this year. Nothing about the end date known so far (if that has
2868 # changed at all).
2869 #
2870 # Source:
2871 # http://granma.co.cu/2011/03/08/nacional/artic01.html
2872 #
2873 # Our info:
2874 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-starts-dst-2011.html
2875 #
2876 # From Steffen Thorsen (2011-10-30)
2877 # Cuba will end DST two weeks later this year. Instead of going back
2878 # tonight, it has been delayed to 2011-11-13 at 01:00.
2879 #
2880 # One source (Spanish)
2881 # http://www.radioangulo.cu/noticias/cuba/17105-cuba-restablecera-el-horario-del-meridiano-de-greenwich.html
2882 #
2883 # Our page:
2884 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-time-changes-2011.html
2885 #
2886 # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-01)
2887 # According to Radio Reloj, Cuba will start DST on Midnight between March
2888 # 31 and April 1.
2889 #
2890 # Radio Reloj has the following info (Spanish):
2891 # http://www.radioreloj.cu/index.php/noticias-radio-reloj/71-miscelaneas/7529-cuba-aplicara-el-horario-de-verano-desde-el-1-de-abril
2892 #
2893 # Our info on it:
2894 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-starts-dst-2012.html
2895 
2896 # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-11-03):
2897 # Radio Reloj and many other sources report that Cuba is changing back
2898 # to standard time on 2012-11-04:
2899 # http://www.radioreloj.cu/index.php/noticias-radio-reloj/36-nacionales/9961-regira-horario-normal-en-cuba-desde-el-domingo-cuatro-de-noviembre
2900 # From Paul Eggert (2012-11-03):
2901 # For now, assume the future rule is first Sunday in November.
2902 
2903 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2904 Rule    Cuba    1928    only    -       Jun     10      0:00    1:00    D
2905 Rule    Cuba    1928    only    -       Oct     10      0:00    0       S
2906 Rule    Cuba    1940    1942    -       Jun     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
2907 Rule    Cuba    1940    1942    -       Sep     Sun>=1       0:00    0       S
2908 Rule    Cuba    1945    1946    -       Jun     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
2909 Rule    Cuba    1945    1946    -       Sep     Sun>=1       0:00    0       S
2910 Rule    Cuba    1965    only    -       Jun     1       0:00    1:00    D
2911 Rule    Cuba    1965    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       S
2912 Rule    Cuba    1966    only    -       May     29      0:00    1:00    D
2913 Rule    Cuba    1966    only    -       Oct     2       0:00    0       S
2914 Rule    Cuba    1967    only    -       Apr     8       0:00    1:00    D
2915 Rule    Cuba    1967    1968    -       Sep     Sun>=8       0:00    0       S
2916 Rule    Cuba    1968    only    -       Apr     14      0:00    1:00    D
2917 Rule    Cuba    1969    1977    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    1:00    D
2918 Rule    Cuba    1969    1971    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       S
2919 Rule    Cuba    1972    1974    -       Oct     8       0:00    0       S
2920 Rule    Cuba    1975    1977    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       S
2921 Rule    Cuba    1978    only    -       May     7       0:00    1:00    D
2922 Rule    Cuba    1978    1990    -       Oct     Sun>=8       0:00    0       S
2923 Rule    Cuba    1979    1980    -       Mar     Sun>=15      0:00    1:00    D
2924 Rule    Cuba    1981    1985    -       May     Sun>=5       0:00    1:00    D
2925 Rule    Cuba    1986    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=14      0:00    1:00    D
2926 Rule    Cuba    1990    1997    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
2927 Rule    Cuba    1991    1995    -       Oct     Sun>=8       0:00s   0       S
2928 Rule    Cuba    1996    only    -       Oct      6      0:00s   0       S
2929 Rule    Cuba    1997    only    -       Oct     12      0:00s   0       S
2930 Rule    Cuba    1998    1999    -       Mar     lastSun 0:00s   1:00    D
2931 Rule    Cuba    1998    2003    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00s   0       S
2932 Rule    Cuba    2000    2003    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:00s   1:00    D
2933 Rule    Cuba    2004    only    -       Mar     lastSun 0:00s   1:00    D
2934 Rule    Cuba    2006    2010    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00s   0       S
2935 Rule    Cuba    2007    only    -       Mar     Sun>=8       0:00s   1:00    D
2936 Rule    Cuba    2008    only    -       Mar     Sun>=15      0:00s   1:00    D
2937 Rule    Cuba    2009    2010    -       Mar     Sun>=8       0:00s   1:00    D
2938 Rule    Cuba    2011    only    -       Mar     Sun>=15      0:00s   1:00    D
2939 Rule    Cuba    2011    only    -       Nov     13      0:00s   0       S
2940 Rule    Cuba    2012    only    -       Apr     1       0:00s   1:00    D
2941 Rule    Cuba    2012    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1       0:00s   0       S
2942 Rule    Cuba    2013    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8       0:00s   1:00    D
2943 
2944 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2945 Zone    America/Havana  -5:29:28 -      LMT     1890
2946                         -5:29:36 -      HMT     1925 Jul 19 12:00 # Havana MT
2947                         -5:00   Cuba    C%sT
2948 
2949 # Dominica
2950 # See America/Port_of_Spain.
2951 
2952 # Dominican Republic
2953 
2954 # From Steffen Thorsen (2000-10-30):
2955 # Enrique Morales reported to me that the Dominican Republic has changed the
2956 # time zone to Eastern Standard Time as of Sunday 29 at 2 am....
2957 # http://www.listin.com.do/antes/261000/republica/princi.html
2958 
2959 # From Paul Eggert (2000-12-04):
2960 # That URL (2000-10-26, in Spanish) says they planned to use US-style DST.
2961 
2962 # From Rives McDow (2000-12-01):
2963 # Dominican Republic changed its mind and presidential decree on Tuesday,
2964 # November 28, 2000, with a new decree.  On Sunday, December 3 at 1:00 AM the
2965 # Dominican Republic will be reverting to 8 hours from the International Date
2966 # Line, and will not be using DST in the foreseeable future.  The reason they
2967 # decided to use DST was to be in synch with Puerto Rico, who was also going
2968 # to implement DST.  When Puerto Rico didn't implement DST, the president
2969 # decided to revert.
2970 
2971 
2972 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2973 Rule    DR      1966    only    -       Oct     30      0:00    1:00    D
2974 Rule    DR      1967    only    -       Feb     28      0:00    0       S
2975 Rule    DR      1969    1973    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0:30    HD
2976 Rule    DR      1970    only    -       Feb     21      0:00    0       S
2977 Rule    DR      1971    only    -       Jan     20      0:00    0       S
2978 Rule    DR      1972    1974    -       Jan     21      0:00    0       S
2979 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2980 Zone America/Santo_Domingo -4:39:36 -   LMT     1890
2981                         -4:40   -       SDMT    1933 Apr  1 12:00 # S. Dom. MT
2982                         -5:00   DR      E%sT    1974 Oct 27
2983                         -4:00   -       AST     2000 Oct 29  2:00
2984                         -5:00   US      E%sT    2000 Dec  3  1:00
2985                         -4:00   -       AST
2986 
2987 # El Salvador
2988 
2989 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2990 Rule    Salv    1987    1988    -       May     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
2991 Rule    Salv    1987    1988    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       S
2992 # There are too many San Salvadors elsewhere, so use America/El_Salvador
2993 # instead of America/San_Salvador.
2994 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2995 Zone America/El_Salvador -5:56:48 -     LMT     1921 # San Salvador
2996                         -6:00   Salv    C%sT
2997 
2998 # Grenada
2999 # Guadeloupe
3000 # St Barthélemy
3001 # St Martin (French part)
3002 # See America/Port_of_Spain.
3003 
3004 # Guatemala
3005 #
3006 # From Gwillim Law (2006-04-22), after a heads-up from Oscar van Vlijmen:
3007 # Diario Co Latino, at
3008 # <http://www.diariocolatino.com/internacionales/detalles.asp?NewsID=8079>,
3009 # says in an article dated 2006-04-19 that the Guatemalan government had
3010 # decided on that date to advance official time by 60 minutes, to lessen the
3011 # impact of the elevated cost of oil....  Daylight saving time will last from
3012 # 2006-04-29 24:00 (Guatemalan standard time) to 2006-09-30 (time unspecified).
3013 # From Paul Eggert (2006-06-22):
3014 # The Ministry of Energy and Mines, press release CP-15/2006
3015 # (2006-04-19), says DST ends at 24:00.  See
3016 # http://www.sieca.org.gt/Sitio_publico/Energeticos/Doc/Medidas/Cambio_Horario_Nac_190406.pdf
3017 
3018 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3019 Rule    Guat    1973    only    -       Nov     25      0:00    1:00    D
3020 Rule    Guat    1974    only    -       Feb     24      0:00    0       S
3021 Rule    Guat    1983    only    -       May     21      0:00    1:00    D
3022 Rule    Guat    1983    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
3023 Rule    Guat    1991    only    -       Mar     23      0:00    1:00    D
3024 Rule    Guat    1991    only    -       Sep      7      0:00    0       S
3025 Rule    Guat    2006    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    D
3026 Rule    Guat    2006    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       S
3027 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3028 Zone America/Guatemala  -6:02:04 -      LMT     1918 Oct 5
3029                         -6:00   Guat    C%sT
3030 
3031 # Haiti
3032 # From Gwillim Law (2005-04-15):
3033 # Risto O. Nykänen wrote me that Haiti is now on DST.
3034 # I searched for confirmation, and I found a press release
3035 # on the Web page of the Haitian Consulate in Chicago (2005-03-31),
3036 # <http://www.haitianconsulate.org/time.doc>.  Translated from French, it says:
3037 #
3038 #  "The Prime Minister's Communication Office notifies the public in general
3039 #   and the press in particular that, following a decision of the Interior
3040 #   Ministry and the Territorial Collectivities [I suppose that means the
3041 #   provinces], Haiti will move to Eastern Daylight Time in the night from next
3042 #   Saturday the 2nd to Sunday the 3rd.
3043 #
3044 #  "Consequently, the Prime Minister's Communication Office wishes to inform
3045 #   the population that the country's clocks will be set forward one hour
3046 #   starting at midnight.  This provision will hold until the last Saturday in
3047 #   October 2005.
3048 #
3049 #  "Port-au-Prince, March 31, 2005"
3050 #
3051 # From Steffen Thorsen (2006-04-04):
3052 # I have been informed by users that Haiti observes DST this year like
3053 # last year, so the current "only" rule for 2005 might be changed to a
3054 # "max" rule or to last until 2006. (Who knows if they will observe DST
3055 # next year or if they will extend their DST like US/Canada next year).
3056 #
3057 # I have found this article about it (in French):
3058 # http://www.haitipressnetwork.com/news.cfm?articleID=7612
3059 #
3060 # The reason seems to be an energy crisis.
3061 
3062 # From Stephen Colebourne (2007-02-22):
3063 # Some IATA info: Haiti won't be having DST in 2007.
3064 
3065 # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-11):
3066 # According to several news sources, Haiti will observe DST this year,
3067 # apparently using the same start and end date as USA/Canada.
3068 # So this means they have already changed their time.
3069 #
3070 # http://www.alterpresse.org/spip.php?article12510
3071 # http://radiovision2000haiti.net/home/?p=13253
3072 #
3073 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-11):
3074 # The alterpresse.org source seems to show a US-style leap from 2:00 a.m. to
3075 # 3:00 a.m. rather than the traditional Haitian jump at midnight.
3076 # Assume a US-style fall back as well.
3077 
3078 # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-03-10):
3079 # It appears that Haiti is observing DST this year as well, same rules
3080 # as US/Canada.  They did it last year as well, and it looks like they
3081 # are going to observe DST every year now...
3082 #
3083 # http://radiovision2000haiti.net/public/haiti-avis-changement-dheure-dimanche/
3084 # http://www.canalplushaiti.net/?p=6714
3085 
3086 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3087 Rule    Haiti   1983    only    -       May     8       0:00    1:00    D
3088 Rule    Haiti   1984    1987    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    1:00    D
3089 Rule    Haiti   1983    1987    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       S
3090 # Shanks & Pottenger say AT is 2:00, but IATA SSIM (1991/1997) says 1:00s.
3091 # Go with IATA.
3092 Rule    Haiti   1988    1997    -       Apr     Sun>=1       1:00s   1:00    D
3093 Rule    Haiti   1988    1997    -       Oct     lastSun 1:00s   0       S
3094 Rule    Haiti   2005    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
3095 Rule    Haiti   2005    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       S
3096 Rule    Haiti   2012    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
3097 Rule    Haiti   2012    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
3098 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3099 Zone America/Port-au-Prince -4:49:20 -  LMT     1890
3100                         -4:49   -       PPMT    1917 Jan 24 12:00 # P-a-P MT
3101                         -5:00   Haiti   E%sT
3102 
3103 # Honduras
3104 # Shanks & Pottenger say 1921 Jan 1; go with Whitman's more precise Apr 1.
3105 
3106 # From Paul Eggert (2006-05-05):
3107 # worldtimezone.com reports a 2006-05-02 Spanish-language AP article
3108 # saying Honduras will start using DST midnight Saturday, effective 4
3109 # months until September.  La Tribuna reported today
3110 # <http://www.latribuna.hn/99299.html> that Manuel Zelaya, the president
3111 # of Honduras, refused to back down on this.
3112 
3113 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-08-08):
3114 # It seems that Honduras has returned from DST to standard time this Monday at
3115 # 00:00 hours (prolonging Sunday to 25 hours duration).
3116 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_honduras04.html
3117 
3118 # From Paul Eggert (2006-08-08):
3119 # Also see Diario El Heraldo, The country returns to standard time (2006-08-08).
3120 # http://www.elheraldo.hn/nota.php?nid=54941&sec=12
3121 # It mentions executive decree 18-2006.
3122 
3123 # From Steffen Thorsen (2006-08-17):
3124 # Honduras will observe DST from 2007 to 2009, exact dates are not
3125 # published, I have located this authoritative source:
3126 # http://www.presidencia.gob.hn/noticia.aspx?nId=47
3127 
3128 # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-03-30):
3129 # http://www.laprensahn.com/pais_nota.php?id04962=7386
3130 # So it seems that Honduras will not enter DST this year....
3131 
3132 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3133 Rule    Hond    1987    1988    -       May     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
3134 Rule    Hond    1987    1988    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       S
3135 Rule    Hond    2006    only    -       May     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
3136 Rule    Hond    2006    only    -       Aug     Mon>=1       0:00    0       S
3137 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3138 Zone America/Tegucigalpa -5:48:52 -     LMT     1921 Apr
3139                         -6:00   Hond    C%sT
3140 #
3141 # Great Swan I ceded by US to Honduras in 1972
3142 
3143 # Jamaica
3144 # Shanks & Pottenger give -5:07:12, but Milne records -5:07:10.41 from an
3145 # unspecified official document, and says "This time is used throughout the
3146 # island".  Go with Milne.  Round to the nearest second as required by zic.
3147 #
3148 # Shanks & Pottenger give April 28 for the 1974 spring-forward transition, but
3149 # Lance Neita writes that Prime Minister Michael Manley decreed it January 5.
3150 # Assume Neita meant Jan 6 02:00, the same as the US.  Neita also writes that
3151 # Manley's supporters associated this act with Manley's nickname "Joshua"
3152 # (recall that in the Bible the sun stood still at Joshua's request),
3153 # and with the Rod of Correction which Manley said he had received from
3154 # Haile Selassie, Emperor of Ethiopia.  See:
3155 # Neita L. The politician in all of us. Jamaica Observer 2014-09-20
3156 # http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/columns/The-politician-in-all-of-us_17573647
3157 #
3158 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3159 Zone    America/Jamaica -5:07:11 -      LMT     1890        # Kingston
3160                         -5:07:11 -      KMT     1912 Feb    # Kingston Mean Time
3161                         -5:00   -       EST     1974
3162                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1984
3163                         -5:00   -       EST
3164 
3165 # Martinique
3166 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3167 Zone America/Martinique -4:04:20 -      LMT     1890        # Fort-de-France
3168                         -4:04:20 -      FFMT    1911 May    # Fort-de-France MT
3169                         -4:00   -       AST     1980 Apr  6
3170                         -4:00   1:00    ADT     1980 Sep 28
3171                         -4:00   -       AST
3172 
3173 # Montserrat
3174 # See America/Port_of_Spain.
3175 
3176 # Nicaragua
3177 #
3178 # This uses Shanks & Pottenger for times before 2005.
3179 #
3180 # From Steffen Thorsen (2005-04-12):
3181 # I've got reports from 8 different people that Nicaragua just started
3182 # DST on Sunday 2005-04-10, in order to save energy because of
3183 # expensive petroleum.  The exact end date for DST is not yet
3184 # announced, only "September" but some sites also say "mid-September".
3185 # Some background information is available on the President's official site:
3186 # http://www.presidencia.gob.ni/Presidencia/Files_index/Secretaria/Notas%20de%20Prensa/Presidente/2005/ABRIL/Gobierno-de-nicaragua-adelanta-hora-oficial-06abril.htm
3187 # The Decree, no 23-2005 is available here:
3188 # http://www.presidencia.gob.ni/buscador_gaceta/BD/DECRETOS/2005/Decreto%2023-2005%20Se%20adelanta%20en%20una%20hora%20en%20todo%20el%20territorio%20nacional%20apartir%20de%20las%2024horas%20del%2009%20de%20Abril.pdf
3189 #
3190 # From Paul Eggert (2005-05-01):
3191 # The decree doesn't say anything about daylight saving, but for now let's
3192 # assume that it is daylight saving....
3193 #
3194 # From Gwillim Law (2005-04-21):
3195 # The Associated Press story on the time change, which can be found at
3196 # http://www.lapalmainteractivo.com/guias/content/gen/ap/America_Latina/AMC_GEN_NICARAGUA_HORA.html
3197 # and elsewhere, says (fifth paragraph, translated from Spanish): "The last
3198 # time that a change of clocks was applied to save energy was in the year 2000
3199 # during the Arnoldo Alemán administration."...
3200 # The northamerica file says that Nicaragua has been on UTC-6 continuously
3201 # since December 1998.  I wasn't able to find any details of Nicaraguan time
3202 # changes in 2000.  Perhaps a note could be added to the northamerica file, to
3203 # the effect that we have indirect evidence that DST was observed in 2000.
3204 #
3205 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-11-02):
3206 # Nicaragua left DST the 2005-10-02 at 00:00 (local time).
3207 # http://www.presidencia.gob.ni/presidencia/files_index/secretaria/comunicados/2005/septiembre/26septiembre-cambio-hora.htm
3208 # (2005-09-26)
3209 #
3210 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-05-05):
3211 # http://www.elnuevodiario.com.ni/2006/05/01/nacionales/18410
3212 # (my informal translation)
3213 # By order of the president of the republic, Enrique Bolaños, Nicaragua
3214 # advanced by sixty minutes their official time, yesterday at 2 in the
3215 # morning, and will stay that way until 30th of September.
3216 #
3217 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-09-30):
3218 # http://www.presidencia.gob.ni/buscador_gaceta/BD/DECRETOS/2006/D-063-2006P-PRN-Cambio-Hora.pdf
3219 # My informal translation runs:
3220 # The natural sun time is restored in all the national territory, in that the
3221 # time is returned one hour at 01:00 am of October 1 of 2006.
3222 #
3223 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3224 Rule    Nic     1979    1980    -       Mar     Sun>=16      0:00    1:00    D
3225 Rule    Nic     1979    1980    -       Jun     Mon>=23      0:00    0       S
3226 Rule    Nic     2005    only    -       Apr     10      0:00    1:00    D
3227 Rule    Nic     2005    only    -       Oct     Sun>=1       0:00    0       S
3228 Rule    Nic     2006    only    -       Apr     30      2:00    1:00    D
3229 Rule    Nic     2006    only    -       Oct     Sun>=1       1:00    0       S
3230 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3231 Zone    America/Managua -5:45:08 -      LMT     1890
3232                         -5:45:12 -      MMT     1934 Jun 23 # Managua Mean Time?
3233                         -6:00   -       CST     1973 May
3234                         -5:00   -       EST     1975 Feb 16
3235                         -6:00   Nic     C%sT    1992 Jan  1  4:00
3236                         -5:00   -       EST     1992 Sep 24
3237                         -6:00   -       CST     1993
3238                         -5:00   -       EST     1997
3239                         -6:00   Nic     C%sT
3240 
3241 # Panama
3242 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3243 Zone    America/Panama  -5:18:08 -      LMT     1890
3244                         -5:19:36 -      CMT     1908 Apr 22 # Colón Mean Time
3245                         -5:00   -       EST
3246 Link America/Panama America/Cayman
3247 
3248 # Puerto Rico
3249 # There are too many San Juans elsewhere, so we'll use 'Puerto_Rico'.
3250 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3251 Zone America/Puerto_Rico -4:24:25 -     LMT     1899 Mar 28 12:00 # San Juan
3252                         -4:00   -       AST     1942 May  3
3253                         -4:00   US      A%sT    1946
3254                         -4:00   -       AST
3255 
3256 # St Kitts-Nevis
3257 # St Lucia
3258 # See America/Port_of_Spain.
3259 
3260 # St Pierre and Miquelon
3261 # There are too many St Pierres elsewhere, so we'll use 'Miquelon'.
3262 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3263 Zone America/Miquelon   -3:44:40 -      LMT     1911 May 15 # St Pierre
3264                         -4:00   -       AST     1980 May
3265                         -3:00   -       PMST    1987 # Pierre & Miquelon Time
3266                         -3:00   Canada  PM%sT
3267 
3268 # St Vincent and the Grenadines
3269 # See America/Port_of_Spain.
3270 
3271 # Turks and Caicos
3272 #
3273 # From Chris Dunn in
3274 # http://bugs.debian.org/cgi-bin/bugreport.cgi?bug=415007
3275 # (2007-03-15): In the Turks & Caicos Islands (America/Grand_Turk) the
3276 # daylight saving dates for time changes have been adjusted to match
3277 # the recent U.S. change of dates.
3278 #
3279 # From Brian Inglis (2007-04-28):
3280 # http://www.turksandcaicos.tc/calendar/index.htm [2007-04-26]
3281 # there is an entry for Nov 4 "Daylight Savings Time Ends 2007" and three
3282 # rows before that there is an out of date entry for Oct:
3283 # "Eastern Standard Times Begins 2007
3284 # Clocks are set back one hour at 2:00 a.m. local Daylight Saving Time"
3285 # indicating that the normal ET rules are followed.
3286 #
3287 # From Paul Eggert (2014-08-19):
3288 # The 2014-08-13 Cabinet meeting decided to stay on UTC-4 year-round.  See:
3289 # http://tcweeklynews.com/daylight-savings-time-to-be-maintained-p5353-127.htm
3290 # Model this as a switch from EST/EDT to AST ...
3291 # From Chris Walton (2014-11-04):
3292 # ... the TCI government appears to have delayed the switch to
3293 # "permanent daylight saving time" by one year....
3294 # http://tcweeklynews.com/time-change-to-go-ahead-this-november-p5437-127.htm
3295 #
3296 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3297 Zone America/Grand_Turk -4:44:32 -      LMT     1890
3298                         -5:07:11 -      KMT     1912 Feb # Kingston Mean Time
3299                         -5:00   -       EST     1979
3300                         -5:00   US      E%sT    2015 Nov Sun>=1 2:00
3301                         -4:00   -       AST
3302 
3303 # British Virgin Is
3304 # Virgin Is
3305 # See America/Port_of_Spain.
3306 
3307 
3308 # Local Variables:
3309 # coding: utf-8
3310 # End:
--- EOF ---