1 #
   2 # DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
   3 #
   4 # This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   5 # under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
   6 # published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
   7 # particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
   8 # by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
   9 #
  10 # This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  11 # ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  12 # FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  13 # version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  14 # accompanied this code).
  15 #
  16 # You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  17 # 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  18 # Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  19 #
  20 # Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  21 # or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  22 # questions.
  23 #
  24 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
  25 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
  26 
  27 # This file also includes Pacific islands.
  28 
  29 # Notes are at the end of this file
  30 
  31 ###############################################################################
  32 
  33 # Australia
  34 
  35 # Please see the notes below for the controversy about "EST" versus "AEST" etc.
  36 
  37 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
  38 Rule    Aus     1917    only    -       Jan      1      0:01    1:00    D
  39 Rule    Aus     1917    only    -       Mar     25      2:00    0       S
  40 Rule    Aus     1942    only    -       Jan      1      2:00    1:00    D
  41 Rule    Aus     1942    only    -       Mar     29      2:00    0       S
  42 Rule    Aus     1942    only    -       Sep     27      2:00    1:00    D
  43 Rule    Aus     1943    1944    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    0       S
  44 Rule    Aus     1943    only    -       Oct      3      2:00    1:00    D
  45 # Go with Whitman and the Australian National Standards Commission, which
  46 # says W Australia didn't use DST in 1943/1944.  Ignore Whitman's claim that
  47 # 1944/1945 was just like 1943/1944.
  48 
  49 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
  50 # Northern Territory
  51 Zone Australia/Darwin    8:43:20 -      LMT     1895 Feb
  52                          9:00   -       ACST    1899 May
  53                          9:30   Aus     AC%sT
  54 # Western Australia
  55 #
  56 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
  57 Rule    AW      1974    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
  58 Rule    AW      1975    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
  59 Rule    AW      1983    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
  60 Rule    AW      1984    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
  61 Rule    AW      1991    only    -       Nov     17      2:00s   1:00    D
  62 Rule    AW      1992    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
  63 Rule    AW      2006    only    -       Dec      3      2:00s   1:00    D
  64 Rule    AW      2007    2009    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
  65 Rule    AW      2007    2008    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
  66 Zone Australia/Perth     7:43:24 -      LMT     1895 Dec
  67                          8:00   Aus     AW%sT   1943 Jul
  68                          8:00   AW      AW%sT
  69 Zone Australia/Eucla     8:35:28 -      LMT     1895 Dec
  70                          8:45   Aus     ACW%sT  1943 Jul
  71                          8:45   AW      ACW%sT
  72 
  73 # Queensland
  74 #
  75 # From Alex Livingston (1996-11-01):
  76 # I have heard or read more than once that some resort islands off the coast
  77 # of Queensland chose to keep observing daylight-saving time even after
  78 # Queensland ceased to.
  79 #
  80 # From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
  81 # IATA SSIM (1993-02/1994-09) say that the Holiday Islands (Hayman, Lindeman,
  82 # Hamilton) observed DST for two years after the rest of Queensland stopped.
  83 # Hamilton is the largest, but there is also a Hamilton in Victoria,
  84 # so use Lindeman.
  85 #








  86 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
  87 Rule    AQ      1971    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
  88 Rule    AQ      1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
  89 Rule    AQ      1989    1991    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
  90 Rule    AQ      1990    1992    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
  91 Rule    Holiday 1992    1993    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
  92 Rule    Holiday 1993    1994    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
  93 Zone Australia/Brisbane 10:12:08 -      LMT     1895
  94                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1971
  95                         10:00   AQ      AE%sT
  96 Zone Australia/Lindeman  9:55:56 -      LMT     1895
  97                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1971
  98                         10:00   AQ      AE%sT   1992 Jul
  99                         10:00   Holiday AE%sT
 100 
 101 # South Australia
 102 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 103 Rule    AS      1971    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 104 Rule    AS      1986    only    -       Oct     19      2:00s   1:00    D
 105 Rule    AS      1987    2007    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 106 Rule    AS      1972    only    -       Feb     27      2:00s   0       S
 107 Rule    AS      1973    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 108 Rule    AS      1986    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       S
 109 Rule    AS      1991    only    -       Mar     3       2:00s   0       S
 110 Rule    AS      1992    only    -       Mar     22      2:00s   0       S
 111 Rule    AS      1993    only    -       Mar     7       2:00s   0       S
 112 Rule    AS      1994    only    -       Mar     20      2:00s   0       S
 113 Rule    AS      1995    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 114 Rule    AS      2006    only    -       Apr     2       2:00s   0       S
 115 Rule    AS      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 116 Rule    AS      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 117 Rule    AS      2008    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 118 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 119 Zone Australia/Adelaide 9:14:20 -       LMT     1895 Feb
 120                         9:00    -       ACST    1899 May
 121                         9:30    Aus     AC%sT   1971
 122                         9:30    AS      AC%sT
 123 
 124 # Tasmania
 125 #
 126 # From Paul Eggert (2005-08-16):
 127 # http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml
 128 # says King Island didn't observe DST from WWII until late 1971.
 129 #
 130 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 131 Rule    AT      1967    only    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 132 Rule    AT      1968    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 133 Rule    AT      1968    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 134 Rule    AT      1969    1971    -       Mar     Sun>=8       2:00s   0       S
 135 Rule    AT      1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 136 Rule    AT      1973    1981    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 137 Rule    AT      1982    1983    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 138 Rule    AT      1984    1986    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 139 Rule    AT      1986    only    -       Oct     Sun>=15      2:00s   1:00    D
 140 Rule    AT      1987    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       S
 141 Rule    AT      1987    only    -       Oct     Sun>=22      2:00s   1:00    D
 142 Rule    AT      1988    1990    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 143 Rule    AT      1991    1999    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 144 Rule    AT      1991    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 145 Rule    AT      2000    only    -       Aug     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 146 Rule    AT      2001    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 147 Rule    AT      2006    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 148 Rule    AT      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 149 Rule    AT      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 150 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 151 Zone Australia/Hobart   9:49:16 -       LMT     1895 Sep
 152                         10:00   -       AEST    1916 Oct  1  2:00
 153                         10:00   1:00    AEDT    1917 Feb
 154                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1967
 155                         10:00   AT      AE%sT
 156 Zone Australia/Currie   9:35:28 -       LMT     1895 Sep
 157                         10:00   -       AEST    1916 Oct  1  2:00
 158                         10:00   1:00    AEDT    1917 Feb
 159                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1971 Jul
 160                         10:00   AT      AE%sT
 161 
 162 # Victoria
 163 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 164 Rule    AV      1971    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 165 Rule    AV      1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 166 Rule    AV      1973    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 167 Rule    AV      1986    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       S
 168 Rule    AV      1986    1987    -       Oct     Sun>=15      2:00s   1:00    D
 169 Rule    AV      1988    1999    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 170 Rule    AV      1991    1994    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 171 Rule    AV      1995    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 172 Rule    AV      2000    only    -       Aug     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 173 Rule    AV      2001    2007    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 174 Rule    AV      2006    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 175 Rule    AV      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 176 Rule    AV      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 177 Rule    AV      2008    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 178 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 179 Zone Australia/Melbourne 9:39:52 -      LMT     1895 Feb
 180                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1971
 181                         10:00   AV      AE%sT
 182 
 183 # New South Wales
 184 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 185 Rule    AN      1971    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 186 Rule    AN      1972    only    -       Feb     27      2:00s   0       S
 187 Rule    AN      1973    1981    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 188 Rule    AN      1982    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 189 Rule    AN      1983    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 190 Rule    AN      1986    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       S
 191 Rule    AN      1986    only    -       Oct     19      2:00s   1:00    D
 192 Rule    AN      1987    1999    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 193 Rule    AN      1990    1995    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 194 Rule    AN      1996    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 195 Rule    AN      2000    only    -       Aug     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 196 Rule    AN      2001    2007    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 197 Rule    AN      2006    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 198 Rule    AN      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 199 Rule    AN      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 200 Rule    AN      2008    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 201 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 202 Zone Australia/Sydney   10:04:52 -      LMT     1895 Feb
 203                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1971
 204                         10:00   AN      AE%sT
 205 Zone Australia/Broken_Hill 9:25:48 -    LMT     1895 Feb
 206                         10:00   -       AEST    1896 Aug 23
 207                         9:00    -       ACST    1899 May
 208                         9:30    Aus     AC%sT   1971
 209                         9:30    AN      AC%sT   2000
 210                         9:30    AS      AC%sT
 211 
 212 # Lord Howe Island
 213 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 214 Rule    LH      1981    1984    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 215 Rule    LH      1982    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
 216 Rule    LH      1985    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0:30    D
 217 Rule    LH      1986    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00    0       S
 218 Rule    LH      1986    only    -       Oct     19      2:00    0:30    D
 219 Rule    LH      1987    1999    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0:30    D
 220 Rule    LH      1990    1995    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
 221 Rule    LH      1996    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 222 Rule    LH      2000    only    -       Aug     lastSun 2:00    0:30    D
 223 Rule    LH      2001    2007    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0:30    D
 224 Rule    LH      2006    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
 225 Rule    LH      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 226 Rule    LH      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
 227 Rule    LH      2008    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00    0:30    D
 228 Zone Australia/Lord_Howe 10:36:20 -     LMT     1895 Feb
 229                         10:00   -       AEST    1981 Mar
 230                         10:30   LH      LH%sT
 231 
 232 # Australian miscellany
 233 #
 234 # Ashmore Is, Cartier
 235 # no indigenous inhabitants; only seasonal caretakers
 236 # no times are set
 237 #
 238 # Coral Sea Is
 239 # no indigenous inhabitants; only meteorologists
 240 # no times are set
 241 #
 242 # Macquarie
 243 # Permanent occupation (scientific station) 1911-1915 and since 25 March 1948;
 244 # sealing and penguin oil station operated Nov 1899 to Apr 1919.  See the
 245 # Tasmania Parks & Wildlife Service history of sealing at Macquarie Island
 246 # http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/index.aspx?base=1828
 247 # http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/index.aspx?base=1831
 248 # Guess that it was like Australia/Hobart while inhabited before 2010.
 249 #
 250 # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-10):
 251 # We got these changes from the Australian Antarctic Division:
 252 # - Macquarie Island will stay on UTC+11 for winter and therefore not
 253 # switch back from daylight savings time when other parts of Australia do
 254 # on 4 April.
 255 #
 256 # From Arthur David Olson (2013-05-23):
 257 # The 1919 transition is overspecified below so pre-2013 zics
 258 # will produce a binary file with an [A]EST-type as the first 32-bit type;
 259 # this is required for correct handling of times before 1916 by
 260 # pre-2013 versions of localtime.
 261 Zone Antarctica/Macquarie 0     -       zzz     1899 Nov
 262                         10:00   -       AEST    1916 Oct  1  2:00
 263                         10:00   1:00    AEDT    1917 Feb
 264                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1919 Apr  1  0:00s
 265                         0       -       zzz     1948 Mar 25
 266                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1967
 267                         10:00   AT      AE%sT   2010 Apr  4  3:00
 268                         11:00   -       MIST    # Macquarie I Standard Time
 269 
 270 # Christmas
 271 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 272 Zone Indian/Christmas   7:02:52 -       LMT     1895 Feb
 273                         7:00    -       CXT     # Christmas Island Time
 274 
 275 # Cocos (Keeling) Is
 276 # These islands were ruled by the Ross family from about 1830 to 1978.
 277 # We don't know when standard time was introduced; for now, we guess 1900.
 278 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 279 Zone    Indian/Cocos    6:27:40 -       LMT     1900
 280                         6:30    -       CCT     # Cocos Islands Time
 281 
 282 
 283 # Fiji
 284 
 285 # Milne gives 11:55:44 for Suva.
 286 
 287 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-11-10):
 288 # According to Fiji Broadcasting Corporation,  Fiji plans to re-introduce DST
 289 # from November 29th 2009  to April 25th 2010.
 290 #
 291 # "Daylight savings to commence this month"
 292 # http://www.radiofiji.com.fj/fullstory.php?id=23719
 293 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji01.html
 294 
 295 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-11-10):
 296 # The Fiji Government has posted some more details about the approved
 297 # amendments:
 298 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/publish/page_16198.shtml
 299 
 300 # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-03):
 301 # The Cabinet in Fiji has decided to end DST about a month early, on
 302 # 2010-03-28 at 03:00.
 303 # The plan is to observe DST again, from 2010-10-24 to sometime in March
 304 # 2011 (last Sunday a good guess?).
 305 #
 306 # Official source:
 307 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1096:3310-cabinet-approves-change-in-daylight-savings-dates&catid=49:cabinet-releases&Itemid=166
 308 #
 309 # A bit more background info here:
 310 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/fiji-dst-ends-march-2010.html
 311 
 312 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-10-24):
 313 # According to Radio Fiji and Fiji Times online, Fiji will end DST 3
 314 # weeks earlier than expected - on March 6, 2011, not March 27, 2011...
 315 # Here is confirmation from Government of the Republic of the Fiji Islands,
 316 # Ministry of Information (fiji.gov.fj) web site:
 317 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2608:daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155
 318 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji04.html
 319 
 320 # From Steffen Thorsen (2011-10-03):
 321 # Now the dates have been confirmed, and at least our start date
 322 # assumption was correct (end date was one week wrong).
 323 #
 324 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4966:daylight-saving-starts-in-fiji&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155
 325 # which says
 326 # Members of the public are reminded to change their time to one hour in
 327 # advance at 2am to 3am on October 23, 2011 and one hour back at 3am to
 328 # 2am on February 26 next year.
 329 
 330 # From Ken Rylander (2011-10-24)
 331 # Another change to the Fiji DST end date. In the TZ database the end date for
 332 # Fiji DST 2012, is currently Feb 26. This has been changed to Jan 22.
 333 #
 334 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5017:amendments-to-daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155
 335 # states:
 336 #
 337 # The end of daylight saving scheduled initially for the 26th of February 2012
 338 # has been brought forward to the 22nd of January 2012.
 339 # The commencement of daylight saving will remain unchanged and start
 340 # on the  23rd of October, 2011.
 341 
 342 # From the Fiji Government Online Portal (2012-08-21) via Steffen Thorsen:
 343 # The Minister for Labour, Industrial Relations and Employment Mr Jone Usamate
 344 # today confirmed that Fiji will start daylight savings at 2 am on Sunday 21st
 345 # October 2012 and end at 3 am on Sunday 20th January 2013.
 346 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=6702&catid=71&Itemid=155
 347 
 348 # From the Fijian Government Media Center (2013-08-30) via David Wheeler:
 349 # Fiji will start daylight savings on Sunday 27th October, 2013 ...
 350 # move clocks forward by one hour from 2am
 351 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/Media-Center/Press-Releases/DAYLIGHT-SAVING-STARTS-ON-SUNDAY,-27th-OCTOBER-201.aspx
 352 
 353 # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-01-10):
 354 # Fiji will end DST on 2014-01-19 02:00:
 355 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/Media-Center/Press-Releases/DAYLIGHT-SAVINGS-TO-END-THIS-MONTH-%281%29.aspx
 356 
 357 # From Ken Rylander (2014-10-20):
 358 # DST will start Nov. 2 this year.
 359 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/Media-Center/Press-Releases/DAYLIGHT-SAVING-STARTS-ON-SUNDAY,-NOVEMBER-2ND.aspx
 360 
 361 # From a government order dated 2015-08-26 and published as Legal Notice No. 77
 362 # in the Government of Fiji Gazette Supplement No. 24 (2015-08-28),
 363 # via Ken Rylander (2015-09-02):
 364 # the daylight saving period is 1 hour in advance of the standard time
 365 # commencing at 2.00 am on Sunday 1st November, 2015 and ending at
 366 # 3.00 am on Sunday 17th January, 2016.
 367 
 368 # From Paul Eggert (2015-09-01):
 369 # For now, guess DST from 02:00 the first Sunday in November to
 370 # 03:00 the third Sunday in January.  Although ad hoc, it matches
 371 # transitions since late 2014 and seems more likely to match future
 372 # practice than guessing no DST.
 373 
 374 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 375 Rule    Fiji    1998    1999    -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    S
 376 Rule    Fiji    1999    2000    -       Feb     lastSun 3:00    0       -
 377 Rule    Fiji    2009    only    -       Nov     29      2:00    1:00    S
 378 Rule    Fiji    2010    only    -       Mar     lastSun 3:00    0       -
 379 Rule    Fiji    2010    2013    -       Oct     Sun>=21      2:00    1:00    S
 380 Rule    Fiji    2011    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       -
 381 Rule    Fiji    2012    2013    -       Jan     Sun>=18      3:00    0       -
 382 Rule    Fiji    2014    only    -       Jan     Sun>=18      2:00    0       -
 383 Rule    Fiji    2014    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    S
 384 Rule    Fiji    2015    max     -       Jan     Sun>=15      3:00    0       -
 385 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 386 Zone    Pacific/Fiji    11:55:44 -      LMT     1915 Oct 26 # Suva
 387                         12:00   Fiji    FJ%sT   # Fiji Time
 388 
 389 # French Polynesia
 390 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 391 Zone    Pacific/Gambier  -8:59:48 -     LMT     1912 Oct # Rikitea
 392                          -9:00  -       GAMT    # Gambier Time
 393 Zone    Pacific/Marquesas -9:18:00 -    LMT     1912 Oct
 394                          -9:30  -       MART    # Marquesas Time
 395 Zone    Pacific/Tahiti   -9:58:16 -     LMT     1912 Oct # Papeete
 396                         -10:00  -       TAHT    # Tahiti Time
 397 # Clipperton (near North America) is administered from French Polynesia;
 398 # it is uninhabited.
 399 
 400 # Guam
 401 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 402 Zone    Pacific/Guam    -14:21:00 -     LMT     1844 Dec 31
 403                          9:39:00 -      LMT     1901        # Agana
 404                         10:00   -       GST     2000 Dec 23 # Guam
 405                         10:00   -       ChST    # Chamorro Standard Time
 406 Link Pacific/Guam Pacific/Saipan # N Mariana Is
 407 
 408 # Kiribati
 409 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 410 Zone Pacific/Tarawa      11:32:04 -     LMT     1901 # Bairiki
 411                          12:00  -       GILT    # Gilbert Is Time
 412 Zone Pacific/Enderbury  -11:24:20 -     LMT     1901
 413                         -12:00  -       PHOT    1979 Oct # Phoenix Is Time
 414                         -11:00  -       PHOT    1995
 415                          13:00  -       PHOT
 416 Zone Pacific/Kiritimati -10:29:20 -     LMT     1901
 417                         -10:40  -       LINT    1979 Oct # Line Is Time
 418                         -10:00  -       LINT    1995
 419                          14:00  -       LINT
 420 
 421 # N Mariana Is
 422 # See Pacific/Guam.
 423 
 424 # Marshall Is
 425 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 426 Zone Pacific/Majuro     11:24:48 -      LMT     1901
 427                         11:00   -       MHT     1969 Oct # Marshall Islands Time
 428                         12:00   -       MHT
 429 Zone Pacific/Kwajalein  11:09:20 -      LMT     1901
 430                         11:00   -       MHT     1969 Oct
 431                         -12:00  -       KWAT    1993 Aug 20 # Kwajalein Time
 432                         12:00   -       MHT
 433 
 434 # Micronesia
 435 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 436 Zone Pacific/Chuuk      10:07:08 -      LMT     1901
 437                         10:00   -       CHUT    # Chuuk Time
 438 Zone Pacific/Pohnpei    10:32:52 -      LMT     1901 # Kolonia
 439                         11:00   -       PONT    # Pohnpei Time
 440 Zone Pacific/Kosrae     10:51:56 -      LMT     1901
 441                         11:00   -       KOST    1969 Oct # Kosrae Time
 442                         12:00   -       KOST    1999
 443                         11:00   -       KOST
 444 
 445 # Nauru
 446 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 447 Zone    Pacific/Nauru   11:07:40 -      LMT     1921 Jan 15 # Uaobe
 448                         11:30   -       NRT     1942 Mar 15 # Nauru Time
 449                         9:00    -       JST     1944 Aug 15
 450                         11:30   -       NRT     1979 May
 451                         12:00   -       NRT
 452 
 453 # New Caledonia
 454 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 455 Rule    NC      1977    1978    -       Dec     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    S
 456 Rule    NC      1978    1979    -       Feb     27      0:00    0       -
 457 Rule    NC      1996    only    -       Dec      1      2:00s   1:00    S
 458 # Shanks & Pottenger say the following was at 2:00; go with IATA.
 459 Rule    NC      1997    only    -       Mar      2      2:00s   0       -
 460 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 461 Zone    Pacific/Noumea  11:05:48 -      LMT     1912 Jan 13 # Nouméa
 462                         11:00   NC      NC%sT
 463 
 464 
 465 ###############################################################################
 466 
 467 # New Zealand
 468 
 469 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 470 Rule    NZ      1927    only    -       Nov      6      2:00    1:00    S
 471 Rule    NZ      1928    only    -       Mar      4      2:00    0       M
 472 Rule    NZ      1928    1933    -       Oct     Sun>=8       2:00    0:30    S
 473 Rule    NZ      1929    1933    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00    0       M
 474 Rule    NZ      1934    1940    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    0       M
 475 Rule    NZ      1934    1940    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0:30    S
 476 Rule    NZ      1946    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    0       S
 477 # Since 1957 Chatham has been 45 minutes ahead of NZ, but there's no
 478 # convenient single notation for the date and time of this transition
 479 # so we must duplicate the Rule lines.
 480 Rule    NZ      1974    only    -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 481 Rule    Chatham 1974    only    -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:45s   1:00    D
 482 Rule    NZ      1975    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 483 Rule    Chatham 1975    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:45s   0       S
 484 Rule    NZ      1975    1988    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 485 Rule    Chatham 1975    1988    -       Oct     lastSun 2:45s   1:00    D
 486 Rule    NZ      1976    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 487 Rule    Chatham 1976    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:45s   0       S
 488 Rule    NZ      1989    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8       2:00s   1:00    D
 489 Rule    Chatham 1989    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8       2:45s   1:00    D
 490 Rule    NZ      1990    2006    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 491 Rule    Chatham 1990    2006    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:45s   1:00    D
 492 Rule    NZ      1990    2007    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       S
 493 Rule    Chatham 1990    2007    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:45s   0       S
 494 Rule    NZ      2007    max     -       Sep     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 495 Rule    Chatham 2007    max     -       Sep     lastSun 2:45s   1:00    D
 496 Rule    NZ      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 497 Rule    Chatham 2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:45s   0       S
 498 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 499 Zone Pacific/Auckland   11:39:04 -      LMT     1868 Nov  2
 500                         11:30   NZ      NZ%sT   1946 Jan  1
 501                         12:00   NZ      NZ%sT
 502 Zone Pacific/Chatham    12:13:48 -      LMT     1868 Nov  2
 503                         12:15   -       CHAST   1946 Jan  1
 504                         12:45   Chatham CHA%sT
 505 
 506 Link Pacific/Auckland Antarctica/McMurdo
 507 
 508 # Auckland Is
 509 # uninhabited; Māori and Moriori, colonial settlers, pastoralists, sealers,
 510 # and scientific personnel have wintered
 511 
 512 # Campbell I
 513 # minor whaling stations operated 1909/1914
 514 # scientific station operated 1941/1995;
 515 # previously whalers, sealers, pastoralists, and scientific personnel wintered
 516 # was probably like Pacific/Auckland
 517 
 518 # Cook Is
 519 # From Shanks & Pottenger:
 520 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 521 Rule    Cook    1978    only    -       Nov     12      0:00    0:30    HS
 522 Rule    Cook    1979    1991    -       Mar     Sun>=1       0:00    0       -
 523 Rule    Cook    1979    1990    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0:30    HS
 524 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 525 Zone Pacific/Rarotonga  -10:39:04 -     LMT     1901        # Avarua
 526                         -10:30  -       CKT     1978 Nov 12 # Cook Is Time
 527                         -10:00  Cook    CK%sT
 528 
 529 ###############################################################################
 530 
 531 
 532 # Niue
 533 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 534 Zone    Pacific/Niue    -11:19:40 -     LMT     1901        # Alofi
 535                         -11:20  -       NUT     1951        # Niue Time
 536                         -11:30  -       NUT     1978 Oct  1
 537                         -11:00  -       NUT
 538 
 539 # Norfolk
 540 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 541 Zone    Pacific/Norfolk 11:11:52 -      LMT     1901 # Kingston
 542                         11:12   -       NMT     1951 # Norfolk Mean Time
 543                         11:30   -       NFT     1974 Oct 27 02:00 # Norfolk T.
 544                         11:30   1:00    NFST    1975 Mar  2 02:00
 545                         11:30   -       NFT     2015 Oct  4 02:00
 546                         11:00   -       NFT
 547 
 548 # Palau (Belau)
 549 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 550 Zone Pacific/Palau      8:57:56 -       LMT     1901 # Koror
 551                         9:00    -       PWT     # Palau Time
 552 
 553 # Papua New Guinea
 554 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 555 Zone Pacific/Port_Moresby 9:48:40 -     LMT     1880
 556                         9:48:32 -       PMMT    1895 # Port Moresby Mean Time
 557                         10:00   -       PGT     # Papua New Guinea Time
 558 #
 559 # From Paul Eggert (2014-10-13):
 560 # Base the Bougainville entry on the Arawa-Kieta region, which appears to have
 561 # the most people even though it was devastated in the Bougainville Civil War.
 562 #
 563 # Although Shanks gives 1942-03-15 / 1943-11-01 for JST, these dates
 564 # are apparently rough guesswork from the starts of military campaigns.
 565 # The World War II entries below are instead based on Arawa-Kieta.
 566 # The Japanese occupied Kieta in July 1942,
 567 # according to the Pacific War Online Encyclopedia
 568 # http://pwencycl.kgbudge.com/B/o/Bougainville.htm
 569 # and seem to have controlled it until their 1945-08-21 surrender.
 570 #
 571 # The Autonomous Region of Bougainville plans to switch from UTC+10 to UTC+11
 572 # on 2014-12-28 at 02:00.  They call UTC+11 "Bougainville Standard Time";
 573 # abbreviate this as BST.  See:
 574 # http://www.bougainville24.com/bougainville-issues/bougainville-gets-own-timezone/
 575 #
 576 Zone Pacific/Bougainville 10:22:16 -    LMT     1880
 577                          9:48:32 -      PMMT    1895
 578                         10:00   -       PGT     1942 Jul
 579                          9:00   -       JST     1945 Aug 21
 580                         10:00   -       PGT     2014 Dec 28  2:00
 581                         11:00   -       BST
 582 
 583 # Pitcairn
 584 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 585 Zone Pacific/Pitcairn   -8:40:20 -      LMT     1901        # Adamstown
 586                         -8:30   -       PNT     1998 Apr 27  0:00
 587                         -8:00   -       PST     # Pitcairn Standard Time
 588 
 589 # American Samoa
 590 Zone Pacific/Pago_Pago   12:37:12 -     LMT     1879 Jul  5
 591                         -11:22:48 -     LMT     1911
 592                         -11:00  -       NST     1967 Apr    # N=Nome
 593                         -11:00  -       BST     1983 Nov 30 # B=Bering
 594                         -11:00  -       SST                 # S=Samoa
 595 Link Pacific/Pago_Pago Pacific/Midway # in US minor outlying islands
 596 
 597 # Samoa (formerly and also known as Western Samoa)
 598 
 599 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-16):
 600 # We have been in contact with the government of Samoa again, and received
 601 # the following info:
 602 #
 603 # "Cabinet has now approved Daylight Saving to be effected next year
 604 # commencing from the last Sunday of September 2010 and conclude first
 605 # Sunday of April 2011."
 606 #
 607 # Background info:
 608 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/samoa-dst-plan-2009.html
 609 #
 610 # Samoa's Daylight Saving Time Act 2009 is available here, but does not
 611 # contain any dates:
 612 # http://www.parliament.gov.ws/documents/acts/Daylight%20Saving%20Act%20%202009%20%28English%29%20-%20Final%207-7-091.pdf
 613 
 614 # From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2010-10-07):
 615 # Please see
 616 # http://www.mcil.gov.ws
 617 # the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Labour (sideframe) "Last Sunday
 618 # September 2010 (26/09/10) - adjust clocks forward from 12:00 midnight
 619 # to 01:00am and First Sunday April 2011 (03/04/11) - adjust clocks
 620 # backwards from 1:00am to 12:00am"
 621 
 622 # From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2011-03-07):
 623 # [http://www.mcil.gov.ws/ftcd/daylight_saving_2011.pdf]
 624 #
 625 # ... when the standard time strikes the hour of four o'clock (4.00am
 626 # or 0400 Hours) on the 2nd April 2011, then all instruments used to
 627 # measure standard time are to be adjusted/changed to three o'clock
 628 # (3:00am or 0300Hrs).
 629 
 630 # From David Zülke (2011-05-09):
 631 # Subject: Samoa to move timezone from east to west of international date line
 632 #
 633 # http://www.morningstar.co.uk/uk/markets/newsfeeditem.aspx?id=138501958347963
 634 
 635 # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-27):
 636 # The International Date Line Act 2011
 637 # http://www.parliament.gov.ws/images/ACTS/International_Date_Line_Act__2011_-_Eng.pdf
 638 # changed Samoa from UTC-11 to UTC+13, effective "12 o'clock midnight, on
 639 # Thursday 29th December 2011".  The International Date Line was adjusted
 640 # accordingly.
 641 
 642 # From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2011-09-02):
 643 # http://www.mcil.gov.ws/mcil_publications.html
 644 #
 645 # here is the official website publication for Samoa DST and dateline change
 646 #
 647 # DST
 648 # Year  End      Time              Start        Time
 649 # 2011  - - -    - - -             24 September 3:00am to 4:00am
 650 # 2012  01 April 4:00am to 3:00am  - - -        - - -
 651 #
 652 # Dateline Change skip Friday 30th Dec 2011
 653 # Thursday 29th December 2011   23:59:59 Hours
 654 # Saturday 31st December 2011   00:00:00 Hours
 655 #
 656 # From Nicholas Pereira (2012-09-10):
 657 # Daylight Saving Time commences on Sunday 30th September 2012 and
 658 # ends on Sunday 7th of April 2013....
 659 # http://www.mcil.gov.ws/mcil_publications.html
 660 #
 661 # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-08):
 662 # That web page currently lists transitions for 2012/3 and 2013/4.
 663 # Assume the pattern instituted in 2012 will continue indefinitely.
 664 
 665 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 666 Rule    WS      2010    only    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    1       D
 667 Rule    WS      2011    only    -       Apr     Sat>=1       4:00    0       S
 668 Rule    WS      2011    only    -       Sep     lastSat 3:00    1       D
 669 Rule    WS      2012    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       4:00    0       S
 670 Rule    WS      2012    max     -       Sep     lastSun 3:00    1       D
 671 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 672 Zone Pacific/Apia        12:33:04 -     LMT     1879 Jul  5
 673                         -11:26:56 -     LMT     1911
 674                         -11:30  -       WSST    1950
 675                         -11:00  WS      S%sT    2011 Dec 29 24:00 # S=Samoa
 676                          13:00  WS      WS%sT
 677 
 678 # Solomon Is
 679 # excludes Bougainville, for which see Papua New Guinea
 680 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 681 Zone Pacific/Guadalcanal 10:39:48 -     LMT     1912 Oct # Honiara
 682                         11:00   -       SBT     # Solomon Is Time
 683 
 684 # Tokelau Is
 685 #
 686 # From Gwillim Law (2011-12-29)
 687 # A correspondent informed me that Tokelau, like Samoa, will be skipping
 688 # December 31 this year ...
 689 #
 690 # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-07-25)
 691 # ... we double checked by calling hotels and offices based in Tokelau asking
 692 # about the time there, and they all told a time that agrees with UTC+13....
 693 # Shanks says UTC-10 from 1901 [but] ... there is a good chance the change
 694 # actually was to UTC-11 back then.
 695 #
 696 # From Paul Eggert (2012-07-25)
 697 # A Google Books snippet of Appendix to the Journals of the House of
 698 # Representatives of New Zealand, Session 1948,
 699 # <http://books.google.com/books?id=ZaVCAQAAIAAJ>, page 65, says Tokelau
 700 # was "11 hours slow on G.M.T."  Go with Thorsen and assume Shanks & Pottenger
 701 # are off by an hour starting in 1901.
 702 
 703 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 704 Zone    Pacific/Fakaofo -11:24:56 -     LMT     1901
 705                         -11:00  -       TKT     2011 Dec 30 # Tokelau Time
 706                         13:00   -       TKT
 707 
 708 # Tonga
 709 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 710 Rule    Tonga   1999    only    -       Oct      7      2:00s   1:00    S
 711 Rule    Tonga   2000    only    -       Mar     19      2:00s   0       -
 712 Rule    Tonga   2000    2001    -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    S
 713 Rule    Tonga   2001    2002    -       Jan     lastSun 2:00    0       -
 714 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 715 Zone Pacific/Tongatapu  12:19:20 -      LMT     1901
 716                         12:20   -       TOT     1941 # Tonga Time
 717                         13:00   -       TOT     1999
 718                         13:00   Tonga   TO%sT
 719 
 720 # Tuvalu
 721 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 722 Zone Pacific/Funafuti   11:56:52 -      LMT     1901
 723                         12:00   -       TVT     # Tuvalu Time
 724 
 725 
 726 # US minor outlying islands
 727 
 728 # Howland, Baker
 729 # Howland was mined for guano by American companies 1857-1878 and British
 730 # 1886-1891; Baker was similar but exact dates are not known.
 731 # Inhabited by civilians 1935-1942; U.S. military bases 1943-1944;
 732 # uninhabited thereafter.
 733 # Howland observed Hawaii Standard Time (UT-10:30) in 1937;
 734 # see page 206 of Elgen M. Long and Marie K. Long,
 735 # Amelia Earhart: the Mystery Solved, Simon & Schuster (2000).
 736 # So most likely Howland and Baker observed Hawaii Time from 1935
 737 # until they were abandoned after the war.
 738 
 739 # Jarvis
 740 # Mined for guano by American companies 1857-1879 and British 1883?-1891?.
 741 # Inhabited by civilians 1935-1942; IGY scientific base 1957-1958;
 742 # uninhabited thereafter.
 743 # no information; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati
 744 
 745 # Johnston
 746 #
 747 # From Paul Eggert (2014-03-11):
 748 # Sometimes Johnston kept Hawaii time, and sometimes it was an hour behind.
 749 # Details are uncertain.  We have no data for Johnston after 1970, so
 750 # treat it like Hawaii for now.
 751 #
 752 # In his memoirs of June 6th to October 4, 1945
 753 # <http://www.315bw.org/Herb_Bach.htm> (2005), Herbert C. Bach writes,
 754 # "We started our letdown to Kwajalein Atoll and landed there at 5:00 AM
 755 # Johnston time, 1:30 AM Kwajalein time."  This was in June 1945, and
 756 # confirms that Johnston kept the same time as Honolulu in summer 1945.
 757 #
 758 # From Lyle McElhaney (2014-03-11):
 759 # [W]hen JI was being used for that [atomic bomb] testing, the time being used
 760 # was not Hawaiian time but rather the same time being used on the ships,
 761 # which had a GMT offset of -11 hours.  This apparently applied to at least the
 762 # time from Operation Newsreel (Hardtack I/Teak shot, 1958-08-01) to the last
 763 # Operation Fishbowl shot (Tightrope, 1962-11-04).... [See] Herman Hoerlin,
 764 # "The United States High-Altitude Test Experience: A Review Emphasizing the
 765 # Impact on the Environment", Los Alamos LA-6405, Oct 1976.
 766 # http://www.fas.org/sgp/othergov/doe/lanl/docs1/00322994.pdf
 767 # See the table on page 4 where he lists GMT and local times for the tests; a
 768 # footnote for the JI tests reads that local time is "JI time = Hawaii Time
 769 # Minus One Hour".
 770 #
 771 # See 'northamerica' for Pacific/Johnston.
 772 
 773 # Kingman
 774 # uninhabited
 775 
 776 # Midway
 777 # See Pacific/Pago_Pago.
 778 
 779 # Palmyra
 780 # uninhabited since World War II; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati
 781 
 782 # Wake
 783 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 784 Zone    Pacific/Wake    11:06:28 -      LMT     1901
 785                         12:00   -       WAKT    # Wake Time
 786 
 787 
 788 # Vanuatu
 789 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 790 Rule    Vanuatu 1983    only    -       Sep     25      0:00    1:00    S
 791 Rule    Vanuatu 1984    1991    -       Mar     Sun>=23      0:00    0       -
 792 Rule    Vanuatu 1984    only    -       Oct     23      0:00    1:00    S
 793 Rule    Vanuatu 1985    1991    -       Sep     Sun>=23      0:00    1:00    S
 794 Rule    Vanuatu 1992    1993    -       Jan     Sun>=23      0:00    0       -
 795 Rule    Vanuatu 1992    only    -       Oct     Sun>=23      0:00    1:00    S
 796 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 797 Zone    Pacific/Efate   11:13:16 -      LMT     1912 Jan 13 # Vila
 798                         11:00   Vanuatu VU%sT   # Vanuatu Time
 799 
 800 # Wallis and Futuna
 801 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 802 Zone    Pacific/Wallis  12:15:20 -      LMT     1901
 803                         12:00   -       WFT     # Wallis & Futuna Time
 804 
 805 ###############################################################################
 806 
 807 # NOTES
 808 
 809 # This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
 810 # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
 811 # tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
 812 # the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
 813 
 814 # From Paul Eggert (2014-10-31):
 815 #
 816 # Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:
 817 # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
 818 # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
 819 # Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.
 820 #
 821 # Gwillim Law writes that a good source
 822 # for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
 823 # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
 824 # published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
 825 # of the IATA's data after 1990.  Except where otherwise noted,
 826 # IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.
 827 #
 828 # Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
 829 # Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which
 830 # I found in the UCLA library.
 831 #
 832 # For data circa 1899, a common source is:
 833 # Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94.
 834 # http://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359
 835 #
 836 # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
 837 # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
 838 #
 839 # I invented the abbreviations marked '*' in the following table;
 840 # the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.
 841 # Corrections are welcome!
 842 #               std     dst
 843 #               LMT             Local Mean Time
 844 #         8:00  AWST    AWDT    Western Australia
 845 #         8:45  ACWST   ACWDT   Central Western Australia*
 846 #         9:00  JST             Japan
 847 #         9:30  ACST    ACDT    Central Australia
 848 #        10:00  AEST    AEDT    Eastern Australia
 849 #        10:00  ChST            Chamorro
 850 #        10:30  LHST    LHDT    Lord Howe*
 851 #        11:00  BST             Bougainville*
 852 #        11:30  NZMT    NZST    New Zealand through 1945
 853 #        12:00  NZST    NZDT    New Zealand 1946-present
 854 #        12:15  CHAST           Chatham through 1945*
 855 #        12:45  CHAST   CHADT   Chatham 1946-present*
 856 #        13:00  WSST    WSDT    (western) Samoa 2011-present*
 857 #       -11:30  WSST            Western Samoa through 1950*
 858 #       -11:00  SST             Samoa
 859 #       -10:00  HST             Hawaii
 860 #       - 8:00  PST             Pitcairn*
 861 #
 862 # See the 'northamerica' file for Hawaii.
 863 # See the 'southamerica' file for Easter I and the Galápagos Is.
 864 
 865 ###############################################################################
 866 
 867 # Australia
 868 
 869 # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):
 870 # Daylight saving time has long been controversial in Australia, pitting
 871 # region against region, rural against urban, and local against global.
 872 # For example, in her review of Graeme Davison's _The Unforgiving
 873 # Minute: how Australians learned to tell the time_ (1993), Perth native
 874 # Phillipa J Martyr wrote, "The section entitled 'Saving Daylight' was
 875 # very informative, but was (as can, sadly, only be expected from a
 876 # Melbourne-based study) replete with the usual chuckleheaded
 877 # Queenslanders and straw-chewing yokels from the West prattling fables
 878 # about fading curtains and crazed farm animals."
 879 # Electronic Journal of Australian and New Zealand History (1997-03-03)
 880 # http://www.jcu.edu.au/aff/history/reviews/davison.htm
 881 
 882 # From Paul Eggert (2005-12-08):
 883 # Implementation Dates of Daylight Saving Time within Australia
 884 # http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml
 885 # summarizes daylight saving issues in Australia.
 886 
 887 # From Arthur David Olson (2005-12-12):
 888 # Lawlink NSW:Daylight Saving in New South Wales
 889 # http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lawlink/Corporate/ll_agdinfo.nsf/pages/community_relations_daylight_saving
 890 # covers New South Wales in particular.
 891 
 892 # From John Mackin (1991-03-06):
 893 # We in Australia have _never_ referred to DST as 'daylight' time.
 894 # It is called 'summer' time.  Now by a happy coincidence, 'summer'
 895 # and 'standard' happen to start with the same letter; hence, the
 896 # abbreviation does _not_ change...
 897 # The legislation does not actually define abbreviations, at least
 898 # in this State, but the abbreviation is just commonly taken to be the
 899 # initials of the phrase, and the legislation here uniformly uses
 900 # the phrase 'summer time' and does not use the phrase 'daylight
 901 # time'.
 902 # Announcers on the Commonwealth radio network, the ABC (for Australian
 903 # Broadcasting Commission), use the phrases 'Eastern Standard Time'
 904 # or 'Eastern Summer Time'.  (Note, though, that as I say in the
 905 # current australasia file, there is really no such thing.)  Announcers
 906 # on its overseas service, Radio Australia, use the same phrases
 907 # prefixed by the word 'Australian' when referring to local times;
 908 # time announcements on that service, naturally enough, are made in UTC.
 909 
 910 # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):
 911 #
 912 # Inspired by Mackin's remarks quoted above, earlier versions of this
 913 # file used "EST" for both Eastern Standard Time and Eastern Summer
 914 # Time in Australia, and similarly for "CST", "CWST", and "WST".
 915 # However, these abbreviations were confusing and were not common
 916 # practice among Australians, and there were justifiable complaints
 917 # about them, so I attempted to survey current Australian usage.
 918 # For the tz database, the full English phrase is not that important;
 919 # what matters is the abbreviation.  It's difficult to survey the web
 920 # directly for abbreviation usage, as there are so many false hits for
 921 # strings like "EST" and "EDT", so I looked for pages that defined an
 922 # abbreviation for eastern or central DST in Australia, and got the
 923 # following numbers of unique hits for the listed Google queries:
 924 #
 925 #   10 "Eastern Daylight Time AEST" site:au [some are false hits]
 926 #   10 "Eastern Summer Time AEST" site:au
 927 #   10 "Summer Time AEDT" site:au
 928 #   13 "EDST Eastern Daylight Saving Time" site:au
 929 #   18 "Summer Time ESST" site:au
 930 #   28 "Eastern Daylight Saving Time EDST" site:au
 931 #   39 "EDT Eastern Daylight Time" site:au [some are false hits]
 932 #   53 "Eastern Daylight Time EDT" site:au [some are false hits]
 933 #   54 "AEDT Australian Eastern Daylight Time" site:au
 934 #  182 "Eastern Daylight Time AEDT" site:au
 935 #
 936 #   17 "Central Daylight Time CDT" site:au [some are false hits]
 937 #   46 "Central Daylight Time ACDT" site:au
 938 #
 939 # I tried several other variants (e.g., "Eastern Summer Time EST") but
 940 # they all returned fewer than 10 unique hits.  I also looked for pages
 941 # mentioning both "western standard time" and an abbreviation, since
 942 # there is no WST in the US to generate false hits, and found:
 943 #
 944 #  156 "western standard time" AWST site:au
 945 #  226 "western standard time" WST site:au
 946 #
 947 # I then surveyed the top ten newspapers in Australia by circulation as
 948 # listed in Wikipedia, using Google queries like "AEDT site:heraldsun.com.au"
 949 # and obtaining estimated counts from the initial page of search results.
 950 # All ten papers greatly preferred "AEDT" to "EDT".  The papers
 951 # surveyed were the Herald Sun, The Daily Telegraph, The Courier-Mail,
 952 # The Sydney Morning Herald, The West Australian, The Age, The Advertiser,
 953 # The Australian, The Financial Review, and The Herald (Newcastle).
 954 #
 955 # I also searched for historical usage, to see whether abbreviations
 956 # like "AEDT" are new.  A Trove search <http://trove.nla.gov.au/>
 957 # found only one newspaper (The Canberra Times) with a house style
 958 # dating back to the 1970s, I expect because other newspapers weren't
 959 # fully indexed.  The Canberra Times strongly preferred abbreviations
 960 # like "AEDT".  The first occurrence of "AEDT" was a World Weather
 961 # column (1971-11-17, page 24), and of "ACDT" was a Scoreboard column
 962 # (1993-01-24, p 16).  The style was the typical usage but was not
 963 # strictly enforced; for example, "Welcome to the twilight zones ..."
 964 # (1994-10-29, p 1) uses the abbreviations AEST/AEDT, CST/CDT, and
 965 # WST, and goes on to say, "The confusion and frustration some feel
 966 # about the lack of uniformity among Australia's six states and two
 967 # territories has prompted one group to form its very own political
 968 # party -- the Sydney-based Daylight Saving Extension Party."
 969 #
 970 # I also surveyed federal government sources.  They did not agree:
 971 #
 972 #   The Australian Government (2014-03-26)
 973 #   http://australia.gov.au/about-australia/our-country/time
 974 #   (This document was produced by the Department of Finance.)
 975 #   AEST ACST AWST AEDT ACDT
 976 #
 977 #   Bureau of Meteorology (2012-11-08)
 978 #   http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/daysavtm.shtml
 979 #   EST CST WST EDT CDT
 980 #
 981 #   Civil Aviation Safety Authority (undated)
 982 #   http://services.casa.gov.au/outnback/inc/pages/episode3/episode-3_time_zones.shtml
 983 #   EST CST WST (no abbreviations given for DST)
 984 #
 985 #   Geoscience Australia (2011-11-24)
 986 #   http://www.ga.gov.au/geodesy/astro/sunrise.jsp
 987 #   AEST ACST AWST AEDT ACDT
 988 #
 989 #   Parliamentary Library (2008-11-10)
 990 #   http://www.aph.gov.au/binaries/library/pubs/rp/2008-09/09rp14.pdf
 991 #   EST CST WST preferred for standard time; AEST AEDT ACST ACDT also used
 992 #
 993 #   The Transport Safety Bureau has an extensive series of accident reports,
 994 #   and investigators seem to use whatever abbreviation they like.
 995 #   Googling site:atsb.gov.au found the following number of unique hits:
 996 #   311 "ESuT", 195 "EDT", 26 "AEDT", 83 "CSuT", 46 "CDT".
 997 #   "_SuT" tended to appear in older reports, and "A_DT" tended to
 998 #   appear in reports of events with international implications.
 999 #
1000 # From the above it appears that there is a working consensus in
1001 # Australia to use trailing "DT" for daylight saving time; although
1002 # some sources use trailing "SST" or "ST" or "SuT" they are by far in
1003 # the minority.  The case for leading "A" is weaker, but since it
1004 # seems to be preferred in the overall web and is preferred in all
1005 # the leading newspaper websites and in many government departments,
1006 # it has a stronger case than omitting the leading "A".  The current
1007 # version of the database therefore uses abbreviations like "AEST" and
1008 # "AEDT" for Australian time zones.
1009 
1010 # From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19):
1011 # Shanks & Pottenger report 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and NZ.
1012 # Mark Prior writes that his newspaper
1013 # reports that NSW's fall 1995 change will occur at 2:00,
1014 # but Robert Elz says it's been 3:00 in Victoria since 1970
1015 # and perhaps the newspaper's '2:00' is referring to standard time.
1016 # For now we'll continue to assume 2:00s for changes since 1960.
1017 
1018 # From Eric Ulevik (1998-01-05):
1019 #
1020 # Here are some URLs to Australian time legislation. These URLs are stable,
1021 # and should probably be included in the data file. There are probably more
1022 # relevant entries in this database.
1023 #
1024 # NSW (including LHI and Broken Hill):
1025 # Standard Time Act 1987 (updated 1995-04-04)
1026 # http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/consol_act/sta1987137/index.html
1027 # ACT
1028 # Standard Time and Summer Time Act 1972
1029 # http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/act/consol_act/stasta1972279/index.html
1030 # SA
1031 # Standard Time Act, 1898
1032 # http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/sa/consol_act/sta1898137/index.html
1033 
1034 # From David Grosz (2005-06-13):
1035 # It was announced last week that Daylight Saving would be extended by
1036 # one week next year to allow for the 2006 Commonwealth Games.
1037 # Daylight Saving is now to end for next year only on the first Sunday
1038 # in April instead of the last Sunday in March.
1039 #
1040 # From Gwillim Law (2005-06-14):
1041 # I did some Googling and found that all of those states (and territory) plan
1042 # to extend DST together in 2006.
1043 # ACT: http://www.cmd.act.gov.au/mediareleases/fileread.cfm?file=86.txt
1044 # New South Wales: http://www.thecouriermail.news.com.au/common/story_page/0,5936,15538869%255E1702,00.html
1045 # South Australia: http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,15555031-1246,00.html
1046 # Tasmania: http://www.media.tas.gov.au/release.php?id=14772
1047 # Victoria: I wasn't able to find anything separate, but the other articles
1048 # allude to it.
1049 # But not Queensland
1050 # http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,15564030-1248,00.html
1051 
1052 # Northern Territory
1053 
1054 # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1055 # # The NORTHERN TERRITORY..  [ Courtesy N.T. Dept of the Chief Minister ]
1056 # #                                     [ Nov 1990 ]
1057 # #     N.T. have never utilised any DST due to sub-tropical/tropical location.
1058 # ...
1059 # Zone        Australia/North         9:30    -       CST
1060 
1061 # From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
1062 # A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
1063 # the Northern Territory do[es] not have daylight saving.
1064 
1065 # Western Australia
1066 
1067 # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1068 # #  The state of WESTERN AUSTRALIA..  [ Courtesy W.A. dept Premier+Cabinet ]
1069 # #                                             [ Nov 1990 ]
1070 # #     W.A. suffers from a great deal of public and political opposition to
1071 # #     DST in principle. A bill is brought before parliament in most years, but
1072 # #     usually defeated either in the upper house, or in party caucus
1073 # #     before reaching parliament.
1074 # ...
1075 # Zone  Australia/West          8:00    AW      %sST
1076 # ...
1077 # Rule  AW      1974    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1078 # Rule  AW      1975    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       W
1079 # Rule  AW      1983    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1080 # Rule  AW      1984    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       W
1081 
1082 # From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
1083 # A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
1084 # Western Australia...do[es] not have daylight saving.
1085 
1086 # From John D. Newman via Bradley White (1991-11-02):
1087 # Western Australia is still on "winter time". Some DH in Sydney
1088 # rang me at home a few days ago at 6.00am. (He had just arrived at
1089 # work at 9.00am.)
1090 # W.A. is switching to Summer Time on Nov 17th just to confuse
1091 # everybody again.
1092 
1093 # From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
1094 # The 1992 ending date used in the rules is a best guess;
1095 # it matches what was used in the past.
1096 
1097 # The Australian Bureau of Meteorology FAQ
1098 # http://www.bom.gov.au/faq/faqgen.htm
1099 # (1999-09-27) writes that Giles Meteorological Station uses
1100 # South Australian time even though it's located in Western Australia.
1101 
1102 # Queensland
1103 # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1104 # #   The state of QUEENSLAND.. [ Courtesy Qld. Dept Premier Econ&Trade Devel ]
1105 # #                                             [ Dec 1990 ]
1106 # ...
1107 # Zone  Australia/Queensland    10:00   AQ      %sST
1108 # ...
1109 # Rule  AQ      1971    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1110 # Rule  AQ      1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 3:00    0       E
1111 # Rule  AQ      1989    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1112 # Rule  AQ      1990    max     -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       E
1113 
1114 # From Bradley White (1989-12-24):
1115 # "Australia/Queensland" now observes daylight time (i.e. from
1116 # October 1989).
1117 
1118 # From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
1119 # A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
1120 # ...Queensland...[has] agreed to end daylight saving
1121 # at 3am tomorrow (March 3)...
1122 
1123 # From John Mackin (1991-03-06):
1124 # I can certainly confirm for my part that Daylight Saving in NSW did in fact
1125 # end on Sunday, 3 March.  I don't know at what hour, though.  (It surprised
1126 # me.)
1127 
1128 # From Bradley White (1992-03-08):
1129 # ...there was recently a referendum in Queensland which resulted
1130 # in the experimental daylight saving system being abandoned. So, ...
1131 # ...
1132 # Rule  QLD     1989    1991    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1133 # Rule  QLD     1990    1992    -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       S
1134 # ...
1135 
1136 # From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
1137 # The chosen rules the union of the 1971/1972 change and the 1989-1992 changes.
1138 
1139 # From Christopher Hunt (2006-11-21), after an advance warning
1140 # from Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-11-01):
1141 # WA are trialing DST for three years.
1142 # http://www.parliament.wa.gov.au/parliament/bills.nsf/9A1B183144403DA54825721200088DF1/$File/Bill175-1B.pdf
1143 
1144 # From Rives McDow (2002-04-09):
1145 # The most interesting region I have found consists of three towns on the
1146 # southern coast....  South Australia observes daylight saving time; Western
1147 # Australia does not.  The two states are one and a half hours apart.  The
1148 # residents decided to forget about this nonsense of changing the clock so
1149 # much and set the local time 20 hours and 45 minutes from the
1150 # international date line, or right in the middle of the time of South
1151 # Australia and Western Australia....
1152 #
1153 # From Paul Eggert (2002-04-09):
1154 # This is confirmed by the section entitled
1155 # "What's the deal with time zones???" in
1156 # http://www.earthsci.unimelb.edu.au/~awatkins/null.html
1157 #
1158 # From Alex Livingston (2006-12-07):
1159 # ... it was just on four years ago that I drove along the Eyre Highway,
1160 # which passes through eastern Western Australia close to the southern
1161 # coast of the continent.
1162 #
1163 # I paid particular attention to the time kept there. There can be no
1164 # dispute that UTC+08:45 was considered "the time" from the border
1165 # village just inside the border with South Australia to as far west
1166 # as just east of Caiguna. There can also be no dispute that Eucla is
1167 # the largest population centre in this zone....
1168 #
1169 # Now that Western Australia is observing daylight saving, the
1170 # question arose whether this part of the state would follow suit. I
1171 # just called the border village and confirmed that indeed they have,
1172 # meaning that they are now observing UTC+09:45.
1173 #
1174 # (2006-12-09):
1175 # I personally doubt that either experimentation with daylight saving
1176 # in WA or its introduction in SA had anything to do with the genesis
1177 # of this time zone.  My hunch is that it's been around since well
1178 # before 1975.  I remember seeing it noted on road maps decades ago.
1179 
1180 # From Paul Eggert (2006-12-15):
1181 # For lack of better info, assume the tradition dates back to the
1182 # introduction of standard time in 1895.
1183 
1184 
1185 # southeast Australia
1186 #
1187 # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1188 # Starting autumn 2008 Victoria, NSW, South Australia, Tasmania and the ACT
1189 # end DST the first Sunday in April and start DST the first Sunday in October.
1190 # http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/daylight-savings-to-span-six-months/2007/06/27/1182623966703.html
1191 
1192 
1193 # South Australia
1194 
1195 # From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
1196 # A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
1197 # ...South Australia...[has] agreed to end daylight saving
1198 # at 3am tomorrow (March 3)...
1199 
1200 # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1201 # #   The state of SOUTH AUSTRALIA....[ Courtesy of S.A. Dept of Labour ]
1202 # #                                             [ Nov 1990 ]
1203 # ...
1204 # Zone  Australia/South         9:30    AS      %sST
1205 # ...
1206 # Rule   AS     1971    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1207 # Rule   AS     1972    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       C
1208 # Rule   AS     1986    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=15      3:00    0       C
1209 # Rule   AS     1991    max     -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       C
1210 
1211 # From Bradley White (1992-03-11):
1212 # Recent correspondence with a friend in Adelaide
1213 # contained the following exchange:  "Due to the Adelaide Festival,
1214 # South Australia delays setting back our clocks for a few weeks."
1215 
1216 # From Robert Elz (1992-03-13):
1217 # I heard that apparently (or at least, it appears that)
1218 # South Aus will have an extra 3 weeks daylight saving every even
1219 # numbered year (from 1990).  That's when the Adelaide Festival
1220 # is on...
1221 
1222 # From Robert Elz (1992-03-16, 00:57:07 +1000):
1223 # DST didn't end in Adelaide today (yesterday)....
1224 # But whether it's "4th Sunday" or "2nd last Sunday" I have no idea whatever...
1225 # (it's just as likely to be "the Sunday we pick for this year"...).
1226 
1227 # From Bradley White (1994-04-11):
1228 # If Sun, 15 March, 1992 was at +1030 as kre asserts, but yet Sun, 20 March,
1229 # 1994 was at +0930 as John Connolly's customer seems to assert, then I can
1230 # only conclude that the actual rule is more complicated....
1231 
1232 # From John Warburton (1994-10-07):
1233 # The new Daylight Savings dates for South Australia ...
1234 # was gazetted in the Government Hansard on Sep 26 1994....
1235 # start on last Sunday in October and end in last sunday in March.
1236 
1237 # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1238 # See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1239 
1240 # Tasmania
1241 
1242 # The rules for 1967 through 1991 were reported by George Shepherd
1243 # via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1244 # #  The state of TASMANIA.. [Courtesy Tasmanian Dept of Premier + Cabinet ]
1245 # #                                     [ Nov 1990 ]
1246 
1247 # From Bill Hart via Guy Harris (1991-10-10):
1248 # Oh yes, the new daylight savings rules are uniquely tasmanian, we have
1249 # 6 weeks a year now when we are out of sync with the rest of Australia
1250 # (but nothing new about that).
1251 
1252 # From Alex Livingston (1999-10-04):
1253 # I heard on the ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) radio news on the
1254 # (long) weekend that Tasmania, which usually goes its own way in this regard,
1255 # has decided to join with most of NSW, the ACT, and most of Victoria
1256 # (Australia) and start daylight saving on the last Sunday in August in 2000
1257 # instead of the first Sunday in October.
1258 
1259 # Sim Alam (2000-07-03) reported a legal citation for the 2000/2001 rules:
1260 # http://www.thelaw.tas.gov.au/fragview/42++1968+GS3A@EN+2000070300
1261 
1262 # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1263 # See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1264 
1265 # Victoria
1266 
1267 # The rules for 1971 through 1991 were reported by George Shepherd
1268 # via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1269 # #   The state of VICTORIA.. [ Courtesy of Vic. Dept of Premier + Cabinet ]
1270 # #                                             [ Nov 1990 ]
1271 
1272 # From Scott Harrington (2001-08-29):
1273 # On KQED's "City Arts and Lectures" program last night I heard an
1274 # interesting story about daylight savings time.  Dr. John Heilbron was
1275 # discussing his book "The Sun in the Church: Cathedrals as Solar
1276 # Observatories"[1], and in particular the Shrine of Remembrance[2] located
1277 # in Melbourne, Australia.
1278 #
1279 # Apparently the shrine's main purpose is a beam of sunlight which
1280 # illuminates a special spot on the floor at the 11th hour of the 11th day
1281 # of the 11th month (Remembrance Day) every year in memory of Australia's
1282 # fallen WWI soldiers.  And if you go there on Nov. 11, at 11am local time,
1283 # you will indeed see the sunbeam illuminate the special spot at the
1284 # expected time.
1285 #
1286 # However, that is only because of some special mirror contraption that had
1287 # to be employed, since due to daylight savings time, the true solar time of
1288 # the remembrance moment occurs one hour later (or earlier?).  Perhaps
1289 # someone with more information on this jury-rig can tell us more.
1290 #
1291 # [1] http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog/HEISUN.html
1292 # [2] http://www.shrine.org.au
1293 
1294 # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1295 # See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1296 
1297 # New South Wales
1298 
1299 # From Arthur David Olson:
1300 # New South Wales and subjurisdictions have their own ideas of a fun time.
1301 # Based on law library research by John Mackin,
1302 # who notes:
1303 #       In Australia, time is not legislated federally, but rather by the
1304 #       individual states.  Thus, while such terms as "Eastern Standard Time"
1305 #       [I mean, of course, Australian EST, not any other kind] are in common
1306 #       use, _they have NO REAL MEANING_, as they are not defined in the
1307 #       legislation.  This is very important to understand.
1308 #       I have researched New South Wales time only...
1309 
1310 # From Eric Ulevik (1999-05-26):
1311 # DST will start in NSW on the last Sunday of August, rather than the usual
1312 # October in 2000.  See: Matthew Moore,
1313 # Two months more daylight saving, Sydney Morning Herald (1999-05-26).
1314 # http://www.smh.com.au/news/9905/26/pageone/pageone4.html
1315 
1316 # From Paul Eggert (1999-09-27):
1317 # See the following official NSW source:
1318 # Daylight Saving in New South Wales.
1319 # http://dir.gis.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/genobject/document/other/daylightsaving/tigGmZ
1320 #
1321 # Narrabri Shire (NSW) council has announced it will ignore the extension of
1322 # daylight saving next year.  See:
1323 # Narrabri Council to ignore daylight saving
1324 # http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/neweng/monthly/regeng-22jul1999-1.htm
1325 # (1999-07-22).  For now, we'll wait to see if this really happens.
1326 #
1327 # Victoria will following NSW.  See:
1328 # Vic to extend daylight saving (1999-07-28)
1329 # http://abc.net.au/local/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990728112314_1.htm
1330 #
1331 # However, South Australia rejected the DST request.  See:
1332 # South Australia rejects Olympics daylight savings request (1999-07-19)
1333 # http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990719151754_1.htm
1334 #
1335 # Queensland also will not observe DST for the Olympics.  See:
1336 # Qld says no to daylight savings for Olympics
1337 # http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/06/item19990601114608_1.htm
1338 # (1999-06-01), which quotes Queensland Premier Peter Beattie as saying
1339 # "Look you've got to remember in my family when this came up last time
1340 # I voted for it, my wife voted against it and she said to me it's all very
1341 # well for you, you don't have to worry about getting the children out of
1342 # bed, getting them to school, getting them to sleep at night.
1343 # I've been through all this argument domestically...my wife rules."
1344 #
1345 # Broken Hill will stick with South Australian time in 2000.  See:
1346 # Broken Hill to be behind the times (1999-07-21)
1347 # http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/brokenh/monthly/regbrok-21jul1999-6.htm
1348 
1349 # IATA SSIM (1998-09) says that the spring 2000 change for Australian
1350 # Capital Territory, New South Wales except Lord Howe Island and Broken
1351 # Hill, and Victoria will be August 27, presumably due to the Sydney Olympics.
1352 
1353 # From Eric Ulevik, referring to Sydney's Sun Herald (2000-08-13), page 29:
1354 # The Queensland Premier Peter Beattie is encouraging northern NSW
1355 # towns to use Queensland time.
1356 
1357 # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1358 # See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1359 
1360 # Yancowinna
1361 
1362 # From John Mackin (1989-01-04):
1363 # 'Broken Hill' means the County of Yancowinna.
1364 
1365 # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1366 # # YANCOWINNA..  [ Confirmation courtesy of Broken Hill Postmaster ]
1367 # #                                     [ Dec 1990 ]
1368 # ...
1369 # # Yancowinna uses Central Standard Time, despite [its] location on the
1370 # # New South Wales side of the S.A. border. Most business and social dealings
1371 # # are with CST zones, therefore CST is legislated by local government
1372 # # although the switch to Summer Time occurs in line with N.S.W. There have
1373 # # been years when this did not apply, but the historical data is not
1374 # # presently available.
1375 # Zone  Australia/Yancowinna    9:30     AY     %sST
1376 # ...
1377 # Rule   AY     1971    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1378 # Rule   AY     1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 3:00    0       C
1379 # [followed by other Rules]
1380 
1381 # Lord Howe Island
1382 
1383 # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1384 # LHI...                [ Courtesy of Pauline Van Winsen ]
1385 #                                       [ Dec 1990 ]
1386 # Lord Howe Island is located off the New South Wales coast, and is half an
1387 # hour ahead of NSW time.
1388 
1389 # From James Lonergan, Secretary, Lord Howe Island Board (2000-01-27):
1390 # Lord Howe Island summer time in 2000/2001 will commence on the same
1391 # date as the rest of NSW (i.e. 2000-08-27).  For your information the
1392 # Lord Howe Island Board (controlling authority for the Island) is
1393 # seeking the community's views on various options for summer time
1394 # arrangements on the Island, e.g. advance clocks by 1 full hour
1395 # instead of only 30 minutes.  [Dependent] on the wishes of residents
1396 # the Board may approach the NSW government to change the existing
1397 # arrangements.  The starting date for summer time on the Island will
1398 # however always coincide with the rest of NSW.
1399 
1400 # From James Lonergan, Secretary, Lord Howe Island Board (2000-10-25):
1401 # Lord Howe Island advances clocks by 30 minutes during DST in NSW and retards
1402 # clocks by 30 minutes when DST finishes. Since DST was most recently
1403 # introduced in NSW, the "changeover" time on the Island has been 02:00 as
1404 # shown on clocks on LHI. I guess this means that for 30 minutes at the start
1405 # of DST, LHI is actually 1 hour ahead of the rest of NSW.
1406 
1407 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1408 # For Lord Howe dates we use Shanks & Pottenger through 1989, and
1409 # Lonergan thereafter.  For times we use Lonergan.
1410 
1411 # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1412 # See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1413 
1414 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-04-28):
1415 # According to the official press release, South Australia's extended daylight
1416 # saving period will continue with the same rules as used during the 2008-2009
1417 # summer (southern hemisphere).
1418 #
1419 # From
1420 # http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/uploaded_files/DaylightDatesSet.pdf
1421 # The extended daylight saving period that South Australia has been trialling
1422 # for over the last year is now set to be ongoing.
1423 # Daylight saving will continue to start on the first Sunday in October each
1424 # year and finish on the first Sunday in April the following year.
1425 # Industrial Relations Minister, Paul Caica, says this provides South Australia
1426 # with a consistent half hour time difference with NSW, Victoria, Tasmania and
1427 # the ACT for all 52 weeks of the year...
1428 #
1429 # We have a wrap-up here:
1430 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/south-australia-extends-dst.html
1431 ###############################################################################
1432 
1433 # New Zealand
1434 
1435 # From Mark Davies (1990-10-03):
1436 # the 1989/90 year was a trial of an extended "daylight saving" period.
1437 # This trial was deemed successful and the extended period adopted for
1438 # subsequent years (with the addition of a further week at the start).
1439 # source - phone call to Ministry of Internal Affairs Head Office.
1440 
1441 # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1442 # # The Country of New Zealand   (Australia's east island -) Gee they hate that!
1443 # #                                or is Australia the west island of N.Z.
1444 # #     [ courtesy of Geoff Tribble.. Auckland N.Z. ]
1445 # #                             [ Nov 1990 ]
1446 # ...
1447 # Rule  NZ      1974    1988    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1448 # Rule  NZ      1989    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
1449 # Rule  NZ      1975    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       S
1450 # Rule  NZ      1990    max     -       Mar     lastSun 3:00    0       S
1451 # ...
1452 # Zone  NZ                      12:00   NZ              NZ%sT   # New Zealand
1453 # Zone  NZ-CHAT                 12:45   -               NZ-CHAT # Chatham Island
1454 
1455 # From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
1456 # The chosen rules use the Davies October 8 values for the start of DST in 1989
1457 # rather than the October 1 value.
1458 
1459 # From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19);
1460 # Shank & Pottenger report 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and NZ.
1461 # Robert Uzgalis writes that the New Zealand Daylight
1462 # Savings Time Order in Council dated 1990-06-18 specifies 2:00 standard
1463 # time on both the first Sunday in October and the third Sunday in March.
1464 # As with Australia, we'll assume the tradition is 2:00s, not 2:00.
1465 #
1466 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1467 # The Department of Internal Affairs (DIA) maintains a brief history,
1468 # as does Carol Squires; see tz-link.htm for the full references.
1469 # Use these sources in preference to Shanks & Pottenger.
1470 #
1471 # For Chatham, IATA SSIM (1991/1999) gives the NZ rules but with
1472 # transitions at 2:45 local standard time; this confirms that Chatham
1473 # is always exactly 45 minutes ahead of Auckland.
1474 
1475 # From Colin Sharples (2007-04-30):
1476 # DST will now start on the last Sunday in September, and end on the
1477 # first Sunday in April.  The changes take effect this year, meaning
1478 # that DST will begin on 2007-09-30 2008-04-06.
1479 # http://www.dia.govt.nz/diawebsite.nsf/wpg_URL/Services-Daylight-Saving-Daylight-saving-to-be-extended
1480 
1481 # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-14):
1482 # Chatham Island time was formally standardized on 1957-01-01 by
1483 # New Zealand's Standard Time Amendment Act 1956 (1956-10-26).
1484 # http://www.austlii.edu.au/nz/legis/hist_act/staa19561956n100244.pdf
1485 # According to Google Books snippet view, a speaker in the New Zealand
1486 # parliamentary debates in 1956 said "Clause 78 makes provision for standard
1487 # time in the Chatham Islands.  The time there is 45 minutes in advance of New
1488 # Zealand time.  I understand that is the time they keep locally, anyhow."
1489 # For now, assume this practice goes back to the introduction of standard time
1490 # in New Zealand, as this would make Chatham Islands time almost exactly match
1491 # LMT back when New Zealand was at UTC+11:30; also, assume Chatham Islands did
1492 # not observe New Zealand's prewar DST.
1493 
1494 ###############################################################################
1495 
1496 
1497 # Fiji
1498 
1499 # Howse writes (p 153) that in 1879 the British governor of Fiji
1500 # enacted an ordinance standardizing the islands on Antipodean Time
1501 # instead of the American system (which was one day behind).
1502 
1503 # From Rives McDow (1998-10-08):
1504 # Fiji will introduce DST effective 0200 local time, 1998-11-01
1505 # until 0300 local time 1999-02-28.  Each year the DST period will
1506 # be from the first Sunday in November until the last Sunday in February.
1507 
1508 # From Paul Eggert (2000-01-08):
1509 # IATA SSIM (1999-09) says DST ends 0100 local time.  Go with McDow.
1510 
1511 # From the BBC World Service in
1512 # http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/205226.stm (1998-10-31 16:03 UTC):
1513 # The Fijian government says the main reasons for the time change is to
1514 # improve productivity and reduce road accidents.... [T]he move is also
1515 # intended to boost Fiji's ability to attract tourists to witness the dawning
1516 # of the new millennium.
1517 
1518 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/press/2000_09/2000_09_13-05.shtml (2000-09-13)
1519 # reports that Fiji has discontinued DST.
1520 
1521 
1522 # Kiribati
1523 
1524 # From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22):
1525 # Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (page 1) reports that Kiribati
1526 # "declared it the same day [throughout] the country as of Jan. 1, 1995"
1527 # as part of the competition to be first into the 21st century.
1528 
1529 
1530 # Kwajalein
1531 
1532 # In comp.risks 14.87 (26 August 1993), Peter Neumann writes:
1533 # I wonder what happened in Kwajalein, where there was NO Friday,
1534 # 1993-08-20.  Thursday night at midnight Kwajalein switched sides with
1535 # respect to the International Date Line, to rejoin its fellow islands,
1536 # going from 11:59 p.m. Thursday to 12:00 m. Saturday in a blink.
1537 
1538 
1539 # N Mariana Is, Guam
1540 
1541 # Howse writes (p 153) "The Spaniards, on the other hand, reached the
1542 # Philippines and the Ladrones from America," and implies that the Ladrones
1543 # (now called the Marianas) kept American date for quite some time.
1544 # For now, we assume the Ladrones switched at the same time as the Philippines;
1545 # see Asia/Manila.
1546 
1547 # US Public Law 106-564 (2000-12-23) made UTC+10 the official standard time,
1548 # under the name "Chamorro Standard Time".  There is no official abbreviation,
1549 # but Congressman Robert A. Underwood, author of the bill that became law,
1550 # wrote in a press release (2000-12-27) that he will seek the use of "ChST".
1551 
1552 
1553 # Micronesia
1554 
1555 # Alan Eugene Davis writes (1996-03-16),
1556 # "I am certain, having lived there for the past decade, that 'Truk'
1557 # (now properly known as Chuuk) ... is in the time zone GMT+10."
1558 #
1559 # Shanks & Pottenger write that Truk switched from UTC+10 to UTC+11
1560 # on 1978-10-01; ignore this for now.
1561 
1562 # From Paul Eggert (1999-10-29):
1563 # The Federated States of Micronesia Visitors Board writes in
1564 # The Federated States of Micronesia - Visitor Information (1999-01-26)
1565 # http://www.fsmgov.org/info/clocks.html
1566 # that Truk and Yap are UTC+10, and Ponape and Kosrae are UTC+11.
1567 # We don't know when Kosrae switched from UTC+12; assume January 1 for now.
1568 
1569 
1570 # Midway
1571 
1572 # From Charles T O'Connor, KMTH DJ (1956),
1573 # quoted in the KTMH section of the Radio Heritage Collection
1574 # <http://radiodx.com/spdxr/KMTH.htm> (2002-12-31):
1575 # For the past two months we've been on what is known as Daylight
1576 # Saving Time.  This time has put us on air at 5am in the morning,
1577 # your time down there in New Zealand.  Starting September 2, 1956
1578 # we'll again go back to Standard Time.  This'll mean that we'll go to
1579 # air at 6am your time.
1580 #
1581 # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23):
1582 # We don't know the date of that quote, but we'll guess they
1583 # started DST on June 3.  Possibly DST was observed other years
1584 # in Midway, but we have no record of it.
1585 
1586 # Norfolk
1587 
1588 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2015-09-23):
1589 # Norfolk Island will change ... from +1130 to +1100:
1590 # https://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/F2015L01483/Explanatory%20Statement/Text
1591 # ... at 12.30 am (by legal time in New South Wales) on 4 October 2015.
1592 # http://www.norfolkisland.gov.nf/nia/MediaRelease/Media%20Release%20Norfolk%20Island%20Standard%20Time%20Change.pdf
1593 
1594 # From Paul Eggert (2015-09-23):
1595 # Transitions before 2015 are from timeanddate.com, which consulted
1596 # the Norfolk Island Museum and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's
1597 # Norfolk Island station, and found no record of Norfolk observing DST
1598 # other than in 1974/5.  See:
1599 # http://www.timeanddate.com/time/australia/norfolk-island.html
1600 
1601 # Pitcairn
1602 
1603 # From Rives McDow (1999-11-08):
1604 # A Proclamation was signed by the Governor of Pitcairn on the 27th March 1998
1605 # with regard to Pitcairn Standard Time.  The Proclamation is as follows.
1606 #
1607 #       The local time for general purposes in the Islands shall be
1608 #       Co-ordinated Universal time minus 8 hours and shall be known
1609 #       as Pitcairn Standard Time.
1610 #
1611 # ... I have also seen Pitcairn listed as UTC minus 9 hours in several
1612 # references, and can only assume that this was an error in interpretation
1613 # somehow in light of this proclamation.
1614 
1615 # From Rives McDow (1999-11-09):
1616 # The Proclamation regarding Pitcairn time came into effect on 27 April 1998
1617 # ... at midnight.
1618 
1619 # From Howie Phelps (1999-11-10), who talked to a Pitcairner via shortwave:
1620 # Betty Christian told me yesterday that their local time is the same as
1621 # Pacific Standard Time. They used to be 1/2 hour different from us here in
1622 # Sacramento but it was changed a couple of years ago.
1623 
1624 
1625 # (Western) Samoa and American Samoa
1626 
1627 # Howse writes (p 153, citing p 10 of the 1883-11-18 New York Herald)
1628 # that in 1879 the King of Samoa decided to change
1629 # "the date in his kingdom from the Antipodean to the American system,
1630 # ordaining - by a masterpiece of diplomatic flattery - that
1631 # the Fourth of July should be celebrated twice in that year."
1632 
1633 # Although Shanks & Pottenger says they both switched to UTC-11:30
1634 # in 1911, and to UTC-11 in 1950. many earlier sources give UTC-11
1635 # for American Samoa, e.g., the US National Bureau of Standards
1636 # circular "Standard Time Throughout the World", 1932.
1637 # Assume American Samoa switched to UTC-11 in 1911, not 1950,
1638 # and that after 1950 they agreed until (western) Samoa skipped a
1639 # day in 2011.  Assume also that the Samoas follow the US and New
1640 # Zealand's "ST"/"DT" style of daylight-saving abbreviations.
1641 
1642 # Tonga
1643 
1644 # From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22):
1645 # Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (p 1) reports that "Tonga has been plotting
1646 # to sneak ahead of [New Zealanders] by introducing daylight-saving time."
1647 # Since Kiribati has moved the Date Line it's not clear what Tonga will do.
1648 
1649 # Don Mundell writes in the 1997-02-20 Tonga Chronicle
1650 # How Tonga became 'The Land where Time Begins':
1651 # http://www.tongatapu.net.to/tonga/homeland/timebegins.htm
1652 #
1653 # Until 1941 Tonga maintained a standard time 50 minutes ahead of NZST
1654 # 12 hours and 20 minutes ahead of GMT.  When New Zealand adjusted its
1655 # standard time in 1940s, Tonga had the choice of subtracting from its
1656 # local time to come on the same standard time as New Zealand or of
1657 # advancing its time to maintain the differential of 13 degrees
1658 # (approximately 50 minutes ahead of New Zealand time).
1659 #
1660 # Because His Majesty King Tāufaʻāhau Tupou IV, then Crown Prince
1661 # Tungī, preferred to ensure Tonga's title as the land where time
1662 # begins, the Legislative Assembly approved the latter change.
1663 #
1664 # But some of the older, more conservative members from the outer
1665 # islands objected. "If at midnight on Dec. 31, we move ahead 40
1666 # minutes, as your Royal Highness wishes, what becomes of the 40
1667 # minutes we have lost?"
1668 #
1669 # The Crown Prince, presented an unanswerable argument: "Remember that
1670 # on the World Day of Prayer, you would be the first people on Earth
1671 # to say your prayers in the morning."
1672 
1673 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1674 # Shanks & Pottenger say the transition was on 1968-10-01; go with Mundell.
1675 
1676 # From Eric Ulevik (1999-05-03):
1677 # Tonga's director of tourism, who is also secretary of the National Millennium
1678 # Committee, has a plan to get Tonga back in front.
1679 # He has proposed a one-off move to tropical daylight saving for Tonga from
1680 # October to March, which has won approval in principle from the Tongan
1681 # Government.
1682 
1683 # From Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
1684 # * Tonga will introduce DST in November
1685 #
1686 # I was given this link by John Letts:
1687 # http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_424000/424764.stm
1688 #
1689 # I have not been able to find exact dates for the transition in November
1690 # yet. By reading this article it seems like Fiji will be 14 hours ahead
1691 # of UTC as well, but as far as I know Fiji will only be 13 hours ahead
1692 # (12 + 1 hour DST).
1693 
1694 # From Arthur David Olson (1999-09-20):
1695 # According to <http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html>:
1696 # "Daylight Savings Time will take effect on Oct. 2 through April 15, 2000
1697 # and annually thereafter from the first Saturday in October through the
1698 # third Saturday of April.  Under the system approved by Privy Council on
1699 # Sept. 10, clocks must be turned ahead one hour on the opening day and
1700 # set back an hour on the closing date."
1701 # Alas, no indication of the time of day.
1702 
1703 # From Rives McDow (1999-10-06):
1704 # Tonga started its Daylight Saving on Saturday morning October 2nd at 0200am.
1705 # Daylight Saving ends on April 16 at 0300am which is Sunday morning.
1706 
1707 # From Steffen Thorsen (2000-10-31):
1708 # Back in March I found a notice on the website http://www.tongaonline.com
1709 # that Tonga changed back to standard time one month early, on March 19
1710 # instead of the original reported date April 16. Unfortunately, the article
1711 # is no longer available on the site, and I did not make a copy of the
1712 # text, and I have forgotten to report it here.
1713 # (Original URL was <http://www.tongaonline.com/news/march162000.htm>)
1714 
1715 # From Rives McDow (2000-12-01):
1716 # Tonga is observing DST as of 2000-11-04 and will stop on 2001-01-27.
1717 
1718 # From Sione Moala-Mafi (2001-09-20) via Rives McDow:
1719 # At 2:00am on the first Sunday of November, the standard time in the Kingdom
1720 # shall be moved forward by one hour to 3:00am.  At 2:00am on the last Sunday
1721 # of January the standard time in the Kingdom shall be moved backward by one
1722 # hour to 1:00am.
1723 
1724 # From Pulu 'Anau (2002-11-05):
1725 # The law was for 3 years, supposedly to get renewed.  It wasn't.
1726 
1727 
1728 # Wake
1729 
1730 # From Vernice Anderson, Personal Secretary to Philip Jessup,
1731 # US Ambassador At Large (oral history interview, 1971-02-02):
1732 #
1733 # Saturday, the 14th [of October, 1950] - ...  The time was all the
1734 # more confusing at that point, because we had crossed the
1735 # International Date Line, thus getting two Sundays.  Furthermore, we
1736 # discovered that Wake Island had two hours of daylight saving time
1737 # making calculation of time in Washington difficult if not almost
1738 # impossible.
1739 #
1740 # http://www.trumanlibrary.org/wake/meeting.htm
1741 
1742 # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23):
1743 # We have no other report of DST in Wake Island, so omit this info for now.
1744 
1745 ###############################################################################
1746 
1747 # The International Date Line
1748 
1749 # From Gwillim Law (2000-01-03):
1750 #
1751 # The International Date Line is not defined by any international standard,
1752 # convention, or treaty.  Mapmakers are free to draw it as they please.
1753 # Reputable mapmakers will simply ensure that every point of land appears on
1754 # the correct side of the IDL, according to the date legally observed there.
1755 #
1756 # When Kiribati adopted a uniform date in 1995, thereby moving the Phoenix and
1757 # Line Islands to the west side of the IDL (or, if you prefer, moving the IDL
1758 # to the east side of the Phoenix and Line Islands), I suppose that most
1759 # mapmakers redrew the IDL following the boundary of Kiribati.  Even that line
1760 # has a rather arbitrary nature.  The straight-line boundaries between Pacific
1761 # island nations that are shown on many maps are based on an international
1762 # convention, but are not legally binding national borders.... The date is
1763 # governed by the IDL; therefore, even on the high seas, there may be some
1764 # places as late as fourteen hours later than UTC.  And, since the IDL is not
1765 # an international standard, there are some places on the high seas where the
1766 # correct date is ambiguous.
1767 
1768 # From Wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_zone> (2005-08-31):
1769 # Before 1920, all ships kept local apparent time on the high seas by setting
1770 # their clocks at night or at the morning sight so that, given the ship's
1771 # speed and direction, it would be 12 o'clock when the Sun crossed the ship's
1772 # meridian (12 o'clock = local apparent noon).  During 1917, at the
1773 # Anglo-French Conference on Time-keeping at Sea, it was recommended that all
1774 # ships, both military and civilian, should adopt hourly standard time zones
1775 # on the high seas.  Whenever a ship was within the territorial waters of any
1776 # nation it would use that nation's standard time.  The captain was permitted
1777 # to change his ship's clocks at a time of his choice following his ship's
1778 # entry into another zone time - he often chose midnight.  These zones were
1779 # adopted by all major fleets between 1920 and 1925 but not by many
1780 # independent merchant ships until World War II.
1781 
1782 # From Paul Eggert, using references suggested by Oscar van Vlijmen
1783 # (2005-03-20):
1784 #
1785 # The American Practical Navigator (2002)
1786 # http://pollux.nss.nima.mil/pubs/pubs_j_apn_sections.html?rid=187
1787 # talks only about the 180-degree meridian with respect to ships in
1788 # international waters; it ignores the international date line.
--- EOF ---