1 #
   2 # DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
   3 #
   4 # This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   5 # under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
   6 # published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
   7 # particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
   8 # by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
   9 #
  10 # This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  11 # ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  12 # FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  13 # version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  14 # accompanied this code).
  15 #
  16 # You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  17 # 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  18 # Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  19 #
  20 # Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  21 # or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  22 # questions.
  23 #
  24 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
  25 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
  26 
  27 # This file also includes Pacific islands.
  28 
  29 # Notes are at the end of this file
  30 
  31 ###############################################################################
  32 
  33 # Australia
  34 
  35 # Please see the notes below for the controversy about "EST" versus "AEST" etc.
  36 
  37 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
  38 Rule    Aus     1917    only    -       Jan      1      0:01    1:00    D
  39 Rule    Aus     1917    only    -       Mar     25      2:00    0       S
  40 Rule    Aus     1942    only    -       Jan      1      2:00    1:00    D
  41 Rule    Aus     1942    only    -       Mar     29      2:00    0       S
  42 Rule    Aus     1942    only    -       Sep     27      2:00    1:00    D
  43 Rule    Aus     1943    1944    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    0       S
  44 Rule    Aus     1943    only    -       Oct      3      2:00    1:00    D
  45 # Go with Whitman and the Australian National Standards Commission, which
  46 # says W Australia didn't use DST in 1943/1944.  Ignore Whitman's claim that
  47 # 1944/1945 was just like 1943/1944.
  48 
  49 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
  50 # Northern Territory
  51 Zone Australia/Darwin    8:43:20 -      LMT     1895 Feb
  52                          9:00   -       ACST    1899 May
  53                          9:30   Aus     AC%sT
  54 # Western Australia
  55 #
  56 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
  57 Rule    AW      1974    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
  58 Rule    AW      1975    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
  59 Rule    AW      1983    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
  60 Rule    AW      1984    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
  61 Rule    AW      1991    only    -       Nov     17      2:00s   1:00    D
  62 Rule    AW      1992    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
  63 Rule    AW      2006    only    -       Dec      3      2:00s   1:00    D
  64 Rule    AW      2007    2009    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
  65 Rule    AW      2007    2008    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
  66 Zone Australia/Perth     7:43:24 -      LMT     1895 Dec
  67                          8:00   Aus     AW%sT   1943 Jul
  68                          8:00   AW      AW%sT
  69 Zone Australia/Eucla     8:35:28 -      LMT     1895 Dec
  70                          8:45   Aus     ACW%sT  1943 Jul
  71                          8:45   AW      ACW%sT
  72 
  73 # Queensland
  74 #
  75 # From Alex Livingston (1996-11-01):
  76 # I have heard or read more than once that some resort islands off the coast
  77 # of Queensland chose to keep observing daylight-saving time even after
  78 # Queensland ceased to.
  79 #
  80 # From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
  81 # IATA SSIM (1993-02/1994-09) say that the Holiday Islands (Hayman, Lindeman,
  82 # Hamilton) observed DST for two years after the rest of Queensland stopped.
  83 # Hamilton is the largest, but there is also a Hamilton in Victoria,
  84 # so use Lindeman.
  85 #
  86 # From J William Piggott (2016-02-20):
  87 # There is no location named Holiday Islands in Queensland Australia; holiday
  88 # islands is a colloquial term used globally.  Hayman and Lindeman are at the
  89 # north and south extremes of the Whitsunday Islands archipelago, and
  90 # Hamilton is in between; it is reasonable to believe that this time zone
  91 # applies to all of the Whitsundays.
  92 # http://www.australia.gov.au/about-australia/australian-story/austn-islands
  93 #
  94 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
  95 Rule    AQ      1971    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
  96 Rule    AQ      1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
  97 Rule    AQ      1989    1991    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
  98 Rule    AQ      1990    1992    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
  99 Rule    Holiday 1992    1993    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 100 Rule    Holiday 1993    1994    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 101 Zone Australia/Brisbane 10:12:08 -      LMT     1895
 102                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1971
 103                         10:00   AQ      AE%sT
 104 Zone Australia/Lindeman  9:55:56 -      LMT     1895
 105                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1971
 106                         10:00   AQ      AE%sT   1992 Jul
 107                         10:00   Holiday AE%sT
 108 
 109 # South Australia
 110 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 111 Rule    AS      1971    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 112 Rule    AS      1986    only    -       Oct     19      2:00s   1:00    D
 113 Rule    AS      1987    2007    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 114 Rule    AS      1972    only    -       Feb     27      2:00s   0       S
 115 Rule    AS      1973    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 116 Rule    AS      1986    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       S
 117 Rule    AS      1991    only    -       Mar     3       2:00s   0       S
 118 Rule    AS      1992    only    -       Mar     22      2:00s   0       S
 119 Rule    AS      1993    only    -       Mar     7       2:00s   0       S
 120 Rule    AS      1994    only    -       Mar     20      2:00s   0       S
 121 Rule    AS      1995    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 122 Rule    AS      2006    only    -       Apr     2       2:00s   0       S
 123 Rule    AS      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 124 Rule    AS      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 125 Rule    AS      2008    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 126 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 127 Zone Australia/Adelaide 9:14:20 -       LMT     1895 Feb
 128                         9:00    -       ACST    1899 May
 129                         9:30    Aus     AC%sT   1971
 130                         9:30    AS      AC%sT
 131 
 132 # Tasmania
 133 #
 134 # From Paul Eggert (2005-08-16):
 135 # http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml
 136 # says King Island didn't observe DST from WWII until late 1971.
 137 #
 138 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 139 Rule    AT      1967    only    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 140 Rule    AT      1968    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 141 Rule    AT      1968    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 142 Rule    AT      1969    1971    -       Mar     Sun>=8       2:00s   0       S
 143 Rule    AT      1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 144 Rule    AT      1973    1981    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 145 Rule    AT      1982    1983    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 146 Rule    AT      1984    1986    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 147 Rule    AT      1986    only    -       Oct     Sun>=15      2:00s   1:00    D
 148 Rule    AT      1987    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       S
 149 Rule    AT      1987    only    -       Oct     Sun>=22      2:00s   1:00    D
 150 Rule    AT      1988    1990    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 151 Rule    AT      1991    1999    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 152 Rule    AT      1991    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 153 Rule    AT      2000    only    -       Aug     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 154 Rule    AT      2001    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 155 Rule    AT      2006    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 156 Rule    AT      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 157 Rule    AT      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 158 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 159 Zone Australia/Hobart   9:49:16 -       LMT     1895 Sep
 160                         10:00   -       AEST    1916 Oct  1  2:00
 161                         10:00   1:00    AEDT    1917 Feb
 162                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1967
 163                         10:00   AT      AE%sT
 164 Zone Australia/Currie   9:35:28 -       LMT     1895 Sep
 165                         10:00   -       AEST    1916 Oct  1  2:00
 166                         10:00   1:00    AEDT    1917 Feb
 167                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1971 Jul
 168                         10:00   AT      AE%sT
 169 
 170 # Victoria
 171 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 172 Rule    AV      1971    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 173 Rule    AV      1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 174 Rule    AV      1973    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 175 Rule    AV      1986    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       S
 176 Rule    AV      1986    1987    -       Oct     Sun>=15      2:00s   1:00    D
 177 Rule    AV      1988    1999    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 178 Rule    AV      1991    1994    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 179 Rule    AV      1995    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 180 Rule    AV      2000    only    -       Aug     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 181 Rule    AV      2001    2007    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 182 Rule    AV      2006    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 183 Rule    AV      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 184 Rule    AV      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 185 Rule    AV      2008    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 186 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 187 Zone Australia/Melbourne 9:39:52 -      LMT     1895 Feb
 188                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1971
 189                         10:00   AV      AE%sT
 190 
 191 # New South Wales
 192 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 193 Rule    AN      1971    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 194 Rule    AN      1972    only    -       Feb     27      2:00s   0       S
 195 Rule    AN      1973    1981    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 196 Rule    AN      1982    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 197 Rule    AN      1983    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 198 Rule    AN      1986    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       S
 199 Rule    AN      1986    only    -       Oct     19      2:00s   1:00    D
 200 Rule    AN      1987    1999    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 201 Rule    AN      1990    1995    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 202 Rule    AN      1996    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 203 Rule    AN      2000    only    -       Aug     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 204 Rule    AN      2001    2007    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 205 Rule    AN      2006    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 206 Rule    AN      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 207 Rule    AN      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 208 Rule    AN      2008    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 209 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 210 Zone Australia/Sydney   10:04:52 -      LMT     1895 Feb
 211                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1971
 212                         10:00   AN      AE%sT
 213 Zone Australia/Broken_Hill 9:25:48 -    LMT     1895 Feb
 214                         10:00   -       AEST    1896 Aug 23
 215                         9:00    -       ACST    1899 May
 216                         9:30    Aus     AC%sT   1971
 217                         9:30    AN      AC%sT   2000
 218                         9:30    AS      AC%sT
 219 
 220 # Lord Howe Island
 221 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 222 Rule    LH      1981    1984    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 223 Rule    LH      1982    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
 224 Rule    LH      1985    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0:30    D
 225 Rule    LH      1986    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00    0       S
 226 Rule    LH      1986    only    -       Oct     19      2:00    0:30    D
 227 Rule    LH      1987    1999    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0:30    D
 228 Rule    LH      1990    1995    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
 229 Rule    LH      1996    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 230 Rule    LH      2000    only    -       Aug     lastSun 2:00    0:30    D
 231 Rule    LH      2001    2007    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0:30    D
 232 Rule    LH      2006    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
 233 Rule    LH      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 234 Rule    LH      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
 235 Rule    LH      2008    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00    0:30    D
 236 Zone Australia/Lord_Howe 10:36:20 -     LMT     1895 Feb
 237                         10:00   -       AEST    1981 Mar
 238                         10:30   LH      LH%sT
 239 
 240 # Australian miscellany
 241 #
 242 # Ashmore Is, Cartier
 243 # no indigenous inhabitants; only seasonal caretakers
 244 # no times are set
 245 #
 246 # Coral Sea Is
 247 # no indigenous inhabitants; only meteorologists
 248 # no times are set
 249 #
 250 # Macquarie
 251 # Permanent occupation (scientific station) 1911-1915 and since 25 March 1948;
 252 # sealing and penguin oil station operated Nov 1899 to Apr 1919.  See the
 253 # Tasmania Parks & Wildlife Service history of sealing at Macquarie Island
 254 # http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/index.aspx?base=1828
 255 # http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/index.aspx?base=1831
 256 # Guess that it was like Australia/Hobart while inhabited before 2010.
 257 #
 258 # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-10):
 259 # We got these changes from the Australian Antarctic Division:
 260 # - Macquarie Island will stay on UTC+11 for winter and therefore not
 261 # switch back from daylight savings time when other parts of Australia do
 262 # on 4 April.
 263 #
 264 # From Arthur David Olson (2013-05-23):
 265 # The 1919 transition is overspecified below so pre-2013 zics
 266 # will produce a binary file with an [A]EST-type as the first 32-bit type;
 267 # this is required for correct handling of times before 1916 by
 268 # pre-2013 versions of localtime.
 269 Zone Antarctica/Macquarie 0     -       zzz     1899 Nov
 270                         10:00   -       AEST    1916 Oct  1  2:00
 271                         10:00   1:00    AEDT    1917 Feb
 272                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1919 Apr  1  0:00s
 273                         0       -       zzz     1948 Mar 25
 274                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1967
 275                         10:00   AT      AE%sT   2010 Apr  4  3:00
 276                         11:00   -       MIST    # Macquarie I Standard Time
 277 
 278 # Christmas
 279 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 280 Zone Indian/Christmas   7:02:52 -       LMT     1895 Feb
 281                         7:00    -       CXT     # Christmas Island Time
 282 
 283 # Cocos (Keeling) Is
 284 # These islands were ruled by the Ross family from about 1830 to 1978.
 285 # We don't know when standard time was introduced; for now, we guess 1900.
 286 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 287 Zone    Indian/Cocos    6:27:40 -       LMT     1900
 288                         6:30    -       CCT     # Cocos Islands Time
 289 
 290 
 291 # Fiji
 292 
 293 # Milne gives 11:55:44 for Suva.
 294 
 295 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-11-10):
 296 # According to Fiji Broadcasting Corporation,  Fiji plans to re-introduce DST
 297 # from November 29th 2009  to April 25th 2010.
 298 #
 299 # "Daylight savings to commence this month"
 300 # http://www.radiofiji.com.fj/fullstory.php?id=23719
 301 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji01.html
 302 
 303 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-11-10):
 304 # The Fiji Government has posted some more details about the approved
 305 # amendments:
 306 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/publish/page_16198.shtml
 307 
 308 # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-03):
 309 # The Cabinet in Fiji has decided to end DST about a month early, on
 310 # 2010-03-28 at 03:00.
 311 # The plan is to observe DST again, from 2010-10-24 to sometime in March
 312 # 2011 (last Sunday a good guess?).
 313 #
 314 # Official source:
 315 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1096:3310-cabinet-approves-change-in-daylight-savings-dates&catid=49:cabinet-releases&Itemid=166
 316 #
 317 # A bit more background info here:
 318 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/fiji-dst-ends-march-2010.html
 319 
 320 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-10-24):
 321 # According to Radio Fiji and Fiji Times online, Fiji will end DST 3
 322 # weeks earlier than expected - on March 6, 2011, not March 27, 2011...
 323 # Here is confirmation from Government of the Republic of the Fiji Islands,
 324 # Ministry of Information (fiji.gov.fj) web site:
 325 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2608:daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155
 326 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji04.html
 327 
 328 # From Steffen Thorsen (2011-10-03):
 329 # Now the dates have been confirmed, and at least our start date
 330 # assumption was correct (end date was one week wrong).
 331 #
 332 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4966:daylight-saving-starts-in-fiji&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155
 333 # which says
 334 # Members of the public are reminded to change their time to one hour in
 335 # advance at 2am to 3am on October 23, 2011 and one hour back at 3am to
 336 # 2am on February 26 next year.
 337 
 338 # From Ken Rylander (2011-10-24)
 339 # Another change to the Fiji DST end date. In the TZ database the end date for
 340 # Fiji DST 2012, is currently Feb 26. This has been changed to Jan 22.
 341 #
 342 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5017:amendments-to-daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155
 343 # states:
 344 #
 345 # The end of daylight saving scheduled initially for the 26th of February 2012
 346 # has been brought forward to the 22nd of January 2012.
 347 # The commencement of daylight saving will remain unchanged and start
 348 # on the  23rd of October, 2011.
 349 
 350 # From the Fiji Government Online Portal (2012-08-21) via Steffen Thorsen:
 351 # The Minister for Labour, Industrial Relations and Employment Mr Jone Usamate
 352 # today confirmed that Fiji will start daylight savings at 2 am on Sunday 21st
 353 # October 2012 and end at 3 am on Sunday 20th January 2013.
 354 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=6702&catid=71&Itemid=155
 355 
 356 # From the Fijian Government Media Center (2013-08-30) via David Wheeler:
 357 # Fiji will start daylight savings on Sunday 27th October, 2013 ...
 358 # move clocks forward by one hour from 2am
 359 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/Media-Center/Press-Releases/DAYLIGHT-SAVING-STARTS-ON-SUNDAY,-27th-OCTOBER-201.aspx
 360 
 361 # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-01-10):
 362 # Fiji will end DST on 2014-01-19 02:00:
 363 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/Media-Center/Press-Releases/DAYLIGHT-SAVINGS-TO-END-THIS-MONTH-%281%29.aspx
 364 
 365 # From Ken Rylander (2014-10-20):
 366 # DST will start Nov. 2 this year.
 367 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/Media-Center/Press-Releases/DAYLIGHT-SAVING-STARTS-ON-SUNDAY,-NOVEMBER-2ND.aspx
 368 
 369 # From a government order dated 2015-08-26 and published as Legal Notice No. 77
 370 # in the Government of Fiji Gazette Supplement No. 24 (2015-08-28),
 371 # via Ken Rylander (2015-09-02):
 372 # the daylight saving period is 1 hour in advance of the standard time
 373 # commencing at 2.00 am on Sunday 1st November, 2015 and ending at
 374 # 3.00 am on Sunday 17th January, 2016.
 375 
 376 # From Paul Eggert (2015-09-01):
 377 # For now, guess DST from 02:00 the first Sunday in November to
 378 # 03:00 the third Sunday in January.  Although ad hoc, it matches
 379 # transitions since late 2014 and seems more likely to match future
 380 # practice than guessing no DST.
 381 
 382 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 383 Rule    Fiji    1998    1999    -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    S
 384 Rule    Fiji    1999    2000    -       Feb     lastSun 3:00    0       -
 385 Rule    Fiji    2009    only    -       Nov     29      2:00    1:00    S
 386 Rule    Fiji    2010    only    -       Mar     lastSun 3:00    0       -
 387 Rule    Fiji    2010    2013    -       Oct     Sun>=21      2:00    1:00    S
 388 Rule    Fiji    2011    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       -
 389 Rule    Fiji    2012    2013    -       Jan     Sun>=18      3:00    0       -
 390 Rule    Fiji    2014    only    -       Jan     Sun>=18      2:00    0       -
 391 Rule    Fiji    2014    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    S
 392 Rule    Fiji    2015    max     -       Jan     Sun>=15      3:00    0       -
 393 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 394 Zone    Pacific/Fiji    11:55:44 -      LMT     1915 Oct 26 # Suva
 395                         12:00   Fiji    FJ%sT   # Fiji Time
 396 
 397 # French Polynesia
 398 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 399 Zone    Pacific/Gambier  -8:59:48 -     LMT     1912 Oct # Rikitea
 400                          -9:00  -       GAMT    # Gambier Time
 401 Zone    Pacific/Marquesas -9:18:00 -    LMT     1912 Oct
 402                          -9:30  -       MART    # Marquesas Time
 403 Zone    Pacific/Tahiti   -9:58:16 -     LMT     1912 Oct # Papeete
 404                         -10:00  -       TAHT    # Tahiti Time
 405 # Clipperton (near North America) is administered from French Polynesia;
 406 # it is uninhabited.
 407 
 408 # Guam
 409 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 410 Zone    Pacific/Guam    -14:21:00 -     LMT     1844 Dec 31
 411                          9:39:00 -      LMT     1901        # Agana
 412                         10:00   -       GST     2000 Dec 23 # Guam
 413                         10:00   -       ChST    # Chamorro Standard Time
 414 Link Pacific/Guam Pacific/Saipan # N Mariana Is
 415 
 416 # Kiribati
 417 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 418 Zone Pacific/Tarawa      11:32:04 -     LMT     1901 # Bairiki
 419                          12:00  -       GILT    # Gilbert Is Time
 420 Zone Pacific/Enderbury  -11:24:20 -     LMT     1901
 421                         -12:00  -       PHOT    1979 Oct # Phoenix Is Time
 422                         -11:00  -       PHOT    1995
 423                          13:00  -       PHOT
 424 Zone Pacific/Kiritimati -10:29:20 -     LMT     1901
 425                         -10:40  -       LINT    1979 Oct # Line Is Time
 426                         -10:00  -       LINT    1995
 427                          14:00  -       LINT
 428 
 429 # N Mariana Is
 430 # See Pacific/Guam.
 431 
 432 # Marshall Is
 433 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 434 Zone Pacific/Majuro     11:24:48 -      LMT     1901
 435                         11:00   -       MHT     1969 Oct # Marshall Islands Time
 436                         12:00   -       MHT
 437 Zone Pacific/Kwajalein  11:09:20 -      LMT     1901
 438                         11:00   -       MHT     1969 Oct
 439                         -12:00  -       KWAT    1993 Aug 20 # Kwajalein Time
 440                         12:00   -       MHT
 441 
 442 # Micronesia
 443 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 444 Zone Pacific/Chuuk      10:07:08 -      LMT     1901
 445                         10:00   -       CHUT    # Chuuk Time
 446 Zone Pacific/Pohnpei    10:32:52 -      LMT     1901 # Kolonia
 447                         11:00   -       PONT    # Pohnpei Time
 448 Zone Pacific/Kosrae     10:51:56 -      LMT     1901
 449                         11:00   -       KOST    1969 Oct # Kosrae Time
 450                         12:00   -       KOST    1999
 451                         11:00   -       KOST
 452 
 453 # Nauru
 454 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 455 Zone    Pacific/Nauru   11:07:40 -      LMT     1921 Jan 15 # Uaobe
 456                         11:30   -       NRT     1942 Mar 15 # Nauru Time
 457                         9:00    -       JST     1944 Aug 15
 458                         11:30   -       NRT     1979 May
 459                         12:00   -       NRT
 460 
 461 # New Caledonia
 462 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 463 Rule    NC      1977    1978    -       Dec     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    S
 464 Rule    NC      1978    1979    -       Feb     27      0:00    0       -
 465 Rule    NC      1996    only    -       Dec      1      2:00s   1:00    S
 466 # Shanks & Pottenger say the following was at 2:00; go with IATA.
 467 Rule    NC      1997    only    -       Mar      2      2:00s   0       -
 468 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 469 Zone    Pacific/Noumea  11:05:48 -      LMT     1912 Jan 13 # Nouméa
 470                         11:00   NC      NC%sT
 471 
 472 
 473 ###############################################################################
 474 
 475 # New Zealand
 476 
 477 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 478 Rule    NZ      1927    only    -       Nov      6      2:00    1:00    S
 479 Rule    NZ      1928    only    -       Mar      4      2:00    0       M
 480 Rule    NZ      1928    1933    -       Oct     Sun>=8       2:00    0:30    S
 481 Rule    NZ      1929    1933    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00    0       M
 482 Rule    NZ      1934    1940    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    0       M
 483 Rule    NZ      1934    1940    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0:30    S
 484 Rule    NZ      1946    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    0       S
 485 # Since 1957 Chatham has been 45 minutes ahead of NZ, but there's no
 486 # convenient single notation for the date and time of this transition
 487 # so we must duplicate the Rule lines.
 488 Rule    NZ      1974    only    -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 489 Rule    Chatham 1974    only    -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:45s   1:00    D
 490 Rule    NZ      1975    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 491 Rule    Chatham 1975    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:45s   0       S
 492 Rule    NZ      1975    1988    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 493 Rule    Chatham 1975    1988    -       Oct     lastSun 2:45s   1:00    D
 494 Rule    NZ      1976    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 495 Rule    Chatham 1976    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:45s   0       S
 496 Rule    NZ      1989    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8       2:00s   1:00    D
 497 Rule    Chatham 1989    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8       2:45s   1:00    D
 498 Rule    NZ      1990    2006    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 499 Rule    Chatham 1990    2006    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:45s   1:00    D
 500 Rule    NZ      1990    2007    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       S
 501 Rule    Chatham 1990    2007    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:45s   0       S
 502 Rule    NZ      2007    max     -       Sep     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 503 Rule    Chatham 2007    max     -       Sep     lastSun 2:45s   1:00    D
 504 Rule    NZ      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 505 Rule    Chatham 2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:45s   0       S
 506 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 507 Zone Pacific/Auckland   11:39:04 -      LMT     1868 Nov  2
 508                         11:30   NZ      NZ%sT   1946 Jan  1
 509                         12:00   NZ      NZ%sT
 510 Zone Pacific/Chatham    12:13:48 -      LMT     1868 Nov  2
 511                         12:15   -       CHAST   1946 Jan  1
 512                         12:45   Chatham CHA%sT
 513 
 514 Link Pacific/Auckland Antarctica/McMurdo
 515 
 516 # Auckland Is
 517 # uninhabited; Māori and Moriori, colonial settlers, pastoralists, sealers,
 518 # and scientific personnel have wintered
 519 
 520 # Campbell I
 521 # minor whaling stations operated 1909/1914
 522 # scientific station operated 1941/1995;
 523 # previously whalers, sealers, pastoralists, and scientific personnel wintered
 524 # was probably like Pacific/Auckland
 525 
 526 # Cook Is
 527 # From Shanks & Pottenger:
 528 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 529 Rule    Cook    1978    only    -       Nov     12      0:00    0:30    HS
 530 Rule    Cook    1979    1991    -       Mar     Sun>=1       0:00    0       -
 531 Rule    Cook    1979    1990    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0:30    HS
 532 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 533 Zone Pacific/Rarotonga  -10:39:04 -     LMT     1901        # Avarua
 534                         -10:30  -       CKT     1978 Nov 12 # Cook Is Time
 535                         -10:00  Cook    CK%sT
 536 
 537 ###############################################################################
 538 
 539 
 540 # Niue
 541 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 542 Zone    Pacific/Niue    -11:19:40 -     LMT     1901        # Alofi
 543                         -11:20  -       NUT     1951        # Niue Time
 544                         -11:30  -       NUT     1978 Oct  1
 545                         -11:00  -       NUT
 546 
 547 # Norfolk
 548 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 549 Zone    Pacific/Norfolk 11:11:52 -      LMT     1901 # Kingston
 550                         11:12   -       NMT     1951 # Norfolk Mean Time
 551                         11:30   -       NFT     1974 Oct 27 02:00 # Norfolk T.
 552                         11:30   1:00    NFST    1975 Mar  2 02:00
 553                         11:30   -       NFT     2015 Oct  4 02:00
 554                         11:00   -       NFT
 555 
 556 # Palau (Belau)
 557 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 558 Zone Pacific/Palau      8:57:56 -       LMT     1901 # Koror
 559                         9:00    -       PWT     # Palau Time
 560 
 561 # Papua New Guinea
 562 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 563 Zone Pacific/Port_Moresby 9:48:40 -     LMT     1880
 564                         9:48:32 -       PMMT    1895 # Port Moresby Mean Time
 565                         10:00   -       PGT     # Papua New Guinea Time
 566 #
 567 # From Paul Eggert (2014-10-13):
 568 # Base the Bougainville entry on the Arawa-Kieta region, which appears to have
 569 # the most people even though it was devastated in the Bougainville Civil War.
 570 #
 571 # Although Shanks gives 1942-03-15 / 1943-11-01 for JST, these dates
 572 # are apparently rough guesswork from the starts of military campaigns.
 573 # The World War II entries below are instead based on Arawa-Kieta.
 574 # The Japanese occupied Kieta in July 1942,
 575 # according to the Pacific War Online Encyclopedia
 576 # http://pwencycl.kgbudge.com/B/o/Bougainville.htm
 577 # and seem to have controlled it until their 1945-08-21 surrender.
 578 #
 579 # The Autonomous Region of Bougainville plans to switch from UTC+10 to UTC+11
 580 # on 2014-12-28 at 02:00.  They call UTC+11 "Bougainville Standard Time";
 581 # abbreviate this as BST.  See:
 582 # http://www.bougainville24.com/bougainville-issues/bougainville-gets-own-timezone/
 583 #
 584 Zone Pacific/Bougainville 10:22:16 -    LMT     1880
 585                          9:48:32 -      PMMT    1895
 586                         10:00   -       PGT     1942 Jul
 587                          9:00   -       JST     1945 Aug 21
 588                         10:00   -       PGT     2014 Dec 28  2:00
 589                         11:00   -       BST
 590 
 591 # Pitcairn
 592 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 593 Zone Pacific/Pitcairn   -8:40:20 -      LMT     1901        # Adamstown
 594                         -8:30   -       PNT     1998 Apr 27  0:00
 595                         -8:00   -       PST     # Pitcairn Standard Time
 596 
 597 # American Samoa
 598 Zone Pacific/Pago_Pago   12:37:12 -     LMT     1879 Jul  5
 599                         -11:22:48 -     LMT     1911
 600                         -11:00  -       NST     1967 Apr    # N=Nome
 601                         -11:00  -       BST     1983 Nov 30 # B=Bering
 602                         -11:00  -       SST                 # S=Samoa
 603 Link Pacific/Pago_Pago Pacific/Midway # in US minor outlying islands
 604 
 605 # Samoa (formerly and also known as Western Samoa)
 606 
 607 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-16):
 608 # We have been in contact with the government of Samoa again, and received
 609 # the following info:
 610 #
 611 # "Cabinet has now approved Daylight Saving to be effected next year
 612 # commencing from the last Sunday of September 2010 and conclude first
 613 # Sunday of April 2011."
 614 #
 615 # Background info:
 616 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/samoa-dst-plan-2009.html
 617 #
 618 # Samoa's Daylight Saving Time Act 2009 is available here, but does not
 619 # contain any dates:
 620 # http://www.parliament.gov.ws/documents/acts/Daylight%20Saving%20Act%20%202009%20%28English%29%20-%20Final%207-7-091.pdf
 621 
 622 # From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2010-10-07):
 623 # Please see
 624 # http://www.mcil.gov.ws
 625 # the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Labour (sideframe) "Last Sunday
 626 # September 2010 (26/09/10) - adjust clocks forward from 12:00 midnight
 627 # to 01:00am and First Sunday April 2011 (03/04/11) - adjust clocks
 628 # backwards from 1:00am to 12:00am"
 629 
 630 # From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2011-03-07):
 631 # [http://www.mcil.gov.ws/ftcd/daylight_saving_2011.pdf]
 632 #
 633 # ... when the standard time strikes the hour of four o'clock (4.00am
 634 # or 0400 Hours) on the 2nd April 2011, then all instruments used to
 635 # measure standard time are to be adjusted/changed to three o'clock
 636 # (3:00am or 0300Hrs).
 637 
 638 # From David Zülke (2011-05-09):
 639 # Subject: Samoa to move timezone from east to west of international date line
 640 #
 641 # http://www.morningstar.co.uk/uk/markets/newsfeeditem.aspx?id=138501958347963
 642 
 643 # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-27):
 644 # The International Date Line Act 2011
 645 # http://www.parliament.gov.ws/images/ACTS/International_Date_Line_Act__2011_-_Eng.pdf
 646 # changed Samoa from UTC-11 to UTC+13, effective "12 o'clock midnight, on
 647 # Thursday 29th December 2011".  The International Date Line was adjusted
 648 # accordingly.
 649 
 650 # From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2011-09-02):
 651 # http://www.mcil.gov.ws/mcil_publications.html
 652 #
 653 # here is the official website publication for Samoa DST and dateline change
 654 #
 655 # DST
 656 # Year  End      Time              Start        Time
 657 # 2011  - - -    - - -             24 September 3:00am to 4:00am
 658 # 2012  01 April 4:00am to 3:00am  - - -        - - -
 659 #
 660 # Dateline Change skip Friday 30th Dec 2011
 661 # Thursday 29th December 2011   23:59:59 Hours
 662 # Saturday 31st December 2011   00:00:00 Hours
 663 #
 664 # From Nicholas Pereira (2012-09-10):
 665 # Daylight Saving Time commences on Sunday 30th September 2012 and
 666 # ends on Sunday 7th of April 2013....
 667 # http://www.mcil.gov.ws/mcil_publications.html
 668 #
 669 # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-08):
 670 # That web page currently lists transitions for 2012/3 and 2013/4.
 671 # Assume the pattern instituted in 2012 will continue indefinitely.
 672 
 673 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 674 Rule    WS      2010    only    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    1       D
 675 Rule    WS      2011    only    -       Apr     Sat>=1       4:00    0       S
 676 Rule    WS      2011    only    -       Sep     lastSat 3:00    1       D
 677 Rule    WS      2012    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       4:00    0       S
 678 Rule    WS      2012    max     -       Sep     lastSun 3:00    1       D
 679 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 680 Zone Pacific/Apia        12:33:04 -     LMT     1879 Jul  5
 681                         -11:26:56 -     LMT     1911
 682                         -11:30  -       WSST    1950
 683                         -11:00  WS      S%sT    2011 Dec 29 24:00 # S=Samoa
 684                          13:00  WS      WS%sT
 685 
 686 # Solomon Is
 687 # excludes Bougainville, for which see Papua New Guinea
 688 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 689 Zone Pacific/Guadalcanal 10:39:48 -     LMT     1912 Oct # Honiara
 690                         11:00   -       SBT     # Solomon Is Time
 691 
 692 # Tokelau Is
 693 #
 694 # From Gwillim Law (2011-12-29)
 695 # A correspondent informed me that Tokelau, like Samoa, will be skipping
 696 # December 31 this year ...
 697 #
 698 # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-07-25)
 699 # ... we double checked by calling hotels and offices based in Tokelau asking
 700 # about the time there, and they all told a time that agrees with UTC+13....
 701 # Shanks says UTC-10 from 1901 [but] ... there is a good chance the change
 702 # actually was to UTC-11 back then.
 703 #
 704 # From Paul Eggert (2012-07-25)
 705 # A Google Books snippet of Appendix to the Journals of the House of
 706 # Representatives of New Zealand, Session 1948,
 707 # <http://books.google.com/books?id=ZaVCAQAAIAAJ>, page 65, says Tokelau
 708 # was "11 hours slow on G.M.T."  Go with Thorsen and assume Shanks & Pottenger
 709 # are off by an hour starting in 1901.
 710 
 711 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 712 Zone    Pacific/Fakaofo -11:24:56 -     LMT     1901
 713                         -11:00  -       TKT     2011 Dec 30 # Tokelau Time
 714                         13:00   -       TKT
 715 
 716 # Tonga
 717 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 718 Rule    Tonga   1999    only    -       Oct      7      2:00s   1:00    S
 719 Rule    Tonga   2000    only    -       Mar     19      2:00s   0       -
 720 Rule    Tonga   2000    2001    -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    S
 721 Rule    Tonga   2001    2002    -       Jan     lastSun 2:00    0       -
 722 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 723 Zone Pacific/Tongatapu  12:19:20 -      LMT     1901
 724                         12:20   -       TOT     1941 # Tonga Time
 725                         13:00   -       TOT     1999
 726                         13:00   Tonga   TO%sT
 727 
 728 # Tuvalu
 729 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 730 Zone Pacific/Funafuti   11:56:52 -      LMT     1901
 731                         12:00   -       TVT     # Tuvalu Time
 732 
 733 
 734 # US minor outlying islands
 735 
 736 # Howland, Baker
 737 # Howland was mined for guano by American companies 1857-1878 and British
 738 # 1886-1891; Baker was similar but exact dates are not known.
 739 # Inhabited by civilians 1935-1942; U.S. military bases 1943-1944;
 740 # uninhabited thereafter.
 741 # Howland observed Hawaii Standard Time (UT-10:30) in 1937;
 742 # see page 206 of Elgen M. Long and Marie K. Long,
 743 # Amelia Earhart: the Mystery Solved, Simon & Schuster (2000).
 744 # So most likely Howland and Baker observed Hawaii Time from 1935
 745 # until they were abandoned after the war.
 746 
 747 # Jarvis
 748 # Mined for guano by American companies 1857-1879 and British 1883?-1891?.
 749 # Inhabited by civilians 1935-1942; IGY scientific base 1957-1958;
 750 # uninhabited thereafter.
 751 # no information; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati
 752 
 753 # Johnston
 754 #
 755 # From Paul Eggert (2014-03-11):
 756 # Sometimes Johnston kept Hawaii time, and sometimes it was an hour behind.
 757 # Details are uncertain.  We have no data for Johnston after 1970, so
 758 # treat it like Hawaii for now.
 759 #
 760 # In his memoirs of June 6th to October 4, 1945
 761 # <http://www.315bw.org/Herb_Bach.htm> (2005), Herbert C. Bach writes,
 762 # "We started our letdown to Kwajalein Atoll and landed there at 5:00 AM
 763 # Johnston time, 1:30 AM Kwajalein time."  This was in June 1945, and
 764 # confirms that Johnston kept the same time as Honolulu in summer 1945.
 765 #
 766 # From Lyle McElhaney (2014-03-11):
 767 # [W]hen JI was being used for that [atomic bomb] testing, the time being used
 768 # was not Hawaiian time but rather the same time being used on the ships,
 769 # which had a GMT offset of -11 hours.  This apparently applied to at least the
 770 # time from Operation Newsreel (Hardtack I/Teak shot, 1958-08-01) to the last
 771 # Operation Fishbowl shot (Tightrope, 1962-11-04).... [See] Herman Hoerlin,
 772 # "The United States High-Altitude Test Experience: A Review Emphasizing the
 773 # Impact on the Environment", Los Alamos LA-6405, Oct 1976.
 774 # http://www.fas.org/sgp/othergov/doe/lanl/docs1/00322994.pdf
 775 # See the table on page 4 where he lists GMT and local times for the tests; a
 776 # footnote for the JI tests reads that local time is "JI time = Hawaii Time
 777 # Minus One Hour".
 778 #
 779 # See 'northamerica' for Pacific/Johnston.
 780 
 781 # Kingman
 782 # uninhabited
 783 
 784 # Midway
 785 # See Pacific/Pago_Pago.
 786 
 787 # Palmyra
 788 # uninhabited since World War II; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati
 789 
 790 # Wake
 791 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 792 Zone    Pacific/Wake    11:06:28 -      LMT     1901
 793                         12:00   -       WAKT    # Wake Time
 794 
 795 
 796 # Vanuatu
 797 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 798 Rule    Vanuatu 1983    only    -       Sep     25      0:00    1:00    S
 799 Rule    Vanuatu 1984    1991    -       Mar     Sun>=23      0:00    0       -
 800 Rule    Vanuatu 1984    only    -       Oct     23      0:00    1:00    S
 801 Rule    Vanuatu 1985    1991    -       Sep     Sun>=23      0:00    1:00    S
 802 Rule    Vanuatu 1992    1993    -       Jan     Sun>=23      0:00    0       -
 803 Rule    Vanuatu 1992    only    -       Oct     Sun>=23      0:00    1:00    S
 804 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 805 Zone    Pacific/Efate   11:13:16 -      LMT     1912 Jan 13 # Vila
 806                         11:00   Vanuatu VU%sT   # Vanuatu Time
 807 
 808 # Wallis and Futuna
 809 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 810 Zone    Pacific/Wallis  12:15:20 -      LMT     1901
 811                         12:00   -       WFT     # Wallis & Futuna Time
 812 
 813 ###############################################################################
 814 
 815 # NOTES
 816 
 817 # This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
 818 # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
 819 # tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
 820 # the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
 821 
 822 # From Paul Eggert (2014-10-31):
 823 #
 824 # Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:
 825 # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
 826 # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
 827 # Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.
 828 #
 829 # Gwillim Law writes that a good source
 830 # for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
 831 # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
 832 # published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
 833 # of the IATA's data after 1990.  Except where otherwise noted,
 834 # IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.
 835 #
 836 # Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
 837 # Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which
 838 # I found in the UCLA library.
 839 #
 840 # For data circa 1899, a common source is:
 841 # Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94.
 842 # http://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359
 843 #
 844 # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
 845 # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
 846 #
 847 # I invented the abbreviations marked '*' in the following table;
 848 # the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.
 849 # Corrections are welcome!
 850 #               std     dst
 851 #               LMT             Local Mean Time
 852 #         8:00  AWST    AWDT    Western Australia
 853 #         8:45  ACWST   ACWDT   Central Western Australia*
 854 #         9:00  JST             Japan
 855 #         9:30  ACST    ACDT    Central Australia
 856 #        10:00  AEST    AEDT    Eastern Australia
 857 #        10:00  ChST            Chamorro
 858 #        10:30  LHST    LHDT    Lord Howe*
 859 #        11:00  BST             Bougainville*
 860 #        11:30  NZMT    NZST    New Zealand through 1945
 861 #        12:00  NZST    NZDT    New Zealand 1946-present
 862 #        12:15  CHAST           Chatham through 1945*
 863 #        12:45  CHAST   CHADT   Chatham 1946-present*
 864 #        13:00  WSST    WSDT    (western) Samoa 2011-present*
 865 #       -11:30  WSST            Western Samoa through 1950*
 866 #       -11:00  SST             Samoa
 867 #       -10:00  HST             Hawaii
 868 #       - 8:00  PST             Pitcairn*
 869 #
 870 # See the 'northamerica' file for Hawaii.
 871 # See the 'southamerica' file for Easter I and the Galápagos Is.
 872 
 873 ###############################################################################
 874 
 875 # Australia
 876 
 877 # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):
 878 # Daylight saving time has long been controversial in Australia, pitting
 879 # region against region, rural against urban, and local against global.
 880 # For example, in her review of Graeme Davison's _The Unforgiving
 881 # Minute: how Australians learned to tell the time_ (1993), Perth native
 882 # Phillipa J Martyr wrote, "The section entitled 'Saving Daylight' was
 883 # very informative, but was (as can, sadly, only be expected from a
 884 # Melbourne-based study) replete with the usual chuckleheaded
 885 # Queenslanders and straw-chewing yokels from the West prattling fables
 886 # about fading curtains and crazed farm animals."
 887 # Electronic Journal of Australian and New Zealand History (1997-03-03)
 888 # http://www.jcu.edu.au/aff/history/reviews/davison.htm
 889 
 890 # From Paul Eggert (2005-12-08):
 891 # Implementation Dates of Daylight Saving Time within Australia
 892 # http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml
 893 # summarizes daylight saving issues in Australia.
 894 
 895 # From Arthur David Olson (2005-12-12):
 896 # Lawlink NSW:Daylight Saving in New South Wales
 897 # http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lawlink/Corporate/ll_agdinfo.nsf/pages/community_relations_daylight_saving
 898 # covers New South Wales in particular.
 899 
 900 # From John Mackin (1991-03-06):
 901 # We in Australia have _never_ referred to DST as 'daylight' time.
 902 # It is called 'summer' time.  Now by a happy coincidence, 'summer'
 903 # and 'standard' happen to start with the same letter; hence, the
 904 # abbreviation does _not_ change...
 905 # The legislation does not actually define abbreviations, at least
 906 # in this State, but the abbreviation is just commonly taken to be the
 907 # initials of the phrase, and the legislation here uniformly uses
 908 # the phrase 'summer time' and does not use the phrase 'daylight
 909 # time'.
 910 # Announcers on the Commonwealth radio network, the ABC (for Australian
 911 # Broadcasting Commission), use the phrases 'Eastern Standard Time'
 912 # or 'Eastern Summer Time'.  (Note, though, that as I say in the
 913 # current australasia file, there is really no such thing.)  Announcers
 914 # on its overseas service, Radio Australia, use the same phrases
 915 # prefixed by the word 'Australian' when referring to local times;
 916 # time announcements on that service, naturally enough, are made in UTC.
 917 
 918 # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):
 919 #
 920 # Inspired by Mackin's remarks quoted above, earlier versions of this
 921 # file used "EST" for both Eastern Standard Time and Eastern Summer
 922 # Time in Australia, and similarly for "CST", "CWST", and "WST".
 923 # However, these abbreviations were confusing and were not common
 924 # practice among Australians, and there were justifiable complaints
 925 # about them, so I attempted to survey current Australian usage.
 926 # For the tz database, the full English phrase is not that important;
 927 # what matters is the abbreviation.  It's difficult to survey the web
 928 # directly for abbreviation usage, as there are so many false hits for
 929 # strings like "EST" and "EDT", so I looked for pages that defined an
 930 # abbreviation for eastern or central DST in Australia, and got the
 931 # following numbers of unique hits for the listed Google queries:
 932 #
 933 #   10 "Eastern Daylight Time AEST" site:au [some are false hits]
 934 #   10 "Eastern Summer Time AEST" site:au
 935 #   10 "Summer Time AEDT" site:au
 936 #   13 "EDST Eastern Daylight Saving Time" site:au
 937 #   18 "Summer Time ESST" site:au
 938 #   28 "Eastern Daylight Saving Time EDST" site:au
 939 #   39 "EDT Eastern Daylight Time" site:au [some are false hits]
 940 #   53 "Eastern Daylight Time EDT" site:au [some are false hits]
 941 #   54 "AEDT Australian Eastern Daylight Time" site:au
 942 #  182 "Eastern Daylight Time AEDT" site:au
 943 #
 944 #   17 "Central Daylight Time CDT" site:au [some are false hits]
 945 #   46 "Central Daylight Time ACDT" site:au
 946 #
 947 # I tried several other variants (e.g., "Eastern Summer Time EST") but
 948 # they all returned fewer than 10 unique hits.  I also looked for pages
 949 # mentioning both "western standard time" and an abbreviation, since
 950 # there is no WST in the US to generate false hits, and found:
 951 #
 952 #  156 "western standard time" AWST site:au
 953 #  226 "western standard time" WST site:au
 954 #
 955 # I then surveyed the top ten newspapers in Australia by circulation as
 956 # listed in Wikipedia, using Google queries like "AEDT site:heraldsun.com.au"
 957 # and obtaining estimated counts from the initial page of search results.
 958 # All ten papers greatly preferred "AEDT" to "EDT".  The papers
 959 # surveyed were the Herald Sun, The Daily Telegraph, The Courier-Mail,
 960 # The Sydney Morning Herald, The West Australian, The Age, The Advertiser,
 961 # The Australian, The Financial Review, and The Herald (Newcastle).
 962 #
 963 # I also searched for historical usage, to see whether abbreviations
 964 # like "AEDT" are new.  A Trove search <http://trove.nla.gov.au/>
 965 # found only one newspaper (The Canberra Times) with a house style
 966 # dating back to the 1970s, I expect because other newspapers weren't
 967 # fully indexed.  The Canberra Times strongly preferred abbreviations
 968 # like "AEDT".  The first occurrence of "AEDT" was a World Weather
 969 # column (1971-11-17, page 24), and of "ACDT" was a Scoreboard column
 970 # (1993-01-24, p 16).  The style was the typical usage but was not
 971 # strictly enforced; for example, "Welcome to the twilight zones ..."
 972 # (1994-10-29, p 1) uses the abbreviations AEST/AEDT, CST/CDT, and
 973 # WST, and goes on to say, "The confusion and frustration some feel
 974 # about the lack of uniformity among Australia's six states and two
 975 # territories has prompted one group to form its very own political
 976 # party -- the Sydney-based Daylight Saving Extension Party."
 977 #
 978 # I also surveyed federal government sources.  They did not agree:
 979 #
 980 #   The Australian Government (2014-03-26)
 981 #   http://australia.gov.au/about-australia/our-country/time
 982 #   (This document was produced by the Department of Finance.)
 983 #   AEST ACST AWST AEDT ACDT
 984 #
 985 #   Bureau of Meteorology (2012-11-08)
 986 #   http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/daysavtm.shtml
 987 #   EST CST WST EDT CDT
 988 #
 989 #   Civil Aviation Safety Authority (undated)
 990 #   http://services.casa.gov.au/outnback/inc/pages/episode3/episode-3_time_zones.shtml
 991 #   EST CST WST (no abbreviations given for DST)
 992 #
 993 #   Geoscience Australia (2011-11-24)
 994 #   http://www.ga.gov.au/geodesy/astro/sunrise.jsp
 995 #   AEST ACST AWST AEDT ACDT
 996 #
 997 #   Parliamentary Library (2008-11-10)
 998 #   http://www.aph.gov.au/binaries/library/pubs/rp/2008-09/09rp14.pdf
 999 #   EST CST WST preferred for standard time; AEST AEDT ACST ACDT also used
1000 #
1001 #   The Transport Safety Bureau has an extensive series of accident reports,
1002 #   and investigators seem to use whatever abbreviation they like.
1003 #   Googling site:atsb.gov.au found the following number of unique hits:
1004 #   311 "ESuT", 195 "EDT", 26 "AEDT", 83 "CSuT", 46 "CDT".
1005 #   "_SuT" tended to appear in older reports, and "A_DT" tended to
1006 #   appear in reports of events with international implications.
1007 #
1008 # From the above it appears that there is a working consensus in
1009 # Australia to use trailing "DT" for daylight saving time; although
1010 # some sources use trailing "SST" or "ST" or "SuT" they are by far in
1011 # the minority.  The case for leading "A" is weaker, but since it
1012 # seems to be preferred in the overall web and is preferred in all
1013 # the leading newspaper websites and in many government departments,
1014 # it has a stronger case than omitting the leading "A".  The current
1015 # version of the database therefore uses abbreviations like "AEST" and
1016 # "AEDT" for Australian time zones.
1017 
1018 # From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19):
1019 # Shanks & Pottenger report 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and NZ.
1020 # Mark Prior writes that his newspaper
1021 # reports that NSW's fall 1995 change will occur at 2:00,
1022 # but Robert Elz says it's been 3:00 in Victoria since 1970
1023 # and perhaps the newspaper's '2:00' is referring to standard time.
1024 # For now we'll continue to assume 2:00s for changes since 1960.
1025 
1026 # From Eric Ulevik (1998-01-05):
1027 #
1028 # Here are some URLs to Australian time legislation. These URLs are stable,
1029 # and should probably be included in the data file. There are probably more
1030 # relevant entries in this database.
1031 #
1032 # NSW (including LHI and Broken Hill):
1033 # Standard Time Act 1987 (updated 1995-04-04)
1034 # http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/consol_act/sta1987137/index.html
1035 # ACT
1036 # Standard Time and Summer Time Act 1972
1037 # http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/act/consol_act/stasta1972279/index.html
1038 # SA
1039 # Standard Time Act, 1898
1040 # http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/sa/consol_act/sta1898137/index.html
1041 
1042 # From David Grosz (2005-06-13):
1043 # It was announced last week that Daylight Saving would be extended by
1044 # one week next year to allow for the 2006 Commonwealth Games.
1045 # Daylight Saving is now to end for next year only on the first Sunday
1046 # in April instead of the last Sunday in March.
1047 #
1048 # From Gwillim Law (2005-06-14):
1049 # I did some Googling and found that all of those states (and territory) plan
1050 # to extend DST together in 2006.
1051 # ACT: http://www.cmd.act.gov.au/mediareleases/fileread.cfm?file=86.txt
1052 # New South Wales: http://www.thecouriermail.news.com.au/common/story_page/0,5936,15538869%255E1702,00.html
1053 # South Australia: http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,15555031-1246,00.html
1054 # Tasmania: http://www.media.tas.gov.au/release.php?id=14772
1055 # Victoria: I wasn't able to find anything separate, but the other articles
1056 # allude to it.
1057 # But not Queensland
1058 # http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,15564030-1248,00.html
1059 
1060 # Northern Territory
1061 
1062 # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1063 # # The NORTHERN TERRITORY..  [ Courtesy N.T. Dept of the Chief Minister ]
1064 # #                                     [ Nov 1990 ]
1065 # #     N.T. have never utilised any DST due to sub-tropical/tropical location.
1066 # ...
1067 # Zone        Australia/North         9:30    -       CST
1068 
1069 # From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
1070 # A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
1071 # the Northern Territory do[es] not have daylight saving.
1072 
1073 # Western Australia
1074 
1075 # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1076 # #  The state of WESTERN AUSTRALIA..  [ Courtesy W.A. dept Premier+Cabinet ]
1077 # #                                             [ Nov 1990 ]
1078 # #     W.A. suffers from a great deal of public and political opposition to
1079 # #     DST in principle. A bill is brought before parliament in most years, but
1080 # #     usually defeated either in the upper house, or in party caucus
1081 # #     before reaching parliament.
1082 # ...
1083 # Zone  Australia/West          8:00    AW      %sST
1084 # ...
1085 # Rule  AW      1974    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1086 # Rule  AW      1975    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       W
1087 # Rule  AW      1983    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1088 # Rule  AW      1984    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       W
1089 
1090 # From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
1091 # A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
1092 # Western Australia...do[es] not have daylight saving.
1093 
1094 # From John D. Newman via Bradley White (1991-11-02):
1095 # Western Australia is still on "winter time". Some DH in Sydney
1096 # rang me at home a few days ago at 6.00am. (He had just arrived at
1097 # work at 9.00am.)
1098 # W.A. is switching to Summer Time on Nov 17th just to confuse
1099 # everybody again.
1100 
1101 # From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
1102 # The 1992 ending date used in the rules is a best guess;
1103 # it matches what was used in the past.
1104 
1105 # The Australian Bureau of Meteorology FAQ
1106 # http://www.bom.gov.au/faq/faqgen.htm
1107 # (1999-09-27) writes that Giles Meteorological Station uses
1108 # South Australian time even though it's located in Western Australia.
1109 
1110 # Queensland
1111 # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1112 # #   The state of QUEENSLAND.. [ Courtesy Qld. Dept Premier Econ&Trade Devel ]
1113 # #                                             [ Dec 1990 ]
1114 # ...
1115 # Zone  Australia/Queensland    10:00   AQ      %sST
1116 # ...
1117 # Rule  AQ      1971    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1118 # Rule  AQ      1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 3:00    0       E
1119 # Rule  AQ      1989    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1120 # Rule  AQ      1990    max     -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       E
1121 
1122 # From Bradley White (1989-12-24):
1123 # "Australia/Queensland" now observes daylight time (i.e. from
1124 # October 1989).
1125 
1126 # From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
1127 # A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
1128 # ...Queensland...[has] agreed to end daylight saving
1129 # at 3am tomorrow (March 3)...
1130 
1131 # From John Mackin (1991-03-06):
1132 # I can certainly confirm for my part that Daylight Saving in NSW did in fact
1133 # end on Sunday, 3 March.  I don't know at what hour, though.  (It surprised
1134 # me.)
1135 
1136 # From Bradley White (1992-03-08):
1137 # ...there was recently a referendum in Queensland which resulted
1138 # in the experimental daylight saving system being abandoned. So, ...
1139 # ...
1140 # Rule  QLD     1989    1991    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1141 # Rule  QLD     1990    1992    -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       S
1142 # ...
1143 
1144 # From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
1145 # The chosen rules the union of the 1971/1972 change and the 1989-1992 changes.
1146 
1147 # From Christopher Hunt (2006-11-21), after an advance warning
1148 # from Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-11-01):
1149 # WA are trialing DST for three years.
1150 # http://www.parliament.wa.gov.au/parliament/bills.nsf/9A1B183144403DA54825721200088DF1/$File/Bill175-1B.pdf
1151 
1152 # From Rives McDow (2002-04-09):
1153 # The most interesting region I have found consists of three towns on the
1154 # southern coast....  South Australia observes daylight saving time; Western
1155 # Australia does not.  The two states are one and a half hours apart.  The
1156 # residents decided to forget about this nonsense of changing the clock so
1157 # much and set the local time 20 hours and 45 minutes from the
1158 # international date line, or right in the middle of the time of South
1159 # Australia and Western Australia....
1160 #
1161 # From Paul Eggert (2002-04-09):
1162 # This is confirmed by the section entitled
1163 # "What's the deal with time zones???" in
1164 # http://www.earthsci.unimelb.edu.au/~awatkins/null.html
1165 #
1166 # From Alex Livingston (2006-12-07):
1167 # ... it was just on four years ago that I drove along the Eyre Highway,
1168 # which passes through eastern Western Australia close to the southern
1169 # coast of the continent.
1170 #
1171 # I paid particular attention to the time kept there. There can be no
1172 # dispute that UTC+08:45 was considered "the time" from the border
1173 # village just inside the border with South Australia to as far west
1174 # as just east of Caiguna. There can also be no dispute that Eucla is
1175 # the largest population centre in this zone....
1176 #
1177 # Now that Western Australia is observing daylight saving, the
1178 # question arose whether this part of the state would follow suit. I
1179 # just called the border village and confirmed that indeed they have,
1180 # meaning that they are now observing UTC+09:45.
1181 #
1182 # (2006-12-09):
1183 # I personally doubt that either experimentation with daylight saving
1184 # in WA or its introduction in SA had anything to do with the genesis
1185 # of this time zone.  My hunch is that it's been around since well
1186 # before 1975.  I remember seeing it noted on road maps decades ago.
1187 
1188 # From Paul Eggert (2006-12-15):
1189 # For lack of better info, assume the tradition dates back to the
1190 # introduction of standard time in 1895.
1191 
1192 
1193 # southeast Australia
1194 #
1195 # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1196 # Starting autumn 2008 Victoria, NSW, South Australia, Tasmania and the ACT
1197 # end DST the first Sunday in April and start DST the first Sunday in October.
1198 # http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/daylight-savings-to-span-six-months/2007/06/27/1182623966703.html
1199 
1200 
1201 # South Australia
1202 
1203 # From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
1204 # A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
1205 # ...South Australia...[has] agreed to end daylight saving
1206 # at 3am tomorrow (March 3)...
1207 
1208 # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1209 # #   The state of SOUTH AUSTRALIA....[ Courtesy of S.A. Dept of Labour ]
1210 # #                                             [ Nov 1990 ]
1211 # ...
1212 # Zone  Australia/South         9:30    AS      %sST
1213 # ...
1214 # Rule   AS     1971    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1215 # Rule   AS     1972    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       C
1216 # Rule   AS     1986    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=15      3:00    0       C
1217 # Rule   AS     1991    max     -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       C
1218 
1219 # From Bradley White (1992-03-11):
1220 # Recent correspondence with a friend in Adelaide
1221 # contained the following exchange:  "Due to the Adelaide Festival,
1222 # South Australia delays setting back our clocks for a few weeks."
1223 
1224 # From Robert Elz (1992-03-13):
1225 # I heard that apparently (or at least, it appears that)
1226 # South Aus will have an extra 3 weeks daylight saving every even
1227 # numbered year (from 1990).  That's when the Adelaide Festival
1228 # is on...
1229 
1230 # From Robert Elz (1992-03-16, 00:57:07 +1000):
1231 # DST didn't end in Adelaide today (yesterday)....
1232 # But whether it's "4th Sunday" or "2nd last Sunday" I have no idea whatever...
1233 # (it's just as likely to be "the Sunday we pick for this year"...).
1234 
1235 # From Bradley White (1994-04-11):
1236 # If Sun, 15 March, 1992 was at +1030 as kre asserts, but yet Sun, 20 March,
1237 # 1994 was at +0930 as John Connolly's customer seems to assert, then I can
1238 # only conclude that the actual rule is more complicated....
1239 
1240 # From John Warburton (1994-10-07):
1241 # The new Daylight Savings dates for South Australia ...
1242 # was gazetted in the Government Hansard on Sep 26 1994....
1243 # start on last Sunday in October and end in last sunday in March.
1244 
1245 # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1246 # See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1247 
1248 # Tasmania
1249 
1250 # The rules for 1967 through 1991 were reported by George Shepherd
1251 # via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1252 # #  The state of TASMANIA.. [Courtesy Tasmanian Dept of Premier + Cabinet ]
1253 # #                                     [ Nov 1990 ]
1254 
1255 # From Bill Hart via Guy Harris (1991-10-10):
1256 # Oh yes, the new daylight savings rules are uniquely tasmanian, we have
1257 # 6 weeks a year now when we are out of sync with the rest of Australia
1258 # (but nothing new about that).
1259 
1260 # From Alex Livingston (1999-10-04):
1261 # I heard on the ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) radio news on the
1262 # (long) weekend that Tasmania, which usually goes its own way in this regard,
1263 # has decided to join with most of NSW, the ACT, and most of Victoria
1264 # (Australia) and start daylight saving on the last Sunday in August in 2000
1265 # instead of the first Sunday in October.
1266 
1267 # Sim Alam (2000-07-03) reported a legal citation for the 2000/2001 rules:
1268 # http://www.thelaw.tas.gov.au/fragview/42++1968+GS3A@EN+2000070300
1269 
1270 # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1271 # See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1272 
1273 # Victoria
1274 
1275 # The rules for 1971 through 1991 were reported by George Shepherd
1276 # via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1277 # #   The state of VICTORIA.. [ Courtesy of Vic. Dept of Premier + Cabinet ]
1278 # #                                             [ Nov 1990 ]
1279 
1280 # From Scott Harrington (2001-08-29):
1281 # On KQED's "City Arts and Lectures" program last night I heard an
1282 # interesting story about daylight savings time.  Dr. John Heilbron was
1283 # discussing his book "The Sun in the Church: Cathedrals as Solar
1284 # Observatories"[1], and in particular the Shrine of Remembrance[2] located
1285 # in Melbourne, Australia.
1286 #
1287 # Apparently the shrine's main purpose is a beam of sunlight which
1288 # illuminates a special spot on the floor at the 11th hour of the 11th day
1289 # of the 11th month (Remembrance Day) every year in memory of Australia's
1290 # fallen WWI soldiers.  And if you go there on Nov. 11, at 11am local time,
1291 # you will indeed see the sunbeam illuminate the special spot at the
1292 # expected time.
1293 #
1294 # However, that is only because of some special mirror contraption that had
1295 # to be employed, since due to daylight savings time, the true solar time of
1296 # the remembrance moment occurs one hour later (or earlier?).  Perhaps
1297 # someone with more information on this jury-rig can tell us more.
1298 #
1299 # [1] http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog/HEISUN.html
1300 # [2] http://www.shrine.org.au
1301 
1302 # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1303 # See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1304 
1305 # New South Wales
1306 
1307 # From Arthur David Olson:
1308 # New South Wales and subjurisdictions have their own ideas of a fun time.
1309 # Based on law library research by John Mackin,
1310 # who notes:
1311 #       In Australia, time is not legislated federally, but rather by the
1312 #       individual states.  Thus, while such terms as "Eastern Standard Time"
1313 #       [I mean, of course, Australian EST, not any other kind] are in common
1314 #       use, _they have NO REAL MEANING_, as they are not defined in the
1315 #       legislation.  This is very important to understand.
1316 #       I have researched New South Wales time only...
1317 
1318 # From Eric Ulevik (1999-05-26):
1319 # DST will start in NSW on the last Sunday of August, rather than the usual
1320 # October in 2000.  See: Matthew Moore,
1321 # Two months more daylight saving, Sydney Morning Herald (1999-05-26).
1322 # http://www.smh.com.au/news/9905/26/pageone/pageone4.html
1323 
1324 # From Paul Eggert (1999-09-27):
1325 # See the following official NSW source:
1326 # Daylight Saving in New South Wales.
1327 # http://dir.gis.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/genobject/document/other/daylightsaving/tigGmZ
1328 #
1329 # Narrabri Shire (NSW) council has announced it will ignore the extension of
1330 # daylight saving next year.  See:
1331 # Narrabri Council to ignore daylight saving
1332 # http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/neweng/monthly/regeng-22jul1999-1.htm
1333 # (1999-07-22).  For now, we'll wait to see if this really happens.
1334 #
1335 # Victoria will following NSW.  See:
1336 # Vic to extend daylight saving (1999-07-28)
1337 # http://abc.net.au/local/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990728112314_1.htm
1338 #
1339 # However, South Australia rejected the DST request.  See:
1340 # South Australia rejects Olympics daylight savings request (1999-07-19)
1341 # http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990719151754_1.htm
1342 #
1343 # Queensland also will not observe DST for the Olympics.  See:
1344 # Qld says no to daylight savings for Olympics
1345 # http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/06/item19990601114608_1.htm
1346 # (1999-06-01), which quotes Queensland Premier Peter Beattie as saying
1347 # "Look you've got to remember in my family when this came up last time
1348 # I voted for it, my wife voted against it and she said to me it's all very
1349 # well for you, you don't have to worry about getting the children out of
1350 # bed, getting them to school, getting them to sleep at night.
1351 # I've been through all this argument domestically...my wife rules."
1352 #
1353 # Broken Hill will stick with South Australian time in 2000.  See:
1354 # Broken Hill to be behind the times (1999-07-21)
1355 # http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/brokenh/monthly/regbrok-21jul1999-6.htm
1356 
1357 # IATA SSIM (1998-09) says that the spring 2000 change for Australian
1358 # Capital Territory, New South Wales except Lord Howe Island and Broken
1359 # Hill, and Victoria will be August 27, presumably due to the Sydney Olympics.
1360 
1361 # From Eric Ulevik, referring to Sydney's Sun Herald (2000-08-13), page 29:
1362 # The Queensland Premier Peter Beattie is encouraging northern NSW
1363 # towns to use Queensland time.
1364 
1365 # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1366 # See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1367 
1368 # Yancowinna
1369 
1370 # From John Mackin (1989-01-04):
1371 # 'Broken Hill' means the County of Yancowinna.
1372 
1373 # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1374 # # YANCOWINNA..  [ Confirmation courtesy of Broken Hill Postmaster ]
1375 # #                                     [ Dec 1990 ]
1376 # ...
1377 # # Yancowinna uses Central Standard Time, despite [its] location on the
1378 # # New South Wales side of the S.A. border. Most business and social dealings
1379 # # are with CST zones, therefore CST is legislated by local government
1380 # # although the switch to Summer Time occurs in line with N.S.W. There have
1381 # # been years when this did not apply, but the historical data is not
1382 # # presently available.
1383 # Zone  Australia/Yancowinna    9:30     AY     %sST
1384 # ...
1385 # Rule   AY     1971    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1386 # Rule   AY     1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 3:00    0       C
1387 # [followed by other Rules]
1388 
1389 # Lord Howe Island
1390 
1391 # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1392 # LHI...                [ Courtesy of Pauline Van Winsen ]
1393 #                                       [ Dec 1990 ]
1394 # Lord Howe Island is located off the New South Wales coast, and is half an
1395 # hour ahead of NSW time.
1396 
1397 # From James Lonergan, Secretary, Lord Howe Island Board (2000-01-27):
1398 # Lord Howe Island summer time in 2000/2001 will commence on the same
1399 # date as the rest of NSW (i.e. 2000-08-27).  For your information the
1400 # Lord Howe Island Board (controlling authority for the Island) is
1401 # seeking the community's views on various options for summer time
1402 # arrangements on the Island, e.g. advance clocks by 1 full hour
1403 # instead of only 30 minutes.  [Dependent] on the wishes of residents
1404 # the Board may approach the NSW government to change the existing
1405 # arrangements.  The starting date for summer time on the Island will
1406 # however always coincide with the rest of NSW.
1407 
1408 # From James Lonergan, Secretary, Lord Howe Island Board (2000-10-25):
1409 # Lord Howe Island advances clocks by 30 minutes during DST in NSW and retards
1410 # clocks by 30 minutes when DST finishes. Since DST was most recently
1411 # introduced in NSW, the "changeover" time on the Island has been 02:00 as
1412 # shown on clocks on LHI. I guess this means that for 30 minutes at the start
1413 # of DST, LHI is actually 1 hour ahead of the rest of NSW.
1414 
1415 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1416 # For Lord Howe dates we use Shanks & Pottenger through 1989, and
1417 # Lonergan thereafter.  For times we use Lonergan.
1418 
1419 # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1420 # See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1421 
1422 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-04-28):
1423 # According to the official press release, South Australia's extended daylight
1424 # saving period will continue with the same rules as used during the 2008-2009
1425 # summer (southern hemisphere).
1426 #
1427 # From
1428 # http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/uploaded_files/DaylightDatesSet.pdf
1429 # The extended daylight saving period that South Australia has been trialling
1430 # for over the last year is now set to be ongoing.
1431 # Daylight saving will continue to start on the first Sunday in October each
1432 # year and finish on the first Sunday in April the following year.
1433 # Industrial Relations Minister, Paul Caica, says this provides South Australia
1434 # with a consistent half hour time difference with NSW, Victoria, Tasmania and
1435 # the ACT for all 52 weeks of the year...
1436 #
1437 # We have a wrap-up here:
1438 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/south-australia-extends-dst.html
1439 ###############################################################################
1440 
1441 # New Zealand
1442 
1443 # From Mark Davies (1990-10-03):
1444 # the 1989/90 year was a trial of an extended "daylight saving" period.
1445 # This trial was deemed successful and the extended period adopted for
1446 # subsequent years (with the addition of a further week at the start).
1447 # source - phone call to Ministry of Internal Affairs Head Office.
1448 
1449 # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1450 # # The Country of New Zealand   (Australia's east island -) Gee they hate that!
1451 # #                                or is Australia the west island of N.Z.
1452 # #     [ courtesy of Geoff Tribble.. Auckland N.Z. ]
1453 # #                             [ Nov 1990 ]
1454 # ...
1455 # Rule  NZ      1974    1988    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1456 # Rule  NZ      1989    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
1457 # Rule  NZ      1975    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       S
1458 # Rule  NZ      1990    max     -       Mar     lastSun 3:00    0       S
1459 # ...
1460 # Zone  NZ                      12:00   NZ              NZ%sT   # New Zealand
1461 # Zone  NZ-CHAT                 12:45   -               NZ-CHAT # Chatham Island
1462 
1463 # From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
1464 # The chosen rules use the Davies October 8 values for the start of DST in 1989
1465 # rather than the October 1 value.
1466 
1467 # From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19);
1468 # Shank & Pottenger report 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and NZ.
1469 # Robert Uzgalis writes that the New Zealand Daylight
1470 # Savings Time Order in Council dated 1990-06-18 specifies 2:00 standard
1471 # time on both the first Sunday in October and the third Sunday in March.
1472 # As with Australia, we'll assume the tradition is 2:00s, not 2:00.
1473 #
1474 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1475 # The Department of Internal Affairs (DIA) maintains a brief history,
1476 # as does Carol Squires; see tz-link.htm for the full references.
1477 # Use these sources in preference to Shanks & Pottenger.
1478 #
1479 # For Chatham, IATA SSIM (1991/1999) gives the NZ rules but with
1480 # transitions at 2:45 local standard time; this confirms that Chatham
1481 # is always exactly 45 minutes ahead of Auckland.
1482 
1483 # From Colin Sharples (2007-04-30):
1484 # DST will now start on the last Sunday in September, and end on the
1485 # first Sunday in April.  The changes take effect this year, meaning
1486 # that DST will begin on 2007-09-30 2008-04-06.
1487 # http://www.dia.govt.nz/diawebsite.nsf/wpg_URL/Services-Daylight-Saving-Daylight-saving-to-be-extended
1488 
1489 # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-14):
1490 # Chatham Island time was formally standardized on 1957-01-01 by
1491 # New Zealand's Standard Time Amendment Act 1956 (1956-10-26).
1492 # http://www.austlii.edu.au/nz/legis/hist_act/staa19561956n100244.pdf
1493 # According to Google Books snippet view, a speaker in the New Zealand
1494 # parliamentary debates in 1956 said "Clause 78 makes provision for standard
1495 # time in the Chatham Islands.  The time there is 45 minutes in advance of New
1496 # Zealand time.  I understand that is the time they keep locally, anyhow."
1497 # For now, assume this practice goes back to the introduction of standard time
1498 # in New Zealand, as this would make Chatham Islands time almost exactly match
1499 # LMT back when New Zealand was at UTC+11:30; also, assume Chatham Islands did
1500 # not observe New Zealand's prewar DST.
1501 
1502 ###############################################################################
1503 
1504 
1505 # Fiji
1506 
1507 # Howse writes (p 153) that in 1879 the British governor of Fiji
1508 # enacted an ordinance standardizing the islands on Antipodean Time
1509 # instead of the American system (which was one day behind).
1510 
1511 # From Rives McDow (1998-10-08):
1512 # Fiji will introduce DST effective 0200 local time, 1998-11-01
1513 # until 0300 local time 1999-02-28.  Each year the DST period will
1514 # be from the first Sunday in November until the last Sunday in February.
1515 
1516 # From Paul Eggert (2000-01-08):
1517 # IATA SSIM (1999-09) says DST ends 0100 local time.  Go with McDow.
1518 
1519 # From the BBC World Service in
1520 # http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/205226.stm (1998-10-31 16:03 UTC):
1521 # The Fijian government says the main reasons for the time change is to
1522 # improve productivity and reduce road accidents.... [T]he move is also
1523 # intended to boost Fiji's ability to attract tourists to witness the dawning
1524 # of the new millennium.
1525 
1526 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/press/2000_09/2000_09_13-05.shtml (2000-09-13)
1527 # reports that Fiji has discontinued DST.
1528 
1529 
1530 # Kiribati
1531 
1532 # From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22):
1533 # Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (page 1) reports that Kiribati
1534 # "declared it the same day [throughout] the country as of Jan. 1, 1995"
1535 # as part of the competition to be first into the 21st century.
1536 
1537 
1538 # Kwajalein
1539 
1540 # In comp.risks 14.87 (26 August 1993), Peter Neumann writes:
1541 # I wonder what happened in Kwajalein, where there was NO Friday,
1542 # 1993-08-20.  Thursday night at midnight Kwajalein switched sides with
1543 # respect to the International Date Line, to rejoin its fellow islands,
1544 # going from 11:59 p.m. Thursday to 12:00 m. Saturday in a blink.
1545 
1546 
1547 # N Mariana Is, Guam
1548 
1549 # Howse writes (p 153) "The Spaniards, on the other hand, reached the
1550 # Philippines and the Ladrones from America," and implies that the Ladrones
1551 # (now called the Marianas) kept American date for quite some time.
1552 # For now, we assume the Ladrones switched at the same time as the Philippines;
1553 # see Asia/Manila.
1554 
1555 # US Public Law 106-564 (2000-12-23) made UTC+10 the official standard time,
1556 # under the name "Chamorro Standard Time".  There is no official abbreviation,
1557 # but Congressman Robert A. Underwood, author of the bill that became law,
1558 # wrote in a press release (2000-12-27) that he will seek the use of "ChST".
1559 
1560 
1561 # Micronesia
1562 
1563 # Alan Eugene Davis writes (1996-03-16),
1564 # "I am certain, having lived there for the past decade, that 'Truk'
1565 # (now properly known as Chuuk) ... is in the time zone GMT+10."
1566 #
1567 # Shanks & Pottenger write that Truk switched from UTC+10 to UTC+11
1568 # on 1978-10-01; ignore this for now.
1569 
1570 # From Paul Eggert (1999-10-29):
1571 # The Federated States of Micronesia Visitors Board writes in
1572 # The Federated States of Micronesia - Visitor Information (1999-01-26)
1573 # http://www.fsmgov.org/info/clocks.html
1574 # that Truk and Yap are UTC+10, and Ponape and Kosrae are UTC+11.
1575 # We don't know when Kosrae switched from UTC+12; assume January 1 for now.
1576 
1577 
1578 # Midway
1579 
1580 # From Charles T O'Connor, KMTH DJ (1956),
1581 # quoted in the KTMH section of the Radio Heritage Collection
1582 # <http://radiodx.com/spdxr/KMTH.htm> (2002-12-31):
1583 # For the past two months we've been on what is known as Daylight
1584 # Saving Time.  This time has put us on air at 5am in the morning,
1585 # your time down there in New Zealand.  Starting September 2, 1956
1586 # we'll again go back to Standard Time.  This'll mean that we'll go to
1587 # air at 6am your time.
1588 #
1589 # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23):
1590 # We don't know the date of that quote, but we'll guess they
1591 # started DST on June 3.  Possibly DST was observed other years
1592 # in Midway, but we have no record of it.
1593 
1594 # Norfolk
1595 
1596 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2015-09-23):
1597 # Norfolk Island will change ... from +1130 to +1100:
1598 # https://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/F2015L01483/Explanatory%20Statement/Text
1599 # ... at 12.30 am (by legal time in New South Wales) on 4 October 2015.
1600 # http://www.norfolkisland.gov.nf/nia/MediaRelease/Media%20Release%20Norfolk%20Island%20Standard%20Time%20Change.pdf
1601 
1602 # From Paul Eggert (2015-09-23):
1603 # Transitions before 2015 are from timeanddate.com, which consulted
1604 # the Norfolk Island Museum and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's
1605 # Norfolk Island station, and found no record of Norfolk observing DST
1606 # other than in 1974/5.  See:
1607 # http://www.timeanddate.com/time/australia/norfolk-island.html
1608 
1609 # Pitcairn
1610 
1611 # From Rives McDow (1999-11-08):
1612 # A Proclamation was signed by the Governor of Pitcairn on the 27th March 1998
1613 # with regard to Pitcairn Standard Time.  The Proclamation is as follows.
1614 #
1615 #       The local time for general purposes in the Islands shall be
1616 #       Co-ordinated Universal time minus 8 hours and shall be known
1617 #       as Pitcairn Standard Time.
1618 #
1619 # ... I have also seen Pitcairn listed as UTC minus 9 hours in several
1620 # references, and can only assume that this was an error in interpretation
1621 # somehow in light of this proclamation.
1622 
1623 # From Rives McDow (1999-11-09):
1624 # The Proclamation regarding Pitcairn time came into effect on 27 April 1998
1625 # ... at midnight.
1626 
1627 # From Howie Phelps (1999-11-10), who talked to a Pitcairner via shortwave:
1628 # Betty Christian told me yesterday that their local time is the same as
1629 # Pacific Standard Time. They used to be 1/2 hour different from us here in
1630 # Sacramento but it was changed a couple of years ago.
1631 
1632 
1633 # (Western) Samoa and American Samoa
1634 
1635 # Howse writes (p 153, citing p 10 of the 1883-11-18 New York Herald)
1636 # that in 1879 the King of Samoa decided to change
1637 # "the date in his kingdom from the Antipodean to the American system,
1638 # ordaining - by a masterpiece of diplomatic flattery - that
1639 # the Fourth of July should be celebrated twice in that year."
1640 
1641 # Although Shanks & Pottenger says they both switched to UTC-11:30
1642 # in 1911, and to UTC-11 in 1950. many earlier sources give UTC-11
1643 # for American Samoa, e.g., the US National Bureau of Standards
1644 # circular "Standard Time Throughout the World", 1932.
1645 # Assume American Samoa switched to UTC-11 in 1911, not 1950,
1646 # and that after 1950 they agreed until (western) Samoa skipped a
1647 # day in 2011.  Assume also that the Samoas follow the US and New
1648 # Zealand's "ST"/"DT" style of daylight-saving abbreviations.
1649 
1650 # Tonga
1651 
1652 # From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22):
1653 # Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (p 1) reports that "Tonga has been plotting
1654 # to sneak ahead of [New Zealanders] by introducing daylight-saving time."
1655 # Since Kiribati has moved the Date Line it's not clear what Tonga will do.
1656 
1657 # Don Mundell writes in the 1997-02-20 Tonga Chronicle
1658 # How Tonga became 'The Land where Time Begins':
1659 # http://www.tongatapu.net.to/tonga/homeland/timebegins.htm
1660 #
1661 # Until 1941 Tonga maintained a standard time 50 minutes ahead of NZST
1662 # 12 hours and 20 minutes ahead of GMT.  When New Zealand adjusted its
1663 # standard time in 1940s, Tonga had the choice of subtracting from its
1664 # local time to come on the same standard time as New Zealand or of
1665 # advancing its time to maintain the differential of 13 degrees
1666 # (approximately 50 minutes ahead of New Zealand time).
1667 #
1668 # Because His Majesty King Tāufaʻāhau Tupou IV, then Crown Prince
1669 # Tungī, preferred to ensure Tonga's title as the land where time
1670 # begins, the Legislative Assembly approved the latter change.
1671 #
1672 # But some of the older, more conservative members from the outer
1673 # islands objected. "If at midnight on Dec. 31, we move ahead 40
1674 # minutes, as your Royal Highness wishes, what becomes of the 40
1675 # minutes we have lost?"
1676 #
1677 # The Crown Prince, presented an unanswerable argument: "Remember that
1678 # on the World Day of Prayer, you would be the first people on Earth
1679 # to say your prayers in the morning."
1680 
1681 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1682 # Shanks & Pottenger say the transition was on 1968-10-01; go with Mundell.
1683 
1684 # From Eric Ulevik (1999-05-03):
1685 # Tonga's director of tourism, who is also secretary of the National Millennium
1686 # Committee, has a plan to get Tonga back in front.
1687 # He has proposed a one-off move to tropical daylight saving for Tonga from
1688 # October to March, which has won approval in principle from the Tongan
1689 # Government.
1690 
1691 # From Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
1692 # * Tonga will introduce DST in November
1693 #
1694 # I was given this link by John Letts:
1695 # http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_424000/424764.stm
1696 #
1697 # I have not been able to find exact dates for the transition in November
1698 # yet. By reading this article it seems like Fiji will be 14 hours ahead
1699 # of UTC as well, but as far as I know Fiji will only be 13 hours ahead
1700 # (12 + 1 hour DST).
1701 
1702 # From Arthur David Olson (1999-09-20):
1703 # According to <http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html>:
1704 # "Daylight Savings Time will take effect on Oct. 2 through April 15, 2000
1705 # and annually thereafter from the first Saturday in October through the
1706 # third Saturday of April.  Under the system approved by Privy Council on
1707 # Sept. 10, clocks must be turned ahead one hour on the opening day and
1708 # set back an hour on the closing date."
1709 # Alas, no indication of the time of day.
1710 
1711 # From Rives McDow (1999-10-06):
1712 # Tonga started its Daylight Saving on Saturday morning October 2nd at 0200am.
1713 # Daylight Saving ends on April 16 at 0300am which is Sunday morning.
1714 
1715 # From Steffen Thorsen (2000-10-31):
1716 # Back in March I found a notice on the website http://www.tongaonline.com
1717 # that Tonga changed back to standard time one month early, on March 19
1718 # instead of the original reported date April 16. Unfortunately, the article
1719 # is no longer available on the site, and I did not make a copy of the
1720 # text, and I have forgotten to report it here.
1721 # (Original URL was <http://www.tongaonline.com/news/march162000.htm>)
1722 
1723 # From Rives McDow (2000-12-01):
1724 # Tonga is observing DST as of 2000-11-04 and will stop on 2001-01-27.
1725 
1726 # From Sione Moala-Mafi (2001-09-20) via Rives McDow:
1727 # At 2:00am on the first Sunday of November, the standard time in the Kingdom
1728 # shall be moved forward by one hour to 3:00am.  At 2:00am on the last Sunday
1729 # of January the standard time in the Kingdom shall be moved backward by one
1730 # hour to 1:00am.
1731 
1732 # From Pulu 'Anau (2002-11-05):
1733 # The law was for 3 years, supposedly to get renewed.  It wasn't.
1734 
1735 
1736 # Wake
1737 
1738 # From Vernice Anderson, Personal Secretary to Philip Jessup,
1739 # US Ambassador At Large (oral history interview, 1971-02-02):
1740 #
1741 # Saturday, the 14th [of October, 1950] - ...  The time was all the
1742 # more confusing at that point, because we had crossed the
1743 # International Date Line, thus getting two Sundays.  Furthermore, we
1744 # discovered that Wake Island had two hours of daylight saving time
1745 # making calculation of time in Washington difficult if not almost
1746 # impossible.
1747 #
1748 # http://www.trumanlibrary.org/wake/meeting.htm
1749 
1750 # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23):
1751 # We have no other report of DST in Wake Island, so omit this info for now.
1752 
1753 ###############################################################################
1754 
1755 # The International Date Line
1756 
1757 # From Gwillim Law (2000-01-03):
1758 #
1759 # The International Date Line is not defined by any international standard,
1760 # convention, or treaty.  Mapmakers are free to draw it as they please.
1761 # Reputable mapmakers will simply ensure that every point of land appears on
1762 # the correct side of the IDL, according to the date legally observed there.
1763 #
1764 # When Kiribati adopted a uniform date in 1995, thereby moving the Phoenix and
1765 # Line Islands to the west side of the IDL (or, if you prefer, moving the IDL
1766 # to the east side of the Phoenix and Line Islands), I suppose that most
1767 # mapmakers redrew the IDL following the boundary of Kiribati.  Even that line
1768 # has a rather arbitrary nature.  The straight-line boundaries between Pacific
1769 # island nations that are shown on many maps are based on an international
1770 # convention, but are not legally binding national borders.... The date is
1771 # governed by the IDL; therefore, even on the high seas, there may be some
1772 # places as late as fourteen hours later than UTC.  And, since the IDL is not
1773 # an international standard, there are some places on the high seas where the
1774 # correct date is ambiguous.
1775 
1776 # From Wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_zone> (2005-08-31):
1777 # Before 1920, all ships kept local apparent time on the high seas by setting
1778 # their clocks at night or at the morning sight so that, given the ship's
1779 # speed and direction, it would be 12 o'clock when the Sun crossed the ship's
1780 # meridian (12 o'clock = local apparent noon).  During 1917, at the
1781 # Anglo-French Conference on Time-keeping at Sea, it was recommended that all
1782 # ships, both military and civilian, should adopt hourly standard time zones
1783 # on the high seas.  Whenever a ship was within the territorial waters of any
1784 # nation it would use that nation's standard time.  The captain was permitted
1785 # to change his ship's clocks at a time of his choice following his ship's
1786 # entry into another zone time - he often chose midnight.  These zones were
1787 # adopted by all major fleets between 1920 and 1925 but not by many
1788 # independent merchant ships until World War II.
1789 
1790 # From Paul Eggert, using references suggested by Oscar van Vlijmen
1791 # (2005-03-20):
1792 #
1793 # The American Practical Navigator (2002)
1794 # http://pollux.nss.nima.mil/pubs/pubs_j_apn_sections.html?rid=187
1795 # talks only about the 180-degree meridian with respect to ships in
1796 # international waters; it ignores the international date line.
--- EOF ---