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   7 # particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
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   9 #
  10 # This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  11 # ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  12 # FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  13 # version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  14 # accompanied this code).
  15 #
  16 # You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  17 # 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  18 # Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  19 #
  20 # Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  21 # or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  22 # questions.
  23 #
  24 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
  25 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
  26 
  27 # This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
  28 # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
  29 # tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
  30 # the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
  31 
  32 # From Paul Eggert (2014-10-31):
  33 #
  34 # Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:
  35 # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
  36 # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
  37 # Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.
  38 #
  39 # Gwillim Law writes that a good source
  40 # for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
  41 # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
  42 # published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
  43 # of the IATA's data after 1990.  Except where otherwise noted,
  44 # IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.
  45 #
  46 # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
  47 # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
  48 #
  49 # Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for
  50 # entries through 1991, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.
  51 #
  52 # Other sources occasionally used include:
  53 #
  54 #       Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
  55 #       Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated),
  56 #       which I found in the UCLA library.
  57 #
  58 #       William Willett, The Waste of Daylight, 19th edition
  59 #       <http://cs.ucla.edu/~eggert/The-Waste-of-Daylight-19th.pdf>
  60 #       [PDF] (1914-03)
  61 #
  62 #       Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94
  63 #       <http://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359>.  He writes:
  64 #       "It is requested that corrections and additions to these tables
  65 #       may be sent to Mr. John Milne, Royal Geographical Society,
  66 #       Savile Row, London."  Nowadays please email them to tz@iana.org.
  67 #
  68 #       Byalokoz EL. New Counting of Time in Russia since July 1, 1919.
  69 #       This Russian-language source was consulted by Vladimir Karpinsky; see
  70 #       http://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2014-August/021320.html
  71 #       The full Russian citation is:
  72 #       Бялокоз, Евгений Людвигович. Новый счет времени в течении суток
  73 #       введенный декретом Совета народных комиссаров для всей России с 1-го
  74 #       июля 1919 г. / Изд. 2-е Междуведомственной комиссии. - Петроград:
  75 #       Десятая гос. тип., 1919.
  76 #       http://resolver.gpntb.ru/purl?docushare/dsweb/Get/Resource-2011/Byalokoz__E.L.__Novyy__schet__vremeni__v__techenie__sutok__izd__2(1).pdf
  77 #
  78 #       Brazil's Divisão Serviço da Hora (DSHO),
  79 #       History of Summer Time
  80 #       <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HISTHV.htm>
  81 #       (1998-09-21, in Portuguese)
  82 
  83 #
  84 # I invented the abbreviations marked '*' in the following table;
  85 # the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.
  86 # Corrections are welcome!
  87 #                   std dst  2dst
  88 #                   LMT           Local Mean Time
  89 #       -4:00       AST ADT       Atlantic
  90 #       -3:00       WGT WGST      Western Greenland*
  91 #       -1:00       EGT EGST      Eastern Greenland*
  92 #        0:00       GMT BST  BDST Greenwich, British Summer
  93 #        0:00       GMT IST       Greenwich, Irish Summer
  94 #        0:00       WET WEST WEMT Western Europe
  95 #        0:19:32.13 AMT NST       Amsterdam, Netherlands Summer (1835-1937)*
  96 #        0:20       NET NEST      Netherlands (1937-1940)*
  97 #        1:00       BST           British Standard (1968-1971)
  98 #        1:00       CET CEST CEMT Central Europe
  99 #        1:00:14    SET           Swedish (1879-1899)*
 100 #        2:00       EET EEST      Eastern Europe
 101 #        3:00       FET           Further-eastern Europe (2011-2014)*
 102 #        3:00       MSK MSD  MSM* Minsk, Moscow
 103 
 104 # From Peter Ilieve (1994-12-04),
 105 # The original six [EU members]: Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy,
 106 # Luxembourg, the Netherlands.
 107 # Plus, from 1 Jan 73: Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom.
 108 # Plus, from 1 Jan 81: Greece.
 109 # Plus, from 1 Jan 86: Spain, Portugal.
 110 # Plus, from 1 Jan 95: Austria, Finland, Sweden. (Norway negotiated terms for
 111 # entry but in a referendum on 28 Nov 94 the people voted No by 52.2% to 47.8%
 112 # on a turnout of 88.6%. This was almost the same result as Norway's previous
 113 # referendum in 1972, they are the only country to have said No twice.
 114 # Referendums in the other three countries voted Yes.)
 115 # ...
 116 # Estonia ... uses EU dates but not at 01:00 GMT, they use midnight GMT.
 117 # I don't think they know yet what they will do from 1996 onwards.
 118 # ...
 119 # There shouldn't be any [current members who are not using EU rules].
 120 # A Directive has the force of law, member states are obliged to enact
 121 # national law to implement it. The only contentious issue was the
 122 # different end date for the UK and Ireland, and this was always allowed
 123 # in the Directive.
 124 
 125 
 126 ###############################################################################
 127 
 128 # Britain (United Kingdom) and Ireland (Eire)
 129 
 130 # From Peter Ilieve (1994-07-06):
 131 #
 132 # On 17 Jan 1994 the Independent, a UK quality newspaper, had a piece about
 133 # historical vistas along the Thames in west London. There was a photo
 134 # and a sketch map showing some of the sightlines involved. One paragraph
 135 # of the text said:
 136 #
 137 # 'An old stone obelisk marking a forgotten terrestrial meridian stands
 138 # beside the river at Kew. In the 18th century, before time and longitude
 139 # was standardised by the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, scholars observed
 140 # this stone and the movement of stars from Kew Observatory nearby. They
 141 # made their calculations and set the time for the Horse Guards and Parliament,
 142 # but now the stone is obscured by scrubwood and can only be seen by walking
 143 # along the towpath within a few yards of it.'
 144 #
 145 # I have a one inch to one mile map of London and my estimate of the stone's
 146 # position is 51 degrees 28' 30" N, 0 degrees 18' 45" W. The longitude should
 147 # be within about +-2". The Ordnance Survey grid reference is TQ172761.
 148 #
 149 # [This yields GMTOFF = -0:01:15 for London LMT in the 18th century.]
 150 
 151 # From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18):
 152 #
 153 # Howse writes that Britain was the first country to use standard time.
 154 # The railways cared most about the inconsistencies of local mean time,
 155 # and it was they who forced a uniform time on the country.
 156 # The original idea was credited to Dr. William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828)
 157 # and was popularized by Abraham Follett Osler (1808-1903).
 158 # The first railway to adopt London time was the Great Western Railway
 159 # in November 1840; other railways followed suit, and by 1847 most
 160 # (though not all) railways used London time.  On 1847-09-22 the
 161 # Railway Clearing House, an industry standards body, recommended that GMT be
 162 # adopted at all stations as soon as the General Post Office permitted it.
 163 # The transition occurred on 12-01 for the L&NW, the Caledonian,
 164 # and presumably other railways; the January 1848 Bradshaw's lists many
 165 # railways as using GMT.  By 1855 the vast majority of public
 166 # clocks in Britain were set to GMT (though some, like the great clock
 167 # on Tom Tower at Christ Church, Oxford, were fitted with two minute hands,
 168 # one for local time and one for GMT).  The last major holdout was the legal
 169 # system, which stubbornly stuck to local time for many years, leading
 170 # to oddities like polls opening at 08:13 and closing at 16:13.
 171 # The legal system finally switched to GMT when the Statutes (Definition
 172 # of Time) Act took effect; it received the Royal Assent on 1880-08-02.
 173 #
 174 # In the tables below, we condense this complicated story into a single
 175 # transition date for London, namely 1847-12-01.  We don't know as much
 176 # about Dublin, so we use 1880-08-02, the legal transition time.
 177 
 178 # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-19):
 179 # The ancients had no need for daylight saving, as they kept time
 180 # informally or via hours whose length depended on the time of year.
 181 # Daylight saving time in its modern sense was invented by the
 182 # New Zealand entomologist George Vernon Hudson (1867-1946),
 183 # whose day job as a postal clerk led him to value
 184 # after-hours daylight in which to pursue his research.
 185 # In 1895 he presented a paper to the Wellington Philosophical Society
 186 # that proposed a two-hour daylight-saving shift.  See:
 187 # Hudson GV. On seasonal time-adjustment in countries south of lat. 30 deg.
 188 # Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute. 1895;28:734
 189 # http://rsnz.natlib.govt.nz/volume/rsnz_28/rsnz_28_00_006110.html
 190 # Although some interest was expressed in New Zealand, his proposal
 191 # did not find its way into law and eventually it was almost forgotten.
 192 #
 193 # In England, DST was independently reinvented by William Willett (1857-1915),
 194 # a London builder and member of the Royal Astronomical Society
 195 # who circulated a pamphlet "The Waste of Daylight" (1907)
 196 # that proposed advancing clocks 20 minutes on each of four Sundays in April,
 197 # and retarding them by the same amount on four Sundays in September.
 198 # A bill was drafted in 1909 and introduced in Parliament several times,
 199 # but it met with ridicule and opposition, especially from farming interests.
 200 # Later editions of the pamphlet proposed one-hour summer time, and
 201 # it was eventually adopted as a wartime measure in 1916.
 202 # See: Summer Time Arrives Early, The Times (2000-05-18).
 203 # A monument to Willett was unveiled on 1927-05-21, in an open space in
 204 # a 45-acre wood near Chislehurst, Kent that was purchased by popular
 205 # subscription and open to the public.  On the south face of the monolith,
 206 # designed by G. W. Miller, is the William Willett Memorial Sundial,
 207 # which is permanently set to Summer Time.
 208 
 209 # From Winston Churchill (1934-04-28):
 210 # It is one of the paradoxes of history that we should owe the boon of
 211 # summer time, which gives every year to the people of this country
 212 # between 160 and 170 hours more daylight leisure, to a war which
 213 # plunged Europe into darkness for four years, and shook the
 214 # foundations of civilization throughout the world.
 215 #       -- "A Silent Toast to William Willett", Pictorial Weekly;
 216 #       republished in Finest Hour (Spring 2002) 1(114):26
 217 #       http://www.winstonchurchill.org/images/finesthour/Vol.01%20No.114.pdf
 218 
 219 # From Paul Eggert (2015-08-08):
 220 # The OED Supplement says that the English originally said "Daylight Saving"
 221 # when they were debating the adoption of DST in 1908; but by 1916 this
 222 # term appears only in quotes taken from DST's opponents, whereas the
 223 # proponents (who eventually won the argument) are quoted as using "Summer".
 224 # The term "Summer Time" was introduced by Herbert Samuel, Home Secretary; see:
 225 # Viscount Samuel. Leisure in a Democracy. Cambridge University Press
 226 # ISBN 978-1-107-49471-8 (1949, reissued 2015), p 8.
 227 
 228 # From Arthur David Olson (1989-01-19):
 229 # A source at the British Information Office in New York avers that it's
 230 # known as "British" Summer Time in all parts of the United Kingdom.
 231 
 232 # Date: 4 Jan 89 08:57:25 GMT (Wed)
 233 # From: Jonathan Leffler
 234 # [British Summer Time] is fixed annually by Act of Parliament.
 235 # If you can predict what Parliament will do, you should be in
 236 # politics making a fortune, not computing.
 237 
 238 # From Chris Carrier (1996-06-14):
 239 # I remember reading in various wartime issues of the London Times the
 240 # acronym BDST for British Double Summer Time.  Look for the published
 241 # time of sunrise and sunset in The Times, when BDST was in effect, and
 242 # if you find a zone reference it will say, "All times B.D.S.T."
 243 
 244 # From Joseph S. Myers (1999-09-02):
 245 # ... some military cables (WO 219/4100 - this is a copy from the
 246 # main SHAEF archives held in the US National Archives, SHAEF/5252/8/516)
 247 # agree that the usage is BDST (this appears in a message dated 17 Feb 1945).
 248 
 249 # From Joseph S. Myers (2000-10-03):
 250 # On 18th April 1941, Sir Stephen Tallents of the BBC wrote to Sir
 251 # Alexander Maxwell of the Home Office asking whether there was any
 252 # official designation; the reply of the 21st was that there wasn't
 253 # but he couldn't think of anything better than the "Double British
 254 # Summer Time" that the BBC had been using informally.
 255 # http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/bbc-19410418.png
 256 # http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/ho-19410421.png
 257 
 258 # From Sir Alexander Maxwell in the above-mentioned letter (1941-04-21):
 259 # [N]o official designation has as far as I know been adopted for the time
 260 # which is to be introduced in May....
 261 # I cannot think of anything better than "Double British Summer Time"
 262 # which could not be said to run counter to any official description.
 263 
 264 # From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
 265 # Howse writes (p 157) 'DBST' too, but 'BDST' seems to have been common
 266 # and follows the more usual convention of putting the location name first,
 267 # so we use 'BDST'.
 268 
 269 # Peter Ilieve (1998-04-19) described at length
 270 # the history of summer time legislation in the United Kingdom.
 271 # Since 1998 Joseph S. Myers has been updating
 272 # and extending this list, which can be found in
 273 # http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/
 274 
 275 # From Joseph S. Myers (1998-01-06):
 276 #
 277 # The legal time in the UK outside of summer time is definitely GMT, not UTC;
 278 # see Lord Tanlaw's speech
 279 # http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld199798/ldhansrd/vo970611/text/70611-10.htm#70611-10_head0
 280 # (Lords Hansard 11 June 1997 columns 964 to 976).
 281 
 282 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
 283 #
 284 # For lack of other data, follow Shanks & Pottenger for Eire in 1940-1948.
 285 #
 286 # Given Ilieve and Myers's data, the following claims by Shanks & Pottenger
 287 # are incorrect:
 288 #     * Wales did not switch from GMT to daylight saving time until
 289 #       1921 Apr 3, when they began to conform with the rest of Great Britain.
 290 # Actually, Wales was identical after 1880.
 291 #     * Eire had two transitions on 1916 Oct 1.
 292 # It actually just had one transition.
 293 #     * Northern Ireland used single daylight saving time throughout WW II.
 294 # Actually, it conformed to Britain.
 295 #     * GB-Eire changed standard time to 1 hour ahead of GMT on 1968-02-18.
 296 # Actually, that date saw the usual switch to summer time.
 297 # Standard time was not changed until 1968-10-27 (the clocks didn't change).
 298 #
 299 # Here is another incorrect claim by Shanks & Pottenger:
 300 #     * Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man did not switch from GMT
 301 #       to daylight saving time until 1921 Apr 3, when they began to
 302 #       conform with Great Britain.
 303 # S.R.&O. 1916, No. 382 and HO 45/10811/312364 (quoted above) say otherwise.
 304 #
 305 # The following claim by Shanks & Pottenger is possible though doubtful;
 306 # we'll ignore it for now.
 307 #     * Dublin's 1971-10-31 switch was at 02:00, even though London's was 03:00.
 308 #
 309 #
 310 # Whitman says Dublin Mean Time was -0:25:21, which is more precise than
 311 # Shanks & Pottenger.
 312 # Perhaps this was Dunsink Observatory Time, as Dunsink Observatory
 313 # (8 km NW of Dublin's center) seemingly was to Dublin as Greenwich was
 314 # to London.  For example:
 315 #
 316 #   "Timeball on the ballast office is down.  Dunsink time."
 317 #   -- James Joyce, Ulysses
 318 
 319 # "Countess Markievicz ... claimed that the [1916] abolition of Dublin Mean Time
 320 # was among various actions undertaken by the 'English' government that
 321 # would 'put the whole country into the SF (Sinn Féin) camp'.  She claimed
 322 # Irish 'public feeling (was) outraged by forcing of English time on us'."
 323 # -- Parsons M. Dublin lost its time zone - and 25 minutes - after 1916 Rising.
 324 # Irish Times 2014-10-27.
 325 # http://www.irishtimes.com/news/politics/dublin-lost-its-time-zone-and-25-minutes-after-1916-rising-1.1977411
 326 
 327 # From Joseph S. Myers (2005-01-26):
 328 # Irish laws are available online at <http://www.irishstatutebook.ie>.
 329 # These include various relating to legal time, for example:
 330 #
 331 # ZZA13Y1923.html ZZA12Y1924.html ZZA8Y1925.html ZZSIV20PG1267.html
 332 #
 333 # ZZSI71Y1947.html ZZSI128Y1948.html ZZSI23Y1949.html ZZSI41Y1950.html
 334 # ZZSI27Y1951.html ZZSI73Y1952.html
 335 #
 336 # ZZSI11Y1961.html ZZSI232Y1961.html ZZSI182Y1962.html
 337 # ZZSI167Y1963.html ZZSI257Y1964.html ZZSI198Y1967.html
 338 # ZZA23Y1968.html ZZA17Y1971.html
 339 #
 340 # ZZSI67Y1981.html ZZSI212Y1982.html ZZSI45Y1986.html
 341 # ZZSI264Y1988.html ZZSI52Y1990.html ZZSI371Y1992.html
 342 # ZZSI395Y1994.html ZZSI484Y1997.html ZZSI506Y2001.html
 343 #
 344 # [These are all relative to the root, e.g., the first is
 345 # <http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/ZZA13Y1923.html>.]
 346 #
 347 # (These are those I found, but there could be more.  In any case these
 348 # should allow various updates to the comments in the europe file to cover
 349 # the laws applicable in Ireland.)
 350 #
 351 # (Note that the time in the Republic of Ireland since 1968 has been defined
 352 # in terms of standard time being GMT+1 with a period of winter time when it
 353 # is GMT, rather than standard time being GMT with a period of summer time
 354 # being GMT+1.)
 355 
 356 # From Paul Eggert (1999-03-28):
 357 # Clive Feather (<news:859845706.26043.0@office.demon.net>, 1997-03-31)
 358 # reports that Folkestone (Cheriton) Shuttle Terminal uses Concession Time
 359 # (CT), equivalent to French civil time.
 360 # Julian Hill (<news:36118128.5A14@virgin.net>, 1998-09-30) reports that
 361 # trains between Dollands Moor (the freight facility next door)
 362 # and Frethun run in CT.
 363 # My admittedly uninformed guess is that the terminal has two authorities,
 364 # the French concession operators and the British civil authorities,
 365 # and that the time depends on who you're talking to.
 366 # If, say, the British police were called to the station for some reason,
 367 # I would expect the official police report to use GMT/BST and not CET/CEST.
 368 # This is a borderline case, but for now let's stick to GMT/BST.
 369 
 370 # From an anonymous contributor (1996-06-02):
 371 # The law governing time in Ireland is under Statutory Instrument SI 395/94,
 372 # which gives force to European Union 7th Council Directive No. 94/21/EC.
 373 # Under this directive, the Minister for Justice in Ireland makes appropriate
 374 # regulations. I spoke this morning with the Secretary of the Department of
 375 # Justice (tel +353 1 678 9711) who confirmed to me that the correct name is
 376 # "Irish Summer Time", abbreviated to "IST".
 377 
 378 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 379 # Summer Time Act, 1916
 380 Rule    GB-Eire 1916    only    -       May     21      2:00s   1:00    BST
 381 Rule    GB-Eire 1916    only    -       Oct      1      2:00s   0       GMT
 382 # S.R.&O. 1917, No. 358
 383 Rule    GB-Eire 1917    only    -       Apr      8      2:00s   1:00    BST
 384 Rule    GB-Eire 1917    only    -       Sep     17      2:00s   0       GMT
 385 # S.R.&O. 1918, No. 274
 386 Rule    GB-Eire 1918    only    -       Mar     24      2:00s   1:00    BST
 387 Rule    GB-Eire 1918    only    -       Sep     30      2:00s   0       GMT
 388 # S.R.&O. 1919, No. 297
 389 Rule    GB-Eire 1919    only    -       Mar     30      2:00s   1:00    BST
 390 Rule    GB-Eire 1919    only    -       Sep     29      2:00s   0       GMT
 391 # S.R.&O. 1920, No. 458
 392 Rule    GB-Eire 1920    only    -       Mar     28      2:00s   1:00    BST
 393 # S.R.&O. 1920, No. 1844
 394 Rule    GB-Eire 1920    only    -       Oct     25      2:00s   0       GMT
 395 # S.R.&O. 1921, No. 363
 396 Rule    GB-Eire 1921    only    -       Apr      3      2:00s   1:00    BST
 397 Rule    GB-Eire 1921    only    -       Oct      3      2:00s   0       GMT
 398 # S.R.&O. 1922, No. 264
 399 Rule    GB-Eire 1922    only    -       Mar     26      2:00s   1:00    BST
 400 Rule    GB-Eire 1922    only    -       Oct      8      2:00s   0       GMT
 401 # The Summer Time Act, 1922
 402 Rule    GB-Eire 1923    only    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 403 Rule    GB-Eire 1923    1924    -       Sep     Sun>=16      2:00s   0       GMT
 404 Rule    GB-Eire 1924    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 405 Rule    GB-Eire 1925    1926    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 406 # The Summer Time Act, 1925
 407 Rule    GB-Eire 1925    1938    -       Oct     Sun>=2       2:00s   0       GMT
 408 Rule    GB-Eire 1927    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 409 Rule    GB-Eire 1928    1929    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 410 Rule    GB-Eire 1930    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 411 Rule    GB-Eire 1931    1932    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 412 Rule    GB-Eire 1933    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 413 Rule    GB-Eire 1934    only    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 414 Rule    GB-Eire 1935    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 415 Rule    GB-Eire 1936    1937    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 416 Rule    GB-Eire 1938    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 417 Rule    GB-Eire 1939    only    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 418 # S.R.&O. 1939, No. 1379
 419 Rule    GB-Eire 1939    only    -       Nov     Sun>=16      2:00s   0       GMT
 420 # S.R.&O. 1940, No. 172 and No. 1883
 421 Rule    GB-Eire 1940    only    -       Feb     Sun>=23      2:00s   1:00    BST
 422 # S.R.&O. 1941, No. 476
 423 Rule    GB-Eire 1941    only    -       May     Sun>=2       1:00s   2:00    BDST
 424 Rule    GB-Eire 1941    1943    -       Aug     Sun>=9       1:00s   1:00    BST
 425 # S.R.&O. 1942, No. 506
 426 Rule    GB-Eire 1942    1944    -       Apr     Sun>=2       1:00s   2:00    BDST
 427 # S.R.&O. 1944, No. 932
 428 Rule    GB-Eire 1944    only    -       Sep     Sun>=16      1:00s   1:00    BST
 429 # S.R.&O. 1945, No. 312
 430 Rule    GB-Eire 1945    only    -       Apr     Mon>=2       1:00s   2:00    BDST
 431 Rule    GB-Eire 1945    only    -       Jul     Sun>=9       1:00s   1:00    BST
 432 # S.R.&O. 1945, No. 1208
 433 Rule    GB-Eire 1945    1946    -       Oct     Sun>=2       2:00s   0       GMT
 434 Rule    GB-Eire 1946    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 435 # The Summer Time Act, 1947
 436 Rule    GB-Eire 1947    only    -       Mar     16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 437 Rule    GB-Eire 1947    only    -       Apr     13      1:00s   2:00    BDST
 438 Rule    GB-Eire 1947    only    -       Aug     10      1:00s   1:00    BST
 439 Rule    GB-Eire 1947    only    -       Nov      2      2:00s   0       GMT
 440 # Summer Time Order, 1948 (S.I. 1948/495)
 441 Rule    GB-Eire 1948    only    -       Mar     14      2:00s   1:00    BST
 442 Rule    GB-Eire 1948    only    -       Oct     31      2:00s   0       GMT
 443 # Summer Time Order, 1949 (S.I. 1949/373)
 444 Rule    GB-Eire 1949    only    -       Apr      3      2:00s   1:00    BST
 445 Rule    GB-Eire 1949    only    -       Oct     30      2:00s   0       GMT
 446 # Summer Time Order, 1950 (S.I. 1950/518)
 447 # Summer Time Order, 1951 (S.I. 1951/430)
 448 # Summer Time Order, 1952 (S.I. 1952/451)
 449 Rule    GB-Eire 1950    1952    -       Apr     Sun>=14      2:00s   1:00    BST
 450 Rule    GB-Eire 1950    1952    -       Oct     Sun>=21      2:00s   0       GMT
 451 # revert to the rules of the Summer Time Act, 1925
 452 Rule    GB-Eire 1953    only    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 453 Rule    GB-Eire 1953    1960    -       Oct     Sun>=2       2:00s   0       GMT
 454 Rule    GB-Eire 1954    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 455 Rule    GB-Eire 1955    1956    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 456 Rule    GB-Eire 1957    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 457 Rule    GB-Eire 1958    1959    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 458 Rule    GB-Eire 1960    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 459 # Summer Time Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/71)
 460 # Summer Time (1962) Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/2465)
 461 # Summer Time Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/81)
 462 Rule    GB-Eire 1961    1963    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    BST
 463 Rule    GB-Eire 1961    1968    -       Oct     Sun>=23      2:00s   0       GMT
 464 # Summer Time (1964) Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/2101)
 465 # Summer Time Order, 1964 (S.I. 1964/1201)
 466 # Summer Time Order, 1967 (S.I. 1967/1148)
 467 Rule    GB-Eire 1964    1967    -       Mar     Sun>=19      2:00s   1:00    BST
 468 # Summer Time Order, 1968 (S.I. 1968/117)
 469 Rule    GB-Eire 1968    only    -       Feb     18      2:00s   1:00    BST
 470 # The British Standard Time Act, 1968
 471 #       (no summer time)
 472 # The Summer Time Act, 1972
 473 Rule    GB-Eire 1972    1980    -       Mar     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 474 Rule    GB-Eire 1972    1980    -       Oct     Sun>=23      2:00s   0       GMT
 475 # Summer Time Order, 1980 (S.I. 1980/1089)
 476 # Summer Time Order, 1982 (S.I. 1982/1673)
 477 # Summer Time Order, 1986 (S.I. 1986/223)
 478 # Summer Time Order, 1988 (S.I. 1988/931)
 479 Rule    GB-Eire 1981    1995    -       Mar     lastSun 1:00u   1:00    BST
 480 Rule    GB-Eire 1981    1989    -       Oct     Sun>=23      1:00u   0       GMT
 481 # Summer Time Order, 1989 (S.I. 1989/985)
 482 # Summer Time Order, 1992 (S.I. 1992/1729)
 483 # Summer Time Order 1994 (S.I. 1994/2798)
 484 Rule    GB-Eire 1990    1995    -       Oct     Sun>=22      1:00u   0       GMT
 485 # Summer Time Order 1997 (S.I. 1997/2982)
 486 # See EU for rules starting in 1996.
 487 #
 488 # Use Europe/London for Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man.
 489 
 490 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 491 Zone    Europe/London   -0:01:15 -      LMT     1847 Dec  1  0:00s
 492                          0:00   GB-Eire %s      1968 Oct 27
 493                          1:00   -       BST     1971 Oct 31  2:00u
 494                          0:00   GB-Eire %s      1996
 495                          0:00   EU      GMT/BST
 496 Link    Europe/London   Europe/Jersey
 497 Link    Europe/London   Europe/Guernsey
 498 Link    Europe/London   Europe/Isle_of_Man
 499 
 500 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 501 Zone    Europe/Dublin   -0:25:00 -      LMT     1880 Aug  2
 502                         -0:25:21 -      DMT     1916 May 21  2:00
 503                         -0:25:21 1:00   IST     1916 Oct  1  2:00s
 504                          0:00   GB-Eire %s      1921 Dec  6 # independence
 505                          0:00   GB-Eire GMT/IST 1940 Feb 25  2:00
 506                          0:00   1:00    IST     1946 Oct  6  2:00
 507                          0:00   -       GMT     1947 Mar 16  2:00
 508                          0:00   1:00    IST     1947 Nov  2  2:00
 509                          0:00   -       GMT     1948 Apr 18  2:00
 510                          0:00   GB-Eire GMT/IST 1968 Oct 27
 511                          1:00   -       IST     1971 Oct 31  2:00u
 512                          0:00   GB-Eire GMT/IST 1996
 513                          0:00   EU      GMT/IST
 514 
 515 ###############################################################################
 516 
 517 # Europe
 518 
 519 # EU rules are for the European Union, previously known as the EC, EEC,
 520 # Common Market, etc.
 521 
 522 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 523 Rule    EU      1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1        1:00u  1:00    S
 524 Rule    EU      1977    only    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
 525 Rule    EU      1978    only    -       Oct      1       1:00u  0       -
 526 Rule    EU      1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
 527 Rule    EU      1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  1:00u  1:00    S
 528 Rule    EU      1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
 529 # The most recent directive covers the years starting in 2002.  See:
 530 # Directive 2000/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
 531 # of 19 January 2001 on summer-time arrangements.
 532 # http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32000L0084:EN:NOT
 533 
 534 # W-Eur differs from EU only in that W-Eur uses standard time.
 535 Rule    W-Eur   1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1        1:00s  1:00    S
 536 Rule    W-Eur   1977    only    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00s  0       -
 537 Rule    W-Eur   1978    only    -       Oct      1       1:00s  0       -
 538 Rule    W-Eur   1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00s  0       -
 539 Rule    W-Eur   1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  1:00s  1:00    S
 540 Rule    W-Eur   1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  1:00s  0       -
 541 
 542 # Older C-Eur rules are for convenience in the tables.
 543 # From 1977 on, C-Eur differs from EU only in that C-Eur uses standard time.
 544 Rule    C-Eur   1916    only    -       Apr     30      23:00   1:00    S
 545 Rule    C-Eur   1916    only    -       Oct      1       1:00   0       -
 546 Rule    C-Eur   1917    1918    -       Apr     Mon>=15       2:00s  1:00    S
 547 Rule    C-Eur   1917    1918    -       Sep     Mon>=15       2:00s  0       -
 548 Rule    C-Eur   1940    only    -       Apr      1       2:00s  1:00    S
 549 Rule    C-Eur   1942    only    -       Nov      2       2:00s  0       -
 550 Rule    C-Eur   1943    only    -       Mar     29       2:00s  1:00    S
 551 Rule    C-Eur   1943    only    -       Oct      4       2:00s  0       -
 552 Rule    C-Eur   1944    1945    -       Apr     Mon>=1        2:00s  1:00    S
 553 # Whitman gives 1944 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
 554 Rule    C-Eur   1944    only    -       Oct      2       2:00s  0       -
 555 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2008-07-13):
 556 #
 557 # I found what is probably a typo of 2:00 which should perhaps be 2:00s
 558 # in the C-Eur rule from tz database version 2008d (this part was
 559 # corrected in version 2008d). The circumstantial evidence is simply the
 560 # tz database itself, as seen below:
 561 #
 562 # Zone Europe/Paris 0:09:21 - LMT 1891 Mar 15  0:01
 563 #    0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16  3:00
 564 #
 565 # Zone Europe/Monaco 0:29:32 - LMT 1891 Mar 15
 566 #    0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16  3:00
 567 #
 568 # Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884
 569 #    1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16  2:00s
 570 #
 571 # Rule France 1945 only - Sep 16  3:00 0 -
 572 # Rule Belgium 1945 only - Sep 16  2:00s 0 -
 573 # Rule Neth 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
 574 #
 575 # The rule line to be changed is:
 576 #
 577 # Rule C-Eur 1945 only - Sep 16  2:00 0 -
 578 #
 579 # It seems that Paris, Monaco, Rule France, Rule Belgium all agree on
 580 # 2:00 standard time, e.g. 3:00 local time.  However there are no
 581 # countries that use C-Eur rules in September 1945, so the only items
 582 # affected are apparently these fictitious zones that translate acronyms
 583 # CET and MET:
 584 #
 585 # Zone CET  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT
 586 # Zone MET  1:00 C-Eur ME%sT
 587 #
 588 # It this is right then the corrected version would look like:
 589 #
 590 # Rule C-Eur 1945 only - Sep 16  2:00s 0 -
 591 #
 592 # A small step for mankind though 8-)
 593 Rule    C-Eur   1945    only    -       Sep     16       2:00s  0       -
 594 Rule    C-Eur   1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1        2:00s  1:00    S
 595 Rule    C-Eur   1977    only    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 596 Rule    C-Eur   1978    only    -       Oct      1       2:00s  0       -
 597 Rule    C-Eur   1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 598 Rule    C-Eur   1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
 599 Rule    C-Eur   1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 600 
 601 # E-Eur differs from EU only in that E-Eur switches at midnight local time.
 602 Rule    E-Eur   1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1        0:00   1:00    S
 603 Rule    E-Eur   1977    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       -
 604 Rule    E-Eur   1978    only    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       -
 605 Rule    E-Eur   1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       -
 606 Rule    E-Eur   1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  0:00   1:00    S
 607 Rule    E-Eur   1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  0:00   0       -
 608 
 609 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 610 Rule    Russia  1917    only    -       Jul      1      23:00   1:00    MST  # Moscow Summer Time
 611 Rule    Russia  1917    only    -       Dec     28       0:00   0       MMT  # Moscow Mean Time
 612 Rule    Russia  1918    only    -       May     31      22:00   2:00    MDST # Moscow Double Summer Time
 613 Rule    Russia  1918    only    -       Sep     16       1:00   1:00    MST
 614 Rule    Russia  1919    only    -       May     31      23:00   2:00    MDST
 615 Rule    Russia  1919    only    -       Jul      1       2:00   1:00    MSD
 616 Rule    Russia  1919    only    -       Aug     16       0:00   0       MSK
 617 Rule    Russia  1921    only    -       Feb     14      23:00   1:00    MSD
 618 Rule    Russia  1921    only    -       Mar     20      23:00   2:00    MSM  # Midsummer
 619 Rule    Russia  1921    only    -       Sep      1       0:00   1:00    MSD
 620 Rule    Russia  1921    only    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       -
 621 # Act No. 925 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1980-10-24):
 622 Rule    Russia  1981    1984    -       Apr      1       0:00   1:00    S
 623 Rule    Russia  1981    1983    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       -
 624 # Act No. 967 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1984-09-13), repeated in
 625 # Act No. 227 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1989-03-14):
 626 Rule    Russia  1984    1991    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 627 Rule    Russia  1985    1991    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
 628 #
 629 Rule    Russia  1992    only    -       Mar     lastSat  23:00  1:00    S
 630 Rule    Russia  1992    only    -       Sep     lastSat  23:00  0       -
 631 Rule    Russia  1993    2010    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
 632 Rule    Russia  1993    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 633 Rule    Russia  1996    2010    -       Oct     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 634 # As described below, Russia's 2014 change affects Zone data, not Rule data.
 635 




























 636 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-06-14):
 637 # According to Kremlin press service, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev
 638 # signed a federal law "On calculation of time" on June 9, 2011.
 639 # According to the law Russia is abolishing daylight saving time.
 640 #
 641 # Medvedev signed a law "On the Calculation of Time" (in russian):
 642 # http://bmockbe.ru/events/?ID=7583
 643 #
 644 # Medvedev signed a law on the calculation of the time (in russian):
 645 # http://www.regnum.ru/news/polit/1413906.html
 646 
 647 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15):
 648 # Take "abolishing daylight saving time" to mean that time is now considered
 649 # to be standard.
 650 
 651 # These are for backward compatibility with older versions.
 652 
 653 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 654 Zone    WET             0:00    EU      WE%sT
 655 Zone    CET             1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT
 656 Zone    MET             1:00    C-Eur   ME%sT
 657 Zone    EET             2:00    EU      EE%sT
 658 
 659 # Previous editions of this database used abbreviations like MET DST
 660 # for Central European Summer Time, but this didn't agree with common usage.
 661 
 662 # From Markus Kuhn (1996-07-12):
 663 # The official German names ... are
 664 #
 665 #       Mitteleuropäische Zeit (MEZ)         = UTC+01:00
 666 #       Mitteleuropäische Sommerzeit (MESZ)  = UTC+02:00
 667 #
 668 # as defined in the German Time Act (Gesetz über die Zeitbestimmung (ZeitG),
 669 # 1978-07-25, Bundesgesetzblatt, Jahrgang 1978, Teil I, S. 1110-1111)....
 670 # I wrote ... to the German Federal Physical-Technical Institution
 671 #
 672 #       Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)
 673 #       Laboratorium 4.41 "Zeiteinheit"
 674 #       Postfach 3345
 675 #       D-38023 Braunschweig
 676 #       phone: +49 531 592-0
 677 #
 678 # ... I received today an answer letter from Dr. Peter Hetzel, head of the PTB
 679 # department for time and frequency transmission.  He explained that the
 680 # PTB translates MEZ and MESZ into English as
 681 #
 682 #       Central European Time (CET)         = UTC+01:00
 683 #       Central European Summer Time (CEST) = UTC+02:00
 684 
 685 
 686 # Albania
 687 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 688 Rule    Albania 1940    only    -       Jun     16      0:00    1:00    S
 689 Rule    Albania 1942    only    -       Nov      2      3:00    0       -
 690 Rule    Albania 1943    only    -       Mar     29      2:00    1:00    S
 691 Rule    Albania 1943    only    -       Apr     10      3:00    0       -
 692 Rule    Albania 1974    only    -       May      4      0:00    1:00    S
 693 Rule    Albania 1974    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       -
 694 Rule    Albania 1975    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S
 695 Rule    Albania 1975    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       -
 696 Rule    Albania 1976    only    -       May      2      0:00    1:00    S
 697 Rule    Albania 1976    only    -       Oct      3      0:00    0       -
 698 Rule    Albania 1977    only    -       May      8      0:00    1:00    S
 699 Rule    Albania 1977    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       -
 700 Rule    Albania 1978    only    -       May      6      0:00    1:00    S
 701 Rule    Albania 1978    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
 702 Rule    Albania 1979    only    -       May      5      0:00    1:00    S
 703 Rule    Albania 1979    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       -
 704 Rule    Albania 1980    only    -       May      3      0:00    1:00    S
 705 Rule    Albania 1980    only    -       Oct      4      0:00    0       -
 706 Rule    Albania 1981    only    -       Apr     26      0:00    1:00    S
 707 Rule    Albania 1981    only    -       Sep     27      0:00    0       -
 708 Rule    Albania 1982    only    -       May      2      0:00    1:00    S
 709 Rule    Albania 1982    only    -       Oct      3      0:00    0       -
 710 Rule    Albania 1983    only    -       Apr     18      0:00    1:00    S
 711 Rule    Albania 1983    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
 712 Rule    Albania 1984    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
 713 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 714 Zone    Europe/Tirane   1:19:20 -       LMT     1914
 715                         1:00    -       CET     1940 Jun 16
 716                         1:00    Albania CE%sT   1984 Jul
 717                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
 718 
 719 # Andorra
 720 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 721 Zone    Europe/Andorra  0:06:04 -       LMT     1901
 722                         0:00    -       WET     1946 Sep 30
 723                         1:00    -       CET     1985 Mar 31  2:00
 724                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
 725 
 726 # Austria
 727 
 728 # Milne says Vienna time was 1:05:21.
 729 
 730 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): Shanks & Pottenger give 1918-06-16 and
 731 # 1945-11-18, but the Austrian Federal Office of Metrology and
 732 # Surveying (BEV) gives 1918-09-16 and for Vienna gives the "alleged"
 733 # date of 1945-04-12 with no time.  For the 1980-04-06 transition
 734 # Shanks & Pottenger give 02:00, the BEV 00:00.  Go with the BEV,
 735 # and guess 02:00 for 1945-04-12.
 736 
 737 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 738 Rule    Austria 1920    only    -       Apr      5      2:00s   1:00    S
 739 Rule    Austria 1920    only    -       Sep     13      2:00s   0       -
 740 Rule    Austria 1946    only    -       Apr     14      2:00s   1:00    S
 741 Rule    Austria 1946    1948    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 742 Rule    Austria 1947    only    -       Apr      6      2:00s   1:00    S
 743 Rule    Austria 1948    only    -       Apr     18      2:00s   1:00    S
 744 Rule    Austria 1980    only    -       Apr      6      0:00    1:00    S
 745 Rule    Austria 1980    only    -       Sep     28      0:00    0       -
 746 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 747 Zone    Europe/Vienna   1:05:21 -       LMT     1893 Apr
 748                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1920
 749                         1:00    Austria CE%sT   1940 Apr  1  2:00s
 750                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00s
 751                         1:00    1:00    CEST    1945 Apr 12  2:00s
 752                         1:00    -       CET     1946
 753                         1:00    Austria CE%sT   1981
 754                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
 755 
 756 # Belarus
 757 # From Yauhen Kharuzhy (2011-09-16):
 758 # By latest Belarus government act Europe/Minsk timezone was changed to
 759 # GMT+3 without DST (was GMT+2 with DST).
 760 #
 761 # Sources (Russian language):
 762 # http://www.belta.by/ru/all_news/society/V-Belarusi-otmenjaetsja-perexod-na-sezonnoe-vremja_i_572952.html
 763 # http://naviny.by/rubrics/society/2011/09/16/ic_articles_116_175144/
 764 # http://news.tut.by/society/250578.html
 765 #
 766 # From Alexander Bokovoy (2014-10-09):
 767 # Belarussian government decided against changing to winter time....
 768 # http://eng.belta.by/all_news/society/Belarus-decides-against-adjusting-time-in-Russias-wake_i_76335.html
 769 # From Paul Eggert (2014-10-08):
 770 # Hence Belarus can share time zone abbreviations with Moscow again.
 771 #
 772 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 773 Zone    Europe/Minsk    1:50:16 -       LMT     1880
 774                         1:50    -       MMT     1924 May  2 # Minsk Mean Time
 775                         2:00    -       EET     1930 Jun 21
 776                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Jun 28
 777                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Jul  3
 778                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990
 779                         3:00    -       MSK     1991 Mar 31  2:00s
 780                         2:00    1:00    EEST    1991 Sep 29  2:00s
 781                         2:00    -       EET     1992 Mar 29  0:00s
 782                         2:00    1:00    EEST    1992 Sep 27  0:00s
 783                         2:00    Russia  EE%sT   2011 Mar 27  2:00s
 784                         3:00    -       FET     2014 Oct 26  1:00s
 785                         3:00    -       MSK
 786 
 787 # Belgium
 788 #
 789 # From Paul Eggert (1997-07-02):
 790 # Entries from 1918 through 1991 are taken from:
 791 #       Annuaire de L'Observatoire Royal de Belgique,
 792 #       Avenue Circulaire, 3, B-1180 BRUXELLES, CLVIIe année, 1991
 793 #       (Imprimerie HAYEZ, s.p.r.l., Rue Fin, 4, 1080 BRUXELLES, MCMXC),
 794 #       pp 8-9.
 795 # LMT before 1892 was 0:17:30, according to the official journal of Belgium:
 796 #       Moniteur Belge, Samedi 30 Avril 1892, N.121.
 797 # Thanks to Pascal Delmoitie for these references.
 798 # The 1918 rules are listed for completeness; they apply to unoccupied Belgium.
 799 # Assume Brussels switched to WET in 1918 when the armistice took effect.
 800 #
 801 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 802 Rule    Belgium 1918    only    -       Mar      9       0:00s  1:00    S
 803 Rule    Belgium 1918    1919    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
 804 Rule    Belgium 1919    only    -       Mar      1      23:00s  1:00    S
 805 Rule    Belgium 1920    only    -       Feb     14      23:00s  1:00    S
 806 Rule    Belgium 1920    only    -       Oct     23      23:00s  0       -
 807 Rule    Belgium 1921    only    -       Mar     14      23:00s  1:00    S
 808 Rule    Belgium 1921    only    -       Oct     25      23:00s  0       -
 809 Rule    Belgium 1922    only    -       Mar     25      23:00s  1:00    S
 810 Rule    Belgium 1922    1927    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
 811 Rule    Belgium 1923    only    -       Apr     21      23:00s  1:00    S
 812 Rule    Belgium 1924    only    -       Mar     29      23:00s  1:00    S
 813 Rule    Belgium 1925    only    -       Apr      4      23:00s  1:00    S
 814 # DSH writes that a royal decree of 1926-02-22 specified the Sun following 3rd
 815 # Sat in Apr (except if it's Easter, in which case it's one Sunday earlier),
 816 # to Sun following 1st Sat in Oct, and that a royal decree of 1928-09-15
 817 # changed the transition times to 02:00 GMT.
 818 Rule    Belgium 1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00s  1:00    S
 819 Rule    Belgium 1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00s  1:00    S
 820 Rule    Belgium 1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00s  1:00    S
 821 Rule    Belgium 1928    1938    -       Oct     Sun>=2        2:00s  0       -
 822 Rule    Belgium 1929    only    -       Apr     21       2:00s  1:00    S
 823 Rule    Belgium 1930    only    -       Apr     13       2:00s  1:00    S
 824 Rule    Belgium 1931    only    -       Apr     19       2:00s  1:00    S
 825 Rule    Belgium 1932    only    -       Apr      3       2:00s  1:00    S
 826 Rule    Belgium 1933    only    -       Mar     26       2:00s  1:00    S
 827 Rule    Belgium 1934    only    -       Apr      8       2:00s  1:00    S
 828 Rule    Belgium 1935    only    -       Mar     31       2:00s  1:00    S
 829 Rule    Belgium 1936    only    -       Apr     19       2:00s  1:00    S
 830 Rule    Belgium 1937    only    -       Apr      4       2:00s  1:00    S
 831 Rule    Belgium 1938    only    -       Mar     27       2:00s  1:00    S
 832 Rule    Belgium 1939    only    -       Apr     16       2:00s  1:00    S
 833 Rule    Belgium 1939    only    -       Nov     19       2:00s  0       -
 834 Rule    Belgium 1940    only    -       Feb     25       2:00s  1:00    S
 835 Rule    Belgium 1944    only    -       Sep     17       2:00s  0       -
 836 Rule    Belgium 1945    only    -       Apr      2       2:00s  1:00    S
 837 Rule    Belgium 1945    only    -       Sep     16       2:00s  0       -
 838 Rule    Belgium 1946    only    -       May     19       2:00s  1:00    S
 839 Rule    Belgium 1946    only    -       Oct      7       2:00s  0       -
 840 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 841 Zone    Europe/Brussels 0:17:30 -       LMT     1880
 842                         0:17:30 -       BMT     1892 May  1 12:00  # Brussels MT
 843                         0:00    -       WET     1914 Nov  8
 844                         1:00    -       CET     1916 May  1  0:00
 845                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1918 Nov 11 11:00u
 846                         0:00    Belgium WE%sT   1940 May 20  2:00s
 847                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Sep  3
 848                         1:00    Belgium CE%sT   1977
 849                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
 850 
 851 # Bosnia and Herzegovina
 852 # See Europe/Belgrade.
 853 
 854 # Bulgaria
 855 #
 856 # From Plamen Simenov via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
 857 # A document of Government of Bulgaria (No. 94/1997) says:
 858 # EET -> EETDST is in 03:00 Local time in last Sunday of March ...
 859 # EETDST -> EET is in 04:00 Local time in last Sunday of October
 860 #
 861 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 862 Rule    Bulg    1979    only    -       Mar     31      23:00   1:00    S
 863 Rule    Bulg    1979    only    -       Oct      1       1:00   0       -
 864 Rule    Bulg    1980    1982    -       Apr     Sat>=1       23:00   1:00    S
 865 Rule    Bulg    1980    only    -       Sep     29       1:00   0       -
 866 Rule    Bulg    1981    only    -       Sep     27       2:00   0       -
 867 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 868 Zone    Europe/Sofia    1:33:16 -       LMT     1880
 869                         1:56:56 -       IMT     1894 Nov 30 # Istanbul MT?
 870                         2:00    -       EET     1942 Nov  2  3:00
 871                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945
 872                         1:00    -       CET     1945 Apr  2  3:00
 873                         2:00    -       EET     1979 Mar 31 23:00
 874                         2:00    Bulg    EE%sT   1982 Sep 26  3:00
 875                         2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1991
 876                         2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1997
 877                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
 878 
 879 # Croatia
 880 # See Europe/Belgrade.
 881 
 882 # Cyprus
 883 # Please see the 'asia' file for Asia/Nicosia.
 884 
 885 # Czech Republic
 886 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 887 Rule    Czech   1945    only    -       Apr      8      2:00s   1:00    S
 888 Rule    Czech   1945    only    -       Nov     18      2:00s   0       -
 889 Rule    Czech   1946    only    -       May      6      2:00s   1:00    S
 890 Rule    Czech   1946    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 891 Rule    Czech   1947    only    -       Apr     20      2:00s   1:00    S
 892 Rule    Czech   1948    only    -       Apr     18      2:00s   1:00    S
 893 Rule    Czech   1949    only    -       Apr      9      2:00s   1:00    S
 894 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 895 Zone    Europe/Prague   0:57:44 -       LMT     1850
 896                         0:57:44 -       PMT     1891 Oct    # Prague Mean Time
 897                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Sep 17  2:00s
 898                         1:00    Czech   CE%sT   1979
 899                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
 900 # Use Europe/Prague also for Slovakia.
 901 
 902 # Denmark, Faroe Islands, and Greenland
 903 
 904 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-04-26):
 905 # http://www.hum.aau.dk/~poe/tid/tine/DanskTid.htm says that the law
 906 # [introducing standard time] was in effect from 1894-01-01....
 907 # The page http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A18930008330-REGL
 908 # confirms this, and states that the law was put forth 1893-03-29.
 909 #
 910 # The EU treaty with effect from 1973:
 911 # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19722110030-REGL
 912 #
 913 # This provoked a new law from 1974 to make possible summer time changes
 914 # in subsequent decrees with the law
 915 # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19740022330-REGL
 916 #
 917 # It seems however that no decree was set forward until 1980.  I have
 918 # not found any decree, but in another related law, the effecting DST
 919 # changes are stated explicitly to be from 1980-04-06 at 02:00 to
 920 # 1980-09-28 at 02:00.  If this is true, this differs slightly from
 921 # the EU rule in that DST runs to 02:00, not 03:00.  We don't know
 922 # when Denmark began using the EU rule correctly, but we have only
 923 # confirmation of the 1980-time, so I presume it was correct in 1981:
 924 # The law is about the management of the extra hour, concerning
 925 # working hours reported and effect on obligatory-rest rules (which
 926 # was suspended on that night):
 927 # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/C19801120554-REGL
 928 
 929 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-06-11):
 930 # The Herning Folkeblad (1980-09-26) reported that the night between
 931 # Saturday and Sunday the clock is set back from three to two.
 932 
 933 # From Paul Eggert (2005-06-11):
 934 # Hence the "02:00" of the 1980 law refers to standard time, not
 935 # wall-clock time, and so the EU rules were in effect in 1980.
 936 
 937 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 938 Rule    Denmark 1916    only    -       May     14      23:00   1:00    S
 939 Rule    Denmark 1916    only    -       Sep     30      23:00   0       -
 940 Rule    Denmark 1940    only    -       May     15       0:00   1:00    S
 941 Rule    Denmark 1945    only    -       Apr      2       2:00s  1:00    S
 942 Rule    Denmark 1945    only    -       Aug     15       2:00s  0       -
 943 Rule    Denmark 1946    only    -       May      1       2:00s  1:00    S
 944 Rule    Denmark 1946    only    -       Sep      1       2:00s  0       -
 945 Rule    Denmark 1947    only    -       May      4       2:00s  1:00    S
 946 Rule    Denmark 1947    only    -       Aug     10       2:00s  0       -
 947 Rule    Denmark 1948    only    -       May      9       2:00s  1:00    S
 948 Rule    Denmark 1948    only    -       Aug      8       2:00s  0       -
 949 #
 950 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 951 Zone Europe/Copenhagen   0:50:20 -      LMT     1890
 952                          0:50:20 -      CMT     1894 Jan  1 # Copenhagen MT
 953                          1:00   Denmark CE%sT   1942 Nov  2  2:00s
 954                          1:00   C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00
 955                          1:00   Denmark CE%sT   1980
 956                          1:00   EU      CE%sT
 957 Zone Atlantic/Faroe     -0:27:04 -      LMT     1908 Jan 11 # Tórshavn
 958                          0:00   -       WET     1981
 959                          0:00   EU      WE%sT
 960 #
 961 # From Paul Eggert (2004-10-31):
 962 # During World War II, Germany maintained secret manned weather stations in
 963 # East Greenland and Franz Josef Land, but we don't know their time zones.
 964 # My source for this is Wilhelm Dege's book mentioned under Svalbard.
 965 #
 966 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
 967 # Greenland joined the EU as part of Denmark, obtained home rule on 1979-05-01,
 968 # and left the EU on 1985-02-01.  It therefore should have been using EU
 969 # rules at least through 1984.  Shanks & Pottenger say Scoresbysund and Godthåb
 970 # used C-Eur rules after 1980, but IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says they use EU
 971 # rules since at least 1991.  Assume EU rules since 1980.
 972 
 973 # From Gwillim Law (2001-06-06), citing
 974 # <http://www.statkart.no/efs/efshefter/2001/efs5-2001.pdf> (2001-03-15),
 975 # and with translations corrected by Steffen Thorsen:
 976 #
 977 # Greenland has four local times, and the relation to UTC
 978 # is according to the following time line:
 979 #
 980 # The military zone near Thule  UTC-4
 981 # Standard Greenland time       UTC-3
 982 # Scoresbysund                  UTC-1
 983 # Danmarkshavn                  UTC
 984 #
 985 # In the military area near Thule and in Danmarkshavn DST will not be
 986 # introduced.
 987 
 988 # From Rives McDow (2001-11-01):
 989 #
 990 # I correspond regularly with the Dansk Polarcenter, and wrote them at
 991 # the time to clarify the situation in Thule.  Unfortunately, I have
 992 # not heard back from them regarding my recent letter.  [But I have
 993 # info from earlier correspondence.]
 994 #
 995 # According to the center, a very small local time zone around Thule
 996 # Air Base keeps the time according to UTC-4, implementing daylight
 997 # savings using North America rules, changing the time at 02:00 local time....
 998 #
 999 # The east coast of Greenland north of the community of Scoresbysund
1000 # uses UTC in the same way as in Iceland, year round, with no dst.
1001 # There are just a few stations on this coast, including the
1002 # Danmarkshavn ICAO weather station mentioned in your September 29th
1003 # email.  The other stations are two sledge patrol stations in
1004 # Mestersvig and Daneborg, the air force base at Station Nord, and the
1005 # DPC research station at Zackenberg.
1006 #
1007 # Scoresbysund and two small villages nearby keep time UTC-1 and use
1008 # the same daylight savings time period as in West Greenland (Godthåb).
1009 #
1010 # The rest of Greenland, including Godthåb (this area, although it
1011 # includes central Greenland, is known as west Greenland), keeps time
1012 # UTC-3, with daylight savings methods according to European rules.
1013 #
1014 # It is common procedure to use UTC 0 in the wilderness of East and
1015 # North Greenland, because it is mainly Icelandic aircraft operators
1016 # maintaining traffic in these areas.  However, the official status of
1017 # this area is that it sticks with Godthåb time.  This area might be
1018 # considered a dual time zone in some respects because of this.
1019 
1020 # From Rives McDow (2001-11-19):
1021 # I heard back from someone stationed at Thule; the time change took place
1022 # there at 2:00 AM.
1023 
1024 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1025 # From 1997 on the CIA map shows Danmarkshavn on GMT;
1026 # the 1995 map as like Godthåb.
1027 # For lack of better info, assume they were like Godthåb before 1996.
1028 # startkart.no says Thule does not observe DST, but this is clearly an error,
1029 # so go with Shanks & Pottenger for Thule transitions until this year.
1030 # For 2007 on assume Thule will stay in sync with US DST rules.






1031 #
1032 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1033 Rule    Thule   1991    1992    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1034 Rule    Thule   1991    1992    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1035 Rule    Thule   1993    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
1036 Rule    Thule   1993    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1037 Rule    Thule   2007    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
1038 Rule    Thule   2007    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
1039 #
1040 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1041 Zone America/Danmarkshavn -1:14:40 -    LMT     1916 Jul 28
1042                         -3:00   -       WGT     1980 Apr  6  2:00
1043                         -3:00   EU      WG%sT   1996
1044                         0:00    -       GMT
1045 Zone America/Scoresbysund -1:27:52 -    LMT     1916 Jul 28 # Ittoqqortoormiit
1046                         -2:00   -       CGT     1980 Apr  6  2:00
1047                         -2:00   C-Eur   CG%sT   1981 Mar 29
1048                         -1:00   EU      EG%sT
1049 Zone America/Godthab    -3:26:56 -      LMT     1916 Jul 28 # Nuuk
1050                         -3:00   -       WGT     1980 Apr  6  2:00
1051                         -3:00   EU      WG%sT
1052 Zone America/Thule      -4:35:08 -      LMT     1916 Jul 28 # Pituffik air base
1053                         -4:00   Thule   A%sT
1054 
1055 # Estonia




1056 # From Peter Ilieve (1994-10-15):
1057 # A relative in Tallinn confirms the accuracy of the data for 1989 onwards
1058 # [through 1994] and gives the legal authority for it,
1059 # a regulation of the Government of Estonia, No. 111 of 1989....
1060 #
1061 # From Peter Ilieve (1996-10-28):
1062 # [IATA SSIM (1992/1996) claims that the Baltic republics switch at 01:00s,
1063 # but a relative confirms that Estonia still switches at 02:00s, writing:]
1064 # "I do not [know] exactly but there are some little different
1065 # (confusing) rules for International Air and Railway Transport Schedules
1066 # conversion in Sunday connected with end of summer time in Estonia....
1067 # A discussion is running about the summer time efficiency and effect on
1068 # human physiology.  It seems that Estonia maybe will not change to
1069 # summer time next spring."
1070 
1071 # From Peter Ilieve (1998-11-04), heavily edited:
1072 # The 1998-09-22 Estonian time law
1073 # http://trip.rk.ee/cgi-bin/thw?${BASE}=akt&${OOHTML}=rtd&TA=1998&TO=1&AN=1390
1074 # refers to the Eighth Directive and cites the association agreement between
1075 # the EU and Estonia, ratified by the Estonian law (RT II 1995, 22-27, 120).
1076 #
1077 # I also asked [my relative] whether they use any standard abbreviation
1078 # for their standard and summer times. He says no, they use "suveaeg"
1079 # (summer time) and "talveaeg" (winter time).
1080 
1081 # From The Baltic Times <http://www.baltictimes.com/> (1999-09-09)
1082 # via Steffen Thorsen:
1083 # This year will mark the last time Estonia shifts to summer time,
1084 # a council of the ruling coalition announced Sept. 6....
1085 # But what this could mean for Estonia's chances of joining the European
1086 # Union are still unclear.  In 1994, the EU declared summer time compulsory
1087 # for all member states until 2001.  Brussels has yet to decide what to do
1088 # after that.
1089 
1090 # From Mart Oruaas (2000-01-29):
1091 # Regulation No. 301 (1999-10-12) obsoletes previous regulation
1092 # No. 206 (1998-09-22) and thus sticks Estonia to +02:00 GMT for all
1093 # the year round.  The regulation is effective 1999-11-01.
1094 
1095 # From Toomas Soome (2002-02-21):
1096 # The Estonian government has changed once again timezone politics.
1097 # Now we are using again EU rules.
1098 #
1099 # From Urmet Jänes (2002-03-28):
1100 # The legislative reference is Government decree No. 84 on 2002-02-21.
1101 
1102 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1103 Zone    Europe/Tallinn  1:39:00 -       LMT     1880
1104                         1:39:00 -       TMT     1918 Feb    # Tallinn Mean Time
1105                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1919 Jul
1106                         1:39:00 -       TMT     1921 May
1107                         2:00    -       EET     1940 Aug  6
1108                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Sep 15
1109                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Sep 22
1110                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1989 Mar 26  2:00s
1111                         2:00    1:00    EEST    1989 Sep 24  2:00s
1112                         2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1998 Sep 22
1113                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   1999 Oct 31  4:00
1114                         2:00    -       EET     2002 Feb 21
1115                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
1116 
1117 # Finland
1118 
1119 # From Hannu Strang (1994-09-25 06:03:37 UTC):
1120 # Well, here in Helsinki we're just changing from summer time to regular one,
1121 # and it's supposed to change at 4am...
1122 
1123 # From Janne Snabb (2010-07-15):
1124 #
1125 # I noticed that the Finland data is not accurate for years 1981 and 1982.
1126 # During these two first trial years the DST adjustment was made one hour
1127 # earlier than in forthcoming years. Starting 1983 the adjustment was made
1128 # according to the central European standards.
1129 #
1130 # This is documented in Heikki Oja: Aikakirja 2007, published by The Almanac
1131 # Office of University of Helsinki, ISBN 952-10-3221-9, available online (in
1132 # Finnish) at
1133 # http://almanakka.helsinki.fi/aikakirja/Aikakirja2007kokonaan.pdf
1134 #
1135 # Page 105 (56 in PDF version) has a handy table of all past daylight savings
1136 # transitions. It is easy enough to interpret without Finnish skills.
1137 #
1138 # This is also confirmed by Finnish Broadcasting Company's archive at:
1139 # http://www.yle.fi/elavaarkisto/?s=s&g=1&ag=5&t=&a=3401
1140 #
1141 # The news clip from 1981 says that "the time between 2 and 3 o'clock does not
1142 # exist tonight."
1143 
1144 # From Konstantin Hyppönen (2014-06-13):
1145 # [Heikki Oja's book Aikakirja 2013]
1146 # http://almanakka.helsinki.fi/images/aikakirja/Aikakirja2013kokonaan.pdf
1147 # pages 104-105, including a scan from a newspaper published on Apr 2 1942
1148 # say that ... [o]n Apr 2 1942, 24 o'clock (which means Apr 3 1942,
1149 # 00:00), clocks were moved one hour forward. The newspaper
1150 # mentions "on the night from Thursday to Friday"....
1151 # On Oct 4 1942, clocks were moved at 1:00 one hour backwards.
1152 #
1153 # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-14):
1154 # Go with Oja over Shanks.
1155 
1156 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1157 Rule    Finland 1942    only    -       Apr     2       24:00   1:00    S
1158 Rule    Finland 1942    only    -       Oct     4       1:00    0       -
1159 Rule    Finland 1981    1982    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    S
1160 Rule    Finland 1981    1982    -       Sep     lastSun 3:00    0       -
1161 
1162 # Milne says Helsinki (Helsingfors) time was 1:39:49.2 (official document);
1163 # round to nearest.
1164 
1165 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1166 Zone    Europe/Helsinki 1:39:49 -       LMT     1878 May 31
1167                         1:39:49 -       HMT     1921 May    # Helsinki Mean Time
1168                         2:00    Finland EE%sT   1983
1169                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
1170 
1171 # Åland Is
1172 Link    Europe/Helsinki Europe/Mariehamn
1173 
1174 
1175 # France
1176 
1177 # From Ciro Discepolo (2000-12-20):
1178 #
1179 # Henri Le Corre, Régimes horaires pour le monde entier, Éditions
1180 # Traditionnelles - Paris 2 books, 1993
1181 #
1182 # Gabriel, Traité de l'heure dans le monde, Guy Trédaniel,
1183 # Paris, 1991
1184 #
1185 # Françoise Gauquelin, Problèmes de l'heure résolus en astrologie,
1186 # Guy Trédaniel, Paris 1987
1187 
1188 
1189 #
1190 # Shank & Pottenger seem to use '24:00' ambiguously; resolve it with Whitman.
1191 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1192 Rule    France  1916    only    -       Jun     14      23:00s  1:00    S
1193 Rule    France  1916    1919    -       Oct     Sun>=1       23:00s  0       -
1194 Rule    France  1917    only    -       Mar     24      23:00s  1:00    S
1195 Rule    France  1918    only    -       Mar      9      23:00s  1:00    S
1196 Rule    France  1919    only    -       Mar      1      23:00s  1:00    S
1197 Rule    France  1920    only    -       Feb     14      23:00s  1:00    S
1198 Rule    France  1920    only    -       Oct     23      23:00s  0       -
1199 Rule    France  1921    only    -       Mar     14      23:00s  1:00    S
1200 Rule    France  1921    only    -       Oct     25      23:00s  0       -
1201 Rule    France  1922    only    -       Mar     25      23:00s  1:00    S
1202 # DSH writes that a law of 1923-05-24 specified 3rd Sat in Apr at 23:00 to 1st
1203 # Sat in Oct at 24:00; and that in 1930, because of Easter, the transitions
1204 # were Apr 12 and Oct 5.  Go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1205 Rule    France  1922    1938    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
1206 Rule    France  1923    only    -       May     26      23:00s  1:00    S
1207 Rule    France  1924    only    -       Mar     29      23:00s  1:00    S
1208 Rule    France  1925    only    -       Apr      4      23:00s  1:00    S
1209 Rule    France  1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00s  1:00    S
1210 Rule    France  1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00s  1:00    S
1211 Rule    France  1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00s  1:00    S
1212 Rule    France  1929    only    -       Apr     20      23:00s  1:00    S
1213 Rule    France  1930    only    -       Apr     12      23:00s  1:00    S
1214 Rule    France  1931    only    -       Apr     18      23:00s  1:00    S
1215 Rule    France  1932    only    -       Apr      2      23:00s  1:00    S
1216 Rule    France  1933    only    -       Mar     25      23:00s  1:00    S
1217 Rule    France  1934    only    -       Apr      7      23:00s  1:00    S
1218 Rule    France  1935    only    -       Mar     30      23:00s  1:00    S
1219 Rule    France  1936    only    -       Apr     18      23:00s  1:00    S
1220 Rule    France  1937    only    -       Apr      3      23:00s  1:00    S
1221 Rule    France  1938    only    -       Mar     26      23:00s  1:00    S
1222 Rule    France  1939    only    -       Apr     15      23:00s  1:00    S
1223 Rule    France  1939    only    -       Nov     18      23:00s  0       -
1224 Rule    France  1940    only    -       Feb     25       2:00   1:00    S
1225 # The French rules for 1941-1944 were not used in Paris, but Shanks & Pottenger
1226 # write that they were used in Monaco and in many French locations.
1227 # Le Corre writes that the upper limit of the free zone was Arnéguy, Orthez,
1228 # Mont-de-Marsan, Bazas, Langon, Lamothe-Montravel, Marœuil, La
1229 # Rochefoucauld, Champagne-Mouton, La Roche-Posay, La Haye-Descartes,
1230 # Loches, Montrichard, Vierzon, Bourges, Moulins, Digoin,
1231 # Paray-le-Monial, Montceau-les-Mines, Chalon-sur-Saône, Arbois,
1232 # Dole, Morez, St-Claude, and Collonges (Haute-Savoie).
1233 Rule    France  1941    only    -       May      5       0:00   2:00    M # Midsummer
1234 # Shanks & Pottenger say this transition occurred at Oct 6 1:00,
1235 # but go with Denis Excoffier (1997-12-12),
1236 # who quotes the Ephémérides astronomiques for 1998 from Bureau des Longitudes
1237 # as saying 5/10/41 22hUT.
1238 Rule    France  1941    only    -       Oct      6       0:00   1:00    S
1239 Rule    France  1942    only    -       Mar      9       0:00   2:00    M
1240 Rule    France  1942    only    -       Nov      2       3:00   1:00    S
1241 Rule    France  1943    only    -       Mar     29       2:00   2:00    M
1242 Rule    France  1943    only    -       Oct      4       3:00   1:00    S
1243 Rule    France  1944    only    -       Apr      3       2:00   2:00    M
1244 Rule    France  1944    only    -       Oct      8       1:00   1:00    S
1245 Rule    France  1945    only    -       Apr      2       2:00   2:00    M
1246 Rule    France  1945    only    -       Sep     16       3:00   0       -
1247 # Shanks & Pottenger give Mar 28 2:00 and Sep 26 3:00;
1248 # go with Excoffier's 28/3/76 0hUT and 25/9/76 23hUT.
1249 Rule    France  1976    only    -       Mar     28       1:00   1:00    S
1250 Rule    France  1976    only    -       Sep     26       1:00   0       -
1251 # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time, and Whitman 0:09:05,
1252 # but Howse quotes the actual French legislation as saying 0:09:21.
1253 # Go with Howse.  Howse writes that the time in France was officially based
1254 # on PMT-0:09:21 until 1978-08-09, when the time base finally switched to UTC.
1255 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1256 Zone    Europe/Paris    0:09:21 -       LMT     1891 Mar 15  0:01
1257                         0:09:21 -       PMT     1911 Mar 11  0:01 # Paris MT
1258 # Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Jun 14 0:00; go with Excoffier and Le Corre.
1259                         0:00    France  WE%sT   1940 Jun 14 23:00
1260 # Le Corre says Paris stuck with occupied-France time after the liberation;
1261 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1262                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Aug 25
1263                         0:00    France  WE%sT   1945 Sep 16  3:00
1264                         1:00    France  CE%sT   1977
1265                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1266 
1267 # Germany
1268 
1269 # From Markus Kuhn (1998-09-29):
1270 # The German time zone web site by the Physikalisch-Technische
1271 # Bundesanstalt contains DST information back to 1916.
1272 # [See tz-link.htm for the URL.]
1273 
1274 # From Jörg Schilling (2002-10-23):
1275 # In 1945, Berlin was switched to Moscow Summer time (GMT+4) by
1276 # http://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/biografien/BersarinNikolai/
1277 # General [Nikolai] Bersarin.
1278 
1279 # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-08):
1280 # http://www.parlament-berlin.de/pds-fraktion.nsf/727459127c8b66ee8525662300459099/defc77cb784f180ac1256c2b0030274b/$FILE/bersarint.pdf
1281 # says that Bersarin issued an order to use Moscow time on May 20.
1282 # However, Moscow did not observe daylight saving in 1945, so
1283 # this was equivalent to CEMT (GMT+3), not GMT+4.
1284 
1285 
1286 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1287 Rule    Germany 1946    only    -       Apr     14      2:00s   1:00    S
1288 Rule    Germany 1946    only    -       Oct      7      2:00s   0       -
1289 Rule    Germany 1947    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
1290 # http://www.ptb.de/de/org/4/44/441/salt.htm says the following transition
1291 # occurred at 3:00 MEZ, not the 2:00 MEZ given in Shanks & Pottenger.
1292 # Go with the PTB.
1293 Rule    Germany 1947    only    -       Apr      6      3:00s   1:00    S
1294 Rule    Germany 1947    only    -       May     11      2:00s   2:00    M
1295 Rule    Germany 1947    only    -       Jun     29      3:00    1:00    S
1296 Rule    Germany 1948    only    -       Apr     18      2:00s   1:00    S
1297 Rule    Germany 1949    only    -       Apr     10      2:00s   1:00    S
1298 
1299 Rule SovietZone 1945    only    -       May     24      2:00    2:00    M # Midsummer
1300 Rule SovietZone 1945    only    -       Sep     24      3:00    1:00    S
1301 Rule SovietZone 1945    only    -       Nov     18      2:00s   0       -
1302 
1303 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1304 Zone    Europe/Berlin   0:53:28 -       LMT     1893 Apr
1305                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 May 24  2:00
1306                         1:00 SovietZone CE%sT   1946
1307                         1:00    Germany CE%sT   1980
1308                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1309 
1310 # From Tobias Conradi (2011-09-12):
1311 # Büsingen <http://www.buesingen.de>, surrounded by the Swiss canton
1312 # Schaffhausen, did not start observing DST in 1980 as the rest of DE
1313 # (West Germany at that time) and DD (East Germany at that time) did.
1314 # DD merged into DE, the area is currently covered by code DE in ISO 3166-1,
1315 # which in turn is covered by the zone Europe/Berlin.
1316 #
1317 # Source for the time in Büsingen 1980:
1318 # http://www.srf.ch/player/video?id=c012c029-03b7-4c2b-9164-aa5902cd58d3
1319 
1320 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-03):
1321 # Büsingen and Zurich have shared clocks since 1970.
1322 
1323 Link    Europe/Zurich   Europe/Busingen
1324 
1325 # Georgia
1326 # Please see the "asia" file for Asia/Tbilisi.
1327 # Herodotus (Histories, IV.45) says Georgia north of the Phasis (now Rioni)
1328 # is in Europe.  Our reference location Tbilisi is in the Asian part.
1329 
1330 # Gibraltar
1331 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1332 Zone Europe/Gibraltar   -0:21:24 -      LMT     1880 Aug  2  0:00s
1333                         0:00    GB-Eire %s      1957 Apr 14  2:00
1334                         1:00    -       CET     1982
1335                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1336 
1337 # Greece
1338 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1339 # Whitman gives 1932 Jul 5 - Nov 1; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1340 Rule    Greece  1932    only    -       Jul      7      0:00    1:00    S
1341 Rule    Greece  1932    only    -       Sep      1      0:00    0       -
1342 # Whitman gives 1941 Apr 25 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1343 Rule    Greece  1941    only    -       Apr      7      0:00    1:00    S
1344 # Whitman gives 1942 Feb 2 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1345 Rule    Greece  1942    only    -       Nov      2      3:00    0       -
1346 Rule    Greece  1943    only    -       Mar     30      0:00    1:00    S
1347 Rule    Greece  1943    only    -       Oct      4      0:00    0       -
1348 # Whitman gives 1944 Oct 3 - Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1349 Rule    Greece  1952    only    -       Jul      1      0:00    1:00    S
1350 Rule    Greece  1952    only    -       Nov      2      0:00    0       -
1351 Rule    Greece  1975    only    -       Apr     12      0:00s   1:00    S
1352 Rule    Greece  1975    only    -       Nov     26      0:00s   0       -
1353 Rule    Greece  1976    only    -       Apr     11      2:00s   1:00    S
1354 Rule    Greece  1976    only    -       Oct     10      2:00s   0       -
1355 Rule    Greece  1977    1978    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    S
1356 Rule    Greece  1977    only    -       Sep     26      2:00s   0       -
1357 Rule    Greece  1978    only    -       Sep     24      4:00    0       -
1358 Rule    Greece  1979    only    -       Apr      1      9:00    1:00    S
1359 Rule    Greece  1979    only    -       Sep     29      2:00    0       -
1360 Rule    Greece  1980    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
1361 Rule    Greece  1980    only    -       Sep     28      0:00    0       -
1362 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1363 Zone    Europe/Athens   1:34:52 -       LMT     1895 Sep 14
1364                         1:34:52 -       AMT     1916 Jul 28  0:01 # Athens MT
1365                         2:00    Greece  EE%sT   1941 Apr 30
1366                         1:00    Greece  CE%sT   1944 Apr  4
1367                         2:00    Greece  EE%sT   1981
1368                         # Shanks & Pottenger say it switched to C-Eur in 1981;
1369                         # go with EU instead, since Greece joined it on Jan 1.
1370                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
1371 
1372 # Hungary
1373 # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-15):
1374 # Dates for 1916-1945 are taken from:
1375 # Oross A. Jelen a múlt jövője: a nyári időszámítás Magyarországon 1916-1945.
1376 # National Archives of Hungary (2012-10-29).
1377 # http://mnl.gov.hu/a_het_dokumentuma/a_nyari_idoszamitas_magyarorszagon_19161945.html
1378 # This source does not always give times, which are taken from Shanks
1379 # & Pottenger (which disagree about the dates).
1380 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1381 Rule    Hungary 1918    only    -       Apr      1       3:00   1:00    S
1382 Rule    Hungary 1918    only    -       Sep     16       3:00   0       -
1383 Rule    Hungary 1919    only    -       Apr     15       3:00   1:00    S
1384 Rule    Hungary 1919    only    -       Nov     24       3:00   0       -
1385 Rule    Hungary 1945    only    -       May      1      23:00   1:00    S
1386 Rule    Hungary 1945    only    -       Nov      1       0:00   0       -
1387 Rule    Hungary 1946    only    -       Mar     31       2:00s  1:00    S
1388 Rule    Hungary 1946    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1        2:00s  0       -
1389 Rule    Hungary 1947    1949    -       Apr     Sun>=4        2:00s  1:00    S
1390 Rule    Hungary 1950    only    -       Apr     17       2:00s  1:00    S
1391 Rule    Hungary 1950    only    -       Oct     23       2:00s  0       -
1392 Rule    Hungary 1954    1955    -       May     23       0:00   1:00    S
1393 Rule    Hungary 1954    1955    -       Oct      3       0:00   0       -
1394 Rule    Hungary 1956    only    -       Jun     Sun>=1        0:00   1:00    S
1395 Rule    Hungary 1956    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       -
1396 Rule    Hungary 1957    only    -       Jun     Sun>=1        1:00   1:00    S
1397 Rule    Hungary 1957    only    -       Sep     lastSun  3:00   0       -
1398 Rule    Hungary 1980    only    -       Apr      6       1:00   1:00    S
1399 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1400 Zone    Europe/Budapest 1:16:20 -       LMT     1890 Oct
1401                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1918
1402                         1:00    Hungary CE%sT   1941 Apr  8
1403                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945
1404                         1:00    Hungary CE%sT   1980 Sep 28  2:00s
1405                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1406 
1407 # Iceland
1408 #
1409 # From Adam David (1993-11-06):
1410 # The name of the timezone in Iceland for system / mail / news purposes is GMT.
1411 #
1412 # (1993-12-05):
1413 # This material is paraphrased from the 1988 edition of the University of
1414 # Iceland Almanak.
1415 #
1416 # From January 1st, 1908 the whole of Iceland was standardised at 1 hour
1417 # behind GMT. Previously, local mean solar time was used in different parts
1418 # of Iceland, the almanak had been based on Reykjavik mean solar time which
1419 # was 1 hour and 28 minutes behind GMT.
1420 #
1421 # "first day of winter" referred to [below] means the first day of the 26 weeks
1422 # of winter, according to the old icelandic calendar that dates back to the
1423 # time the norsemen first settled Iceland.  The first day of winter is always
1424 # Saturday, but is not dependent on the Julian or Gregorian calendars.
1425 #
1426 # (1993-12-10):
1427 # I have a reference from the Oxford Icelandic-English dictionary for the
1428 # beginning of winter, which ties it to the ecclesiastical calendar (and thus
1429 # to the julian/gregorian calendar) over the period in question.
1430 #       the winter begins on the Saturday next before St. Luke's day
1431 #       (old style), or on St. Luke's day, if a Saturday.
1432 # St. Luke's day ought to be traceable from ecclesiastical sources. "old style"
1433 # might be a reference to the Julian calendar as opposed to Gregorian, or it
1434 # might mean something else (???).
1435 #
1436 # From Paul Eggert (2014-11-22):
1437 # The information below is taken from the 1988 Almanak; see
1438 # http://www.almanak.hi.is/klukkan.html
1439 #
1440 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1441 Rule    Iceland 1917    1919    -       Feb     19      23:00   1:00    S
1442 Rule    Iceland 1917    only    -       Oct     21       1:00   0       -
1443 Rule    Iceland 1918    1919    -       Nov     16       1:00   0       -
1444 Rule    Iceland 1921    only    -       Mar     19      23:00   1:00    S
1445 Rule    Iceland 1921    only    -       Jun     23       1:00   0       -
1446 Rule    Iceland 1939    only    -       Apr     29      23:00   1:00    S
1447 Rule    Iceland 1939    only    -       Oct     29       2:00   0       -
1448 Rule    Iceland 1940    only    -       Feb     25       2:00   1:00    S
1449 Rule    Iceland 1940    1941    -       Nov     Sun>=2        1:00s  0       -
1450 Rule    Iceland 1941    1942    -       Mar     Sun>=2        1:00s  1:00    S
1451 # 1943-1946 - first Sunday in March until first Sunday in winter
1452 Rule    Iceland 1943    1946    -       Mar     Sun>=1        1:00s  1:00    S
1453 Rule    Iceland 1942    1948    -       Oct     Sun>=22       1:00s  0       -
1454 # 1947-1967 - first Sunday in April until first Sunday in winter
1455 Rule    Iceland 1947    1967    -       Apr     Sun>=1        1:00s  1:00    S
1456 # 1949 and 1967 Oct transitions delayed by 1 week
1457 Rule    Iceland 1949    only    -       Oct     30       1:00s  0       -
1458 Rule    Iceland 1950    1966    -       Oct     Sun>=22       1:00s  0       -
1459 Rule    Iceland 1967    only    -       Oct     29       1:00s  0       -
1460 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1461 Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik -1:28   -       LMT     1908
1462                         -1:00   Iceland IS%sT   1968 Apr  7  1:00s
1463                          0:00   -       GMT
1464 
1465 # Italy
1466 #
1467 # From Paul Eggert (2001-03-06):
1468 # Sicily and Sardinia each had their own time zones from 1866 to 1893,
1469 # called Palermo Time (+00:53:28) and Cagliari Time (+00:36:32).
1470 # During World War II, German-controlled Italy used German time.
1471 # But these events all occurred before the 1970 cutoff,
1472 # so record only the time in Rome.
1473 #
1474 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1475 # For Italian DST we have three sources: Shanks & Pottenger, Whitman, and
1476 # F. Pollastri
1477 # Day-light Saving Time in Italy (2006-02-03)
1478 # http://toi.iriti.cnr.it/uk/ienitlt.html
1479 # ('FP' below), taken from an Italian National Electrotechnical Institute
1480 # publication. When the three sources disagree, guess who's right, as follows:
1481 #
1482 # year  FP      Shanks&P. (S)       Whitman (W)     Go with:
1483 # 1916  06-03   06-03 24:00     06-03 00:00     FP & W
1484 #       09-30   09-30 24:00     09-30 01:00     FP; guess 24:00s
1485 # 1917  04-01   03-31 24:00     03-31 00:00     FP & S
1486 #       09-30   09-29 24:00     09-30 01:00     FP & W
1487 # 1918  03-09   03-09 24:00     03-09 00:00     FP & S
1488 #       10-06   10-05 24:00     10-06 01:00     FP & W
1489 # 1919  03-01   03-01 24:00     03-01 00:00     FP & S
1490 #       10-04   10-04 24:00     10-04 01:00     FP; guess 24:00s
1491 # 1920  03-20   03-20 24:00     03-20 00:00     FP & S
1492 #       09-18   09-18 24:00     10-01 01:00     FP; guess 24:00s
1493 # 1944  04-02   04-03 02:00                     S (see C-Eur)
1494 #       09-16   10-02 03:00                     FP; guess 24:00s
1495 # 1945  09-14   09-16 24:00                     FP; guess 24:00s
1496 # 1970  05-21   05-31 00:00                     S
1497 #       09-20   09-27 00:00                     S
1498 #
1499 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1500 Rule    Italy   1916    only    -       Jun      3      0:00s   1:00    S
1501 Rule    Italy   1916    only    -       Oct      1      0:00s   0       -
1502 Rule    Italy   1917    only    -       Apr      1      0:00s   1:00    S
1503 Rule    Italy   1917    only    -       Sep     30      0:00s   0       -
1504 Rule    Italy   1918    only    -       Mar     10      0:00s   1:00    S
1505 Rule    Italy   1918    1919    -       Oct     Sun>=1       0:00s   0       -
1506 Rule    Italy   1919    only    -       Mar      2      0:00s   1:00    S
1507 Rule    Italy   1920    only    -       Mar     21      0:00s   1:00    S
1508 Rule    Italy   1920    only    -       Sep     19      0:00s   0       -
1509 Rule    Italy   1940    only    -       Jun     15      0:00s   1:00    S
1510 Rule    Italy   1944    only    -       Sep     17      0:00s   0       -
1511 Rule    Italy   1945    only    -       Apr      2      2:00    1:00    S
1512 Rule    Italy   1945    only    -       Sep     15      0:00s   0       -
1513 Rule    Italy   1946    only    -       Mar     17      2:00s   1:00    S
1514 Rule    Italy   1946    only    -       Oct      6      2:00s   0       -
1515 Rule    Italy   1947    only    -       Mar     16      0:00s   1:00    S
1516 Rule    Italy   1947    only    -       Oct      5      0:00s   0       -
1517 Rule    Italy   1948    only    -       Feb     29      2:00s   1:00    S
1518 Rule    Italy   1948    only    -       Oct      3      2:00s   0       -
1519 Rule    Italy   1966    1968    -       May     Sun>=22      0:00    1:00    S
1520 Rule    Italy   1966    1969    -       Sep     Sun>=22      0:00    0       -
1521 Rule    Italy   1969    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    S
1522 Rule    Italy   1970    only    -       May     31      0:00    1:00    S
1523 Rule    Italy   1970    only    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       -
1524 Rule    Italy   1971    1972    -       May     Sun>=22      0:00    1:00    S
1525 Rule    Italy   1971    only    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00    0       -
1526 Rule    Italy   1972    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
1527 Rule    Italy   1973    only    -       Jun      3      0:00    1:00    S
1528 Rule    Italy   1973    1974    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       -
1529 Rule    Italy   1974    only    -       May     26      0:00    1:00    S
1530 Rule    Italy   1975    only    -       Jun      1      0:00s   1:00    S
1531 Rule    Italy   1975    1977    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00s   0       -
1532 Rule    Italy   1976    only    -       May     30      0:00s   1:00    S
1533 Rule    Italy   1977    1979    -       May     Sun>=22      0:00s   1:00    S
1534 Rule    Italy   1978    only    -       Oct      1      0:00s   0       -
1535 Rule    Italy   1979    only    -       Sep     30      0:00s   0       -
1536 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1537 Zone    Europe/Rome     0:49:56 -       LMT     1866 Sep 22
1538                         0:49:56 -       RMT     1893 Nov  1  0:00s # Rome Mean
1539                         1:00    Italy   CE%sT   1942 Nov  2  2:00s
1540                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Jul
1541                         1:00    Italy   CE%sT   1980
1542                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1543 
1544 Link    Europe/Rome     Europe/Vatican
1545 Link    Europe/Rome     Europe/San_Marino
1546 
1547 # Latvia
1548 
1549 # From Liene Kanepe (1998-09-17):
1550 
1551 # I asked about this matter Scientific Secretary of the Institute of Astronomy
1552 # of The University of Latvia Dr. paed Mr. Ilgonis Vilks. I also searched the
1553 # correct data in juridical acts and I found some juridical documents about
1554 # changes in the counting of time in Latvia from 1981....
1555 #
1556 # Act No. 35 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1981-01-22 ...
1557 # according to the Act No. 925 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1980-10-24
1558 # ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning
1559 # the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on 1 April at 00:00 (GMT 31 March 21:00)
1560 # and 1 hour backward on the 1 October at 00:00 (GMT 30 September 20:00).
1561 #
1562 # Act No. 592 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1984-09-24 ...
1563 # according to the Act No. 967 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1984-09-13
1564 # ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning
1565 # the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on the last Sunday of March at 02:00
1566 # (GMT 23:00 on the previous day) and 1 hour backward on the last Sunday of
1567 # September at 03:00 (GMT 23:00 on the previous day).
1568 #
1569 # Act No. 81 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1989-03-22 ...
1570 # according to the Act No. 227 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1989-03-14
1571 # ...: since the last Sunday of March 1989 in Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR,
1572 # Estonian SSR and Kaliningrad region of Russian Federation all year round the
1573 # time of 2nd time zone (Moscow time minus one hour). On the territory of Latvia
1574 # transition to summer time is performed on the last Sunday of March at 02:00
1575 # (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour forward.  The end of
1576 # daylight saving time is performed on the last Sunday of September at 03:00
1577 # (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour backward. Exception is
1578 # 1989-03-26, when we must not turn the hands of the clock....
1579 #
1580 # The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Latvia of
1581 # 1997-01-21 on transition to Summer time ... established the same order of
1582 # daylight savings time settings as in the States of the European Union.
1583 
1584 # From Andrei Ivanov (2000-03-06):
1585 # This year Latvia will not switch to Daylight Savings Time (as specified in
1586 # The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Rep. of Latvia of
1587 # 29-Feb-2000 (No. 79) <http://www.lv-laiks.lv/wwwraksti/2000/071072/vd4.htm>,
1588 # in Latvian for subscribers only).
1589 
1590 # From RFE/RL Newsline
1591 # http://www.rferl.org/newsline/2001/01/3-CEE/cee-030101.html
1592 # (2001-01-03), noted after a heads-up by Rives McDow:
1593 # The Latvian government on 2 January decided that the country will
1594 # institute daylight-saving time this spring, LETA reported.
1595 # Last February the three Baltic states decided not to turn back their
1596 # clocks one hour in the spring....
1597 # Minister of Economy Aigars Kalvītis noted that Latvia had too few
1598 # daylight hours and thus decided to comply with a draft European
1599 # Commission directive that provides for instituting daylight-saving
1600 # time in EU countries between 2002 and 2006. The Latvian government
1601 # urged Lithuania and Estonia to adopt a similar time policy, but it
1602 # appears that they will not do so....
1603 
1604 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1605 Rule    Latvia  1989    1996    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
1606 Rule    Latvia  1989    1996    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
1607 
1608 # Milne 1899 says Riga was 1:36:28 (Polytechnique House time).
1609 # Byalokoz 1919 says Latvia was 1:36:34.
1610 # Go with Byalokoz.
1611 
1612 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1613 Zone    Europe/Riga     1:36:34 -       LMT     1880
1614                         1:36:34 -       RMT     1918 Apr 15  2:00 # Riga MT
1615                         1:36:34 1:00    LST     1918 Sep 16  3:00 # Latvian ST
1616                         1:36:34 -       RMT     1919 Apr  1  2:00
1617                         1:36:34 1:00    LST     1919 May 22  3:00
1618                         1:36:34 -       RMT     1926 May 11
1619                         2:00    -       EET     1940 Aug  5
1620                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Jul
1621                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Oct 13
1622                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1989 Mar lastSun  2:00s
1623                         2:00    1:00    EEST    1989 Sep lastSun  2:00s
1624                         2:00    Latvia  EE%sT   1997 Jan 21
1625                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   2000 Feb 29
1626                         2:00    -       EET     2001 Jan  2
1627                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
1628 
1629 # Liechtenstein
1630 
1631 # From Paul Eggert (2013-09-09):
1632 # Shanks & Pottenger say Vaduz is like Zurich.
1633 
1634 # From Alois Treindl (2013-09-18):
1635 # http://www.eliechtensteinensia.li/LIJ/1978/1938-1978/1941.pdf
1636 # ... confirms on p. 6 that Liechtenstein followed Switzerland in 1941 and 1942.
1637 # I ... translate only the last two paragraphs:
1638 #    ... during second world war, in the years 1941 and 1942, Liechtenstein
1639 #    introduced daylight saving time, adapting to Switzerland.  From 1943 on
1640 #    central European time was in force throughout the year.
1641 #    From a report of the duke's government to the high council,
1642 #    regarding the introduction of a time law, of 31 May 1977.
1643 
1644 Link Europe/Zurich Europe/Vaduz
1645 
1646 
1647 # Lithuania
1648 



1649 # From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
1650 # IATA SSIM (1992/1996) says Lithuania uses W-Eur rules, but since it is
1651 # known to be wrong about Estonia and Latvia, assume it's wrong here too.
1652 
1653 # From Marius Gedminas (1998-08-07):
1654 # I would like to inform that in this year Lithuanian time zone
1655 # (Europe/Vilnius) was changed.
1656 
1657 # From ELTA No. 972 (2582) (1999-09-29) <http://www.elta.lt/>,
1658 # via Steffen Thorsen:
1659 # Lithuania has shifted back to the second time zone (GMT plus two hours)
1660 # to be valid here starting from October 31,
1661 # as decided by the national government on Wednesday....
1662 # The Lithuanian government also announced plans to consider a
1663 # motion to give up shifting to summer time in spring, as it was
1664 # already done by Estonia.
1665 
1666 # From the Fact File, Lithuanian State Department of Tourism
1667 # <http://www.tourism.lt/informa/ff.htm> (2000-03-27):
1668 # Local time is GMT+2 hours ..., no daylight saving.
1669 
1670 # From a user via Klaus Marten (2003-02-07):
1671 # As a candidate for membership of the European Union, Lithuania will
1672 # observe Summer Time in 2003, changing its clocks at the times laid
1673 # down in EU Directive 2000/84 of 19.I.01 (i.e. at the same times as its
1674 # neighbour Latvia). The text of the Lithuanian government Order of
1675 # 7.XI.02 to this effect can be found at
1676 # http://www.lrvk.lt/nut/11/n1749.htm
1677 
1678 
1679 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1680 Zone    Europe/Vilnius  1:41:16 -       LMT     1880
1681                         1:24:00 -       WMT     1917        # Warsaw Mean Time
1682                         1:35:36 -       KMT     1919 Oct 10 # Kaunas Mean Time
1683                         1:00    -       CET     1920 Jul 12
1684                         2:00    -       EET     1920 Oct  9
1685                         1:00    -       CET     1940 Aug  3
1686                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Jun 24
1687                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Aug
1688                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
1689                         2:00    1:00    EEST    1991 Sep 29  2:00s
1690                         2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1998
1691                         2:00    -       EET     1998 Mar 29  1:00u
1692                         1:00    EU      CE%sT   1999 Oct 31  1:00u
1693                         2:00    -       EET     2003 Jan  1
1694                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
1695 
1696 # Luxembourg
1697 # Whitman disagrees with most of these dates in minor ways;
1698 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1699 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1700 Rule    Lux     1916    only    -       May     14      23:00   1:00    S
1701 Rule    Lux     1916    only    -       Oct      1       1:00   0       -
1702 Rule    Lux     1917    only    -       Apr     28      23:00   1:00    S
1703 Rule    Lux     1917    only    -       Sep     17       1:00   0       -
1704 Rule    Lux     1918    only    -       Apr     Mon>=15       2:00s  1:00    S
1705 Rule    Lux     1918    only    -       Sep     Mon>=15       2:00s  0       -
1706 Rule    Lux     1919    only    -       Mar      1      23:00   1:00    S
1707 Rule    Lux     1919    only    -       Oct      5       3:00   0       -
1708 Rule    Lux     1920    only    -       Feb     14      23:00   1:00    S
1709 Rule    Lux     1920    only    -       Oct     24       2:00   0       -
1710 Rule    Lux     1921    only    -       Mar     14      23:00   1:00    S
1711 Rule    Lux     1921    only    -       Oct     26       2:00   0       -
1712 Rule    Lux     1922    only    -       Mar     25      23:00   1:00    S
1713 Rule    Lux     1922    only    -       Oct     Sun>=2        1:00   0       -
1714 Rule    Lux     1923    only    -       Apr     21      23:00   1:00    S
1715 Rule    Lux     1923    only    -       Oct     Sun>=2        2:00   0       -
1716 Rule    Lux     1924    only    -       Mar     29      23:00   1:00    S
1717 Rule    Lux     1924    1928    -       Oct     Sun>=2        1:00   0       -
1718 Rule    Lux     1925    only    -       Apr      5      23:00   1:00    S
1719 Rule    Lux     1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00   1:00    S
1720 Rule    Lux     1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00   1:00    S
1721 Rule    Lux     1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00   1:00    S
1722 Rule    Lux     1929    only    -       Apr     20      23:00   1:00    S
1723 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1724 Zone Europe/Luxembourg  0:24:36 -       LMT     1904 Jun
1725                         1:00    Lux     CE%sT   1918 Nov 25
1726                         0:00    Lux     WE%sT   1929 Oct  6  2:00s
1727                         0:00    Belgium WE%sT   1940 May 14  3:00
1728                         1:00    C-Eur   WE%sT   1944 Sep 18  3:00
1729                         1:00    Belgium CE%sT   1977
1730                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1731 
1732 # Macedonia
1733 # See Europe/Belgrade.
1734 
1735 # Malta
1736 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1737 Rule    Malta   1973    only    -       Mar     31      0:00s   1:00    S
1738 Rule    Malta   1973    only    -       Sep     29      0:00s   0       -
1739 Rule    Malta   1974    only    -       Apr     21      0:00s   1:00    S
1740 Rule    Malta   1974    only    -       Sep     16      0:00s   0       -
1741 Rule    Malta   1975    1979    -       Apr     Sun>=15      2:00    1:00    S
1742 Rule    Malta   1975    1980    -       Sep     Sun>=15      2:00    0       -
1743 Rule    Malta   1980    only    -       Mar     31      2:00    1:00    S
1744 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1745 Zone    Europe/Malta    0:58:04 -       LMT     1893 Nov  2  0:00s # Valletta
1746                         1:00    Italy   CE%sT   1942 Nov  2  2:00s
1747                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00s
1748                         1:00    Italy   CE%sT   1973 Mar 31
1749                         1:00    Malta   CE%sT   1981
1750                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1751 
1752 # Moldova
1753 










1754 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1755 # A previous version of this database followed Shanks & Pottenger, who write
1756 # that Tiraspol switched to Moscow time on 1992-01-19 at 02:00.
1757 # However, this is most likely an error, as Moldova declared independence
1758 # on 1991-08-27 (the 1992-01-19 date is that of a Russian decree).
1759 # In early 1992 there was large-scale interethnic violence in the area
1760 # and it's possible that some Russophones continued to observe Moscow time.
1761 # But [two people] separately reported via
1762 # Jesper Nørgaard that as of 2001-01-24 Tiraspol was like Chisinau.
1763 # The Tiraspol entry has therefore been removed for now.
1764 #
1765 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-10-17):
1766 # Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR, also known as
1767 # "Pridnestrovie") has abolished seasonal clock change (no transition
1768 # to the Winter Time).
1769 #
1770 # News (in Russian):
1771 # http://www.kyivpost.ua/russia/news/pridnestrove-otkazalos-ot-perehoda-na-zimnee-vremya-30954.html
1772 # http://www.allmoldova.com/moldova-news/1249064116.html
1773 #
1774 # The substance of this change (reinstatement of the Tiraspol entry)
1775 # is from a patch from Petr Machata (2011-10-17)
1776 #
1777 # From Tim Parenti (2011-10-19)
1778 # In addition, being situated at +4651+2938 would give Tiraspol
1779 # a pre-1880 LMT offset of 1:58:32.
1780 #
1781 # (which agrees with the earlier entry that had been removed)
1782 #
1783 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-10-26)
1784 # NO need to divide Moldova into two timezones at this point.
1785 # As of today, Transnistria (Pridnestrovie)- Tiraspol reversed its own
1786 # decision to abolish DST this winter.
1787 # Following Moldova and neighboring Ukraine- Transnistria (Pridnestrovie)-
1788 # Tiraspol will go back to winter time on October 30, 2011.
1789 # News from Moldova (in russian):
1790 # http://ru.publika.md/link_317061.html
1791 
1792 # From Roman Tudos (2015-07-02):
1793 # http://lex.justice.md/index.php?action=view&view=doc&lang=1&id=355077
1794 # From Paul Eggert (2015-07-01):
1795 # The abovementioned official link to IGO1445-868/2014 states that
1796 # 2014-10-26's fallback transition occurred at 03:00 local time.  Also,
1797 # http://www.trm.md/en/social/la-30-martie-vom-trece-la-ora-de-vara
1798 # says the 2014-03-30 spring-forward transition was at 02:00 local time.
1799 # Guess that since 1997 Moldova has switched one hour before the EU.
1800 
1801 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1802 Rule    Moldova 1997    max     -       Mar     lastSun  2:00   1:00    S
1803 Rule    Moldova 1997    max     -       Oct     lastSun  3:00   0       -
1804 
1805 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1806 Zone    Europe/Chisinau 1:55:20 -       LMT     1880
1807                         1:55    -       CMT     1918 Feb 15 # Chisinau MT
1808                         1:44:24 -       BMT     1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT
1809                         2:00    Romania EE%sT   1940 Aug 15
1810                         2:00    1:00    EEST    1941 Jul 17
1811                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Aug 24
1812                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990
1813                         3:00    -       MSK     1990 May 6
1814                         2:00    -       EET     1991
1815                         2:00    Russia  EE%sT   1992
1816                         2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1997
1817 # See Romania commentary for the guessed 1997 transition to EU rules.
1818                         2:00    Moldova EE%sT
1819 
1820 # Monaco
1821 # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's
1822 # more precise 0:09:21.
1823 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1824 Zone    Europe/Monaco   0:29:32 -       LMT     1891 Mar 15
1825                         0:09:21 -       PMT     1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time
1826                         0:00    France  WE%sT   1945 Sep 16  3:00
1827                         1:00    France  CE%sT   1977
1828                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1829 
1830 # Montenegro
1831 # See Europe/Belgrade.
1832 
1833 # Netherlands
1834 
1835 # Howse writes that the Netherlands' railways used GMT between 1892 and 1940,
1836 # but for other purposes the Netherlands used Amsterdam mean time.
1837 
1838 # However, Robert H. van Gent writes (2001-04-01):
1839 # Howse's statement is only correct up to 1909. From 1909-05-01 (00:00:00
1840 # Amsterdam mean time) onwards, the whole of the Netherlands (including
1841 # the Dutch railways) was required by law to observe Amsterdam mean time
1842 # (19 minutes 32.13 seconds ahead of GMT). This had already been the
1843 # common practice (except for the railways) for many decades but it was
1844 # not until 1909 when the Dutch government finally defined this by law.
1845 # On 1937-07-01 this was changed to 20 minutes (exactly) ahead of GMT and
1846 # was generally known as Dutch Time ("Nederlandse Tijd").
1847 #
1848 # (2001-04-08):
1849 # 1892-05-01 was the date when the Dutch railways were by law required to
1850 # observe GMT while the remainder of the Netherlands adhered to the common
1851 # practice of following Amsterdam mean time.
1852 #
1853 # (2001-04-09):
1854 # In 1835 the authorities of the province of North Holland requested the
1855 # municipal authorities of the towns and cities in the province to observe
1856 # Amsterdam mean time but I do not know in how many cases this request was
1857 # actually followed.
1858 #
1859 # From 1852 onwards the Dutch telegraph offices were by law required to
1860 # observe Amsterdam mean time. As the time signals from the observatory of
1861 # Leiden were also distributed by the telegraph system, I assume that most
1862 # places linked up with the telegraph (and railway) system automatically
1863 # adopted Amsterdam mean time.
1864 #
1865 # Although the early Dutch railway companies initially observed a variety
1866 # of times, most of them had adopted Amsterdam mean time by 1858 but it
1867 # was not until 1866 when they were all required by law to observe
1868 # Amsterdam mean time.
1869 
1870 # The data entries before 1945 are taken from
1871 # http://www.phys.uu.nl/~vgent/wettijd/wettijd.htm
1872 
1873 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1874 Rule    Neth    1916    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    NST     # Netherlands Summer Time
1875 Rule    Neth    1916    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       AMT     # Amsterdam Mean Time
1876 Rule    Neth    1917    only    -       Apr     16      2:00s   1:00    NST
1877 Rule    Neth    1917    only    -       Sep     17      2:00s   0       AMT
1878 Rule    Neth    1918    1921    -       Apr     Mon>=1       2:00s   1:00    NST
1879 Rule    Neth    1918    1921    -       Sep     lastMon 2:00s   0       AMT
1880 Rule    Neth    1922    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    NST
1881 Rule    Neth    1922    1936    -       Oct     Sun>=2       2:00s   0       AMT
1882 Rule    Neth    1923    only    -       Jun     Fri>=1       2:00s   1:00    NST
1883 Rule    Neth    1924    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    NST
1884 Rule    Neth    1925    only    -       Jun     Fri>=1       2:00s   1:00    NST
1885 # From 1926 through 1939 DST began 05-15, except that it was delayed by a week
1886 # in years when 05-15 fell in the Pentecost weekend.
1887 Rule    Neth    1926    1931    -       May     15      2:00s   1:00    NST
1888 Rule    Neth    1932    only    -       May     22      2:00s   1:00    NST
1889 Rule    Neth    1933    1936    -       May     15      2:00s   1:00    NST
1890 Rule    Neth    1937    only    -       May     22      2:00s   1:00    NST
1891 Rule    Neth    1937    only    -       Jul      1      0:00    1:00    S
1892 Rule    Neth    1937    1939    -       Oct     Sun>=2       2:00s   0       -
1893 Rule    Neth    1938    1939    -       May     15      2:00s   1:00    S
1894 Rule    Neth    1945    only    -       Apr      2      2:00s   1:00    S
1895 Rule    Neth    1945    only    -       Sep     16      2:00s   0       -
1896 #
1897 # Amsterdam Mean Time was +00:19:32.13 exactly, but the .13 is omitted
1898 # below because the current format requires GMTOFF to be an integer.
1899 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1900 Zone Europe/Amsterdam   0:19:32 -       LMT     1835
1901                         0:19:32 Neth    %s      1937 Jul  1
1902                         0:20    Neth    NE%sT   1940 May 16  0:00 # Dutch Time
1903                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00
1904                         1:00    Neth    CE%sT   1977
1905                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1906 
1907 # Norway
1908 # http://met.no/met/met_lex/q_u/sommertid.html (2004-01) agrees with Shanks &
1909 # Pottenger.
1910 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1911 Rule    Norway  1916    only    -       May     22      1:00    1:00    S
1912 Rule    Norway  1916    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       -
1913 Rule    Norway  1945    only    -       Apr      2      2:00s   1:00    S
1914 Rule    Norway  1945    only    -       Oct      1      2:00s   0       -
1915 Rule    Norway  1959    1964    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   1:00    S
1916 Rule    Norway  1959    1965    -       Sep     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       -
1917 Rule    Norway  1965    only    -       Apr     25      2:00s   1:00    S
1918 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1919 Zone    Europe/Oslo     0:43:00 -       LMT     1895 Jan  1
1920                         1:00    Norway  CE%sT   1940 Aug 10 23:00
1921                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00
1922                         1:00    Norway  CE%sT   1980
1923                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1924 
1925 # Svalbard & Jan Mayen
1926 
1927 # From Steffen Thorsen (2001-05-01):
1928 # Although I could not find it explicitly, it seems that Jan Mayen and
1929 # Svalbard have been using the same time as Norway at least since the
1930 # time they were declared as parts of Norway.  Svalbard was declared
1931 # as a part of Norway by law of 1925-07-17 no 11, section 4 and Jan
1932 # Mayen by law of 1930-02-27 no 2, section 2. (From
1933 # <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19250717-011.html> and
1934 # <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19300227-002.html>).  The law/regulation
1935 # for normal/standard time in Norway is from 1894-06-29 no 1 (came
1936 # into operation on 1895-01-01) and Svalbard/Jan Mayen seem to be a
1937 # part of this law since 1925/1930. (From
1938 # <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-18940629-001.html>) I have not been
1939 # able to find if Jan Mayen used a different time zone (e.g. -0100)
1940 # before 1930. Jan Mayen has only been "inhabited" since 1921 by
1941 # Norwegian meteorologists and maybe used the same time as Norway ever
1942 # since 1921.  Svalbard (Arctic/Longyearbyen) has been inhabited since
1943 # before 1895, and therefore probably changed the local time somewhere
1944 # between 1895 and 1925 (inclusive).
1945 
1946 # From Paul Eggert (2013-09-04):
1947 #
1948 # Actually, Jan Mayen was never occupied by Germany during World War II,
1949 # so it must have diverged from Oslo time during the war, as Oslo was
1950 # keeping Berlin time.
1951 #
1952 # <http://home.no.net/janmayen/history.htm> says that the meteorologists
1953 # burned down their station in 1940 and left the island, but returned in
1954 # 1941 with a small Norwegian garrison and continued operations despite
1955 # frequent air attacks from Germans.  In 1943 the Americans established a
1956 # radiolocating station on the island, called "Atlantic City".  Possibly
1957 # the UT offset changed during the war, but I think it unlikely that
1958 # Jan Mayen used German daylight-saving rules.
1959 #
1960 # Svalbard is more complicated, as it was raided in August 1941 by an
1961 # Allied party that evacuated the civilian population to England (says
1962 # <http://www.bartleby.com/65/sv/Svalbard.html>).  The Svalbard FAQ
1963 # <http://www.svalbard.com/SvalbardFAQ.html> says that the Germans were
1964 # expelled on 1942-05-14.  However, small parties of Germans did return,
1965 # and according to Wilhelm Dege's book "War North of 80" (1954)
1966 # http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/departments/UP/1-55238/1-55238-110-2.html
1967 # the German armed forces at the Svalbard weather station code-named
1968 # Haudegen did not surrender to the Allies until September 1945.
1969 #
1970 # All these events predate our cutoff date of 1970, so use Europe/Oslo
1971 # for these regions.
1972 Link    Europe/Oslo     Arctic/Longyearbyen
1973 
1974 # Poland
1975 
1976 # The 1919 dates and times can be found in Tygodnik Urzędowy nr 1 (1919-03-20),
1977 # <http://www.wbc.poznan.pl/publication/32156> pp 1-2.
1978 
1979 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1980 Rule    Poland  1918    1919    -       Sep     16      2:00s   0       -
1981 Rule    Poland  1919    only    -       Apr     15      2:00s   1:00    S
1982 Rule    Poland  1944    only    -       Apr      3      2:00s   1:00    S
1983 # Whitman gives 1944 Nov 30; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1984 Rule    Poland  1944    only    -       Oct      4      2:00    0       -
1985 # For 1944-1948 Whitman gives the previous day; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1986 Rule    Poland  1945    only    -       Apr     29      0:00    1:00    S
1987 Rule    Poland  1945    only    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       -
1988 # For 1946 on the source is Kazimierz Borkowski,
1989 # Toruń Center for Astronomy, Dept. of Radio Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus U.,
1990 # http://www.astro.uni.torun.pl/~kb/Artykuly/U-PA/Czas2.htm#tth_tAb1
1991 # Thanks to Przemysław Augustyniak (2005-05-28) for this reference.
1992 # He also gives these further references:
1993 # Mon Pol nr 13, poz 162 (1995) <http://www.abc.com.pl/serwis/mp/1995/0162.htm>
1994 # Druk nr 2180 (2003) <http://www.senat.gov.pl/k5/dok/sejm/053/2180.pdf>
1995 Rule    Poland  1946    only    -       Apr     14      0:00s   1:00    S
1996 Rule    Poland  1946    only    -       Oct      7      2:00s   0       -
1997 Rule    Poland  1947    only    -       May      4      2:00s   1:00    S
1998 Rule    Poland  1947    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
1999 Rule    Poland  1948    only    -       Apr     18      2:00s   1:00    S
2000 Rule    Poland  1949    only    -       Apr     10      2:00s   1:00    S
2001 Rule    Poland  1957    only    -       Jun      2      1:00s   1:00    S
2002 Rule    Poland  1957    1958    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00s   0       -
2003 Rule    Poland  1958    only    -       Mar     30      1:00s   1:00    S
2004 Rule    Poland  1959    only    -       May     31      1:00s   1:00    S
2005 Rule    Poland  1959    1961    -       Oct     Sun>=1       1:00s   0       -
2006 Rule    Poland  1960    only    -       Apr      3      1:00s   1:00    S
2007 Rule    Poland  1961    1964    -       May     lastSun 1:00s   1:00    S
2008 Rule    Poland  1962    1964    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00s   0       -
2009 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2010 Zone    Europe/Warsaw   1:24:00 -       LMT     1880
2011                         1:24:00 -       WMT     1915 Aug  5 # Warsaw Mean Time
2012                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1918 Sep 16  3:00
2013                         2:00    Poland  EE%sT   1922 Jun
2014                         1:00    Poland  CE%sT   1940 Jun 23  2:00
2015                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Oct
2016                         1:00    Poland  CE%sT   1977
2017                         1:00    W-Eur   CE%sT   1988
2018                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
2019 
2020 # Portugal
2021 #
2022 # From Paul Eggert (2014-08-11), after a heads-up from Stephen Colebourne:
2023 # According to a Portuguese decree (1911-05-26)
2024 # http://dre.pt/pdf1sdip/1911/05/12500/23132313.pdf
2025 # Lisbon was at -0:36:44.68, but switched to GMT on 1912-01-01 at 00:00.
2026 # Round the old offset to -0:36:45.  This agrees with Willett but disagrees
2027 # with Shanks, who says the transition occurred on 1911-05-24 at 00:00 for
2028 # Europe/Lisbon, Atlantic/Azores, and Atlantic/Madeira.
2029 #
2030 # From Rui Pedro Salgueiro (1992-11-12):
2031 # Portugal has recently (September, 27) changed timezone
2032 # (from WET to MET or CET) to harmonize with EEC.
2033 #
2034 # Martin Bruckmann (1996-02-29) reports via Peter Ilieve
2035 # that Portugal is reverting to 0:00 by not moving its clocks this spring.
2036 # The new Prime Minister was fed up with getting up in the dark in the winter.
2037 #
2038 # From Paul Eggert (1996-11-12):
2039 # IATA SSIM (1991-09) reports several 1991-09 and 1992-09 transitions
2040 # at 02:00u, not 01:00u.  Assume that these are typos.
2041 # IATA SSIM (1991/1992) reports that the Azores were at -1:00.
2042 # IATA SSIM (1993-02) says +0:00; later issues (through 1996-09) say -1:00.
2043 # Guess that the Azores changed to EU rules in 1992 (since that's when Portugal
2044 # harmonized with the EU), and that they stayed +0:00 that winter.
2045 #
2046 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2047 # DSH writes that despite Decree 1,469 (1915), the change to the clocks was not
2048 # done every year, depending on what Spain did, because of railroad schedules.
2049 # Go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2050 Rule    Port    1916    only    -       Jun     17      23:00   1:00    S
2051 # Whitman gives 1916 Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2052 Rule    Port    1916    only    -       Nov      1       1:00   0       -
2053 Rule    Port    1917    only    -       Feb     28      23:00s  1:00    S
2054 Rule    Port    1917    1921    -       Oct     14      23:00s  0       -
2055 Rule    Port    1918    only    -       Mar      1      23:00s  1:00    S
2056 Rule    Port    1919    only    -       Feb     28      23:00s  1:00    S
2057 Rule    Port    1920    only    -       Feb     29      23:00s  1:00    S
2058 Rule    Port    1921    only    -       Feb     28      23:00s  1:00    S
2059 Rule    Port    1924    only    -       Apr     16      23:00s  1:00    S
2060 Rule    Port    1924    only    -       Oct     14      23:00s  0       -
2061 Rule    Port    1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00s  1:00    S
2062 Rule    Port    1926    1929    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
2063 Rule    Port    1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00s  1:00    S
2064 Rule    Port    1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00s  1:00    S
2065 Rule    Port    1929    only    -       Apr     20      23:00s  1:00    S
2066 Rule    Port    1931    only    -       Apr     18      23:00s  1:00    S
2067 # Whitman gives 1931 Oct 8; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2068 Rule    Port    1931    1932    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
2069 Rule    Port    1932    only    -       Apr      2      23:00s  1:00    S
2070 Rule    Port    1934    only    -       Apr      7      23:00s  1:00    S
2071 # Whitman gives 1934 Oct 5; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2072 Rule    Port    1934    1938    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
2073 # Shanks & Pottenger give 1935 Apr 30; go with Whitman.
2074 Rule    Port    1935    only    -       Mar     30      23:00s  1:00    S
2075 Rule    Port    1936    only    -       Apr     18      23:00s  1:00    S
2076 # Whitman gives 1937 Apr 2; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2077 Rule    Port    1937    only    -       Apr      3      23:00s  1:00    S
2078 Rule    Port    1938    only    -       Mar     26      23:00s  1:00    S
2079 Rule    Port    1939    only    -       Apr     15      23:00s  1:00    S
2080 # Whitman gives 1939 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2081 Rule    Port    1939    only    -       Nov     18      23:00s  0       -
2082 Rule    Port    1940    only    -       Feb     24      23:00s  1:00    S
2083 # Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Oct 7; go with Whitman.
2084 Rule    Port    1940    1941    -       Oct      5      23:00s  0       -
2085 Rule    Port    1941    only    -       Apr      5      23:00s  1:00    S
2086 Rule    Port    1942    1945    -       Mar     Sat>=8       23:00s  1:00    S
2087 Rule    Port    1942    only    -       Apr     25      22:00s  2:00    M # Midsummer
2088 Rule    Port    1942    only    -       Aug     15      22:00s  1:00    S
2089 Rule    Port    1942    1945    -       Oct     Sat>=24      23:00s  0       -
2090 Rule    Port    1943    only    -       Apr     17      22:00s  2:00    M
2091 Rule    Port    1943    1945    -       Aug     Sat>=25      22:00s  1:00    S
2092 Rule    Port    1944    1945    -       Apr     Sat>=21      22:00s  2:00    M
2093 Rule    Port    1946    only    -       Apr     Sat>=1       23:00s  1:00    S
2094 Rule    Port    1946    only    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
2095 Rule    Port    1947    1949    -       Apr     Sun>=1        2:00s  1:00    S
2096 Rule    Port    1947    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1        2:00s  0       -
2097 # Shanks & Pottenger say DST was observed in 1950; go with Whitman.
2098 # Whitman gives Oct lastSun for 1952 on; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2099 Rule    Port    1951    1965    -       Apr     Sun>=1        2:00s  1:00    S
2100 Rule    Port    1951    1965    -       Oct     Sun>=1        2:00s  0       -
2101 Rule    Port    1977    only    -       Mar     27       0:00s  1:00    S
2102 Rule    Port    1977    only    -       Sep     25       0:00s  0       -
2103 Rule    Port    1978    1979    -       Apr     Sun>=1        0:00s  1:00    S
2104 Rule    Port    1978    only    -       Oct      1       0:00s  0       -
2105 Rule    Port    1979    1982    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00s  0       -
2106 Rule    Port    1980    only    -       Mar     lastSun  0:00s  1:00    S
2107 Rule    Port    1981    1982    -       Mar     lastSun  1:00s  1:00    S
2108 Rule    Port    1983    only    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
2109 #
2110 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2111 Zone    Europe/Lisbon   -0:36:45 -      LMT     1884
2112                         -0:36:45 -      LMT     1912 Jan  1 # Lisbon Mean Time
2113                          0:00   Port    WE%sT   1966 Apr  3  2:00
2114                          1:00   -       CET     1976 Sep 26  1:00
2115                          0:00   Port    WE%sT   1983 Sep 25  1:00s
2116                          0:00   W-Eur   WE%sT   1992 Sep 27  1:00s
2117                          1:00   EU      CE%sT   1996 Mar 31  1:00u
2118                          0:00   EU      WE%sT
2119 Zone Atlantic/Azores    -1:42:40 -      LMT     1884        # Ponta Delgada
2120                         -1:54:32 -      HMT     1912 Jan  1 # Horta Mean Time
2121                         -2:00   Port    AZO%sT  1966 Apr  3  2:00  # Azores Time
2122                         -1:00   Port    AZO%sT  1983 Sep 25  1:00s
2123                         -1:00   W-Eur   AZO%sT  1992 Sep 27  1:00s
2124                          0:00   EU      WE%sT   1993 Mar 28  1:00u
2125                         -1:00   EU      AZO%sT
2126 Zone Atlantic/Madeira   -1:07:36 -      LMT     1884        # Funchal
2127                         -1:07:36 -      FMT     1912 Jan  1 # Funchal Mean Time
2128                         -1:00   Port    MAD%sT  1966 Apr  3  2:00 # Madeira Time
2129                          0:00   Port    WE%sT   1983 Sep 25  1:00s
2130                          0:00   EU      WE%sT
2131 
2132 # Romania
2133 #
2134 # From Paul Eggert (1999-10-07):
2135 # Nine O'clock <http://www.nineoclock.ro/POL/1778pol.html>
2136 # (1998-10-23) reports that the switch occurred at
2137 # 04:00 local time in fall 1998.  For lack of better info,
2138 # assume that Romania and Moldova switched to EU rules in 1997,
2139 # the same year as Bulgaria.
2140 #
2141 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2142 Rule    Romania 1932    only    -       May     21       0:00s  1:00    S
2143 Rule    Romania 1932    1939    -       Oct     Sun>=1        0:00s  0       -
2144 Rule    Romania 1933    1939    -       Apr     Sun>=2        0:00s  1:00    S
2145 Rule    Romania 1979    only    -       May     27       0:00   1:00    S
2146 Rule    Romania 1979    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       -
2147 Rule    Romania 1980    only    -       Apr      5      23:00   1:00    S
2148 Rule    Romania 1980    only    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00   0       -
2149 Rule    Romania 1991    1993    -       Mar     lastSun  0:00s  1:00    S
2150 Rule    Romania 1991    1993    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       -
2151 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2152 Zone Europe/Bucharest   1:44:24 -       LMT     1891 Oct
2153                         1:44:24 -       BMT     1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT
2154                         2:00    Romania EE%sT   1981 Mar 29  2:00s
2155                         2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1991
2156                         2:00    Romania EE%sT   1994
2157                         2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1997
2158                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
2159 
2160 
2161 # Russia
2162 
2163 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-09-15):
2164 # Based on last Russian Government Decree No. 725 on August 31, 2011
2165 # (Government document
2166 # http://www.government.ru/gov/results/16355/print/
2167 # in Russian)
2168 # there are few corrections have to be made for some Russian time zones...
2169 # All updated Russian Time Zones were placed in table and translated to English
2170 # by WorldTimeZone.com at the link below:
2171 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia36.htm
2172 
2173 # From Sanjeev Gupta (2011-09-27):
2174 # Scans of [Decree No. 23 of January 8, 1992] are available at:
2175 # http://government.consultant.ru/page.aspx?1223966
2176 # They are in Cyrillic letters (presumably Russian).
2177 
2178 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09):
2179 # Regarding the instant when clocks in time-zone-shifting parts of Russia
2180 # changed in September 2011:
2181 #
2182 # One source is
2183 # http://government.ru/gov/results/16355/
2184 # which, according to translate.google.com, begins "Decree of August 31,
2185 # 2011 No. 725" and contains no other dates or "effective date" information.
2186 #
2187 # Another source is
2188 # http://www.rg.ru/2011/09/06/chas-zona-dok.html
2189 # which, according to translate.google.com, begins "Resolution of the
2190 # Government of the Russian Federation on August 31, 2011 N 725" and also
2191 # contains "Date first official publication: September 6, 2011 Posted on:
2192 # in the 'RG' - Federal Issue No. 5573 September 6, 2011" but which
2193 # does not contain any "effective date" information.
2194 #
2195 # Another source is
2196 # http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oymyakonsky_District#cite_note-RuTime-7
2197 # which, in note 8, contains "Resolution No. 725 of August 31, 2011...
2198 # Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication"
2199 # but which does not contain any reference to September 6, 2011.
2200 #
2201 # The Wikipedia article refers to
2202 # http://base.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi?req=doc;base=LAW;n=118896
2203 # which seems to copy the text of the government.ru page.
2204 #
2205 # Tobias Conradi combines Wikipedia's
2206 # "as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication"
2207 # with www.rg.ru's "Date of first official publication: September 6, 2011" to
2208 # get September 13, 2011 as the cutover date (unusually, a Tuesday, as Tobias
2209 # Conradi notes).
2210 #
2211 # None of the sources indicates a time of day for changing clocks.
2212 #
2213 # Go with 2011-09-13 0:00s.
2214 
2215 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-01):
2216 # According to the Russian news (ITAR-TASS News Agency)
2217 # http://en.itar-tass.com/russia/738562
2218 # the State Duma has approved ... the draft bill on returning to
2219 # winter time standard and return Russia 11 time zones.  The new
2220 # regulations will come into effect on October 26, 2014 at 02:00 ...
2221 # http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/main.nsf/%28Spravka%29?OpenAgent&RN=431985-6&02
2222 # Here is a link where we put together table (based on approved Bill N
2223 # 431985-6) with proposed 11 Russian time zones and corresponding
2224 # areas/cities/administrative centers in the Russian Federation (in English):
2225 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia65.html
2226 #
2227 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-22):
2228 # Putin signed the Federal Law 431985-6 ... (in Russian)
2229 # http://itar-tass.com/obschestvo/1333711
2230 # http://www.pravo.gov.ru:8080/page.aspx?111660
2231 # http://www.kremlin.ru/acts/46279
2232 # From October 26, 2014 the new Russian time zone map will looks like this:
2233 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia-map-2014-07.html
2234 
2235 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
2236 # Except for Moscow after 1919-07-01, I invented the time zone abbreviations.
2237 # Moscow time zone abbreviations after 1919-07-01, and Moscow rules after 1991,
2238 # are from Andrey A. Chernov.  The rest is from Shanks & Pottenger,
2239 # except we follow Chernov's report that 1992 DST transitions were Sat
2240 # 23:00, not Sun 02:00s.
2241 #
2242 # From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski (1994-06-29):
2243 # But now it is some months since Novosibirsk is 3 hours ahead of Moscow!
2244 # I do not know why they have decided to make this change;
2245 # as far as I remember it was done exactly during winter->summer switching
2246 # so we (Novosibirsk) simply did not switch.
2247 #
2248 # From Andrey A. Chernov (1996-10-04):
2249 # 'MSK' and 'MSD' were born and used initially on Moscow computers with
2250 # UNIX-like OSes by several developer groups (e.g. Demos group, Kiae group)....
2251 # The next step was the UUCP network, the Relcom predecessor
2252 # (used mainly for mail), and MSK/MSD was actively used there.
2253 #
2254 # From Chris Carrier (1996-10-30):
2255 # According to a friend of mine who rode the Trans-Siberian Railroad from
2256 # Moscow to Irkutsk in 1995, public air and rail transport in Russia ...
2257 # still follows Moscow time, no matter where in Russia it is located.
2258 #
2259 # For Grozny, Chechnya, we have the following story from
2260 # John Daniszewski, "Scavengers in the Rubble", Los Angeles Times (2001-02-07):
2261 # News - often false - is spread by word of mouth.  A rumor that it was
2262 # time to move the clocks back put this whole city out of sync with
2263 # the rest of Russia for two weeks - even soldiers stationed here began
2264 # enforcing curfew at the wrong time.
2265 #
2266 # From Gwillim Law (2001-06-05):
2267 # There's considerable evidence that Sakhalin Island used to be in
2268 # UTC+11, and has changed to UTC+10, in this decade.  I start with the
2269 # SSIM, which listed Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk in zone RU10 along with Magadan
2270 # until February 1997, and then in RU9 with Khabarovsk and Vladivostok
2271 # since September 1997....  Although the Kuril Islands are
2272 # administratively part of Sakhalin oblast', they appear to have
2273 # remained on UTC+11 along with Magadan.
2274 
2275 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
2276 # The comments detailing the coverage of each Russian zone are meant to assist
2277 # with maintenance only and represent our best guesses as to which regions
2278 # are covered by each zone.  They are not meant to be taken as an authoritative
2279 # listing.  The region codes listed come from
2280 # http://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Federal_subjects_of_Russia&oldid=611810498
2281 # and are used for convenience only; no guarantees are made regarding their
2282 # future stability.  ISO 3166-2:RU codes are also listed for first-level
2283 # divisions where available.
2284 
2285 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2286 
2287 
2288 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
2289 # Europe/Kaliningrad covers...
2290 # 39    RU-KGD  Kaliningrad Oblast
2291 















2292 Zone Europe/Kaliningrad  1:22:00 -      LMT     1893 Apr
2293                          1:00   C-Eur   CE%sT   1945
2294                          2:00   Poland  CE%sT   1946
2295                          3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2296                          2:00   Russia  EE%sT   2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2297                          3:00   -       FET     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2298                          2:00   -       EET
2299 
2300 
2301 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):

2302 # Europe/Moscow covers...
2303 # 01    RU-AD   Adygea, Republic of
2304 # 05    RU-DA   Dagestan, Republic of
2305 # 06    RU-IN   Ingushetia, Republic of
2306 # 07    RU-KB   Kabardino-Balkar Republic
2307 # 08    RU-KL   Kalmykia, Republic of
2308 # 09    RU-KC   Karachay-Cherkess Republic
2309 # 10    RU-KR   Karelia, Republic of
2310 # 11    RU-KO   Komi Republic
2311 # 12    RU-ME   Mari El Republic
2312 # 13    RU-MO   Mordovia, Republic of
2313 # 15    RU-SE   North Ossetia-Alania, Republic of
2314 # 16    RU-TA   Tatarstan, Republic of
2315 # 20    RU-CE   Chechen Republic
2316 # 21    RU-CU   Chuvash Republic
2317 # 23    RU-KDA  Krasnodar Krai
2318 # 26    RU-STA  Stavropol Krai
2319 # 29    RU-ARK  Arkhangelsk Oblast
2320 # 31    RU-BEL  Belgorod Oblast
2321 # 32    RU-BRY  Bryansk Oblast
2322 # 33    RU-VLA  Vladimir Oblast
2323 # 35    RU-VLG  Vologda Oblast
2324 # 36    RU-VOR  Voronezh Oblast
2325 # 37    RU-IVA  Ivanovo Oblast
2326 # 40    RU-KLU  Kaluga Oblast
2327 # 44    RU-KOS  Kostroma Oblast
2328 # 46    RU-KRS  Kursk Oblast
2329 # 47    RU-LEN  Leningrad Oblast
2330 # 48    RU-LIP  Lipetsk Oblast
2331 # 50    RU-MOS  Moscow Oblast
2332 # 51    RU-MUR  Murmansk Oblast
2333 # 52    RU-NIZ  Nizhny Novgorod Oblast
2334 # 53    RU-NGR  Novgorod Oblast
2335 # 57    RU-ORL  Oryol Oblast
2336 # 58    RU-PNZ  Penza Oblast
2337 # 60    RU-PSK  Pskov Oblast
2338 # 61    RU-ROS  Rostov Oblast
2339 # 62    RU-RYA  Ryazan Oblast
2340 # 67    RU-SMO  Smolensk Oblast
2341 # 68    RU-TAM  Tambov Oblast
2342 # 69    RU-TVE  Tver Oblast
2343 # 71    RU-TUL  Tula Oblast
2344 # 73    RU-ULY  Ulyanovsk Oblast
2345 # 76    RU-YAR  Yaroslavl Oblast
2346 # 77    RU-MOW  Moscow
2347 # 78    RU-SPE  Saint Petersburg
2348 # 83    RU-NEN  Nenets Autonomous Okrug
2349 

















































































2350 # From Vladimir Karpinsky (2014-07-08):
2351 # LMT in Moscow (before Jul 3, 1916) is 2:30:17, that was defined by Moscow
2352 # Observatory (coordinates: 55 deg. 45'29.70", 37 deg. 34'05.30")....
2353 # LMT in Moscow since Jul 3, 1916 is 2:31:01 as a result of new standard.
2354 # (The info is from the book by Byalokoz ... p. 18.)
2355 # The time in St. Petersburg as capital of Russia was defined by
2356 # Pulkov observatory, near St. Petersburg.  In 1916 LMT Moscow
2357 # was synchronized with LMT St. Petersburg (+30 minutes), (Pulkov observatory
2358 # coordinates: 59 deg. 46'18.70", 30 deg. 19'40.70") so 30 deg. 19'40.70" >
2359 # 2h01m18.7s = 2:01:19.  LMT Moscow = LMT St.Petersburg + 30m 2:01:19 + 0:30 =
2360 # 2:31:19 ...
2361 #
2362 # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-08):
2363 # Milne does not list Moscow, but suggests that its time might be listed in
2364 # Résumés mensuels et annuels des observations météorologiques (1895).
2365 # Presumably this is OCLC 85825704, a journal published with parallel text in
2366 # Russian and French.  This source has not been located; go with Karpinsky.
2367 
2368 Zone Europe/Moscow       2:30:17 -      LMT     1880
2369                          2:30:17 -      MMT     1916 Jul  3 # Moscow Mean Time
2370                          2:31:19 Russia %s      1919 Jul  1  2:00
2371                          3:00   Russia  %s      1921 Oct
2372                          3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 1922 Oct
2373                          2:00   -       EET     1930 Jun 21
2374                          3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2375                          2:00   Russia  EE%sT   1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2376                          3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2377                          4:00   -       MSK     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2378                          3:00   -       MSK
2379 
2380 
2381 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
2382 # Europe/Simferopol covers...
2383 # **    ****    Crimea, Republic of
2384 # **    ****    Sevastopol
2385 
2386 Zone Europe/Simferopol   2:16:24 -      LMT     1880
2387                          2:16   -       SMT     1924 May  2 # Simferopol Mean T
2388                          2:00   -       EET     1930 Jun 21
2389                          3:00   -       MSK     1941 Nov
2390                          1:00   C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Apr 13
2391                          3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 1990
2392                          3:00   -       MSK     1990 Jul  1  2:00
2393                          2:00   -       EET     1992
2394 # Central Crimea used Moscow time 1994/1997.
2395 #
2396 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
2397 # The _Economist_ (1994-05-28, p 45) reports that central Crimea switched
2398 # from Kiev to Moscow time sometime after the January 1994 elections.
2399 # Shanks (1999) says "date of change uncertain", but implies that it happened
2400 # sometime between the 1994 DST switches.  Shanks & Pottenger simply say
2401 # 1994-09-25 03:00, but that can't be right.  For now, guess it
2402 # changed in May.
2403                          2:00   E-Eur   EE%sT   1994 May
2404 # From IATA SSIM (1994/1997), which also says that Kerch is still like Kiev.
2405                          3:00   E-Eur   MSK/MSD 1996 Mar 31  0:00s
2406                          3:00   1:00    MSD     1996 Oct 27  3:00s
2407 # IATA SSIM (1997-09) says Crimea switched to EET/EEST.
2408 # Assume it happened in March by not changing the clocks.
2409                          3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 1997
2410                          3:00   -       MSK     1997 Mar lastSun  1:00u
2411 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-03-17):
2412 # time change at 2:00 (2am) on March 30, 2014
2413 # http://vz.ru/news/2014/3/17/677464.html
2414 # From Paul Eggert (2014-03-30):
2415 # Simferopol and Sevastopol reportedly changed their central town clocks
2416 # late the previous day, but this appears to have been ceremonial
2417 # and the discrepancies are small enough to not worry about.
2418                          2:00   EU      EE%sT   2014 Mar 30  2:00
2419                          4:00   -       MSK     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2420                          3:00   -       MSK
2421 
2422 
2423 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
2424 # Europe/Volgograd covers...
2425 # 30    RU-AST  Astrakhan Oblast






















2426 # 34    RU-VGG  Volgograd Oblast
2427 # 43    RU-KIR  Kirov Oblast
2428 # 64    RU-SAR  Saratov Oblast
2429 
2430 # From Paul Eggert (2006-05-09):
2431 # Shanks & Pottenger say Kirov is still at +0400 but Wikipedia says +0300.
2432 # Perhaps it switched after the others?  But we have no data.
2433 
2434 Zone Europe/Volgograd    2:57:40 -      LMT     1920 Jan  3
2435                          3:00   -       TSAT    1925 Apr  6 # Tsaritsyn Time
2436                          3:00   -       STAT    1930 Jun 21 # Stalingrad Time
2437                          4:00   -       STAT    1961 Nov 11
2438                          4:00   Russia  VOL%sT  1989 Mar 26  2:00s # Volgograd T
2439                          3:00   Russia  VOL%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2440                          4:00   -       VOLT    1992 Mar 29  2:00s
2441                          3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2442                          4:00   -       MSK     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2443                          3:00   -       MSK
2444 













2445 
2446 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
2447 # Europe/Samara covers...
2448 # 18    RU-UD   Udmurt Republic
2449 # 63    RU-SAM  Samara Oblast
2450 

2451 # Byalokoz 1919 says Samara was 3:20:20.

2452 
2453 Zone Europe/Samara       3:20:20 -      LMT     1919 Jul  1  2:00
2454                          3:00   -       SAMT    1930 Jun 21
2455                          4:00   -       SAMT    1935 Jan 27
2456                          4:00   Russia  KUY%sT  1989 Mar 26  2:00s # Kuybyshev
2457                          3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2458                          2:00   Russia  EE%sT   1991 Sep 29  2:00s
2459                          3:00   -       KUYT    1991 Oct 20  3:00
2460                          4:00   Russia  SAM%sT  2010 Mar 28  2:00s # Samara Time
2461                          3:00   Russia  SAM%sT  2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2462                          4:00   -       SAMT
2463 






















2464 
2465 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
2466 # Asia/Yekaterinburg covers...
2467 # 02    RU-BA   Bashkortostan, Republic of
2468 # 90    RU-PER  Perm Krai
2469 # 45    RU-KGN  Kurgan Oblast
2470 # 56    RU-ORE  Orenburg Oblast
2471 # 66    RU-SVE  Sverdlovsk Oblast
2472 # 72    RU-TYU  Tyumen Oblast
2473 # 74    RU-CHE  Chelyabinsk Oblast
2474 # 86    RU-KHM  Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug - Yugra
2475 # 89    RU-YAN  Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug
2476 #
2477 # Note: Effective 2005-12-01, (59) Perm Oblast and (81) Komi-Permyak
2478 # Autonomous Okrug merged to form (90, RU-PER) Perm Krai.
2479 
2480 # Milne says Yekaterinburg was 4:02:32.9; round to nearest.
2481 # Byalokoz 1919 says its provincial time was based on Perm, at 3:45:05.
2482 # Assume it switched on 1916-07-03, the time of the new standard.
2483 # The 1919 and 1930 transitions are from Shanks.
2484 
2485 Zone Asia/Yekaterinburg  4:02:33 -      LMT     1916 Jul  3
2486                          3:45:05 -      PMT     1919 Jul 15  4:00
2487                          4:00   -       SVET    1930 Jun 21 # Sverdlovsk Time
2488                          5:00   Russia  SVE%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2489                          4:00   Russia  SVE%sT  1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2490                          5:00   Russia  YEK%sT  2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2491                          6:00   -       YEKT    2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2492                          5:00   -       YEKT
2493 
2494 
2495 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
2496 # Asia/Omsk covers...
2497 # 04    RU-AL   Altai Republic
2498 # 22    RU-ALT  Altai Krai
2499 # 55    RU-OMS  Omsk Oblast
2500 
2501 # Byalokoz 1919 says Omsk was 4:53:30.
2502 
2503 Zone Asia/Omsk           4:53:30 -      LMT     1919 Nov 14
2504                          5:00   -       OMST    1930 Jun 21 # Omsk Time
2505                          6:00   Russia  OMS%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2506                          5:00   Russia  OMS%sT  1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2507                          6:00   Russia  OMS%sT  2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2508                          7:00   -       OMST    2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2509                          6:00   -       OMST
2510 




2511 
2512 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
2513 # Asia/Novosibirsk covers...
2514 # 54    RU-NVS  Novosibirsk Oblast
2515 # 70    RU-TOM  Tomsk Oblast
2516 
2517 # From Paul Eggert (2006-08-19): I'm guessing about Tomsk here; it's
2518 # not clear when it switched from +7 to +6.


































2519 
2520 Zone Asia/Novosibirsk    5:31:40 -      LMT     1919 Dec 14  6:00
2521                          6:00   -       NOVT    1930 Jun 21 # Novosibirsk Time
2522                          7:00   Russia  NOV%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2523                          6:00   Russia  NOV%sT  1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2524                          7:00   Russia  NOV%sT  1993 May 23 # say Shanks & P.
2525                          6:00   Russia  NOV%sT  2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2526                          7:00   -       NOVT    2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2527                          6:00   -       NOVT
2528 

















































2529 
2530 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
2531 # Asia/Novokuznetsk covers...
2532 # 42    RU-KEM  Kemerovo Oblast
2533 
2534 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-10-13):
2535 # Kemerovo oblast' (Kemerovo region) in Russia will change current time zone on
2536 # March 28, 2010:
2537 # from current Russia Zone 6 - Krasnoyarsk Time Zone (KRA) UTC +0700
2538 # to Russia Zone 5 - Novosibirsk Time Zone (NOV) UTC +0600
2539 #
2540 # This is according to Government of Russia decree No. 740, on September
2541 # 14, 2009 "Application in the territory of the Kemerovo region the Fifth
2542 # time zone." ("Russia Zone 5" or old "USSR Zone 5" is GMT +0600)
2543 #
2544 # Russian Government web site (Russian language)
2545 # http://www.government.ru/content/governmentactivity/rfgovernmentdecisions/archive/2009/09/14/991633.htm
2546 # or Russian-English translation by WorldTimeZone.com with reference
2547 # map to local region and new Russia Time Zone map after March 28, 2010
2548 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia03.html
2549 #
2550 # Thus, when Russia will switch to DST on the night of March 28, 2010
2551 # Kemerovo region (Kemerovo oblast') will not change the clock.
2552 #
2553 # As a result, Kemerovo oblast' will be in the same time zone as
2554 # Novosibirsk, Omsk, Tomsk, Barnaul and Altai Republic.
2555 
2556 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-02), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02):
2557 # The Kemerovo region will remain at UTC+7 through the 2014-10-26 change, thus
2558 # realigning itself with KRAT.
2559 
2560 Zone Asia/Novokuznetsk   5:48:48 -      LMT     1924 May  1
2561                          6:00   -       KRAT    1930 Jun 21 # Krasnoyarsk Time
2562                          7:00   Russia  KRA%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2563                          6:00   Russia  KRA%sT  1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2564                          7:00   Russia  KRA%sT  2010 Mar 28  2:00s
2565                          6:00   Russia  NOV%sT  2011 Mar 27  2:00s # Novosibirsk
2566                          7:00   -       NOVT    2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2567                          7:00   -       KRAT    # Krasnoyarsk Time
2568 
2569 
2570 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
2571 # Asia/Krasnoyarsk covers...
2572 # 17    RU-TY   Tuva Republic
2573 # 19    RU-KK   Khakassia, Republic of
2574 # 24    RU-KYA  Krasnoyarsk Krai
2575 #
2576 # Note: Effective 2007-01-01, (88) Evenk Autonomous Okrug and (84) Taymyr
2577 # Autonomous Okrug were merged into (24, RU-KYA) Krasnoyarsk Krai.
2578 
2579 # Byalokoz 1919 says Krasnoyarsk was 6:11:26.
2580 
2581 Zone Asia/Krasnoyarsk    6:11:26 -      LMT     1920 Jan  6
2582                          6:00   -       KRAT    1930 Jun 21 # Krasnoyarsk Time
2583                          7:00   Russia  KRA%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2584                          6:00   Russia  KRA%sT  1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2585                          7:00   Russia  KRA%sT  2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2586                          8:00   -       KRAT    2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2587                          7:00   -       KRAT
2588 
2589 
2590 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
2591 # Asia/Irkutsk covers...
2592 # 03    RU-BU   Buryatia, Republic of
2593 # 38    RU-IRK  Irkutsk Oblast
2594 #
2595 # Note: Effective 2008-01-01, (85) Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug was
2596 # merged into (38, RU-IRK) Irkutsk Oblast.
2597 
2598 # Milne 1899 says Irkutsk was 6:57:15.
2599 # Byalokoz 1919 says Irkutsk was 6:57:05.
2600 # Go with Byalokoz.
2601 
2602 Zone Asia/Irkutsk        6:57:05 -      LMT     1880
2603                          6:57:05 -      IMT     1920 Jan 25 # Irkutsk Mean Time
2604                          7:00   -       IRKT    1930 Jun 21 # Irkutsk Time
2605                          8:00   Russia  IRK%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2606                          7:00   Russia  IRK%sT  1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2607                          8:00   Russia  IRK%sT  2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2608                          9:00   -       IRKT    2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2609                          8:00   -       IRKT
2610 
2611 
2612 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
2613 # Asia/Chita covers...
2614 # 92    RU-ZAB  Zabaykalsky Krai
2615 #
2616 # Note: Effective 2008-03-01, (75) Chita Oblast and (80) Agin-Buryat
2617 # Autonomous Okrug merged to form (92, RU-ZAB) Zabaykalsky Krai.
2618 
2619 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-01-02):
2620 # [The] time zone in the Trans-Baikal Territory (Zabaykalsky Krai) -
2621 # Asia/Chita [is changing] from UTC+8 to UTC+9.  Effective date will
2622 # be March 27, 2016 at 2:00am....
2623 # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/000120151230010
2624 
2625 Zone Asia/Chita  7:33:52 -      LMT     1919 Dec 15
2626                          8:00   -       YAKT    1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time
2627                          9:00   Russia  YAK%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2628                          8:00   Russia  YAK%sT  1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2629                          9:00   Russia  YAK%sT  2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2630                         10:00   -       YAKT    2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2631                          8:00   -       IRKT    2016 Mar 27  2:00
2632                          9:00   -       YAKT
2633 
2634 
2635 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
2636 # Asia/Yakutsk covers...
2637 # 28    RU-AMU  Amur Oblast
2638 #
2639 # ...and parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
2640 # 14-02 ****    Aldansky District
2641 # 14-04 ****    Amginsky District
2642 # 14-05 ****    Anabarsky District
2643 # 14-06 ****    Bulunsky District
2644 # 14-07 ****    Verkhnevilyuysky District
2645 # 14-10 ****    Vilyuysky District
2646 # 14-11 ****    Gorny District
2647 # 14-12 ****    Zhigansky District
2648 # 14-13 ****    Kobyaysky District
2649 # 14-14 ****    Lensky District
2650 # 14-15 ****    Megino-Kangalassky District
2651 # 14-16 ****    Mirninsky District
2652 # 14-18 ****    Namsky District
2653 # 14-19 ****    Neryungrinsky District
2654 # 14-21 ****    Nyurbinsky District
2655 # 14-23 ****    Olenyoksky District
2656 # 14-24 ****    Olyokminsky District
2657 # 14-26 ****    Suntarsky District
2658 # 14-27 ****    Tattinsky District
2659 # 14-29 ****    Ust-Aldansky District
2660 # 14-32 ****    Khangalassky District
2661 # 14-33 ****    Churapchinsky District
2662 # 14-34 ****    Eveno-Bytantaysky National District
2663 
2664 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
2665 # Our commentary seems to have lost mention of (14-19) Neryungrinsky District.
2666 # Since the surrounding districts of Sakha are all YAKT, assume this is, too.
2667 # Also assume its history has been the same as the rest of Asia/Yakutsk.
2668 
2669 # Byalokoz 1919 says Yakutsk was 8:38:58.
2670 
2671 Zone Asia/Yakutsk        8:38:58 -      LMT     1919 Dec 15
2672                          8:00   -       YAKT    1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time
2673                          9:00   Russia  YAK%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2674                          8:00   Russia  YAK%sT  1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2675                          9:00   Russia  YAK%sT  2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2676                         10:00   -       YAKT    2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2677                          9:00   -       YAKT
2678 
2679 
2680 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
2681 # Asia/Vladivostok covers...
2682 # 25    RU-PRI  Primorsky Krai
2683 # 27    RU-KHA  Khabarovsk Krai
2684 # 79    RU-YEV  Jewish Autonomous Oblast
2685 #
2686 # ...and parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
2687 # 14-09 ****    Verkhoyansky District
2688 # 14-31 ****    Ust-Yansky District
2689 
2690 # Milne 1899 says Vladivostok was 8:47:33.5.
2691 # Byalokoz 1919 says Vladivostok was 8:47:31.
2692 # Go with Byalokoz.
2693 
2694 Zone Asia/Vladivostok    8:47:31 -      LMT     1922 Nov 15
2695                          9:00   -       VLAT    1930 Jun 21 # Vladivostok Time
2696                         10:00   Russia  VLA%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2697                          9:00   Russia  VLA%sT  1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2698                         10:00   Russia  VLA%sT  2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2699                         11:00   -       VLAT    2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2700                         10:00   -       VLAT
2701 
2702 
2703 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
2704 # Asia/Khandyga covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
2705 # 14-28 ****    Tomponsky District
2706 # 14-30 ****    Ust-Maysky District
2707 
2708 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09):
2709 # Tomponskij and Ust'-Majskij switched from Vladivostok time to Yakutsk time
2710 # in 2011.
2711 
2712 # From Paul Eggert (2012-11-25):
2713 # Shanks and Pottenger (2003) has Khandyga on Yakutsk time.
2714 # Make a wild guess that it switched to Vladivostok time in 2004.
2715 # This transition is no doubt wrong, but we have no better info.
2716 
2717 Zone Asia/Khandyga       9:02:13 -      LMT     1919 Dec 15
2718                          8:00   -       YAKT    1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time
2719                          9:00   Russia  YAK%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2720                          8:00   Russia  YAK%sT  1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2721                          9:00   Russia  YAK%sT  2004
2722                         10:00   Russia  VLA%sT  2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2723                         11:00   -       VLAT    2011 Sep 13  0:00s # Decree 725?
2724                         10:00   -       YAKT    2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2725                          9:00   -       YAKT
2726 
2727 
2728 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
2729 # Asia/Sakhalin covers...
2730 # 65    RU-SAK  Sakhalin Oblast
2731 # ...with the exception of:
2732 # 65-11 ****    Severo-Kurilsky District (North Kuril Islands)
2733 





2734 # The Zone name should be Asia/Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, but that's too long.
2735 Zone Asia/Sakhalin       9:30:48 -      LMT     1905 Aug 23
2736                          9:00   -       JCST    1937 Oct  1
2737                          9:00   -       JST     1945 Aug 25
2738                         11:00   Russia  SAK%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s # Sakhalin T
2739                         10:00   Russia  SAK%sT  1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2740                         11:00   Russia  SAK%sT  1997 Mar lastSun  2:00s
2741                         10:00   Russia  SAK%sT  2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2742                         11:00   -       SAKT    2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2743                         10:00   -       SAKT

2744 
2745 
2746 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
2747 # Asia/Magadan covers...
2748 # 49    RU-MAG  Magadan Oblast
2749 
2750 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02):
2751 # Magadan Oblast is moving from UTC+12 to UTC+10 on 2014-10-26; however,
2752 # several districts of Sakha Republic as well as Severo-Kurilsky District of
2753 # the Sakhalin Oblast (also known as the North Kuril Islands), represented
2754 # until now by Asia/Magadan, will instead move to UTC+11.  These regions will
2755 # need their own zone.
2756 








2757 Zone Asia/Magadan       10:03:12 -      LMT     1924 May  2
2758                         10:00   -       MAGT    1930 Jun 21 # Magadan Time
2759                         11:00   Russia  MAG%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2760                         10:00   Russia  MAG%sT  1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2761                         11:00   Russia  MAG%sT  2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2762                         12:00   -       MAGT    2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2763                         10:00   -       MAGT

2764 
2765 
2766 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
2767 # Asia/Srednekolymsk covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
2768 # 14-01 ****    Abyysky District
2769 # 14-03 ****    Allaikhovsky District
2770 # 14-08 ****    Verkhnekolymsky District
2771 # 14-17 ****    Momsky District
2772 # 14-20 ****    Nizhnekolymsky District
2773 # 14-25 ****    Srednekolymsky District
2774 #
2775 # ...and parts of (65, RU-SAK) Sakhalin Oblast:
2776 # 65-11 ****    Severo-Kurilsky District (North Kuril Islands)
2777 
2778 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-02):
2779 # Oymyakonsky District of Sakha Republic (represented by Ust-Nera), along with
2780 # most of Sakhalin Oblast (represented by Sakhalin) will be moving to UTC+10 on
2781 # 2014-10-26 to stay aligned with VLAT/SAKT; however, Severo-Kurilsky District
2782 # of the Sakhalin Oblast (also known as the North Kuril Islands, represented by
2783 # Severo-Kurilsk) will remain on UTC+11.
2784 
2785 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
2786 # Assume North Kuril Islands have history like Magadan before 2011-03-27.
2787 # There is a decent chance this is wrong, in which case a new zone
2788 # Asia/Severo-Kurilsk would become necessary.
2789 #
2790 # Srednekolymsk and Zyryanka are the most populous places amongst these
2791 # districts, but have very similar populations.  In fact, Wikipedia currently
2792 # lists them both as having 3528 people, exactly 1668 males and 1860 females
2793 # each!  (Yikes!)
2794 # http://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Srednekolymsky_District&oldid=603435276
2795 # http://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Verkhnekolymsky_District&oldid=594378493
2796 # Assume this is a mistake, albeit an amusing one.
2797 #
2798 # Looking at censuses, the populations of the two municipalities seem to have
2799 # fluctuated recently.  Zyryanka was more populous than Srednekolymsk in the
2800 # 1989 and 2002 censuses, but Srednekolymsk was more populous in the most
2801 # recent (2010) census, 3525 to 3170.  (See pages 195 and 197 of
2802 # http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/Documents/Vol1/pub-01-05.pdf
2803 # in Russian.)  In addition, Srednekolymsk appears to be a much older
2804 # settlement and the population of Zyryanka seems to be declining.
2805 # Go with Srednekolymsk.
2806 #
2807 # Since Magadan Oblast moves to UTC+10 on 2014-10-26, we cannot keep using MAGT
2808 # as the abbreviation.  Use SRET instead.
2809 
2810 Zone Asia/Srednekolymsk 10:14:52 -      LMT     1924 May  2
2811                         10:00   -       MAGT    1930 Jun 21 # Magadan Time
2812                         11:00   Russia  MAG%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2813                         10:00   Russia  MAG%sT  1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2814                         11:00   Russia  MAG%sT  2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2815                         12:00   -       MAGT    2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2816                         11:00   -       SRET    # Srednekolymsk Time
2817 
2818 
2819 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
2820 # Asia/Ust-Nera covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
2821 # 14-22 ****    Oymyakonsky District
2822 
2823 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09):
2824 # Ojmyakonskij [and the Kuril Islands] switched from
2825 # Magadan time to Vladivostok time in 2011.
2826 #
2827 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02):
2828 # It's unlikely that any of the Kuril Islands were involved in such a switch,
2829 # as the South and Middle Kurils have been on UTC+11 (SAKT) with the rest of
2830 # Sakhalin Oblast since at least 2011-09, and the North Kurils have been on
2831 # UTC+12 since at least then, too.
2832 
2833 Zone Asia/Ust-Nera       9:32:54 -      LMT     1919 Dec 15
2834                          8:00   -       YAKT    1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time
2835                          9:00   Russia  YAKT    1981 Apr  1
2836                         11:00   Russia  MAG%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2837                         10:00   Russia  MAG%sT  1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2838                         11:00   Russia  MAG%sT  2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2839                         12:00   -       MAGT    2011 Sep 13  0:00s # Decree 725?
2840                         11:00   -       VLAT    2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2841                         10:00   -       VLAT
2842 
2843 
2844 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
2845 # Asia/Kamchatka covers...
2846 # 91    RU-KAM  Kamchatka Krai
2847 #
2848 # Note: Effective 2007-07-01, (41) Kamchatka Oblast and (82) Koryak
2849 # Autonomous Okrug merged to form (91, RU-KAM) Kamchatka Krai.
2850 
2851 # The Zone name should be Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski or perhaps
2852 # Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, but these are too long.
2853 Zone Asia/Kamchatka     10:34:36 -      LMT     1922 Nov 10
2854                         11:00   -       PETT    1930 Jun 21 # P-K Time
2855                         12:00   Russia  PET%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2856                         11:00   Russia  PET%sT  1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2857                         12:00   Russia  PET%sT  2010 Mar 28  2:00s
2858                         11:00   Russia  PET%sT  2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2859                         12:00   -       PETT
2860 
2861 
2862 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
2863 # Asia/Anadyr covers...
2864 # 87    RU-CHU  Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
2865 
2866 Zone Asia/Anadyr        11:49:56 -      LMT     1924 May  2
2867                         12:00   -       ANAT    1930 Jun 21 # Anadyr Time
2868                         13:00   Russia  ANA%sT  1982 Apr  1  0:00s
2869                         12:00   Russia  ANA%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2870                         11:00   Russia  ANA%sT  1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2871                         12:00   Russia  ANA%sT  2010 Mar 28  2:00s
2872                         11:00   Russia  ANA%sT  2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2873                         12:00   -       ANAT
2874 
2875 
2876 # San Marino
2877 # See Europe/Rome.
2878 
2879 # Serbia
2880 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2881 Zone    Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 -       LMT     1884
2882                         1:00    -       CET     1941 Apr 18 23:00
2883                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945
2884                         1:00    -       CET     1945 May  8  2:00s
2885                         1:00    1:00    CEST    1945 Sep 16  2:00s
2886 # Metod Koželj reports that the legal date of
2887 # transition to EU rules was 1982-11-27, for all of Yugoslavia at the time.
2888 # Shanks & Pottenger don't give as much detail, so go with Koželj.
2889                         1:00    -       CET     1982 Nov 27
2890                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
2891 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Ljubljana   # Slovenia
2892 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Podgorica   # Montenegro
2893 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Sarajevo    # Bosnia and Herzegovina
2894 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Skopje      # Macedonia
2895 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Zagreb      # Croatia
2896 
2897 # Slovakia
2898 Link Europe/Prague Europe/Bratislava
2899 
2900 # Slovenia
2901 # See Europe/Belgrade.
2902 
2903 # Spain
2904 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2905 # For 1917-1919 Whitman gives Apr Sat>=1 - Oct Sat>=1;
2906 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2907 Rule    Spain   1917    only    -       May      5      23:00s  1:00    S
2908 Rule    Spain   1917    1919    -       Oct      6      23:00s  0       -
2909 Rule    Spain   1918    only    -       Apr     15      23:00s  1:00    S
2910 Rule    Spain   1919    only    -       Apr      5      23:00s  1:00    S
2911 # Whitman gives 1921 Feb 28 - Oct 14; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2912 Rule    Spain   1924    only    -       Apr     16      23:00s  1:00    S
2913 # Whitman gives 1924 Oct 14; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2914 Rule    Spain   1924    only    -       Oct      4      23:00s  0       -
2915 Rule    Spain   1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00s  1:00    S
2916 # Whitman says no DST in 1929; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2917 Rule    Spain   1926    1929    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
2918 Rule    Spain   1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00s  1:00    S
2919 Rule    Spain   1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00s  1:00    S
2920 Rule    Spain   1929    only    -       Apr     20      23:00s  1:00    S
2921 # Whitman gives 1937 Jun 16, 1938 Apr 16, 1940 Apr 13;
2922 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2923 Rule    Spain   1937    only    -       May     22      23:00s  1:00    S
2924 Rule    Spain   1937    1939    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
2925 Rule    Spain   1938    only    -       Mar     22      23:00s  1:00    S
2926 Rule    Spain   1939    only    -       Apr     15      23:00s  1:00    S
2927 Rule    Spain   1940    only    -       Mar     16      23:00s  1:00    S
2928 # Whitman says no DST 1942-1945; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2929 Rule    Spain   1942    only    -       May      2      22:00s  2:00    M # Midsummer
2930 Rule    Spain   1942    only    -       Sep      1      22:00s  1:00    S
2931 Rule    Spain   1943    1946    -       Apr     Sat>=13      22:00s  2:00    M
2932 Rule    Spain   1943    only    -       Oct      3      22:00s  1:00    S
2933 Rule    Spain   1944    only    -       Oct     10      22:00s  1:00    S
2934 Rule    Spain   1945    only    -       Sep     30       1:00   1:00    S
2935 Rule    Spain   1946    only    -       Sep     30       0:00   0       -
2936 Rule    Spain   1949    only    -       Apr     30      23:00   1:00    S
2937 Rule    Spain   1949    only    -       Sep     30       1:00   0       -
2938 Rule    Spain   1974    1975    -       Apr     Sat>=13      23:00   1:00    S
2939 Rule    Spain   1974    1975    -       Oct     Sun>=1        1:00   0       -
2940 Rule    Spain   1976    only    -       Mar     27      23:00   1:00    S
2941 Rule    Spain   1976    1977    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00   0       -
2942 Rule    Spain   1977    1978    -       Apr      2      23:00   1:00    S
2943 Rule    Spain   1978    only    -       Oct      1       1:00   0       -
2944 # The following rules are copied from Morocco from 1967 through 1978.
2945 Rule SpainAfrica 1967   only    -       Jun      3      12:00   1:00    S
2946 Rule SpainAfrica 1967   only    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       -
2947 Rule SpainAfrica 1974   only    -       Jun     24       0:00   1:00    S
2948 Rule SpainAfrica 1974   only    -       Sep      1       0:00   0       -
2949 Rule SpainAfrica 1976   1977    -       May      1       0:00   1:00    S
2950 Rule SpainAfrica 1976   only    -       Aug      1       0:00   0       -
2951 Rule SpainAfrica 1977   only    -       Sep     28       0:00   0       -
2952 Rule SpainAfrica 1978   only    -       Jun      1       0:00   1:00    S
2953 Rule SpainAfrica 1978   only    -       Aug      4       0:00   0       -
2954 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2955 Zone    Europe/Madrid   -0:14:44 -      LMT     1901 Jan  1  0:00s
2956                          0:00   Spain   WE%sT   1946 Sep 30
2957                          1:00   Spain   CE%sT   1979
2958                          1:00   EU      CE%sT
2959 Zone    Africa/Ceuta    -0:21:16 -      LMT     1901
2960                          0:00   -       WET     1918 May  6 23:00
2961                          0:00   1:00    WEST    1918 Oct  7 23:00
2962                          0:00   -       WET     1924
2963                          0:00   Spain   WE%sT   1929
2964                          0:00 SpainAfrica WE%sT 1984 Mar 16
2965                          1:00   -       CET     1986
2966                          1:00   EU      CE%sT
2967 Zone    Atlantic/Canary -1:01:36 -      LMT     1922 Mar # Las Palmas de Gran C.
2968                         -1:00   -       CANT    1946 Sep 30  1:00 # Canaries T
2969                          0:00   -       WET     1980 Apr  6  0:00s
2970                          0:00   1:00    WEST    1980 Sep 28  1:00u
2971                          0:00   EU      WE%sT
2972 # IATA SSIM (1996-09) says the Canaries switch at 2:00u, not 1:00u.
2973 # Ignore this for now, as the Canaries are part of the EU.
2974 
2975 # Sweden
2976 
2977 # From Ivan Nilsson (2001-04-13), superseding Shanks & Pottenger:
2978 #
2979 # The law "Svensk författningssamling 1878, no 14" about standard time in 1879:
2980 # From the beginning of 1879 (that is 01-01 00:00) the time for all
2981 # places in the country is "the mean solar time for the meridian at
2982 # three degrees, or twelve minutes of time, to the west of the
2983 # meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm".  The law is dated 1878-05-31.
2984 #
2985 # The observatory at that time had the meridian 18 degrees 03' 30"
2986 # eastern longitude = 01:12:14 in time.  Less 12 minutes gives the
2987 # national standard time as 01:00:14 ahead of GMT....
2988 #
2989 # About the beginning of CET in Sweden. The lawtext ("Svensk
2990 # författningssamling 1899, no 44") states, that "from the beginning
2991 # of 1900... ... the same as the mean solar time for the meridian at
2992 # the distance of one hour of time from the meridian of the English
2993 # observatory at Greenwich, or at 12 minutes 14 seconds to the west
2994 # from the meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm". The law is dated
2995 # 1899-06-16.  In short: At 1900-01-01 00:00:00 the new standard time
2996 # in Sweden is 01:00:00 ahead of GMT.
2997 #
2998 # 1916: The lawtext ("Svensk författningssamling 1916, no 124") states
2999 # that "1916-05-15 is considered to begin one hour earlier". It is
3000 # pretty obvious that at 05-14 23:00 the clocks are set to 05-15 00:00....
3001 # Further the law says, that "1916-09-30 is considered to end one hour later".
3002 #
3003 # The laws regulating [DST] are available on the site of the Swedish
3004 # Parliament beginning with 1985 - the laws regulating 1980/1984 are
3005 # not available on the site (to my knowledge they are only available
3006 # in Swedish): <http://www.riksdagen.se/english/work/sfst.asp> (type
3007 # "sommartid" without the quotes in the field "Fritext" and then click
3008 # the Sök-button).
3009 #
3010 # (2001-05-13):
3011 #
3012 # I have now found a newspaper stating that at 1916-10-01 01:00
3013 # summertime the church-clocks etc were set back one hour to show
3014 # 1916-10-01 00:00 standard time.  The article also reports that some
3015 # people thought the switch to standard time would take place already
3016 # at 1916-10-01 00:00 summer time, but they had to wait for another
3017 # hour before the event took place.
3018 #
3019 # Source: The newspaper "Dagens Nyheter", 1916-10-01, page 7 upper left.
3020 
3021 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3022 Zone Europe/Stockholm   1:12:12 -       LMT     1879 Jan  1
3023                         1:00:14 -       SET     1900 Jan  1 # Swedish Time
3024                         1:00    -       CET     1916 May 14 23:00
3025                         1:00    1:00    CEST    1916 Oct  1  1:00
3026                         1:00    -       CET     1980
3027                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
3028 
3029 # Switzerland
3030 # From Howse:
3031 # By the end of the 18th century clocks and watches became commonplace
3032 # and their performance improved enormously.  Communities began to keep
3033 # mean time in preference to apparent time - Geneva from 1780 ....
3034 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3035 # From Whitman (who writes "Midnight?"):
3036 # Rule  Swiss   1940    only    -       Nov      2      0:00    1:00    S
3037 # Rule  Swiss   1940    only    -       Dec     31      0:00    0       -
3038 # From Shanks & Pottenger:
3039 # Rule  Swiss   1941    1942    -       May     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    S
3040 # Rule  Swiss   1941    1942    -       Oct     Sun>=1       0:00    0       -
3041 
3042 # From Alois Treindl (2008-12-17):
3043 # I have researched the DST usage in Switzerland during the 1940ies.
3044 #
3045 # As I wrote in an earlier message, I suspected the current tzdata values
3046 # to be wrong. This is now verified.
3047 #
3048 # I have found copies of the original ruling by the Swiss Federal
3049 # government, in 'Eidgenössische Gesetzessammlung 1941 and 1942' (Swiss
3050 # federal law collection)...
3051 #
3052 # DST began on Monday 5 May 1941, 1:00 am by shifting the clocks to 2:00 am
3053 # DST ended on Monday 6 Oct 1941, 2:00 am by shifting the clocks to 1:00 am.
3054 #
3055 # DST began on Monday, 4 May 1942 at 01:00 am
3056 # DST ended on Monday, 5 Oct 1942 at 02:00 am
3057 #
3058 # There was no DST in 1940, I have checked the law collection carefully.
3059 # It is also indicated by the fact that the 1942 entry in the law
3060 # collection points back to 1941 as a reference, but no reference to any
3061 # other years are made.
3062 #
3063 # Newspaper articles I have read in the archives on 6 May 1941 reported
3064 # about the introduction of DST (Sommerzeit in German) during the previous
3065 # night as an absolute novelty, because this was the first time that such
3066 # a thing had happened in Switzerland.
3067 #
3068 # I have also checked 1916, because one book source (Gabriel, Traité de
3069 # l'heure dans le monde) claims that Switzerland had DST in 1916. This is
3070 # false, no official document could be found. Probably Gabriel got misled
3071 # by references to Germany, which introduced DST in 1916 for the first time.
3072 #
3073 # The tzdata rules for Switzerland must be changed to:
3074 # Rule  Swiss   1941    1942    -       May     Mon>=1  1:00    1:00    S
3075 # Rule  Swiss   1941    1942    -       Oct     Mon>=1  2:00    0       -
3076 #
3077 # The 1940 rules must be deleted.
3078 #
3079 # One further detail for Switzerland, which is probably out of scope for
3080 # most users of tzdata: The [Europe/Zurich zone] ...
3081 # describes all of Switzerland correctly, with the exception of
3082 # the Canton de Genève (Geneva, Genf). Between 1848 and 1894 Geneva did not
3083 # follow Bern Mean Time but kept its own local mean time.
3084 # To represent this, an extra zone would be needed.
3085 #
3086 # From Alois Treindl (2013-09-11):
3087 # The Federal regulations say
3088 # http://www.admin.ch/opc/de/classified-compilation/20071096/index.html
3089 # ... the meridian for Bern mean time ... is 7 degrees 26' 22.50".
3090 # Expressed in time, it is 0h29m45.5s.
3091 
3092 # From Pierre-Yves Berger (2013-09-11):
3093 # the "Circulaire du conseil fédéral" (December 11 1893)
3094 # http://www.amtsdruckschriften.bar.admin.ch/viewOrigDoc.do?id=10071353
3095 # clearly states that the [1894-06-01] change should be done at midnight
3096 # but if no one is present after 11 at night, could be postponed until one
3097 # hour before the beginning of service.
3098 
3099 # From Paul Eggert (2013-09-11):
3100 # Round BMT to the nearest even second, 0:29:46.
3101 #
3102 # We can find no reliable source for Shanks's assertion that all of Switzerland
3103 # except Geneva switched to Bern Mean Time at 00:00 on 1848-09-12.  This book:
3104 #
3105 #       Jakob Messerli. Gleichmässig, pünktlich, schnell. Zeiteinteilung und
3106 #       Zeitgebrauch in der Schweiz im 19. Jahrhundert. Chronos, Zurich 1995,
3107 #       ISBN 3-905311-68-2, OCLC 717570797.
3108 #
3109 # suggests that the transition was more gradual, and that the Swiss did not
3110 # agree about civil time during the transition.  The timekeeping it gives the
3111 # most detail for is postal and telegraph time: here, federal legislation (the
3112 # "Bundesgesetz über die Erstellung von elektrischen Telegraphen") passed on
3113 # 1851-11-23, and an official implementation notice was published 1853-07-16
3114 # (Bundesblatt 1853, Bd. II, S. 859).  On p 72 Messerli writes that in
3115 # practice since July 1853 Bernese time was used in "all postal and telegraph
3116 # offices in Switzerland from Geneva to St. Gallen and Basel to Chiasso"
3117 # (Google translation).  For now, model this transition as occurring on
3118 # 1853-07-16, though it probably occurred at some other date in Zurich, and
3119 # legal civil time probably changed at still some other transition date.
3120 
3121 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3122 Rule    Swiss   1941    1942    -       May     Mon>=1       1:00    1:00    S
3123 Rule    Swiss   1941    1942    -       Oct     Mon>=1       2:00    0       -
3124 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3125 Zone    Europe/Zurich   0:34:08 -       LMT     1853 Jul 16 # See above comment.
3126                         0:29:46 -       BMT     1894 Jun    # Bern Mean Time
3127                         1:00    Swiss   CE%sT   1981
3128                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
3129 
3130 # Turkey
3131 
3132 # From Amar Devegowda (2007-01-03):
3133 # The time zone rules for Istanbul, Turkey have not been changed for years now.
3134 # ... The latest rules are available at:
3135 # http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/timezone.html?n=107
3136 # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-01-03):
3137 # I have been able to find press records back to 1996 which all say that
3138 # DST started 01:00 local time and end at 02:00 local time.  I am not sure
3139 # what happened before that.  One example for each year from 1996 to 2001:
3140 # http://newspot.byegm.gov.tr/arsiv/1996/21/N4.htm
3141 # http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING97/03/97X03X25.TXT
3142 # http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING98/03/98X03X02.HTM
3143 # http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING99/10/99X10X26.HTM#%2016
3144 # http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING2000/03/00X03X06.HTM#%2021
3145 # http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING2001/03/23x03x01.HTM#%2027
3146 # From Paul Eggert (2007-01-03):
3147 # Prefer the above source to Shanks & Pottenger for time stamps after 1990.
3148 
3149 # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-03-09):
3150 # Starting 2007 though, it seems that they are adopting EU's 1:00 UTC
3151 # start/end time, according to the following page (2007-03-07):
3152 # http://www.ntvmsnbc.com/news/402029.asp
3153 # The official document is located here - it is in Turkish...:
3154 # http://rega.basbakanlik.gov.tr/eskiler/2007/03/20070307-7.htm
3155 # I was able to locate the following seemingly official document
3156 # (on a non-government server though) describing dates between 2002 and 2006:
3157 # http://www.alomaliye.com/bkk_2002_3769.htm
3158 
3159 # From Gökdeniz Karadağ (2011-03-10):
3160 # According to the articles linked below, Turkey will change into summer
3161 # time zone (GMT+3) on March 28, 2011 at 3:00 a.m. instead of March 27.
3162 # This change is due to a nationwide exam on 27th.
3163 # http://www.worldbulletin.net/?aType=haber&ArticleID=70872
3164 # Turkish:
3165 # http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ekonomi/17230464.asp?gid=373
3166 
3167 # From Faruk Pasin (2014-02-14):
3168 # The DST for Turkey has been changed for this year because of the
3169 # Turkish Local election....
3170 # http://www.sabah.com.tr/Ekonomi/2014/02/12/yaz-saatinde-onemli-degisiklik
3171 # ... so Turkey will move clocks forward one hour on March 31 at 3:00 a.m.
3172 # From Randal L. Schwartz (2014-04-15):
3173 # Having landed on a flight from the states to Istanbul (via AMS) on March 31,
3174 # I can tell you that NOBODY (even the airlines) respected this timezone DST
3175 # change delay.  Maybe the word just didn't get out in time.
3176 # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-15):
3177 # The press reported massive confusion, as election officials obeyed the rule
3178 # change but cell phones (and airline baggage systems) did not.  See:
3179 # Kostidis M. Eventful elections in Turkey. Balkan News Agency
3180 # http://www.balkaneu.com/eventful-elections-turkey/ 2014-03-30.
3181 # I guess the best we can do is document the official time.
3182 
3183 # From Fatih (2015-09-29):
3184 # It's officially announced now by the Ministry of Energy.
3185 # Turkey delays winter time to 8th of November 04:00
3186 # http://www.aa.com.tr/tr/turkiye/yaz-saati-uygulamasi-8-kasimda-sona-erecek/362217
3187 #
3188 # From BBC News (2015-10-25):
3189 # Confused Turks are asking "what's the time?" after automatic clocks defied a
3190 # government decision ... "For the next two weeks #Turkey is on EEST... Erdogan
3191 # Engineered Standard Time," said Twitter user @aysekarahasan.
3192 # http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-34631326
3193 
3194 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3195 Rule    Turkey  1916    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S
3196 Rule    Turkey  1916    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
3197 Rule    Turkey  1920    only    -       Mar     28      0:00    1:00    S
3198 Rule    Turkey  1920    only    -       Oct     25      0:00    0       -
3199 Rule    Turkey  1921    only    -       Apr      3      0:00    1:00    S
3200 Rule    Turkey  1921    only    -       Oct      3      0:00    0       -
3201 Rule    Turkey  1922    only    -       Mar     26      0:00    1:00    S
3202 Rule    Turkey  1922    only    -       Oct      8      0:00    0       -
3203 # Whitman gives 1923 Apr 28 - Sep 16 and no DST in 1924-1925;
3204 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
3205 Rule    Turkey  1924    only    -       May     13      0:00    1:00    S
3206 Rule    Turkey  1924    1925    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
3207 Rule    Turkey  1925    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S
3208 Rule    Turkey  1940    only    -       Jun     30      0:00    1:00    S
3209 Rule    Turkey  1940    only    -       Oct      5      0:00    0       -
3210 Rule    Turkey  1940    only    -       Dec      1      0:00    1:00    S
3211 Rule    Turkey  1941    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
3212 Rule    Turkey  1942    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
3213 # Whitman omits the next two transition and gives 1945 Oct 1;
3214 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
3215 Rule    Turkey  1942    only    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       -
3216 Rule    Turkey  1945    only    -       Apr      2      0:00    1:00    S
3217 Rule    Turkey  1945    only    -       Oct      8      0:00    0       -
3218 Rule    Turkey  1946    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    S
3219 Rule    Turkey  1946    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
3220 Rule    Turkey  1947    1948    -       Apr     Sun>=16      0:00    1:00    S
3221 Rule    Turkey  1947    1950    -       Oct     Sun>=2       0:00    0       -
3222 Rule    Turkey  1949    only    -       Apr     10      0:00    1:00    S
3223 Rule    Turkey  1950    only    -       Apr     19      0:00    1:00    S
3224 Rule    Turkey  1951    only    -       Apr     22      0:00    1:00    S
3225 Rule    Turkey  1951    only    -       Oct      8      0:00    0       -
3226 Rule    Turkey  1962    only    -       Jul     15      0:00    1:00    S
3227 Rule    Turkey  1962    only    -       Oct      8      0:00    0       -
3228 Rule    Turkey  1964    only    -       May     15      0:00    1:00    S
3229 Rule    Turkey  1964    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
3230 Rule    Turkey  1970    1972    -       May     Sun>=2       0:00    1:00    S
3231 Rule    Turkey  1970    1972    -       Oct     Sun>=2       0:00    0       -
3232 Rule    Turkey  1973    only    -       Jun      3      1:00    1:00    S
3233 Rule    Turkey  1973    only    -       Nov      4      3:00    0       -
3234 Rule    Turkey  1974    only    -       Mar     31      2:00    1:00    S
3235 Rule    Turkey  1974    only    -       Nov      3      5:00    0       -
3236 Rule    Turkey  1975    only    -       Mar     30      0:00    1:00    S
3237 Rule    Turkey  1975    1976    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       -
3238 Rule    Turkey  1976    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    S
3239 Rule    Turkey  1977    1978    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    S
3240 Rule    Turkey  1977    only    -       Oct     16      0:00    0       -
3241 Rule    Turkey  1979    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1       3:00    1:00    S
3242 Rule    Turkey  1979    1982    -       Oct     Mon>=11      0:00    0       -
3243 Rule    Turkey  1981    1982    -       Mar     lastSun 3:00    1:00    S
3244 Rule    Turkey  1983    only    -       Jul     31      0:00    1:00    S
3245 Rule    Turkey  1983    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       -
3246 Rule    Turkey  1985    only    -       Apr     20      0:00    1:00    S
3247 Rule    Turkey  1985    only    -       Sep     28      0:00    0       -
3248 Rule    Turkey  1986    1990    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    S
3249 Rule    Turkey  1986    1990    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
3250 Rule    Turkey  1991    2006    -       Mar     lastSun 1:00s   1:00    S
3251 Rule    Turkey  1991    1995    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00s   0       -
3252 Rule    Turkey  1996    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 1:00s   0       -
3253 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3254 Zone    Europe/Istanbul 1:55:52 -       LMT     1880
3255                         1:56:56 -       IMT     1910 Oct # Istanbul Mean Time?
3256                         2:00    Turkey  EE%sT   1978 Oct 15
3257                         3:00    Turkey  TR%sT   1985 Apr 20 # Turkey Time
3258                         2:00    Turkey  EE%sT   2007
3259                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   2011 Mar 27  1:00u
3260                         2:00    -       EET     2011 Mar 28  1:00u
3261                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   2014 Mar 30  1:00u
3262                         2:00    -       EET     2014 Mar 31  1:00u
3263                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   2015 Oct 25  1:00u
3264                         2:00    1:00    EEST    2015 Nov  8  1:00u
3265                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
3266 Link    Europe/Istanbul Asia/Istanbul   # Istanbul is in both continents.
3267 
3268 # Ukraine
3269 #
3270 # From Igor Karpov, who works for the Ukrainian Ministry of Justice,
3271 # via Garrett Wollman (2003-01-27):
3272 # BTW, I've found the official document on this matter. It's government
3273 # regulations No. 509, May 13, 1996. In my poor translation it says:
3274 # "Time in Ukraine is set to second timezone (Kiev time). Each last Sunday
3275 # of March at 3am the time is changing to 4am and each last Sunday of
3276 # October the time at 4am is changing to 3am"
3277 
3278 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-09-20):
3279 # On September 20, 2011 the deputies of the Verkhovna Rada agreed to
3280 # abolish the transfer clock to winter time.
3281 #
3282 # Bill No. 8330 of MP from the Party of Regions Oleg Nadoshi got
3283 # approval from 266 deputies.
3284 #
3285 # Ukraine abolishes transfer back to the winter time (in Russian)
3286 # http://news.mail.ru/politics/6861560/
3287 #
3288 # The Ukrainians will no longer change the clock (in Russian)
3289 # http://www.segodnya.ua/news/14290482.html
3290 #
3291 # Deputies cancelled the winter time (in Russian)
3292 # http://www.pravda.com.ua/rus/news/2011/09/20/6600616/
3293 #
3294 # From Philip Pizzey (2011-10-18):
3295 # Today my Ukrainian colleagues have informed me that the
3296 # Ukrainian parliament have decided that they will go to winter
3297 # time this year after all.
3298 #
3299 # From Udo Schwedt (2011-10-18):
3300 # As far as I understand, the recent change to the Ukrainian time zone
3301 # (Europe/Kiev) to introduce permanent daylight saving time (similar
3302 # to Russia) was reverted today:
3303 # http://portal.rada.gov.ua/rada/control/en/publish/article/info_left?art_id=287324&cat_id=105995
3304 #
3305 # Also reported by Alexander Bokovoy (2011-10-18) who also noted:
3306 # The law documents themselves are at
3307 # http://w1.c1.rada.gov.ua/pls/zweb_n/webproc4_1?id=&pf3511=41484
3308 
3309 # From Vladimir in Moscow via Alois Treindl re Kiev time 1991/2 (2014-02-28):
3310 # First in Ukraine they changed Time zone from UTC+3 to UTC+2 with DST:
3311 #       03 25 1990 02:00 -03.00 1       Time Zone 3 with DST
3312 #       07 01 1990 02:00 -02.00 1       Time Zone 2 with DST
3313 # * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 18.06.1990, No. 134.
3314 # http://search.ligazakon.ua/l_doc2.nsf/link1/T001500.html
3315 #
3316 # They did not end DST in September, 1990 (according to the law,
3317 # "summer time" was still in action):
3318 #       09 30 1990 03:00 -02.00 1       Time Zone 2 with DST
3319 # * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 21.09.1990, No. 272.
3320 # http://search.ligazakon.ua/l_doc2.nsf/link1/KP900272.html
3321 #
3322 # Again no change in March, 1991 ("summer time" in action):
3323 #       03 31 1991 02:00 -02.00 1       Time Zone 2 with DST
3324 #
3325 # DST ended in September 1991 ("summer time" ended):
3326 #       09 29 1991 03:00 -02.00 0       Time Zone 2, no DST
3327 # * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 25.09.1991, No. 225.
3328 # http://www.uazakon.com/documents/date_21/pg_iwgdoc.htm
3329 # This is an answer.
3330 #
3331 # Since 1992 they had normal DST procedure:
3332 #       03 29 1992 02:00 -02.00 1       DST started
3333 #       09 27 1992 03:00 -02.00 0       DST ended
3334 # * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 20.03.1992, No. 139.
3335 # http://www.uazakon.com/documents/date_8u/pg_grcasa.htm
3336 
3337 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3338 # Most of Ukraine since 1970 has been like Kiev.
3339 # "Kyiv" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but
3340 # "Kiev" is more common in English.
3341 Zone Europe/Kiev        2:02:04 -       LMT     1880
3342                         2:02:04 -       KMT     1924 May  2 # Kiev Mean Time
3343                         2:00    -       EET     1930 Jun 21
3344                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Sep 20
3345                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1943 Nov  6
3346                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990 Jul  1  2:00
3347                         2:00    1:00    EEST    1991 Sep 29  3:00
3348                         2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1995
3349                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
3350 # Ruthenia used CET 1990/1991.
3351 # "Uzhhorod" is the transliteration of the Rusyn/Ukrainian pronunciation, but
3352 # "Uzhgorod" is more common in English.
3353 Zone Europe/Uzhgorod    1:29:12 -       LMT     1890 Oct
3354                         1:00    -       CET     1940
3355                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Oct
3356                         1:00    1:00    CEST    1944 Oct 26
3357                         1:00    -       CET     1945 Jun 29
3358                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990
3359                         3:00    -       MSK     1990 Jul  1  2:00
3360                         1:00    -       CET     1991 Mar 31  3:00
3361                         2:00    -       EET     1992
3362                         2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1995
3363                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
3364 # Zaporozh'ye and eastern Lugansk oblasts observed DST 1990/1991.
3365 # "Zaporizhia" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but
3366 # "Zaporozh'ye" is more common in English.  Use the common English
3367 # spelling, except omit the apostrophe as it is not allowed in
3368 # portable Posix file names.
3369 Zone Europe/Zaporozhye  2:20:40 -       LMT     1880
3370                         2:20    -       CUT     1924 May  2 # Central Ukraine T
3371                         2:00    -       EET     1930 Jun 21
3372                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Aug 25
3373                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1943 Oct 25
3374                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31  2:00
3375                         2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1995
3376                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
3377 
3378 # Vatican City
3379 # See Europe/Rome.
3380 
3381 ###############################################################################
3382 
3383 # One source shows that Bulgaria, Cyprus, Finland, and Greece observe DST from
3384 # the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in September in 1986.
3385 # The source shows Romania changing a day later than everybody else.
3386 #
3387 # According to Bernard Sieloff's source, Poland is in the MET time zone but
3388 # uses the WE DST rules.  The Western USSR uses EET+1 and ME DST rules.
3389 # Bernard Sieloff's source claims Romania switches on the same day, but at
3390 # 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST).  It also claims that Turkey
3391 # switches on the same day, but switches on at 01:00 standard time
3392 # and off at 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST)
3393 
3394 # ...
3395 # Date: Wed, 28 Jan 87 16:56:27 -0100
3396 # From: Tom Hofmann
3397 # ...
3398 #
3399 # ...the European time rules are...standardized since 1981, when
3400 # most European countries started DST.  Before that year, only
3401 # a few countries (UK, France, Italy) had DST, each according
3402 # to own national rules.  In 1981, however, DST started on
3403 # 'Apr firstSun', and not on 'Mar lastSun' as in the following
3404 # years...
3405 # But also since 1981 there are some more national exceptions
3406 # than listed in 'europe': Switzerland, for example, joined DST
3407 # one year later, Denmark ended DST on 'Oct 1' instead of 'Sep
3408 # lastSun' in 1981 - I don't know how they handle now.
3409 #
3410 # Finally, DST ist always from 'Apr 1' to 'Oct 1' in the
3411 # Soviet Union (as far as I know).
3412 #
3413 # Tom Hofmann, Scientific Computer Center, CIBA-GEIGY AG,
3414 # 4002 Basle, Switzerland
3415 # ...
3416 
3417 # ...
3418 # Date: Wed, 4 Feb 87 22:35:22 +0100
3419 # From: Dik T. Winter
3420 # ...
3421 #
3422 # The information from Tom Hofmann is (as far as I know) not entirely correct.
3423 # After a request from chongo at amdahl I tried to retrieve all information
3424 # about DST in Europe.  I was able to find all from about 1969.
3425 #
3426 # ...standardization on DST in Europe started in about 1977 with switches on
3427 # first Sunday in April and last Sunday in September...
3428 # In 1981 UK joined Europe insofar that
3429 # the starting day for both shifted to last Sunday in March.  And from 1982
3430 # the whole of Europe used DST, with switch dates April 1 and October 1 in
3431 # the Sov[i]et Union.  In 1985 the SU reverted to standard Europe[a]n switch
3432 # dates...
3433 #
3434 # It should also be remembered that time-zones are not constants; e.g.
3435 # Portugal switched in 1976 from MET (or CET) to WET with DST...
3436 # Note also that though there were rules for switch dates not
3437 # all countries abided to these dates, and many individual deviations
3438 # occurred, though not since 1982 I believe.  Another note: it is always
3439 # assumed that DST is 1 hour ahead of normal time, this need not be the
3440 # case; at least in the Netherlands there have been times when DST was 2 hours
3441 # in advance of normal time.
3442 #
3443 # ...
3444 # dik t. winter, cwi, amsterdam, nederland
3445 # ...
3446 
3447 # From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
3448 # ...
3449 # Greece: Last Sunday in April to last Sunday in September (iffy on dates).
3450 # Since 1978.  Change at midnight.
3451 # ...
3452 # Monaco: has same DST as France.
3453 # ...
--- EOF ---