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   7 # particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
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   9 #
  10 # This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  11 # ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  12 # FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  13 # version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  14 # accompanied this code).
  15 #
  16 # You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  17 # 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  18 # Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  19 #
  20 # Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  21 # or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  22 # questions.
  23 #
  24 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
  25 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
  26 
  27 # This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
  28 # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
  29 # tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
  30 # the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
  31 
  32 # From Paul Eggert (2014-10-31):
  33 #
  34 # Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:
  35 # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
  36 # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
  37 # Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.
  38 #
  39 # Gwillim Law writes that a good source
  40 # for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
  41 # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
  42 # published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
  43 # of the IATA's data after 1990.  Except where otherwise noted,
  44 # IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.
  45 #
  46 # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
  47 # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
  48 #
  49 # Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for
  50 # entries through 1991, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.
  51 #
  52 # Other sources occasionally used include:
  53 #
  54 #       Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
  55 #       Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated),
  56 #       which I found in the UCLA library.
  57 #
  58 #       William Willett, The Waste of Daylight, 19th edition
  59 #       <http://cs.ucla.edu/~eggert/The-Waste-of-Daylight-19th.pdf>
  60 #       [PDF] (1914-03)
  61 #
  62 #       Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94
  63 #       <http://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359>.  He writes:
  64 #       "It is requested that corrections and additions to these tables
  65 #       may be sent to Mr. John Milne, Royal Geographical Society,
  66 #       Savile Row, London."  Nowadays please email them to tz@iana.org.
  67 #
  68 #       Byalokoz EL. New Counting of Time in Russia since July 1, 1919.
  69 #       This Russian-language source was consulted by Vladimir Karpinsky; see
  70 #       http://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2014-August/021320.html
  71 #       The full Russian citation is:
  72 #       Бялокоз, Евгений Людвигович. Новый счет времени в течении суток
  73 #       введенный декретом Совета народных комиссаров для всей России с 1-го
  74 #       июля 1919 г. / Изд. 2-е Междуведомственной комиссии. - Петроград:
  75 #       Десятая гос. тип., 1919.
  76 #       http://resolver.gpntb.ru/purl?docushare/dsweb/Get/Resource-2011/Byalokoz__E.L.__Novyy__schet__vremeni__v__techenie__sutok__izd__2(1).pdf
  77 #
  78 #       Brazil's Divisão Serviço da Hora (DSHO),
  79 #       History of Summer Time
  80 #       <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HISTHV.htm>
  81 #       (1998-09-21, in Portuguese)
  82 
  83 #
  84 # I invented the abbreviations marked '*' in the following table;
  85 # the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.
  86 # Corrections are welcome!
  87 #                   std dst  2dst
  88 #                   LMT           Local Mean Time
  89 #       -4:00       AST ADT       Atlantic
  90 #       -3:00       WGT WGST      Western Greenland*
  91 #       -1:00       EGT EGST      Eastern Greenland*
  92 #        0:00       GMT BST  BDST Greenwich, British Summer
  93 #        0:00       GMT IST       Greenwich, Irish Summer
  94 #        0:00       WET WEST WEMT Western Europe
  95 #        0:19:32.13 AMT NST       Amsterdam, Netherlands Summer (1835-1937)*
  96 #        0:20       NET NEST      Netherlands (1937-1940)*
  97 #        1:00       BST           British Standard (1968-1971)
  98 #        1:00       CET CEST CEMT Central Europe
  99 #        1:00:14    SET           Swedish (1879-1899)*
 100 #        2:00       EET EEST      Eastern Europe
 101 #        3:00       FET           Further-eastern Europe (2011-2014)*
 102 #        3:00       MSK MSD  MSM* Minsk, Moscow
 103 
 104 # From Peter Ilieve (1994-12-04),
 105 # The original six [EU members]: Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy,
 106 # Luxembourg, the Netherlands.
 107 # Plus, from 1 Jan 73: Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom.
 108 # Plus, from 1 Jan 81: Greece.
 109 # Plus, from 1 Jan 86: Spain, Portugal.
 110 # Plus, from 1 Jan 95: Austria, Finland, Sweden. (Norway negotiated terms for
 111 # entry but in a referendum on 28 Nov 94 the people voted No by 52.2% to 47.8%
 112 # on a turnout of 88.6%. This was almost the same result as Norway's previous
 113 # referendum in 1972, they are the only country to have said No twice.
 114 # Referendums in the other three countries voted Yes.)
 115 # ...
 116 # Estonia ... uses EU dates but not at 01:00 GMT, they use midnight GMT.
 117 # I don't think they know yet what they will do from 1996 onwards.
 118 # ...
 119 # There shouldn't be any [current members who are not using EU rules].
 120 # A Directive has the force of law, member states are obliged to enact
 121 # national law to implement it. The only contentious issue was the
 122 # different end date for the UK and Ireland, and this was always allowed
 123 # in the Directive.
 124 
 125 
 126 ###############################################################################
 127 
 128 # Britain (United Kingdom) and Ireland (Eire)
 129 
 130 # From Peter Ilieve (1994-07-06):
 131 #
 132 # On 17 Jan 1994 the Independent, a UK quality newspaper, had a piece about
 133 # historical vistas along the Thames in west London. There was a photo
 134 # and a sketch map showing some of the sightlines involved. One paragraph
 135 # of the text said:
 136 #
 137 # 'An old stone obelisk marking a forgotten terrestrial meridian stands
 138 # beside the river at Kew. In the 18th century, before time and longitude
 139 # was standardised by the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, scholars observed
 140 # this stone and the movement of stars from Kew Observatory nearby. They
 141 # made their calculations and set the time for the Horse Guards and Parliament,
 142 # but now the stone is obscured by scrubwood and can only be seen by walking
 143 # along the towpath within a few yards of it.'
 144 #
 145 # I have a one inch to one mile map of London and my estimate of the stone's
 146 # position is 51 degrees 28' 30" N, 0 degrees 18' 45" W. The longitude should
 147 # be within about +-2". The Ordnance Survey grid reference is TQ172761.
 148 #
 149 # [This yields GMTOFF = -0:01:15 for London LMT in the 18th century.]
 150 
 151 # From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18):
 152 #
 153 # Howse writes that Britain was the first country to use standard time.
 154 # The railways cared most about the inconsistencies of local mean time,
 155 # and it was they who forced a uniform time on the country.
 156 # The original idea was credited to Dr. William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828)
 157 # and was popularized by Abraham Follett Osler (1808-1903).
 158 # The first railway to adopt London time was the Great Western Railway
 159 # in November 1840; other railways followed suit, and by 1847 most
 160 # (though not all) railways used London time.  On 1847-09-22 the
 161 # Railway Clearing House, an industry standards body, recommended that GMT be
 162 # adopted at all stations as soon as the General Post Office permitted it.
 163 # The transition occurred on 12-01 for the L&NW, the Caledonian,
 164 # and presumably other railways; the January 1848 Bradshaw's lists many
 165 # railways as using GMT.  By 1855 the vast majority of public
 166 # clocks in Britain were set to GMT (though some, like the great clock
 167 # on Tom Tower at Christ Church, Oxford, were fitted with two minute hands,
 168 # one for local time and one for GMT).  The last major holdout was the legal
 169 # system, which stubbornly stuck to local time for many years, leading
 170 # to oddities like polls opening at 08:13 and closing at 16:13.
 171 # The legal system finally switched to GMT when the Statutes (Definition
 172 # of Time) Act took effect; it received the Royal Assent on 1880-08-02.
 173 #
 174 # In the tables below, we condense this complicated story into a single
 175 # transition date for London, namely 1847-12-01.  We don't know as much
 176 # about Dublin, so we use 1880-08-02, the legal transition time.
 177 
 178 # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-19):
 179 # The ancients had no need for daylight saving, as they kept time
 180 # informally or via hours whose length depended on the time of year.
 181 # Daylight saving time in its modern sense was invented by the
 182 # New Zealand entomologist George Vernon Hudson (1867-1946),
 183 # whose day job as a postal clerk led him to value
 184 # after-hours daylight in which to pursue his research.
 185 # In 1895 he presented a paper to the Wellington Philosophical Society
 186 # that proposed a two-hour daylight-saving shift.  See:
 187 # Hudson GV. On seasonal time-adjustment in countries south of lat. 30 deg.
 188 # Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute. 1895;28:734
 189 # http://rsnz.natlib.govt.nz/volume/rsnz_28/rsnz_28_00_006110.html
 190 # Although some interest was expressed in New Zealand, his proposal
 191 # did not find its way into law and eventually it was almost forgotten.
 192 #
 193 # In England, DST was independently reinvented by William Willett (1857-1915),
 194 # a London builder and member of the Royal Astronomical Society
 195 # who circulated a pamphlet "The Waste of Daylight" (1907)
 196 # that proposed advancing clocks 20 minutes on each of four Sundays in April,
 197 # and retarding them by the same amount on four Sundays in September.
 198 # A bill was drafted in 1909 and introduced in Parliament several times,
 199 # but it met with ridicule and opposition, especially from farming interests.
 200 # Later editions of the pamphlet proposed one-hour summer time, and
 201 # it was eventually adopted as a wartime measure in 1916.
 202 # See: Summer Time Arrives Early, The Times (2000-05-18).
 203 # A monument to Willett was unveiled on 1927-05-21, in an open space in
 204 # a 45-acre wood near Chislehurst, Kent that was purchased by popular
 205 # subscription and open to the public.  On the south face of the monolith,
 206 # designed by G. W. Miller, is the William Willett Memorial Sundial,
 207 # which is permanently set to Summer Time.
 208 
 209 # From Winston Churchill (1934-04-28):
 210 # It is one of the paradoxes of history that we should owe the boon of
 211 # summer time, which gives every year to the people of this country
 212 # between 160 and 170 hours more daylight leisure, to a war which
 213 # plunged Europe into darkness for four years, and shook the
 214 # foundations of civilization throughout the world.
 215 #       -- "A Silent Toast to William Willett", Pictorial Weekly;
 216 #       republished in Finest Hour (Spring 2002) 1(114):26
 217 #       http://www.winstonchurchill.org/images/finesthour/Vol.01%20No.114.pdf
 218 
 219 # From Paul Eggert (2015-08-08):
 220 # The OED Supplement says that the English originally said "Daylight Saving"
 221 # when they were debating the adoption of DST in 1908; but by 1916 this
 222 # term appears only in quotes taken from DST's opponents, whereas the
 223 # proponents (who eventually won the argument) are quoted as using "Summer".
 224 # The term "Summer Time" was introduced by Herbert Samuel, Home Secretary; see:
 225 # Viscount Samuel. Leisure in a Democracy. Cambridge University Press
 226 # ISBN 978-1-107-49471-8 (1949, reissued 2015), p 8.
 227 
 228 # From Arthur David Olson (1989-01-19):
 229 # A source at the British Information Office in New York avers that it's
 230 # known as "British" Summer Time in all parts of the United Kingdom.
 231 
 232 # Date: 4 Jan 89 08:57:25 GMT (Wed)
 233 # From: Jonathan Leffler
 234 # [British Summer Time] is fixed annually by Act of Parliament.
 235 # If you can predict what Parliament will do, you should be in
 236 # politics making a fortune, not computing.
 237 
 238 # From Chris Carrier (1996-06-14):
 239 # I remember reading in various wartime issues of the London Times the
 240 # acronym BDST for British Double Summer Time.  Look for the published
 241 # time of sunrise and sunset in The Times, when BDST was in effect, and
 242 # if you find a zone reference it will say, "All times B.D.S.T."
 243 
 244 # From Joseph S. Myers (1999-09-02):
 245 # ... some military cables (WO 219/4100 - this is a copy from the
 246 # main SHAEF archives held in the US National Archives, SHAEF/5252/8/516)
 247 # agree that the usage is BDST (this appears in a message dated 17 Feb 1945).
 248 
 249 # From Joseph S. Myers (2000-10-03):
 250 # On 18th April 1941, Sir Stephen Tallents of the BBC wrote to Sir
 251 # Alexander Maxwell of the Home Office asking whether there was any
 252 # official designation; the reply of the 21st was that there wasn't
 253 # but he couldn't think of anything better than the "Double British
 254 # Summer Time" that the BBC had been using informally.
 255 # http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/bbc-19410418.png
 256 # http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/ho-19410421.png
 257 
 258 # From Sir Alexander Maxwell in the above-mentioned letter (1941-04-21):
 259 # [N]o official designation has as far as I know been adopted for the time
 260 # which is to be introduced in May....
 261 # I cannot think of anything better than "Double British Summer Time"
 262 # which could not be said to run counter to any official description.
 263 
 264 # From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
 265 # Howse writes (p 157) 'DBST' too, but 'BDST' seems to have been common
 266 # and follows the more usual convention of putting the location name first,
 267 # so we use 'BDST'.
 268 
 269 # Peter Ilieve (1998-04-19) described at length
 270 # the history of summer time legislation in the United Kingdom.
 271 # Since 1998 Joseph S. Myers has been updating
 272 # and extending this list, which can be found in
 273 # http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/
 274 
 275 # From Joseph S. Myers (1998-01-06):
 276 #
 277 # The legal time in the UK outside of summer time is definitely GMT, not UTC;
 278 # see Lord Tanlaw's speech
 279 # http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld199798/ldhansrd/vo970611/text/70611-10.htm#70611-10_head0
 280 # (Lords Hansard 11 June 1997 columns 964 to 976).
 281 
 282 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
 283 #
 284 # For lack of other data, follow Shanks & Pottenger for Eire in 1940-1948.
 285 #
 286 # Given Ilieve and Myers's data, the following claims by Shanks & Pottenger
 287 # are incorrect:
 288 #     * Wales did not switch from GMT to daylight saving time until
 289 #       1921 Apr 3, when they began to conform with the rest of Great Britain.
 290 # Actually, Wales was identical after 1880.
 291 #     * Eire had two transitions on 1916 Oct 1.
 292 # It actually just had one transition.
 293 #     * Northern Ireland used single daylight saving time throughout WW II.
 294 # Actually, it conformed to Britain.
 295 #     * GB-Eire changed standard time to 1 hour ahead of GMT on 1968-02-18.
 296 # Actually, that date saw the usual switch to summer time.
 297 # Standard time was not changed until 1968-10-27 (the clocks didn't change).
 298 #
 299 # Here is another incorrect claim by Shanks & Pottenger:
 300 #     * Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man did not switch from GMT
 301 #       to daylight saving time until 1921 Apr 3, when they began to
 302 #       conform with Great Britain.
 303 # S.R.&O. 1916, No. 382 and HO 45/10811/312364 (quoted above) say otherwise.
 304 #
 305 # The following claim by Shanks & Pottenger is possible though doubtful;
 306 # we'll ignore it for now.
 307 #     * Dublin's 1971-10-31 switch was at 02:00, even though London's was 03:00.
 308 #
 309 #
 310 # Whitman says Dublin Mean Time was -0:25:21, which is more precise than
 311 # Shanks & Pottenger.
 312 # Perhaps this was Dunsink Observatory Time, as Dunsink Observatory
 313 # (8 km NW of Dublin's center) seemingly was to Dublin as Greenwich was
 314 # to London.  For example:
 315 #
 316 #   "Timeball on the ballast office is down.  Dunsink time."
 317 #   -- James Joyce, Ulysses
 318 
 319 # "Countess Markievicz ... claimed that the [1916] abolition of Dublin Mean Time
 320 # was among various actions undertaken by the 'English' government that
 321 # would 'put the whole country into the SF (Sinn Féin) camp'.  She claimed
 322 # Irish 'public feeling (was) outraged by forcing of English time on us'."
 323 # -- Parsons M. Dublin lost its time zone - and 25 minutes - after 1916 Rising.
 324 # Irish Times 2014-10-27.
 325 # http://www.irishtimes.com/news/politics/dublin-lost-its-time-zone-and-25-minutes-after-1916-rising-1.1977411
 326 
 327 # From Joseph S. Myers (2005-01-26):
 328 # Irish laws are available online at <http://www.irishstatutebook.ie>.
 329 # These include various relating to legal time, for example:
 330 #
 331 # ZZA13Y1923.html ZZA12Y1924.html ZZA8Y1925.html ZZSIV20PG1267.html
 332 #
 333 # ZZSI71Y1947.html ZZSI128Y1948.html ZZSI23Y1949.html ZZSI41Y1950.html
 334 # ZZSI27Y1951.html ZZSI73Y1952.html
 335 #
 336 # ZZSI11Y1961.html ZZSI232Y1961.html ZZSI182Y1962.html
 337 # ZZSI167Y1963.html ZZSI257Y1964.html ZZSI198Y1967.html
 338 # ZZA23Y1968.html ZZA17Y1971.html
 339 #
 340 # ZZSI67Y1981.html ZZSI212Y1982.html ZZSI45Y1986.html
 341 # ZZSI264Y1988.html ZZSI52Y1990.html ZZSI371Y1992.html
 342 # ZZSI395Y1994.html ZZSI484Y1997.html ZZSI506Y2001.html
 343 #
 344 # [These are all relative to the root, e.g., the first is
 345 # <http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/ZZA13Y1923.html>.]
 346 #
 347 # (These are those I found, but there could be more.  In any case these
 348 # should allow various updates to the comments in the europe file to cover
 349 # the laws applicable in Ireland.)
 350 #
 351 # (Note that the time in the Republic of Ireland since 1968 has been defined
 352 # in terms of standard time being GMT+1 with a period of winter time when it
 353 # is GMT, rather than standard time being GMT with a period of summer time
 354 # being GMT+1.)
 355 
 356 # From Paul Eggert (1999-03-28):
 357 # Clive Feather (<news:859845706.26043.0@office.demon.net>, 1997-03-31)
 358 # reports that Folkestone (Cheriton) Shuttle Terminal uses Concession Time
 359 # (CT), equivalent to French civil time.
 360 # Julian Hill (<news:36118128.5A14@virgin.net>, 1998-09-30) reports that
 361 # trains between Dollands Moor (the freight facility next door)
 362 # and Frethun run in CT.
 363 # My admittedly uninformed guess is that the terminal has two authorities,
 364 # the French concession operators and the British civil authorities,
 365 # and that the time depends on who you're talking to.
 366 # If, say, the British police were called to the station for some reason,
 367 # I would expect the official police report to use GMT/BST and not CET/CEST.
 368 # This is a borderline case, but for now let's stick to GMT/BST.
 369 
 370 # From an anonymous contributor (1996-06-02):
 371 # The law governing time in Ireland is under Statutory Instrument SI 395/94,
 372 # which gives force to European Union 7th Council Directive No. 94/21/EC.
 373 # Under this directive, the Minister for Justice in Ireland makes appropriate
 374 # regulations. I spoke this morning with the Secretary of the Department of
 375 # Justice (tel +353 1 678 9711) who confirmed to me that the correct name is
 376 # "Irish Summer Time", abbreviated to "IST".
 377 
 378 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 379 # Summer Time Act, 1916
 380 Rule    GB-Eire 1916    only    -       May     21      2:00s   1:00    BST
 381 Rule    GB-Eire 1916    only    -       Oct      1      2:00s   0       GMT
 382 # S.R.&O. 1917, No. 358
 383 Rule    GB-Eire 1917    only    -       Apr      8      2:00s   1:00    BST
 384 Rule    GB-Eire 1917    only    -       Sep     17      2:00s   0       GMT
 385 # S.R.&O. 1918, No. 274
 386 Rule    GB-Eire 1918    only    -       Mar     24      2:00s   1:00    BST
 387 Rule    GB-Eire 1918    only    -       Sep     30      2:00s   0       GMT
 388 # S.R.&O. 1919, No. 297
 389 Rule    GB-Eire 1919    only    -       Mar     30      2:00s   1:00    BST
 390 Rule    GB-Eire 1919    only    -       Sep     29      2:00s   0       GMT
 391 # S.R.&O. 1920, No. 458
 392 Rule    GB-Eire 1920    only    -       Mar     28      2:00s   1:00    BST
 393 # S.R.&O. 1920, No. 1844
 394 Rule    GB-Eire 1920    only    -       Oct     25      2:00s   0       GMT
 395 # S.R.&O. 1921, No. 363
 396 Rule    GB-Eire 1921    only    -       Apr      3      2:00s   1:00    BST
 397 Rule    GB-Eire 1921    only    -       Oct      3      2:00s   0       GMT
 398 # S.R.&O. 1922, No. 264
 399 Rule    GB-Eire 1922    only    -       Mar     26      2:00s   1:00    BST
 400 Rule    GB-Eire 1922    only    -       Oct      8      2:00s   0       GMT
 401 # The Summer Time Act, 1922
 402 Rule    GB-Eire 1923    only    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 403 Rule    GB-Eire 1923    1924    -       Sep     Sun>=16      2:00s   0       GMT
 404 Rule    GB-Eire 1924    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 405 Rule    GB-Eire 1925    1926    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 406 # The Summer Time Act, 1925
 407 Rule    GB-Eire 1925    1938    -       Oct     Sun>=2       2:00s   0       GMT
 408 Rule    GB-Eire 1927    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 409 Rule    GB-Eire 1928    1929    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 410 Rule    GB-Eire 1930    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 411 Rule    GB-Eire 1931    1932    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 412 Rule    GB-Eire 1933    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 413 Rule    GB-Eire 1934    only    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 414 Rule    GB-Eire 1935    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 415 Rule    GB-Eire 1936    1937    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 416 Rule    GB-Eire 1938    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 417 Rule    GB-Eire 1939    only    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 418 # S.R.&O. 1939, No. 1379
 419 Rule    GB-Eire 1939    only    -       Nov     Sun>=16      2:00s   0       GMT
 420 # S.R.&O. 1940, No. 172 and No. 1883
 421 Rule    GB-Eire 1940    only    -       Feb     Sun>=23      2:00s   1:00    BST
 422 # S.R.&O. 1941, No. 476
 423 Rule    GB-Eire 1941    only    -       May     Sun>=2       1:00s   2:00    BDST
 424 Rule    GB-Eire 1941    1943    -       Aug     Sun>=9       1:00s   1:00    BST
 425 # S.R.&O. 1942, No. 506
 426 Rule    GB-Eire 1942    1944    -       Apr     Sun>=2       1:00s   2:00    BDST
 427 # S.R.&O. 1944, No. 932
 428 Rule    GB-Eire 1944    only    -       Sep     Sun>=16      1:00s   1:00    BST
 429 # S.R.&O. 1945, No. 312
 430 Rule    GB-Eire 1945    only    -       Apr     Mon>=2       1:00s   2:00    BDST
 431 Rule    GB-Eire 1945    only    -       Jul     Sun>=9       1:00s   1:00    BST
 432 # S.R.&O. 1945, No. 1208
 433 Rule    GB-Eire 1945    1946    -       Oct     Sun>=2       2:00s   0       GMT
 434 Rule    GB-Eire 1946    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 435 # The Summer Time Act, 1947
 436 Rule    GB-Eire 1947    only    -       Mar     16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 437 Rule    GB-Eire 1947    only    -       Apr     13      1:00s   2:00    BDST
 438 Rule    GB-Eire 1947    only    -       Aug     10      1:00s   1:00    BST
 439 Rule    GB-Eire 1947    only    -       Nov      2      2:00s   0       GMT
 440 # Summer Time Order, 1948 (S.I. 1948/495)
 441 Rule    GB-Eire 1948    only    -       Mar     14      2:00s   1:00    BST
 442 Rule    GB-Eire 1948    only    -       Oct     31      2:00s   0       GMT
 443 # Summer Time Order, 1949 (S.I. 1949/373)
 444 Rule    GB-Eire 1949    only    -       Apr      3      2:00s   1:00    BST
 445 Rule    GB-Eire 1949    only    -       Oct     30      2:00s   0       GMT
 446 # Summer Time Order, 1950 (S.I. 1950/518)
 447 # Summer Time Order, 1951 (S.I. 1951/430)
 448 # Summer Time Order, 1952 (S.I. 1952/451)
 449 Rule    GB-Eire 1950    1952    -       Apr     Sun>=14      2:00s   1:00    BST
 450 Rule    GB-Eire 1950    1952    -       Oct     Sun>=21      2:00s   0       GMT
 451 # revert to the rules of the Summer Time Act, 1925
 452 Rule    GB-Eire 1953    only    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 453 Rule    GB-Eire 1953    1960    -       Oct     Sun>=2       2:00s   0       GMT
 454 Rule    GB-Eire 1954    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 455 Rule    GB-Eire 1955    1956    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 456 Rule    GB-Eire 1957    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 457 Rule    GB-Eire 1958    1959    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 458 Rule    GB-Eire 1960    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 459 # Summer Time Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/71)
 460 # Summer Time (1962) Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/2465)
 461 # Summer Time Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/81)
 462 Rule    GB-Eire 1961    1963    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    BST
 463 Rule    GB-Eire 1961    1968    -       Oct     Sun>=23      2:00s   0       GMT
 464 # Summer Time (1964) Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/2101)
 465 # Summer Time Order, 1964 (S.I. 1964/1201)
 466 # Summer Time Order, 1967 (S.I. 1967/1148)
 467 Rule    GB-Eire 1964    1967    -       Mar     Sun>=19      2:00s   1:00    BST
 468 # Summer Time Order, 1968 (S.I. 1968/117)
 469 Rule    GB-Eire 1968    only    -       Feb     18      2:00s   1:00    BST
 470 # The British Standard Time Act, 1968
 471 #       (no summer time)
 472 # The Summer Time Act, 1972
 473 Rule    GB-Eire 1972    1980    -       Mar     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 474 Rule    GB-Eire 1972    1980    -       Oct     Sun>=23      2:00s   0       GMT
 475 # Summer Time Order, 1980 (S.I. 1980/1089)
 476 # Summer Time Order, 1982 (S.I. 1982/1673)
 477 # Summer Time Order, 1986 (S.I. 1986/223)
 478 # Summer Time Order, 1988 (S.I. 1988/931)
 479 Rule    GB-Eire 1981    1995    -       Mar     lastSun 1:00u   1:00    BST
 480 Rule    GB-Eire 1981    1989    -       Oct     Sun>=23      1:00u   0       GMT
 481 # Summer Time Order, 1989 (S.I. 1989/985)
 482 # Summer Time Order, 1992 (S.I. 1992/1729)
 483 # Summer Time Order 1994 (S.I. 1994/2798)
 484 Rule    GB-Eire 1990    1995    -       Oct     Sun>=22      1:00u   0       GMT
 485 # Summer Time Order 1997 (S.I. 1997/2982)
 486 # See EU for rules starting in 1996.
 487 #
 488 # Use Europe/London for Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man.
 489 
 490 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 491 Zone    Europe/London   -0:01:15 -      LMT     1847 Dec  1  0:00s
 492                          0:00   GB-Eire %s      1968 Oct 27
 493                          1:00   -       BST     1971 Oct 31  2:00u
 494                          0:00   GB-Eire %s      1996
 495                          0:00   EU      GMT/BST
 496 Link    Europe/London   Europe/Jersey
 497 Link    Europe/London   Europe/Guernsey
 498 Link    Europe/London   Europe/Isle_of_Man
 499 
 500 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 501 Zone    Europe/Dublin   -0:25:00 -      LMT     1880 Aug  2
 502                         -0:25:21 -      DMT     1916 May 21  2:00
 503                         -0:25:21 1:00   IST     1916 Oct  1  2:00s
 504                          0:00   GB-Eire %s      1921 Dec  6 # independence
 505                          0:00   GB-Eire GMT/IST 1940 Feb 25  2:00
 506                          0:00   1:00    IST     1946 Oct  6  2:00
 507                          0:00   -       GMT     1947 Mar 16  2:00
 508                          0:00   1:00    IST     1947 Nov  2  2:00
 509                          0:00   -       GMT     1948 Apr 18  2:00
 510                          0:00   GB-Eire GMT/IST 1968 Oct 27
 511                          1:00   -       IST     1971 Oct 31  2:00u
 512                          0:00   GB-Eire GMT/IST 1996
 513                          0:00   EU      GMT/IST
 514 
 515 ###############################################################################
 516 
 517 # Europe
 518 
 519 # EU rules are for the European Union, previously known as the EC, EEC,
 520 # Common Market, etc.
 521 
 522 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 523 Rule    EU      1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1        1:00u  1:00    S
 524 Rule    EU      1977    only    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
 525 Rule    EU      1978    only    -       Oct      1       1:00u  0       -
 526 Rule    EU      1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
 527 Rule    EU      1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  1:00u  1:00    S
 528 Rule    EU      1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
 529 # The most recent directive covers the years starting in 2002.  See:
 530 # Directive 2000/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
 531 # of 19 January 2001 on summer-time arrangements.
 532 # http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32000L0084:EN:NOT
 533 
 534 # W-Eur differs from EU only in that W-Eur uses standard time.
 535 Rule    W-Eur   1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1        1:00s  1:00    S
 536 Rule    W-Eur   1977    only    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00s  0       -
 537 Rule    W-Eur   1978    only    -       Oct      1       1:00s  0       -
 538 Rule    W-Eur   1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00s  0       -
 539 Rule    W-Eur   1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  1:00s  1:00    S
 540 Rule    W-Eur   1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  1:00s  0       -
 541 
 542 # Older C-Eur rules are for convenience in the tables.
 543 # From 1977 on, C-Eur differs from EU only in that C-Eur uses standard time.
 544 Rule    C-Eur   1916    only    -       Apr     30      23:00   1:00    S
 545 Rule    C-Eur   1916    only    -       Oct      1       1:00   0       -
 546 Rule    C-Eur   1917    1918    -       Apr     Mon>=15       2:00s  1:00    S
 547 Rule    C-Eur   1917    1918    -       Sep     Mon>=15       2:00s  0       -
 548 Rule    C-Eur   1940    only    -       Apr      1       2:00s  1:00    S
 549 Rule    C-Eur   1942    only    -       Nov      2       2:00s  0       -
 550 Rule    C-Eur   1943    only    -       Mar     29       2:00s  1:00    S
 551 Rule    C-Eur   1943    only    -       Oct      4       2:00s  0       -
 552 Rule    C-Eur   1944    1945    -       Apr     Mon>=1        2:00s  1:00    S
 553 # Whitman gives 1944 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
 554 Rule    C-Eur   1944    only    -       Oct      2       2:00s  0       -
 555 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2008-07-13):
 556 #
 557 # I found what is probably a typo of 2:00 which should perhaps be 2:00s
 558 # in the C-Eur rule from tz database version 2008d (this part was
 559 # corrected in version 2008d). The circumstantial evidence is simply the
 560 # tz database itself, as seen below:
 561 #
 562 # Zone Europe/Paris 0:09:21 - LMT 1891 Mar 15  0:01
 563 #    0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16  3:00
 564 #
 565 # Zone Europe/Monaco 0:29:32 - LMT 1891 Mar 15
 566 #    0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16  3:00
 567 #
 568 # Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884
 569 #    1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16  2:00s
 570 #
 571 # Rule France 1945 only - Sep 16  3:00 0 -
 572 # Rule Belgium 1945 only - Sep 16  2:00s 0 -
 573 # Rule Neth 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
 574 #
 575 # The rule line to be changed is:
 576 #
 577 # Rule C-Eur 1945 only - Sep 16  2:00 0 -
 578 #
 579 # It seems that Paris, Monaco, Rule France, Rule Belgium all agree on
 580 # 2:00 standard time, e.g. 3:00 local time.  However there are no
 581 # countries that use C-Eur rules in September 1945, so the only items
 582 # affected are apparently these fictitious zones that translate acronyms
 583 # CET and MET:
 584 #
 585 # Zone CET  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT
 586 # Zone MET  1:00 C-Eur ME%sT
 587 #
 588 # It this is right then the corrected version would look like:
 589 #
 590 # Rule C-Eur 1945 only - Sep 16  2:00s 0 -
 591 #
 592 # A small step for mankind though 8-)
 593 Rule    C-Eur   1945    only    -       Sep     16       2:00s  0       -
 594 Rule    C-Eur   1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1        2:00s  1:00    S
 595 Rule    C-Eur   1977    only    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 596 Rule    C-Eur   1978    only    -       Oct      1       2:00s  0       -
 597 Rule    C-Eur   1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 598 Rule    C-Eur   1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
 599 Rule    C-Eur   1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 600 
 601 # E-Eur differs from EU only in that E-Eur switches at midnight local time.
 602 Rule    E-Eur   1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1        0:00   1:00    S
 603 Rule    E-Eur   1977    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       -
 604 Rule    E-Eur   1978    only    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       -
 605 Rule    E-Eur   1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       -
 606 Rule    E-Eur   1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  0:00   1:00    S
 607 Rule    E-Eur   1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  0:00   0       -
 608 
 609 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 610 Rule    Russia  1917    only    -       Jul      1      23:00   1:00    MST  # Moscow Summer Time
 611 Rule    Russia  1917    only    -       Dec     28       0:00   0       MMT  # Moscow Mean Time
 612 Rule    Russia  1918    only    -       May     31      22:00   2:00    MDST # Moscow Double Summer Time
 613 Rule    Russia  1918    only    -       Sep     16       1:00   1:00    MST
 614 Rule    Russia  1919    only    -       May     31      23:00   2:00    MDST
 615 Rule    Russia  1919    only    -       Jul      1       2:00   1:00    MSD
 616 Rule    Russia  1919    only    -       Aug     16       0:00   0       MSK
 617 Rule    Russia  1921    only    -       Feb     14      23:00   1:00    MSD
 618 Rule    Russia  1921    only    -       Mar     20      23:00   2:00    MSM  # Midsummer
 619 Rule    Russia  1921    only    -       Sep      1       0:00   1:00    MSD
 620 Rule    Russia  1921    only    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       -
 621 # Act No. 925 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1980-10-24):
 622 Rule    Russia  1981    1984    -       Apr      1       0:00   1:00    S
 623 Rule    Russia  1981    1983    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       -
 624 # Act No. 967 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1984-09-13), repeated in
 625 # Act No. 227 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1989-03-14):
 626 Rule    Russia  1984    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 627 Rule    Russia  1985    2010    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
 628 #




 629 Rule    Russia  1996    2010    -       Oct     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 630 # As described below, Russia's 2014 change affects Zone data, not Rule data.
 631 
 632 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07):
 633 # Wikipedia and other sources refer to the Act of the Council of
 634 # Ministers of the USSR from 1988-01-04 No. 5 and the Act of the
 635 # Council of Ministers of the USSR from 1989-03-14 No. 227.
 636 #
 637 # I did not find full texts of these acts.  For the 1989 one we have
 638 # title at http://base.garant.ru/70754136/ :
 639 # "About change in calculation of time on the territories of
 640 # Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR and Estonian SSR, Astrakhan,
 641 # Kaliningrad, Kirov, Kuybyshev, Ulyanovsk and Uralsk oblasts".
 642 # And http://astrozet.net/files/Zones/DOC/RU/1980-925.txt appears to
 643 # contain quotes from both acts: Since last Sunday of March 1988 rules
 644 # of the second time belt are installed in Volgograd and Saratov
 645 # oblasts.  Since last Sunday of March 1989:
 646 # a) Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR, Estonian SSR, Kaliningrad oblast:
 647 # second time belt rules without extra hour (Moscow-1);
 648 # b) Astrakhan, Kirov, Kuybyshev, Ulyanovsk oblasts: second time belt
 649 # rules (Moscow time)
 650 # c) Uralsk oblast: third time belt rules (Moscow+1).
 651 
 652 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-27):
 653 # Unamended version of the act of the
 654 # Government of the Russian Federation No. 23 from 08.01.1992
 655 # http://pravo.gov.ru/proxy/ips/?docbody=&nd=102014034&rdk=0
 656 # says that every year clocks were to be moved forward on last Sunday
 657 # of March at 2 hours and moved backwards on last Sunday of September
 658 # at 3 hours.  It was amended in 1996 to replace September with October.
 659 
 660 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-06-14):
 661 # According to Kremlin press service, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev
 662 # signed a federal law "On calculation of time" on June 9, 2011.
 663 # According to the law Russia is abolishing daylight saving time.
 664 #
 665 # Medvedev signed a law "On the Calculation of Time" (in russian):
 666 # http://bmockbe.ru/events/?ID=7583
 667 #
 668 # Medvedev signed a law on the calculation of the time (in russian):
 669 # http://www.regnum.ru/news/polit/1413906.html
 670 
 671 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15):
 672 # Take "abolishing daylight saving time" to mean that time is now considered
 673 # to be standard.
 674 
 675 # These are for backward compatibility with older versions.
 676 
 677 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 678 Zone    WET             0:00    EU      WE%sT
 679 Zone    CET             1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT
 680 Zone    MET             1:00    C-Eur   ME%sT
 681 Zone    EET             2:00    EU      EE%sT
 682 
 683 # Previous editions of this database used abbreviations like MET DST
 684 # for Central European Summer Time, but this didn't agree with common usage.
 685 
 686 # From Markus Kuhn (1996-07-12):
 687 # The official German names ... are
 688 #
 689 #       Mitteleuropäische Zeit (MEZ)         = UTC+01:00
 690 #       Mitteleuropäische Sommerzeit (MESZ)  = UTC+02:00
 691 #
 692 # as defined in the German Time Act (Gesetz über die Zeitbestimmung (ZeitG),
 693 # 1978-07-25, Bundesgesetzblatt, Jahrgang 1978, Teil I, S. 1110-1111)....
 694 # I wrote ... to the German Federal Physical-Technical Institution
 695 #
 696 #       Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)
 697 #       Laboratorium 4.41 "Zeiteinheit"
 698 #       Postfach 3345
 699 #       D-38023 Braunschweig
 700 #       phone: +49 531 592-0
 701 #
 702 # ... I received today an answer letter from Dr. Peter Hetzel, head of the PTB
 703 # department for time and frequency transmission.  He explained that the
 704 # PTB translates MEZ and MESZ into English as
 705 #
 706 #       Central European Time (CET)         = UTC+01:00
 707 #       Central European Summer Time (CEST) = UTC+02:00
 708 
 709 
 710 # Albania
 711 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 712 Rule    Albania 1940    only    -       Jun     16      0:00    1:00    S
 713 Rule    Albania 1942    only    -       Nov      2      3:00    0       -
 714 Rule    Albania 1943    only    -       Mar     29      2:00    1:00    S
 715 Rule    Albania 1943    only    -       Apr     10      3:00    0       -
 716 Rule    Albania 1974    only    -       May      4      0:00    1:00    S
 717 Rule    Albania 1974    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       -
 718 Rule    Albania 1975    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S
 719 Rule    Albania 1975    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       -
 720 Rule    Albania 1976    only    -       May      2      0:00    1:00    S
 721 Rule    Albania 1976    only    -       Oct      3      0:00    0       -
 722 Rule    Albania 1977    only    -       May      8      0:00    1:00    S
 723 Rule    Albania 1977    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       -
 724 Rule    Albania 1978    only    -       May      6      0:00    1:00    S
 725 Rule    Albania 1978    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
 726 Rule    Albania 1979    only    -       May      5      0:00    1:00    S
 727 Rule    Albania 1979    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       -
 728 Rule    Albania 1980    only    -       May      3      0:00    1:00    S
 729 Rule    Albania 1980    only    -       Oct      4      0:00    0       -
 730 Rule    Albania 1981    only    -       Apr     26      0:00    1:00    S
 731 Rule    Albania 1981    only    -       Sep     27      0:00    0       -
 732 Rule    Albania 1982    only    -       May      2      0:00    1:00    S
 733 Rule    Albania 1982    only    -       Oct      3      0:00    0       -
 734 Rule    Albania 1983    only    -       Apr     18      0:00    1:00    S
 735 Rule    Albania 1983    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
 736 Rule    Albania 1984    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
 737 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 738 Zone    Europe/Tirane   1:19:20 -       LMT     1914
 739                         1:00    -       CET     1940 Jun 16
 740                         1:00    Albania CE%sT   1984 Jul
 741                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
 742 
 743 # Andorra
 744 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 745 Zone    Europe/Andorra  0:06:04 -       LMT     1901
 746                         0:00    -       WET     1946 Sep 30
 747                         1:00    -       CET     1985 Mar 31  2:00
 748                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
 749 
 750 # Austria
 751 
 752 # Milne says Vienna time was 1:05:21.
 753 
 754 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): Shanks & Pottenger give 1918-06-16 and
 755 # 1945-11-18, but the Austrian Federal Office of Metrology and
 756 # Surveying (BEV) gives 1918-09-16 and for Vienna gives the "alleged"
 757 # date of 1945-04-12 with no time.  For the 1980-04-06 transition
 758 # Shanks & Pottenger give 02:00, the BEV 00:00.  Go with the BEV,
 759 # and guess 02:00 for 1945-04-12.
 760 
 761 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 762 Rule    Austria 1920    only    -       Apr      5      2:00s   1:00    S
 763 Rule    Austria 1920    only    -       Sep     13      2:00s   0       -
 764 Rule    Austria 1946    only    -       Apr     14      2:00s   1:00    S
 765 Rule    Austria 1946    1948    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 766 Rule    Austria 1947    only    -       Apr      6      2:00s   1:00    S
 767 Rule    Austria 1948    only    -       Apr     18      2:00s   1:00    S
 768 Rule    Austria 1980    only    -       Apr      6      0:00    1:00    S
 769 Rule    Austria 1980    only    -       Sep     28      0:00    0       -
 770 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 771 Zone    Europe/Vienna   1:05:21 -       LMT     1893 Apr
 772                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1920
 773                         1:00    Austria CE%sT   1940 Apr  1  2:00s
 774                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00s
 775                         1:00    1:00    CEST    1945 Apr 12  2:00s
 776                         1:00    -       CET     1946
 777                         1:00    Austria CE%sT   1981
 778                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
 779 
 780 # Belarus
 781 # From Yauhen Kharuzhy (2011-09-16):
 782 # By latest Belarus government act Europe/Minsk timezone was changed to
 783 # GMT+3 without DST (was GMT+2 with DST).
 784 #
 785 # Sources (Russian language):
 786 # http://www.belta.by/ru/all_news/society/V-Belarusi-otmenjaetsja-perexod-na-sezonnoe-vremja_i_572952.html
 787 # http://naviny.by/rubrics/society/2011/09/16/ic_articles_116_175144/
 788 # http://news.tut.by/society/250578.html
 789 #
 790 # From Alexander Bokovoy (2014-10-09):
 791 # Belarussian government decided against changing to winter time....
 792 # http://eng.belta.by/all_news/society/Belarus-decides-against-adjusting-time-in-Russias-wake_i_76335.html
 793 # From Paul Eggert (2014-10-08):
 794 # Hence Belarus can share time zone abbreviations with Moscow again.
 795 #
 796 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 797 Zone    Europe/Minsk    1:50:16 -       LMT     1880
 798                         1:50    -       MMT     1924 May  2 # Minsk Mean Time
 799                         2:00    -       EET     1930 Jun 21
 800                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Jun 28
 801                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Jul  3
 802                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990
 803                         3:00    -       MSK     1991 Mar 31  2:00s
 804                         2:00    1:00    EEST    1991 Sep 29  2:00s
 805                         2:00    -       EET     1992 Mar 29  0:00s
 806                         2:00    1:00    EEST    1992 Sep 27  0:00s
 807                         2:00    Russia  EE%sT   2011 Mar 27  2:00s
 808                         3:00    -       FET     2014 Oct 26  1:00s
 809                         3:00    -       MSK
 810 
 811 # Belgium
 812 #
 813 # From Paul Eggert (1997-07-02):
 814 # Entries from 1918 through 1991 are taken from:
 815 #       Annuaire de L'Observatoire Royal de Belgique,
 816 #       Avenue Circulaire, 3, B-1180 BRUXELLES, CLVIIe année, 1991
 817 #       (Imprimerie HAYEZ, s.p.r.l., Rue Fin, 4, 1080 BRUXELLES, MCMXC),
 818 #       pp 8-9.
 819 # LMT before 1892 was 0:17:30, according to the official journal of Belgium:
 820 #       Moniteur Belge, Samedi 30 Avril 1892, N.121.
 821 # Thanks to Pascal Delmoitie for these references.
 822 # The 1918 rules are listed for completeness; they apply to unoccupied Belgium.
 823 # Assume Brussels switched to WET in 1918 when the armistice took effect.
 824 #
 825 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 826 Rule    Belgium 1918    only    -       Mar      9       0:00s  1:00    S
 827 Rule    Belgium 1918    1919    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
 828 Rule    Belgium 1919    only    -       Mar      1      23:00s  1:00    S
 829 Rule    Belgium 1920    only    -       Feb     14      23:00s  1:00    S
 830 Rule    Belgium 1920    only    -       Oct     23      23:00s  0       -
 831 Rule    Belgium 1921    only    -       Mar     14      23:00s  1:00    S
 832 Rule    Belgium 1921    only    -       Oct     25      23:00s  0       -
 833 Rule    Belgium 1922    only    -       Mar     25      23:00s  1:00    S
 834 Rule    Belgium 1922    1927    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
 835 Rule    Belgium 1923    only    -       Apr     21      23:00s  1:00    S
 836 Rule    Belgium 1924    only    -       Mar     29      23:00s  1:00    S
 837 Rule    Belgium 1925    only    -       Apr      4      23:00s  1:00    S
 838 # DSH writes that a royal decree of 1926-02-22 specified the Sun following 3rd
 839 # Sat in Apr (except if it's Easter, in which case it's one Sunday earlier),
 840 # to Sun following 1st Sat in Oct, and that a royal decree of 1928-09-15
 841 # changed the transition times to 02:00 GMT.
 842 Rule    Belgium 1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00s  1:00    S
 843 Rule    Belgium 1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00s  1:00    S
 844 Rule    Belgium 1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00s  1:00    S
 845 Rule    Belgium 1928    1938    -       Oct     Sun>=2        2:00s  0       -
 846 Rule    Belgium 1929    only    -       Apr     21       2:00s  1:00    S
 847 Rule    Belgium 1930    only    -       Apr     13       2:00s  1:00    S
 848 Rule    Belgium 1931    only    -       Apr     19       2:00s  1:00    S
 849 Rule    Belgium 1932    only    -       Apr      3       2:00s  1:00    S
 850 Rule    Belgium 1933    only    -       Mar     26       2:00s  1:00    S
 851 Rule    Belgium 1934    only    -       Apr      8       2:00s  1:00    S
 852 Rule    Belgium 1935    only    -       Mar     31       2:00s  1:00    S
 853 Rule    Belgium 1936    only    -       Apr     19       2:00s  1:00    S
 854 Rule    Belgium 1937    only    -       Apr      4       2:00s  1:00    S
 855 Rule    Belgium 1938    only    -       Mar     27       2:00s  1:00    S
 856 Rule    Belgium 1939    only    -       Apr     16       2:00s  1:00    S
 857 Rule    Belgium 1939    only    -       Nov     19       2:00s  0       -
 858 Rule    Belgium 1940    only    -       Feb     25       2:00s  1:00    S
 859 Rule    Belgium 1944    only    -       Sep     17       2:00s  0       -
 860 Rule    Belgium 1945    only    -       Apr      2       2:00s  1:00    S
 861 Rule    Belgium 1945    only    -       Sep     16       2:00s  0       -
 862 Rule    Belgium 1946    only    -       May     19       2:00s  1:00    S
 863 Rule    Belgium 1946    only    -       Oct      7       2:00s  0       -
 864 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 865 Zone    Europe/Brussels 0:17:30 -       LMT     1880
 866                         0:17:30 -       BMT     1892 May  1 12:00  # Brussels MT
 867                         0:00    -       WET     1914 Nov  8
 868                         1:00    -       CET     1916 May  1  0:00
 869                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1918 Nov 11 11:00u
 870                         0:00    Belgium WE%sT   1940 May 20  2:00s
 871                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Sep  3
 872                         1:00    Belgium CE%sT   1977
 873                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
 874 
 875 # Bosnia and Herzegovina
 876 # See Europe/Belgrade.
 877 
 878 # Bulgaria
 879 #
 880 # From Plamen Simenov via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
 881 # A document of Government of Bulgaria (No. 94/1997) says:
 882 # EET -> EETDST is in 03:00 Local time in last Sunday of March ...
 883 # EETDST -> EET is in 04:00 Local time in last Sunday of October
 884 #
 885 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 886 Rule    Bulg    1979    only    -       Mar     31      23:00   1:00    S
 887 Rule    Bulg    1979    only    -       Oct      1       1:00   0       -
 888 Rule    Bulg    1980    1982    -       Apr     Sat>=1       23:00   1:00    S
 889 Rule    Bulg    1980    only    -       Sep     29       1:00   0       -
 890 Rule    Bulg    1981    only    -       Sep     27       2:00   0       -
 891 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 892 Zone    Europe/Sofia    1:33:16 -       LMT     1880
 893                         1:56:56 -       IMT     1894 Nov 30 # Istanbul MT?
 894                         2:00    -       EET     1942 Nov  2  3:00
 895                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945
 896                         1:00    -       CET     1945 Apr  2  3:00
 897                         2:00    -       EET     1979 Mar 31 23:00
 898                         2:00    Bulg    EE%sT   1982 Sep 26  3:00
 899                         2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1991
 900                         2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1997
 901                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
 902 
 903 # Croatia
 904 # See Europe/Belgrade.
 905 
 906 # Cyprus
 907 # Please see the 'asia' file for Asia/Nicosia.
 908 
 909 # Czech Republic
 910 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 911 Rule    Czech   1945    only    -       Apr      8      2:00s   1:00    S
 912 Rule    Czech   1945    only    -       Nov     18      2:00s   0       -
 913 Rule    Czech   1946    only    -       May      6      2:00s   1:00    S
 914 Rule    Czech   1946    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 915 Rule    Czech   1947    only    -       Apr     20      2:00s   1:00    S
 916 Rule    Czech   1948    only    -       Apr     18      2:00s   1:00    S
 917 Rule    Czech   1949    only    -       Apr      9      2:00s   1:00    S
 918 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 919 Zone    Europe/Prague   0:57:44 -       LMT     1850
 920                         0:57:44 -       PMT     1891 Oct    # Prague Mean Time
 921                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Sep 17  2:00s
 922                         1:00    Czech   CE%sT   1979
 923                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
 924 # Use Europe/Prague also for Slovakia.
 925 
 926 # Denmark, Faroe Islands, and Greenland
 927 
 928 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-04-26):
 929 # http://www.hum.aau.dk/~poe/tid/tine/DanskTid.htm says that the law
 930 # [introducing standard time] was in effect from 1894-01-01....
 931 # The page http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A18930008330-REGL
 932 # confirms this, and states that the law was put forth 1893-03-29.
 933 #
 934 # The EU treaty with effect from 1973:
 935 # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19722110030-REGL
 936 #
 937 # This provoked a new law from 1974 to make possible summer time changes
 938 # in subsequent decrees with the law
 939 # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19740022330-REGL
 940 #
 941 # It seems however that no decree was set forward until 1980.  I have
 942 # not found any decree, but in another related law, the effecting DST
 943 # changes are stated explicitly to be from 1980-04-06 at 02:00 to
 944 # 1980-09-28 at 02:00.  If this is true, this differs slightly from
 945 # the EU rule in that DST runs to 02:00, not 03:00.  We don't know
 946 # when Denmark began using the EU rule correctly, but we have only
 947 # confirmation of the 1980-time, so I presume it was correct in 1981:
 948 # The law is about the management of the extra hour, concerning
 949 # working hours reported and effect on obligatory-rest rules (which
 950 # was suspended on that night):
 951 # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/C19801120554-REGL
 952 
 953 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-06-11):
 954 # The Herning Folkeblad (1980-09-26) reported that the night between
 955 # Saturday and Sunday the clock is set back from three to two.
 956 
 957 # From Paul Eggert (2005-06-11):
 958 # Hence the "02:00" of the 1980 law refers to standard time, not
 959 # wall-clock time, and so the EU rules were in effect in 1980.
 960 
 961 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 962 Rule    Denmark 1916    only    -       May     14      23:00   1:00    S
 963 Rule    Denmark 1916    only    -       Sep     30      23:00   0       -
 964 Rule    Denmark 1940    only    -       May     15       0:00   1:00    S
 965 Rule    Denmark 1945    only    -       Apr      2       2:00s  1:00    S
 966 Rule    Denmark 1945    only    -       Aug     15       2:00s  0       -
 967 Rule    Denmark 1946    only    -       May      1       2:00s  1:00    S
 968 Rule    Denmark 1946    only    -       Sep      1       2:00s  0       -
 969 Rule    Denmark 1947    only    -       May      4       2:00s  1:00    S
 970 Rule    Denmark 1947    only    -       Aug     10       2:00s  0       -
 971 Rule    Denmark 1948    only    -       May      9       2:00s  1:00    S
 972 Rule    Denmark 1948    only    -       Aug      8       2:00s  0       -
 973 #
 974 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 975 Zone Europe/Copenhagen   0:50:20 -      LMT     1890
 976                          0:50:20 -      CMT     1894 Jan  1 # Copenhagen MT
 977                          1:00   Denmark CE%sT   1942 Nov  2  2:00s
 978                          1:00   C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00
 979                          1:00   Denmark CE%sT   1980
 980                          1:00   EU      CE%sT
 981 Zone Atlantic/Faroe     -0:27:04 -      LMT     1908 Jan 11 # Tórshavn
 982                          0:00   -       WET     1981
 983                          0:00   EU      WE%sT
 984 #
 985 # From Paul Eggert (2004-10-31):
 986 # During World War II, Germany maintained secret manned weather stations in
 987 # East Greenland and Franz Josef Land, but we don't know their time zones.
 988 # My source for this is Wilhelm Dege's book mentioned under Svalbard.
 989 #
 990 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
 991 # Greenland joined the EU as part of Denmark, obtained home rule on 1979-05-01,
 992 # and left the EU on 1985-02-01.  It therefore should have been using EU
 993 # rules at least through 1984.  Shanks & Pottenger say Scoresbysund and Godthåb
 994 # used C-Eur rules after 1980, but IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says they use EU
 995 # rules since at least 1991.  Assume EU rules since 1980.
 996 
 997 # From Gwillim Law (2001-06-06), citing
 998 # <http://www.statkart.no/efs/efshefter/2001/efs5-2001.pdf> (2001-03-15),
 999 # and with translations corrected by Steffen Thorsen:
1000 #
1001 # Greenland has four local times, and the relation to UTC
1002 # is according to the following time line:
1003 #
1004 # The military zone near Thule  UTC-4
1005 # Standard Greenland time       UTC-3
1006 # Scoresbysund                  UTC-1
1007 # Danmarkshavn                  UTC
1008 #
1009 # In the military area near Thule and in Danmarkshavn DST will not be
1010 # introduced.
1011 
1012 # From Rives McDow (2001-11-01):
1013 #
1014 # I correspond regularly with the Dansk Polarcenter, and wrote them at
1015 # the time to clarify the situation in Thule.  Unfortunately, I have
1016 # not heard back from them regarding my recent letter.  [But I have
1017 # info from earlier correspondence.]
1018 #
1019 # According to the center, a very small local time zone around Thule
1020 # Air Base keeps the time according to UTC-4, implementing daylight
1021 # savings using North America rules, changing the time at 02:00 local time....
1022 #
1023 # The east coast of Greenland north of the community of Scoresbysund
1024 # uses UTC in the same way as in Iceland, year round, with no dst.
1025 # There are just a few stations on this coast, including the
1026 # Danmarkshavn ICAO weather station mentioned in your September 29th
1027 # email.  The other stations are two sledge patrol stations in
1028 # Mestersvig and Daneborg, the air force base at Station Nord, and the
1029 # DPC research station at Zackenberg.
1030 #
1031 # Scoresbysund and two small villages nearby keep time UTC-1 and use
1032 # the same daylight savings time period as in West Greenland (Godthåb).
1033 #
1034 # The rest of Greenland, including Godthåb (this area, although it
1035 # includes central Greenland, is known as west Greenland), keeps time
1036 # UTC-3, with daylight savings methods according to European rules.
1037 #
1038 # It is common procedure to use UTC 0 in the wilderness of East and
1039 # North Greenland, because it is mainly Icelandic aircraft operators
1040 # maintaining traffic in these areas.  However, the official status of
1041 # this area is that it sticks with Godthåb time.  This area might be
1042 # considered a dual time zone in some respects because of this.
1043 
1044 # From Rives McDow (2001-11-19):
1045 # I heard back from someone stationed at Thule; the time change took place
1046 # there at 2:00 AM.
1047 
1048 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1049 # From 1997 on the CIA map shows Danmarkshavn on GMT;
1050 # the 1995 map as like Godthåb.
1051 # For lack of better info, assume they were like Godthåb before 1996.
1052 # startkart.no says Thule does not observe DST, but this is clearly an error,
1053 # so go with Shanks & Pottenger for Thule transitions until this year.
1054 # For 2007 on assume Thule will stay in sync with US DST rules.
1055 
1056 # From J William Piggott (2016-02-20):
1057 # "Greenland north of the community of Scoresbysund" is officially named
1058 # "National Park" by Executive Order:
1059 # http://naalakkersuisut.gl/~/media/Nanoq/Files/Attached%20Files/Engelske-tekster/Legislation/Executive%20Order%20National%20Park.rtf
1060 # It is their only National Park.
1061 #
1062 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1063 Rule    Thule   1991    1992    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1064 Rule    Thule   1991    1992    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1065 Rule    Thule   1993    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
1066 Rule    Thule   1993    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1067 Rule    Thule   2007    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
1068 Rule    Thule   2007    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
1069 #
1070 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1071 Zone America/Danmarkshavn -1:14:40 -    LMT     1916 Jul 28
1072                         -3:00   -       WGT     1980 Apr  6  2:00
1073                         -3:00   EU      WG%sT   1996
1074                         0:00    -       GMT
1075 Zone America/Scoresbysund -1:27:52 -    LMT     1916 Jul 28 # Ittoqqortoormiit
1076                         -2:00   -       CGT     1980 Apr  6  2:00
1077                         -2:00   C-Eur   CG%sT   1981 Mar 29
1078                         -1:00   EU      EG%sT
1079 Zone America/Godthab    -3:26:56 -      LMT     1916 Jul 28 # Nuuk
1080                         -3:00   -       WGT     1980 Apr  6  2:00
1081                         -3:00   EU      WG%sT
1082 Zone America/Thule      -4:35:08 -      LMT     1916 Jul 28 # Pituffik air base
1083                         -4:00   Thule   A%sT
1084 
1085 # Estonia
1086 #
1087 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
1088 # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
1089 #
1090 # From Peter Ilieve (1994-10-15):
1091 # A relative in Tallinn confirms the accuracy of the data for 1989 onwards
1092 # [through 1994] and gives the legal authority for it,
1093 # a regulation of the Government of Estonia, No. 111 of 1989....
1094 #
1095 # From Peter Ilieve (1996-10-28):
1096 # [IATA SSIM (1992/1996) claims that the Baltic republics switch at 01:00s,
1097 # but a relative confirms that Estonia still switches at 02:00s, writing:]
1098 # "I do not [know] exactly but there are some little different
1099 # (confusing) rules for International Air and Railway Transport Schedules
1100 # conversion in Sunday connected with end of summer time in Estonia....
1101 # A discussion is running about the summer time efficiency and effect on
1102 # human physiology.  It seems that Estonia maybe will not change to
1103 # summer time next spring."
1104 
1105 # From Peter Ilieve (1998-11-04), heavily edited:
1106 # The 1998-09-22 Estonian time law
1107 # http://trip.rk.ee/cgi-bin/thw?${BASE}=akt&${OOHTML}=rtd&TA=1998&TO=1&AN=1390
1108 # refers to the Eighth Directive and cites the association agreement between
1109 # the EU and Estonia, ratified by the Estonian law (RT II 1995, 22-27, 120).
1110 #
1111 # I also asked [my relative] whether they use any standard abbreviation
1112 # for their standard and summer times. He says no, they use "suveaeg"
1113 # (summer time) and "talveaeg" (winter time).
1114 
1115 # From The Baltic Times <http://www.baltictimes.com/> (1999-09-09)
1116 # via Steffen Thorsen:
1117 # This year will mark the last time Estonia shifts to summer time,
1118 # a council of the ruling coalition announced Sept. 6....
1119 # But what this could mean for Estonia's chances of joining the European
1120 # Union are still unclear.  In 1994, the EU declared summer time compulsory
1121 # for all member states until 2001.  Brussels has yet to decide what to do
1122 # after that.
1123 
1124 # From Mart Oruaas (2000-01-29):
1125 # Regulation No. 301 (1999-10-12) obsoletes previous regulation
1126 # No. 206 (1998-09-22) and thus sticks Estonia to +02:00 GMT for all
1127 # the year round.  The regulation is effective 1999-11-01.
1128 
1129 # From Toomas Soome (2002-02-21):
1130 # The Estonian government has changed once again timezone politics.
1131 # Now we are using again EU rules.
1132 #
1133 # From Urmet Jänes (2002-03-28):
1134 # The legislative reference is Government decree No. 84 on 2002-02-21.
1135 
1136 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1137 Zone    Europe/Tallinn  1:39:00 -       LMT     1880
1138                         1:39:00 -       TMT     1918 Feb    # Tallinn Mean Time
1139                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1919 Jul
1140                         1:39:00 -       TMT     1921 May
1141                         2:00    -       EET     1940 Aug  6
1142                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Sep 15
1143                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Sep 22
1144                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1989 Mar 26  2:00s
1145                         2:00    1:00    EEST    1989 Sep 24  2:00s
1146                         2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1998 Sep 22
1147                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   1999 Oct 31  4:00
1148                         2:00    -       EET     2002 Feb 21
1149                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
1150 
1151 # Finland
1152 
1153 # From Hannu Strang (1994-09-25 06:03:37 UTC):
1154 # Well, here in Helsinki we're just changing from summer time to regular one,
1155 # and it's supposed to change at 4am...
1156 
1157 # From Janne Snabb (2010-07-15):
1158 #
1159 # I noticed that the Finland data is not accurate for years 1981 and 1982.
1160 # During these two first trial years the DST adjustment was made one hour
1161 # earlier than in forthcoming years. Starting 1983 the adjustment was made
1162 # according to the central European standards.
1163 #
1164 # This is documented in Heikki Oja: Aikakirja 2007, published by The Almanac
1165 # Office of University of Helsinki, ISBN 952-10-3221-9, available online (in
1166 # Finnish) at
1167 # http://almanakka.helsinki.fi/aikakirja/Aikakirja2007kokonaan.pdf
1168 #
1169 # Page 105 (56 in PDF version) has a handy table of all past daylight savings
1170 # transitions. It is easy enough to interpret without Finnish skills.
1171 #
1172 # This is also confirmed by Finnish Broadcasting Company's archive at:
1173 # http://www.yle.fi/elavaarkisto/?s=s&g=1&ag=5&t=&a=3401
1174 #
1175 # The news clip from 1981 says that "the time between 2 and 3 o'clock does not
1176 # exist tonight."
1177 
1178 # From Konstantin Hyppönen (2014-06-13):
1179 # [Heikki Oja's book Aikakirja 2013]
1180 # http://almanakka.helsinki.fi/images/aikakirja/Aikakirja2013kokonaan.pdf
1181 # pages 104-105, including a scan from a newspaper published on Apr 2 1942
1182 # say that ... [o]n Apr 2 1942, 24 o'clock (which means Apr 3 1942,
1183 # 00:00), clocks were moved one hour forward. The newspaper
1184 # mentions "on the night from Thursday to Friday"....
1185 # On Oct 4 1942, clocks were moved at 1:00 one hour backwards.
1186 #
1187 # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-14):
1188 # Go with Oja over Shanks.
1189 
1190 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1191 Rule    Finland 1942    only    -       Apr     2       24:00   1:00    S
1192 Rule    Finland 1942    only    -       Oct     4       1:00    0       -
1193 Rule    Finland 1981    1982    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    S
1194 Rule    Finland 1981    1982    -       Sep     lastSun 3:00    0       -
1195 
1196 # Milne says Helsinki (Helsingfors) time was 1:39:49.2 (official document);
1197 # round to nearest.
1198 
1199 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1200 Zone    Europe/Helsinki 1:39:49 -       LMT     1878 May 31
1201                         1:39:49 -       HMT     1921 May    # Helsinki Mean Time
1202                         2:00    Finland EE%sT   1983
1203                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
1204 
1205 # Åland Is
1206 Link    Europe/Helsinki Europe/Mariehamn
1207 
1208 
1209 # France
1210 
1211 # From Ciro Discepolo (2000-12-20):
1212 #
1213 # Henri Le Corre, Régimes horaires pour le monde entier, Éditions
1214 # Traditionnelles - Paris 2 books, 1993
1215 #
1216 # Gabriel, Traité de l'heure dans le monde, Guy Trédaniel,
1217 # Paris, 1991
1218 #
1219 # Françoise Gauquelin, Problèmes de l'heure résolus en astrologie,
1220 # Guy Trédaniel, Paris 1987
1221 
1222 
1223 #
1224 # Shank & Pottenger seem to use '24:00' ambiguously; resolve it with Whitman.
1225 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1226 Rule    France  1916    only    -       Jun     14      23:00s  1:00    S
1227 Rule    France  1916    1919    -       Oct     Sun>=1       23:00s  0       -
1228 Rule    France  1917    only    -       Mar     24      23:00s  1:00    S
1229 Rule    France  1918    only    -       Mar      9      23:00s  1:00    S
1230 Rule    France  1919    only    -       Mar      1      23:00s  1:00    S
1231 Rule    France  1920    only    -       Feb     14      23:00s  1:00    S
1232 Rule    France  1920    only    -       Oct     23      23:00s  0       -
1233 Rule    France  1921    only    -       Mar     14      23:00s  1:00    S
1234 Rule    France  1921    only    -       Oct     25      23:00s  0       -
1235 Rule    France  1922    only    -       Mar     25      23:00s  1:00    S
1236 # DSH writes that a law of 1923-05-24 specified 3rd Sat in Apr at 23:00 to 1st
1237 # Sat in Oct at 24:00; and that in 1930, because of Easter, the transitions
1238 # were Apr 12 and Oct 5.  Go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1239 Rule    France  1922    1938    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
1240 Rule    France  1923    only    -       May     26      23:00s  1:00    S
1241 Rule    France  1924    only    -       Mar     29      23:00s  1:00    S
1242 Rule    France  1925    only    -       Apr      4      23:00s  1:00    S
1243 Rule    France  1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00s  1:00    S
1244 Rule    France  1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00s  1:00    S
1245 Rule    France  1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00s  1:00    S
1246 Rule    France  1929    only    -       Apr     20      23:00s  1:00    S
1247 Rule    France  1930    only    -       Apr     12      23:00s  1:00    S
1248 Rule    France  1931    only    -       Apr     18      23:00s  1:00    S
1249 Rule    France  1932    only    -       Apr      2      23:00s  1:00    S
1250 Rule    France  1933    only    -       Mar     25      23:00s  1:00    S
1251 Rule    France  1934    only    -       Apr      7      23:00s  1:00    S
1252 Rule    France  1935    only    -       Mar     30      23:00s  1:00    S
1253 Rule    France  1936    only    -       Apr     18      23:00s  1:00    S
1254 Rule    France  1937    only    -       Apr      3      23:00s  1:00    S
1255 Rule    France  1938    only    -       Mar     26      23:00s  1:00    S
1256 Rule    France  1939    only    -       Apr     15      23:00s  1:00    S
1257 Rule    France  1939    only    -       Nov     18      23:00s  0       -
1258 Rule    France  1940    only    -       Feb     25       2:00   1:00    S
1259 # The French rules for 1941-1944 were not used in Paris, but Shanks & Pottenger
1260 # write that they were used in Monaco and in many French locations.
1261 # Le Corre writes that the upper limit of the free zone was Arnéguy, Orthez,
1262 # Mont-de-Marsan, Bazas, Langon, Lamothe-Montravel, Marœuil, La
1263 # Rochefoucauld, Champagne-Mouton, La Roche-Posay, La Haye-Descartes,
1264 # Loches, Montrichard, Vierzon, Bourges, Moulins, Digoin,
1265 # Paray-le-Monial, Montceau-les-Mines, Chalon-sur-Saône, Arbois,
1266 # Dole, Morez, St-Claude, and Collonges (Haute-Savoie).
1267 Rule    France  1941    only    -       May      5       0:00   2:00    M # Midsummer
1268 # Shanks & Pottenger say this transition occurred at Oct 6 1:00,
1269 # but go with Denis Excoffier (1997-12-12),
1270 # who quotes the Ephémérides astronomiques for 1998 from Bureau des Longitudes
1271 # as saying 5/10/41 22hUT.
1272 Rule    France  1941    only    -       Oct      6       0:00   1:00    S
1273 Rule    France  1942    only    -       Mar      9       0:00   2:00    M
1274 Rule    France  1942    only    -       Nov      2       3:00   1:00    S
1275 Rule    France  1943    only    -       Mar     29       2:00   2:00    M
1276 Rule    France  1943    only    -       Oct      4       3:00   1:00    S
1277 Rule    France  1944    only    -       Apr      3       2:00   2:00    M
1278 Rule    France  1944    only    -       Oct      8       1:00   1:00    S
1279 Rule    France  1945    only    -       Apr      2       2:00   2:00    M
1280 Rule    France  1945    only    -       Sep     16       3:00   0       -
1281 # Shanks & Pottenger give Mar 28 2:00 and Sep 26 3:00;
1282 # go with Excoffier's 28/3/76 0hUT and 25/9/76 23hUT.
1283 Rule    France  1976    only    -       Mar     28       1:00   1:00    S
1284 Rule    France  1976    only    -       Sep     26       1:00   0       -
1285 # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time, and Whitman 0:09:05,
1286 # but Howse quotes the actual French legislation as saying 0:09:21.
1287 # Go with Howse.  Howse writes that the time in France was officially based
1288 # on PMT-0:09:21 until 1978-08-09, when the time base finally switched to UTC.
1289 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1290 Zone    Europe/Paris    0:09:21 -       LMT     1891 Mar 15  0:01
1291                         0:09:21 -       PMT     1911 Mar 11  0:01 # Paris MT
1292 # Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Jun 14 0:00; go with Excoffier and Le Corre.
1293                         0:00    France  WE%sT   1940 Jun 14 23:00
1294 # Le Corre says Paris stuck with occupied-France time after the liberation;
1295 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1296                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Aug 25
1297                         0:00    France  WE%sT   1945 Sep 16  3:00
1298                         1:00    France  CE%sT   1977
1299                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1300 
1301 # Germany
1302 
1303 # From Markus Kuhn (1998-09-29):
1304 # The German time zone web site by the Physikalisch-Technische
1305 # Bundesanstalt contains DST information back to 1916.
1306 # [See tz-link.htm for the URL.]
1307 
1308 # From Jörg Schilling (2002-10-23):
1309 # In 1945, Berlin was switched to Moscow Summer time (GMT+4) by
1310 # http://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/biografien/BersarinNikolai/
1311 # General [Nikolai] Bersarin.
1312 
1313 # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-08):
1314 # http://www.parlament-berlin.de/pds-fraktion.nsf/727459127c8b66ee8525662300459099/defc77cb784f180ac1256c2b0030274b/$FILE/bersarint.pdf
1315 # says that Bersarin issued an order to use Moscow time on May 20.
1316 # However, Moscow did not observe daylight saving in 1945, so
1317 # this was equivalent to CEMT (GMT+3), not GMT+4.
1318 
1319 
1320 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1321 Rule    Germany 1946    only    -       Apr     14      2:00s   1:00    S
1322 Rule    Germany 1946    only    -       Oct      7      2:00s   0       -
1323 Rule    Germany 1947    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
1324 # http://www.ptb.de/de/org/4/44/441/salt.htm says the following transition
1325 # occurred at 3:00 MEZ, not the 2:00 MEZ given in Shanks & Pottenger.
1326 # Go with the PTB.
1327 Rule    Germany 1947    only    -       Apr      6      3:00s   1:00    S
1328 Rule    Germany 1947    only    -       May     11      2:00s   2:00    M
1329 Rule    Germany 1947    only    -       Jun     29      3:00    1:00    S
1330 Rule    Germany 1948    only    -       Apr     18      2:00s   1:00    S
1331 Rule    Germany 1949    only    -       Apr     10      2:00s   1:00    S
1332 
1333 Rule SovietZone 1945    only    -       May     24      2:00    2:00    M # Midsummer
1334 Rule SovietZone 1945    only    -       Sep     24      3:00    1:00    S
1335 Rule SovietZone 1945    only    -       Nov     18      2:00s   0       -
1336 
1337 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1338 Zone    Europe/Berlin   0:53:28 -       LMT     1893 Apr
1339                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 May 24  2:00
1340                         1:00 SovietZone CE%sT   1946
1341                         1:00    Germany CE%sT   1980
1342                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1343 
1344 # From Tobias Conradi (2011-09-12):
1345 # Büsingen <http://www.buesingen.de>, surrounded by the Swiss canton
1346 # Schaffhausen, did not start observing DST in 1980 as the rest of DE
1347 # (West Germany at that time) and DD (East Germany at that time) did.
1348 # DD merged into DE, the area is currently covered by code DE in ISO 3166-1,
1349 # which in turn is covered by the zone Europe/Berlin.
1350 #
1351 # Source for the time in Büsingen 1980:
1352 # http://www.srf.ch/player/video?id=c012c029-03b7-4c2b-9164-aa5902cd58d3
1353 
1354 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-03):
1355 # Büsingen and Zurich have shared clocks since 1970.
1356 
1357 Link    Europe/Zurich   Europe/Busingen
1358 
1359 # Georgia
1360 # Please see the "asia" file for Asia/Tbilisi.
1361 # Herodotus (Histories, IV.45) says Georgia north of the Phasis (now Rioni)
1362 # is in Europe.  Our reference location Tbilisi is in the Asian part.
1363 
1364 # Gibraltar
1365 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1366 Zone Europe/Gibraltar   -0:21:24 -      LMT     1880 Aug  2  0:00s
1367                         0:00    GB-Eire %s      1957 Apr 14  2:00
1368                         1:00    -       CET     1982
1369                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1370 
1371 # Greece
1372 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1373 # Whitman gives 1932 Jul 5 - Nov 1; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1374 Rule    Greece  1932    only    -       Jul      7      0:00    1:00    S
1375 Rule    Greece  1932    only    -       Sep      1      0:00    0       -
1376 # Whitman gives 1941 Apr 25 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1377 Rule    Greece  1941    only    -       Apr      7      0:00    1:00    S
1378 # Whitman gives 1942 Feb 2 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1379 Rule    Greece  1942    only    -       Nov      2      3:00    0       -
1380 Rule    Greece  1943    only    -       Mar     30      0:00    1:00    S
1381 Rule    Greece  1943    only    -       Oct      4      0:00    0       -
1382 # Whitman gives 1944 Oct 3 - Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1383 Rule    Greece  1952    only    -       Jul      1      0:00    1:00    S
1384 Rule    Greece  1952    only    -       Nov      2      0:00    0       -
1385 Rule    Greece  1975    only    -       Apr     12      0:00s   1:00    S
1386 Rule    Greece  1975    only    -       Nov     26      0:00s   0       -
1387 Rule    Greece  1976    only    -       Apr     11      2:00s   1:00    S
1388 Rule    Greece  1976    only    -       Oct     10      2:00s   0       -
1389 Rule    Greece  1977    1978    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    S
1390 Rule    Greece  1977    only    -       Sep     26      2:00s   0       -
1391 Rule    Greece  1978    only    -       Sep     24      4:00    0       -
1392 Rule    Greece  1979    only    -       Apr      1      9:00    1:00    S
1393 Rule    Greece  1979    only    -       Sep     29      2:00    0       -
1394 Rule    Greece  1980    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
1395 Rule    Greece  1980    only    -       Sep     28      0:00    0       -
1396 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1397 Zone    Europe/Athens   1:34:52 -       LMT     1895 Sep 14
1398                         1:34:52 -       AMT     1916 Jul 28  0:01 # Athens MT
1399                         2:00    Greece  EE%sT   1941 Apr 30
1400                         1:00    Greece  CE%sT   1944 Apr  4
1401                         2:00    Greece  EE%sT   1981
1402                         # Shanks & Pottenger say it switched to C-Eur in 1981;
1403                         # go with EU instead, since Greece joined it on Jan 1.
1404                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
1405 
1406 # Hungary
1407 # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-15):
1408 # Dates for 1916-1945 are taken from:
1409 # Oross A. Jelen a múlt jövője: a nyári időszámítás Magyarországon 1916-1945.
1410 # National Archives of Hungary (2012-10-29).
1411 # http://mnl.gov.hu/a_het_dokumentuma/a_nyari_idoszamitas_magyarorszagon_19161945.html
1412 # This source does not always give times, which are taken from Shanks
1413 # & Pottenger (which disagree about the dates).
1414 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1415 Rule    Hungary 1918    only    -       Apr      1       3:00   1:00    S
1416 Rule    Hungary 1918    only    -       Sep     16       3:00   0       -
1417 Rule    Hungary 1919    only    -       Apr     15       3:00   1:00    S
1418 Rule    Hungary 1919    only    -       Nov     24       3:00   0       -
1419 Rule    Hungary 1945    only    -       May      1      23:00   1:00    S
1420 Rule    Hungary 1945    only    -       Nov      1       0:00   0       -
1421 Rule    Hungary 1946    only    -       Mar     31       2:00s  1:00    S
1422 Rule    Hungary 1946    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1        2:00s  0       -
1423 Rule    Hungary 1947    1949    -       Apr     Sun>=4        2:00s  1:00    S
1424 Rule    Hungary 1950    only    -       Apr     17       2:00s  1:00    S
1425 Rule    Hungary 1950    only    -       Oct     23       2:00s  0       -
1426 Rule    Hungary 1954    1955    -       May     23       0:00   1:00    S
1427 Rule    Hungary 1954    1955    -       Oct      3       0:00   0       -
1428 Rule    Hungary 1956    only    -       Jun     Sun>=1        0:00   1:00    S
1429 Rule    Hungary 1956    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       -
1430 Rule    Hungary 1957    only    -       Jun     Sun>=1        1:00   1:00    S
1431 Rule    Hungary 1957    only    -       Sep     lastSun  3:00   0       -
1432 Rule    Hungary 1980    only    -       Apr      6       1:00   1:00    S
1433 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1434 Zone    Europe/Budapest 1:16:20 -       LMT     1890 Oct
1435                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1918
1436                         1:00    Hungary CE%sT   1941 Apr  8
1437                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945
1438                         1:00    Hungary CE%sT   1980 Sep 28  2:00s
1439                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1440 
1441 # Iceland
1442 #
1443 # From Adam David (1993-11-06):
1444 # The name of the timezone in Iceland for system / mail / news purposes is GMT.
1445 #
1446 # (1993-12-05):
1447 # This material is paraphrased from the 1988 edition of the University of
1448 # Iceland Almanak.
1449 #
1450 # From January 1st, 1908 the whole of Iceland was standardised at 1 hour
1451 # behind GMT. Previously, local mean solar time was used in different parts
1452 # of Iceland, the almanak had been based on Reykjavik mean solar time which
1453 # was 1 hour and 28 minutes behind GMT.
1454 #
1455 # "first day of winter" referred to [below] means the first day of the 26 weeks
1456 # of winter, according to the old icelandic calendar that dates back to the
1457 # time the norsemen first settled Iceland.  The first day of winter is always
1458 # Saturday, but is not dependent on the Julian or Gregorian calendars.
1459 #
1460 # (1993-12-10):
1461 # I have a reference from the Oxford Icelandic-English dictionary for the
1462 # beginning of winter, which ties it to the ecclesiastical calendar (and thus
1463 # to the julian/gregorian calendar) over the period in question.
1464 #       the winter begins on the Saturday next before St. Luke's day
1465 #       (old style), or on St. Luke's day, if a Saturday.
1466 # St. Luke's day ought to be traceable from ecclesiastical sources. "old style"
1467 # might be a reference to the Julian calendar as opposed to Gregorian, or it
1468 # might mean something else (???).
1469 #
1470 # From Paul Eggert (2014-11-22):
1471 # The information below is taken from the 1988 Almanak; see
1472 # http://www.almanak.hi.is/klukkan.html
1473 #
1474 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1475 Rule    Iceland 1917    1919    -       Feb     19      23:00   1:00    S
1476 Rule    Iceland 1917    only    -       Oct     21       1:00   0       -
1477 Rule    Iceland 1918    1919    -       Nov     16       1:00   0       -
1478 Rule    Iceland 1921    only    -       Mar     19      23:00   1:00    S
1479 Rule    Iceland 1921    only    -       Jun     23       1:00   0       -
1480 Rule    Iceland 1939    only    -       Apr     29      23:00   1:00    S
1481 Rule    Iceland 1939    only    -       Oct     29       2:00   0       -
1482 Rule    Iceland 1940    only    -       Feb     25       2:00   1:00    S
1483 Rule    Iceland 1940    1941    -       Nov     Sun>=2        1:00s  0       -
1484 Rule    Iceland 1941    1942    -       Mar     Sun>=2        1:00s  1:00    S
1485 # 1943-1946 - first Sunday in March until first Sunday in winter
1486 Rule    Iceland 1943    1946    -       Mar     Sun>=1        1:00s  1:00    S
1487 Rule    Iceland 1942    1948    -       Oct     Sun>=22       1:00s  0       -
1488 # 1947-1967 - first Sunday in April until first Sunday in winter
1489 Rule    Iceland 1947    1967    -       Apr     Sun>=1        1:00s  1:00    S
1490 # 1949 and 1967 Oct transitions delayed by 1 week
1491 Rule    Iceland 1949    only    -       Oct     30       1:00s  0       -
1492 Rule    Iceland 1950    1966    -       Oct     Sun>=22       1:00s  0       -
1493 Rule    Iceland 1967    only    -       Oct     29       1:00s  0       -
1494 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1495 Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik -1:28   -       LMT     1908
1496                         -1:00   Iceland IS%sT   1968 Apr  7  1:00s
1497                          0:00   -       GMT
1498 
1499 # Italy
1500 #
1501 # From Paul Eggert (2001-03-06):
1502 # Sicily and Sardinia each had their own time zones from 1866 to 1893,
1503 # called Palermo Time (+00:53:28) and Cagliari Time (+00:36:32).
1504 # During World War II, German-controlled Italy used German time.
1505 # But these events all occurred before the 1970 cutoff,
1506 # so record only the time in Rome.
1507 #
1508 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1509 # For Italian DST we have three sources: Shanks & Pottenger, Whitman, and
1510 # F. Pollastri
1511 # Day-light Saving Time in Italy (2006-02-03)
1512 # http://toi.iriti.cnr.it/uk/ienitlt.html
1513 # ('FP' below), taken from an Italian National Electrotechnical Institute
1514 # publication. When the three sources disagree, guess who's right, as follows:
1515 #
1516 # year  FP      Shanks&P. (S)       Whitman (W)     Go with:
1517 # 1916  06-03   06-03 24:00     06-03 00:00     FP & W
1518 #       09-30   09-30 24:00     09-30 01:00     FP; guess 24:00s
1519 # 1917  04-01   03-31 24:00     03-31 00:00     FP & S
1520 #       09-30   09-29 24:00     09-30 01:00     FP & W
1521 # 1918  03-09   03-09 24:00     03-09 00:00     FP & S
1522 #       10-06   10-05 24:00     10-06 01:00     FP & W
1523 # 1919  03-01   03-01 24:00     03-01 00:00     FP & S
1524 #       10-04   10-04 24:00     10-04 01:00     FP; guess 24:00s
1525 # 1920  03-20   03-20 24:00     03-20 00:00     FP & S
1526 #       09-18   09-18 24:00     10-01 01:00     FP; guess 24:00s
1527 # 1944  04-02   04-03 02:00                     S (see C-Eur)
1528 #       09-16   10-02 03:00                     FP; guess 24:00s
1529 # 1945  09-14   09-16 24:00                     FP; guess 24:00s
1530 # 1970  05-21   05-31 00:00                     S
1531 #       09-20   09-27 00:00                     S
1532 #
1533 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1534 Rule    Italy   1916    only    -       Jun      3      0:00s   1:00    S
1535 Rule    Italy   1916    only    -       Oct      1      0:00s   0       -
1536 Rule    Italy   1917    only    -       Apr      1      0:00s   1:00    S
1537 Rule    Italy   1917    only    -       Sep     30      0:00s   0       -
1538 Rule    Italy   1918    only    -       Mar     10      0:00s   1:00    S
1539 Rule    Italy   1918    1919    -       Oct     Sun>=1       0:00s   0       -
1540 Rule    Italy   1919    only    -       Mar      2      0:00s   1:00    S
1541 Rule    Italy   1920    only    -       Mar     21      0:00s   1:00    S
1542 Rule    Italy   1920    only    -       Sep     19      0:00s   0       -
1543 Rule    Italy   1940    only    -       Jun     15      0:00s   1:00    S
1544 Rule    Italy   1944    only    -       Sep     17      0:00s   0       -
1545 Rule    Italy   1945    only    -       Apr      2      2:00    1:00    S
1546 Rule    Italy   1945    only    -       Sep     15      0:00s   0       -
1547 Rule    Italy   1946    only    -       Mar     17      2:00s   1:00    S
1548 Rule    Italy   1946    only    -       Oct      6      2:00s   0       -
1549 Rule    Italy   1947    only    -       Mar     16      0:00s   1:00    S
1550 Rule    Italy   1947    only    -       Oct      5      0:00s   0       -
1551 Rule    Italy   1948    only    -       Feb     29      2:00s   1:00    S
1552 Rule    Italy   1948    only    -       Oct      3      2:00s   0       -
1553 Rule    Italy   1966    1968    -       May     Sun>=22      0:00    1:00    S
1554 Rule    Italy   1966    1969    -       Sep     Sun>=22      0:00    0       -
1555 Rule    Italy   1969    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    S
1556 Rule    Italy   1970    only    -       May     31      0:00    1:00    S
1557 Rule    Italy   1970    only    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       -
1558 Rule    Italy   1971    1972    -       May     Sun>=22      0:00    1:00    S
1559 Rule    Italy   1971    only    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00    0       -
1560 Rule    Italy   1972    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
1561 Rule    Italy   1973    only    -       Jun      3      0:00    1:00    S
1562 Rule    Italy   1973    1974    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       -
1563 Rule    Italy   1974    only    -       May     26      0:00    1:00    S
1564 Rule    Italy   1975    only    -       Jun      1      0:00s   1:00    S
1565 Rule    Italy   1975    1977    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00s   0       -
1566 Rule    Italy   1976    only    -       May     30      0:00s   1:00    S
1567 Rule    Italy   1977    1979    -       May     Sun>=22      0:00s   1:00    S
1568 Rule    Italy   1978    only    -       Oct      1      0:00s   0       -
1569 Rule    Italy   1979    only    -       Sep     30      0:00s   0       -
1570 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1571 Zone    Europe/Rome     0:49:56 -       LMT     1866 Sep 22
1572                         0:49:56 -       RMT     1893 Nov  1  0:00s # Rome Mean
1573                         1:00    Italy   CE%sT   1942 Nov  2  2:00s
1574                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Jul
1575                         1:00    Italy   CE%sT   1980
1576                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1577 
1578 Link    Europe/Rome     Europe/Vatican
1579 Link    Europe/Rome     Europe/San_Marino
1580 
1581 # Latvia
1582 
1583 # From Liene Kanepe (1998-09-17):
1584 
1585 # I asked about this matter Scientific Secretary of the Institute of Astronomy
1586 # of The University of Latvia Dr. paed Mr. Ilgonis Vilks. I also searched the
1587 # correct data in juridical acts and I found some juridical documents about
1588 # changes in the counting of time in Latvia from 1981....
1589 #
1590 # Act No. 35 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1981-01-22 ...
1591 # according to the Act No. 925 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1980-10-24
1592 # ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning
1593 # the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on 1 April at 00:00 (GMT 31 March 21:00)
1594 # and 1 hour backward on the 1 October at 00:00 (GMT 30 September 20:00).
1595 #
1596 # Act No. 592 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1984-09-24 ...
1597 # according to the Act No. 967 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1984-09-13
1598 # ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning
1599 # the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on the last Sunday of March at 02:00
1600 # (GMT 23:00 on the previous day) and 1 hour backward on the last Sunday of
1601 # September at 03:00 (GMT 23:00 on the previous day).
1602 #
1603 # Act No. 81 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1989-03-22 ...
1604 # according to the Act No. 227 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1989-03-14
1605 # ...: since the last Sunday of March 1989 in Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR,
1606 # Estonian SSR and Kaliningrad region of Russian Federation all year round the
1607 # time of 2nd time zone (Moscow time minus one hour). On the territory of Latvia
1608 # transition to summer time is performed on the last Sunday of March at 02:00
1609 # (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour forward.  The end of
1610 # daylight saving time is performed on the last Sunday of September at 03:00
1611 # (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour backward. Exception is
1612 # 1989-03-26, when we must not turn the hands of the clock....
1613 #
1614 # The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Latvia of
1615 # 1997-01-21 on transition to Summer time ... established the same order of
1616 # daylight savings time settings as in the States of the European Union.
1617 
1618 # From Andrei Ivanov (2000-03-06):
1619 # This year Latvia will not switch to Daylight Savings Time (as specified in
1620 # The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Rep. of Latvia of
1621 # 29-Feb-2000 (No. 79) <http://www.lv-laiks.lv/wwwraksti/2000/071072/vd4.htm>,
1622 # in Latvian for subscribers only).
1623 
1624 # From RFE/RL Newsline
1625 # http://www.rferl.org/newsline/2001/01/3-CEE/cee-030101.html
1626 # (2001-01-03), noted after a heads-up by Rives McDow:
1627 # The Latvian government on 2 January decided that the country will
1628 # institute daylight-saving time this spring, LETA reported.
1629 # Last February the three Baltic states decided not to turn back their
1630 # clocks one hour in the spring....
1631 # Minister of Economy Aigars Kalvītis noted that Latvia had too few
1632 # daylight hours and thus decided to comply with a draft European
1633 # Commission directive that provides for instituting daylight-saving
1634 # time in EU countries between 2002 and 2006. The Latvian government
1635 # urged Lithuania and Estonia to adopt a similar time policy, but it
1636 # appears that they will not do so....
1637 
1638 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1639 Rule    Latvia  1989    1996    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
1640 Rule    Latvia  1989    1996    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
1641 
1642 # Milne 1899 says Riga was 1:36:28 (Polytechnique House time).
1643 # Byalokoz 1919 says Latvia was 1:36:34.
1644 # Go with Byalokoz.
1645 
1646 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1647 Zone    Europe/Riga     1:36:34 -       LMT     1880
1648                         1:36:34 -       RMT     1918 Apr 15  2:00 # Riga MT
1649                         1:36:34 1:00    LST     1918 Sep 16  3:00 # Latvian ST
1650                         1:36:34 -       RMT     1919 Apr  1  2:00
1651                         1:36:34 1:00    LST     1919 May 22  3:00
1652                         1:36:34 -       RMT     1926 May 11
1653                         2:00    -       EET     1940 Aug  5
1654                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Jul
1655                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Oct 13
1656                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1989 Mar lastSun  2:00s
1657                         2:00    1:00    EEST    1989 Sep lastSun  2:00s
1658                         2:00    Latvia  EE%sT   1997 Jan 21
1659                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   2000 Feb 29
1660                         2:00    -       EET     2001 Jan  2
1661                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
1662 
1663 # Liechtenstein
1664 
1665 # From Paul Eggert (2013-09-09):
1666 # Shanks & Pottenger say Vaduz is like Zurich.
1667 
1668 # From Alois Treindl (2013-09-18):
1669 # http://www.eliechtensteinensia.li/LIJ/1978/1938-1978/1941.pdf
1670 # ... confirms on p. 6 that Liechtenstein followed Switzerland in 1941 and 1942.
1671 # I ... translate only the last two paragraphs:
1672 #    ... during second world war, in the years 1941 and 1942, Liechtenstein
1673 #    introduced daylight saving time, adapting to Switzerland.  From 1943 on
1674 #    central European time was in force throughout the year.
1675 #    From a report of the duke's government to the high council,
1676 #    regarding the introduction of a time law, of 31 May 1977.
1677 
1678 Link Europe/Zurich Europe/Vaduz
1679 
1680 
1681 # Lithuania
1682 
1683 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
1684 # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
1685 
1686 # From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
1687 # IATA SSIM (1992/1996) says Lithuania uses W-Eur rules, but since it is
1688 # known to be wrong about Estonia and Latvia, assume it's wrong here too.
1689 
1690 # From Marius Gedminas (1998-08-07):
1691 # I would like to inform that in this year Lithuanian time zone
1692 # (Europe/Vilnius) was changed.
1693 
1694 # From ELTA No. 972 (2582) (1999-09-29) <http://www.elta.lt/>,
1695 # via Steffen Thorsen:
1696 # Lithuania has shifted back to the second time zone (GMT plus two hours)
1697 # to be valid here starting from October 31,
1698 # as decided by the national government on Wednesday....
1699 # The Lithuanian government also announced plans to consider a
1700 # motion to give up shifting to summer time in spring, as it was
1701 # already done by Estonia.
1702 
1703 # From the Fact File, Lithuanian State Department of Tourism
1704 # <http://www.tourism.lt/informa/ff.htm> (2000-03-27):
1705 # Local time is GMT+2 hours ..., no daylight saving.
1706 
1707 # From a user via Klaus Marten (2003-02-07):
1708 # As a candidate for membership of the European Union, Lithuania will
1709 # observe Summer Time in 2003, changing its clocks at the times laid
1710 # down in EU Directive 2000/84 of 19.I.01 (i.e. at the same times as its
1711 # neighbour Latvia). The text of the Lithuanian government Order of
1712 # 7.XI.02 to this effect can be found at
1713 # http://www.lrvk.lt/nut/11/n1749.htm
1714 
1715 
1716 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1717 Zone    Europe/Vilnius  1:41:16 -       LMT     1880
1718                         1:24:00 -       WMT     1917        # Warsaw Mean Time
1719                         1:35:36 -       KMT     1919 Oct 10 # Kaunas Mean Time
1720                         1:00    -       CET     1920 Jul 12
1721                         2:00    -       EET     1920 Oct  9
1722                         1:00    -       CET     1940 Aug  3
1723                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Jun 24
1724                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Aug
1725                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1989 Mar 26  2:00s
1726                         2:00    Russia  EE%sT   1991 Sep 29  2:00s
1727                         2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1998
1728                         2:00    -       EET     1998 Mar 29  1:00u
1729                         1:00    EU      CE%sT   1999 Oct 31  1:00u
1730                         2:00    -       EET     2003 Jan  1
1731                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
1732 
1733 # Luxembourg
1734 # Whitman disagrees with most of these dates in minor ways;
1735 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1736 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1737 Rule    Lux     1916    only    -       May     14      23:00   1:00    S
1738 Rule    Lux     1916    only    -       Oct      1       1:00   0       -
1739 Rule    Lux     1917    only    -       Apr     28      23:00   1:00    S
1740 Rule    Lux     1917    only    -       Sep     17       1:00   0       -
1741 Rule    Lux     1918    only    -       Apr     Mon>=15       2:00s  1:00    S
1742 Rule    Lux     1918    only    -       Sep     Mon>=15       2:00s  0       -
1743 Rule    Lux     1919    only    -       Mar      1      23:00   1:00    S
1744 Rule    Lux     1919    only    -       Oct      5       3:00   0       -
1745 Rule    Lux     1920    only    -       Feb     14      23:00   1:00    S
1746 Rule    Lux     1920    only    -       Oct     24       2:00   0       -
1747 Rule    Lux     1921    only    -       Mar     14      23:00   1:00    S
1748 Rule    Lux     1921    only    -       Oct     26       2:00   0       -
1749 Rule    Lux     1922    only    -       Mar     25      23:00   1:00    S
1750 Rule    Lux     1922    only    -       Oct     Sun>=2        1:00   0       -
1751 Rule    Lux     1923    only    -       Apr     21      23:00   1:00    S
1752 Rule    Lux     1923    only    -       Oct     Sun>=2        2:00   0       -
1753 Rule    Lux     1924    only    -       Mar     29      23:00   1:00    S
1754 Rule    Lux     1924    1928    -       Oct     Sun>=2        1:00   0       -
1755 Rule    Lux     1925    only    -       Apr      5      23:00   1:00    S
1756 Rule    Lux     1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00   1:00    S
1757 Rule    Lux     1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00   1:00    S
1758 Rule    Lux     1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00   1:00    S
1759 Rule    Lux     1929    only    -       Apr     20      23:00   1:00    S
1760 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1761 Zone Europe/Luxembourg  0:24:36 -       LMT     1904 Jun
1762                         1:00    Lux     CE%sT   1918 Nov 25
1763                         0:00    Lux     WE%sT   1929 Oct  6  2:00s
1764                         0:00    Belgium WE%sT   1940 May 14  3:00
1765                         1:00    C-Eur   WE%sT   1944 Sep 18  3:00
1766                         1:00    Belgium CE%sT   1977
1767                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1768 
1769 # Macedonia
1770 # See Europe/Belgrade.
1771 
1772 # Malta
1773 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1774 Rule    Malta   1973    only    -       Mar     31      0:00s   1:00    S
1775 Rule    Malta   1973    only    -       Sep     29      0:00s   0       -
1776 Rule    Malta   1974    only    -       Apr     21      0:00s   1:00    S
1777 Rule    Malta   1974    only    -       Sep     16      0:00s   0       -
1778 Rule    Malta   1975    1979    -       Apr     Sun>=15      2:00    1:00    S
1779 Rule    Malta   1975    1980    -       Sep     Sun>=15      2:00    0       -
1780 Rule    Malta   1980    only    -       Mar     31      2:00    1:00    S
1781 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1782 Zone    Europe/Malta    0:58:04 -       LMT     1893 Nov  2  0:00s # Valletta
1783                         1:00    Italy   CE%sT   1942 Nov  2  2:00s
1784                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00s
1785                         1:00    Italy   CE%sT   1973 Mar 31
1786                         1:00    Malta   CE%sT   1981
1787                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1788 
1789 # Moldova
1790 
1791 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07):
1792 # the act of the government of the Republic of Moldova Nr. 132 from 1990-05-04
1793 # http://lex.justice.md/viewdoc.php?action=view&view=doc&id=298782&lang=2
1794 # ... says that since 1990-05-06 on the territory of the Moldavian SSR
1795 # time would be calculated as the standard time of the second time belt
1796 # plus one hour of the "summer" time. To implement that clocks would be
1797 # adjusted one hour backwards at 1990-05-06 2:00. After that "summer"
1798 # time would be cancelled last Sunday of September at 3:00 and
1799 # reintroduced last Sunday of March at 2:00.
1800 
1801 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1802 # A previous version of this database followed Shanks & Pottenger, who write
1803 # that Tiraspol switched to Moscow time on 1992-01-19 at 02:00.
1804 # However, this is most likely an error, as Moldova declared independence
1805 # on 1991-08-27 (the 1992-01-19 date is that of a Russian decree).
1806 # In early 1992 there was large-scale interethnic violence in the area
1807 # and it's possible that some Russophones continued to observe Moscow time.
1808 # But [two people] separately reported via
1809 # Jesper Nørgaard that as of 2001-01-24 Tiraspol was like Chisinau.
1810 # The Tiraspol entry has therefore been removed for now.
1811 #
1812 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-10-17):
1813 # Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR, also known as
1814 # "Pridnestrovie") has abolished seasonal clock change (no transition
1815 # to the Winter Time).
1816 #
1817 # News (in Russian):
1818 # http://www.kyivpost.ua/russia/news/pridnestrove-otkazalos-ot-perehoda-na-zimnee-vremya-30954.html
1819 # http://www.allmoldova.com/moldova-news/1249064116.html
1820 #
1821 # The substance of this change (reinstatement of the Tiraspol entry)
1822 # is from a patch from Petr Machata (2011-10-17)
1823 #
1824 # From Tim Parenti (2011-10-19)
1825 # In addition, being situated at +4651+2938 would give Tiraspol
1826 # a pre-1880 LMT offset of 1:58:32.
1827 #
1828 # (which agrees with the earlier entry that had been removed)
1829 #
1830 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-10-26)
1831 # NO need to divide Moldova into two timezones at this point.
1832 # As of today, Transnistria (Pridnestrovie)- Tiraspol reversed its own
1833 # decision to abolish DST this winter.
1834 # Following Moldova and neighboring Ukraine- Transnistria (Pridnestrovie)-
1835 # Tiraspol will go back to winter time on October 30, 2011.
1836 # News from Moldova (in russian):
1837 # http://ru.publika.md/link_317061.html
1838 
1839 # From Roman Tudos (2015-07-02):
1840 # http://lex.justice.md/index.php?action=view&view=doc&lang=1&id=355077
1841 # From Paul Eggert (2015-07-01):
1842 # The abovementioned official link to IGO1445-868/2014 states that
1843 # 2014-10-26's fallback transition occurred at 03:00 local time.  Also,
1844 # http://www.trm.md/en/social/la-30-martie-vom-trece-la-ora-de-vara
1845 # says the 2014-03-30 spring-forward transition was at 02:00 local time.
1846 # Guess that since 1997 Moldova has switched one hour before the EU.
1847 
1848 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1849 Rule    Moldova 1997    max     -       Mar     lastSun  2:00   1:00    S
1850 Rule    Moldova 1997    max     -       Oct     lastSun  3:00   0       -
1851 
1852 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1853 Zone    Europe/Chisinau 1:55:20 -       LMT     1880
1854                         1:55    -       CMT     1918 Feb 15 # Chisinau MT
1855                         1:44:24 -       BMT     1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT
1856                         2:00    Romania EE%sT   1940 Aug 15
1857                         2:00    1:00    EEST    1941 Jul 17
1858                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Aug 24
1859                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990 May  6  2:00


1860                         2:00    Russia  EE%sT   1992
1861                         2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1997
1862 # See Romania commentary for the guessed 1997 transition to EU rules.
1863                         2:00    Moldova EE%sT
1864 
1865 # Monaco
1866 # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's
1867 # more precise 0:09:21.
1868 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1869 Zone    Europe/Monaco   0:29:32 -       LMT     1891 Mar 15
1870                         0:09:21 -       PMT     1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time
1871                         0:00    France  WE%sT   1945 Sep 16  3:00
1872                         1:00    France  CE%sT   1977
1873                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1874 
1875 # Montenegro
1876 # See Europe/Belgrade.
1877 
1878 # Netherlands
1879 
1880 # Howse writes that the Netherlands' railways used GMT between 1892 and 1940,
1881 # but for other purposes the Netherlands used Amsterdam mean time.
1882 
1883 # However, Robert H. van Gent writes (2001-04-01):
1884 # Howse's statement is only correct up to 1909. From 1909-05-01 (00:00:00
1885 # Amsterdam mean time) onwards, the whole of the Netherlands (including
1886 # the Dutch railways) was required by law to observe Amsterdam mean time
1887 # (19 minutes 32.13 seconds ahead of GMT). This had already been the
1888 # common practice (except for the railways) for many decades but it was
1889 # not until 1909 when the Dutch government finally defined this by law.
1890 # On 1937-07-01 this was changed to 20 minutes (exactly) ahead of GMT and
1891 # was generally known as Dutch Time ("Nederlandse Tijd").
1892 #
1893 # (2001-04-08):
1894 # 1892-05-01 was the date when the Dutch railways were by law required to
1895 # observe GMT while the remainder of the Netherlands adhered to the common
1896 # practice of following Amsterdam mean time.
1897 #
1898 # (2001-04-09):
1899 # In 1835 the authorities of the province of North Holland requested the
1900 # municipal authorities of the towns and cities in the province to observe
1901 # Amsterdam mean time but I do not know in how many cases this request was
1902 # actually followed.
1903 #
1904 # From 1852 onwards the Dutch telegraph offices were by law required to
1905 # observe Amsterdam mean time. As the time signals from the observatory of
1906 # Leiden were also distributed by the telegraph system, I assume that most
1907 # places linked up with the telegraph (and railway) system automatically
1908 # adopted Amsterdam mean time.
1909 #
1910 # Although the early Dutch railway companies initially observed a variety
1911 # of times, most of them had adopted Amsterdam mean time by 1858 but it
1912 # was not until 1866 when they were all required by law to observe
1913 # Amsterdam mean time.
1914 
1915 # The data entries before 1945 are taken from
1916 # http://www.phys.uu.nl/~vgent/wettijd/wettijd.htm
1917 
1918 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1919 Rule    Neth    1916    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    NST     # Netherlands Summer Time
1920 Rule    Neth    1916    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       AMT     # Amsterdam Mean Time
1921 Rule    Neth    1917    only    -       Apr     16      2:00s   1:00    NST
1922 Rule    Neth    1917    only    -       Sep     17      2:00s   0       AMT
1923 Rule    Neth    1918    1921    -       Apr     Mon>=1       2:00s   1:00    NST
1924 Rule    Neth    1918    1921    -       Sep     lastMon 2:00s   0       AMT
1925 Rule    Neth    1922    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    NST
1926 Rule    Neth    1922    1936    -       Oct     Sun>=2       2:00s   0       AMT
1927 Rule    Neth    1923    only    -       Jun     Fri>=1       2:00s   1:00    NST
1928 Rule    Neth    1924    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    NST
1929 Rule    Neth    1925    only    -       Jun     Fri>=1       2:00s   1:00    NST
1930 # From 1926 through 1939 DST began 05-15, except that it was delayed by a week
1931 # in years when 05-15 fell in the Pentecost weekend.
1932 Rule    Neth    1926    1931    -       May     15      2:00s   1:00    NST
1933 Rule    Neth    1932    only    -       May     22      2:00s   1:00    NST
1934 Rule    Neth    1933    1936    -       May     15      2:00s   1:00    NST
1935 Rule    Neth    1937    only    -       May     22      2:00s   1:00    NST
1936 Rule    Neth    1937    only    -       Jul      1      0:00    1:00    S
1937 Rule    Neth    1937    1939    -       Oct     Sun>=2       2:00s   0       -
1938 Rule    Neth    1938    1939    -       May     15      2:00s   1:00    S
1939 Rule    Neth    1945    only    -       Apr      2      2:00s   1:00    S
1940 Rule    Neth    1945    only    -       Sep     16      2:00s   0       -
1941 #
1942 # Amsterdam Mean Time was +00:19:32.13 exactly, but the .13 is omitted
1943 # below because the current format requires GMTOFF to be an integer.
1944 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1945 Zone Europe/Amsterdam   0:19:32 -       LMT     1835
1946                         0:19:32 Neth    %s      1937 Jul  1
1947                         0:20    Neth    NE%sT   1940 May 16  0:00 # Dutch Time
1948                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00
1949                         1:00    Neth    CE%sT   1977
1950                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1951 
1952 # Norway
1953 # http://met.no/met/met_lex/q_u/sommertid.html (2004-01) agrees with Shanks &
1954 # Pottenger.
1955 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1956 Rule    Norway  1916    only    -       May     22      1:00    1:00    S
1957 Rule    Norway  1916    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       -
1958 Rule    Norway  1945    only    -       Apr      2      2:00s   1:00    S
1959 Rule    Norway  1945    only    -       Oct      1      2:00s   0       -
1960 Rule    Norway  1959    1964    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   1:00    S
1961 Rule    Norway  1959    1965    -       Sep     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       -
1962 Rule    Norway  1965    only    -       Apr     25      2:00s   1:00    S
1963 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1964 Zone    Europe/Oslo     0:43:00 -       LMT     1895 Jan  1
1965                         1:00    Norway  CE%sT   1940 Aug 10 23:00
1966                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00
1967                         1:00    Norway  CE%sT   1980
1968                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1969 
1970 # Svalbard & Jan Mayen
1971 
1972 # From Steffen Thorsen (2001-05-01):
1973 # Although I could not find it explicitly, it seems that Jan Mayen and
1974 # Svalbard have been using the same time as Norway at least since the
1975 # time they were declared as parts of Norway.  Svalbard was declared
1976 # as a part of Norway by law of 1925-07-17 no 11, section 4 and Jan
1977 # Mayen by law of 1930-02-27 no 2, section 2. (From
1978 # <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19250717-011.html> and
1979 # <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19300227-002.html>).  The law/regulation
1980 # for normal/standard time in Norway is from 1894-06-29 no 1 (came
1981 # into operation on 1895-01-01) and Svalbard/Jan Mayen seem to be a
1982 # part of this law since 1925/1930. (From
1983 # <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-18940629-001.html>) I have not been
1984 # able to find if Jan Mayen used a different time zone (e.g. -0100)
1985 # before 1930. Jan Mayen has only been "inhabited" since 1921 by
1986 # Norwegian meteorologists and maybe used the same time as Norway ever
1987 # since 1921.  Svalbard (Arctic/Longyearbyen) has been inhabited since
1988 # before 1895, and therefore probably changed the local time somewhere
1989 # between 1895 and 1925 (inclusive).
1990 
1991 # From Paul Eggert (2013-09-04):
1992 #
1993 # Actually, Jan Mayen was never occupied by Germany during World War II,
1994 # so it must have diverged from Oslo time during the war, as Oslo was
1995 # keeping Berlin time.
1996 #
1997 # <http://home.no.net/janmayen/history.htm> says that the meteorologists
1998 # burned down their station in 1940 and left the island, but returned in
1999 # 1941 with a small Norwegian garrison and continued operations despite
2000 # frequent air attacks from Germans.  In 1943 the Americans established a
2001 # radiolocating station on the island, called "Atlantic City".  Possibly
2002 # the UT offset changed during the war, but I think it unlikely that
2003 # Jan Mayen used German daylight-saving rules.
2004 #
2005 # Svalbard is more complicated, as it was raided in August 1941 by an
2006 # Allied party that evacuated the civilian population to England (says
2007 # <http://www.bartleby.com/65/sv/Svalbard.html>).  The Svalbard FAQ
2008 # <http://www.svalbard.com/SvalbardFAQ.html> says that the Germans were
2009 # expelled on 1942-05-14.  However, small parties of Germans did return,
2010 # and according to Wilhelm Dege's book "War North of 80" (1954)
2011 # http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/departments/UP/1-55238/1-55238-110-2.html
2012 # the German armed forces at the Svalbard weather station code-named
2013 # Haudegen did not surrender to the Allies until September 1945.
2014 #
2015 # All these events predate our cutoff date of 1970, so use Europe/Oslo
2016 # for these regions.
2017 Link    Europe/Oslo     Arctic/Longyearbyen
2018 
2019 # Poland
2020 
2021 # The 1919 dates and times can be found in Tygodnik Urzędowy nr 1 (1919-03-20),
2022 # <http://www.wbc.poznan.pl/publication/32156> pp 1-2.
2023 
2024 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2025 Rule    Poland  1918    1919    -       Sep     16      2:00s   0       -
2026 Rule    Poland  1919    only    -       Apr     15      2:00s   1:00    S
2027 Rule    Poland  1944    only    -       Apr      3      2:00s   1:00    S
2028 # Whitman gives 1944 Nov 30; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2029 Rule    Poland  1944    only    -       Oct      4      2:00    0       -
2030 # For 1944-1948 Whitman gives the previous day; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2031 Rule    Poland  1945    only    -       Apr     29      0:00    1:00    S
2032 Rule    Poland  1945    only    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       -
2033 # For 1946 on the source is Kazimierz Borkowski,
2034 # Toruń Center for Astronomy, Dept. of Radio Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus U.,
2035 # http://www.astro.uni.torun.pl/~kb/Artykuly/U-PA/Czas2.htm#tth_tAb1
2036 # Thanks to Przemysław Augustyniak (2005-05-28) for this reference.
2037 # He also gives these further references:
2038 # Mon Pol nr 13, poz 162 (1995) <http://www.abc.com.pl/serwis/mp/1995/0162.htm>
2039 # Druk nr 2180 (2003) <http://www.senat.gov.pl/k5/dok/sejm/053/2180.pdf>
2040 Rule    Poland  1946    only    -       Apr     14      0:00s   1:00    S
2041 Rule    Poland  1946    only    -       Oct      7      2:00s   0       -
2042 Rule    Poland  1947    only    -       May      4      2:00s   1:00    S
2043 Rule    Poland  1947    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
2044 Rule    Poland  1948    only    -       Apr     18      2:00s   1:00    S
2045 Rule    Poland  1949    only    -       Apr     10      2:00s   1:00    S
2046 Rule    Poland  1957    only    -       Jun      2      1:00s   1:00    S
2047 Rule    Poland  1957    1958    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00s   0       -
2048 Rule    Poland  1958    only    -       Mar     30      1:00s   1:00    S
2049 Rule    Poland  1959    only    -       May     31      1:00s   1:00    S
2050 Rule    Poland  1959    1961    -       Oct     Sun>=1       1:00s   0       -
2051 Rule    Poland  1960    only    -       Apr      3      1:00s   1:00    S
2052 Rule    Poland  1961    1964    -       May     lastSun 1:00s   1:00    S
2053 Rule    Poland  1962    1964    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00s   0       -
2054 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2055 Zone    Europe/Warsaw   1:24:00 -       LMT     1880
2056                         1:24:00 -       WMT     1915 Aug  5 # Warsaw Mean Time
2057                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1918 Sep 16  3:00
2058                         2:00    Poland  EE%sT   1922 Jun
2059                         1:00    Poland  CE%sT   1940 Jun 23  2:00
2060                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Oct
2061                         1:00    Poland  CE%sT   1977
2062                         1:00    W-Eur   CE%sT   1988
2063                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
2064 
2065 # Portugal
2066 #
2067 # From Paul Eggert (2014-08-11), after a heads-up from Stephen Colebourne:
2068 # According to a Portuguese decree (1911-05-26)
2069 # http://dre.pt/pdf1sdip/1911/05/12500/23132313.pdf
2070 # Lisbon was at -0:36:44.68, but switched to GMT on 1912-01-01 at 00:00.
2071 # Round the old offset to -0:36:45.  This agrees with Willett but disagrees
2072 # with Shanks, who says the transition occurred on 1911-05-24 at 00:00 for
2073 # Europe/Lisbon, Atlantic/Azores, and Atlantic/Madeira.
2074 #
2075 # From Rui Pedro Salgueiro (1992-11-12):
2076 # Portugal has recently (September, 27) changed timezone
2077 # (from WET to MET or CET) to harmonize with EEC.
2078 #
2079 # Martin Bruckmann (1996-02-29) reports via Peter Ilieve
2080 # that Portugal is reverting to 0:00 by not moving its clocks this spring.
2081 # The new Prime Minister was fed up with getting up in the dark in the winter.
2082 #
2083 # From Paul Eggert (1996-11-12):
2084 # IATA SSIM (1991-09) reports several 1991-09 and 1992-09 transitions
2085 # at 02:00u, not 01:00u.  Assume that these are typos.
2086 # IATA SSIM (1991/1992) reports that the Azores were at -1:00.
2087 # IATA SSIM (1993-02) says +0:00; later issues (through 1996-09) say -1:00.
2088 # Guess that the Azores changed to EU rules in 1992 (since that's when Portugal
2089 # harmonized with the EU), and that they stayed +0:00 that winter.
2090 #
2091 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2092 # DSH writes that despite Decree 1,469 (1915), the change to the clocks was not
2093 # done every year, depending on what Spain did, because of railroad schedules.
2094 # Go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2095 Rule    Port    1916    only    -       Jun     17      23:00   1:00    S
2096 # Whitman gives 1916 Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2097 Rule    Port    1916    only    -       Nov      1       1:00   0       -
2098 Rule    Port    1917    only    -       Feb     28      23:00s  1:00    S
2099 Rule    Port    1917    1921    -       Oct     14      23:00s  0       -
2100 Rule    Port    1918    only    -       Mar      1      23:00s  1:00    S
2101 Rule    Port    1919    only    -       Feb     28      23:00s  1:00    S
2102 Rule    Port    1920    only    -       Feb     29      23:00s  1:00    S
2103 Rule    Port    1921    only    -       Feb     28      23:00s  1:00    S
2104 Rule    Port    1924    only    -       Apr     16      23:00s  1:00    S
2105 Rule    Port    1924    only    -       Oct     14      23:00s  0       -
2106 Rule    Port    1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00s  1:00    S
2107 Rule    Port    1926    1929    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
2108 Rule    Port    1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00s  1:00    S
2109 Rule    Port    1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00s  1:00    S
2110 Rule    Port    1929    only    -       Apr     20      23:00s  1:00    S
2111 Rule    Port    1931    only    -       Apr     18      23:00s  1:00    S
2112 # Whitman gives 1931 Oct 8; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2113 Rule    Port    1931    1932    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
2114 Rule    Port    1932    only    -       Apr      2      23:00s  1:00    S
2115 Rule    Port    1934    only    -       Apr      7      23:00s  1:00    S
2116 # Whitman gives 1934 Oct 5; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2117 Rule    Port    1934    1938    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
2118 # Shanks & Pottenger give 1935 Apr 30; go with Whitman.
2119 Rule    Port    1935    only    -       Mar     30      23:00s  1:00    S
2120 Rule    Port    1936    only    -       Apr     18      23:00s  1:00    S
2121 # Whitman gives 1937 Apr 2; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2122 Rule    Port    1937    only    -       Apr      3      23:00s  1:00    S
2123 Rule    Port    1938    only    -       Mar     26      23:00s  1:00    S
2124 Rule    Port    1939    only    -       Apr     15      23:00s  1:00    S
2125 # Whitman gives 1939 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2126 Rule    Port    1939    only    -       Nov     18      23:00s  0       -
2127 Rule    Port    1940    only    -       Feb     24      23:00s  1:00    S
2128 # Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Oct 7; go with Whitman.
2129 Rule    Port    1940    1941    -       Oct      5      23:00s  0       -
2130 Rule    Port    1941    only    -       Apr      5      23:00s  1:00    S
2131 Rule    Port    1942    1945    -       Mar     Sat>=8       23:00s  1:00    S
2132 Rule    Port    1942    only    -       Apr     25      22:00s  2:00    M # Midsummer
2133 Rule    Port    1942    only    -       Aug     15      22:00s  1:00    S
2134 Rule    Port    1942    1945    -       Oct     Sat>=24      23:00s  0       -
2135 Rule    Port    1943    only    -       Apr     17      22:00s  2:00    M
2136 Rule    Port    1943    1945    -       Aug     Sat>=25      22:00s  1:00    S
2137 Rule    Port    1944    1945    -       Apr     Sat>=21      22:00s  2:00    M
2138 Rule    Port    1946    only    -       Apr     Sat>=1       23:00s  1:00    S
2139 Rule    Port    1946    only    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
2140 Rule    Port    1947    1949    -       Apr     Sun>=1        2:00s  1:00    S
2141 Rule    Port    1947    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1        2:00s  0       -
2142 # Shanks & Pottenger say DST was observed in 1950; go with Whitman.
2143 # Whitman gives Oct lastSun for 1952 on; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2144 Rule    Port    1951    1965    -       Apr     Sun>=1        2:00s  1:00    S
2145 Rule    Port    1951    1965    -       Oct     Sun>=1        2:00s  0       -
2146 Rule    Port    1977    only    -       Mar     27       0:00s  1:00    S
2147 Rule    Port    1977    only    -       Sep     25       0:00s  0       -
2148 Rule    Port    1978    1979    -       Apr     Sun>=1        0:00s  1:00    S
2149 Rule    Port    1978    only    -       Oct      1       0:00s  0       -
2150 Rule    Port    1979    1982    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00s  0       -
2151 Rule    Port    1980    only    -       Mar     lastSun  0:00s  1:00    S
2152 Rule    Port    1981    1982    -       Mar     lastSun  1:00s  1:00    S
2153 Rule    Port    1983    only    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
2154 #
2155 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2156 Zone    Europe/Lisbon   -0:36:45 -      LMT     1884
2157                         -0:36:45 -      LMT     1912 Jan  1 # Lisbon Mean Time
2158                          0:00   Port    WE%sT   1966 Apr  3  2:00
2159                          1:00   -       CET     1976 Sep 26  1:00
2160                          0:00   Port    WE%sT   1983 Sep 25  1:00s
2161                          0:00   W-Eur   WE%sT   1992 Sep 27  1:00s
2162                          1:00   EU      CE%sT   1996 Mar 31  1:00u
2163                          0:00   EU      WE%sT
2164 Zone Atlantic/Azores    -1:42:40 -      LMT     1884        # Ponta Delgada
2165                         -1:54:32 -      HMT     1912 Jan  1 # Horta Mean Time
2166                         -2:00   Port    AZO%sT  1966 Apr  3  2:00  # Azores Time
2167                         -1:00   Port    AZO%sT  1983 Sep 25  1:00s
2168                         -1:00   W-Eur   AZO%sT  1992 Sep 27  1:00s
2169                          0:00   EU      WE%sT   1993 Mar 28  1:00u
2170                         -1:00   EU      AZO%sT
2171 Zone Atlantic/Madeira   -1:07:36 -      LMT     1884        # Funchal
2172                         -1:07:36 -      FMT     1912 Jan  1 # Funchal Mean Time
2173                         -1:00   Port    MAD%sT  1966 Apr  3  2:00 # Madeira Time
2174                          0:00   Port    WE%sT   1983 Sep 25  1:00s
2175                          0:00   EU      WE%sT
2176 
2177 # Romania
2178 #
2179 # From Paul Eggert (1999-10-07):
2180 # Nine O'clock <http://www.nineoclock.ro/POL/1778pol.html>
2181 # (1998-10-23) reports that the switch occurred at
2182 # 04:00 local time in fall 1998.  For lack of better info,
2183 # assume that Romania and Moldova switched to EU rules in 1997,
2184 # the same year as Bulgaria.
2185 #
2186 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2187 Rule    Romania 1932    only    -       May     21       0:00s  1:00    S
2188 Rule    Romania 1932    1939    -       Oct     Sun>=1        0:00s  0       -
2189 Rule    Romania 1933    1939    -       Apr     Sun>=2        0:00s  1:00    S
2190 Rule    Romania 1979    only    -       May     27       0:00   1:00    S
2191 Rule    Romania 1979    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       -
2192 Rule    Romania 1980    only    -       Apr      5      23:00   1:00    S
2193 Rule    Romania 1980    only    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00   0       -
2194 Rule    Romania 1991    1993    -       Mar     lastSun  0:00s  1:00    S
2195 Rule    Romania 1991    1993    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       -
2196 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2197 Zone Europe/Bucharest   1:44:24 -       LMT     1891 Oct
2198                         1:44:24 -       BMT     1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT
2199                         2:00    Romania EE%sT   1981 Mar 29  2:00s
2200                         2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1991
2201                         2:00    Romania EE%sT   1994
2202                         2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1997
2203                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
2204 
2205 
2206 # Russia
2207 
2208 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-09-15):
2209 # Based on last Russian Government Decree No. 725 on August 31, 2011
2210 # (Government document
2211 # http://www.government.ru/gov/results/16355/print/
2212 # in Russian)
2213 # there are few corrections have to be made for some Russian time zones...
2214 # All updated Russian Time Zones were placed in table and translated to English
2215 # by WorldTimeZone.com at the link below:
2216 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia36.htm
2217 
2218 # From Sanjeev Gupta (2011-09-27):
2219 # Scans of [Decree No. 23 of January 8, 1992] are available at:
2220 # http://government.consultant.ru/page.aspx?1223966
2221 # They are in Cyrillic letters (presumably Russian).
2222 
2223 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09):
2224 # Regarding the instant when clocks in time-zone-shifting parts of Russia
2225 # changed in September 2011:
2226 #
2227 # One source is
2228 # http://government.ru/gov/results/16355/
2229 # which, according to translate.google.com, begins "Decree of August 31,
2230 # 2011 No. 725" and contains no other dates or "effective date" information.
2231 #
2232 # Another source is
2233 # http://www.rg.ru/2011/09/06/chas-zona-dok.html
2234 # which, according to translate.google.com, begins "Resolution of the
2235 # Government of the Russian Federation on August 31, 2011 N 725" and also
2236 # contains "Date first official publication: September 6, 2011 Posted on:
2237 # in the 'RG' - Federal Issue No. 5573 September 6, 2011" but which
2238 # does not contain any "effective date" information.
2239 #
2240 # Another source is
2241 # http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oymyakonsky_District#cite_note-RuTime-7
2242 # which, in note 8, contains "Resolution No. 725 of August 31, 2011...
2243 # Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication"
2244 # but which does not contain any reference to September 6, 2011.
2245 #
2246 # The Wikipedia article refers to
2247 # http://base.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi?req=doc;base=LAW;n=118896
2248 # which seems to copy the text of the government.ru page.
2249 #
2250 # Tobias Conradi combines Wikipedia's
2251 # "as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication"
2252 # with www.rg.ru's "Date of first official publication: September 6, 2011" to
2253 # get September 13, 2011 as the cutover date (unusually, a Tuesday, as Tobias
2254 # Conradi notes).
2255 #
2256 # None of the sources indicates a time of day for changing clocks.
2257 #
2258 # Go with 2011-09-13 0:00s.
2259 
2260 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-01):
2261 # According to the Russian news (ITAR-TASS News Agency)
2262 # http://en.itar-tass.com/russia/738562
2263 # the State Duma has approved ... the draft bill on returning to
2264 # winter time standard and return Russia 11 time zones.  The new
2265 # regulations will come into effect on October 26, 2014 at 02:00 ...
2266 # http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/main.nsf/%28Spravka%29?OpenAgent&RN=431985-6&02
2267 # Here is a link where we put together table (based on approved Bill N
2268 # 431985-6) with proposed 11 Russian time zones and corresponding
2269 # areas/cities/administrative centers in the Russian Federation (in English):
2270 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia65.html
2271 #
2272 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-22):
2273 # Putin signed the Federal Law 431985-6 ... (in Russian)
2274 # http://itar-tass.com/obschestvo/1333711
2275 # http://www.pravo.gov.ru:8080/page.aspx?111660
2276 # http://www.kremlin.ru/acts/46279
2277 # From October 26, 2014 the new Russian time zone map will looks like this:
2278 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia-map-2014-07.html
2279 
2280 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
2281 # Except for Moscow after 1919-07-01, I invented the time zone abbreviations.
2282 # Moscow time zone abbreviations after 1919-07-01, and Moscow rules after 1991,
2283 # are from Andrey A. Chernov.  The rest is from Shanks & Pottenger,
2284 # except we follow Chernov's report that 1992 DST transitions were Sat
2285 # 23:00, not Sun 02:00s.
2286 #
2287 # From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski (1994-06-29):
2288 # But now it is some months since Novosibirsk is 3 hours ahead of Moscow!
2289 # I do not know why they have decided to make this change;
2290 # as far as I remember it was done exactly during winter->summer switching
2291 # so we (Novosibirsk) simply did not switch.
2292 #
2293 # From Andrey A. Chernov (1996-10-04):
2294 # 'MSK' and 'MSD' were born and used initially on Moscow computers with
2295 # UNIX-like OSes by several developer groups (e.g. Demos group, Kiae group)....
2296 # The next step was the UUCP network, the Relcom predecessor
2297 # (used mainly for mail), and MSK/MSD was actively used there.
2298 #
2299 # From Chris Carrier (1996-10-30):
2300 # According to a friend of mine who rode the Trans-Siberian Railroad from
2301 # Moscow to Irkutsk in 1995, public air and rail transport in Russia ...
2302 # still follows Moscow time, no matter where in Russia it is located.
2303 #
2304 # For Grozny, Chechnya, we have the following story from
2305 # John Daniszewski, "Scavengers in the Rubble", Los Angeles Times (2001-02-07):
2306 # News - often false - is spread by word of mouth.  A rumor that it was
2307 # time to move the clocks back put this whole city out of sync with
2308 # the rest of Russia for two weeks - even soldiers stationed here began
2309 # enforcing curfew at the wrong time.
2310 #
2311 # From Gwillim Law (2001-06-05):
2312 # There's considerable evidence that Sakhalin Island used to be in
2313 # UTC+11, and has changed to UTC+10, in this decade.  I start with the
2314 # SSIM, which listed Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk in zone RU10 along with Magadan
2315 # until February 1997, and then in RU9 with Khabarovsk and Vladivostok
2316 # since September 1997....  Although the Kuril Islands are
2317 # administratively part of Sakhalin oblast', they appear to have
2318 # remained on UTC+11 along with Magadan.
2319 
2320 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
2321 # The comments detailing the coverage of each Russian zone are meant to assist
2322 # with maintenance only and represent our best guesses as to which regions
2323 # are covered by each zone.  They are not meant to be taken as an authoritative
2324 # listing.  The region codes listed come from
2325 # http://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Federal_subjects_of_Russia&oldid=611810498
2326 # and are used for convenience only; no guarantees are made regarding their
2327 # future stability.  ISO 3166-2:RU codes are also listed for first-level
2328 # divisions where available.
2329 
2330 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2331 
2332 
2333 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
2334 # Europe/Kaliningrad covers...
2335 # 39    RU-KGD  Kaliningrad Oblast
2336 
2337 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2338 # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
2339 
2340 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07):
2341 # http://www.rgo.ru/ru/kaliningradskoe-oblastnoe-otdelenie/ob-otdelenii/publikacii/kak-nam-zhilos-bez-letnego-vremeni
2342 # confirms that the 1989 change to Moscow-1 was implemented.
2343 # (The article, though, is misattributed to 1990 while saying that
2344 # summer->winter transition would be done on the 24 of September. But
2345 # 1990-09-24 was Monday, while 1989-09-24 was Sunday as expected.)
2346 # ...
2347 # http://www.kaliningradka.ru/site_pc/cherez/index.php?ELEMENT_ID=40091
2348 # says that Kaliningrad switched to Moscow-1 on 1989-03-26, avoided
2349 # at the last moment switch to Moscow-1 on 1991-03-31, switched to
2350 # Moscow on 1991-11-03, switched to Moscow-1 on 1992-01-19.
2351 
2352 Zone Europe/Kaliningrad  1:22:00 -      LMT     1893 Apr
2353                          1:00   C-Eur   CE%sT   1945
2354                          2:00   Poland  CE%sT   1946
2355                          3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 1989 Mar 26  2:00s
2356                          2:00   Russia  EE%sT   2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2357                          3:00   -       FET     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2358                          2:00   -       EET
2359 
2360 
2361 # From Paul Eggert (2016-02-21), per Tim Parenti (2014-07-03) and
2362 # Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
2363 # Europe/Moscow covers...
2364 # 01    RU-AD   Adygea, Republic of
2365 # 05    RU-DA   Dagestan, Republic of
2366 # 06    RU-IN   Ingushetia, Republic of
2367 # 07    RU-KB   Kabardino-Balkar Republic
2368 # 08    RU-KL   Kalmykia, Republic of
2369 # 09    RU-KC   Karachay-Cherkess Republic
2370 # 10    RU-KR   Karelia, Republic of
2371 # 11    RU-KO   Komi Republic
2372 # 12    RU-ME   Mari El Republic
2373 # 13    RU-MO   Mordovia, Republic of
2374 # 15    RU-SE   North Ossetia-Alania, Republic of
2375 # 16    RU-TA   Tatarstan, Republic of
2376 # 20    RU-CE   Chechen Republic
2377 # 21    RU-CU   Chuvash Republic
2378 # 23    RU-KDA  Krasnodar Krai
2379 # 26    RU-STA  Stavropol Krai
2380 # 29    RU-ARK  Arkhangelsk Oblast
2381 # 31    RU-BEL  Belgorod Oblast
2382 # 32    RU-BRY  Bryansk Oblast
2383 # 33    RU-VLA  Vladimir Oblast
2384 # 35    RU-VLG  Vologda Oblast
2385 # 36    RU-VOR  Voronezh Oblast
2386 # 37    RU-IVA  Ivanovo Oblast
2387 # 40    RU-KLU  Kaluga Oblast
2388 # 44    RU-KOS  Kostroma Oblast
2389 # 46    RU-KRS  Kursk Oblast
2390 # 47    RU-LEN  Leningrad Oblast
2391 # 48    RU-LIP  Lipetsk Oblast
2392 # 50    RU-MOS  Moscow Oblast
2393 # 51    RU-MUR  Murmansk Oblast
2394 # 52    RU-NIZ  Nizhny Novgorod Oblast
2395 # 53    RU-NGR  Novgorod Oblast
2396 # 57    RU-ORL  Oryol Oblast
2397 # 58    RU-PNZ  Penza Oblast
2398 # 60    RU-PSK  Pskov Oblast
2399 # 61    RU-ROS  Rostov Oblast
2400 # 62    RU-RYA  Ryazan Oblast
2401 # 67    RU-SMO  Smolensk Oblast
2402 # 68    RU-TAM  Tambov Oblast
2403 # 69    RU-TVE  Tver Oblast
2404 # 71    RU-TUL  Tula Oblast

2405 # 76    RU-YAR  Yaroslavl Oblast
2406 # 77    RU-MOW  Moscow
2407 # 78    RU-SPE  Saint Petersburg
2408 # 83    RU-NEN  Nenets Autonomous Okrug
2409 
2410 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07):
2411 # 11. Regions-violators, 1981-1982.
2412 # Wikipedia refers to
2413 # http://maps.monetonos.ru/maps/raznoe/Old_Maps/Old_Maps/Articles/022/3_1981.html
2414 # http://besp.narod.ru/nauka_1981_3.htm
2415 #
2416 # The second link provides two articles scanned from the Nauka i Zhizn
2417 # magazine No. 3, 1981 and a scan of the short article attributed to
2418 # the Trud newspaper from February 1982.  The first link provides the
2419 # same Nauka i Zhizn articles converted to the text form (but misses
2420 # time belt changes map).
2421 #
2422 # The second Nauka i Zhizn article says that in addition to
2423 # introduction of summer time on 1981-04-01 there are some time belt
2424 # border changes on 1981-10-01, mostly affecting Nenets Autonomous
2425 # Okrug, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Yakutia, Magadan Oblast and Chukotka
2426 # according to the provided map (colored one).  In addition to that
2427 # "time violators" (regions which were not using rules of the time
2428 # belts in which they were located) would not be moving off the DST on
2429 # 1981-10-01 to restore the decree time usage.  (Komi ASSR was
2430 # supposed to repeat that move in October 1982 to account for the 2
2431 # hour difference.)  Map depicting "time violators" before 1981-10-01
2432 # is also provided.
2433 #
2434 # The article from Trud says that 1981-10-01 changes caused problems
2435 # and some territories would be moved to pre-1981-10-01 time by not
2436 # moving to summer time on 1982-04-01.  Namely: Dagestan,
2437 # Kabardino-Balkar, Kalmyk, Komi, Mari, Mordovian, North Ossetian,
2438 # Tatar, Chechen-Ingush and Chuvash ASSR, Krasnodar and Stavropol
2439 # krais, Arkhangelsk, Vladimir, Vologda, Voronezh, Gorky, Ivanovo,
2440 # Kostroma, Lipetsk, Penza, Rostov, Ryazan, Tambov, Tyumen and
2441 # Yaroslavl oblasts, Nenets and Evenk autonomous okrugs, Khatangsky
2442 # district of Taymyr Autonomous Okrug.  As a result Evenk Autonomous
2443 # Okrug and Khatangsky district of Taymyr Autonomous Okrug would end
2444 # up on Moscow+4, Tyumen Oblast on Moscow+2 and the rest on Moscow
2445 # time.
2446 #
2447 # http://astrozet.net/files/Zones/DOC/RU/1980-925.txt
2448 # attributes the 1982 changes to the Act of the Council of Ministers
2449 # of the USSR No. 126 from 18.02.1982.  1980-925.txt also adds
2450 # Udmurtia to the list of affected territories and lists Khatangsky
2451 # district separately from Taymyr Autonomous Okurg.  Probably erroneously.
2452 #
2453 # The affected territories are currently listed under Europe/Moscow,
2454 # Asia/Yekaterinburg and Asia/Krasnoyarsk.
2455 #
2456 # 12. Udmurtia
2457 # The fact that Udmurtia is depicted as a violator in the Nauka i
2458 # Zhizn article hints at Izhevsk being on different time from
2459 # Kuybyshev before 1981-10-01. Udmurtia is not mentioned in the 1989 act.
2460 # http://astrozet.net/files/Zones/DOC/RU/1980-925.txt
2461 # implies Udmurtia was on Moscow time after 1982-04-01.
2462 # Wikipedia implies Udmurtia being on Moscow+1 until 1991.
2463 #
2464 # ...
2465 #
2466 # All Russian zones are supposed to have by default a -1 change at
2467 # 1991-03-31 2:00 (cancellation of the decree time in the USSR) and a +1
2468 # change at 1992-01-19 2:00 (restoration of the decree time in Russia).
2469 #
2470 # There were some exceptions, though.
2471 # Wikipedia says newspapers listed Astrakhan, Saratov, Kirov, Volgograd,
2472 # Izhevsk, Grozny, Kazan and Samara as such exceptions for the 1992
2473 # change. (Different newspapers providing different lists. And some
2474 # lists found in the internet are quite wild.)
2475 #
2476 # And apparently some exceptions were reverted in the last moment.
2477 # http://www.kaliningradka.ru/site_pc/cherez/index.php?ELEMENT_ID=40091
2478 # says that Kaliningrad decided not to be an exception 2 days before the
2479 # 1991-03-31 switch and one person at
2480 # http://izhevsk.ru/forum_light_message/50/682597-m8369040.html
2481 # says he remembers that Samara opted out of the 1992-01-19 exception
2482 # 2 days before the switch.
2483 #
2484 #
2485 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2486 # Given the above, we appear to be missing some Zone entries for the
2487 # chaotic early 1980s in Russia.  It's not clear what these entries
2488 # should be.  For now, sweep this under the rug and just document the
2489 # time in Moscow.
2490 
2491 # From Vladimir Karpinsky (2014-07-08):
2492 # LMT in Moscow (before Jul 3, 1916) is 2:30:17, that was defined by Moscow
2493 # Observatory (coordinates: 55 deg. 45'29.70", 37 deg. 34'05.30")....
2494 # LMT in Moscow since Jul 3, 1916 is 2:31:01 as a result of new standard.
2495 # (The info is from the book by Byalokoz ... p. 18.)
2496 # The time in St. Petersburg as capital of Russia was defined by
2497 # Pulkov observatory, near St. Petersburg.  In 1916 LMT Moscow
2498 # was synchronized with LMT St. Petersburg (+30 minutes), (Pulkov observatory
2499 # coordinates: 59 deg. 46'18.70", 30 deg. 19'40.70") so 30 deg. 19'40.70" >
2500 # 2h01m18.7s = 2:01:19.  LMT Moscow = LMT St.Petersburg + 30m 2:01:19 + 0:30 =
2501 # 2:31:19 ...
2502 #
2503 # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-08):
2504 # Milne does not list Moscow, but suggests that its time might be listed in
2505 # Résumés mensuels et annuels des observations météorologiques (1895).
2506 # Presumably this is OCLC 85825704, a journal published with parallel text in
2507 # Russian and French.  This source has not been located; go with Karpinsky.
2508 
2509 Zone Europe/Moscow       2:30:17 -      LMT     1880
2510                          2:30:17 -      MMT     1916 Jul  3 # Moscow Mean Time
2511                          2:31:19 Russia %s      1919 Jul  1  2:00
2512                          3:00   Russia  %s      1921 Oct
2513                          3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 1922 Oct
2514                          2:00   -       EET     1930 Jun 21
2515                          3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2516                          2:00   Russia  EE%sT   1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2517                          3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2518                          4:00   -       MSK     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2519                          3:00   -       MSK
2520 
2521 
2522 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
2523 # Europe/Simferopol covers...
2524 # **    ****    Crimea, Republic of
2525 # **    ****    Sevastopol
2526 
2527 Zone Europe/Simferopol   2:16:24 -      LMT     1880
2528                          2:16   -       SMT     1924 May  2 # Simferopol Mean T
2529                          2:00   -       EET     1930 Jun 21
2530                          3:00   -       MSK     1941 Nov
2531                          1:00   C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Apr 13
2532                          3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 1990
2533                          3:00   -       MSK     1990 Jul  1  2:00
2534                          2:00   -       EET     1992
2535 # Central Crimea used Moscow time 1994/1997.
2536 #
2537 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
2538 # The _Economist_ (1994-05-28, p 45) reports that central Crimea switched
2539 # from Kiev to Moscow time sometime after the January 1994 elections.
2540 # Shanks (1999) says "date of change uncertain", but implies that it happened
2541 # sometime between the 1994 DST switches.  Shanks & Pottenger simply say
2542 # 1994-09-25 03:00, but that can't be right.  For now, guess it
2543 # changed in May.
2544                          2:00   E-Eur   EE%sT   1994 May
2545 # From IATA SSIM (1994/1997), which also says that Kerch is still like Kiev.
2546                          3:00   E-Eur   MSK/MSD 1996 Mar 31  0:00s
2547                          3:00   1:00    MSD     1996 Oct 27  3:00s
2548 # IATA SSIM (1997-09) says Crimea switched to EET/EEST.
2549 # Assume it happened in March by not changing the clocks.
2550                          3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 1997
2551                          3:00   -       MSK     1997 Mar lastSun  1:00u
2552 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-03-17):
2553 # time change at 2:00 (2am) on March 30, 2014
2554 # http://vz.ru/news/2014/3/17/677464.html
2555 # From Paul Eggert (2014-03-30):
2556 # Simferopol and Sevastopol reportedly changed their central town clocks
2557 # late the previous day, but this appears to have been ceremonial
2558 # and the discrepancies are small enough to not worry about.
2559                          2:00   EU      EE%sT   2014 Mar 30  2:00
2560                          4:00   -       MSK     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2561                          3:00   -       MSK
2562 
2563 
2564 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2565 # Europe/Astrakhan covers:
2566 # 30    RU-AST  Astrakhan Oblast
2567 #
2568 # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
2569 
2570 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-01-12):
2571 # On February 10, 2016 Astrakhan Oblast got approval by the Federation
2572 # Council to change its time zone to UTC+4 (from current UTC+3 Moscow time)....
2573 # This Federal Law shall enter into force on 27 March 2016 at 02:00.
2574 # From Matt Johnson (2016-03-09):
2575 # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201602150056
2576 
2577 Zone Europe/Astrakhan    3:12:12 -      LMT     1924 May
2578                          3:00   -       +03     1930 Jun 21
2579                          4:00   Russia  +04/+05 1989 Mar 26  2:00s
2580                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2581                          4:00   -       +04     1992 Mar 29  2:00s
2582                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2583                          4:00   -       +04     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2584                          3:00   -       +03     2016 Mar 27  2:00s
2585                          4:00   -       +04
2586 
2587 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2588 # Europe/Volgograd covers:
2589 # 34    RU-VGG  Volgograd Oblast

2590 # 64    RU-SAR  Saratov Oblast
2591 # The 1988 transition is from USSR act No. 5 (1988-01-04).



2592 
2593 Zone Europe/Volgograd    2:57:40 -      LMT     1920 Jan  3
2594                          3:00   -       TSAT    1925 Apr  6 # Tsaritsyn Time
2595                          3:00   -       STAT    1930 Jun 21 # Stalingrad Time
2596                          4:00   -       STAT    1961 Nov 11
2597                          4:00   Russia  VOL%sT  1988 Mar 27  2:00s # Volgograd T
2598                          3:00   Russia  VOL%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2599                          4:00   -       VOLT    1992 Mar 29  2:00s
2600                          3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2601                          4:00   -       MSK     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2602                          3:00   -       MSK
2603 
2604 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2605 # Europe/Kirov covers:
2606 # 43    RU-KIR  Kirov Oblast
2607 # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
2608 #
2609 Zone Europe/Kirov        3:18:48 -      LMT     1919 Jul  1  2:00
2610                          3:00   -       +03     1930 Jun 21
2611                          4:00   Russia  +04/+05 1989 Mar 26  2:00s
2612                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2613                          4:00   -       +04     1992 Mar 29  2:00s
2614                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2615                          4:00   -       +04     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2616                          3:00   -       +03
2617 
2618 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
2619 # Europe/Samara covers...
2620 # 18    RU-UD   Udmurt Republic
2621 # 63    RU-SAM  Samara Oblast
2622 
2623 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2624 # Byalokoz 1919 says Samara was 3:20:20.
2625 # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
2626 
2627 Zone Europe/Samara       3:20:20 -      LMT     1919 Jul  1  2:00
2628                          3:00   -       SAMT    1930 Jun 21 # Samara Time
2629                          4:00   -       SAMT    1935 Jan 27
2630                          4:00   Russia  KUY%sT  1989 Mar 26  2:00s # Kuybyshev
2631                          3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2632                          2:00   Russia  EE%sT   1991 Sep 29  2:00s
2633                          3:00   -       SAMT    1991 Oct 20  3:00
2634                          4:00   Russia  SAM%sT  2010 Mar 28  2:00s
2635                          3:00   Russia  SAM%sT  2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2636                          4:00   -       SAMT
2637 
2638 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2639 # Europe/Ulyanovsk covers:
2640 # 73    RU-ULY  Ulyanovsk Oblast
2641 
2642 # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
2643 
2644 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-02-17):
2645 # Ulyanovsk ... on their way to change time zones by March 27, 2016 at 2am.
2646 # Ulyanovsk Oblast ... from MSK to MSK+1 (UTC+3 to UTC+4) ...
2647 # 920582-6 ... 02/17/2016 The State Duma passed the bill in the first reading.
2648 # From Matt Johnson (2016-03-09):
2649 # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201603090051
2650 
2651 Zone Europe/Ulyanovsk    3:13:36 -      LMT     1919 Jul  1  2:00
2652                          3:00   -       +03     1930 Jun 21
2653                          4:00   Russia  +04/+05 1989 Mar 26  2:00s
2654                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2655                          2:00   Russia  +02/+03 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2656                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2657                          4:00   -       +04     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2658                          3:00   -       +03     2016 Mar 27  2:00s
2659                          4:00   -       +04
2660 
2661 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
2662 # Asia/Yekaterinburg covers...
2663 # 02    RU-BA   Bashkortostan, Republic of
2664 # 90    RU-PER  Perm Krai
2665 # 45    RU-KGN  Kurgan Oblast
2666 # 56    RU-ORE  Orenburg Oblast
2667 # 66    RU-SVE  Sverdlovsk Oblast
2668 # 72    RU-TYU  Tyumen Oblast
2669 # 74    RU-CHE  Chelyabinsk Oblast
2670 # 86    RU-KHM  Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug - Yugra
2671 # 89    RU-YAN  Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug
2672 #
2673 # Note: Effective 2005-12-01, (59) Perm Oblast and (81) Komi-Permyak
2674 # Autonomous Okrug merged to form (90, RU-PER) Perm Krai.
2675 
2676 # Milne says Yekaterinburg was 4:02:32.9; round to nearest.
2677 # Byalokoz 1919 says its provincial time was based on Perm, at 3:45:05.
2678 # Assume it switched on 1916-07-03, the time of the new standard.
2679 # The 1919 and 1930 transitions are from Shanks.
2680 
2681 Zone Asia/Yekaterinburg  4:02:33 -      LMT     1916 Jul  3
2682                          3:45:05 -      PMT     1919 Jul 15  4:00
2683                          4:00   -       SVET    1930 Jun 21 # Sverdlovsk Time
2684                          5:00   Russia  SVE%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2685                          4:00   Russia  SVE%sT  1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2686                          5:00   Russia  YEK%sT  2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2687                          6:00   -       YEKT    2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2688                          5:00   -       YEKT
2689 
2690 
2691 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
2692 # Asia/Omsk covers...


2693 # 55    RU-OMS  Omsk Oblast
2694 
2695 # Byalokoz 1919 says Omsk was 4:53:30.
2696 
2697 Zone Asia/Omsk           4:53:30 -      LMT     1919 Nov 14
2698                          5:00   -       OMST    1930 Jun 21 # Omsk Time
2699                          6:00   Russia  OMS%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2700                          5:00   Russia  OMS%sT  1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2701                          6:00   Russia  OMS%sT  2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2702                          7:00   -       OMST    2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2703                          6:00   -       OMST
2704 
2705 # From Paul Eggert (2016-02-22):
2706 # Asia/Barnaul covers:
2707 # 04    RU-AL   Altai Republic
2708 # 22    RU-ALT  Altai Krai
2709 
2710 # Data before 1991 are from Shanks & Pottenger.



2711 
2712 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07):
2713 # Letter of Bank of Russia from 1995-05-25
2714 # http://www.bestpravo.ru/rossijskoje/lj-akty/y3a.htm
2715 # suggests that Altai Republic transitioned to Moscow+3 on
2716 # 1995-05-28.
2717 #
2718 # http://regnum.ru/news/society/1957270.html
2719 # has some historical data for Altai Krai:
2720 # before 1957: west part on UTC+6, east on UTC+7
2721 # after 1957: UTC+7
2722 # since 1995: UTC+6
2723 # http://barnaul.rusplt.ru/index/pochemu_altajskij_kraj_okazalsja_v_neprivychnom_chasovom_pojase-17648.html
2724 # confirms that and provides more details including 1995-05-28 transition date.
2725 
2726 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-02-17):
2727 # Altai Krai and Altai Republic on their way to change time zones
2728 # by March 27, 2016 at 2am....
2729 # Altai Republic / Gorno-Altaysk MSK+3 to MSK+4 (UTC+6 to UTC+7) ...
2730 # Altai Krai / Barnaul MSK+3 to MSK+4 (UTC+6 to UTC+7)
2731 # From Matt Johnson (2016-03-09):
2732 # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201603090043
2733 # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201603090038
2734 
2735 Zone Asia/Barnaul        5:35:00 -      LMT     1919 Dec 10
2736                          6:00   -       +06     1930 Jun 21
2737                          7:00   Russia  +07/+08 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2738                          6:00   Russia  +06/+07 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2739                          7:00   Russia  +07/+08 1995 May 28
2740                          6:00   Russia  +06/+07 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2741                          7:00   -       +07     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2742                          6:00   -       +06     2016 Mar 27  2:00s
2743                          7:00   -       +07
2744 
2745 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2746 # Asia/Novosibirsk covers:
2747 # 54    RU-NVS  Novosibirsk Oblast
2748 
2749 Zone Asia/Novosibirsk    5:31:40 -      LMT     1919 Dec 14  6:00
2750                          6:00   -       NOVT    1930 Jun 21 # Novosibirsk Time
2751                          7:00   Russia  NOV%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2752                          6:00   Russia  NOV%sT  1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2753                          7:00   Russia  NOV%sT  1993 May 23 # say Shanks & P.
2754                          6:00   Russia  NOV%sT  2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2755                          7:00   -       NOVT    2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2756                          6:00   -       NOVT
2757 
2758 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2759 # Asia/Tomsk covers:
2760 # 70    RU-TOM  Tomsk Oblast
2761 
2762 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-24):
2763 # Byalokoz listed Tomsk at 5:39:51.
2764 
2765 # From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski (1994-06-29):
2766 # Tomsk is still 4 hours ahead of Moscow.
2767 
2768 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-19):
2769 # http://pravo.gov.ru/proxy/ips/?docbody=&nd=102075743
2770 # (fifth time belt being UTC+5+1(decree time)
2771 # / UTC+5+1(decree time)+1(summer time)) ...
2772 # Note that time belts (numbered from 2 (Moscow) to 12 according to their
2773 # GMT/UTC offset and having too many exceptions like regions formally
2774 # belonging to one belt but using time from another) were replaced
2775 # with time zones in 2011 with different numberings (there was a
2776 # 2-hour gap between second and third zones in 2011-2014).
2777 
2778 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-04-12):
2779 # http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/main.nsf/(SpravkaNew)?OpenAgent&RN=1006865-6
2780 # This bill was approved in the first reading today.  It moves Tomsk oblast
2781 # from UTC+6 to UTC+7 and is supposed to come into effect on 2016-05-29 at
2782 # 2:00.  The bill needs to be approved in the second and the third readings by
2783 # the State Duma, approved by the Federation Council, signed by the President
2784 # and published to become a law.  Minor changes in the text are to be expected
2785 # before the second reading (references need to be updated to account for the
2786 # recent changes).
2787 #
2788 # Judging by the ultra-short one-day amendments period, recent similar laws,
2789 # the State Duma schedule and the Federation Council schedule
2790 # http://www.duma.gov.ru/legislative/planning/day-shedule/por_vesna_2016/
2791 # http://council.gov.ru/activity/meetings/schedule/63303
2792 # I speculate that the final text of the bill will be proposed tomorrow, the
2793 # bill will be approved in the second and the third readings on Friday,
2794 # approved by the Federation Council on 2016-04-20, signed by the President and
2795 # published as a law around 2016-04-26.
2796 
2797 Zone    Asia/Tomsk       5:39:51 -      LMT     1919 Dec 22
2798                          6:00   -       +06     1930 Jun 21
2799                          7:00   Russia  +07/+08 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2800                          6:00   Russia  +06/+07 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2801                          7:00   Russia  +07/+08 2002 May  1  3:00
2802                          6:00   Russia  +06/+07 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2803                          7:00   -       +07     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2804                          6:00   -       +06     2016 May 29  2:00s
2805                          7:00   -       +07
2806 
2807 
2808 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
2809 # Asia/Novokuznetsk covers...
2810 # 42    RU-KEM  Kemerovo Oblast
2811 
2812 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-10-13):
2813 # Kemerovo oblast' (Kemerovo region) in Russia will change current time zone on
2814 # March 28, 2010:
2815 # from current Russia Zone 6 - Krasnoyarsk Time Zone (KRA) UTC +0700
2816 # to Russia Zone 5 - Novosibirsk Time Zone (NOV) UTC +0600
2817 #
2818 # This is according to Government of Russia decree No. 740, on September
2819 # 14, 2009 "Application in the territory of the Kemerovo region the Fifth
2820 # time zone." ("Russia Zone 5" or old "USSR Zone 5" is GMT +0600)
2821 #
2822 # Russian Government web site (Russian language)
2823 # http://www.government.ru/content/governmentactivity/rfgovernmentdecisions/archive/2009/09/14/991633.htm
2824 # or Russian-English translation by WorldTimeZone.com with reference
2825 # map to local region and new Russia Time Zone map after March 28, 2010
2826 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia03.html
2827 #
2828 # Thus, when Russia will switch to DST on the night of March 28, 2010
2829 # Kemerovo region (Kemerovo oblast') will not change the clock.



2830 
2831 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-02), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02):
2832 # The Kemerovo region will remain at UTC+7 through the 2014-10-26 change, thus
2833 # realigning itself with KRAT.
2834 
2835 Zone Asia/Novokuznetsk   5:48:48 -      LMT     1924 May  1
2836                          6:00   -       KRAT    1930 Jun 21 # Krasnoyarsk Time
2837                          7:00   Russia  KRA%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2838                          6:00   Russia  KRA%sT  1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2839                          7:00   Russia  KRA%sT  2010 Mar 28  2:00s
2840                          6:00   Russia  NOV%sT  2011 Mar 27  2:00s # Novosibirsk
2841                          7:00   -       NOVT    2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2842                          7:00   -       KRAT    # Krasnoyarsk Time
2843 
2844 
2845 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
2846 # Asia/Krasnoyarsk covers...
2847 # 17    RU-TY   Tuva Republic
2848 # 19    RU-KK   Khakassia, Republic of
2849 # 24    RU-KYA  Krasnoyarsk Krai
2850 #
2851 # Note: Effective 2007-01-01, (88) Evenk Autonomous Okrug and (84) Taymyr
2852 # Autonomous Okrug were merged into (24, RU-KYA) Krasnoyarsk Krai.
2853 
2854 # Byalokoz 1919 says Krasnoyarsk was 6:11:26.
2855 
2856 Zone Asia/Krasnoyarsk    6:11:26 -      LMT     1920 Jan  6
2857                          6:00   -       KRAT    1930 Jun 21 # Krasnoyarsk Time
2858                          7:00   Russia  KRA%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2859                          6:00   Russia  KRA%sT  1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2860                          7:00   Russia  KRA%sT  2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2861                          8:00   -       KRAT    2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2862                          7:00   -       KRAT
2863 
2864 
2865 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
2866 # Asia/Irkutsk covers...
2867 # 03    RU-BU   Buryatia, Republic of
2868 # 38    RU-IRK  Irkutsk Oblast
2869 #
2870 # Note: Effective 2008-01-01, (85) Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug was
2871 # merged into (38, RU-IRK) Irkutsk Oblast.
2872 
2873 # Milne 1899 says Irkutsk was 6:57:15.
2874 # Byalokoz 1919 says Irkutsk was 6:57:05.
2875 # Go with Byalokoz.
2876 
2877 Zone Asia/Irkutsk        6:57:05 -      LMT     1880
2878                          6:57:05 -      IMT     1920 Jan 25 # Irkutsk Mean Time
2879                          7:00   -       IRKT    1930 Jun 21 # Irkutsk Time
2880                          8:00   Russia  IRK%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2881                          7:00   Russia  IRK%sT  1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2882                          8:00   Russia  IRK%sT  2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2883                          9:00   -       IRKT    2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2884                          8:00   -       IRKT
2885 
2886 
2887 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
2888 # Asia/Chita covers...
2889 # 92    RU-ZAB  Zabaykalsky Krai
2890 #
2891 # Note: Effective 2008-03-01, (75) Chita Oblast and (80) Agin-Buryat
2892 # Autonomous Okrug merged to form (92, RU-ZAB) Zabaykalsky Krai.
2893 
2894 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-01-02):
2895 # [The] time zone in the Trans-Baikal Territory (Zabaykalsky Krai) -
2896 # Asia/Chita [is changing] from UTC+8 to UTC+9.  Effective date will
2897 # be March 27, 2016 at 2:00am....
2898 # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201512300107
2899 
2900 Zone Asia/Chita  7:33:52 -      LMT     1919 Dec 15
2901                          8:00   -       YAKT    1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time
2902                          9:00   Russia  YAK%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2903                          8:00   Russia  YAK%sT  1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2904                          9:00   Russia  YAK%sT  2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2905                         10:00   -       YAKT    2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2906                          8:00   -       IRKT    2016 Mar 27  2:00
2907                          9:00   -       YAKT
2908 
2909 
2910 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
2911 # Asia/Yakutsk covers...
2912 # 28    RU-AMU  Amur Oblast
2913 #
2914 # ...and parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
2915 # 14-02 ****    Aldansky District
2916 # 14-04 ****    Amginsky District
2917 # 14-05 ****    Anabarsky District
2918 # 14-06 ****    Bulunsky District
2919 # 14-07 ****    Verkhnevilyuysky District
2920 # 14-10 ****    Vilyuysky District
2921 # 14-11 ****    Gorny District
2922 # 14-12 ****    Zhigansky District
2923 # 14-13 ****    Kobyaysky District
2924 # 14-14 ****    Lensky District
2925 # 14-15 ****    Megino-Kangalassky District
2926 # 14-16 ****    Mirninsky District
2927 # 14-18 ****    Namsky District
2928 # 14-19 ****    Neryungrinsky District
2929 # 14-21 ****    Nyurbinsky District
2930 # 14-23 ****    Olenyoksky District
2931 # 14-24 ****    Olyokminsky District
2932 # 14-26 ****    Suntarsky District
2933 # 14-27 ****    Tattinsky District
2934 # 14-29 ****    Ust-Aldansky District
2935 # 14-32 ****    Khangalassky District
2936 # 14-33 ****    Churapchinsky District
2937 # 14-34 ****    Eveno-Bytantaysky National District
2938 
2939 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
2940 # Our commentary seems to have lost mention of (14-19) Neryungrinsky District.
2941 # Since the surrounding districts of Sakha are all YAKT, assume this is, too.
2942 # Also assume its history has been the same as the rest of Asia/Yakutsk.
2943 
2944 # Byalokoz 1919 says Yakutsk was 8:38:58.
2945 
2946 Zone Asia/Yakutsk        8:38:58 -      LMT     1919 Dec 15
2947                          8:00   -       YAKT    1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time
2948                          9:00   Russia  YAK%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2949                          8:00   Russia  YAK%sT  1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2950                          9:00   Russia  YAK%sT  2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2951                         10:00   -       YAKT    2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2952                          9:00   -       YAKT
2953 
2954 
2955 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
2956 # Asia/Vladivostok covers...
2957 # 25    RU-PRI  Primorsky Krai
2958 # 27    RU-KHA  Khabarovsk Krai
2959 # 79    RU-YEV  Jewish Autonomous Oblast
2960 #
2961 # ...and parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
2962 # 14-09 ****    Verkhoyansky District
2963 # 14-31 ****    Ust-Yansky District
2964 
2965 # Milne 1899 says Vladivostok was 8:47:33.5.
2966 # Byalokoz 1919 says Vladivostok was 8:47:31.
2967 # Go with Byalokoz.
2968 
2969 Zone Asia/Vladivostok    8:47:31 -      LMT     1922 Nov 15
2970                          9:00   -       VLAT    1930 Jun 21 # Vladivostok Time
2971                         10:00   Russia  VLA%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2972                          9:00   Russia  VLA%sT  1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2973                         10:00   Russia  VLA%sT  2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2974                         11:00   -       VLAT    2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2975                         10:00   -       VLAT
2976 
2977 
2978 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
2979 # Asia/Khandyga covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
2980 # 14-28 ****    Tomponsky District
2981 # 14-30 ****    Ust-Maysky District
2982 
2983 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09):
2984 # Tomponskij and Ust'-Majskij switched from Vladivostok time to Yakutsk time
2985 # in 2011.
2986 
2987 # From Paul Eggert (2012-11-25):
2988 # Shanks and Pottenger (2003) has Khandyga on Yakutsk time.
2989 # Make a wild guess that it switched to Vladivostok time in 2004.
2990 # This transition is no doubt wrong, but we have no better info.
2991 
2992 Zone Asia/Khandyga       9:02:13 -      LMT     1919 Dec 15
2993                          8:00   -       YAKT    1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time
2994                          9:00   Russia  YAK%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2995                          8:00   Russia  YAK%sT  1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2996                          9:00   Russia  YAK%sT  2004
2997                         10:00   Russia  VLA%sT  2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2998                         11:00   -       VLAT    2011 Sep 13  0:00s # Decree 725?
2999                         10:00   -       YAKT    2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3000                          9:00   -       YAKT
3001 
3002 
3003 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
3004 # Asia/Sakhalin covers...
3005 # 65    RU-SAK  Sakhalin Oblast
3006 # ...with the exception of:
3007 # 65-11 ****    Severo-Kurilsky District (North Kuril Islands)
3008 
3009 # From Matt Johnson (2016-02-22):
3010 # Asia/Sakhalin is moving (in entirety) from UTC+10 to UTC+11 ...
3011 # (2016-03-09):
3012 # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201603090044
3013 
3014 # The Zone name should be Asia/Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, but that's too long.
3015 Zone Asia/Sakhalin       9:30:48 -      LMT     1905 Aug 23
3016                          9:00   -       JCST    1937 Oct  1
3017                          9:00   -       JST     1945 Aug 25
3018                         11:00   Russia  SAK%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s # Sakhalin T
3019                         10:00   Russia  SAK%sT  1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3020                         11:00   Russia  SAK%sT  1997 Mar lastSun  2:00s
3021                         10:00   Russia  SAK%sT  2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3022                         11:00   -       SAKT    2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3023                         10:00   -       SAKT    2016 Mar 27  2:00s
3024                         11:00   -       SAKT
3025 
3026 
3027 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
3028 # Asia/Magadan covers...
3029 # 49    RU-MAG  Magadan Oblast
3030 
3031 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02):
3032 # Magadan Oblast is moving from UTC+12 to UTC+10 on 2014-10-26; however,
3033 # several districts of Sakha Republic as well as Severo-Kurilsky District of
3034 # the Sakhalin Oblast (also known as the North Kuril Islands), represented
3035 # until now by Asia/Magadan, will instead move to UTC+11.  These regions will
3036 # need their own zone.
3037 
3038 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-03-27):
3039 # ... draft bill 948300-6 to change its time zone from UTC+10 to UTC+11 ...
3040 # will take ... effect ... on April 24, 2016 at 2 o'clock
3041 #
3042 # From Matt Johnson (2016-04-05):
3043 # ... signed by the President today ...
3044 # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201604050038
3045 
3046 Zone Asia/Magadan       10:03:12 -      LMT     1924 May  2
3047                         10:00   -       MAGT    1930 Jun 21 # Magadan Time
3048                         11:00   Russia  MAG%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3049                         10:00   Russia  MAG%sT  1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3050                         11:00   Russia  MAG%sT  2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3051                         12:00   -       MAGT    2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3052                         10:00   -       MAGT    2016 Apr 24  2:00s
3053                         11:00   -       MAGT
3054 
3055 
3056 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
3057 # Asia/Srednekolymsk covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
3058 # 14-01 ****    Abyysky District
3059 # 14-03 ****    Allaikhovsky District
3060 # 14-08 ****    Verkhnekolymsky District
3061 # 14-17 ****    Momsky District
3062 # 14-20 ****    Nizhnekolymsky District
3063 # 14-25 ****    Srednekolymsky District
3064 #
3065 # ...and parts of (65, RU-SAK) Sakhalin Oblast:
3066 # 65-11 ****    Severo-Kurilsky District (North Kuril Islands)
3067 
3068 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-02):
3069 # Oymyakonsky District of Sakha Republic (represented by Ust-Nera), along with
3070 # most of Sakhalin Oblast (represented by Sakhalin) will be moving to UTC+10 on
3071 # 2014-10-26 to stay aligned with VLAT/SAKT; however, Severo-Kurilsky District
3072 # of the Sakhalin Oblast (also known as the North Kuril Islands, represented by
3073 # Severo-Kurilsk) will remain on UTC+11.
3074 
3075 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
3076 # Assume North Kuril Islands have history like Magadan before 2011-03-27.
3077 # There is a decent chance this is wrong, in which case a new zone
3078 # Asia/Severo-Kurilsk would become necessary.
3079 #
3080 # Srednekolymsk and Zyryanka are the most populous places amongst these
3081 # districts, but have very similar populations.  In fact, Wikipedia currently
3082 # lists them both as having 3528 people, exactly 1668 males and 1860 females
3083 # each!  (Yikes!)
3084 # http://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Srednekolymsky_District&oldid=603435276
3085 # http://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Verkhnekolymsky_District&oldid=594378493
3086 # Assume this is a mistake, albeit an amusing one.
3087 #
3088 # Looking at censuses, the populations of the two municipalities seem to have
3089 # fluctuated recently.  Zyryanka was more populous than Srednekolymsk in the
3090 # 1989 and 2002 censuses, but Srednekolymsk was more populous in the most
3091 # recent (2010) census, 3525 to 3170.  (See pages 195 and 197 of
3092 # http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/Documents/Vol1/pub-01-05.pdf
3093 # in Russian.)  In addition, Srednekolymsk appears to be a much older
3094 # settlement and the population of Zyryanka seems to be declining.
3095 # Go with Srednekolymsk.
3096 #
3097 # Since Magadan Oblast moves to UTC+10 on 2014-10-26, we cannot keep using MAGT
3098 # as the abbreviation.  Use SRET instead.
3099 
3100 Zone Asia/Srednekolymsk 10:14:52 -      LMT     1924 May  2
3101                         10:00   -       MAGT    1930 Jun 21 # Magadan Time
3102                         11:00   Russia  MAG%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3103                         10:00   Russia  MAG%sT  1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3104                         11:00   Russia  MAG%sT  2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3105                         12:00   -       MAGT    2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3106                         11:00   -       SRET    # Srednekolymsk Time
3107 
3108 
3109 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
3110 # Asia/Ust-Nera covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
3111 # 14-22 ****    Oymyakonsky District
3112 
3113 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09):
3114 # Ojmyakonskij [and the Kuril Islands] switched from
3115 # Magadan time to Vladivostok time in 2011.
3116 #
3117 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02):
3118 # It's unlikely that any of the Kuril Islands were involved in such a switch,
3119 # as the South and Middle Kurils have been on UTC+11 (SAKT) with the rest of
3120 # Sakhalin Oblast since at least 2011-09, and the North Kurils have been on
3121 # UTC+12 since at least then, too.
3122 
3123 Zone Asia/Ust-Nera       9:32:54 -      LMT     1919 Dec 15
3124                          8:00   -       YAKT    1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time
3125                          9:00   Russia  YAKT    1981 Apr  1
3126                         11:00   Russia  MAG%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3127                         10:00   Russia  MAG%sT  1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3128                         11:00   Russia  MAG%sT  2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3129                         12:00   -       MAGT    2011 Sep 13  0:00s # Decree 725?
3130                         11:00   -       VLAT    2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3131                         10:00   -       VLAT
3132 
3133 
3134 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
3135 # Asia/Kamchatka covers...
3136 # 91    RU-KAM  Kamchatka Krai
3137 #
3138 # Note: Effective 2007-07-01, (41) Kamchatka Oblast and (82) Koryak
3139 # Autonomous Okrug merged to form (91, RU-KAM) Kamchatka Krai.
3140 
3141 # The Zone name should be Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski or perhaps
3142 # Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, but these are too long.
3143 Zone Asia/Kamchatka     10:34:36 -      LMT     1922 Nov 10
3144                         11:00   -       PETT    1930 Jun 21 # P-K Time
3145                         12:00   Russia  PET%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3146                         11:00   Russia  PET%sT  1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3147                         12:00   Russia  PET%sT  2010 Mar 28  2:00s
3148                         11:00   Russia  PET%sT  2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3149                         12:00   -       PETT
3150 
3151 
3152 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
3153 # Asia/Anadyr covers...
3154 # 87    RU-CHU  Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
3155 
3156 Zone Asia/Anadyr        11:49:56 -      LMT     1924 May  2
3157                         12:00   -       ANAT    1930 Jun 21 # Anadyr Time
3158                         13:00   Russia  ANA%sT  1982 Apr  1  0:00s
3159                         12:00   Russia  ANA%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3160                         11:00   Russia  ANA%sT  1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3161                         12:00   Russia  ANA%sT  2010 Mar 28  2:00s
3162                         11:00   Russia  ANA%sT  2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3163                         12:00   -       ANAT
3164 
3165 
3166 # San Marino
3167 # See Europe/Rome.
3168 
3169 # Serbia
3170 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3171 Zone    Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 -       LMT     1884
3172                         1:00    -       CET     1941 Apr 18 23:00
3173                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945
3174                         1:00    -       CET     1945 May  8  2:00s
3175                         1:00    1:00    CEST    1945 Sep 16  2:00s
3176 # Metod Koželj reports that the legal date of
3177 # transition to EU rules was 1982-11-27, for all of Yugoslavia at the time.
3178 # Shanks & Pottenger don't give as much detail, so go with Koželj.
3179                         1:00    -       CET     1982 Nov 27
3180                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
3181 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Ljubljana   # Slovenia
3182 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Podgorica   # Montenegro
3183 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Sarajevo    # Bosnia and Herzegovina
3184 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Skopje      # Macedonia
3185 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Zagreb      # Croatia
3186 
3187 # Slovakia
3188 Link Europe/Prague Europe/Bratislava
3189 
3190 # Slovenia
3191 # See Europe/Belgrade.
3192 
3193 # Spain
3194 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3195 # For 1917-1919 Whitman gives Apr Sat>=1 - Oct Sat>=1;
3196 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
3197 Rule    Spain   1917    only    -       May      5      23:00s  1:00    S
3198 Rule    Spain   1917    1919    -       Oct      6      23:00s  0       -
3199 Rule    Spain   1918    only    -       Apr     15      23:00s  1:00    S
3200 Rule    Spain   1919    only    -       Apr      5      23:00s  1:00    S
3201 # Whitman gives 1921 Feb 28 - Oct 14; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
3202 Rule    Spain   1924    only    -       Apr     16      23:00s  1:00    S
3203 # Whitman gives 1924 Oct 14; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
3204 Rule    Spain   1924    only    -       Oct      4      23:00s  0       -
3205 Rule    Spain   1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00s  1:00    S
3206 # Whitman says no DST in 1929; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
3207 Rule    Spain   1926    1929    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
3208 Rule    Spain   1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00s  1:00    S
3209 Rule    Spain   1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00s  1:00    S
3210 Rule    Spain   1929    only    -       Apr     20      23:00s  1:00    S
3211 # Whitman gives 1937 Jun 16, 1938 Apr 16, 1940 Apr 13;
3212 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
3213 Rule    Spain   1937    only    -       May     22      23:00s  1:00    S
3214 Rule    Spain   1937    1939    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
3215 Rule    Spain   1938    only    -       Mar     22      23:00s  1:00    S
3216 Rule    Spain   1939    only    -       Apr     15      23:00s  1:00    S
3217 Rule    Spain   1940    only    -       Mar     16      23:00s  1:00    S
3218 # Whitman says no DST 1942-1945; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
3219 Rule    Spain   1942    only    -       May      2      22:00s  2:00    M # Midsummer
3220 Rule    Spain   1942    only    -       Sep      1      22:00s  1:00    S
3221 Rule    Spain   1943    1946    -       Apr     Sat>=13      22:00s  2:00    M
3222 Rule    Spain   1943    only    -       Oct      3      22:00s  1:00    S
3223 Rule    Spain   1944    only    -       Oct     10      22:00s  1:00    S
3224 Rule    Spain   1945    only    -       Sep     30       1:00   1:00    S
3225 Rule    Spain   1946    only    -       Sep     30       0:00   0       -
3226 Rule    Spain   1949    only    -       Apr     30      23:00   1:00    S
3227 Rule    Spain   1949    only    -       Sep     30       1:00   0       -
3228 Rule    Spain   1974    1975    -       Apr     Sat>=13      23:00   1:00    S
3229 Rule    Spain   1974    1975    -       Oct     Sun>=1        1:00   0       -
3230 Rule    Spain   1976    only    -       Mar     27      23:00   1:00    S
3231 Rule    Spain   1976    1977    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00   0       -
3232 Rule    Spain   1977    1978    -       Apr      2      23:00   1:00    S
3233 Rule    Spain   1978    only    -       Oct      1       1:00   0       -
3234 # The following rules are copied from Morocco from 1967 through 1978.
3235 Rule SpainAfrica 1967   only    -       Jun      3      12:00   1:00    S
3236 Rule SpainAfrica 1967   only    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       -
3237 Rule SpainAfrica 1974   only    -       Jun     24       0:00   1:00    S
3238 Rule SpainAfrica 1974   only    -       Sep      1       0:00   0       -
3239 Rule SpainAfrica 1976   1977    -       May      1       0:00   1:00    S
3240 Rule SpainAfrica 1976   only    -       Aug      1       0:00   0       -
3241 Rule SpainAfrica 1977   only    -       Sep     28       0:00   0       -
3242 Rule SpainAfrica 1978   only    -       Jun      1       0:00   1:00    S
3243 Rule SpainAfrica 1978   only    -       Aug      4       0:00   0       -
3244 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3245 Zone    Europe/Madrid   -0:14:44 -      LMT     1901 Jan  1  0:00s
3246                          0:00   Spain   WE%sT   1946 Sep 30
3247                          1:00   Spain   CE%sT   1979
3248                          1:00   EU      CE%sT
3249 Zone    Africa/Ceuta    -0:21:16 -      LMT     1901
3250                          0:00   -       WET     1918 May  6 23:00
3251                          0:00   1:00    WEST    1918 Oct  7 23:00
3252                          0:00   -       WET     1924
3253                          0:00   Spain   WE%sT   1929
3254                          0:00 SpainAfrica WE%sT 1984 Mar 16
3255                          1:00   -       CET     1986
3256                          1:00   EU      CE%sT
3257 Zone    Atlantic/Canary -1:01:36 -      LMT     1922 Mar # Las Palmas de Gran C.
3258                         -1:00   -       CANT    1946 Sep 30  1:00 # Canaries T
3259                          0:00   -       WET     1980 Apr  6  0:00s
3260                          0:00   1:00    WEST    1980 Sep 28  1:00u
3261                          0:00   EU      WE%sT
3262 # IATA SSIM (1996-09) says the Canaries switch at 2:00u, not 1:00u.
3263 # Ignore this for now, as the Canaries are part of the EU.
3264 
3265 # Sweden
3266 
3267 # From Ivan Nilsson (2001-04-13), superseding Shanks & Pottenger:
3268 #
3269 # The law "Svensk författningssamling 1878, no 14" about standard time in 1879:
3270 # From the beginning of 1879 (that is 01-01 00:00) the time for all
3271 # places in the country is "the mean solar time for the meridian at
3272 # three degrees, or twelve minutes of time, to the west of the
3273 # meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm".  The law is dated 1878-05-31.
3274 #
3275 # The observatory at that time had the meridian 18 degrees 03' 30"
3276 # eastern longitude = 01:12:14 in time.  Less 12 minutes gives the
3277 # national standard time as 01:00:14 ahead of GMT....
3278 #
3279 # About the beginning of CET in Sweden. The lawtext ("Svensk
3280 # författningssamling 1899, no 44") states, that "from the beginning
3281 # of 1900... ... the same as the mean solar time for the meridian at
3282 # the distance of one hour of time from the meridian of the English
3283 # observatory at Greenwich, or at 12 minutes 14 seconds to the west
3284 # from the meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm". The law is dated
3285 # 1899-06-16.  In short: At 1900-01-01 00:00:00 the new standard time
3286 # in Sweden is 01:00:00 ahead of GMT.
3287 #
3288 # 1916: The lawtext ("Svensk författningssamling 1916, no 124") states
3289 # that "1916-05-15 is considered to begin one hour earlier". It is
3290 # pretty obvious that at 05-14 23:00 the clocks are set to 05-15 00:00....
3291 # Further the law says, that "1916-09-30 is considered to end one hour later".
3292 #
3293 # The laws regulating [DST] are available on the site of the Swedish
3294 # Parliament beginning with 1985 - the laws regulating 1980/1984 are
3295 # not available on the site (to my knowledge they are only available
3296 # in Swedish): <http://www.riksdagen.se/english/work/sfst.asp> (type
3297 # "sommartid" without the quotes in the field "Fritext" and then click
3298 # the Sök-button).
3299 #
3300 # (2001-05-13):
3301 #
3302 # I have now found a newspaper stating that at 1916-10-01 01:00
3303 # summertime the church-clocks etc were set back one hour to show
3304 # 1916-10-01 00:00 standard time.  The article also reports that some
3305 # people thought the switch to standard time would take place already
3306 # at 1916-10-01 00:00 summer time, but they had to wait for another
3307 # hour before the event took place.
3308 #
3309 # Source: The newspaper "Dagens Nyheter", 1916-10-01, page 7 upper left.
3310 
3311 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3312 Zone Europe/Stockholm   1:12:12 -       LMT     1879 Jan  1
3313                         1:00:14 -       SET     1900 Jan  1 # Swedish Time
3314                         1:00    -       CET     1916 May 14 23:00
3315                         1:00    1:00    CEST    1916 Oct  1  1:00
3316                         1:00    -       CET     1980
3317                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
3318 
3319 # Switzerland
3320 # From Howse:
3321 # By the end of the 18th century clocks and watches became commonplace
3322 # and their performance improved enormously.  Communities began to keep
3323 # mean time in preference to apparent time - Geneva from 1780 ....
3324 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3325 # From Whitman (who writes "Midnight?"):
3326 # Rule  Swiss   1940    only    -       Nov      2      0:00    1:00    S
3327 # Rule  Swiss   1940    only    -       Dec     31      0:00    0       -
3328 # From Shanks & Pottenger:
3329 # Rule  Swiss   1941    1942    -       May     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    S
3330 # Rule  Swiss   1941    1942    -       Oct     Sun>=1       0:00    0       -
3331 
3332 # From Alois Treindl (2008-12-17):
3333 # I have researched the DST usage in Switzerland during the 1940ies.
3334 #
3335 # As I wrote in an earlier message, I suspected the current tzdata values
3336 # to be wrong. This is now verified.
3337 #
3338 # I have found copies of the original ruling by the Swiss Federal
3339 # government, in 'Eidgenössische Gesetzessammlung 1941 and 1942' (Swiss
3340 # federal law collection)...
3341 #
3342 # DST began on Monday 5 May 1941, 1:00 am by shifting the clocks to 2:00 am
3343 # DST ended on Monday 6 Oct 1941, 2:00 am by shifting the clocks to 1:00 am.
3344 #
3345 # DST began on Monday, 4 May 1942 at 01:00 am
3346 # DST ended on Monday, 5 Oct 1942 at 02:00 am
3347 #
3348 # There was no DST in 1940, I have checked the law collection carefully.
3349 # It is also indicated by the fact that the 1942 entry in the law
3350 # collection points back to 1941 as a reference, but no reference to any
3351 # other years are made.
3352 #
3353 # Newspaper articles I have read in the archives on 6 May 1941 reported
3354 # about the introduction of DST (Sommerzeit in German) during the previous
3355 # night as an absolute novelty, because this was the first time that such
3356 # a thing had happened in Switzerland.
3357 #
3358 # I have also checked 1916, because one book source (Gabriel, Traité de
3359 # l'heure dans le monde) claims that Switzerland had DST in 1916. This is
3360 # false, no official document could be found. Probably Gabriel got misled
3361 # by references to Germany, which introduced DST in 1916 for the first time.
3362 #
3363 # The tzdata rules for Switzerland must be changed to:
3364 # Rule  Swiss   1941    1942    -       May     Mon>=1  1:00    1:00    S
3365 # Rule  Swiss   1941    1942    -       Oct     Mon>=1  2:00    0       -
3366 #
3367 # The 1940 rules must be deleted.
3368 #
3369 # One further detail for Switzerland, which is probably out of scope for
3370 # most users of tzdata: The [Europe/Zurich zone] ...
3371 # describes all of Switzerland correctly, with the exception of
3372 # the Canton de Genève (Geneva, Genf). Between 1848 and 1894 Geneva did not
3373 # follow Bern Mean Time but kept its own local mean time.
3374 # To represent this, an extra zone would be needed.
3375 #
3376 # From Alois Treindl (2013-09-11):
3377 # The Federal regulations say
3378 # http://www.admin.ch/opc/de/classified-compilation/20071096/index.html
3379 # ... the meridian for Bern mean time ... is 7 degrees 26' 22.50".
3380 # Expressed in time, it is 0h29m45.5s.
3381 
3382 # From Pierre-Yves Berger (2013-09-11):
3383 # the "Circulaire du conseil fédéral" (December 11 1893)
3384 # http://www.amtsdruckschriften.bar.admin.ch/viewOrigDoc.do?id=10071353
3385 # clearly states that the [1894-06-01] change should be done at midnight
3386 # but if no one is present after 11 at night, could be postponed until one
3387 # hour before the beginning of service.
3388 
3389 # From Paul Eggert (2013-09-11):
3390 # Round BMT to the nearest even second, 0:29:46.
3391 #
3392 # We can find no reliable source for Shanks's assertion that all of Switzerland
3393 # except Geneva switched to Bern Mean Time at 00:00 on 1848-09-12.  This book:
3394 #
3395 #       Jakob Messerli. Gleichmässig, pünktlich, schnell. Zeiteinteilung und
3396 #       Zeitgebrauch in der Schweiz im 19. Jahrhundert. Chronos, Zurich 1995,
3397 #       ISBN 3-905311-68-2, OCLC 717570797.
3398 #
3399 # suggests that the transition was more gradual, and that the Swiss did not
3400 # agree about civil time during the transition.  The timekeeping it gives the
3401 # most detail for is postal and telegraph time: here, federal legislation (the
3402 # "Bundesgesetz über die Erstellung von elektrischen Telegraphen") passed on
3403 # 1851-11-23, and an official implementation notice was published 1853-07-16
3404 # (Bundesblatt 1853, Bd. II, S. 859).  On p 72 Messerli writes that in
3405 # practice since July 1853 Bernese time was used in "all postal and telegraph
3406 # offices in Switzerland from Geneva to St. Gallen and Basel to Chiasso"
3407 # (Google translation).  For now, model this transition as occurring on
3408 # 1853-07-16, though it probably occurred at some other date in Zurich, and
3409 # legal civil time probably changed at still some other transition date.
3410 
3411 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3412 Rule    Swiss   1941    1942    -       May     Mon>=1       1:00    1:00    S
3413 Rule    Swiss   1941    1942    -       Oct     Mon>=1       2:00    0       -
3414 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3415 Zone    Europe/Zurich   0:34:08 -       LMT     1853 Jul 16 # See above comment.
3416                         0:29:46 -       BMT     1894 Jun    # Bern Mean Time
3417                         1:00    Swiss   CE%sT   1981
3418                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
3419 
3420 # Turkey
3421 
3422 # From Amar Devegowda (2007-01-03):
3423 # The time zone rules for Istanbul, Turkey have not been changed for years now.
3424 # ... The latest rules are available at:
3425 # http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/timezone.html?n=107
3426 # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-01-03):
3427 # I have been able to find press records back to 1996 which all say that
3428 # DST started 01:00 local time and end at 02:00 local time.  I am not sure
3429 # what happened before that.  One example for each year from 1996 to 2001:
3430 # http://newspot.byegm.gov.tr/arsiv/1996/21/N4.htm
3431 # http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING97/03/97X03X25.TXT
3432 # http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING98/03/98X03X02.HTM
3433 # http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING99/10/99X10X26.HTM#%2016
3434 # http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING2000/03/00X03X06.HTM#%2021
3435 # http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING2001/03/23x03x01.HTM#%2027
3436 # From Paul Eggert (2007-01-03):
3437 # Prefer the above source to Shanks & Pottenger for time stamps after 1990.
3438 
3439 # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-03-09):
3440 # Starting 2007 though, it seems that they are adopting EU's 1:00 UTC
3441 # start/end time, according to the following page (2007-03-07):
3442 # http://www.ntvmsnbc.com/news/402029.asp
3443 # The official document is located here - it is in Turkish...:
3444 # http://rega.basbakanlik.gov.tr/eskiler/2007/03/20070307-7.htm
3445 # I was able to locate the following seemingly official document
3446 # (on a non-government server though) describing dates between 2002 and 2006:
3447 # http://www.alomaliye.com/bkk_2002_3769.htm
3448 
3449 # From Gökdeniz Karadağ (2011-03-10):
3450 # According to the articles linked below, Turkey will change into summer
3451 # time zone (GMT+3) on March 28, 2011 at 3:00 a.m. instead of March 27.
3452 # This change is due to a nationwide exam on 27th.
3453 # http://www.worldbulletin.net/?aType=haber&ArticleID=70872
3454 # Turkish:
3455 # http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ekonomi/17230464.asp?gid=373
3456 
3457 # From Faruk Pasin (2014-02-14):
3458 # The DST for Turkey has been changed for this year because of the
3459 # Turkish Local election....
3460 # http://www.sabah.com.tr/Ekonomi/2014/02/12/yaz-saatinde-onemli-degisiklik
3461 # ... so Turkey will move clocks forward one hour on March 31 at 3:00 a.m.
3462 # From Randal L. Schwartz (2014-04-15):
3463 # Having landed on a flight from the states to Istanbul (via AMS) on March 31,
3464 # I can tell you that NOBODY (even the airlines) respected this timezone DST
3465 # change delay.  Maybe the word just didn't get out in time.
3466 # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-15):
3467 # The press reported massive confusion, as election officials obeyed the rule
3468 # change but cell phones (and airline baggage systems) did not.  See:
3469 # Kostidis M. Eventful elections in Turkey. Balkan News Agency
3470 # http://www.balkaneu.com/eventful-elections-turkey/ 2014-03-30.
3471 # I guess the best we can do is document the official time.
3472 
3473 # From Fatih (2015-09-29):
3474 # It's officially announced now by the Ministry of Energy.
3475 # Turkey delays winter time to 8th of November 04:00
3476 # http://www.aa.com.tr/tr/turkiye/yaz-saati-uygulamasi-8-kasimda-sona-erecek/362217
3477 #
3478 # From BBC News (2015-10-25):
3479 # Confused Turks are asking "what's the time?" after automatic clocks defied a
3480 # government decision ... "For the next two weeks #Turkey is on EEST... Erdogan
3481 # Engineered Standard Time," said Twitter user @aysekarahasan.
3482 # http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-34631326
3483 
3484 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3485 Rule    Turkey  1916    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S
3486 Rule    Turkey  1916    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
3487 Rule    Turkey  1920    only    -       Mar     28      0:00    1:00    S
3488 Rule    Turkey  1920    only    -       Oct     25      0:00    0       -
3489 Rule    Turkey  1921    only    -       Apr      3      0:00    1:00    S
3490 Rule    Turkey  1921    only    -       Oct      3      0:00    0       -
3491 Rule    Turkey  1922    only    -       Mar     26      0:00    1:00    S
3492 Rule    Turkey  1922    only    -       Oct      8      0:00    0       -
3493 # Whitman gives 1923 Apr 28 - Sep 16 and no DST in 1924-1925;
3494 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
3495 Rule    Turkey  1924    only    -       May     13      0:00    1:00    S
3496 Rule    Turkey  1924    1925    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
3497 Rule    Turkey  1925    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S
3498 Rule    Turkey  1940    only    -       Jun     30      0:00    1:00    S
3499 Rule    Turkey  1940    only    -       Oct      5      0:00    0       -
3500 Rule    Turkey  1940    only    -       Dec      1      0:00    1:00    S
3501 Rule    Turkey  1941    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
3502 Rule    Turkey  1942    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
3503 # Whitman omits the next two transition and gives 1945 Oct 1;
3504 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
3505 Rule    Turkey  1942    only    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       -
3506 Rule    Turkey  1945    only    -       Apr      2      0:00    1:00    S
3507 Rule    Turkey  1945    only    -       Oct      8      0:00    0       -
3508 Rule    Turkey  1946    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    S
3509 Rule    Turkey  1946    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
3510 Rule    Turkey  1947    1948    -       Apr     Sun>=16      0:00    1:00    S
3511 Rule    Turkey  1947    1950    -       Oct     Sun>=2       0:00    0       -
3512 Rule    Turkey  1949    only    -       Apr     10      0:00    1:00    S
3513 Rule    Turkey  1950    only    -       Apr     19      0:00    1:00    S
3514 Rule    Turkey  1951    only    -       Apr     22      0:00    1:00    S
3515 Rule    Turkey  1951    only    -       Oct      8      0:00    0       -
3516 Rule    Turkey  1962    only    -       Jul     15      0:00    1:00    S
3517 Rule    Turkey  1962    only    -       Oct      8      0:00    0       -
3518 Rule    Turkey  1964    only    -       May     15      0:00    1:00    S
3519 Rule    Turkey  1964    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
3520 Rule    Turkey  1970    1972    -       May     Sun>=2       0:00    1:00    S
3521 Rule    Turkey  1970    1972    -       Oct     Sun>=2       0:00    0       -
3522 Rule    Turkey  1973    only    -       Jun      3      1:00    1:00    S
3523 Rule    Turkey  1973    only    -       Nov      4      3:00    0       -
3524 Rule    Turkey  1974    only    -       Mar     31      2:00    1:00    S
3525 Rule    Turkey  1974    only    -       Nov      3      5:00    0       -
3526 Rule    Turkey  1975    only    -       Mar     30      0:00    1:00    S
3527 Rule    Turkey  1975    1976    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       -
3528 Rule    Turkey  1976    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    S
3529 Rule    Turkey  1977    1978    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    S
3530 Rule    Turkey  1977    only    -       Oct     16      0:00    0       -
3531 Rule    Turkey  1979    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1       3:00    1:00    S
3532 Rule    Turkey  1979    1982    -       Oct     Mon>=11      0:00    0       -
3533 Rule    Turkey  1981    1982    -       Mar     lastSun 3:00    1:00    S
3534 Rule    Turkey  1983    only    -       Jul     31      0:00    1:00    S
3535 Rule    Turkey  1983    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       -
3536 Rule    Turkey  1985    only    -       Apr     20      0:00    1:00    S
3537 Rule    Turkey  1985    only    -       Sep     28      0:00    0       -
3538 Rule    Turkey  1986    1990    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    S
3539 Rule    Turkey  1986    1990    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
3540 Rule    Turkey  1991    2006    -       Mar     lastSun 1:00s   1:00    S
3541 Rule    Turkey  1991    1995    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00s   0       -
3542 Rule    Turkey  1996    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 1:00s   0       -
3543 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3544 Zone    Europe/Istanbul 1:55:52 -       LMT     1880
3545                         1:56:56 -       IMT     1910 Oct # Istanbul Mean Time?
3546                         2:00    Turkey  EE%sT   1978 Oct 15
3547                         3:00    Turkey  TR%sT   1985 Apr 20 # Turkey Time
3548                         2:00    Turkey  EE%sT   2007
3549                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   2011 Mar 27  1:00u
3550                         2:00    -       EET     2011 Mar 28  1:00u
3551                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   2014 Mar 30  1:00u
3552                         2:00    -       EET     2014 Mar 31  1:00u
3553                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   2015 Oct 25  1:00u
3554                         2:00    1:00    EEST    2015 Nov  8  1:00u
3555                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
3556 Link    Europe/Istanbul Asia/Istanbul   # Istanbul is in both continents.
3557 
3558 # Ukraine
3559 #
3560 # From Igor Karpov, who works for the Ukrainian Ministry of Justice,
3561 # via Garrett Wollman (2003-01-27):
3562 # BTW, I've found the official document on this matter. It's government
3563 # regulations No. 509, May 13, 1996. In my poor translation it says:
3564 # "Time in Ukraine is set to second timezone (Kiev time). Each last Sunday
3565 # of March at 3am the time is changing to 4am and each last Sunday of
3566 # October the time at 4am is changing to 3am"
3567 
3568 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-09-20):
3569 # On September 20, 2011 the deputies of the Verkhovna Rada agreed to
3570 # abolish the transfer clock to winter time.
3571 #
3572 # Bill No. 8330 of MP from the Party of Regions Oleg Nadoshi got
3573 # approval from 266 deputies.
3574 #
3575 # Ukraine abolishes transfer back to the winter time (in Russian)
3576 # http://news.mail.ru/politics/6861560/
3577 #
3578 # The Ukrainians will no longer change the clock (in Russian)
3579 # http://www.segodnya.ua/news/14290482.html
3580 #
3581 # Deputies cancelled the winter time (in Russian)
3582 # http://www.pravda.com.ua/rus/news/2011/09/20/6600616/
3583 #
3584 # From Philip Pizzey (2011-10-18):
3585 # Today my Ukrainian colleagues have informed me that the
3586 # Ukrainian parliament have decided that they will go to winter
3587 # time this year after all.
3588 #
3589 # From Udo Schwedt (2011-10-18):
3590 # As far as I understand, the recent change to the Ukrainian time zone
3591 # (Europe/Kiev) to introduce permanent daylight saving time (similar
3592 # to Russia) was reverted today:
3593 # http://portal.rada.gov.ua/rada/control/en/publish/article/info_left?art_id=287324&cat_id=105995
3594 #
3595 # Also reported by Alexander Bokovoy (2011-10-18) who also noted:
3596 # The law documents themselves are at
3597 # http://w1.c1.rada.gov.ua/pls/zweb_n/webproc4_1?id=&pf3511=41484
3598 
3599 # From Vladimir in Moscow via Alois Treindl re Kiev time 1991/2 (2014-02-28):
3600 # First in Ukraine they changed Time zone from UTC+3 to UTC+2 with DST:
3601 #       03 25 1990 02:00 -03.00 1       Time Zone 3 with DST
3602 #       07 01 1990 02:00 -02.00 1       Time Zone 2 with DST
3603 # * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 18.06.1990, No. 134.
3604 # http://search.ligazakon.ua/l_doc2.nsf/link1/T001500.html
3605 #
3606 # They did not end DST in September, 1990 (according to the law,
3607 # "summer time" was still in action):
3608 #       09 30 1990 03:00 -02.00 1       Time Zone 2 with DST
3609 # * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 21.09.1990, No. 272.
3610 # http://search.ligazakon.ua/l_doc2.nsf/link1/KP900272.html
3611 #
3612 # Again no change in March, 1991 ("summer time" in action):
3613 #       03 31 1991 02:00 -02.00 1       Time Zone 2 with DST
3614 #
3615 # DST ended in September 1991 ("summer time" ended):
3616 #       09 29 1991 03:00 -02.00 0       Time Zone 2, no DST
3617 # * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 25.09.1991, No. 225.
3618 # http://www.uazakon.com/documents/date_21/pg_iwgdoc.htm
3619 # This is an answer.
3620 #
3621 # Since 1992 they had normal DST procedure:
3622 #       03 29 1992 02:00 -02.00 1       DST started
3623 #       09 27 1992 03:00 -02.00 0       DST ended
3624 # * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 20.03.1992, No. 139.
3625 # http://www.uazakon.com/documents/date_8u/pg_grcasa.htm
3626 
3627 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3628 # Most of Ukraine since 1970 has been like Kiev.
3629 # "Kyiv" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but
3630 # "Kiev" is more common in English.
3631 Zone Europe/Kiev        2:02:04 -       LMT     1880
3632                         2:02:04 -       KMT     1924 May  2 # Kiev Mean Time
3633                         2:00    -       EET     1930 Jun 21
3634                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Sep 20
3635                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1943 Nov  6
3636                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990 Jul  1  2:00
3637                         2:00    1:00    EEST    1991 Sep 29  3:00
3638                         2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1995
3639                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
3640 # Ruthenia used CET 1990/1991.
3641 # "Uzhhorod" is the transliteration of the Rusyn/Ukrainian pronunciation, but
3642 # "Uzhgorod" is more common in English.
3643 Zone Europe/Uzhgorod    1:29:12 -       LMT     1890 Oct
3644                         1:00    -       CET     1940
3645                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Oct
3646                         1:00    1:00    CEST    1944 Oct 26
3647                         1:00    -       CET     1945 Jun 29
3648                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990
3649                         3:00    -       MSK     1990 Jul  1  2:00
3650                         1:00    -       CET     1991 Mar 31  3:00
3651                         2:00    -       EET     1992
3652                         2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1995
3653                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
3654 # Zaporozh'ye and eastern Lugansk oblasts observed DST 1990/1991.
3655 # "Zaporizhia" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but
3656 # "Zaporozh'ye" is more common in English.  Use the common English
3657 # spelling, except omit the apostrophe as it is not allowed in
3658 # portable Posix file names.
3659 Zone Europe/Zaporozhye  2:20:40 -       LMT     1880
3660                         2:20    -       CUT     1924 May  2 # Central Ukraine T
3661                         2:00    -       EET     1930 Jun 21
3662                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Aug 25
3663                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1943 Oct 25
3664                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31  2:00
3665                         2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1995
3666                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
3667 
3668 # Vatican City
3669 # See Europe/Rome.
3670 
3671 ###############################################################################
3672 
3673 # One source shows that Bulgaria, Cyprus, Finland, and Greece observe DST from
3674 # the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in September in 1986.
3675 # The source shows Romania changing a day later than everybody else.
3676 #
3677 # According to Bernard Sieloff's source, Poland is in the MET time zone but
3678 # uses the WE DST rules.  The Western USSR uses EET+1 and ME DST rules.
3679 # Bernard Sieloff's source claims Romania switches on the same day, but at
3680 # 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST).  It also claims that Turkey
3681 # switches on the same day, but switches on at 01:00 standard time
3682 # and off at 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST)
3683 
3684 # ...
3685 # Date: Wed, 28 Jan 87 16:56:27 -0100
3686 # From: Tom Hofmann
3687 # ...
3688 #
3689 # ...the European time rules are...standardized since 1981, when
3690 # most European countries started DST.  Before that year, only
3691 # a few countries (UK, France, Italy) had DST, each according
3692 # to own national rules.  In 1981, however, DST started on
3693 # 'Apr firstSun', and not on 'Mar lastSun' as in the following
3694 # years...
3695 # But also since 1981 there are some more national exceptions
3696 # than listed in 'europe': Switzerland, for example, joined DST
3697 # one year later, Denmark ended DST on 'Oct 1' instead of 'Sep
3698 # lastSun' in 1981 - I don't know how they handle now.
3699 #
3700 # Finally, DST ist always from 'Apr 1' to 'Oct 1' in the
3701 # Soviet Union (as far as I know).
3702 #
3703 # Tom Hofmann, Scientific Computer Center, CIBA-GEIGY AG,
3704 # 4002 Basle, Switzerland
3705 # ...
3706 
3707 # ...
3708 # Date: Wed, 4 Feb 87 22:35:22 +0100
3709 # From: Dik T. Winter
3710 # ...
3711 #
3712 # The information from Tom Hofmann is (as far as I know) not entirely correct.
3713 # After a request from chongo at amdahl I tried to retrieve all information
3714 # about DST in Europe.  I was able to find all from about 1969.
3715 #
3716 # ...standardization on DST in Europe started in about 1977 with switches on
3717 # first Sunday in April and last Sunday in September...
3718 # In 1981 UK joined Europe insofar that
3719 # the starting day for both shifted to last Sunday in March.  And from 1982
3720 # the whole of Europe used DST, with switch dates April 1 and October 1 in
3721 # the Sov[i]et Union.  In 1985 the SU reverted to standard Europe[a]n switch
3722 # dates...
3723 #
3724 # It should also be remembered that time-zones are not constants; e.g.
3725 # Portugal switched in 1976 from MET (or CET) to WET with DST...
3726 # Note also that though there were rules for switch dates not
3727 # all countries abided to these dates, and many individual deviations
3728 # occurred, though not since 1982 I believe.  Another note: it is always
3729 # assumed that DST is 1 hour ahead of normal time, this need not be the
3730 # case; at least in the Netherlands there have been times when DST was 2 hours
3731 # in advance of normal time.
3732 #
3733 # ...
3734 # dik t. winter, cwi, amsterdam, nederland
3735 # ...
3736 
3737 # From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
3738 # ...
3739 # Greece: Last Sunday in April to last Sunday in September (iffy on dates).
3740 # Since 1978.  Change at midnight.
3741 # ...
3742 # Monaco: has same DST as France.
3743 # ...
--- EOF ---