test/java/time/tck/java/time/TCKZoneId.java

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@@ -57,15 +57,34 @@
  * NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS
  * SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
  */
 package tck.java.time;
 
+import static org.testng.Assert.assertEquals;
+import static org.testng.Assert.fail;
+
+import java.io.ByteArrayInputStream;
 import java.io.ByteArrayOutputStream;
+import java.io.DataInputStream;
 import java.io.DataOutputStream;
-
+import java.io.IOException;
+import java.io.ObjectInputStream;
+import java.io.ObjectStreamConstants;
+import java.lang.reflect.Field;
+import java.time.DateTimeException;
+import java.time.LocalTime;
 import java.time.ZoneId;
+import java.time.ZoneOffset;
+import java.time.temporal.Queries;
+import java.time.temporal.TemporalAccessor;
+import java.time.temporal.TemporalField;
+import java.time.temporal.TemporalQuery;
+import java.time.zone.ZoneRulesException;
+import java.util.HashMap;
+import java.util.Map;
 
+import org.testng.annotations.DataProvider;
 import org.testng.annotations.Test;
 
 /**
  * Test ZoneId.
  */

@@ -74,10 +93,11 @@
 
     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
     @Test
     public void test_serialization() throws Exception {
         assertSerializable(ZoneId.of("Europe/London"));
+        assertSerializable(ZoneId.of("America/Chicago"));
     }
 
     @Test
     public void test_serialization_format() throws Exception {
         ByteArrayOutputStream baos = new ByteArrayOutputStream();

@@ -87,6 +107,486 @@
         }
         byte[] bytes = baos.toByteArray();
         assertSerializedBySer(ZoneId.of("Europe/London"), bytes);
     }
 
+    @Test
+    public void test_deserialization_lenient_characters() throws Exception {
+        // an ID can be loaded without validation during deserialization
+        String id = "QWERTYUIOPASDFGHJKLZXCVBNM~/._+-";
+        ZoneId deser = deserialize(id);
+        // getting the ID and string are OK
+        assertEquals(deser.getId(), id);
+        assertEquals(deser.toString(), id);
+        // getting the rules is not
+        try {
+            deser.getRules();
+            fail();
+        } catch (ZoneRulesException ex) {
+            // expected
+        }
+    }
+
+    @Test(expectedExceptions=DateTimeException.class)
+    public void test_deserialization_lenient_badCharacters() throws Exception {
+        // an ID can be loaded without validation during deserialization
+        // but there is a check to ensure the ID format is valid
+        deserialize("|!?");
+    }
+
+    @Test(dataProvider="offsetBasedValid", expectedExceptions=DateTimeException.class)
+    public void test_deserialization_lenient_offsetNotAllowed_noPrefix(String input, String resolvedId) throws Exception {
+        // an ID can be loaded without validation during deserialization
+        // but there is a check to ensure the ID format is valid
+        deserialize(input);
+    }
+
+    @Test(dataProvider="offsetBasedValid", expectedExceptions=DateTimeException.class)
+    public void test_deserialization_lenient_offsetNotAllowed_prefixUTC(String input, String resolvedId) throws Exception {
+        // an ID can be loaded without validation during deserialization
+        // but there is a check to ensure the ID format is valid
+        deserialize("UTC" + input);
+    }
+
+    @Test(dataProvider="offsetBasedValid", expectedExceptions=DateTimeException.class)
+    public void test_deserialization_lenient_offsetNotAllowed_prefixGMT(String input, String resolvedId) throws Exception {
+        // an ID can be loaded without validation during deserialization
+        // but there is a check to ensure the ID format is valid
+        deserialize("GMT" + input);
+    }
+
+    @Test(dataProvider="offsetBasedValid", expectedExceptions=DateTimeException.class)
+    public void test_deserialization_lenient_offsetNotAllowed_prefixUT(String input, String resolvedId) throws Exception {
+        // an ID can be loaded without validation during deserialization
+        // but there is a check to ensure the ID format is valid
+        deserialize("UT" + input);
+    }
+
+    private ZoneId deserialize(String id) throws Exception {
+        String serClass = ZoneId.class.getPackage().getName() + ".Ser";
+        Class<?> serCls = Class.forName(serClass);
+        Field field = serCls.getDeclaredField("serialVersionUID");
+        field.setAccessible(true);
+        long serVer = (Long) field.get(null);
+        ByteArrayOutputStream baos = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
+        try (DataOutputStream dos = new DataOutputStream(baos)) {
+            dos.writeShort(ObjectStreamConstants.STREAM_MAGIC);
+            dos.writeShort(ObjectStreamConstants.STREAM_VERSION);
+            dos.writeByte(ObjectStreamConstants.TC_OBJECT);
+            dos.writeByte(ObjectStreamConstants.TC_CLASSDESC);
+            dos.writeUTF(serClass);
+            dos.writeLong(serVer);
+            dos.writeByte(ObjectStreamConstants.SC_EXTERNALIZABLE | ObjectStreamConstants.SC_BLOCK_DATA);
+            dos.writeShort(0);  // number of fields
+            dos.writeByte(ObjectStreamConstants.TC_ENDBLOCKDATA);  // end of classdesc
+            dos.writeByte(ObjectStreamConstants.TC_NULL);  // no superclasses
+            dos.writeByte(ObjectStreamConstants.TC_BLOCKDATA);
+            dos.writeByte(1 + 2 + id.length());  // length of data (1 byte + 2 bytes UTF length + 32 bytes UTF)
+            dos.writeByte(7);  // ZoneId
+            dos.writeUTF(id);
+            dos.writeByte(ObjectStreamConstants.TC_ENDBLOCKDATA);  // end of blockdata
+        }
+        ZoneId deser = null;
+        try (ObjectInputStream ois = new ObjectInputStream(new ByteArrayInputStream(baos.toByteArray()))) {
+            deser = (ZoneId) ois.readObject();
+        }
+        return deser;
+    }
+
+    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
+    // OLD_IDS_PRE_2005
+    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
+    public void test_constant_OLD_IDS_PRE_2005() {
+        Map<String, String> ids = ZoneId.OLD_IDS_PRE_2005;
+        assertEquals(ids.get("EST"), "America/New_York");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("MST"), "America/Denver");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("HST"), "Pacific/Honolulu");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("ACT"), "Australia/Darwin");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("AET"), "Australia/Sydney");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("AGT"), "America/Argentina/Buenos_Aires");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("ART"), "Africa/Cairo");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("AST"), "America/Anchorage");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("BET"), "America/Sao_Paulo");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("BST"), "Asia/Dhaka");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("CAT"), "Africa/Harare");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("CNT"), "America/St_Johns");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("CST"), "America/Chicago");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("CTT"), "Asia/Shanghai");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("EAT"), "Africa/Addis_Ababa");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("ECT"), "Europe/Paris");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("IET"), "America/Indiana/Indianapolis");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("IST"), "Asia/Kolkata");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("JST"), "Asia/Tokyo");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("MIT"), "Pacific/Apia");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("NET"), "Asia/Yerevan");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("NST"), "Pacific/Auckland");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("PLT"), "Asia/Karachi");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("PNT"), "America/Phoenix");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("PRT"), "America/Puerto_Rico");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("PST"), "America/Los_Angeles");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("SST"), "Pacific/Guadalcanal");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("VST"), "Asia/Ho_Chi_Minh");
+    }
+
+    @Test(expectedExceptions=UnsupportedOperationException.class)
+    public void test_constant_OLD_IDS_PRE_2005_immutable() {
+        Map<String, String> ids = ZoneId.OLD_IDS_PRE_2005;
+        ids.clear();
+    }
+
+    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
+    // OLD_IDS_POST_2005
+    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
+    public void test_constant_OLD_IDS_POST_2005() {
+        Map<String, String> ids = ZoneId.OLD_IDS_POST_2005;
+        assertEquals(ids.get("EST"), "-05:00");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("MST"), "-07:00");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("HST"), "-10:00");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("ACT"), "Australia/Darwin");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("AET"), "Australia/Sydney");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("AGT"), "America/Argentina/Buenos_Aires");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("ART"), "Africa/Cairo");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("AST"), "America/Anchorage");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("BET"), "America/Sao_Paulo");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("BST"), "Asia/Dhaka");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("CAT"), "Africa/Harare");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("CNT"), "America/St_Johns");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("CST"), "America/Chicago");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("CTT"), "Asia/Shanghai");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("EAT"), "Africa/Addis_Ababa");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("ECT"), "Europe/Paris");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("IET"), "America/Indiana/Indianapolis");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("IST"), "Asia/Kolkata");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("JST"), "Asia/Tokyo");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("MIT"), "Pacific/Apia");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("NET"), "Asia/Yerevan");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("NST"), "Pacific/Auckland");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("PLT"), "Asia/Karachi");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("PNT"), "America/Phoenix");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("PRT"), "America/Puerto_Rico");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("PST"), "America/Los_Angeles");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("SST"), "Pacific/Guadalcanal");
+        assertEquals(ids.get("VST"), "Asia/Ho_Chi_Minh");
+    }
+
+    @Test(expectedExceptions=UnsupportedOperationException.class)
+    public void test_constant_OLD_IDS_POST_2005_immutable() {
+        Map<String, String> ids = ZoneId.OLD_IDS_POST_2005;
+        ids.clear();
+    }
+
+    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
+    // mapped factory
+    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
+    @Test
+    public void test_of_string_Map() {
+        Map<String, String> map = new HashMap<>();
+        map.put("LONDON", "Europe/London");
+        map.put("PARIS", "Europe/Paris");
+        ZoneId test = ZoneId.of("LONDON", map);
+        assertEquals(test.getId(), "Europe/London");
+    }
+
+    @Test
+    public void test_of_string_Map_lookThrough() {
+        Map<String, String> map = new HashMap<>();
+        map.put("LONDON", "Europe/London");
+        map.put("PARIS", "Europe/Paris");
+        ZoneId test = ZoneId.of("Europe/Madrid", map);
+        assertEquals(test.getId(), "Europe/Madrid");
+    }
+
+    @Test
+    public void test_of_string_Map_emptyMap() {
+        Map<String, String> map = new HashMap<>();
+        ZoneId test = ZoneId.of("Europe/Madrid", map);
+        assertEquals(test.getId(), "Europe/Madrid");
+    }
+
+    @Test(expectedExceptions=DateTimeException.class)
+    public void test_of_string_Map_badFormat() {
+        Map<String, String> map = new HashMap<>();
+        ZoneId.of("Not known", map);
+    }
+
+    @Test(expectedExceptions=ZoneRulesException.class)
+    public void test_of_string_Map_unknown() {
+        Map<String, String> map = new HashMap<>();
+        ZoneId.of("Unknown", map);
+    }
+
+    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
+    // regular factory
+    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
+    @DataProvider(name="offsetBasedZero")
+    Object[][] data_offsetBasedZero() {
+        return new Object[][] {
+                {""}, {"0"},
+                {"+00"},{"+0000"},{"+00:00"},{"+000000"},{"+00:00:00"},
+                {"-00"},{"-0000"},{"-00:00"},{"-000000"},{"-00:00:00"},
+        };
+    }
+
+    @Test(dataProvider="offsetBasedZero")
+    public void factory_of_String_offsetBasedZero_noPrefix(String id) {
+        if (id.length() > 0 && id.equals("0") == false) {
+            ZoneId test = ZoneId.of(id);
+            assertEquals(test, ZoneOffset.UTC);
+        }
+    }
+
+    @Test(dataProvider="offsetBasedZero")
+    public void factory_of_String_offsetBasedZero_prefixUTC(String id) {
+        ZoneId test = ZoneId.of("UTC" + id);
+        assertEquals(test, ZoneOffset.UTC);
+    }
+
+    @Test(dataProvider="offsetBasedZero")
+    public void factory_of_String_offsetBasedZero_prefixGMT(String id) {
+        ZoneId test = ZoneId.of("GMT" + id);
+        assertEquals(test, ZoneOffset.UTC);
+    }
+
+    @Test(dataProvider="offsetBasedZero")
+    public void factory_of_String_offsetBasedZero_prefixUT(String id) {
+        ZoneId test = ZoneId.of("UT" + id);
+        assertEquals(test, ZoneOffset.UTC);
+    }
+
+    @Test
+    public void factory_of_String_offsetBasedZero_z() {
+        ZoneId test = ZoneId.of("Z");
+        assertEquals(test, ZoneOffset.UTC);
+    }
+
+    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
+    @DataProvider(name="offsetBasedValid")
+    Object[][] data_offsetBasedValid() {
+        return new Object[][] {
+                {"+0", "Z"},
+                {"+5", "+05:00"},
+                {"+01", "+01:00"},
+                {"+0100", "+01:00"},{"+01:00", "+01:00"},
+                {"+010000", "+01:00"},{"+01:00:00", "+01:00"},
+                {"+12", "+12:00"},
+                {"+1234", "+12:34"},{"+12:34", "+12:34"},
+                {"+123456", "+12:34:56"},{"+12:34:56", "+12:34:56"},
+                {"-02", "-02:00"},
+                {"-5", "-05:00"},
+                {"-0200", "-02:00"},{"-02:00", "-02:00"},
+                {"-020000", "-02:00"},{"-02:00:00", "-02:00"},
+        };
+    }
+
+    @Test(dataProvider="offsetBasedValid")
+    public void factory_of_String_offsetBasedValid_noPrefix(String input, String id) {
+        ZoneId test = ZoneId.of(input);
+        assertEquals(test.getId(), id);
+        assertEquals(test, ZoneOffset.of(id));
+    }
+
+    @Test(dataProvider="offsetBasedValid")
+    public void factory_of_String_offsetBasedValid_prefixUTC(String input, String id) {
+        ZoneId test = ZoneId.of("UTC" + input);
+        assertEquals(test.getId(), id);
+        assertEquals(test, ZoneOffset.of(id));
+    }
+
+    @Test(dataProvider="offsetBasedValid")
+    public void factory_of_String_offsetBasedValid_prefixGMT(String input, String id) {
+        ZoneId test = ZoneId.of("GMT" + input);
+        assertEquals(test.getId(), id);
+        assertEquals(test, ZoneOffset.of(id));
+    }
+
+    @Test(dataProvider="offsetBasedValid")
+    public void factory_of_String_offsetBasedValid_prefixUT(String input, String id) {
+        ZoneId test = ZoneId.of("UT" + input);
+        assertEquals(test.getId(), id);
+        assertEquals(test, ZoneOffset.of(id));
+    }
+
+    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
+    @DataProvider(name="offsetBasedInvalid")
+    Object[][] data_offsetBasedInvalid() {
+        return new Object[][] {
+                {"A"}, {"B"}, {"C"}, {"D"}, {"E"}, {"F"}, {"G"}, {"H"}, {"I"}, {"J"}, {"K"}, {"L"}, {"M"},
+                {"N"}, {"O"}, {"P"}, {"Q"}, {"R"}, {"S"}, {"T"}, {"U"}, {"V"}, {"W"}, {"X"}, {"Y"}, {"Z"},
+                {"+0:00"}, {"+00:0"}, {"+0:0"},
+                {"+000"}, {"+00000"},
+                {"+0:00:00"}, {"+00:0:00"}, {"+00:00:0"}, {"+0:0:0"}, {"+0:0:00"}, {"+00:0:0"}, {"+0:00:0"},
+                {"+01_00"}, {"+01;00"}, {"+01@00"}, {"+01:AA"},
+                {"+19"}, {"+19:00"}, {"+18:01"}, {"+18:00:01"}, {"+1801"}, {"+180001"},
+                {"-0:00"}, {"-00:0"}, {"-0:0"},
+                {"-000"}, {"-00000"},
+                {"-0:00:00"}, {"-00:0:00"}, {"-00:00:0"}, {"-0:0:0"}, {"-0:0:00"}, {"-00:0:0"}, {"-0:00:0"},
+                {"-19"}, {"-19:00"}, {"-18:01"}, {"-18:00:01"}, {"-1801"}, {"-180001"},
+                {"-01_00"}, {"-01;00"}, {"-01@00"}, {"-01:AA"},
+                {"@01:00"},
+        };
+    }
+
+    @Test(dataProvider="offsetBasedInvalid", expectedExceptions=DateTimeException.class)
+    public void factory_of_String_offsetBasedInvalid_noPrefix(String id) {
+        if (id.equals("Z")) {
+            throw new DateTimeException("Fake exception: Z alone is valid, not invalid");
+        }
+        ZoneId.of(id);
+    }
+
+    @Test(dataProvider="offsetBasedInvalid", expectedExceptions=DateTimeException.class)
+    public void factory_of_String_offsetBasedInvalid_prefixUTC(String id) {
+        ZoneId.of("UTC" + id);
+    }
+
+    @Test(dataProvider="offsetBasedInvalid", expectedExceptions=DateTimeException.class)
+    public void factory_of_String_offsetBasedInvalid_prefixGMT(String id) {
+        ZoneId.of("GMT" + id);
+    }
+
+    @Test(dataProvider="offsetBasedInvalid", expectedExceptions=DateTimeException.class)
+    public void factory_of_String_offsetBasedInvalid_prefixUT(String id) {
+        if (id.equals("C")) {
+            throw new DateTimeException("Fake exception: UT + C = UTC, thus it is valid, not invalid");
+        }
+        ZoneId.of("UT" + id);
+    }
+
+    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
+    @DataProvider(name="regionBasedInvalid")
+    Object[][] data_regionBasedInvalid() {
+        // \u00ef is a random unicode character
+        return new Object[][] {
+                {""}, {":"}, {"#"},
+                {"\u00ef"}, {"`"}, {"!"}, {"\""}, {"\u00ef"}, {"$"}, {"^"}, {"&"}, {"*"}, {"("}, {")"}, {"="},
+                {"\\"}, {"|"}, {","}, {"<"}, {">"}, {"?"}, {";"}, {"'"}, {"["}, {"]"}, {"{"}, {"}"},
+                {"\u00ef:A"}, {"`:A"}, {"!:A"}, {"\":A"}, {"\u00ef:A"}, {"$:A"}, {"^:A"}, {"&:A"}, {"*:A"}, {"(:A"}, {"):A"}, {"=:A"}, {"+:A"},
+                {"\\:A"}, {"|:A"}, {",:A"}, {"<:A"}, {">:A"}, {"?:A"}, {";:A"}, {"::A"}, {"':A"}, {"@:A"}, {"~:A"}, {"[:A"}, {"]:A"}, {"{:A"}, {"}:A"},
+                {"A:B#\u00ef"}, {"A:B#`"}, {"A:B#!"}, {"A:B#\""}, {"A:B#\u00ef"}, {"A:B#$"}, {"A:B#^"}, {"A:B#&"}, {"A:B#*"},
+                {"A:B#("}, {"A:B#)"}, {"A:B#="}, {"A:B#+"},
+                {"A:B#\\"}, {"A:B#|"}, {"A:B#,"}, {"A:B#<"}, {"A:B#>"}, {"A:B#?"}, {"A:B#;"}, {"A:B#:"},
+                {"A:B#'"}, {"A:B#@"}, {"A:B#~"}, {"A:B#["}, {"A:B#]"}, {"A:B#{"}, {"A:B#}"},
+        };
+    }
+
+    @Test(dataProvider="regionBasedInvalid", expectedExceptions=DateTimeException.class)
+    public void factory_of_String_regionBasedInvalid(String id) {
+        ZoneId.of(id);
+    }
+
+    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
+    @Test
+    public void factory_of_String_region_EuropeLondon() {
+        ZoneId test = ZoneId.of("Europe/London");
+        assertEquals(test.getId(), "Europe/London");
+        assertEquals(test.getRules().isFixedOffset(), false);
+    }
+
+    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
+    @Test(expectedExceptions=NullPointerException.class)
+    public void factory_of_String_null() {
+        ZoneId.of(null);
+    }
+
+    @Test(expectedExceptions=DateTimeException.class)
+    public void factory_of_String_badFormat() {
+        ZoneId.of("Unknown rule");
+    }
+
+    @Test(expectedExceptions=ZoneRulesException.class)
+    public void factory_of_String_unknown() {
+        ZoneId.of("Unknown");
+    }
+
+    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
+    // from(TemporalAccessor)
+    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
+    @Test
+    public void factory_from_TemporalAccessor_zoneId() {
+        TemporalAccessor mock = new TemporalAccessor() {
+            @Override
+            public boolean isSupported(TemporalField field) {
+                return false;
+            }
+            @Override
+            public long getLong(TemporalField field) {
+                throw new DateTimeException("Mock");
+            }
+            @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
+            @Override
+            public <R> R query(TemporalQuery<R> query) {
+                if (query == Queries.zoneId()) {
+                    return (R) ZoneId.of("Europe/Paris");
+                }
+                return TemporalAccessor.super.query(query);
+            }
+        };
+        assertEquals(ZoneId.from(mock),  ZoneId.of("Europe/Paris"));
+    }
+
+    @Test
+    public void factory_from_TemporalAccessor_offset() {
+        ZoneOffset offset = ZoneOffset.ofHours(1);
+        assertEquals(ZoneId.from(offset), offset);
+    }
+
+    @Test(expectedExceptions=DateTimeException.class)
+    public void factory_from_TemporalAccessor_invalid_noDerive() {
+        ZoneId.from(LocalTime.of(12, 30));
+    }
+
+    @Test(expectedExceptions=NullPointerException.class)
+    public void factory_from_TemporalAccessor_null() {
+        ZoneId.from(null);
+    }
+
+    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
+    // equals() / hashCode()
+    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
+    @Test
+    public void test_equals() {
+        ZoneId test1 = ZoneId.of("Europe/London");
+        ZoneId test2 = ZoneId.of("Europe/Paris");
+        ZoneId test2b = ZoneId.of("Europe/Paris");
+        assertEquals(test1.equals(test2), false);
+        assertEquals(test2.equals(test1), false);
+
+        assertEquals(test1.equals(test1), true);
+        assertEquals(test2.equals(test2), true);
+        assertEquals(test2.equals(test2b), true);
+
+        assertEquals(test1.hashCode() == test1.hashCode(), true);
+        assertEquals(test2.hashCode() == test2.hashCode(), true);
+        assertEquals(test2.hashCode() == test2b.hashCode(), true);
+    }
+
+    @Test
+    public void test_equals_null() {
+        assertEquals(ZoneId.of("Europe/London").equals(null), false);
+    }
+
+    @Test
+    public void test_equals_notEqualWrongType() {
+        assertEquals(ZoneId.of("Europe/London").equals("Europe/London"), false);
+    }
+
+    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
+    // toString()
+    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
+    @DataProvider(name="toString")
+    Object[][] data_toString() {
+        return new Object[][] {
+                {"Europe/London", "Europe/London"},
+                {"Europe/Paris", "Europe/Paris"},
+                {"Europe/Berlin", "Europe/Berlin"},
+                {"UTC", "Z"},
+                {"UTC+01:00", "+01:00"},
+        };
+    }
+
+    @Test(dataProvider="toString")
+    public void test_toString(String id, String expected) {
+        ZoneId test = ZoneId.of(id);
+        assertEquals(test.toString(), expected);
+    }
+
 }