1 /*
   2  * Copyright (c) 1997, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
   3  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
   4  *
   5  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   6  * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
   7  * published by the Free Software Foundation.
   8  *
   9  * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  10  * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  11  * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  12  * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  13  * accompanied this code).
  14  *
  15  * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  16  * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  17  * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  18  *
  19  * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  20  * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  21  * questions.
  22  *
  23  */
  24 
  25 #include "precompiled.hpp"
  26 #include "classfile/classLoader.hpp"
  27 #include "classfile/classLoaderData.hpp"
  28 #include "classfile/javaClasses.hpp"
  29 #if INCLUDE_CDS
  30 #include "classfile/sharedClassUtil.hpp"
  31 #endif
  32 #include "classfile/symbolTable.hpp"
  33 #include "classfile/systemDictionary.hpp"
  34 #include "classfile/vmSymbols.hpp"
  35 #include "code/codeCache.hpp"
  36 #include "code/dependencies.hpp"
  37 #include "gc_interface/collectedHeap.inline.hpp"
  38 #include "interpreter/interpreter.hpp"
  39 #include "memory/cardTableModRefBS.hpp"
  40 #include "memory/filemap.hpp"
  41 #include "memory/gcLocker.inline.hpp"
  42 #include "memory/genCollectedHeap.hpp"
  43 #include "memory/genRemSet.hpp"
  44 #include "memory/generation.hpp"
  45 #include "memory/metadataFactory.hpp"
  46 #include "memory/metaspaceShared.hpp"
  47 #include "memory/oopFactory.hpp"
  48 #include "memory/space.hpp"
  49 #include "memory/universe.hpp"
  50 #include "memory/universe.inline.hpp"
  51 #include "oops/constantPool.hpp"
  52 #include "oops/instanceClassLoaderKlass.hpp"
  53 #include "oops/instanceKlass.hpp"
  54 #include "oops/instanceMirrorKlass.hpp"
  55 #include "oops/instanceRefKlass.hpp"
  56 #include "oops/oop.inline.hpp"
  57 #include "oops/typeArrayKlass.hpp"
  58 #include "prims/jvmtiRedefineClassesTrace.hpp"
  59 #include "runtime/arguments.hpp"
  60 #include "runtime/deoptimization.hpp"
  61 #include "runtime/fprofiler.hpp"
  62 #include "runtime/handles.inline.hpp"
  63 #include "runtime/init.hpp"
  64 #include "runtime/java.hpp"
  65 #include "runtime/javaCalls.hpp"
  66 #include "runtime/sharedRuntime.hpp"
  67 #include "runtime/synchronizer.hpp"
  68 #include "runtime/thread.inline.hpp"
  69 #include "runtime/timer.hpp"
  70 #include "runtime/vm_operations.hpp"
  71 #include "services/memoryService.hpp"
  72 #include "utilities/copy.hpp"
  73 #include "utilities/events.hpp"
  74 #include "utilities/hashtable.inline.hpp"
  75 #include "utilities/preserveException.hpp"
  76 #include "utilities/macros.hpp"
  77 #if INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
  78 #include "gc_implementation/concurrentMarkSweep/cmsAdaptiveSizePolicy.hpp"
  79 #include "gc_implementation/concurrentMarkSweep/cmsCollectorPolicy.hpp"
  80 #include "gc_implementation/g1/g1CollectedHeap.inline.hpp"
  81 #include "gc_implementation/g1/g1CollectorPolicy_ext.hpp"
  82 #include "gc_implementation/parallelScavenge/parallelScavengeHeap.hpp"
  83 #endif // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
  84 
  85 PRAGMA_FORMAT_MUTE_WARNINGS_FOR_GCC
  86 
  87 // Known objects
  88 Klass* Universe::_boolArrayKlassObj                 = NULL;
  89 Klass* Universe::_byteArrayKlassObj                 = NULL;
  90 Klass* Universe::_charArrayKlassObj                 = NULL;
  91 Klass* Universe::_intArrayKlassObj                  = NULL;
  92 Klass* Universe::_shortArrayKlassObj                = NULL;
  93 Klass* Universe::_longArrayKlassObj                 = NULL;
  94 Klass* Universe::_singleArrayKlassObj               = NULL;
  95 Klass* Universe::_doubleArrayKlassObj               = NULL;
  96 Klass* Universe::_typeArrayKlassObjs[T_VOID+1]      = { NULL /*, NULL...*/ };
  97 Klass* Universe::_objectArrayKlassObj               = NULL;
  98 oop Universe::_int_mirror                             = NULL;
  99 oop Universe::_float_mirror                           = NULL;
 100 oop Universe::_double_mirror                          = NULL;
 101 oop Universe::_byte_mirror                            = NULL;
 102 oop Universe::_bool_mirror                            = NULL;
 103 oop Universe::_char_mirror                            = NULL;
 104 oop Universe::_long_mirror                            = NULL;
 105 oop Universe::_short_mirror                           = NULL;
 106 oop Universe::_void_mirror                            = NULL;
 107 oop Universe::_mirrors[T_VOID+1]                      = { NULL /*, NULL...*/ };
 108 oop Universe::_main_thread_group                      = NULL;
 109 oop Universe::_system_thread_group                    = NULL;
 110 objArrayOop Universe::_the_empty_class_klass_array    = NULL;
 111 Array<Klass*>* Universe::_the_array_interfaces_array = NULL;
 112 oop Universe::_the_null_string                        = NULL;
 113 oop Universe::_the_min_jint_string                   = NULL;
 114 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_finalizer_register_cache = NULL;
 115 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_loader_addClass_cache    = NULL;
 116 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_pd_implies_cache         = NULL;
 117 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_throw_illegal_access_error_cache = NULL;
 118 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap          = NULL;
 119 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace          = NULL;
 120 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace    = NULL;
 121 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size         = NULL;
 122 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit  = NULL;
 123 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects    = NULL;
 124 objArrayOop Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_array = NULL;
 125 volatile jint Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count = 0;
 126 bool Universe::_verify_in_progress                    = false;
 127 long Universe::verify_flags                           = Universe::Verify_All;
 128 oop Universe::_null_ptr_exception_instance            = NULL;
 129 oop Universe::_arithmetic_exception_instance          = NULL;
 130 oop Universe::_virtual_machine_error_instance         = NULL;
 131 oop Universe::_vm_exception                           = NULL;
 132 oop Universe::_allocation_context_notification_obj    = NULL;
 133 
 134 Array<int>* Universe::_the_empty_int_array            = NULL;
 135 Array<u2>* Universe::_the_empty_short_array           = NULL;
 136 Array<Klass*>* Universe::_the_empty_klass_array     = NULL;
 137 Array<Method*>* Universe::_the_empty_method_array   = NULL;
 138 
 139 // These variables are guarded by FullGCALot_lock.
 140 debug_only(objArrayOop Universe::_fullgc_alot_dummy_array = NULL;)
 141 debug_only(int Universe::_fullgc_alot_dummy_next      = 0;)
 142 
 143 // Heap
 144 int             Universe::_verify_count = 0;
 145 
 146 int             Universe::_base_vtable_size = 0;
 147 bool            Universe::_bootstrapping = false;
 148 bool            Universe::_fully_initialized = false;
 149 
 150 size_t          Universe::_heap_capacity_at_last_gc;
 151 size_t          Universe::_heap_used_at_last_gc = 0;
 152 
 153 CollectedHeap*  Universe::_collectedHeap = NULL;
 154 
 155 NarrowPtrStruct Universe::_narrow_oop = { NULL, 0, true };
 156 NarrowPtrStruct Universe::_narrow_klass = { NULL, 0, true };
 157 address Universe::_narrow_ptrs_base;
 158 
 159 void Universe::basic_type_classes_do(void f(Klass*)) {
 160   f(boolArrayKlassObj());
 161   f(byteArrayKlassObj());
 162   f(charArrayKlassObj());
 163   f(intArrayKlassObj());
 164   f(shortArrayKlassObj());
 165   f(longArrayKlassObj());
 166   f(singleArrayKlassObj());
 167   f(doubleArrayKlassObj());
 168 }
 169 
 170 void Universe::oops_do(OopClosure* f, bool do_all) {
 171 
 172   f->do_oop((oop*) &_int_mirror);
 173   f->do_oop((oop*) &_float_mirror);
 174   f->do_oop((oop*) &_double_mirror);
 175   f->do_oop((oop*) &_byte_mirror);
 176   f->do_oop((oop*) &_bool_mirror);
 177   f->do_oop((oop*) &_char_mirror);
 178   f->do_oop((oop*) &_long_mirror);
 179   f->do_oop((oop*) &_short_mirror);
 180   f->do_oop((oop*) &_void_mirror);
 181 
 182   for (int i = T_BOOLEAN; i < T_VOID+1; i++) {
 183     f->do_oop((oop*) &_mirrors[i]);
 184   }
 185   assert(_mirrors[0] == NULL && _mirrors[T_BOOLEAN - 1] == NULL, "checking");
 186 
 187   f->do_oop((oop*)&_the_empty_class_klass_array);
 188   f->do_oop((oop*)&_the_null_string);
 189   f->do_oop((oop*)&_the_min_jint_string);
 190   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_java_heap);
 191   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_metaspace);
 192   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace);
 193   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_array_size);
 194   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit);
 195   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects);
 196     f->do_oop((oop*)&_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_array);
 197   f->do_oop((oop*)&_null_ptr_exception_instance);
 198   f->do_oop((oop*)&_arithmetic_exception_instance);
 199   f->do_oop((oop*)&_virtual_machine_error_instance);
 200   f->do_oop((oop*)&_main_thread_group);
 201   f->do_oop((oop*)&_system_thread_group);
 202   f->do_oop((oop*)&_vm_exception);
 203   f->do_oop((oop*)&_allocation_context_notification_obj);
 204   debug_only(f->do_oop((oop*)&_fullgc_alot_dummy_array);)
 205 }
 206 
 207 // Serialize metadata in and out of CDS archive, not oops.
 208 void Universe::serialize(SerializeClosure* f, bool do_all) {
 209 
 210   f->do_ptr((void**)&_boolArrayKlassObj);
 211   f->do_ptr((void**)&_byteArrayKlassObj);
 212   f->do_ptr((void**)&_charArrayKlassObj);
 213   f->do_ptr((void**)&_intArrayKlassObj);
 214   f->do_ptr((void**)&_shortArrayKlassObj);
 215   f->do_ptr((void**)&_longArrayKlassObj);
 216   f->do_ptr((void**)&_singleArrayKlassObj);
 217   f->do_ptr((void**)&_doubleArrayKlassObj);
 218   f->do_ptr((void**)&_objectArrayKlassObj);
 219 
 220   {
 221     for (int i = 0; i < T_VOID+1; i++) {
 222       if (_typeArrayKlassObjs[i] != NULL) {
 223         assert(i >= T_BOOLEAN, "checking");
 224         f->do_ptr((void**)&_typeArrayKlassObjs[i]);
 225       } else if (do_all) {
 226         f->do_ptr((void**)&_typeArrayKlassObjs[i]);
 227       }
 228     }
 229   }
 230 
 231   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_array_interfaces_array);
 232   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_int_array);
 233   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_short_array);
 234   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_method_array);
 235   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_klass_array);
 236   _finalizer_register_cache->serialize(f);
 237   _loader_addClass_cache->serialize(f);
 238   _pd_implies_cache->serialize(f);
 239   _throw_illegal_access_error_cache->serialize(f);
 240 }
 241 
 242 void Universe::check_alignment(uintx size, uintx alignment, const char* name) {
 243   if (size < alignment || size % alignment != 0) {
 244     vm_exit_during_initialization(
 245       err_msg("Size of %s (" UINTX_FORMAT " bytes) must be aligned to " UINTX_FORMAT " bytes", name, size, alignment));
 246   }
 247 }
 248 
 249 void initialize_basic_type_klass(Klass* k, TRAPS) {
 250   Klass* ok = SystemDictionary::Object_klass();
 251   if (UseSharedSpaces) {
 252     ClassLoaderData* loader_data = ClassLoaderData::the_null_class_loader_data();
 253     assert(k->super() == ok, "u3");
 254     k->restore_unshareable_info(loader_data, Handle(), CHECK);
 255   } else {
 256     k->initialize_supers(ok, CHECK);
 257   }
 258   k->append_to_sibling_list();
 259 }
 260 
 261 void Universe::genesis(TRAPS) {
 262   ResourceMark rm;
 263 
 264   { FlagSetting fs(_bootstrapping, true);
 265 
 266     { MutexLocker mc(Compile_lock);
 267 
 268       // determine base vtable size; without that we cannot create the array klasses
 269       compute_base_vtable_size();
 270 
 271       if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
 272         _boolArrayKlassObj      = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_BOOLEAN, sizeof(jboolean), CHECK);
 273         _charArrayKlassObj      = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_CHAR,    sizeof(jchar),    CHECK);
 274         _singleArrayKlassObj    = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_FLOAT,   sizeof(jfloat),   CHECK);
 275         _doubleArrayKlassObj    = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_DOUBLE,  sizeof(jdouble),  CHECK);
 276         _byteArrayKlassObj      = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_BYTE,    sizeof(jbyte),    CHECK);
 277         _shortArrayKlassObj     = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_SHORT,   sizeof(jshort),   CHECK);
 278         _intArrayKlassObj       = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_INT,     sizeof(jint),     CHECK);
 279         _longArrayKlassObj      = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_LONG,    sizeof(jlong),    CHECK);
 280 
 281         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_BOOLEAN] = _boolArrayKlassObj;
 282         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_CHAR]    = _charArrayKlassObj;
 283         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_FLOAT]   = _singleArrayKlassObj;
 284         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_DOUBLE]  = _doubleArrayKlassObj;
 285         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_BYTE]    = _byteArrayKlassObj;
 286         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_SHORT]   = _shortArrayKlassObj;
 287         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_INT]     = _intArrayKlassObj;
 288         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_LONG]    = _longArrayKlassObj;
 289 
 290         ClassLoaderData* null_cld = ClassLoaderData::the_null_class_loader_data();
 291 
 292         _the_array_interfaces_array = MetadataFactory::new_array<Klass*>(null_cld, 2, NULL, CHECK);
 293         _the_empty_int_array        = MetadataFactory::new_array<int>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 294         _the_empty_short_array      = MetadataFactory::new_array<u2>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 295         _the_empty_method_array     = MetadataFactory::new_array<Method*>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 296         _the_empty_klass_array      = MetadataFactory::new_array<Klass*>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 297       }
 298     }
 299 
 300     vmSymbols::initialize(CHECK);
 301 
 302     SystemDictionary::initialize(CHECK);
 303 
 304     Klass* ok = SystemDictionary::Object_klass();
 305 
 306     _the_null_string            = StringTable::intern("null", CHECK);
 307     _the_min_jint_string       = StringTable::intern("-2147483648", CHECK);
 308 
 309     if (UseSharedSpaces) {
 310       // Verify shared interfaces array.
 311       assert(_the_array_interfaces_array->at(0) ==
 312              SystemDictionary::Cloneable_klass(), "u3");
 313       assert(_the_array_interfaces_array->at(1) ==
 314              SystemDictionary::Serializable_klass(), "u3");
 315     } else {
 316       // Set up shared interfaces array.  (Do this before supers are set up.)
 317       _the_array_interfaces_array->at_put(0, SystemDictionary::Cloneable_klass());
 318       _the_array_interfaces_array->at_put(1, SystemDictionary::Serializable_klass());
 319     }
 320 
 321     initialize_basic_type_klass(boolArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 322     initialize_basic_type_klass(charArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 323     initialize_basic_type_klass(singleArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 324     initialize_basic_type_klass(doubleArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 325     initialize_basic_type_klass(byteArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 326     initialize_basic_type_klass(shortArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 327     initialize_basic_type_klass(intArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 328     initialize_basic_type_klass(longArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 329   } // end of core bootstrapping
 330 
 331   // Maybe this could be lifted up now that object array can be initialized
 332   // during the bootstrapping.
 333 
 334   // OLD
 335   // Initialize _objectArrayKlass after core bootstraping to make
 336   // sure the super class is set up properly for _objectArrayKlass.
 337   // ---
 338   // NEW
 339   // Since some of the old system object arrays have been converted to
 340   // ordinary object arrays, _objectArrayKlass will be loaded when
 341   // SystemDictionary::initialize(CHECK); is run. See the extra check
 342   // for Object_klass_loaded in objArrayKlassKlass::allocate_objArray_klass_impl.
 343   _objectArrayKlassObj = InstanceKlass::
 344     cast(SystemDictionary::Object_klass())->array_klass(1, CHECK);
 345   // OLD
 346   // Add the class to the class hierarchy manually to make sure that
 347   // its vtable is initialized after core bootstrapping is completed.
 348   // ---
 349   // New
 350   // Have already been initialized.
 351   _objectArrayKlassObj->append_to_sibling_list();
 352 
 353   // Compute is_jdk version flags.
 354   // Only 1.3 or later has the java.lang.Shutdown class.
 355   // Only 1.4 or later has the java.lang.CharSequence interface.
 356   // Only 1.5 or later has the java.lang.management.MemoryUsage class.
 357   if (JDK_Version::is_partially_initialized()) {
 358     uint8_t jdk_version;
 359     Klass* k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_null(
 360         vmSymbols::java_lang_management_MemoryUsage(), THREAD);
 361     CLEAR_PENDING_EXCEPTION; // ignore exceptions
 362     if (k == NULL) {
 363       k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_null(
 364           vmSymbols::java_lang_CharSequence(), THREAD);
 365       CLEAR_PENDING_EXCEPTION; // ignore exceptions
 366       if (k == NULL) {
 367         k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_null(
 368             vmSymbols::java_lang_Shutdown(), THREAD);
 369         CLEAR_PENDING_EXCEPTION; // ignore exceptions
 370         if (k == NULL) {
 371           jdk_version = 2;
 372         } else {
 373           jdk_version = 3;
 374         }
 375       } else {
 376         jdk_version = 4;
 377       }
 378     } else {
 379       jdk_version = 5;
 380     }
 381     JDK_Version::fully_initialize(jdk_version);
 382   }
 383 
 384   #ifdef ASSERT
 385   if (FullGCALot) {
 386     // Allocate an array of dummy objects.
 387     // We'd like these to be at the bottom of the old generation,
 388     // so that when we free one and then collect,
 389     // (almost) the whole heap moves
 390     // and we find out if we actually update all the oops correctly.
 391     // But we can't allocate directly in the old generation,
 392     // so we allocate wherever, and hope that the first collection
 393     // moves these objects to the bottom of the old generation.
 394     // We can allocate directly in the permanent generation, so we do.
 395     int size;
 396     if (UseConcMarkSweepGC) {
 397       warning("Using +FullGCALot with concurrent mark sweep gc "
 398               "will not force all objects to relocate");
 399       size = FullGCALotDummies;
 400     } else {
 401       size = FullGCALotDummies * 2;
 402     }
 403     objArrayOop    naked_array = oopFactory::new_objArray(SystemDictionary::Object_klass(), size, CHECK);
 404     objArrayHandle dummy_array(THREAD, naked_array);
 405     int i = 0;
 406     while (i < size) {
 407         // Allocate dummy in old generation
 408       oop dummy = InstanceKlass::cast(SystemDictionary::Object_klass())->allocate_instance(CHECK);
 409       dummy_array->obj_at_put(i++, dummy);
 410     }
 411     {
 412       // Only modify the global variable inside the mutex.
 413       // If we had a race to here, the other dummy_array instances
 414       // and their elements just get dropped on the floor, which is fine.
 415       MutexLocker ml(FullGCALot_lock);
 416       if (_fullgc_alot_dummy_array == NULL) {
 417         _fullgc_alot_dummy_array = dummy_array();
 418       }
 419     }
 420     assert(i == _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->length(), "just checking");
 421   }
 422   #endif
 423 
 424   // Initialize dependency array for null class loader
 425   ClassLoaderData::the_null_class_loader_data()->init_dependencies(CHECK);
 426 
 427 }
 428 
 429 // CDS support for patching vtables in metadata in the shared archive.
 430 // All types inherited from Metadata have vtables, but not types inherited
 431 // from MetaspaceObj, because the latter does not have virtual functions.
 432 // If the metadata type has a vtable, it cannot be shared in the read-only
 433 // section of the CDS archive, because the vtable pointer is patched.
 434 static inline void add_vtable(void** list, int* n, void* o, int count) {
 435   guarantee((*n) < count, "vtable list too small");
 436   void* vtable = dereference_vptr(o);
 437   assert(*(void**)(vtable) != NULL, "invalid vtable");
 438   list[(*n)++] = vtable;
 439 }
 440 
 441 void Universe::init_self_patching_vtbl_list(void** list, int count) {
 442   int n = 0;
 443   { InstanceKlass o;          add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 444   { InstanceClassLoaderKlass o; add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 445   { InstanceMirrorKlass o;    add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 446   { InstanceRefKlass o;       add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 447   { TypeArrayKlass o;         add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 448   { ObjArrayKlass o;          add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 449   { Method o;                 add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 450   { ConstantPool o;           add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 451 }
 452 
 453 void Universe::initialize_basic_type_mirrors(TRAPS) {
 454     assert(_int_mirror==NULL, "basic type mirrors already initialized");
 455     _int_mirror     =
 456       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("int",    T_INT, CHECK);
 457     _float_mirror   =
 458       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("float",  T_FLOAT,   CHECK);
 459     _double_mirror  =
 460       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("double", T_DOUBLE,  CHECK);
 461     _byte_mirror    =
 462       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("byte",   T_BYTE, CHECK);
 463     _bool_mirror    =
 464       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("boolean",T_BOOLEAN, CHECK);
 465     _char_mirror    =
 466       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("char",   T_CHAR, CHECK);
 467     _long_mirror    =
 468       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("long",   T_LONG, CHECK);
 469     _short_mirror   =
 470       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("short",  T_SHORT,   CHECK);
 471     _void_mirror    =
 472       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("void",   T_VOID, CHECK);
 473 
 474     _mirrors[T_INT]     = _int_mirror;
 475     _mirrors[T_FLOAT]   = _float_mirror;
 476     _mirrors[T_DOUBLE]  = _double_mirror;
 477     _mirrors[T_BYTE]    = _byte_mirror;
 478     _mirrors[T_BOOLEAN] = _bool_mirror;
 479     _mirrors[T_CHAR]    = _char_mirror;
 480     _mirrors[T_LONG]    = _long_mirror;
 481     _mirrors[T_SHORT]   = _short_mirror;
 482     _mirrors[T_VOID]    = _void_mirror;
 483   //_mirrors[T_OBJECT]  = InstanceKlass::cast(_object_klass)->java_mirror();
 484   //_mirrors[T_ARRAY]   = InstanceKlass::cast(_object_klass)->java_mirror();
 485 }
 486 
 487 void Universe::fixup_mirrors(TRAPS) {
 488   // Bootstrap problem: all classes gets a mirror (java.lang.Class instance) assigned eagerly,
 489   // but we cannot do that for classes created before java.lang.Class is loaded. Here we simply
 490   // walk over permanent objects created so far (mostly classes) and fixup their mirrors. Note
 491   // that the number of objects allocated at this point is very small.
 492   assert(SystemDictionary::Class_klass_loaded(), "java.lang.Class should be loaded");
 493   HandleMark hm(THREAD);
 494   // Cache the start of the static fields
 495   InstanceMirrorKlass::init_offset_of_static_fields();
 496 
 497   GrowableArray <Klass*>* list = java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror_list();
 498   int list_length = list->length();
 499   for (int i = 0; i < list_length; i++) {
 500     Klass* k = list->at(i);
 501     assert(k->is_klass(), "List should only hold classes");
 502     EXCEPTION_MARK;
 503     KlassHandle kh(THREAD, k);
 504     java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror(kh, CATCH);
 505 }
 506   delete java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror_list();
 507   java_lang_Class::set_fixup_mirror_list(NULL);
 508 }
 509 
 510 static bool has_run_finalizers_on_exit = false;
 511 
 512 void Universe::run_finalizers_on_exit() {
 513   if (has_run_finalizers_on_exit) return;
 514   has_run_finalizers_on_exit = true;
 515 
 516   // Called on VM exit. This ought to be run in a separate thread.
 517   if (TraceReferenceGC) tty->print_cr("Callback to run finalizers on exit");
 518   {
 519     PRESERVE_EXCEPTION_MARK;
 520     KlassHandle finalizer_klass(THREAD, SystemDictionary::Finalizer_klass());
 521     JavaValue result(T_VOID);
 522     JavaCalls::call_static(
 523       &result,
 524       finalizer_klass,
 525       vmSymbols::run_finalizers_on_exit_name(),
 526       vmSymbols::void_method_signature(),
 527       THREAD
 528     );
 529     // Ignore any pending exceptions
 530     CLEAR_PENDING_EXCEPTION;
 531   }
 532 }
 533 
 534 
 535 // initialize_vtable could cause gc if
 536 // 1) we specified true to initialize_vtable and
 537 // 2) this ran after gc was enabled
 538 // In case those ever change we use handles for oops
 539 void Universe::reinitialize_vtable_of(KlassHandle k_h, TRAPS) {
 540   // init vtable of k and all subclasses
 541   Klass* ko = k_h();
 542   klassVtable* vt = ko->vtable();
 543   if (vt) vt->initialize_vtable(false, CHECK);
 544   if (ko->oop_is_instance()) {
 545     InstanceKlass* ik = (InstanceKlass*)ko;
 546     for (KlassHandle s_h(THREAD, ik->subklass());
 547          s_h() != NULL;
 548          s_h = KlassHandle(THREAD, s_h()->next_sibling())) {
 549       reinitialize_vtable_of(s_h, CHECK);
 550     }
 551   }
 552 }
 553 
 554 
 555 void initialize_itable_for_klass(Klass* k, TRAPS) {
 556   InstanceKlass::cast(k)->itable()->initialize_itable(false, CHECK);
 557 }
 558 
 559 
 560 void Universe::reinitialize_itables(TRAPS) {
 561   SystemDictionary::classes_do(initialize_itable_for_klass, CHECK);
 562 
 563 }
 564 
 565 
 566 bool Universe::on_page_boundary(void* addr) {
 567   return ((uintptr_t) addr) % os::vm_page_size() == 0;
 568 }
 569 
 570 
 571 bool Universe::should_fill_in_stack_trace(Handle throwable) {
 572   // never attempt to fill in the stack trace of preallocated errors that do not have
 573   // backtrace. These errors are kept alive forever and may be "re-used" when all
 574   // preallocated errors with backtrace have been consumed. Also need to avoid
 575   // a potential loop which could happen if an out of memory occurs when attempting
 576   // to allocate the backtrace.
 577   return ((throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap) &&
 578           (throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace)  &&
 579           (throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace)  &&
 580           (throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size) &&
 581           (throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit) &&
 582           (throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects));
 583 }
 584 
 585 
 586 oop Universe::gen_out_of_memory_error(oop default_err) {
 587   // generate an out of memory error:
 588   // - if there is a preallocated error with backtrace available then return it wth
 589   //   a filled in stack trace.
 590   // - if there are no preallocated errors with backtrace available then return
 591   //   an error without backtrace.
 592   int next;
 593   if (_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count > 0) {
 594     next = (int)Atomic::add(-1, &_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count);
 595     assert(next < (int)PreallocatedOutOfMemoryErrorCount, "avail count is corrupt");
 596   } else {
 597     next = -1;
 598   }
 599   if (next < 0) {
 600     // all preallocated errors have been used.
 601     // return default
 602     return default_err;
 603   } else {
 604     // get the error object at the slot and set set it to NULL so that the
 605     // array isn't keeping it alive anymore.
 606     oop exc = preallocated_out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at(next);
 607     assert(exc != NULL, "slot has been used already");
 608     preallocated_out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at_put(next, NULL);
 609 
 610     // use the message from the default error
 611     oop msg = java_lang_Throwable::message(default_err);
 612     assert(msg != NULL, "no message");
 613     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(exc, msg);
 614 
 615     // populate the stack trace and return it.
 616     java_lang_Throwable::fill_in_stack_trace_of_preallocated_backtrace(exc);
 617     return exc;
 618   }
 619 }
 620 
 621 intptr_t Universe::_non_oop_bits = 0;
 622 
 623 void* Universe::non_oop_word() {
 624   // Neither the high bits nor the low bits of this value is allowed
 625   // to look like (respectively) the high or low bits of a real oop.
 626   //
 627   // High and low are CPU-specific notions, but low always includes
 628   // the low-order bit.  Since oops are always aligned at least mod 4,
 629   // setting the low-order bit will ensure that the low half of the
 630   // word will never look like that of a real oop.
 631   //
 632   // Using the OS-supplied non-memory-address word (usually 0 or -1)
 633   // will take care of the high bits, however many there are.
 634 
 635   if (_non_oop_bits == 0) {
 636     _non_oop_bits = (intptr_t)os::non_memory_address_word() | 1;
 637   }
 638 
 639   return (void*)_non_oop_bits;
 640 }
 641 
 642 jint universe_init() {
 643   assert(!Universe::_fully_initialized, "called after initialize_vtables");
 644   guarantee(1 << LogHeapWordSize == sizeof(HeapWord),
 645          "LogHeapWordSize is incorrect.");
 646   guarantee(sizeof(oop) >= sizeof(HeapWord), "HeapWord larger than oop?");
 647   guarantee(sizeof(oop) % sizeof(HeapWord) == 0,
 648             "oop size is not not a multiple of HeapWord size");
 649   TraceTime timer("Genesis", TraceStartupTime);
 650   JavaClasses::compute_hard_coded_offsets();
 651 
 652   jint status = Universe::initialize_heap();
 653   if (status != JNI_OK) {
 654     return status;
 655   }
 656 
 657   Metaspace::global_initialize();
 658 
 659   // Create memory for metadata.  Must be after initializing heap for
 660   // DumpSharedSpaces.
 661   ClassLoaderData::init_null_class_loader_data();
 662 
 663   // We have a heap so create the Method* caches before
 664   // Metaspace::initialize_shared_spaces() tries to populate them.
 665   Universe::_finalizer_register_cache = new LatestMethodCache();
 666   Universe::_loader_addClass_cache    = new LatestMethodCache();
 667   Universe::_pd_implies_cache         = new LatestMethodCache();
 668   Universe::_throw_illegal_access_error_cache = new LatestMethodCache();
 669 
 670   if (UseSharedSpaces) {
 671     // Read the data structures supporting the shared spaces (shared
 672     // system dictionary, symbol table, etc.).  After that, access to
 673     // the file (other than the mapped regions) is no longer needed, and
 674     // the file is closed. Closing the file does not affect the
 675     // currently mapped regions.
 676     MetaspaceShared::initialize_shared_spaces();
 677     StringTable::create_table();
 678   } else {
 679     SymbolTable::create_table();
 680     StringTable::create_table();
 681     ClassLoader::create_package_info_table();
 682 
 683     if (DumpSharedSpaces) {
 684       MetaspaceShared::prepare_for_dumping();
 685     }
 686   }
 687   if (strlen(VerifySubSet) > 0) {
 688     Universe::initialize_verify_flags();
 689   }
 690 
 691   return JNI_OK;
 692 }
 693 
 694 // Choose the heap base address and oop encoding mode
 695 // when compressed oops are used:
 696 // Unscaled  - Use 32-bits oops without encoding when
 697 //     NarrowOopHeapBaseMin + heap_size < 4Gb
 698 // ZeroBased - Use zero based compressed oops with encoding when
 699 //     NarrowOopHeapBaseMin + heap_size < 32Gb
 700 // HeapBased - Use compressed oops with heap base + encoding.
 701 
 702 // 4Gb
 703 static const uint64_t UnscaledOopHeapMax = (uint64_t(max_juint) + 1);
 704 // 32Gb
 705 // OopEncodingHeapMax == UnscaledOopHeapMax << LogMinObjAlignmentInBytes;
 706 
 707 char* Universe::preferred_heap_base(size_t heap_size, size_t alignment, NARROW_OOP_MODE mode) {
 708   assert(is_size_aligned((size_t)OopEncodingHeapMax, alignment), "Must be");
 709   assert(is_size_aligned((size_t)UnscaledOopHeapMax, alignment), "Must be");
 710   assert(is_size_aligned(heap_size, alignment), "Must be");
 711 
 712   uintx heap_base_min_address_aligned = align_size_up(HeapBaseMinAddress, alignment);
 713 
 714   size_t base = 0;
 715 #ifdef _LP64
 716   if (UseCompressedOops) {
 717     assert(mode == UnscaledNarrowOop  ||
 718            mode == ZeroBasedNarrowOop ||
 719            mode == HeapBasedNarrowOop, "mode is invalid");
 720     const size_t total_size = heap_size + heap_base_min_address_aligned;
 721     // Return specified base for the first request.
 722     if (!FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(HeapBaseMinAddress) && (mode == UnscaledNarrowOop)) {
 723       base = heap_base_min_address_aligned;
 724 
 725     // If the total size is small enough to allow UnscaledNarrowOop then
 726     // just use UnscaledNarrowOop.
 727     } else if ((total_size <= OopEncodingHeapMax) && (mode != HeapBasedNarrowOop)) {
 728       if ((total_size <= UnscaledOopHeapMax) && (mode == UnscaledNarrowOop) &&
 729           (Universe::narrow_oop_shift() == 0)) {
 730         // Use 32-bits oops without encoding and
 731         // place heap's top on the 4Gb boundary
 732         base = (UnscaledOopHeapMax - heap_size);
 733       } else {
 734         // Can't reserve with NarrowOopShift == 0
 735         Universe::set_narrow_oop_shift(LogMinObjAlignmentInBytes);
 736 
 737         if (mode == UnscaledNarrowOop ||
 738             mode == ZeroBasedNarrowOop && total_size <= UnscaledOopHeapMax) {
 739 
 740           // Use zero based compressed oops with encoding and
 741           // place heap's top on the 32Gb boundary in case
 742           // total_size > 4Gb or failed to reserve below 4Gb.
 743           uint64_t heap_top = OopEncodingHeapMax;
 744 
 745           // For small heaps, save some space for compressed class pointer
 746           // space so it can be decoded with no base.
 747           if (UseCompressedClassPointers && !UseSharedSpaces &&
 748               OopEncodingHeapMax <= 32*G) {
 749 
 750             uint64_t class_space = align_size_up(CompressedClassSpaceSize, alignment);
 751             assert(is_size_aligned((size_t)OopEncodingHeapMax-class_space,
 752                    alignment), "difference must be aligned too");
 753             uint64_t new_top = OopEncodingHeapMax-class_space;
 754 
 755             if (total_size <= new_top) {
 756               heap_top = new_top;
 757             }
 758           }
 759 
 760           // Align base to the adjusted top of the heap
 761           base = heap_top - heap_size;
 762         }
 763       }
 764     } else {
 765       // UnscaledNarrowOop encoding didn't work, and no base was found for ZeroBasedOops or
 766       // HeapBasedNarrowOop encoding was requested.  So, can't reserve below 32Gb.
 767       Universe::set_narrow_oop_shift(LogMinObjAlignmentInBytes);
 768     }
 769 
 770     // Set narrow_oop_base and narrow_oop_use_implicit_null_checks
 771     // used in ReservedHeapSpace() constructors.
 772     // The final values will be set in initialize_heap() below.
 773     if ((base != 0) && ((base + heap_size) <= OopEncodingHeapMax)) {
 774       // Use zero based compressed oops
 775       Universe::set_narrow_oop_base(NULL);
 776       // Don't need guard page for implicit checks in indexed
 777       // addressing mode with zero based Compressed Oops.
 778       Universe::set_narrow_oop_use_implicit_null_checks(true);
 779     } else {
 780       // Set to a non-NULL value so the ReservedSpace ctor computes
 781       // the correct no-access prefix.
 782       // The final value will be set in initialize_heap() below.
 783       Universe::set_narrow_oop_base((address)UnscaledOopHeapMax);
 784 #if defined(_WIN64) || defined(AIX)
 785       if (UseLargePages) {
 786         // Cannot allocate guard pages for implicit checks in indexed
 787         // addressing mode when large pages are specified on windows.
 788         Universe::set_narrow_oop_use_implicit_null_checks(false);
 789       }
 790 #endif //  _WIN64
 791     }
 792   }
 793 #endif
 794 
 795   assert(is_ptr_aligned((char*)base, alignment), "Must be");
 796   return (char*)base; // also return NULL (don't care) for 32-bit VM
 797 }
 798 
 799 jint Universe::initialize_heap() {
 800 
 801   if (UseParallelGC) {
 802 #if INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
 803     Universe::_collectedHeap = new ParallelScavengeHeap();
 804 #else  // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
 805     fatal("UseParallelGC not supported in this VM.");
 806 #endif // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
 807 
 808   } else if (UseG1GC) {
 809 #if INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
 810     G1CollectorPolicyExt* g1p = new G1CollectorPolicyExt();
 811     g1p->initialize_all();
 812     G1CollectedHeap* g1h = new G1CollectedHeap(g1p);
 813     Universe::_collectedHeap = g1h;
 814 #else  // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
 815     fatal("UseG1GC not supported in java kernel vm.");
 816 #endif // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
 817 
 818   } else {
 819     GenCollectorPolicy *gc_policy;
 820 
 821     if (UseSerialGC) {
 822       gc_policy = new MarkSweepPolicy();
 823     } else if (UseConcMarkSweepGC) {
 824 #if INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
 825       if (UseAdaptiveSizePolicy) {
 826         gc_policy = new ASConcurrentMarkSweepPolicy();
 827       } else {
 828         gc_policy = new ConcurrentMarkSweepPolicy();
 829       }
 830 #else  // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
 831     fatal("UseConcMarkSweepGC not supported in this VM.");
 832 #endif // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
 833     } else { // default old generation
 834       gc_policy = new MarkSweepPolicy();
 835     }
 836     gc_policy->initialize_all();
 837 
 838     Universe::_collectedHeap = new GenCollectedHeap(gc_policy);
 839   }
 840 
 841   ThreadLocalAllocBuffer::set_max_size(Universe::heap()->max_tlab_size());
 842 
 843   jint status = Universe::heap()->initialize();
 844   if (status != JNI_OK) {
 845     return status;
 846   }
 847 
 848 #ifdef _LP64
 849   if (UseCompressedOops) {
 850     // Subtract a page because something can get allocated at heap base.
 851     // This also makes implicit null checking work, because the
 852     // memory+1 page below heap_base needs to cause a signal.
 853     // See needs_explicit_null_check.
 854     // Only set the heap base for compressed oops because it indicates
 855     // compressed oops for pstack code.
 856     if (((uint64_t)Universe::heap()->reserved_region().end() > OopEncodingHeapMax)) {
 857       // Can't reserve heap below 32Gb.
 858       // keep the Universe::narrow_oop_base() set in Universe::reserve_heap()
 859       Universe::set_narrow_oop_shift(LogMinObjAlignmentInBytes);
 860 #ifdef AIX
 861       // There is no protected page before the heap. This assures all oops
 862       // are decoded so that NULL is preserved, so this page will not be accessed.
 863       Universe::set_narrow_oop_use_implicit_null_checks(false);
 864 #endif
 865     } else {
 866       Universe::set_narrow_oop_base(0);
 867 #ifdef _WIN64
 868       if (!Universe::narrow_oop_use_implicit_null_checks()) {
 869         // Don't need guard page for implicit checks in indexed addressing
 870         // mode with zero based Compressed Oops.
 871         Universe::set_narrow_oop_use_implicit_null_checks(true);
 872       }
 873 #endif //  _WIN64
 874       if((uint64_t)Universe::heap()->reserved_region().end() > UnscaledOopHeapMax) {
 875         // Can't reserve heap below 4Gb.
 876         Universe::set_narrow_oop_shift(LogMinObjAlignmentInBytes);
 877       } else {
 878         Universe::set_narrow_oop_shift(0);
 879       }
 880     }
 881 
 882     Universe::set_narrow_ptrs_base(Universe::narrow_oop_base());
 883 
 884     if (PrintCompressedOopsMode || (PrintMiscellaneous && Verbose)) {
 885       Universe::print_compressed_oops_mode(tty);
 886     }
 887   }
 888   // Universe::narrow_oop_base() is one page below the heap.
 889   assert((intptr_t)Universe::narrow_oop_base() <= (intptr_t)(Universe::heap()->base() -
 890          os::vm_page_size()) ||
 891          Universe::narrow_oop_base() == NULL, "invalid value");
 892   assert(Universe::narrow_oop_shift() == LogMinObjAlignmentInBytes ||
 893          Universe::narrow_oop_shift() == 0, "invalid value");
 894 #endif
 895 
 896   // We will never reach the CATCH below since Exceptions::_throw will cause
 897   // the VM to exit if an exception is thrown during initialization
 898 
 899   if (UseTLAB) {
 900     assert(Universe::heap()->supports_tlab_allocation(),
 901            "Should support thread-local allocation buffers");
 902     ThreadLocalAllocBuffer::startup_initialization();
 903   }
 904   return JNI_OK;
 905 }
 906 
 907 void Universe::print_compressed_oops_mode(outputStream* st) {
 908   st->print("heap address: " PTR_FORMAT ", size: " SIZE_FORMAT " MB",
 909               Universe::heap()->base(), Universe::heap()->reserved_region().byte_size()/M);
 910 
 911   st->print(", Compressed Oops mode: %s", narrow_oop_mode_to_string(narrow_oop_mode()));
 912 
 913   if (Universe::narrow_oop_base() != 0) {
 914     st->print(":" PTR_FORMAT, Universe::narrow_oop_base());
 915   }
 916 
 917   if (Universe::narrow_oop_shift() != 0) {
 918     st->print(", Oop shift amount: %d", Universe::narrow_oop_shift());
 919   }
 920 
 921   st->cr();
 922 }
 923 
 924 // Reserve the Java heap, which is now the same for all GCs.
 925 ReservedSpace Universe::reserve_heap(size_t heap_size, size_t alignment) {
 926   assert(alignment <= Arguments::conservative_max_heap_alignment(),
 927       err_msg("actual alignment "SIZE_FORMAT" must be within maximum heap alignment "SIZE_FORMAT,
 928           alignment, Arguments::conservative_max_heap_alignment()));
 929   size_t total_reserved = align_size_up(heap_size, alignment);
 930   assert(!UseCompressedOops || (total_reserved <= (OopEncodingHeapMax - os::vm_page_size())),
 931       "heap size is too big for compressed oops");
 932 
 933   bool use_large_pages = UseLargePages && is_size_aligned(alignment, os::large_page_size());
 934   assert(!UseLargePages
 935       || UseParallelGC
 936       || use_large_pages, "Wrong alignment to use large pages");
 937 
 938   char* addr = Universe::preferred_heap_base(total_reserved, alignment, Universe::UnscaledNarrowOop);
 939 
 940   ReservedHeapSpace total_rs(total_reserved, alignment, use_large_pages, addr);
 941 
 942   if (UseCompressedOops) {
 943     if (addr != NULL && !total_rs.is_reserved()) {
 944       // Failed to reserve at specified address - the requested memory
 945       // region is taken already, for example, by 'java' launcher.
 946       // Try again to reserver heap higher.
 947       addr = Universe::preferred_heap_base(total_reserved, alignment, Universe::ZeroBasedNarrowOop);
 948 
 949       ReservedHeapSpace total_rs0(total_reserved, alignment,
 950           use_large_pages, addr);
 951 
 952       if (addr != NULL && !total_rs0.is_reserved()) {
 953         // Failed to reserve at specified address again - give up.
 954         addr = Universe::preferred_heap_base(total_reserved, alignment, Universe::HeapBasedNarrowOop);
 955         assert(addr == NULL, "");
 956 
 957         ReservedHeapSpace total_rs1(total_reserved, alignment,
 958             use_large_pages, addr);
 959         total_rs = total_rs1;
 960       } else {
 961         total_rs = total_rs0;
 962       }
 963     }
 964   }
 965 
 966   if (!total_rs.is_reserved()) {
 967     vm_exit_during_initialization(err_msg("Could not reserve enough space for " SIZE_FORMAT "KB object heap", total_reserved/K));
 968     return total_rs;
 969   }
 970 
 971   if (UseCompressedOops) {
 972     // Universe::initialize_heap() will reset this to NULL if unscaled
 973     // or zero-based narrow oops are actually used.
 974     address base = (address)(total_rs.base() - os::vm_page_size());
 975     Universe::set_narrow_oop_base(base);
 976   }
 977   return total_rs;
 978 }
 979 
 980 
 981 // It's the caller's responsibility to ensure glitch-freedom
 982 // (if required).
 983 void Universe::update_heap_info_at_gc() {
 984   _heap_capacity_at_last_gc = heap()->capacity();
 985   _heap_used_at_last_gc     = heap()->used();
 986 }
 987 
 988 
 989 const char* Universe::narrow_oop_mode_to_string(Universe::NARROW_OOP_MODE mode) {
 990   switch (mode) {
 991     case UnscaledNarrowOop:
 992       return "32-bit";
 993     case ZeroBasedNarrowOop:
 994       return "Zero based";
 995     case HeapBasedNarrowOop:
 996       return "Non-zero based";
 997   }
 998 
 999   ShouldNotReachHere();
1000   return "";
1001 }
1002 
1003 
1004 Universe::NARROW_OOP_MODE Universe::narrow_oop_mode() {
1005   if (narrow_oop_base() != 0) {
1006     return HeapBasedNarrowOop;
1007   }
1008 
1009   if (narrow_oop_shift() != 0) {
1010     return ZeroBasedNarrowOop;
1011   }
1012 
1013   return UnscaledNarrowOop;
1014 }
1015 
1016 
1017 void universe2_init() {
1018   EXCEPTION_MARK;
1019   Universe::genesis(CATCH);
1020 }
1021 
1022 
1023 // This function is defined in JVM.cpp
1024 extern void initialize_converter_functions();
1025 
1026 bool universe_post_init() {
1027   assert(!is_init_completed(), "Error: initialization not yet completed!");
1028   Universe::_fully_initialized = true;
1029   EXCEPTION_MARK;
1030   { ResourceMark rm;
1031     Interpreter::initialize();      // needed for interpreter entry points
1032     if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
1033       HandleMark hm(THREAD);
1034       KlassHandle ok_h(THREAD, SystemDictionary::Object_klass());
1035       Universe::reinitialize_vtable_of(ok_h, CHECK_false);
1036       Universe::reinitialize_itables(CHECK_false);
1037     }
1038   }
1039 
1040   HandleMark hm(THREAD);
1041   Klass* k;
1042   instanceKlassHandle k_h;
1043     // Setup preallocated empty java.lang.Class array
1044     Universe::_the_empty_class_klass_array = oopFactory::new_objArray(SystemDictionary::Class_klass(), 0, CHECK_false);
1045 
1046     // Setup preallocated OutOfMemoryError errors
1047     k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(vmSymbols::java_lang_OutOfMemoryError(), true, CHECK_false);
1048     k_h = instanceKlassHandle(THREAD, k);
1049     Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap = k_h->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1050     Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace = k_h->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1051     Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace = k_h->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1052     Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size = k_h->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1053     Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit =
1054       k_h->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1055     Universe::_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects = k_h->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1056 
1057     // Setup preallocated NullPointerException
1058     // (this is currently used for a cheap & dirty solution in compiler exception handling)
1059     k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(vmSymbols::java_lang_NullPointerException(), true, CHECK_false);
1060     Universe::_null_ptr_exception_instance = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1061     // Setup preallocated ArithmeticException
1062     // (this is currently used for a cheap & dirty solution in compiler exception handling)
1063     k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(vmSymbols::java_lang_ArithmeticException(), true, CHECK_false);
1064     Universe::_arithmetic_exception_instance = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1065     // Virtual Machine Error for when we get into a situation we can't resolve
1066     k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(
1067       vmSymbols::java_lang_VirtualMachineError(), true, CHECK_false);
1068     bool linked = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->link_class_or_fail(CHECK_false);
1069     if (!linked) {
1070       tty->print_cr("Unable to link/verify VirtualMachineError class");
1071       return false; // initialization failed
1072     }
1073     Universe::_virtual_machine_error_instance =
1074       InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1075 
1076     Universe::_vm_exception = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1077 
1078   if (!DumpSharedSpaces) {
1079     // These are the only Java fields that are currently set during shared space dumping.
1080     // We prefer to not handle this generally, so we always reinitialize these detail messages.
1081     Handle msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Java heap space", CHECK_false);
1082     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap, msg());
1083 
1084     msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Metaspace", CHECK_false);
1085     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace, msg());
1086     msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Compressed class space", CHECK_false);
1087     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace, msg());
1088 
1089     msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Requested array size exceeds VM limit", CHECK_false);
1090     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size, msg());
1091 
1092     msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("GC overhead limit exceeded", CHECK_false);
1093     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit, msg());
1094 
1095     msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Java heap space: failed reallocation of scalar replaced objects", CHECK_false);
1096     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects, msg());
1097 
1098     msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("/ by zero", CHECK_false);
1099     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_arithmetic_exception_instance, msg());
1100 
1101     // Setup the array of errors that have preallocated backtrace
1102     k = Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap->klass();
1103     assert(k->name() == vmSymbols::java_lang_OutOfMemoryError(), "should be out of memory error");
1104     k_h = instanceKlassHandle(THREAD, k);
1105 
1106     int len = (StackTraceInThrowable) ? (int)PreallocatedOutOfMemoryErrorCount : 0;
1107     Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_array = oopFactory::new_objArray(k_h(), len, CHECK_false);
1108     for (int i=0; i<len; i++) {
1109       oop err = k_h->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1110       Handle err_h = Handle(THREAD, err);
1111       java_lang_Throwable::allocate_backtrace(err_h, CHECK_false);
1112       Universe::preallocated_out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at_put(i, err_h());
1113     }
1114     Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count = (jint)len;
1115   }
1116 
1117 
1118   // Setup static method for registering finalizers
1119   // The finalizer klass must be linked before looking up the method, in
1120   // case it needs to get rewritten.
1121   InstanceKlass::cast(SystemDictionary::Finalizer_klass())->link_class(CHECK_false);
1122   Method* m = InstanceKlass::cast(SystemDictionary::Finalizer_klass())->find_method(
1123                                   vmSymbols::register_method_name(),
1124                                   vmSymbols::register_method_signature());
1125   if (m == NULL || !m->is_static()) {
1126     tty->print_cr("Unable to link/verify Finalizer.register method");
1127     return false; // initialization failed (cannot throw exception yet)
1128   }
1129   Universe::_finalizer_register_cache->init(
1130     SystemDictionary::Finalizer_klass(), m);
1131 
1132   InstanceKlass::cast(SystemDictionary::misc_Unsafe_klass())->link_class(CHECK_false);
1133   m = InstanceKlass::cast(SystemDictionary::misc_Unsafe_klass())->find_method(
1134                                   vmSymbols::throwIllegalAccessError_name(),
1135                                   vmSymbols::void_method_signature());
1136   if (m != NULL && !m->is_static()) {
1137     // Note null is okay; this method is used in itables, and if it is null,
1138     // then AbstractMethodError is thrown instead.
1139     tty->print_cr("Unable to link/verify Unsafe.throwIllegalAccessError method");
1140     return false; // initialization failed (cannot throw exception yet)
1141   }
1142   Universe::_throw_illegal_access_error_cache->init(
1143     SystemDictionary::misc_Unsafe_klass(), m);
1144 
1145   // Setup method for registering loaded classes in class loader vector
1146   InstanceKlass::cast(SystemDictionary::ClassLoader_klass())->link_class(CHECK_false);
1147   m = InstanceKlass::cast(SystemDictionary::ClassLoader_klass())->find_method(vmSymbols::addClass_name(), vmSymbols::class_void_signature());
1148   if (m == NULL || m->is_static()) {
1149     tty->print_cr("Unable to link/verify ClassLoader.addClass method");
1150     return false; // initialization failed (cannot throw exception yet)
1151   }
1152   Universe::_loader_addClass_cache->init(
1153     SystemDictionary::ClassLoader_klass(), m);
1154 
1155   // Setup method for checking protection domain
1156   InstanceKlass::cast(SystemDictionary::ProtectionDomain_klass())->link_class(CHECK_false);
1157   m = InstanceKlass::cast(SystemDictionary::ProtectionDomain_klass())->
1158             find_method(vmSymbols::impliesCreateAccessControlContext_name(),
1159                         vmSymbols::void_boolean_signature());
1160   // Allow NULL which should only happen with bootstrapping.
1161   if (m != NULL) {
1162     if (m->is_static()) {
1163       // NoSuchMethodException doesn't actually work because it tries to run the
1164       // <init> function before java_lang_Class is linked. Print error and exit.
1165       tty->print_cr("ProtectionDomain.impliesCreateAccessControlContext() has the wrong linkage");
1166       return false; // initialization failed
1167     }
1168     Universe::_pd_implies_cache->init(
1169       SystemDictionary::ProtectionDomain_klass(), m);
1170   }
1171 
1172   // The folowing is initializing converter functions for serialization in
1173   // JVM.cpp. If we clean up the StrictMath code above we may want to find
1174   // a better solution for this as well.
1175   initialize_converter_functions();
1176 
1177   // This needs to be done before the first scavenge/gc, since
1178   // it's an input to soft ref clearing policy.
1179   {
1180     MutexLocker x(Heap_lock);
1181     Universe::update_heap_info_at_gc();
1182   }
1183 
1184   // ("weak") refs processing infrastructure initialization
1185   Universe::heap()->post_initialize();
1186 
1187   // Initialize performance counters for metaspaces
1188   MetaspaceCounters::initialize_performance_counters();
1189   CompressedClassSpaceCounters::initialize_performance_counters();
1190 
1191   MemoryService::add_metaspace_memory_pools();
1192 
1193   MemoryService::set_universe_heap(Universe::_collectedHeap);
1194 #if INCLUDE_CDS
1195   if (UseSharedSpaces) {
1196     SharedClassUtil::initialize(CHECK_false);
1197   }
1198 #endif
1199   return true;
1200 }
1201 
1202 
1203 void Universe::compute_base_vtable_size() {
1204   _base_vtable_size = ClassLoader::compute_Object_vtable();
1205 }
1206 
1207 
1208 // %%% The Universe::flush_foo methods belong in CodeCache.
1209 
1210 // Flushes compiled methods dependent on dependee.
1211 void Universe::flush_dependents_on(instanceKlassHandle dependee) {
1212   assert_lock_strong(Compile_lock);
1213 
1214   if (CodeCache::number_of_nmethods_with_dependencies() == 0) return;
1215 
1216   // CodeCache can only be updated by a thread_in_VM and they will all be
1217   // stopped dring the safepoint so CodeCache will be safe to update without
1218   // holding the CodeCache_lock.
1219 
1220   KlassDepChange changes(dependee);
1221 
1222   // Compute the dependent nmethods
1223   if (CodeCache::mark_for_deoptimization(changes) > 0) {
1224     // At least one nmethod has been marked for deoptimization
1225     VM_Deoptimize op;
1226     VMThread::execute(&op);
1227   }
1228 }
1229 
1230 // Flushes compiled methods dependent on a particular CallSite
1231 // instance when its target is different than the given MethodHandle.
1232 void Universe::flush_dependents_on(Handle call_site, Handle method_handle) {
1233   assert_lock_strong(Compile_lock);
1234 
1235   if (CodeCache::number_of_nmethods_with_dependencies() == 0) return;
1236 
1237   // CodeCache can only be updated by a thread_in_VM and they will all be
1238   // stopped dring the safepoint so CodeCache will be safe to update without
1239   // holding the CodeCache_lock.
1240 
1241   CallSiteDepChange changes(call_site(), method_handle());
1242 
1243   // Compute the dependent nmethods that have a reference to a
1244   // CallSite object.  We use InstanceKlass::mark_dependent_nmethod
1245   // directly instead of CodeCache::mark_for_deoptimization because we
1246   // want dependents on the call site class only not all classes in
1247   // the ContextStream.
1248   int marked = 0;
1249   {
1250     MutexLockerEx mu(CodeCache_lock, Mutex::_no_safepoint_check_flag);
1251     InstanceKlass* call_site_klass = InstanceKlass::cast(call_site->klass());
1252     marked = call_site_klass->mark_dependent_nmethods(changes);
1253   }
1254   if (marked > 0) {
1255     // At least one nmethod has been marked for deoptimization
1256     VM_Deoptimize op;
1257     VMThread::execute(&op);
1258   }
1259 }
1260 
1261 #ifdef HOTSWAP
1262 // Flushes compiled methods dependent on dependee in the evolutionary sense
1263 void Universe::flush_evol_dependents_on(instanceKlassHandle ev_k_h) {
1264   // --- Compile_lock is not held. However we are at a safepoint.
1265   assert_locked_or_safepoint(Compile_lock);
1266   if (CodeCache::number_of_nmethods_with_dependencies() == 0) return;
1267 
1268   // CodeCache can only be updated by a thread_in_VM and they will all be
1269   // stopped dring the safepoint so CodeCache will be safe to update without
1270   // holding the CodeCache_lock.
1271 
1272   // Compute the dependent nmethods
1273   if (CodeCache::mark_for_evol_deoptimization(ev_k_h) > 0) {
1274     // At least one nmethod has been marked for deoptimization
1275 
1276     // All this already happens inside a VM_Operation, so we'll do all the work here.
1277     // Stuff copied from VM_Deoptimize and modified slightly.
1278 
1279     // We do not want any GCs to happen while we are in the middle of this VM operation
1280     ResourceMark rm;
1281     DeoptimizationMarker dm;
1282 
1283     // Deoptimize all activations depending on marked nmethods
1284     Deoptimization::deoptimize_dependents();
1285 
1286     // Make the dependent methods not entrant (in VM_Deoptimize they are made zombies)
1287     CodeCache::make_marked_nmethods_not_entrant();
1288   }
1289 }
1290 #endif // HOTSWAP
1291 
1292 
1293 // Flushes compiled methods dependent on dependee
1294 void Universe::flush_dependents_on_method(methodHandle m_h) {
1295   // --- Compile_lock is not held. However we are at a safepoint.
1296   assert_locked_or_safepoint(Compile_lock);
1297 
1298   // CodeCache can only be updated by a thread_in_VM and they will all be
1299   // stopped dring the safepoint so CodeCache will be safe to update without
1300   // holding the CodeCache_lock.
1301 
1302   // Compute the dependent nmethods
1303   if (CodeCache::mark_for_deoptimization(m_h()) > 0) {
1304     // At least one nmethod has been marked for deoptimization
1305 
1306     // All this already happens inside a VM_Operation, so we'll do all the work here.
1307     // Stuff copied from VM_Deoptimize and modified slightly.
1308 
1309     // We do not want any GCs to happen while we are in the middle of this VM operation
1310     ResourceMark rm;
1311     DeoptimizationMarker dm;
1312 
1313     // Deoptimize all activations depending on marked nmethods
1314     Deoptimization::deoptimize_dependents();
1315 
1316     // Make the dependent methods not entrant (in VM_Deoptimize they are made zombies)
1317     CodeCache::make_marked_nmethods_not_entrant();
1318   }
1319 }
1320 
1321 void Universe::print() {
1322   print_on(gclog_or_tty);
1323 }
1324 
1325 void Universe::print_on(outputStream* st, bool extended) {
1326   st->print_cr("Heap");
1327   if (!extended) {
1328     heap()->print_on(st);
1329   } else {
1330     heap()->print_extended_on(st);
1331   }
1332 }
1333 
1334 void Universe::print_heap_at_SIGBREAK() {
1335   if (PrintHeapAtSIGBREAK) {
1336     MutexLocker hl(Heap_lock);
1337     print_on(tty);
1338     tty->cr();
1339     tty->flush();
1340   }
1341 }
1342 
1343 void Universe::print_heap_before_gc(outputStream* st, bool ignore_extended) {
1344   st->print_cr("{Heap before GC invocations=%u (full %u):",
1345                heap()->total_collections(),
1346                heap()->total_full_collections());
1347   if (!PrintHeapAtGCExtended || ignore_extended) {
1348     heap()->print_on(st);
1349   } else {
1350     heap()->print_extended_on(st);
1351   }
1352 }
1353 
1354 void Universe::print_heap_after_gc(outputStream* st, bool ignore_extended) {
1355   st->print_cr("Heap after GC invocations=%u (full %u):",
1356                heap()->total_collections(),
1357                heap()->total_full_collections());
1358   if (!PrintHeapAtGCExtended || ignore_extended) {
1359     heap()->print_on(st);
1360   } else {
1361     heap()->print_extended_on(st);
1362   }
1363   st->print_cr("}");
1364 }
1365 
1366 void Universe::initialize_verify_flags() {
1367   verify_flags = 0;
1368   const char delimiter[] = " ,";
1369 
1370   size_t length = strlen(VerifySubSet);
1371   char* subset_list = NEW_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, length + 1, mtInternal);
1372   strncpy(subset_list, VerifySubSet, length + 1);
1373 
1374   char* token = strtok(subset_list, delimiter);
1375   while (token != NULL) {
1376     if (strcmp(token, "threads") == 0) {
1377       verify_flags |= Verify_Threads;
1378     } else if (strcmp(token, "heap") == 0) {
1379       verify_flags |= Verify_Heap;
1380     } else if (strcmp(token, "symbol_table") == 0) {
1381       verify_flags |= Verify_SymbolTable;
1382     } else if (strcmp(token, "string_table") == 0) {
1383       verify_flags |= Verify_StringTable;
1384     } else if (strcmp(token, "codecache") == 0) {
1385       verify_flags |= Verify_CodeCache;
1386     } else if (strcmp(token, "dictionary") == 0) {
1387       verify_flags |= Verify_SystemDictionary;
1388     } else if (strcmp(token, "classloader_data_graph") == 0) {
1389       verify_flags |= Verify_ClassLoaderDataGraph;
1390     } else if (strcmp(token, "metaspace") == 0) {
1391       verify_flags |= Verify_MetaspaceAux;
1392     } else if (strcmp(token, "jni_handles") == 0) {
1393       verify_flags |= Verify_JNIHandles;
1394     } else if (strcmp(token, "c-heap") == 0) {
1395       verify_flags |= Verify_CHeap;
1396     } else if (strcmp(token, "codecache_oops") == 0) {
1397       verify_flags |= Verify_CodeCacheOops;
1398     } else {
1399       vm_exit_during_initialization(err_msg("VerifySubSet: \'%s\' memory sub-system is unknown, please correct it", token));
1400     }
1401     token = strtok(NULL, delimiter);
1402   }
1403   FREE_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, subset_list, mtInternal);
1404 }
1405 
1406 bool Universe::should_verify_subset(uint subset) {
1407   if (verify_flags & subset) {
1408     return true;
1409   }
1410   return false;
1411 }
1412 
1413 void Universe::verify(VerifyOption option, const char* prefix, bool silent) {
1414   // The use of _verify_in_progress is a temporary work around for
1415   // 6320749.  Don't bother with a creating a class to set and clear
1416   // it since it is only used in this method and the control flow is
1417   // straight forward.
1418   _verify_in_progress = true;
1419 
1420   COMPILER2_PRESENT(
1421     assert(!DerivedPointerTable::is_active(),
1422          "DPT should not be active during verification "
1423          "(of thread stacks below)");
1424   )
1425 
1426   ResourceMark rm;
1427   HandleMark hm;  // Handles created during verification can be zapped
1428   _verify_count++;
1429 
1430   if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("%s", prefix);
1431   if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("[Verifying ");
1432   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_Threads)) {
1433     if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("Threads ");
1434     Threads::verify();
1435   }
1436   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_Heap)) {
1437     if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("Heap ");
1438     heap()->verify(silent, option);
1439   }
1440   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_SymbolTable)) {
1441     if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("SymbolTable ");
1442     SymbolTable::verify();
1443   }
1444   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_StringTable)) {
1445     if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("StringTable ");
1446     StringTable::verify();
1447   }
1448   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_CodeCache)) {
1449   {
1450     MutexLockerEx mu(CodeCache_lock, Mutex::_no_safepoint_check_flag);
1451     if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("CodeCache ");
1452     CodeCache::verify();
1453   }
1454   }
1455   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_SystemDictionary)) {
1456     if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("SystemDictionary ");
1457     SystemDictionary::verify();
1458   }
1459 #ifndef PRODUCT
1460   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_ClassLoaderDataGraph)) {
1461     if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("ClassLoaderDataGraph ");
1462     ClassLoaderDataGraph::verify();
1463   }
1464 #endif
1465   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_MetaspaceAux)) {
1466     if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("MetaspaceAux ");
1467     MetaspaceAux::verify_free_chunks();
1468   }
1469   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_JNIHandles)) {
1470     if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("JNIHandles ");
1471     JNIHandles::verify();
1472   }
1473   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_CHeap)) {
1474     if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("C-heap ");
1475     os::check_heap();
1476   }
1477   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_CodeCacheOops)) {
1478     if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("CodeCache Oops ");
1479     CodeCache::verify_oops();
1480   }
1481   if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print_cr("]");
1482 
1483   _verify_in_progress = false;
1484 }
1485 
1486 // Oop verification (see MacroAssembler::verify_oop)
1487 
1488 static uintptr_t _verify_oop_data[2]   = {0, (uintptr_t)-1};
1489 static uintptr_t _verify_klass_data[2] = {0, (uintptr_t)-1};
1490 
1491 
1492 #ifndef PRODUCT
1493 
1494 static void calculate_verify_data(uintptr_t verify_data[2],
1495                                   HeapWord* low_boundary,
1496                                   HeapWord* high_boundary) {
1497   assert(low_boundary < high_boundary, "bad interval");
1498 
1499   // decide which low-order bits we require to be clear:
1500   size_t alignSize = MinObjAlignmentInBytes;
1501   size_t min_object_size = CollectedHeap::min_fill_size();
1502 
1503   // make an inclusive limit:
1504   uintptr_t max = (uintptr_t)high_boundary - min_object_size*wordSize;
1505   uintptr_t min = (uintptr_t)low_boundary;
1506   assert(min < max, "bad interval");
1507   uintptr_t diff = max ^ min;
1508 
1509   // throw away enough low-order bits to make the diff vanish
1510   uintptr_t mask = (uintptr_t)(-1);
1511   while ((mask & diff) != 0)
1512     mask <<= 1;
1513   uintptr_t bits = (min & mask);
1514   assert(bits == (max & mask), "correct mask");
1515   // check an intermediate value between min and max, just to make sure:
1516   assert(bits == ((min + (max-min)/2) & mask), "correct mask");
1517 
1518   // require address alignment, too:
1519   mask |= (alignSize - 1);
1520 
1521   if (!(verify_data[0] == 0 && verify_data[1] == (uintptr_t)-1)) {
1522     assert(verify_data[0] == mask && verify_data[1] == bits, "mask stability");
1523   }
1524   verify_data[0] = mask;
1525   verify_data[1] = bits;
1526 }
1527 
1528 // Oop verification (see MacroAssembler::verify_oop)
1529 
1530 uintptr_t Universe::verify_oop_mask() {
1531   MemRegion m = heap()->reserved_region();
1532   calculate_verify_data(_verify_oop_data,
1533                         m.start(),
1534                         m.end());
1535   return _verify_oop_data[0];
1536 }
1537 
1538 
1539 
1540 uintptr_t Universe::verify_oop_bits() {
1541   verify_oop_mask();
1542   return _verify_oop_data[1];
1543 }
1544 
1545 uintptr_t Universe::verify_mark_mask() {
1546   return markOopDesc::lock_mask_in_place;
1547 }
1548 
1549 uintptr_t Universe::verify_mark_bits() {
1550   intptr_t mask = verify_mark_mask();
1551   intptr_t bits = (intptr_t)markOopDesc::prototype();
1552   assert((bits & ~mask) == 0, "no stray header bits");
1553   return bits;
1554 }
1555 #endif // PRODUCT
1556 
1557 
1558 void Universe::compute_verify_oop_data() {
1559   verify_oop_mask();
1560   verify_oop_bits();
1561   verify_mark_mask();
1562   verify_mark_bits();
1563 }
1564 
1565 
1566 void LatestMethodCache::init(Klass* k, Method* m) {
1567   if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
1568     _klass = k;
1569   }
1570 #ifndef PRODUCT
1571   else {
1572     // sharing initilization should have already set up _klass
1573     assert(_klass != NULL, "just checking");
1574   }
1575 #endif
1576 
1577   _method_idnum = m->method_idnum();
1578   assert(_method_idnum >= 0, "sanity check");
1579 }
1580 
1581 
1582 Method* LatestMethodCache::get_method() {
1583   if (klass() == NULL) return NULL;
1584   InstanceKlass* ik = InstanceKlass::cast(klass());
1585   Method* m = ik->method_with_idnum(method_idnum());
1586   assert(m != NULL, "sanity check");
1587   return m;
1588 }
1589 
1590 
1591 #ifdef ASSERT
1592 // Release dummy object(s) at bottom of heap
1593 bool Universe::release_fullgc_alot_dummy() {
1594   MutexLocker ml(FullGCALot_lock);
1595   if (_fullgc_alot_dummy_array != NULL) {
1596     if (_fullgc_alot_dummy_next >= _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->length()) {
1597       // No more dummies to release, release entire array instead
1598       _fullgc_alot_dummy_array = NULL;
1599       return false;
1600     }
1601     if (!UseConcMarkSweepGC) {
1602       // Release dummy at bottom of old generation
1603       _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->obj_at_put(_fullgc_alot_dummy_next++, NULL);
1604     }
1605     // Release dummy at bottom of permanent generation
1606     _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->obj_at_put(_fullgc_alot_dummy_next++, NULL);
1607   }
1608   return true;
1609 }
1610 
1611 #endif // ASSERT