src/share/vm/gc_interface/collectedHeap.cpp

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rev 4773 : 8005849: JEP 167: Event-Based JVM Tracing
Reviewed-by: acorn, coleenp, sla
Contributed-by: Karen Kinnear <karen.kinnear@oracle.com>, Bengt Rutisson <bengt.rutisson@oracle.com>, Calvin Cheung <calvin.cheung@oracle.com>, Erik Gahlin <erik.gahlin@oracle.com>, Erik Helin <erik.helin@oracle.com>, Jesper Wilhelmsson <jesper.wilhelmsson@oracle.com>, Keith McGuigan <keith.mcguigan@oracle.com>, Mattias Tobiasson <mattias.tobiasson@oracle.com>, Markus Gronlund <markus.gronlund@oracle.com>, Mikael Auno <mikael.auno@oracle.com>, Nils Eliasson <nils.eliasson@oracle.com>, Nils Loodin <nils.loodin@oracle.com>, Rickard Backman <rickard.backman@oracle.com>, Staffan Larsen <staffan.larsen@oracle.com>, Stefan Karlsson <stefan.karlsson@oracle.com>, Yekaterina Kantserova <yekaterina.kantserova@oracle.com>
   1 /*
   2  * Copyright (c) 2001, 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
   3  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
   4  *
   5  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   6  * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
   7  * published by the Free Software Foundation.
   8  *
   9  * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  10  * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  11  * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  12  * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  13  * accompanied this code).
  14  *
  15  * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  16  * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  17  * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  18  *
  19  * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  20  * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  21  * questions.
  22  *
  23  */
  24 
  25 #include "precompiled.hpp"
  26 #include "classfile/systemDictionary.hpp"




  27 #include "gc_implementation/shared/vmGCOperations.hpp"

  28 #include "gc_interface/collectedHeap.hpp"
  29 #include "gc_interface/collectedHeap.inline.hpp"

  30 #include "oops/oop.inline.hpp"
  31 #include "oops/instanceMirrorKlass.hpp"
  32 #include "runtime/init.hpp"
  33 #include "runtime/thread.inline.hpp"
  34 #include "services/heapDumper.hpp"
  35 
  36 
  37 #ifdef ASSERT
  38 int CollectedHeap::_fire_out_of_memory_count = 0;
  39 #endif
  40 
  41 size_t CollectedHeap::_filler_array_max_size = 0;
  42 
  43 template <>
  44 void EventLogBase<GCMessage>::print(outputStream* st, GCMessage& m) {
  45   st->print_cr("GC heap %s", m.is_before ? "before" : "after");
  46   st->print_raw(m);
  47 }
  48 
  49 void GCHeapLog::log_heap(bool before) {
  50   if (!should_log()) {
  51     return;
  52   }
  53 
  54   double timestamp = fetch_timestamp();
  55   MutexLockerEx ml(&_mutex, Mutex::_no_safepoint_check_flag);
  56   int index = compute_log_index();
  57   _records[index].thread = NULL; // Its the GC thread so it's not that interesting.
  58   _records[index].timestamp = timestamp;
  59   _records[index].data.is_before = before;
  60   stringStream st(_records[index].data.buffer(), _records[index].data.size());
  61   if (before) {
  62     Universe::print_heap_before_gc(&st, true);
  63   } else {
  64     Universe::print_heap_after_gc(&st, true);
  65   }
  66 }
  67 





























































  68 // Memory state functions.
  69 
  70 
  71 CollectedHeap::CollectedHeap() : _n_par_threads(0)
  72 
  73 {
  74   const size_t max_len = size_t(arrayOopDesc::max_array_length(T_INT));
  75   const size_t elements_per_word = HeapWordSize / sizeof(jint);
  76   _filler_array_max_size = align_object_size(filler_array_hdr_size() +
  77                                              max_len / elements_per_word);
  78 
  79   _barrier_set = NULL;
  80   _is_gc_active = false;
  81   _total_collections = _total_full_collections = 0;
  82   _gc_cause = _gc_lastcause = GCCause::_no_gc;
  83   NOT_PRODUCT(_promotion_failure_alot_count = 0;)
  84   NOT_PRODUCT(_promotion_failure_alot_gc_number = 0;)
  85 
  86   if (UsePerfData) {
  87     EXCEPTION_MARK;
  88 
  89     // create the gc cause jvmstat counters
  90     _perf_gc_cause = PerfDataManager::create_string_variable(SUN_GC, "cause",
  91                              80, GCCause::to_string(_gc_cause), CHECK);
  92 


 168 
 169 #ifdef ASSERT
 170 void CollectedHeap::check_for_valid_allocation_state() {
 171   Thread *thread = Thread::current();
 172   // How to choose between a pending exception and a potential
 173   // OutOfMemoryError?  Don't allow pending exceptions.
 174   // This is a VM policy failure, so how do we exhaustively test it?
 175   assert(!thread->has_pending_exception(),
 176          "shouldn't be allocating with pending exception");
 177   if (StrictSafepointChecks) {
 178     assert(thread->allow_allocation(),
 179            "Allocation done by thread for which allocation is blocked "
 180            "by No_Allocation_Verifier!");
 181     // Allocation of an oop can always invoke a safepoint,
 182     // hence, the true argument
 183     thread->check_for_valid_safepoint_state(true);
 184   }
 185 }
 186 #endif
 187 
 188 HeapWord* CollectedHeap::allocate_from_tlab_slow(Thread* thread, size_t size) {
 189 
 190   // Retain tlab and allocate object in shared space if
 191   // the amount free in the tlab is too large to discard.
 192   if (thread->tlab().free() > thread->tlab().refill_waste_limit()) {
 193     thread->tlab().record_slow_allocation(size);
 194     return NULL;
 195   }
 196 
 197   // Discard tlab and allocate a new one.
 198   // To minimize fragmentation, the last TLAB may be smaller than the rest.
 199   size_t new_tlab_size = thread->tlab().compute_size(size);
 200 
 201   thread->tlab().clear_before_allocation();
 202 
 203   if (new_tlab_size == 0) {
 204     return NULL;
 205   }
 206 
 207   // Allocate a new TLAB...
 208   HeapWord* obj = Universe::heap()->allocate_new_tlab(new_tlab_size);
 209   if (obj == NULL) {
 210     return NULL;
 211   }



 212   if (ZeroTLAB) {
 213     // ..and clear it.
 214     Copy::zero_to_words(obj, new_tlab_size);
 215   } else {
 216     // ...and zap just allocated object.
 217 #ifdef ASSERT
 218     // Skip mangling the space corresponding to the object header to
 219     // ensure that the returned space is not considered parsable by
 220     // any concurrent GC thread.
 221     size_t hdr_size = oopDesc::header_size();
 222     Copy::fill_to_words(obj + hdr_size, new_tlab_size - hdr_size, badHeapWordVal);
 223 #endif // ASSERT
 224   }
 225   thread->tlab().fill(obj, obj + size, new_tlab_size);
 226   return obj;
 227 }
 228 
 229 void CollectedHeap::flush_deferred_store_barrier(JavaThread* thread) {
 230   MemRegion deferred = thread->deferred_card_mark();
 231   if (!deferred.is_empty()) {


 441 void CollectedHeap::accumulate_statistics_all_tlabs() {
 442   if (UseTLAB) {
 443     assert(SafepointSynchronize::is_at_safepoint() ||
 444          !is_init_completed(),
 445          "should only accumulate statistics on tlabs at safepoint");
 446 
 447     ThreadLocalAllocBuffer::accumulate_statistics_before_gc();
 448   }
 449 }
 450 
 451 void CollectedHeap::resize_all_tlabs() {
 452   if (UseTLAB) {
 453     assert(SafepointSynchronize::is_at_safepoint() ||
 454          !is_init_completed(),
 455          "should only resize tlabs at safepoint");
 456 
 457     ThreadLocalAllocBuffer::resize_all_tlabs();
 458   }
 459 }
 460 
 461 void CollectedHeap::pre_full_gc_dump() {
 462   if (HeapDumpBeforeFullGC) {
 463     TraceTime tt("Heap Dump (before full gc): ", PrintGCDetails, false, gclog_or_tty);
 464     // We are doing a "major" collection and a heap dump before
 465     // major collection has been requested.
 466     HeapDumper::dump_heap();
 467   }
 468   if (PrintClassHistogramBeforeFullGC) {
 469     TraceTime tt("Class Histogram (before full gc): ", PrintGCDetails, true, gclog_or_tty);
 470     VM_GC_HeapInspection inspector(gclog_or_tty, false /* ! full gc */, false /* ! prologue */);
 471     inspector.doit();
 472   }
 473 }
 474 
 475 void CollectedHeap::post_full_gc_dump() {
 476   if (HeapDumpAfterFullGC) {
 477     TraceTime tt("Heap Dump (after full gc): ", PrintGCDetails, false, gclog_or_tty);
 478     HeapDumper::dump_heap();
 479   }
 480   if (PrintClassHistogramAfterFullGC) {
 481     TraceTime tt("Class Histogram (after full gc): ", PrintGCDetails, true, gclog_or_tty);
 482     VM_GC_HeapInspection inspector(gclog_or_tty, false /* ! full gc */, false /* ! prologue */);
 483     inspector.doit();
 484   }
 485 }
 486 
 487 oop CollectedHeap::Class_obj_allocate(KlassHandle klass, int size, KlassHandle real_klass, TRAPS) {
 488   debug_only(check_for_valid_allocation_state());
 489   assert(!Universe::heap()->is_gc_active(), "Allocation during gc not allowed");
 490   assert(size >= 0, "int won't convert to size_t");
 491   HeapWord* obj;
 492     assert(ScavengeRootsInCode > 0, "must be");
 493     obj = common_mem_allocate_init(size, CHECK_NULL);
 494   post_allocation_setup_common(klass, obj);
 495   assert(Universe::is_bootstrapping() ||
 496          !((oop)obj)->is_array(), "must not be an array");
 497   NOT_PRODUCT(Universe::heap()->check_for_bad_heap_word_value(obj, size));
 498   oop mirror = (oop)obj;
 499 
 500   java_lang_Class::set_oop_size(mirror, size);
 501 
 502   // Setup indirections
 503   if (!real_klass.is_null()) {
 504     java_lang_Class::set_klass(mirror, real_klass());
 505     real_klass->set_java_mirror(mirror);
 506   }
 507 
 508   InstanceMirrorKlass* mk = InstanceMirrorKlass::cast(mirror->klass());
 509   assert(size == mk->instance_size(real_klass), "should have been set");
 510 
 511   // notify jvmti and dtrace
 512   post_allocation_notify(klass, (oop)obj);
 513 


   1 /*
   2  * Copyright (c) 2001, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
   3  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
   4  *
   5  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   6  * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
   7  * published by the Free Software Foundation.
   8  *
   9  * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  10  * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  11  * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  12  * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  13  * accompanied this code).
  14  *
  15  * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  16  * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  17  * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  18  *
  19  * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  20  * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  21  * questions.
  22  *
  23  */
  24 
  25 #include "precompiled.hpp"
  26 #include "classfile/systemDictionary.hpp"
  27 #include "gc_implementation/shared/gcHeapSummary.hpp"
  28 #include "gc_implementation/shared/gcTrace.hpp"
  29 #include "gc_implementation/shared/gcTraceTime.hpp"
  30 #include "gc_implementation/shared/gcWhen.hpp"
  31 #include "gc_implementation/shared/vmGCOperations.hpp"
  32 #include "gc_interface/allocTracer.hpp"
  33 #include "gc_interface/collectedHeap.hpp"
  34 #include "gc_interface/collectedHeap.inline.hpp"
  35 #include "memory/metaspace.hpp"
  36 #include "oops/oop.inline.hpp"
  37 #include "oops/instanceMirrorKlass.hpp"
  38 #include "runtime/init.hpp"
  39 #include "runtime/thread.inline.hpp"
  40 #include "services/heapDumper.hpp"
  41 
  42 
  43 #ifdef ASSERT
  44 int CollectedHeap::_fire_out_of_memory_count = 0;
  45 #endif
  46 
  47 size_t CollectedHeap::_filler_array_max_size = 0;
  48 
  49 template <>
  50 void EventLogBase<GCMessage>::print(outputStream* st, GCMessage& m) {
  51   st->print_cr("GC heap %s", m.is_before ? "before" : "after");
  52   st->print_raw(m);
  53 }
  54 
  55 void GCHeapLog::log_heap(bool before) {
  56   if (!should_log()) {
  57     return;
  58   }
  59 
  60   double timestamp = fetch_timestamp();
  61   MutexLockerEx ml(&_mutex, Mutex::_no_safepoint_check_flag);
  62   int index = compute_log_index();
  63   _records[index].thread = NULL; // Its the GC thread so it's not that interesting.
  64   _records[index].timestamp = timestamp;
  65   _records[index].data.is_before = before;
  66   stringStream st(_records[index].data.buffer(), _records[index].data.size());
  67   if (before) {
  68     Universe::print_heap_before_gc(&st, true);
  69   } else {
  70     Universe::print_heap_after_gc(&st, true);
  71   }
  72 }
  73 
  74 VirtualSpaceSummary CollectedHeap::create_heap_space_summary() {
  75   size_t capacity_in_words = capacity() / HeapWordSize;
  76 
  77   return VirtualSpaceSummary(
  78     reserved_region().start(), reserved_region().start() + capacity_in_words, reserved_region().end());
  79 }
  80 
  81 GCHeapSummary CollectedHeap::create_heap_summary() {
  82   VirtualSpaceSummary heap_space = create_heap_space_summary();
  83   return GCHeapSummary(heap_space, used());
  84 }
  85 
  86 MetaspaceSummary CollectedHeap::create_metaspace_summary() {
  87   const MetaspaceSizes meta_space(
  88       0, /*MetaspaceAux::capacity_in_bytes(),*/
  89       0, /*MetaspaceAux::used_in_bytes(),*/
  90       MetaspaceAux::reserved_in_bytes());
  91   const MetaspaceSizes data_space(
  92       0, /*MetaspaceAux::capacity_in_bytes(Metaspace::NonClassType),*/
  93       0, /*MetaspaceAux::used_in_bytes(Metaspace::NonClassType),*/
  94       MetaspaceAux::reserved_in_bytes(Metaspace::NonClassType));
  95   const MetaspaceSizes class_space(
  96       0, /*MetaspaceAux::capacity_in_bytes(Metaspace::ClassType),*/
  97       0, /*MetaspaceAux::used_in_bytes(Metaspace::ClassType),*/
  98       MetaspaceAux::reserved_in_bytes(Metaspace::ClassType));
  99 
 100   return MetaspaceSummary(meta_space, data_space, class_space);
 101 }
 102 
 103 void CollectedHeap::print_heap_before_gc() {
 104   if (PrintHeapAtGC) {
 105     Universe::print_heap_before_gc();
 106   }
 107   if (_gc_heap_log != NULL) {
 108     _gc_heap_log->log_heap_before();
 109   }
 110 }
 111 
 112 void CollectedHeap::print_heap_after_gc() {
 113   if (PrintHeapAtGC) {
 114     Universe::print_heap_after_gc();
 115   }
 116   if (_gc_heap_log != NULL) {
 117     _gc_heap_log->log_heap_after();
 118   }
 119 }
 120 
 121 void CollectedHeap::trace_heap(GCWhen::Type when, GCTracer* gc_tracer) {
 122   const GCHeapSummary& heap_summary = create_heap_summary();
 123   const MetaspaceSummary& metaspace_summary = create_metaspace_summary();
 124   gc_tracer->report_gc_heap_summary(when, heap_summary, metaspace_summary);
 125 }
 126 
 127 void CollectedHeap::trace_heap_before_gc(GCTracer* gc_tracer) {
 128   trace_heap(GCWhen::BeforeGC, gc_tracer);
 129 }
 130 
 131 void CollectedHeap::trace_heap_after_gc(GCTracer* gc_tracer) {
 132   trace_heap(GCWhen::AfterGC, gc_tracer);
 133 }
 134 
 135 // Memory state functions.
 136 
 137 
 138 CollectedHeap::CollectedHeap() : _n_par_threads(0)

 139 {
 140   const size_t max_len = size_t(arrayOopDesc::max_array_length(T_INT));
 141   const size_t elements_per_word = HeapWordSize / sizeof(jint);
 142   _filler_array_max_size = align_object_size(filler_array_hdr_size() +
 143                                              max_len / elements_per_word);
 144 
 145   _barrier_set = NULL;
 146   _is_gc_active = false;
 147   _total_collections = _total_full_collections = 0;
 148   _gc_cause = _gc_lastcause = GCCause::_no_gc;
 149   NOT_PRODUCT(_promotion_failure_alot_count = 0;)
 150   NOT_PRODUCT(_promotion_failure_alot_gc_number = 0;)
 151 
 152   if (UsePerfData) {
 153     EXCEPTION_MARK;
 154 
 155     // create the gc cause jvmstat counters
 156     _perf_gc_cause = PerfDataManager::create_string_variable(SUN_GC, "cause",
 157                              80, GCCause::to_string(_gc_cause), CHECK);
 158 


 234 
 235 #ifdef ASSERT
 236 void CollectedHeap::check_for_valid_allocation_state() {
 237   Thread *thread = Thread::current();
 238   // How to choose between a pending exception and a potential
 239   // OutOfMemoryError?  Don't allow pending exceptions.
 240   // This is a VM policy failure, so how do we exhaustively test it?
 241   assert(!thread->has_pending_exception(),
 242          "shouldn't be allocating with pending exception");
 243   if (StrictSafepointChecks) {
 244     assert(thread->allow_allocation(),
 245            "Allocation done by thread for which allocation is blocked "
 246            "by No_Allocation_Verifier!");
 247     // Allocation of an oop can always invoke a safepoint,
 248     // hence, the true argument
 249     thread->check_for_valid_safepoint_state(true);
 250   }
 251 }
 252 #endif
 253 
 254 HeapWord* CollectedHeap::allocate_from_tlab_slow(KlassHandle klass, Thread* thread, size_t size) {
 255 
 256   // Retain tlab and allocate object in shared space if
 257   // the amount free in the tlab is too large to discard.
 258   if (thread->tlab().free() > thread->tlab().refill_waste_limit()) {
 259     thread->tlab().record_slow_allocation(size);
 260     return NULL;
 261   }
 262 
 263   // Discard tlab and allocate a new one.
 264   // To minimize fragmentation, the last TLAB may be smaller than the rest.
 265   size_t new_tlab_size = thread->tlab().compute_size(size);
 266 
 267   thread->tlab().clear_before_allocation();
 268 
 269   if (new_tlab_size == 0) {
 270     return NULL;
 271   }
 272 
 273   // Allocate a new TLAB...
 274   HeapWord* obj = Universe::heap()->allocate_new_tlab(new_tlab_size);
 275   if (obj == NULL) {
 276     return NULL;
 277   }
 278 
 279   AllocTracer::send_allocation_in_new_tlab_event(klass, new_tlab_size * HeapWordSize, size * HeapWordSize);
 280 
 281   if (ZeroTLAB) {
 282     // ..and clear it.
 283     Copy::zero_to_words(obj, new_tlab_size);
 284   } else {
 285     // ...and zap just allocated object.
 286 #ifdef ASSERT
 287     // Skip mangling the space corresponding to the object header to
 288     // ensure that the returned space is not considered parsable by
 289     // any concurrent GC thread.
 290     size_t hdr_size = oopDesc::header_size();
 291     Copy::fill_to_words(obj + hdr_size, new_tlab_size - hdr_size, badHeapWordVal);
 292 #endif // ASSERT
 293   }
 294   thread->tlab().fill(obj, obj + size, new_tlab_size);
 295   return obj;
 296 }
 297 
 298 void CollectedHeap::flush_deferred_store_barrier(JavaThread* thread) {
 299   MemRegion deferred = thread->deferred_card_mark();
 300   if (!deferred.is_empty()) {


 510 void CollectedHeap::accumulate_statistics_all_tlabs() {
 511   if (UseTLAB) {
 512     assert(SafepointSynchronize::is_at_safepoint() ||
 513          !is_init_completed(),
 514          "should only accumulate statistics on tlabs at safepoint");
 515 
 516     ThreadLocalAllocBuffer::accumulate_statistics_before_gc();
 517   }
 518 }
 519 
 520 void CollectedHeap::resize_all_tlabs() {
 521   if (UseTLAB) {
 522     assert(SafepointSynchronize::is_at_safepoint() ||
 523          !is_init_completed(),
 524          "should only resize tlabs at safepoint");
 525 
 526     ThreadLocalAllocBuffer::resize_all_tlabs();
 527   }
 528 }
 529 
 530 void CollectedHeap::pre_full_gc_dump(GCTimer* timer) {
 531   if (HeapDumpBeforeFullGC) {
 532     GCTraceTime tt("Heap Dump (before full gc): ", PrintGCDetails, false, timer);
 533     // We are doing a "major" collection and a heap dump before
 534     // major collection has been requested.
 535     HeapDumper::dump_heap();
 536   }
 537   if (PrintClassHistogramBeforeFullGC) {
 538     GCTraceTime tt("Class Histogram (before full gc): ", PrintGCDetails, true, timer);
 539     VM_GC_HeapInspection inspector(gclog_or_tty, false /* ! full gc */);
 540     inspector.doit();
 541   }
 542 }
 543 
 544 void CollectedHeap::post_full_gc_dump(GCTimer* timer) {
 545   if (HeapDumpAfterFullGC) {
 546     GCTraceTime tt("Heap Dump (after full gc): ", PrintGCDetails, false, timer);
 547     HeapDumper::dump_heap();
 548   }
 549   if (PrintClassHistogramAfterFullGC) {
 550     GCTraceTime tt("Class Histogram (after full gc): ", PrintGCDetails, true, timer);
 551     VM_GC_HeapInspection inspector(gclog_or_tty, false /* ! full gc */);
 552     inspector.doit();
 553   }
 554 }
 555 
 556 oop CollectedHeap::Class_obj_allocate(KlassHandle klass, int size, KlassHandle real_klass, TRAPS) {
 557   debug_only(check_for_valid_allocation_state());
 558   assert(!Universe::heap()->is_gc_active(), "Allocation during gc not allowed");
 559   assert(size >= 0, "int won't convert to size_t");
 560   HeapWord* obj;
 561     assert(ScavengeRootsInCode > 0, "must be");
 562     obj = common_mem_allocate_init(real_klass, size, CHECK_NULL);
 563   post_allocation_setup_common(klass, obj);
 564   assert(Universe::is_bootstrapping() ||
 565          !((oop)obj)->is_array(), "must not be an array");
 566   NOT_PRODUCT(Universe::heap()->check_for_bad_heap_word_value(obj, size));
 567   oop mirror = (oop)obj;
 568 
 569   java_lang_Class::set_oop_size(mirror, size);
 570 
 571   // Setup indirections
 572   if (!real_klass.is_null()) {
 573     java_lang_Class::set_klass(mirror, real_klass());
 574     real_klass->set_java_mirror(mirror);
 575   }
 576 
 577   InstanceMirrorKlass* mk = InstanceMirrorKlass::cast(mirror->klass());
 578   assert(size == mk->instance_size(real_klass), "should have been set");
 579 
 580   // notify jvmti and dtrace
 581   post_allocation_notify(klass, (oop)obj);
 582