1 /*
   2  * Copyright (c) 1997, 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
   3  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
   4  *
   5  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   6  * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
   7  * published by the Free Software Foundation.
   8  *
   9  * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  10  * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  11  * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  12  * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  13  * accompanied this code).
  14  *
  15  * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  16  * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  17  * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  18  *
  19  * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  20  * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  21  * questions.
  22  *
  23  */
  24 
  25 #include "precompiled.hpp"
  26 #include "aot/aotLoader.hpp"
  27 #include "classfile/classLoader.hpp"
  28 #include "classfile/classLoaderDataGraph.hpp"
  29 #include "classfile/javaClasses.hpp"
  30 #include "classfile/stringTable.hpp"
  31 #include "classfile/systemDictionary.hpp"
  32 #include "classfile/vmSymbols.hpp"
  33 #include "code/codeBehaviours.hpp"
  34 #include "code/codeCache.hpp"
  35 #include "code/dependencies.hpp"
  36 #include "gc/shared/collectedHeap.inline.hpp"
  37 #include "gc/shared/gcArguments.hpp"
  38 #include "gc/shared/gcConfig.hpp"
  39 #include "gc/shared/gcTraceTime.inline.hpp"
  40 #include "interpreter/interpreter.hpp"
  41 #include "logging/log.hpp"
  42 #include "logging/logStream.hpp"
  43 #include "memory/heapShared.hpp"
  44 #include "memory/filemap.hpp"
  45 #include "memory/metadataFactory.hpp"
  46 #include "memory/metaspaceClosure.hpp"
  47 #include "memory/metaspaceCounters.hpp"
  48 #include "memory/metaspaceShared.hpp"
  49 #include "memory/oopFactory.hpp"
  50 #include "memory/resourceArea.hpp"
  51 #include "memory/universe.hpp"
  52 #include "memory/universe.hpp"
  53 #include "oops/constantPool.hpp"
  54 #include "oops/instanceClassLoaderKlass.hpp"
  55 #include "oops/instanceKlass.hpp"
  56 #include "oops/instanceMirrorKlass.hpp"
  57 #include "oops/instanceRefKlass.hpp"
  58 #include "oops/objArrayOop.inline.hpp"
  59 #include "oops/oop.inline.hpp"
  60 #include "oops/typeArrayKlass.hpp"
  61 #include "prims/resolvedMethodTable.hpp"
  62 #include "runtime/arguments.hpp"
  63 #include "runtime/atomic.hpp"
  64 #include "runtime/deoptimization.hpp"
  65 #include "runtime/flags/flagSetting.hpp"
  66 #include "runtime/flags/jvmFlagConstraintList.hpp"
  67 #include "runtime/handles.inline.hpp"
  68 #include "runtime/init.hpp"
  69 #include "runtime/java.hpp"
  70 #include "runtime/javaCalls.hpp"
  71 #include "runtime/sharedRuntime.hpp"
  72 #include "runtime/synchronizer.hpp"
  73 #include "runtime/thread.inline.hpp"
  74 #include "runtime/timerTrace.hpp"
  75 #include "runtime/vmOperations.hpp"
  76 #include "services/memoryService.hpp"
  77 #include "utilities/align.hpp"
  78 #include "utilities/copy.hpp"
  79 #include "utilities/debug.hpp"
  80 #include "utilities/events.hpp"
  81 #include "utilities/formatBuffer.hpp"
  82 #include "utilities/hashtable.inline.hpp"
  83 #include "utilities/macros.hpp"
  84 #include "utilities/ostream.hpp"
  85 #include "utilities/preserveException.hpp"
  86 
  87 // Known objects
  88 Klass* Universe::_typeArrayKlassObjs[T_LONG+1]        = { NULL /*, NULL...*/ };
  89 Klass* Universe::_objectArrayKlassObj                 = NULL;
  90 oop Universe::_int_mirror                             = NULL;
  91 oop Universe::_float_mirror                           = NULL;
  92 oop Universe::_double_mirror                          = NULL;
  93 oop Universe::_byte_mirror                            = NULL;
  94 oop Universe::_bool_mirror                            = NULL;
  95 oop Universe::_char_mirror                            = NULL;
  96 oop Universe::_long_mirror                            = NULL;
  97 oop Universe::_short_mirror                           = NULL;
  98 oop Universe::_void_mirror                            = NULL;
  99 oop Universe::_mirrors[T_VOID+1]                      = { NULL /*, NULL...*/ };
 100 oop Universe::_main_thread_group                      = NULL;
 101 oop Universe::_system_thread_group                    = NULL;
 102 objArrayOop Universe::_the_empty_class_klass_array    = NULL;
 103 Array<Klass*>* Universe::_the_array_interfaces_array = NULL;
 104 oop Universe::_the_null_sentinel                      = NULL;
 105 oop Universe::_the_null_string                        = NULL;
 106 oop Universe::_the_min_jint_string                   = NULL;
 107 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_finalizer_register_cache = NULL;
 108 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_loader_addClass_cache    = NULL;
 109 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_throw_illegal_access_error_cache = NULL;
 110 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_do_stack_walk_cache     = NULL;
 111 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap          = NULL;
 112 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace          = NULL;
 113 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace    = NULL;
 114 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size         = NULL;
 115 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit  = NULL;
 116 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects    = NULL;
 117 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_retry              = NULL;
 118 oop Universe::_delayed_stack_overflow_error_message   = NULL;
 119 objArrayOop Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_array = NULL;
 120 volatile jint Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count = 0;
 121 bool Universe::_verify_in_progress                    = false;
 122 long Universe::verify_flags                           = Universe::Verify_All;
 123 oop Universe::_null_ptr_exception_instance            = NULL;
 124 oop Universe::_arithmetic_exception_instance          = NULL;
 125 oop Universe::_virtual_machine_error_instance         = NULL;
 126 oop Universe::_vm_exception                           = NULL;
 127 oop Universe::_reference_pending_list                 = NULL;
 128 
 129 Array<int>* Universe::_the_empty_int_array            = NULL;
 130 Array<u2>* Universe::_the_empty_short_array           = NULL;
 131 Array<Klass*>* Universe::_the_empty_klass_array     = NULL;
 132 Array<InstanceKlass*>* Universe::_the_empty_instance_klass_array  = NULL;
 133 Array<Method*>* Universe::_the_empty_method_array   = NULL;
 134 
 135 // These variables are guarded by FullGCALot_lock.
 136 debug_only(objArrayOop Universe::_fullgc_alot_dummy_array = NULL;)
 137 debug_only(int Universe::_fullgc_alot_dummy_next      = 0;)
 138 
 139 // Heap
 140 int             Universe::_verify_count = 0;
 141 
 142 // Oop verification (see MacroAssembler::verify_oop)
 143 uintptr_t       Universe::_verify_oop_mask = 0;
 144 uintptr_t       Universe::_verify_oop_bits = (uintptr_t) -1;
 145 
 146 int             Universe::_base_vtable_size = 0;
 147 bool            Universe::_bootstrapping = false;
 148 bool            Universe::_module_initialized = false;
 149 bool            Universe::_fully_initialized = false;
 150 
 151 size_t          Universe::_heap_capacity_at_last_gc;
 152 size_t          Universe::_heap_used_at_last_gc = 0;
 153 
 154 CollectedHeap*  Universe::_collectedHeap = NULL;
 155 
 156 NarrowPtrStruct Universe::_narrow_oop = { NULL, 0, true };
 157 NarrowPtrStruct Universe::_narrow_klass = { NULL, 0, true };
 158 address Universe::_narrow_ptrs_base;
 159 uint64_t Universe::_narrow_klass_range = (uint64_t(max_juint)+1);
 160 
 161 void Universe::basic_type_classes_do(void f(Klass*)) {
 162   for (int i = T_BOOLEAN; i < T_LONG+1; i++) {
 163     f(_typeArrayKlassObjs[i]);
 164   }
 165 }
 166 
 167 void Universe::basic_type_classes_do(KlassClosure *closure) {
 168   for (int i = T_BOOLEAN; i < T_LONG+1; i++) {
 169     closure->do_klass(_typeArrayKlassObjs[i]);
 170   }
 171 }
 172 
 173 void Universe::oops_do(OopClosure* f) {
 174 
 175   f->do_oop((oop*) &_int_mirror);
 176   f->do_oop((oop*) &_float_mirror);
 177   f->do_oop((oop*) &_double_mirror);
 178   f->do_oop((oop*) &_byte_mirror);
 179   f->do_oop((oop*) &_bool_mirror);
 180   f->do_oop((oop*) &_char_mirror);
 181   f->do_oop((oop*) &_long_mirror);
 182   f->do_oop((oop*) &_short_mirror);
 183   f->do_oop((oop*) &_void_mirror);
 184 
 185   for (int i = T_BOOLEAN; i < T_VOID+1; i++) {
 186     f->do_oop((oop*) &_mirrors[i]);
 187   }
 188   assert(_mirrors[0] == NULL && _mirrors[T_BOOLEAN - 1] == NULL, "checking");
 189 
 190   f->do_oop((oop*)&_the_empty_class_klass_array);
 191   f->do_oop((oop*)&_the_null_sentinel);
 192   f->do_oop((oop*)&_the_null_string);
 193   f->do_oop((oop*)&_the_min_jint_string);
 194   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_java_heap);
 195   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_metaspace);
 196   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace);
 197   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_array_size);
 198   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit);
 199   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects);
 200   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_retry);
 201   f->do_oop((oop*)&_delayed_stack_overflow_error_message);
 202   f->do_oop((oop*)&_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_array);
 203   f->do_oop((oop*)&_null_ptr_exception_instance);
 204   f->do_oop((oop*)&_arithmetic_exception_instance);
 205   f->do_oop((oop*)&_virtual_machine_error_instance);
 206   f->do_oop((oop*)&_main_thread_group);
 207   f->do_oop((oop*)&_system_thread_group);
 208   f->do_oop((oop*)&_vm_exception);
 209   f->do_oop((oop*)&_reference_pending_list);
 210   debug_only(f->do_oop((oop*)&_fullgc_alot_dummy_array);)
 211 }
 212 
 213 void LatestMethodCache::metaspace_pointers_do(MetaspaceClosure* it) {
 214   it->push(&_klass);
 215 }
 216 
 217 void Universe::metaspace_pointers_do(MetaspaceClosure* it) {
 218   for (int i = 0; i < T_LONG+1; i++) {
 219     it->push(&_typeArrayKlassObjs[i]);
 220   }
 221   it->push(&_objectArrayKlassObj);
 222 
 223   it->push(&_the_empty_int_array);
 224   it->push(&_the_empty_short_array);
 225   it->push(&_the_empty_klass_array);
 226   it->push(&_the_empty_instance_klass_array);
 227   it->push(&_the_empty_method_array);
 228   it->push(&_the_array_interfaces_array);
 229 
 230   _finalizer_register_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 231   _loader_addClass_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 232   _throw_illegal_access_error_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 233   _do_stack_walk_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 234 }
 235 
 236 // Serialize metadata and pointers to primitive type mirrors in and out of CDS archive
 237 void Universe::serialize(SerializeClosure* f) {
 238 
 239   for (int i = 0; i < T_LONG+1; i++) {
 240     f->do_ptr((void**)&_typeArrayKlassObjs[i]);
 241   }
 242 
 243   f->do_ptr((void**)&_objectArrayKlassObj);
 244 #if INCLUDE_CDS_JAVA_HEAP
 245 #ifdef ASSERT
 246   if (DumpSharedSpaces && !HeapShared::is_heap_object_archiving_allowed()) {
 247     assert(_int_mirror == NULL    && _float_mirror == NULL &&
 248            _double_mirror == NULL && _byte_mirror == NULL  &&
 249            _bool_mirror == NULL   && _char_mirror == NULL  &&
 250            _long_mirror == NULL   && _short_mirror == NULL &&
 251            _void_mirror == NULL, "mirrors should be NULL");
 252   }
 253 #endif
 254   f->do_oop(&_int_mirror);
 255   f->do_oop(&_float_mirror);
 256   f->do_oop(&_double_mirror);
 257   f->do_oop(&_byte_mirror);
 258   f->do_oop(&_bool_mirror);
 259   f->do_oop(&_char_mirror);
 260   f->do_oop(&_long_mirror);
 261   f->do_oop(&_short_mirror);
 262   f->do_oop(&_void_mirror);
 263 #endif
 264 
 265   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_array_interfaces_array);
 266   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_int_array);
 267   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_short_array);
 268   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_method_array);
 269   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_klass_array);
 270   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_instance_klass_array);
 271   _finalizer_register_cache->serialize(f);
 272   _loader_addClass_cache->serialize(f);
 273   _throw_illegal_access_error_cache->serialize(f);
 274   _do_stack_walk_cache->serialize(f);
 275 }
 276 
 277 void Universe::check_alignment(uintx size, uintx alignment, const char* name) {
 278   if (size < alignment || size % alignment != 0) {
 279     vm_exit_during_initialization(
 280       err_msg("Size of %s (" UINTX_FORMAT " bytes) must be aligned to " UINTX_FORMAT " bytes", name, size, alignment));
 281   }
 282 }
 283 
 284 void initialize_basic_type_klass(Klass* k, TRAPS) {
 285   Klass* ok = SystemDictionary::Object_klass();
 286 #if INCLUDE_CDS
 287   if (UseSharedSpaces) {
 288     ClassLoaderData* loader_data = ClassLoaderData::the_null_class_loader_data();
 289     assert(k->super() == ok, "u3");
 290     k->restore_unshareable_info(loader_data, Handle(), CHECK);
 291   } else
 292 #endif
 293   {
 294     k->initialize_supers(ok, NULL, CHECK);
 295   }
 296   k->append_to_sibling_list();
 297 }
 298 
 299 void Universe::genesis(TRAPS) {
 300   ResourceMark rm;
 301 
 302   { FlagSetting fs(_bootstrapping, true);
 303 
 304     { MutexLocker mc(Compile_lock);
 305 
 306       java_lang_Class::allocate_fixup_lists();
 307 
 308       // determine base vtable size; without that we cannot create the array klasses
 309       compute_base_vtable_size();
 310 
 311       if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
 312         for (int i = T_BOOLEAN; i < T_LONG+1; i++) {
 313           _typeArrayKlassObjs[i] = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass((BasicType)i, CHECK);
 314         }
 315 
 316         ClassLoaderData* null_cld = ClassLoaderData::the_null_class_loader_data();
 317 
 318         _the_array_interfaces_array     = MetadataFactory::new_array<Klass*>(null_cld, 2, NULL, CHECK);
 319         _the_empty_int_array            = MetadataFactory::new_array<int>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 320         _the_empty_short_array          = MetadataFactory::new_array<u2>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 321         _the_empty_method_array         = MetadataFactory::new_array<Method*>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 322         _the_empty_klass_array          = MetadataFactory::new_array<Klass*>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 323         _the_empty_instance_klass_array = MetadataFactory::new_array<InstanceKlass*>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 324       }
 325     }
 326 
 327     vmSymbols::initialize(CHECK);
 328 
 329     SystemDictionary::initialize(CHECK);
 330 
 331     Klass* ok = SystemDictionary::Object_klass();
 332 
 333     _the_null_string            = StringTable::intern("null", CHECK);
 334     _the_min_jint_string       = StringTable::intern("-2147483648", CHECK);
 335 
 336 #if INCLUDE_CDS
 337     if (UseSharedSpaces) {
 338       // Verify shared interfaces array.
 339       assert(_the_array_interfaces_array->at(0) ==
 340              SystemDictionary::Cloneable_klass(), "u3");
 341       assert(_the_array_interfaces_array->at(1) ==
 342              SystemDictionary::Serializable_klass(), "u3");
 343     } else
 344 #endif
 345     {
 346       // Set up shared interfaces array.  (Do this before supers are set up.)
 347       _the_array_interfaces_array->at_put(0, SystemDictionary::Cloneable_klass());
 348       _the_array_interfaces_array->at_put(1, SystemDictionary::Serializable_klass());
 349     }
 350 
 351     initialize_basic_type_klass(boolArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 352     initialize_basic_type_klass(charArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 353     initialize_basic_type_klass(floatArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 354     initialize_basic_type_klass(doubleArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 355     initialize_basic_type_klass(byteArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 356     initialize_basic_type_klass(shortArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 357     initialize_basic_type_klass(intArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 358     initialize_basic_type_klass(longArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 359   } // end of core bootstrapping
 360 
 361   {
 362     Handle tns = java_lang_String::create_from_str("<null_sentinel>", CHECK);
 363     _the_null_sentinel = tns();
 364   }
 365 
 366   // Maybe this could be lifted up now that object array can be initialized
 367   // during the bootstrapping.
 368 
 369   // OLD
 370   // Initialize _objectArrayKlass after core bootstraping to make
 371   // sure the super class is set up properly for _objectArrayKlass.
 372   // ---
 373   // NEW
 374   // Since some of the old system object arrays have been converted to
 375   // ordinary object arrays, _objectArrayKlass will be loaded when
 376   // SystemDictionary::initialize(CHECK); is run. See the extra check
 377   // for Object_klass_loaded in objArrayKlassKlass::allocate_objArray_klass_impl.
 378   _objectArrayKlassObj = InstanceKlass::
 379     cast(SystemDictionary::Object_klass())->array_klass(1, CHECK);
 380   // OLD
 381   // Add the class to the class hierarchy manually to make sure that
 382   // its vtable is initialized after core bootstrapping is completed.
 383   // ---
 384   // New
 385   // Have already been initialized.
 386   _objectArrayKlassObj->append_to_sibling_list();
 387 
 388   #ifdef ASSERT
 389   if (FullGCALot) {
 390     // Allocate an array of dummy objects.
 391     // We'd like these to be at the bottom of the old generation,
 392     // so that when we free one and then collect,
 393     // (almost) the whole heap moves
 394     // and we find out if we actually update all the oops correctly.
 395     // But we can't allocate directly in the old generation,
 396     // so we allocate wherever, and hope that the first collection
 397     // moves these objects to the bottom of the old generation.
 398     // We can allocate directly in the permanent generation, so we do.
 399     int size;
 400     if (UseConcMarkSweepGC) {
 401       log_warning(gc)("Using +FullGCALot with concurrent mark sweep gc will not force all objects to relocate");
 402       size = FullGCALotDummies;
 403     } else {
 404       size = FullGCALotDummies * 2;
 405     }
 406     objArrayOop    naked_array = oopFactory::new_objArray(SystemDictionary::Object_klass(), size, CHECK);
 407     objArrayHandle dummy_array(THREAD, naked_array);
 408     int i = 0;
 409     while (i < size) {
 410         // Allocate dummy in old generation
 411       oop dummy = SystemDictionary::Object_klass()->allocate_instance(CHECK);
 412       dummy_array->obj_at_put(i++, dummy);
 413     }
 414     {
 415       // Only modify the global variable inside the mutex.
 416       // If we had a race to here, the other dummy_array instances
 417       // and their elements just get dropped on the floor, which is fine.
 418       MutexLocker ml(FullGCALot_lock);
 419       if (_fullgc_alot_dummy_array == NULL) {
 420         _fullgc_alot_dummy_array = dummy_array();
 421       }
 422     }
 423     assert(i == _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->length(), "just checking");
 424   }
 425   #endif
 426 }
 427 
 428 void Universe::initialize_basic_type_mirrors(TRAPS) {
 429 #if INCLUDE_CDS_JAVA_HEAP
 430     if (UseSharedSpaces &&
 431         HeapShared::open_archive_heap_region_mapped() &&
 432         _int_mirror != NULL) {
 433       assert(HeapShared::is_heap_object_archiving_allowed(), "Sanity");
 434       assert(_float_mirror != NULL && _double_mirror != NULL &&
 435              _byte_mirror  != NULL && _byte_mirror   != NULL &&
 436              _bool_mirror  != NULL && _char_mirror   != NULL &&
 437              _long_mirror  != NULL && _short_mirror  != NULL &&
 438              _void_mirror  != NULL, "Sanity");
 439     } else
 440 #endif
 441     {
 442       _int_mirror     =
 443         java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("int",    T_INT, CHECK);
 444       _float_mirror   =
 445         java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("float",  T_FLOAT,   CHECK);
 446       _double_mirror  =
 447         java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("double", T_DOUBLE,  CHECK);
 448       _byte_mirror    =
 449         java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("byte",   T_BYTE, CHECK);
 450       _bool_mirror    =
 451         java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("boolean",T_BOOLEAN, CHECK);
 452       _char_mirror    =
 453         java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("char",   T_CHAR, CHECK);
 454       _long_mirror    =
 455         java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("long",   T_LONG, CHECK);
 456       _short_mirror   =
 457         java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("short",  T_SHORT,   CHECK);
 458       _void_mirror    =
 459         java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("void",   T_VOID, CHECK);
 460     }
 461 
 462     _mirrors[T_INT]     = _int_mirror;
 463     _mirrors[T_FLOAT]   = _float_mirror;
 464     _mirrors[T_DOUBLE]  = _double_mirror;
 465     _mirrors[T_BYTE]    = _byte_mirror;
 466     _mirrors[T_BOOLEAN] = _bool_mirror;
 467     _mirrors[T_CHAR]    = _char_mirror;
 468     _mirrors[T_LONG]    = _long_mirror;
 469     _mirrors[T_SHORT]   = _short_mirror;
 470     _mirrors[T_VOID]    = _void_mirror;
 471   //_mirrors[T_OBJECT]  = _object_klass->java_mirror();
 472   //_mirrors[T_ARRAY]   = _object_klass->java_mirror();
 473 }
 474 
 475 void Universe::fixup_mirrors(TRAPS) {
 476   // Bootstrap problem: all classes gets a mirror (java.lang.Class instance) assigned eagerly,
 477   // but we cannot do that for classes created before java.lang.Class is loaded. Here we simply
 478   // walk over permanent objects created so far (mostly classes) and fixup their mirrors. Note
 479   // that the number of objects allocated at this point is very small.
 480   assert(SystemDictionary::Class_klass_loaded(), "java.lang.Class should be loaded");
 481   HandleMark hm(THREAD);
 482 
 483   if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
 484     // Cache the start of the static fields
 485     InstanceMirrorKlass::init_offset_of_static_fields();
 486   }
 487 
 488   GrowableArray <Klass*>* list = java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror_list();
 489   int list_length = list->length();
 490   for (int i = 0; i < list_length; i++) {
 491     Klass* k = list->at(i);
 492     assert(k->is_klass(), "List should only hold classes");
 493     EXCEPTION_MARK;
 494     java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror(k, CATCH);
 495   }
 496   delete java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror_list();
 497   java_lang_Class::set_fixup_mirror_list(NULL);
 498 }
 499 
 500 #define assert_pll_locked(test) \
 501   assert(Heap_lock->test(), "Reference pending list access requires lock")
 502 
 503 #define assert_pll_ownership() assert_pll_locked(owned_by_self)
 504 
 505 oop Universe::reference_pending_list() {
 506   if (Thread::current()->is_VM_thread()) {
 507     assert_pll_locked(is_locked);
 508   } else {
 509     assert_pll_ownership();
 510   }
 511   return _reference_pending_list;
 512 }
 513 
 514 void Universe::set_reference_pending_list(oop list) {
 515   assert_pll_ownership();
 516   _reference_pending_list = list;
 517 }
 518 
 519 bool Universe::has_reference_pending_list() {
 520   assert_pll_ownership();
 521   return _reference_pending_list != NULL;
 522 }
 523 
 524 oop Universe::swap_reference_pending_list(oop list) {
 525   assert_pll_locked(is_locked);
 526   return Atomic::xchg(list, &_reference_pending_list);
 527 }
 528 
 529 #undef assert_pll_locked
 530 #undef assert_pll_ownership
 531 
 532 void Universe::reinitialize_vtable_of(Klass* ko, TRAPS) {
 533   // init vtable of k and all subclasses
 534   ko->vtable().initialize_vtable(false, CHECK);
 535   if (ko->is_instance_klass()) {
 536     for (Klass* sk = ko->subklass();
 537          sk != NULL;
 538          sk = sk->next_sibling()) {
 539       reinitialize_vtable_of(sk, CHECK);
 540     }
 541   }
 542 }
 543 
 544 void Universe::reinitialize_vtables(TRAPS) {
 545   // The vtables are initialized by starting at java.lang.Object and
 546   // initializing through the subclass links, so that the super
 547   // classes are always initialized first.
 548   Klass* ok = SystemDictionary::Object_klass();
 549   Universe::reinitialize_vtable_of(ok, THREAD);
 550 }
 551 
 552 
 553 void initialize_itable_for_klass(InstanceKlass* k, TRAPS) {
 554   k->itable().initialize_itable(false, CHECK);
 555 }
 556 
 557 
 558 void Universe::reinitialize_itables(TRAPS) {
 559   MutexLocker mcld(ClassLoaderDataGraph_lock);
 560   ClassLoaderDataGraph::dictionary_classes_do(initialize_itable_for_klass, CHECK);
 561 }
 562 
 563 
 564 bool Universe::on_page_boundary(void* addr) {
 565   return is_aligned(addr, os::vm_page_size());
 566 }
 567 
 568 
 569 bool Universe::should_fill_in_stack_trace(Handle throwable) {
 570   // never attempt to fill in the stack trace of preallocated errors that do not have
 571   // backtrace. These errors are kept alive forever and may be "re-used" when all
 572   // preallocated errors with backtrace have been consumed. Also need to avoid
 573   // a potential loop which could happen if an out of memory occurs when attempting
 574   // to allocate the backtrace.
 575   return ((!oopDesc::equals(throwable(), Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap)) &&
 576           (!oopDesc::equals(throwable(), Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace))  &&
 577           (!oopDesc::equals(throwable(), Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace))  &&
 578           (!oopDesc::equals(throwable(), Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size)) &&
 579           (!oopDesc::equals(throwable(), Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit)) &&
 580           (!oopDesc::equals(throwable(), Universe::_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects)) &&
 581           (!oopDesc::equals(throwable(), Universe::_out_of_memory_error_retry)));
 582 }
 583 
 584 
 585 oop Universe::gen_out_of_memory_error(oop default_err) {
 586   // generate an out of memory error:
 587   // - if there is a preallocated error and stack traces are available
 588   //   (j.l.Throwable is initialized), then return the preallocated
 589   //   error with a filled in stack trace, and with the message
 590   //   provided by the default error.
 591   // - otherwise, return the default error, without a stack trace.
 592   int next;
 593   if ((_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count > 0) &&
 594       SystemDictionary::Throwable_klass()->is_initialized()) {
 595     next = (int)Atomic::add(-1, &_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count);
 596     assert(next < (int)PreallocatedOutOfMemoryErrorCount, "avail count is corrupt");
 597   } else {
 598     next = -1;
 599   }
 600   if (next < 0) {
 601     // all preallocated errors have been used.
 602     // return default
 603     return default_err;
 604   } else {
 605     Thread* THREAD = Thread::current();
 606     Handle default_err_h(THREAD, default_err);
 607     // get the error object at the slot and set set it to NULL so that the
 608     // array isn't keeping it alive anymore.
 609     Handle exc(THREAD, preallocated_out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at(next));
 610     assert(exc() != NULL, "slot has been used already");
 611     preallocated_out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at_put(next, NULL);
 612 
 613     // use the message from the default error
 614     oop msg = java_lang_Throwable::message(default_err_h());
 615     assert(msg != NULL, "no message");
 616     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(exc(), msg);
 617 
 618     // populate the stack trace and return it.
 619     java_lang_Throwable::fill_in_stack_trace_of_preallocated_backtrace(exc);
 620     return exc();
 621   }
 622 }
 623 
 624 intptr_t Universe::_non_oop_bits = 0;
 625 
 626 void* Universe::non_oop_word() {
 627   // Neither the high bits nor the low bits of this value is allowed
 628   // to look like (respectively) the high or low bits of a real oop.
 629   //
 630   // High and low are CPU-specific notions, but low always includes
 631   // the low-order bit.  Since oops are always aligned at least mod 4,
 632   // setting the low-order bit will ensure that the low half of the
 633   // word will never look like that of a real oop.
 634   //
 635   // Using the OS-supplied non-memory-address word (usually 0 or -1)
 636   // will take care of the high bits, however many there are.
 637 
 638   if (_non_oop_bits == 0) {
 639     _non_oop_bits = (intptr_t)os::non_memory_address_word() | 1;
 640   }
 641 
 642   return (void*)_non_oop_bits;
 643 }
 644 
 645 static void initialize_global_behaviours() {
 646   CompiledICProtectionBehaviour::set_current(new DefaultICProtectionBehaviour());
 647 }
 648 
 649 jint universe_init() {
 650   assert(!Universe::_fully_initialized, "called after initialize_vtables");
 651   guarantee(1 << LogHeapWordSize == sizeof(HeapWord),
 652          "LogHeapWordSize is incorrect.");
 653   guarantee(sizeof(oop) >= sizeof(HeapWord), "HeapWord larger than oop?");
 654   guarantee(sizeof(oop) % sizeof(HeapWord) == 0,
 655             "oop size is not not a multiple of HeapWord size");
 656 
 657   TraceTime timer("Genesis", TRACETIME_LOG(Info, startuptime));
 658 
 659   JavaClasses::compute_hard_coded_offsets();
 660 
 661   initialize_global_behaviours();
 662 
 663   jint status = Universe::initialize_heap();
 664   if (status != JNI_OK) {
 665     return status;
 666   }
 667 
 668   SystemDictionary::initialize_oop_storage();
 669 
 670   Metaspace::global_initialize();
 671 
 672   // Initialize performance counters for metaspaces
 673   MetaspaceCounters::initialize_performance_counters();
 674   CompressedClassSpaceCounters::initialize_performance_counters();
 675 
 676   AOTLoader::universe_init();
 677 
 678   // Checks 'AfterMemoryInit' constraints.
 679   if (!JVMFlagConstraintList::check_constraints(JVMFlagConstraint::AfterMemoryInit)) {
 680     return JNI_EINVAL;
 681   }
 682 
 683   // Create memory for metadata.  Must be after initializing heap for
 684   // DumpSharedSpaces.
 685   ClassLoaderData::init_null_class_loader_data();
 686 
 687   // We have a heap so create the Method* caches before
 688   // Metaspace::initialize_shared_spaces() tries to populate them.
 689   Universe::_finalizer_register_cache = new LatestMethodCache();
 690   Universe::_loader_addClass_cache    = new LatestMethodCache();
 691   Universe::_throw_illegal_access_error_cache = new LatestMethodCache();
 692   Universe::_do_stack_walk_cache = new LatestMethodCache();
 693 
 694 #if INCLUDE_CDS
 695   if (UseSharedSpaces) {
 696     // Read the data structures supporting the shared spaces (shared
 697     // system dictionary, symbol table, etc.).  After that, access to
 698     // the file (other than the mapped regions) is no longer needed, and
 699     // the file is closed. Closing the file does not affect the
 700     // currently mapped regions.
 701     MetaspaceShared::initialize_shared_spaces();
 702     StringTable::create_table();
 703   } else
 704 #endif
 705   {
 706     SymbolTable::create_table();
 707     StringTable::create_table();
 708 
 709 #if INCLUDE_CDS
 710     if (DumpSharedSpaces) {
 711       MetaspaceShared::prepare_for_dumping();
 712     }
 713 #endif
 714   }
 715   if (strlen(VerifySubSet) > 0) {
 716     Universe::initialize_verify_flags();
 717   }
 718 
 719   ResolvedMethodTable::create_table();
 720 
 721   return JNI_OK;
 722 }
 723 
 724 CollectedHeap* Universe::create_heap() {
 725   assert(_collectedHeap == NULL, "Heap already created");
 726   return GCConfig::arguments()->create_heap();
 727 }
 728 
 729 // Choose the heap base address and oop encoding mode
 730 // when compressed oops are used:
 731 // Unscaled  - Use 32-bits oops without encoding when
 732 //     NarrowOopHeapBaseMin + heap_size < 4Gb
 733 // ZeroBased - Use zero based compressed oops with encoding when
 734 //     NarrowOopHeapBaseMin + heap_size < 32Gb
 735 // HeapBased - Use compressed oops with heap base + encoding.
 736 
 737 jint Universe::initialize_heap() {
 738   _collectedHeap = create_heap();
 739   jint status = _collectedHeap->initialize();
 740   if (status != JNI_OK) {
 741     return status;
 742   }
 743   log_info(gc)("Using %s", _collectedHeap->name());
 744 
 745   ThreadLocalAllocBuffer::set_max_size(Universe::heap()->max_tlab_size());
 746 
 747 #ifdef _LP64
 748   if (UseCompressedOops) {
 749     // Subtract a page because something can get allocated at heap base.
 750     // This also makes implicit null checking work, because the
 751     // memory+1 page below heap_base needs to cause a signal.
 752     // See needs_explicit_null_check.
 753     // Only set the heap base for compressed oops because it indicates
 754     // compressed oops for pstack code.
 755     if ((uint64_t)Universe::heap()->reserved_region().end() > UnscaledOopHeapMax) {
 756       // Didn't reserve heap below 4Gb.  Must shift.
 757       Universe::set_narrow_oop_shift(LogMinObjAlignmentInBytes);
 758     }
 759     if ((uint64_t)Universe::heap()->reserved_region().end() <= OopEncodingHeapMax) {
 760       // Did reserve heap below 32Gb. Can use base == 0;
 761       Universe::set_narrow_oop_base(0);
 762     }
 763     AOTLoader::set_narrow_oop_shift();
 764 
 765     Universe::set_narrow_ptrs_base(Universe::narrow_oop_base());
 766 
 767     LogTarget(Info, gc, heap, coops) lt;
 768     if (lt.is_enabled()) {
 769       ResourceMark rm;
 770       LogStream ls(lt);
 771       Universe::print_compressed_oops_mode(&ls);
 772     }
 773 
 774     // Tell tests in which mode we run.
 775     Arguments::PropertyList_add(new SystemProperty("java.vm.compressedOopsMode",
 776                                                    narrow_oop_mode_to_string(narrow_oop_mode()),
 777                                                    false));
 778   }
 779   // Universe::narrow_oop_base() is one page below the heap.
 780   assert((intptr_t)Universe::narrow_oop_base() <= (intptr_t)(Universe::heap()->base() -
 781          os::vm_page_size()) ||
 782          Universe::narrow_oop_base() == NULL, "invalid value");
 783   assert(Universe::narrow_oop_shift() == LogMinObjAlignmentInBytes ||
 784          Universe::narrow_oop_shift() == 0, "invalid value");
 785 #endif
 786 
 787   // We will never reach the CATCH below since Exceptions::_throw will cause
 788   // the VM to exit if an exception is thrown during initialization
 789 
 790   if (UseTLAB) {
 791     assert(Universe::heap()->supports_tlab_allocation(),
 792            "Should support thread-local allocation buffers");
 793     ThreadLocalAllocBuffer::startup_initialization();
 794   }
 795   return JNI_OK;
 796 }
 797 
 798 void Universe::print_compressed_oops_mode(outputStream* st) {
 799   st->print("Heap address: " PTR_FORMAT ", size: " SIZE_FORMAT " MB",
 800             p2i(Universe::heap()->base()), Universe::heap()->reserved_region().byte_size()/M);
 801 
 802   st->print(", Compressed Oops mode: %s", narrow_oop_mode_to_string(narrow_oop_mode()));
 803 
 804   if (Universe::narrow_oop_base() != 0) {
 805     st->print(": " PTR_FORMAT, p2i(Universe::narrow_oop_base()));
 806   }
 807 
 808   if (Universe::narrow_oop_shift() != 0) {
 809     st->print(", Oop shift amount: %d", Universe::narrow_oop_shift());
 810   }
 811 
 812   if (!Universe::narrow_oop_use_implicit_null_checks()) {
 813     st->print(", no protected page in front of the heap");
 814   }
 815   st->cr();
 816 }
 817 
 818 ReservedSpace Universe::reserve_heap(size_t heap_size, size_t alignment) {
 819 
 820   assert(alignment <= Arguments::conservative_max_heap_alignment(),
 821          "actual alignment " SIZE_FORMAT " must be within maximum heap alignment " SIZE_FORMAT,
 822          alignment, Arguments::conservative_max_heap_alignment());
 823 
 824   size_t total_reserved = align_up(heap_size, alignment);
 825   assert(!UseCompressedOops || (total_reserved <= (OopEncodingHeapMax - os::vm_page_size())),
 826       "heap size is too big for compressed oops");
 827 
 828   bool use_large_pages = UseLargePages && is_aligned(alignment, os::large_page_size());
 829   assert(!UseLargePages
 830       || UseParallelGC
 831       || use_large_pages, "Wrong alignment to use large pages");
 832 
 833   // Now create the space.
 834   ReservedHeapSpace total_rs(total_reserved, alignment, use_large_pages, AllocateHeapAt);
 835 
 836   if (total_rs.is_reserved()) {
 837     assert((total_reserved == total_rs.size()) && ((uintptr_t)total_rs.base() % alignment == 0),
 838            "must be exactly of required size and alignment");
 839     // We are good.
 840 
 841     if (UseCompressedOops) {
 842       // Universe::initialize_heap() will reset this to NULL if unscaled
 843       // or zero-based narrow oops are actually used.
 844       // Else heap start and base MUST differ, so that NULL can be encoded nonambigous.
 845       Universe::set_narrow_oop_base((address)total_rs.compressed_oop_base());
 846     }
 847 
 848     if (AllocateHeapAt != NULL) {
 849       log_info(gc,heap)("Successfully allocated Java heap at location %s", AllocateHeapAt);
 850     }
 851     return total_rs;
 852   }
 853 
 854   vm_exit_during_initialization(
 855     err_msg("Could not reserve enough space for " SIZE_FORMAT "KB object heap",
 856             total_reserved/K));
 857 
 858   // satisfy compiler
 859   ShouldNotReachHere();
 860   return ReservedHeapSpace(0, 0, false);
 861 }
 862 
 863 
 864 // It's the caller's responsibility to ensure glitch-freedom
 865 // (if required).
 866 void Universe::update_heap_info_at_gc() {
 867   _heap_capacity_at_last_gc = heap()->capacity();
 868   _heap_used_at_last_gc     = heap()->used();
 869 }
 870 
 871 
 872 const char* Universe::narrow_oop_mode_to_string(Universe::NARROW_OOP_MODE mode) {
 873   switch (mode) {
 874     case UnscaledNarrowOop:
 875       return "32-bit";
 876     case ZeroBasedNarrowOop:
 877       return "Zero based";
 878     case DisjointBaseNarrowOop:
 879       return "Non-zero disjoint base";
 880     case HeapBasedNarrowOop:
 881       return "Non-zero based";
 882     default:
 883       ShouldNotReachHere();
 884       return "";
 885   }
 886 }
 887 
 888 
 889 Universe::NARROW_OOP_MODE Universe::narrow_oop_mode() {
 890   if (narrow_oop_base_disjoint()) {
 891     return DisjointBaseNarrowOop;
 892   }
 893 
 894   if (narrow_oop_base() != 0) {
 895     return HeapBasedNarrowOop;
 896   }
 897 
 898   if (narrow_oop_shift() != 0) {
 899     return ZeroBasedNarrowOop;
 900   }
 901 
 902   return UnscaledNarrowOop;
 903 }
 904 
 905 void initialize_known_method(LatestMethodCache* method_cache,
 906                              InstanceKlass* ik,
 907                              const char* method,
 908                              Symbol* signature,
 909                              bool is_static, TRAPS)
 910 {
 911   TempNewSymbol name = SymbolTable::new_symbol(method, CHECK);
 912   Method* m = NULL;
 913   // The klass must be linked before looking up the method.
 914   if (!ik->link_class_or_fail(THREAD) ||
 915       ((m = ik->find_method(name, signature)) == NULL) ||
 916       is_static != m->is_static()) {
 917     ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
 918     // NoSuchMethodException doesn't actually work because it tries to run the
 919     // <init> function before java_lang_Class is linked. Print error and exit.
 920     vm_exit_during_initialization(err_msg("Unable to link/verify %s.%s method",
 921                                  ik->name()->as_C_string(), method));
 922   }
 923   method_cache->init(ik, m);
 924 }
 925 
 926 void Universe::initialize_known_methods(TRAPS) {
 927   // Set up static method for registering finalizers
 928   initialize_known_method(_finalizer_register_cache,
 929                           SystemDictionary::Finalizer_klass(),
 930                           "register",
 931                           vmSymbols::object_void_signature(), true, CHECK);
 932 
 933   initialize_known_method(_throw_illegal_access_error_cache,
 934                           SystemDictionary::internal_Unsafe_klass(),
 935                           "throwIllegalAccessError",
 936                           vmSymbols::void_method_signature(), true, CHECK);
 937 
 938   // Set up method for registering loaded classes in class loader vector
 939   initialize_known_method(_loader_addClass_cache,
 940                           SystemDictionary::ClassLoader_klass(),
 941                           "addClass",
 942                           vmSymbols::class_void_signature(), false, CHECK);
 943 
 944   // Set up method for stack walking
 945   initialize_known_method(_do_stack_walk_cache,
 946                           SystemDictionary::AbstractStackWalker_klass(),
 947                           "doStackWalk",
 948                           vmSymbols::doStackWalk_signature(), false, CHECK);
 949 }
 950 
 951 void universe2_init() {
 952   EXCEPTION_MARK;
 953   Universe::genesis(CATCH);
 954 }
 955 
 956 // Set after initialization of the module runtime, call_initModuleRuntime
 957 void universe_post_module_init() {
 958   Universe::_module_initialized = true;
 959 }
 960 
 961 bool universe_post_init() {
 962   assert(!is_init_completed(), "Error: initialization not yet completed!");
 963   Universe::_fully_initialized = true;
 964   EXCEPTION_MARK;
 965   { ResourceMark rm;
 966     Interpreter::initialize();      // needed for interpreter entry points
 967     if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
 968       Universe::reinitialize_vtables(CHECK_false);
 969       Universe::reinitialize_itables(CHECK_false);
 970     }
 971   }
 972 
 973   HandleMark hm(THREAD);
 974   // Setup preallocated empty java.lang.Class array
 975   Universe::_the_empty_class_klass_array = oopFactory::new_objArray(SystemDictionary::Class_klass(), 0, CHECK_false);
 976 
 977   // Setup preallocated OutOfMemoryError errors
 978   Klass* k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(vmSymbols::java_lang_OutOfMemoryError(), true, CHECK_false);
 979   InstanceKlass* ik = InstanceKlass::cast(k);
 980   Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap = ik->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 981   Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace = ik->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 982   Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace = ik->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 983   Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size = ik->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 984   Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit =
 985     ik->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 986   Universe::_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects = ik->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 987   Universe::_out_of_memory_error_retry = ik->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 988 
 989   // Setup preallocated cause message for delayed StackOverflowError
 990   if (StackReservedPages > 0) {
 991     Universe::_delayed_stack_overflow_error_message =
 992       java_lang_String::create_oop_from_str("Delayed StackOverflowError due to ReservedStackAccess annotated method", CHECK_false);
 993   }
 994 
 995   // Setup preallocated NullPointerException
 996   // (this is currently used for a cheap & dirty solution in compiler exception handling)
 997   k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(vmSymbols::java_lang_NullPointerException(), true, CHECK_false);
 998   Universe::_null_ptr_exception_instance = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 999   // Setup preallocated ArithmeticException
1000   // (this is currently used for a cheap & dirty solution in compiler exception handling)
1001   k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(vmSymbols::java_lang_ArithmeticException(), true, CHECK_false);
1002   Universe::_arithmetic_exception_instance = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1003   // Virtual Machine Error for when we get into a situation we can't resolve
1004   k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(
1005     vmSymbols::java_lang_VirtualMachineError(), true, CHECK_false);
1006   bool linked = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->link_class_or_fail(CHECK_false);
1007   if (!linked) {
1008      tty->print_cr("Unable to link/verify VirtualMachineError class");
1009      return false; // initialization failed
1010   }
1011   Universe::_virtual_machine_error_instance =
1012     InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1013 
1014   Universe::_vm_exception = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1015 
1016   Handle msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Java heap space", CHECK_false);
1017   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap, msg());
1018 
1019   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Metaspace", CHECK_false);
1020   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace, msg());
1021   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Compressed class space", CHECK_false);
1022   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace, msg());
1023 
1024   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Requested array size exceeds VM limit", CHECK_false);
1025   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size, msg());
1026 
1027   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("GC overhead limit exceeded", CHECK_false);
1028   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit, msg());
1029 
1030   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Java heap space: failed reallocation of scalar replaced objects", CHECK_false);
1031   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects, msg());
1032 
1033   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Java heap space: failed retryable allocation", CHECK_false);
1034   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_retry, msg());
1035 
1036   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("/ by zero", CHECK_false);
1037   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_arithmetic_exception_instance, msg());
1038 
1039   // Setup the array of errors that have preallocated backtrace
1040   k = Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap->klass();
1041   assert(k->name() == vmSymbols::java_lang_OutOfMemoryError(), "should be out of memory error");
1042   ik = InstanceKlass::cast(k);
1043 
1044   int len = (StackTraceInThrowable) ? (int)PreallocatedOutOfMemoryErrorCount : 0;
1045   Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_array = oopFactory::new_objArray(ik, len, CHECK_false);
1046   for (int i=0; i<len; i++) {
1047     oop err = ik->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1048     Handle err_h = Handle(THREAD, err);
1049     java_lang_Throwable::allocate_backtrace(err_h, CHECK_false);
1050     Universe::preallocated_out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at_put(i, err_h());
1051   }
1052   Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count = (jint)len;
1053 
1054   Universe::initialize_known_methods(CHECK_false);
1055 
1056   // This needs to be done before the first scavenge/gc, since
1057   // it's an input to soft ref clearing policy.
1058   {
1059     MutexLocker x(Heap_lock);
1060     Universe::update_heap_info_at_gc();
1061   }
1062 
1063   // ("weak") refs processing infrastructure initialization
1064   Universe::heap()->post_initialize();
1065 
1066   MemoryService::add_metaspace_memory_pools();
1067 
1068   MemoryService::set_universe_heap(Universe::heap());
1069 #if INCLUDE_CDS
1070   MetaspaceShared::post_initialize(CHECK_false);
1071 #endif
1072   return true;
1073 }
1074 
1075 
1076 void Universe::compute_base_vtable_size() {
1077   _base_vtable_size = ClassLoader::compute_Object_vtable();
1078 }
1079 
1080 void Universe::print_on(outputStream* st) {
1081   GCMutexLocker hl(Heap_lock); // Heap_lock might be locked by caller thread.
1082   st->print_cr("Heap");
1083   heap()->print_on(st);
1084 }
1085 
1086 void Universe::print_heap_at_SIGBREAK() {
1087   if (PrintHeapAtSIGBREAK) {
1088     print_on(tty);
1089     tty->cr();
1090     tty->flush();
1091   }
1092 }
1093 
1094 void Universe::print_heap_before_gc() {
1095   LogTarget(Debug, gc, heap) lt;
1096   if (lt.is_enabled()) {
1097     LogStream ls(lt);
1098     ls.print("Heap before GC invocations=%u (full %u):", heap()->total_collections(), heap()->total_full_collections());
1099     ResourceMark rm;
1100     heap()->print_on(&ls);
1101   }
1102 }
1103 
1104 void Universe::print_heap_after_gc() {
1105   LogTarget(Debug, gc, heap) lt;
1106   if (lt.is_enabled()) {
1107     LogStream ls(lt);
1108     ls.print("Heap after GC invocations=%u (full %u):", heap()->total_collections(), heap()->total_full_collections());
1109     ResourceMark rm;
1110     heap()->print_on(&ls);
1111   }
1112 }
1113 
1114 void Universe::initialize_verify_flags() {
1115   verify_flags = 0;
1116   const char delimiter[] = " ,";
1117 
1118   size_t length = strlen(VerifySubSet);
1119   char* subset_list = NEW_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, length + 1, mtInternal);
1120   strncpy(subset_list, VerifySubSet, length + 1);
1121 
1122   char* token = strtok(subset_list, delimiter);
1123   while (token != NULL) {
1124     if (strcmp(token, "threads") == 0) {
1125       verify_flags |= Verify_Threads;
1126     } else if (strcmp(token, "heap") == 0) {
1127       verify_flags |= Verify_Heap;
1128     } else if (strcmp(token, "symbol_table") == 0) {
1129       verify_flags |= Verify_SymbolTable;
1130     } else if (strcmp(token, "string_table") == 0) {
1131       verify_flags |= Verify_StringTable;
1132     } else if (strcmp(token, "codecache") == 0) {
1133       verify_flags |= Verify_CodeCache;
1134     } else if (strcmp(token, "dictionary") == 0) {
1135       verify_flags |= Verify_SystemDictionary;
1136     } else if (strcmp(token, "classloader_data_graph") == 0) {
1137       verify_flags |= Verify_ClassLoaderDataGraph;
1138     } else if (strcmp(token, "metaspace") == 0) {
1139       verify_flags |= Verify_MetaspaceUtils;
1140     } else if (strcmp(token, "jni_handles") == 0) {
1141       verify_flags |= Verify_JNIHandles;
1142     } else if (strcmp(token, "codecache_oops") == 0) {
1143       verify_flags |= Verify_CodeCacheOops;
1144     } else {
1145       vm_exit_during_initialization(err_msg("VerifySubSet: \'%s\' memory sub-system is unknown, please correct it", token));
1146     }
1147     token = strtok(NULL, delimiter);
1148   }
1149   FREE_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, subset_list);
1150 }
1151 
1152 bool Universe::should_verify_subset(uint subset) {
1153   if (verify_flags & subset) {
1154     return true;
1155   }
1156   return false;
1157 }
1158 
1159 void Universe::verify(VerifyOption option, const char* prefix) {
1160   // The use of _verify_in_progress is a temporary work around for
1161   // 6320749.  Don't bother with a creating a class to set and clear
1162   // it since it is only used in this method and the control flow is
1163   // straight forward.
1164   _verify_in_progress = true;
1165 
1166   COMPILER2_PRESENT(
1167     assert(!DerivedPointerTable::is_active(),
1168          "DPT should not be active during verification "
1169          "(of thread stacks below)");
1170   )
1171 
1172   ResourceMark rm;
1173   HandleMark hm;  // Handles created during verification can be zapped
1174   _verify_count++;
1175 
1176   FormatBuffer<> title("Verifying %s", prefix);
1177   GCTraceTime(Info, gc, verify) tm(title.buffer());
1178   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_Threads)) {
1179     log_debug(gc, verify)("Threads");
1180     Threads::verify();
1181   }
1182   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_Heap)) {
1183     log_debug(gc, verify)("Heap");
1184     heap()->verify(option);
1185   }
1186   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_SymbolTable)) {
1187     log_debug(gc, verify)("SymbolTable");
1188     SymbolTable::verify();
1189   }
1190   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_StringTable)) {
1191     log_debug(gc, verify)("StringTable");
1192     StringTable::verify();
1193   }
1194   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_CodeCache)) {
1195   {
1196     MutexLockerEx mu(CodeCache_lock, Mutex::_no_safepoint_check_flag);
1197     log_debug(gc, verify)("CodeCache");
1198     CodeCache::verify();
1199   }
1200   }
1201   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_SystemDictionary)) {
1202     log_debug(gc, verify)("SystemDictionary");
1203     SystemDictionary::verify();
1204   }
1205 #ifndef PRODUCT
1206   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_ClassLoaderDataGraph)) {
1207     log_debug(gc, verify)("ClassLoaderDataGraph");
1208     ClassLoaderDataGraph::verify();
1209   }
1210 #endif
1211   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_MetaspaceUtils)) {
1212     log_debug(gc, verify)("MetaspaceUtils");
1213     MetaspaceUtils::verify_free_chunks();
1214   }
1215   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_JNIHandles)) {
1216     log_debug(gc, verify)("JNIHandles");
1217     JNIHandles::verify();
1218   }
1219   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_CodeCacheOops)) {
1220     log_debug(gc, verify)("CodeCache Oops");
1221     CodeCache::verify_oops();
1222   }
1223 
1224   _verify_in_progress = false;
1225 }
1226 
1227 
1228 #ifndef PRODUCT
1229 void Universe::calculate_verify_data(HeapWord* low_boundary, HeapWord* high_boundary) {
1230   assert(low_boundary < high_boundary, "bad interval");
1231 
1232   // decide which low-order bits we require to be clear:
1233   size_t alignSize = MinObjAlignmentInBytes;
1234   size_t min_object_size = CollectedHeap::min_fill_size();
1235 
1236   // make an inclusive limit:
1237   uintptr_t max = (uintptr_t)high_boundary - min_object_size*wordSize;
1238   uintptr_t min = (uintptr_t)low_boundary;
1239   assert(min < max, "bad interval");
1240   uintptr_t diff = max ^ min;
1241 
1242   // throw away enough low-order bits to make the diff vanish
1243   uintptr_t mask = (uintptr_t)(-1);
1244   while ((mask & diff) != 0)
1245     mask <<= 1;
1246   uintptr_t bits = (min & mask);
1247   assert(bits == (max & mask), "correct mask");
1248   // check an intermediate value between min and max, just to make sure:
1249   assert(bits == ((min + (max-min)/2) & mask), "correct mask");
1250 
1251   // require address alignment, too:
1252   mask |= (alignSize - 1);
1253 
1254   if (!(_verify_oop_mask == 0 && _verify_oop_bits == (uintptr_t)-1)) {
1255     assert(_verify_oop_mask == mask && _verify_oop_bits == bits, "mask stability");
1256   }
1257   _verify_oop_mask = mask;
1258   _verify_oop_bits = bits;
1259 }
1260 
1261 // Oop verification (see MacroAssembler::verify_oop)
1262 
1263 uintptr_t Universe::verify_oop_mask() {
1264   MemRegion m = heap()->reserved_region();
1265   calculate_verify_data(m.start(), m.end());
1266   return _verify_oop_mask;
1267 }
1268 
1269 uintptr_t Universe::verify_oop_bits() {
1270   MemRegion m = heap()->reserved_region();
1271   calculate_verify_data(m.start(), m.end());
1272   return _verify_oop_bits;
1273 }
1274 
1275 uintptr_t Universe::verify_mark_mask() {
1276   return markOopDesc::lock_mask_in_place;
1277 }
1278 
1279 uintptr_t Universe::verify_mark_bits() {
1280   intptr_t mask = verify_mark_mask();
1281   intptr_t bits = (intptr_t)markOopDesc::prototype();
1282   assert((bits & ~mask) == 0, "no stray header bits");
1283   return bits;
1284 }
1285 #endif // PRODUCT
1286 
1287 
1288 void Universe::compute_verify_oop_data() {
1289   verify_oop_mask();
1290   verify_oop_bits();
1291   verify_mark_mask();
1292   verify_mark_bits();
1293 }
1294 
1295 
1296 void LatestMethodCache::init(Klass* k, Method* m) {
1297   if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
1298     _klass = k;
1299   }
1300 #ifndef PRODUCT
1301   else {
1302     // sharing initilization should have already set up _klass
1303     assert(_klass != NULL, "just checking");
1304   }
1305 #endif
1306 
1307   _method_idnum = m->method_idnum();
1308   assert(_method_idnum >= 0, "sanity check");
1309 }
1310 
1311 
1312 Method* LatestMethodCache::get_method() {
1313   if (klass() == NULL) return NULL;
1314   InstanceKlass* ik = InstanceKlass::cast(klass());
1315   Method* m = ik->method_with_idnum(method_idnum());
1316   assert(m != NULL, "sanity check");
1317   return m;
1318 }
1319 
1320 
1321 #ifdef ASSERT
1322 // Release dummy object(s) at bottom of heap
1323 bool Universe::release_fullgc_alot_dummy() {
1324   MutexLocker ml(FullGCALot_lock);
1325   if (_fullgc_alot_dummy_array != NULL) {
1326     if (_fullgc_alot_dummy_next >= _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->length()) {
1327       // No more dummies to release, release entire array instead
1328       _fullgc_alot_dummy_array = NULL;
1329       return false;
1330     }
1331     if (!UseConcMarkSweepGC) {
1332       // Release dummy at bottom of old generation
1333       _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->obj_at_put(_fullgc_alot_dummy_next++, NULL);
1334     }
1335     // Release dummy at bottom of permanent generation
1336     _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->obj_at_put(_fullgc_alot_dummy_next++, NULL);
1337   }
1338   return true;
1339 }
1340 
1341 #endif // ASSERT