1 /*
   2  * Copyright (c) 2012, 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
   3  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
   4  *
   5  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   6  * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
   7  * published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
   8  * particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
   9  * by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
  10  *
  11  * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  12  * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  13  * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  14  * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  15  * accompanied this code).
  16  *
  17  * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  18  * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  19  * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  20  *
  21  * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  22  * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  23  * questions.
  24  */
  25 
  26 /*
  27  * This file is available under and governed by the GNU General Public
  28  * License version 2 only, as published by the Free Software Foundation.
  29  * However, the following notice accompanied the original version of this
  30  * file:
  31  *
  32  * Copyright (c) 2008-2012, Stephen Colebourne & Michael Nascimento Santos
  33  *
  34  * All rights reserved.
  35  *
  36  * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
  37  * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
  38  *
  39  *  * Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice,
  40  *    this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
  41  *
  42  *  * Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice,
  43  *    this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation
  44  *    and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
  45  *
  46  *  * Neither the name of JSR-310 nor the names of its contributors
  47  *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
  48  *    without specific prior written permission.
  49  *
  50  * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
  51  * "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
  52  * LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR
  53  * A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR
  54  * CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL,
  55  * EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
  56  * PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR
  57  * PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF
  58  * LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING
  59  * NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS
  60  * SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
  61  */
  62 package java.time.format;
  63 
  64 import static java.time.temporal.ChronoField.DAY_OF_MONTH;
  65 import static java.time.temporal.ChronoField.HOUR_OF_DAY;
  66 import static java.time.temporal.ChronoField.INSTANT_SECONDS;
  67 import static java.time.temporal.ChronoField.MINUTE_OF_HOUR;
  68 import static java.time.temporal.ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR;
  69 import static java.time.temporal.ChronoField.NANO_OF_SECOND;
  70 import static java.time.temporal.ChronoField.OFFSET_SECONDS;
  71 import static java.time.temporal.ChronoField.SECOND_OF_MINUTE;
  72 import static java.time.temporal.ChronoField.YEAR;
  73 import static java.time.temporal.ChronoField.ERA;
  74 
  75 import java.lang.ref.SoftReference;
  76 import java.math.BigDecimal;
  77 import java.math.BigInteger;
  78 import java.math.RoundingMode;
  79 import java.text.ParsePosition;
  80 import java.time.DateTimeException;
  81 import java.time.Instant;
  82 import java.time.LocalDate;
  83 import java.time.LocalDateTime;
  84 import java.time.LocalTime;
  85 import java.time.ZoneId;
  86 import java.time.ZoneOffset;
  87 import java.time.chrono.ChronoLocalDate;

  88 import java.time.chrono.Chronology;
  89 import java.time.chrono.Era;
  90 import java.time.chrono.IsoChronology;
  91 import java.time.format.DateTimeTextProvider.LocaleStore;
  92 import java.time.temporal.ChronoField;
  93 import java.time.temporal.IsoFields;
  94 import java.time.temporal.JulianFields;
  95 import java.time.temporal.TemporalAccessor;
  96 import java.time.temporal.TemporalField;
  97 import java.time.temporal.TemporalQueries;
  98 import java.time.temporal.TemporalQuery;
  99 import java.time.temporal.ValueRange;
 100 import java.time.temporal.WeekFields;
 101 import java.time.zone.ZoneRulesProvider;
 102 import java.util.AbstractMap.SimpleImmutableEntry;
 103 import java.util.ArrayList;
 104 import java.util.Arrays;
 105 import java.util.Collections;
 106 import java.util.Comparator;
 107 import java.util.HashMap;
 108 import java.util.HashSet;
 109 import java.util.Iterator;
 110 import java.util.LinkedHashMap;
 111 import java.util.List;
 112 import java.util.Locale;
 113 import java.util.Map;
 114 import java.util.Map.Entry;
 115 import java.util.Objects;
 116 import java.util.Set;
 117 import java.util.TimeZone;
 118 import java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentHashMap;
 119 import java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentMap;
 120 
 121 import sun.text.spi.JavaTimeDateTimePatternProvider;
 122 import sun.util.locale.provider.CalendarDataUtility;
 123 import sun.util.locale.provider.LocaleProviderAdapter;

 124 import sun.util.locale.provider.TimeZoneNameUtility;
 125 
 126 /**
 127  * Builder to create date-time formatters.
 128  * <p>
 129  * This allows a {@code DateTimeFormatter} to be created.
 130  * All date-time formatters are created ultimately using this builder.
 131  * <p>
 132  * The basic elements of date-time can all be added:
 133  * <ul>
 134  * <li>Value - a numeric value</li>
 135  * <li>Fraction - a fractional value including the decimal place. Always use this when
 136  * outputting fractions to ensure that the fraction is parsed correctly</li>
 137  * <li>Text - the textual equivalent for the value</li>
 138  * <li>OffsetId/Offset - the {@linkplain ZoneOffset zone offset}</li>
 139  * <li>ZoneId - the {@linkplain ZoneId time-zone} id</li>
 140  * <li>ZoneText - the name of the time-zone</li>
 141  * <li>ChronologyId - the {@linkplain Chronology chronology} id</li>
 142  * <li>ChronologyText - the name of the chronology</li>
 143  * <li>Literal - a text literal</li>
 144  * <li>Nested and Optional - formats can be nested or made optional</li>
 145  * </ul>
 146  * In addition, any of the elements may be decorated by padding, either with spaces or any other character.
 147  * <p>
 148  * Finally, a shorthand pattern, mostly compatible with {@code java.text.SimpleDateFormat SimpleDateFormat}
 149  * can be used, see {@link #appendPattern(String)}.
 150  * In practice, this simply parses the pattern and calls other methods on the builder.
 151  *
 152  * @implSpec
 153  * This class is a mutable builder intended for use from a single thread.
 154  *
 155  * @since 1.8
 156  */
 157 public final class DateTimeFormatterBuilder {
 158 
 159     /**
 160      * Query for a time-zone that is region-only.
 161      */
 162     private static final TemporalQuery<ZoneId> QUERY_REGION_ONLY = (temporal) -> {
 163         ZoneId zone = temporal.query(TemporalQueries.zoneId());
 164         return (zone != null && zone instanceof ZoneOffset == false ? zone : null);
 165     };
 166 
 167     /**
 168      * The currently active builder, used by the outermost builder.
 169      */
 170     private DateTimeFormatterBuilder active = this;
 171     /**
 172      * The parent builder, null for the outermost builder.
 173      */
 174     private final DateTimeFormatterBuilder parent;
 175     /**
 176      * The list of printers that will be used.
 177      */
 178     private final List<DateTimePrinterParser> printerParsers = new ArrayList<>();
 179     /**
 180      * Whether this builder produces an optional formatter.
 181      */
 182     private final boolean optional;
 183     /**
 184      * The width to pad the next field to.
 185      */
 186     private int padNextWidth;
 187     /**
 188      * The character to pad the next field with.
 189      */
 190     private char padNextChar;
 191     /**
 192      * The index of the last variable width value parser.
 193      */
 194     private int valueParserIndex = -1;
 195 
 196     /**
 197      * Gets the formatting pattern for date and time styles for a locale and chronology.
 198      * The locale and chronology are used to lookup the locale specific format
 199      * for the requested dateStyle and/or timeStyle.
 200      * <p>
 201      * If the locale contains the "rg" (region override)
 202      * <a href="../../util/Locale.html#def_locale_extension">Unicode extensions</a>,
 203      * the formatting pattern is overridden with the one appropriate for the region.
 204      *
 205      * @param dateStyle  the FormatStyle for the date, null for time-only pattern
 206      * @param timeStyle  the FormatStyle for the time, null for date-only pattern
 207      * @param chrono  the Chronology, non-null
 208      * @param locale  the locale, non-null
 209      * @return the locale and Chronology specific formatting pattern
 210      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if both dateStyle and timeStyle are null
 211      */
 212     public static String getLocalizedDateTimePattern(FormatStyle dateStyle, FormatStyle timeStyle,
 213             Chronology chrono, Locale locale) {
 214         Objects.requireNonNull(locale, "locale");
 215         Objects.requireNonNull(chrono, "chrono");
 216         if (dateStyle == null && timeStyle == null) {
 217             throw new IllegalArgumentException("Either dateStyle or timeStyle must be non-null");
 218         }
 219         LocaleProviderAdapter adapter = LocaleProviderAdapter.getAdapter(JavaTimeDateTimePatternProvider.class, locale);
 220         JavaTimeDateTimePatternProvider provider = adapter.getJavaTimeDateTimePatternProvider();
 221         String pattern = provider.getJavaTimeDateTimePattern(convertStyle(timeStyle),
 222                          convertStyle(dateStyle), chrono.getCalendarType(),
 223                          CalendarDataUtility.findRegionOverride(locale));
 224         return pattern;
 225     }
 226 
 227     /**
 228      * Converts the given FormatStyle to the java.text.DateFormat style.
 229      *
 230      * @param style  the FormatStyle style
 231      * @return the int style, or -1 if style is null, indicating un-required
 232      */
 233     private static int convertStyle(FormatStyle style) {
 234         if (style == null) {
 235             return -1;
 236         }
 237         return style.ordinal();  // indices happen to align
 238     }
 239 
 240     /**
 241      * Constructs a new instance of the builder.
 242      */
 243     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder() {
 244         super();
 245         parent = null;
 246         optional = false;
 247     }
 248 
 249     /**
 250      * Constructs a new instance of the builder.
 251      *
 252      * @param parent  the parent builder, not null
 253      * @param optional  whether the formatter is optional, not null
 254      */
 255     private DateTimeFormatterBuilder(DateTimeFormatterBuilder parent, boolean optional) {
 256         super();
 257         this.parent = parent;
 258         this.optional = optional;
 259     }
 260 
 261     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 262     /**
 263      * Changes the parse style to be case sensitive for the remainder of the formatter.
 264      * <p>
 265      * Parsing can be case sensitive or insensitive - by default it is case sensitive.
 266      * This method allows the case sensitivity setting of parsing to be changed.
 267      * <p>
 268      * Calling this method changes the state of the builder such that all
 269      * subsequent builder method calls will parse text in case sensitive mode.
 270      * See {@link #parseCaseInsensitive} for the opposite setting.
 271      * The parse case sensitive/insensitive methods may be called at any point
 272      * in the builder, thus the parser can swap between case parsing modes
 273      * multiple times during the parse.
 274      * <p>
 275      * Since the default is case sensitive, this method should only be used after
 276      * a previous call to {@code #parseCaseInsensitive}.
 277      *
 278      * @return this, for chaining, not null
 279      */
 280     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder parseCaseSensitive() {
 281         appendInternal(SettingsParser.SENSITIVE);
 282         return this;
 283     }
 284 
 285     /**
 286      * Changes the parse style to be case insensitive for the remainder of the formatter.
 287      * <p>
 288      * Parsing can be case sensitive or insensitive - by default it is case sensitive.
 289      * This method allows the case sensitivity setting of parsing to be changed.
 290      * <p>
 291      * Calling this method changes the state of the builder such that all
 292      * subsequent builder method calls will parse text in case insensitive mode.
 293      * See {@link #parseCaseSensitive()} for the opposite setting.
 294      * The parse case sensitive/insensitive methods may be called at any point
 295      * in the builder, thus the parser can swap between case parsing modes
 296      * multiple times during the parse.
 297      *
 298      * @return this, for chaining, not null
 299      */
 300     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder parseCaseInsensitive() {
 301         appendInternal(SettingsParser.INSENSITIVE);
 302         return this;
 303     }
 304 
 305     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 306     /**
 307      * Changes the parse style to be strict for the remainder of the formatter.
 308      * <p>
 309      * Parsing can be strict or lenient - by default its strict.
 310      * This controls the degree of flexibility in matching the text and sign styles.
 311      * <p>
 312      * When used, this method changes the parsing to be strict from this point onwards.
 313      * As strict is the default, this is normally only needed after calling {@link #parseLenient()}.
 314      * The change will remain in force until the end of the formatter that is eventually
 315      * constructed or until {@code parseLenient} is called.
 316      *
 317      * @return this, for chaining, not null
 318      */
 319     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder parseStrict() {
 320         appendInternal(SettingsParser.STRICT);
 321         return this;
 322     }
 323 
 324     /**
 325      * Changes the parse style to be lenient for the remainder of the formatter.
 326      * Note that case sensitivity is set separately to this method.
 327      * <p>
 328      * Parsing can be strict or lenient - by default its strict.
 329      * This controls the degree of flexibility in matching the text and sign styles.
 330      * Applications calling this method should typically also call {@link #parseCaseInsensitive()}.
 331      * <p>
 332      * When used, this method changes the parsing to be lenient from this point onwards.
 333      * The change will remain in force until the end of the formatter that is eventually
 334      * constructed or until {@code parseStrict} is called.
 335      *
 336      * @return this, for chaining, not null
 337      */
 338     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder parseLenient() {
 339         appendInternal(SettingsParser.LENIENT);
 340         return this;
 341     }
 342 
 343     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 344     /**
 345      * Appends a default value for a field to the formatter for use in parsing.
 346      * <p>
 347      * This appends an instruction to the builder to inject a default value
 348      * into the parsed result. This is especially useful in conjunction with
 349      * optional parts of the formatter.
 350      * <p>
 351      * For example, consider a formatter that parses the year, followed by
 352      * an optional month, with a further optional day-of-month. Using such a
 353      * formatter would require the calling code to check whether a full date,
 354      * year-month or just a year had been parsed. This method can be used to
 355      * default the month and day-of-month to a sensible value, such as the
 356      * first of the month, allowing the calling code to always get a date.
 357      * <p>
 358      * During formatting, this method has no effect.
 359      * <p>
 360      * During parsing, the current state of the parse is inspected.
 361      * If the specified field has no associated value, because it has not been
 362      * parsed successfully at that point, then the specified value is injected
 363      * into the parse result. Injection is immediate, thus the field-value pair
 364      * will be visible to any subsequent elements in the formatter.
 365      * As such, this method is normally called at the end of the builder.
 366      *
 367      * @param field  the field to default the value of, not null
 368      * @param value  the value to default the field to
 369      * @return this, for chaining, not null
 370      */
 371     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder parseDefaulting(TemporalField field, long value) {
 372         Objects.requireNonNull(field, "field");
 373         appendInternal(new DefaultValueParser(field, value));
 374         return this;
 375     }
 376 
 377     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 378     /**
 379      * Appends the value of a date-time field to the formatter using a normal
 380      * output style.
 381      * <p>
 382      * The value of the field will be output during a format.
 383      * If the value cannot be obtained then an exception will be thrown.
 384      * <p>
 385      * The value will be printed as per the normal format of an integer value.
 386      * Only negative numbers will be signed. No padding will be added.
 387      * <p>
 388      * The parser for a variable width value such as this normally behaves greedily,
 389      * requiring one digit, but accepting as many digits as possible.
 390      * This behavior can be affected by 'adjacent value parsing'.
 391      * See {@link #appendValue(java.time.temporal.TemporalField, int)} for full details.
 392      *
 393      * @param field  the field to append, not null
 394      * @return this, for chaining, not null
 395      */
 396     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendValue(TemporalField field) {
 397         Objects.requireNonNull(field, "field");
 398         appendValue(new NumberPrinterParser(field, 1, 19, SignStyle.NORMAL));
 399         return this;
 400     }
 401 
 402     /**
 403      * Appends the value of a date-time field to the formatter using a fixed
 404      * width, zero-padded approach.
 405      * <p>
 406      * The value of the field will be output during a format.
 407      * If the value cannot be obtained then an exception will be thrown.
 408      * <p>
 409      * The value will be zero-padded on the left. If the size of the value
 410      * means that it cannot be printed within the width then an exception is thrown.
 411      * If the value of the field is negative then an exception is thrown during formatting.
 412      * <p>
 413      * This method supports a special technique of parsing known as 'adjacent value parsing'.
 414      * This technique solves the problem where a value, variable or fixed width, is followed by one or more
 415      * fixed length values. The standard parser is greedy, and thus it would normally
 416      * steal the digits that are needed by the fixed width value parsers that follow the
 417      * variable width one.
 418      * <p>
 419      * No action is required to initiate 'adjacent value parsing'.
 420      * When a call to {@code appendValue} is made, the builder
 421      * enters adjacent value parsing setup mode. If the immediately subsequent method
 422      * call or calls on the same builder are for a fixed width value, then the parser will reserve
 423      * space so that the fixed width values can be parsed.
 424      * <p>
 425      * For example, consider {@code builder.appendValue(YEAR).appendValue(MONTH_OF_YEAR, 2);}
 426      * The year is a variable width parse of between 1 and 19 digits.
 427      * The month is a fixed width parse of 2 digits.
 428      * Because these were appended to the same builder immediately after one another,
 429      * the year parser will reserve two digits for the month to parse.
 430      * Thus, the text '201106' will correctly parse to a year of 2011 and a month of 6.
 431      * Without adjacent value parsing, the year would greedily parse all six digits and leave
 432      * nothing for the month.
 433      * <p>
 434      * Adjacent value parsing applies to each set of fixed width not-negative values in the parser
 435      * that immediately follow any kind of value, variable or fixed width.
 436      * Calling any other append method will end the setup of adjacent value parsing.
 437      * Thus, in the unlikely event that you need to avoid adjacent value parsing behavior,
 438      * simply add the {@code appendValue} to another {@code DateTimeFormatterBuilder}
 439      * and add that to this builder.
 440      * <p>
 441      * If adjacent parsing is active, then parsing must match exactly the specified
 442      * number of digits in both strict and lenient modes.
 443      * In addition, no positive or negative sign is permitted.
 444      *
 445      * @param field  the field to append, not null
 446      * @param width  the width of the printed field, from 1 to 19
 447      * @return this, for chaining, not null
 448      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the width is invalid
 449      */
 450     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendValue(TemporalField field, int width) {
 451         Objects.requireNonNull(field, "field");
 452         if (width < 1 || width > 19) {
 453             throw new IllegalArgumentException("The width must be from 1 to 19 inclusive but was " + width);
 454         }
 455         NumberPrinterParser pp = new NumberPrinterParser(field, width, width, SignStyle.NOT_NEGATIVE);
 456         appendValue(pp);
 457         return this;
 458     }
 459 
 460     /**
 461      * Appends the value of a date-time field to the formatter providing full
 462      * control over formatting.
 463      * <p>
 464      * The value of the field will be output during a format.
 465      * If the value cannot be obtained then an exception will be thrown.
 466      * <p>
 467      * This method provides full control of the numeric formatting, including
 468      * zero-padding and the positive/negative sign.
 469      * <p>
 470      * The parser for a variable width value such as this normally behaves greedily,
 471      * accepting as many digits as possible.
 472      * This behavior can be affected by 'adjacent value parsing'.
 473      * See {@link #appendValue(java.time.temporal.TemporalField, int)} for full details.
 474      * <p>
 475      * In strict parsing mode, the minimum number of parsed digits is {@code minWidth}
 476      * and the maximum is {@code maxWidth}.
 477      * In lenient parsing mode, the minimum number of parsed digits is one
 478      * and the maximum is 19 (except as limited by adjacent value parsing).
 479      * <p>
 480      * If this method is invoked with equal minimum and maximum widths and a sign style of
 481      * {@code NOT_NEGATIVE} then it delegates to {@code appendValue(TemporalField,int)}.
 482      * In this scenario, the formatting and parsing behavior described there occur.
 483      *
 484      * @param field  the field to append, not null
 485      * @param minWidth  the minimum field width of the printed field, from 1 to 19
 486      * @param maxWidth  the maximum field width of the printed field, from 1 to 19
 487      * @param signStyle  the positive/negative output style, not null
 488      * @return this, for chaining, not null
 489      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the widths are invalid
 490      */
 491     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendValue(
 492             TemporalField field, int minWidth, int maxWidth, SignStyle signStyle) {
 493         if (minWidth == maxWidth && signStyle == SignStyle.NOT_NEGATIVE) {
 494             return appendValue(field, maxWidth);
 495         }
 496         Objects.requireNonNull(field, "field");
 497         Objects.requireNonNull(signStyle, "signStyle");
 498         if (minWidth < 1 || minWidth > 19) {
 499             throw new IllegalArgumentException("The minimum width must be from 1 to 19 inclusive but was " + minWidth);
 500         }
 501         if (maxWidth < 1 || maxWidth > 19) {
 502             throw new IllegalArgumentException("The maximum width must be from 1 to 19 inclusive but was " + maxWidth);
 503         }
 504         if (maxWidth < minWidth) {
 505             throw new IllegalArgumentException("The maximum width must exceed or equal the minimum width but " +
 506                     maxWidth + " < " + minWidth);
 507         }
 508         NumberPrinterParser pp = new NumberPrinterParser(field, minWidth, maxWidth, signStyle);
 509         appendValue(pp);
 510         return this;
 511     }
 512 
 513     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 514     /**
 515      * Appends the reduced value of a date-time field to the formatter.
 516      * <p>
 517      * Since fields such as year vary by chronology, it is recommended to use the
 518      * {@link #appendValueReduced(TemporalField, int, int, ChronoLocalDate)} date}
 519      * variant of this method in most cases. This variant is suitable for
 520      * simple fields or working with only the ISO chronology.
 521      * <p>
 522      * For formatting, the {@code width} and {@code maxWidth} are used to
 523      * determine the number of characters to format.
 524      * If they are equal then the format is fixed width.
 525      * If the value of the field is within the range of the {@code baseValue} using
 526      * {@code width} characters then the reduced value is formatted otherwise the value is
 527      * truncated to fit {@code maxWidth}.
 528      * The rightmost characters are output to match the width, left padding with zero.
 529      * <p>
 530      * For strict parsing, the number of characters allowed by {@code width} to {@code maxWidth} are parsed.
 531      * For lenient parsing, the number of characters must be at least 1 and less than 10.
 532      * If the number of digits parsed is equal to {@code width} and the value is positive,
 533      * the value of the field is computed to be the first number greater than
 534      * or equal to the {@code baseValue} with the same least significant characters,
 535      * otherwise the value parsed is the field value.
 536      * This allows a reduced value to be entered for values in range of the baseValue
 537      * and width and absolute values can be entered for values outside the range.
 538      * <p>
 539      * For example, a base value of {@code 1980} and a width of {@code 2} will have
 540      * valid values from {@code 1980} to {@code 2079}.
 541      * During parsing, the text {@code "12"} will result in the value {@code 2012} as that
 542      * is the value within the range where the last two characters are "12".
 543      * By contrast, parsing the text {@code "1915"} will result in the value {@code 1915}.
 544      *
 545      * @param field  the field to append, not null
 546      * @param width  the field width of the printed and parsed field, from 1 to 10
 547      * @param maxWidth  the maximum field width of the printed field, from 1 to 10
 548      * @param baseValue  the base value of the range of valid values
 549      * @return this, for chaining, not null
 550      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the width or base value is invalid
 551      */
 552     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendValueReduced(TemporalField field,
 553             int width, int maxWidth, int baseValue) {
 554         Objects.requireNonNull(field, "field");
 555         ReducedPrinterParser pp = new ReducedPrinterParser(field, width, maxWidth, baseValue, null);
 556         appendValue(pp);
 557         return this;
 558     }
 559 
 560     /**
 561      * Appends the reduced value of a date-time field to the formatter.
 562      * <p>
 563      * This is typically used for formatting and parsing a two digit year.
 564      * <p>
 565      * The base date is used to calculate the full value during parsing.
 566      * For example, if the base date is 1950-01-01 then parsed values for
 567      * a two digit year parse will be in the range 1950-01-01 to 2049-12-31.
 568      * Only the year would be extracted from the date, thus a base date of
 569      * 1950-08-25 would also parse to the range 1950-01-01 to 2049-12-31.
 570      * This behavior is necessary to support fields such as week-based-year
 571      * or other calendar systems where the parsed value does not align with
 572      * standard ISO years.
 573      * <p>
 574      * The exact behavior is as follows. Parse the full set of fields and
 575      * determine the effective chronology using the last chronology if
 576      * it appears more than once. Then convert the base date to the
 577      * effective chronology. Then extract the specified field from the
 578      * chronology-specific base date and use it to determine the
 579      * {@code baseValue} used below.
 580      * <p>
 581      * For formatting, the {@code width} and {@code maxWidth} are used to
 582      * determine the number of characters to format.
 583      * If they are equal then the format is fixed width.
 584      * If the value of the field is within the range of the {@code baseValue} using
 585      * {@code width} characters then the reduced value is formatted otherwise the value is
 586      * truncated to fit {@code maxWidth}.
 587      * The rightmost characters are output to match the width, left padding with zero.
 588      * <p>
 589      * For strict parsing, the number of characters allowed by {@code width} to {@code maxWidth} are parsed.
 590      * For lenient parsing, the number of characters must be at least 1 and less than 10.
 591      * If the number of digits parsed is equal to {@code width} and the value is positive,
 592      * the value of the field is computed to be the first number greater than
 593      * or equal to the {@code baseValue} with the same least significant characters,
 594      * otherwise the value parsed is the field value.
 595      * This allows a reduced value to be entered for values in range of the baseValue
 596      * and width and absolute values can be entered for values outside the range.
 597      * <p>
 598      * For example, a base value of {@code 1980} and a width of {@code 2} will have
 599      * valid values from {@code 1980} to {@code 2079}.
 600      * During parsing, the text {@code "12"} will result in the value {@code 2012} as that
 601      * is the value within the range where the last two characters are "12".
 602      * By contrast, parsing the text {@code "1915"} will result in the value {@code 1915}.
 603      *
 604      * @param field  the field to append, not null
 605      * @param width  the field width of the printed and parsed field, from 1 to 10
 606      * @param maxWidth  the maximum field width of the printed field, from 1 to 10
 607      * @param baseDate  the base date used to calculate the base value for the range
 608      *  of valid values in the parsed chronology, not null
 609      * @return this, for chaining, not null
 610      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the width or base value is invalid
 611      */
 612     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendValueReduced(
 613             TemporalField field, int width, int maxWidth, ChronoLocalDate baseDate) {
 614         Objects.requireNonNull(field, "field");
 615         Objects.requireNonNull(baseDate, "baseDate");
 616         ReducedPrinterParser pp = new ReducedPrinterParser(field, width, maxWidth, 0, baseDate);
 617         appendValue(pp);
 618         return this;
 619     }
 620 
 621     /**
 622      * Appends a fixed or variable width printer-parser handling adjacent value mode.
 623      * If a PrinterParser is not active then the new PrinterParser becomes
 624      * the active PrinterParser.
 625      * Otherwise, the active PrinterParser is modified depending on the new PrinterParser.
 626      * If the new PrinterParser is fixed width and has sign style {@code NOT_NEGATIVE}
 627      * then its width is added to the active PP and
 628      * the new PrinterParser is forced to be fixed width.
 629      * If the new PrinterParser is variable width, the active PrinterParser is changed
 630      * to be fixed width and the new PrinterParser becomes the active PP.
 631      *
 632      * @param pp  the printer-parser, not null
 633      * @return this, for chaining, not null
 634      */
 635     private DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendValue(NumberPrinterParser pp) {
 636         if (active.valueParserIndex >= 0) {
 637             final int activeValueParser = active.valueParserIndex;
 638 
 639             // adjacent parsing mode, update setting in previous parsers
 640             NumberPrinterParser basePP = (NumberPrinterParser) active.printerParsers.get(activeValueParser);
 641             if (pp.minWidth == pp.maxWidth && pp.signStyle == SignStyle.NOT_NEGATIVE) {
 642                 // Append the width to the subsequentWidth of the active parser
 643                 basePP = basePP.withSubsequentWidth(pp.maxWidth);
 644                 // Append the new parser as a fixed width
 645                 appendInternal(pp.withFixedWidth());
 646                 // Retain the previous active parser
 647                 active.valueParserIndex = activeValueParser;
 648             } else {
 649                 // Modify the active parser to be fixed width
 650                 basePP = basePP.withFixedWidth();
 651                 // The new parser becomes the mew active parser
 652                 active.valueParserIndex = appendInternal(pp);
 653             }
 654             // Replace the modified parser with the updated one
 655             active.printerParsers.set(activeValueParser, basePP);
 656         } else {
 657             // The new Parser becomes the active parser
 658             active.valueParserIndex = appendInternal(pp);
 659         }
 660         return this;
 661     }
 662 
 663     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 664     /**
 665      * Appends the fractional value of a date-time field to the formatter.
 666      * <p>
 667      * The fractional value of the field will be output including the
 668      * preceding decimal point. The preceding value is not output.
 669      * For example, the second-of-minute value of 15 would be output as {@code .25}.
 670      * <p>
 671      * The width of the printed fraction can be controlled. Setting the
 672      * minimum width to zero will cause no output to be generated.
 673      * The printed fraction will have the minimum width necessary between
 674      * the minimum and maximum widths - trailing zeroes are omitted.
 675      * No rounding occurs due to the maximum width - digits are simply dropped.
 676      * <p>
 677      * When parsing in strict mode, the number of parsed digits must be between
 678      * the minimum and maximum width. In strict mode, if the minimum and maximum widths
 679      * are equal and there is no decimal point then the parser will
 680      * participate in adjacent value parsing, see
 681      * {@link appendValue(java.time.temporal.TemporalField, int)}. When parsing in lenient mode,
 682      * the minimum width is considered to be zero and the maximum is nine.
 683      * <p>
 684      * If the value cannot be obtained then an exception will be thrown.
 685      * If the value is negative an exception will be thrown.
 686      * If the field does not have a fixed set of valid values then an
 687      * exception will be thrown.
 688      * If the field value in the date-time to be printed is invalid it
 689      * cannot be printed and an exception will be thrown.
 690      *
 691      * @param field  the field to append, not null
 692      * @param minWidth  the minimum width of the field excluding the decimal point, from 0 to 9
 693      * @param maxWidth  the maximum width of the field excluding the decimal point, from 1 to 9
 694      * @param decimalPoint  whether to output the localized decimal point symbol
 695      * @return this, for chaining, not null
 696      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the field has a variable set of valid values or
 697      *  either width is invalid
 698      */
 699     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendFraction(
 700             TemporalField field, int minWidth, int maxWidth, boolean decimalPoint) {
 701         if (minWidth == maxWidth && decimalPoint == false) {
 702             // adjacent parsing
 703             appendValue(new FractionPrinterParser(field, minWidth, maxWidth, decimalPoint));
 704         } else {
 705             appendInternal(new FractionPrinterParser(field, minWidth, maxWidth, decimalPoint));
 706         }
 707         return this;
 708     }
 709 
 710     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 711     /**
 712      * Appends the text of a date-time field to the formatter using the full
 713      * text style.
 714      * <p>
 715      * The text of the field will be output during a format.
 716      * The value must be within the valid range of the field.
 717      * If the value cannot be obtained then an exception will be thrown.
 718      * If the field has no textual representation, then the numeric value will be used.
 719      * <p>
 720      * The value will be printed as per the normal format of an integer value.
 721      * Only negative numbers will be signed. No padding will be added.
 722      *
 723      * @param field  the field to append, not null
 724      * @return this, for chaining, not null
 725      */
 726     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendText(TemporalField field) {
 727         return appendText(field, TextStyle.FULL);
 728     }
 729 
 730     /**
 731      * Appends the text of a date-time field to the formatter.
 732      * <p>
 733      * The text of the field will be output during a format.
 734      * The value must be within the valid range of the field.
 735      * If the value cannot be obtained then an exception will be thrown.
 736      * If the field has no textual representation, then the numeric value will be used.
 737      * <p>
 738      * The value will be printed as per the normal format of an integer value.
 739      * Only negative numbers will be signed. No padding will be added.
 740      *
 741      * @param field  the field to append, not null
 742      * @param textStyle  the text style to use, not null
 743      * @return this, for chaining, not null
 744      */
 745     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendText(TemporalField field, TextStyle textStyle) {
 746         Objects.requireNonNull(field, "field");
 747         Objects.requireNonNull(textStyle, "textStyle");
 748         appendInternal(new TextPrinterParser(field, textStyle, DateTimeTextProvider.getInstance()));
 749         return this;
 750     }
 751 
 752     /**
 753      * Appends the text of a date-time field to the formatter using the specified
 754      * map to supply the text.
 755      * <p>
 756      * The standard text outputting methods use the localized text in the JDK.
 757      * This method allows that text to be specified directly.
 758      * The supplied map is not validated by the builder to ensure that formatting or
 759      * parsing is possible, thus an invalid map may throw an error during later use.
 760      * <p>
 761      * Supplying the map of text provides considerable flexibility in formatting and parsing.
 762      * For example, a legacy application might require or supply the months of the
 763      * year as "JNY", "FBY", "MCH" etc. These do not match the standard set of text
 764      * for localized month names. Using this method, a map can be created which
 765      * defines the connection between each value and the text:
 766      * <pre>
 767      * Map&lt;Long, String&gt; map = new HashMap&lt;&gt;();
 768      * map.put(1L, "JNY");
 769      * map.put(2L, "FBY");
 770      * map.put(3L, "MCH");
 771      * ...
 772      * builder.appendText(MONTH_OF_YEAR, map);
 773      * </pre>
 774      * <p>
 775      * Other uses might be to output the value with a suffix, such as "1st", "2nd", "3rd",
 776      * or as Roman numerals "I", "II", "III", "IV".
 777      * <p>
 778      * During formatting, the value is obtained and checked that it is in the valid range.
 779      * If text is not available for the value then it is output as a number.
 780      * During parsing, the parser will match against the map of text and numeric values.
 781      *
 782      * @param field  the field to append, not null
 783      * @param textLookup  the map from the value to the text
 784      * @return this, for chaining, not null
 785      */
 786     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendText(TemporalField field, Map<Long, String> textLookup) {
 787         Objects.requireNonNull(field, "field");
 788         Objects.requireNonNull(textLookup, "textLookup");
 789         Map<Long, String> copy = new LinkedHashMap<>(textLookup);
 790         Map<TextStyle, Map<Long, String>> map = Collections.singletonMap(TextStyle.FULL, copy);
 791         final LocaleStore store = new LocaleStore(map);
 792         DateTimeTextProvider provider = new DateTimeTextProvider() {
 793             @Override
 794             public String getText(Chronology chrono, TemporalField field,
 795                                   long value, TextStyle style, Locale locale) {
 796                 return store.getText(value, style);
 797             }
 798             @Override
 799             public String getText(TemporalField field, long value, TextStyle style, Locale locale) {
 800                 return store.getText(value, style);
 801             }
 802             @Override
 803             public Iterator<Entry<String, Long>> getTextIterator(Chronology chrono,
 804                     TemporalField field, TextStyle style, Locale locale) {
 805                 return store.getTextIterator(style);
 806             }
 807             @Override
 808             public Iterator<Entry<String, Long>> getTextIterator(TemporalField field,
 809                     TextStyle style, Locale locale) {
 810                 return store.getTextIterator(style);
 811             }
 812         };
 813         appendInternal(new TextPrinterParser(field, TextStyle.FULL, provider));
 814         return this;
 815     }
 816 
 817     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 818     /**
 819      * Appends an instant using ISO-8601 to the formatter, formatting fractional
 820      * digits in groups of three.
 821      * <p>
 822      * Instants have a fixed output format.
 823      * They are converted to a date-time with a zone-offset of UTC and formatted
 824      * using the standard ISO-8601 format.
 825      * With this method, formatting nano-of-second outputs zero, three, six
 826      * or nine digits as necessary.
 827      * The localized decimal style is not used.
 828      * <p>
 829      * The instant is obtained using {@link ChronoField#INSTANT_SECONDS INSTANT_SECONDS}
 830      * and optionally {@code NANO_OF_SECOND}. The value of {@code INSTANT_SECONDS}
 831      * may be outside the maximum range of {@code LocalDateTime}.
 832      * <p>
 833      * The {@linkplain ResolverStyle resolver style} has no effect on instant parsing.
 834      * The end-of-day time of '24:00' is handled as midnight at the start of the following day.
 835      * The leap-second time of '23:59:59' is handled to some degree, see
 836      * {@link DateTimeFormatter#parsedLeapSecond()} for full details.
 837      * <p>
 838      * When formatting, the instant will always be suffixed by 'Z' to indicate UTC.
 839      * When parsing, the behaviour of {@link DateTimeFormatterBuilder#appendOffsetId()}
 840      * will be used to parse the offset, converting the instant to UTC as necessary.
 841      * <p>
 842      * An alternative to this method is to format/parse the instant as a single
 843      * epoch-seconds value. That is achieved using {@code appendValue(INSTANT_SECONDS)}.
 844      *
 845      * @return this, for chaining, not null
 846      */
 847     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendInstant() {
 848         appendInternal(new InstantPrinterParser(-2));
 849         return this;
 850     }
 851 
 852     /**
 853      * Appends an instant using ISO-8601 to the formatter with control over
 854      * the number of fractional digits.
 855      * <p>
 856      * Instants have a fixed output format, although this method provides some
 857      * control over the fractional digits. They are converted to a date-time
 858      * with a zone-offset of UTC and printed using the standard ISO-8601 format.
 859      * The localized decimal style is not used.
 860      * <p>
 861      * The {@code fractionalDigits} parameter allows the output of the fractional
 862      * second to be controlled. Specifying zero will cause no fractional digits
 863      * to be output. From 1 to 9 will output an increasing number of digits, using
 864      * zero right-padding if necessary. The special value -1 is used to output as
 865      * many digits as necessary to avoid any trailing zeroes.
 866      * <p>
 867      * When parsing in strict mode, the number of parsed digits must match the
 868      * fractional digits. When parsing in lenient mode, any number of fractional
 869      * digits from zero to nine are accepted.
 870      * <p>
 871      * The instant is obtained using {@link ChronoField#INSTANT_SECONDS INSTANT_SECONDS}
 872      * and optionally {@code NANO_OF_SECOND}. The value of {@code INSTANT_SECONDS}
 873      * may be outside the maximum range of {@code LocalDateTime}.
 874      * <p>
 875      * The {@linkplain ResolverStyle resolver style} has no effect on instant parsing.
 876      * The end-of-day time of '24:00' is handled as midnight at the start of the following day.
 877      * The leap-second time of '23:59:60' is handled to some degree, see
 878      * {@link DateTimeFormatter#parsedLeapSecond()} for full details.
 879      * <p>
 880      * An alternative to this method is to format/parse the instant as a single
 881      * epoch-seconds value. That is achieved using {@code appendValue(INSTANT_SECONDS)}.
 882      *
 883      * @param fractionalDigits  the number of fractional second digits to format with,
 884      *  from 0 to 9, or -1 to use as many digits as necessary
 885      * @return this, for chaining, not null
 886      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the number of fractional digits is invalid
 887      */
 888     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendInstant(int fractionalDigits) {
 889         if (fractionalDigits < -1 || fractionalDigits > 9) {
 890             throw new IllegalArgumentException("The fractional digits must be from -1 to 9 inclusive but was " + fractionalDigits);
 891         }
 892         appendInternal(new InstantPrinterParser(fractionalDigits));
 893         return this;
 894     }
 895 
 896     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 897     /**
 898      * Appends the zone offset, such as '+01:00', to the formatter.
 899      * <p>
 900      * This appends an instruction to format/parse the offset ID to the builder.
 901      * This is equivalent to calling {@code appendOffset("+HH:mm:ss", "Z")}.
 902      * See {@link #appendOffset(String, String)} for details on formatting
 903      * and parsing.
 904      *
 905      * @return this, for chaining, not null
 906      */
 907     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendOffsetId() {
 908         appendInternal(OffsetIdPrinterParser.INSTANCE_ID_Z);
 909         return this;
 910     }
 911 
 912     /**
 913      * Appends the zone offset, such as '+01:00', to the formatter.
 914      * <p>
 915      * This appends an instruction to format/parse the offset ID to the builder.
 916      * <p>
 917      * During formatting, the offset is obtained using a mechanism equivalent
 918      * to querying the temporal with {@link TemporalQueries#offset()}.
 919      * It will be printed using the format defined below.
 920      * If the offset cannot be obtained then an exception is thrown unless the
 921      * section of the formatter is optional.
 922      * <p>
 923      * When parsing in strict mode, the input must contain the mandatory
 924      * and optional elements are defined by the specified pattern.
 925      * If the offset cannot be parsed then an exception is thrown unless
 926      * the section of the formatter is optional.
 927      * <p>
 928      * When parsing in lenient mode, only the hours are mandatory - minutes
 929      * and seconds are optional. The colons are required if the specified
 930      * pattern contains a colon. If the specified pattern is "+HH", the
 931      * presence of colons is determined by whether the character after the
 932      * hour digits is a colon or not.
 933      * If the offset cannot be parsed then an exception is thrown unless
 934      * the section of the formatter is optional.
 935      * <p>
 936      * The format of the offset is controlled by a pattern which must be one
 937      * of the following:
 938      * <ul>
 939      * <li>{@code +HH} - hour only, ignoring minute and second
 940      * <li>{@code +HHmm} - hour, with minute if non-zero, ignoring second, no colon
 941      * <li>{@code +HH:mm} - hour, with minute if non-zero, ignoring second, with colon
 942      * <li>{@code +HHMM} - hour and minute, ignoring second, no colon
 943      * <li>{@code +HH:MM} - hour and minute, ignoring second, with colon
 944      * <li>{@code +HHMMss} - hour and minute, with second if non-zero, no colon
 945      * <li>{@code +HH:MM:ss} - hour and minute, with second if non-zero, with colon
 946      * <li>{@code +HHMMSS} - hour, minute and second, no colon
 947      * <li>{@code +HH:MM:SS} - hour, minute and second, with colon
 948      * <li>{@code +HHmmss} - hour, with minute if non-zero or with minute and
 949      * second if non-zero, no colon
 950      * <li>{@code +HH:mm:ss} - hour, with minute if non-zero or with minute and
 951      * second if non-zero, with colon
 952      * <li>{@code +H} - hour only, ignoring minute and second
 953      * <li>{@code +Hmm} - hour, with minute if non-zero, ignoring second, no colon
 954      * <li>{@code +H:mm} - hour, with minute if non-zero, ignoring second, with colon
 955      * <li>{@code +HMM} - hour and minute, ignoring second, no colon
 956      * <li>{@code +H:MM} - hour and minute, ignoring second, with colon
 957      * <li>{@code +HMMss} - hour and minute, with second if non-zero, no colon
 958      * <li>{@code +H:MM:ss} - hour and minute, with second if non-zero, with colon
 959      * <li>{@code +HMMSS} - hour, minute and second, no colon
 960      * <li>{@code +H:MM:SS} - hour, minute and second, with colon
 961      * <li>{@code +Hmmss} - hour, with minute if non-zero or with minute and
 962      * second if non-zero, no colon
 963      * <li>{@code +H:mm:ss} - hour, with minute if non-zero or with minute and
 964      * second if non-zero, with colon
 965      * </ul>
 966      * Patterns containing "HH" will format and parse a two digit hour,
 967      * zero-padded if necessary. Patterns containing "H" will format with no
 968      * zero-padding, and parse either one or two digits.
 969      * In lenient mode, the parser will be greedy and parse the maximum digits possible.
 970      * The "no offset" text controls what text is printed when the total amount of
 971      * the offset fields to be output is zero.
 972      * Example values would be 'Z', '+00:00', 'UTC' or 'GMT'.
 973      * Three formats are accepted for parsing UTC - the "no offset" text, and the
 974      * plus and minus versions of zero defined by the pattern.
 975      *
 976      * @param pattern  the pattern to use, not null
 977      * @param noOffsetText  the text to use when the offset is zero, not null
 978      * @return this, for chaining, not null
 979      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the pattern is invalid
 980      */
 981     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendOffset(String pattern, String noOffsetText) {
 982         appendInternal(new OffsetIdPrinterParser(pattern, noOffsetText));
 983         return this;
 984     }
 985 
 986     /**
 987      * Appends the localized zone offset, such as 'GMT+01:00', to the formatter.
 988      * <p>
 989      * This appends a localized zone offset to the builder, the format of the
 990      * localized offset is controlled by the specified {@link FormatStyle style}
 991      * to this method:
 992      * <ul>
 993      * <li>{@link TextStyle#FULL full} - formats with localized offset text, such
 994      * as 'GMT, 2-digit hour and minute field, optional second field if non-zero,
 995      * and colon.
 996      * <li>{@link TextStyle#SHORT short} - formats with localized offset text,
 997      * such as 'GMT, hour without leading zero, optional 2-digit minute and
 998      * second if non-zero, and colon.
 999      * </ul>
1000      * <p>
1001      * During formatting, the offset is obtained using a mechanism equivalent
1002      * to querying the temporal with {@link TemporalQueries#offset()}.
1003      * If the offset cannot be obtained then an exception is thrown unless the
1004      * section of the formatter is optional.
1005      * <p>
1006      * During parsing, the offset is parsed using the format defined above.
1007      * If the offset cannot be parsed then an exception is thrown unless the
1008      * section of the formatter is optional.
1009      *
1010      * @param style  the format style to use, not null
1011      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1012      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if style is neither {@link TextStyle#FULL
1013      * full} nor {@link TextStyle#SHORT short}
1014      */
1015     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendLocalizedOffset(TextStyle style) {
1016         Objects.requireNonNull(style, "style");
1017         if (style != TextStyle.FULL && style != TextStyle.SHORT) {
1018             throw new IllegalArgumentException("Style must be either full or short");
1019         }
1020         appendInternal(new LocalizedOffsetIdPrinterParser(style));
1021         return this;
1022     }
1023 
1024     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
1025     /**
1026      * Appends the time-zone ID, such as 'Europe/Paris' or '+02:00', to the formatter.
1027      * <p>
1028      * This appends an instruction to format/parse the zone ID to the builder.
1029      * The zone ID is obtained in a strict manner suitable for {@code ZonedDateTime}.
1030      * By contrast, {@code OffsetDateTime} does not have a zone ID suitable
1031      * for use with this method, see {@link #appendZoneOrOffsetId()}.
1032      * <p>
1033      * During formatting, the zone is obtained using a mechanism equivalent
1034      * to querying the temporal with {@link TemporalQueries#zoneId()}.
1035      * It will be printed using the result of {@link ZoneId#getId()}.
1036      * If the zone cannot be obtained then an exception is thrown unless the
1037      * section of the formatter is optional.
1038      * <p>
1039      * During parsing, the text must match a known zone or offset.
1040      * There are two types of zone ID, offset-based, such as '+01:30' and
1041      * region-based, such as 'Europe/London'. These are parsed differently.
1042      * If the parse starts with '+', '-', 'UT', 'UTC' or 'GMT', then the parser
1043      * expects an offset-based zone and will not match region-based zones.
1044      * The offset ID, such as '+02:30', may be at the start of the parse,
1045      * or prefixed by  'UT', 'UTC' or 'GMT'. The offset ID parsing is
1046      * equivalent to using {@link #appendOffset(String, String)} using the
1047      * arguments 'HH:MM:ss' and the no offset string '0'.
1048      * If the parse starts with 'UT', 'UTC' or 'GMT', and the parser cannot
1049      * match a following offset ID, then {@link ZoneOffset#UTC} is selected.
1050      * In all other cases, the list of known region-based zones is used to
1051      * find the longest available match. If no match is found, and the parse
1052      * starts with 'Z', then {@code ZoneOffset.UTC} is selected.
1053      * The parser uses the {@linkplain #parseCaseInsensitive() case sensitive} setting.
1054      * <p>
1055      * For example, the following will parse:
1056      * <pre>
1057      *   "Europe/London"           -- ZoneId.of("Europe/London")
1058      *   "Z"                       -- ZoneOffset.UTC
1059      *   "UT"                      -- ZoneId.of("UT")
1060      *   "UTC"                     -- ZoneId.of("UTC")
1061      *   "GMT"                     -- ZoneId.of("GMT")
1062      *   "+01:30"                  -- ZoneOffset.of("+01:30")
1063      *   "UT+01:30"                -- ZoneOffset.of("+01:30")
1064      *   "UTC+01:30"               -- ZoneOffset.of("+01:30")
1065      *   "GMT+01:30"               -- ZoneOffset.of("+01:30")
1066      * </pre>
1067      *
1068      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1069      * @see #appendZoneRegionId()
1070      */
1071     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendZoneId() {
1072         appendInternal(new ZoneIdPrinterParser(TemporalQueries.zoneId(), "ZoneId()"));
1073         return this;
1074     }
1075 
1076     /**
1077      * Appends the time-zone region ID, such as 'Europe/Paris', to the formatter,
1078      * rejecting the zone ID if it is a {@code ZoneOffset}.
1079      * <p>
1080      * This appends an instruction to format/parse the zone ID to the builder
1081      * only if it is a region-based ID.
1082      * <p>
1083      * During formatting, the zone is obtained using a mechanism equivalent
1084      * to querying the temporal with {@link TemporalQueries#zoneId()}.
1085      * If the zone is a {@code ZoneOffset} or it cannot be obtained then
1086      * an exception is thrown unless the section of the formatter is optional.
1087      * If the zone is not an offset, then the zone will be printed using
1088      * the zone ID from {@link ZoneId#getId()}.
1089      * <p>
1090      * During parsing, the text must match a known zone or offset.
1091      * There are two types of zone ID, offset-based, such as '+01:30' and
1092      * region-based, such as 'Europe/London'. These are parsed differently.
1093      * If the parse starts with '+', '-', 'UT', 'UTC' or 'GMT', then the parser
1094      * expects an offset-based zone and will not match region-based zones.
1095      * The offset ID, such as '+02:30', may be at the start of the parse,
1096      * or prefixed by  'UT', 'UTC' or 'GMT'. The offset ID parsing is
1097      * equivalent to using {@link #appendOffset(String, String)} using the
1098      * arguments 'HH:MM:ss' and the no offset string '0'.
1099      * If the parse starts with 'UT', 'UTC' or 'GMT', and the parser cannot
1100      * match a following offset ID, then {@link ZoneOffset#UTC} is selected.
1101      * In all other cases, the list of known region-based zones is used to
1102      * find the longest available match. If no match is found, and the parse
1103      * starts with 'Z', then {@code ZoneOffset.UTC} is selected.
1104      * The parser uses the {@linkplain #parseCaseInsensitive() case sensitive} setting.
1105      * <p>
1106      * For example, the following will parse:
1107      * <pre>
1108      *   "Europe/London"           -- ZoneId.of("Europe/London")
1109      *   "Z"                       -- ZoneOffset.UTC
1110      *   "UT"                      -- ZoneId.of("UT")
1111      *   "UTC"                     -- ZoneId.of("UTC")
1112      *   "GMT"                     -- ZoneId.of("GMT")
1113      *   "+01:30"                  -- ZoneOffset.of("+01:30")
1114      *   "UT+01:30"                -- ZoneOffset.of("+01:30")
1115      *   "UTC+01:30"               -- ZoneOffset.of("+01:30")
1116      *   "GMT+01:30"               -- ZoneOffset.of("+01:30")
1117      * </pre>
1118      * <p>
1119      * Note that this method is identical to {@code appendZoneId()} except
1120      * in the mechanism used to obtain the zone.
1121      * Note also that parsing accepts offsets, whereas formatting will never
1122      * produce one.
1123      *
1124      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1125      * @see #appendZoneId()
1126      */
1127     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendZoneRegionId() {
1128         appendInternal(new ZoneIdPrinterParser(QUERY_REGION_ONLY, "ZoneRegionId()"));
1129         return this;
1130     }
1131 
1132     /**
1133      * Appends the time-zone ID, such as 'Europe/Paris' or '+02:00', to
1134      * the formatter, using the best available zone ID.
1135      * <p>
1136      * This appends an instruction to format/parse the best available
1137      * zone or offset ID to the builder.
1138      * The zone ID is obtained in a lenient manner that first attempts to
1139      * find a true zone ID, such as that on {@code ZonedDateTime}, and
1140      * then attempts to find an offset, such as that on {@code OffsetDateTime}.
1141      * <p>
1142      * During formatting, the zone is obtained using a mechanism equivalent
1143      * to querying the temporal with {@link TemporalQueries#zone()}.
1144      * It will be printed using the result of {@link ZoneId#getId()}.
1145      * If the zone cannot be obtained then an exception is thrown unless the
1146      * section of the formatter is optional.
1147      * <p>
1148      * During parsing, the text must match a known zone or offset.
1149      * There are two types of zone ID, offset-based, such as '+01:30' and
1150      * region-based, such as 'Europe/London'. These are parsed differently.
1151      * If the parse starts with '+', '-', 'UT', 'UTC' or 'GMT', then the parser
1152      * expects an offset-based zone and will not match region-based zones.
1153      * The offset ID, such as '+02:30', may be at the start of the parse,
1154      * or prefixed by  'UT', 'UTC' or 'GMT'. The offset ID parsing is
1155      * equivalent to using {@link #appendOffset(String, String)} using the
1156      * arguments 'HH:MM:ss' and the no offset string '0'.
1157      * If the parse starts with 'UT', 'UTC' or 'GMT', and the parser cannot
1158      * match a following offset ID, then {@link ZoneOffset#UTC} is selected.
1159      * In all other cases, the list of known region-based zones is used to
1160      * find the longest available match. If no match is found, and the parse
1161      * starts with 'Z', then {@code ZoneOffset.UTC} is selected.
1162      * The parser uses the {@linkplain #parseCaseInsensitive() case sensitive} setting.
1163      * <p>
1164      * For example, the following will parse:
1165      * <pre>
1166      *   "Europe/London"           -- ZoneId.of("Europe/London")
1167      *   "Z"                       -- ZoneOffset.UTC
1168      *   "UT"                      -- ZoneId.of("UT")
1169      *   "UTC"                     -- ZoneId.of("UTC")
1170      *   "GMT"                     -- ZoneId.of("GMT")
1171      *   "+01:30"                  -- ZoneOffset.of("+01:30")
1172      *   "UT+01:30"                -- ZoneOffset.of("UT+01:30")
1173      *   "UTC+01:30"               -- ZoneOffset.of("UTC+01:30")
1174      *   "GMT+01:30"               -- ZoneOffset.of("GMT+01:30")
1175      * </pre>
1176      * <p>
1177      * Note that this method is identical to {@code appendZoneId()} except
1178      * in the mechanism used to obtain the zone.
1179      *
1180      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1181      * @see #appendZoneId()
1182      */
1183     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendZoneOrOffsetId() {
1184         appendInternal(new ZoneIdPrinterParser(TemporalQueries.zone(), "ZoneOrOffsetId()"));
1185         return this;
1186     }
1187 
1188     /**
1189      * Appends the time-zone name, such as 'British Summer Time', to the formatter.
1190      * <p>
1191      * This appends an instruction to format/parse the textual name of the zone to
1192      * the builder.
1193      * <p>
1194      * During formatting, the zone is obtained using a mechanism equivalent
1195      * to querying the temporal with {@link TemporalQueries#zoneId()}.
1196      * If the zone is a {@code ZoneOffset} it will be printed using the
1197      * result of {@link ZoneOffset#getId()}.
1198      * If the zone is not an offset, the textual name will be looked up
1199      * for the locale set in the {@link DateTimeFormatter}.
1200      * If the temporal object being printed represents an instant, or if it is a
1201      * local date-time that is not in a daylight saving gap or overlap then
1202      * the text will be the summer or winter time text as appropriate.
1203      * If the lookup for text does not find any suitable result, then the
1204      * {@link ZoneId#getId() ID} will be printed.
1205      * If the zone cannot be obtained then an exception is thrown unless the
1206      * section of the formatter is optional.
1207      * <p>
1208      * During parsing, either the textual zone name, the zone ID or the offset
1209      * is accepted. Many textual zone names are not unique, such as CST can be
1210      * for both "Central Standard Time" and "China Standard Time". In this
1211      * situation, the zone id will be determined by the region information from
1212      * formatter's  {@link DateTimeFormatter#getLocale() locale} and the standard
1213      * zone id for that area, for example, America/New_York for the America Eastern
1214      * zone. The {@link #appendZoneText(TextStyle, Set)} may be used
1215      * to specify a set of preferred {@link ZoneId} in this situation.
1216      *
1217      * @param textStyle  the text style to use, not null
1218      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1219      */
1220     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendZoneText(TextStyle textStyle) {
1221         appendInternal(new ZoneTextPrinterParser(textStyle, null, false));
1222         return this;
1223     }
1224 
1225     /**
1226      * Appends the time-zone name, such as 'British Summer Time', to the formatter.
1227      * <p>
1228      * This appends an instruction to format/parse the textual name of the zone to
1229      * the builder.
1230      * <p>
1231      * During formatting, the zone is obtained using a mechanism equivalent
1232      * to querying the temporal with {@link TemporalQueries#zoneId()}.
1233      * If the zone is a {@code ZoneOffset} it will be printed using the
1234      * result of {@link ZoneOffset#getId()}.
1235      * If the zone is not an offset, the textual name will be looked up
1236      * for the locale set in the {@link DateTimeFormatter}.
1237      * If the temporal object being printed represents an instant, or if it is a
1238      * local date-time that is not in a daylight saving gap or overlap, then the text
1239      * will be the summer or winter time text as appropriate.
1240      * If the lookup for text does not find any suitable result, then the
1241      * {@link ZoneId#getId() ID} will be printed.
1242      * If the zone cannot be obtained then an exception is thrown unless the
1243      * section of the formatter is optional.
1244      * <p>
1245      * During parsing, either the textual zone name, the zone ID or the offset
1246      * is accepted. Many textual zone names are not unique, such as CST can be
1247      * for both "Central Standard Time" and "China Standard Time". In this
1248      * situation, the zone id will be determined by the region information from
1249      * formatter's  {@link DateTimeFormatter#getLocale() locale} and the standard
1250      * zone id for that area, for example, America/New_York for the America Eastern
1251      * zone. This method also allows a set of preferred {@link ZoneId} to be
1252      * specified for parsing. The matched preferred zone id will be used if the
1253      * textural zone name being parsed is not unique.
1254      * <p>
1255      * If the zone cannot be parsed then an exception is thrown unless the
1256      * section of the formatter is optional.
1257      *
1258      * @param textStyle  the text style to use, not null
1259      * @param preferredZones  the set of preferred zone ids, not null
1260      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1261      */
1262     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendZoneText(TextStyle textStyle,
1263                                                    Set<ZoneId> preferredZones) {
1264         Objects.requireNonNull(preferredZones, "preferredZones");
1265         appendInternal(new ZoneTextPrinterParser(textStyle, preferredZones, false));
1266         return this;
1267     }
1268     //----------------------------------------------------------------------
1269     /**
1270      * Appends the generic time-zone name, such as 'Pacific Time', to the formatter.
1271      * <p>
1272      * This appends an instruction to format/parse the generic textual
1273      * name of the zone to the builder. The generic name is the same throughout the whole
1274      * year, ignoring any daylight saving changes. For example, 'Pacific Time' is the
1275      * generic name, whereas 'Pacific Standard Time' and 'Pacific Daylight Time' are the
1276      * specific names, see {@link #appendZoneText(TextStyle)}.
1277      * <p>
1278      * During formatting, the zone is obtained using a mechanism equivalent
1279      * to querying the temporal with {@link TemporalQueries#zoneId()}.
1280      * If the zone is a {@code ZoneOffset} it will be printed using the
1281      * result of {@link ZoneOffset#getId()}.
1282      * If the zone is not an offset, the textual name will be looked up
1283      * for the locale set in the {@link DateTimeFormatter}.
1284      * If the lookup for text does not find any suitable result, then the
1285      * {@link ZoneId#getId() ID} will be printed.
1286      * If the zone cannot be obtained then an exception is thrown unless the
1287      * section of the formatter is optional.
1288      * <p>
1289      * During parsing, either the textual zone name, the zone ID or the offset
1290      * is accepted. Many textual zone names are not unique, such as CST can be
1291      * for both "Central Standard Time" and "China Standard Time". In this
1292      * situation, the zone id will be determined by the region information from
1293      * formatter's  {@link DateTimeFormatter#getLocale() locale} and the standard
1294      * zone id for that area, for example, America/New_York for the America Eastern zone.
1295      * The {@link #appendGenericZoneText(TextStyle, Set)} may be used
1296      * to specify a set of preferred {@link ZoneId} in this situation.
1297      *
1298      * @param textStyle  the text style to use, not null
1299      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1300      * @since 9
1301      */
1302     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendGenericZoneText(TextStyle textStyle) {
1303         appendInternal(new ZoneTextPrinterParser(textStyle, null, true));
1304         return this;
1305     }
1306 
1307     /**
1308      * Appends the generic time-zone name, such as 'Pacific Time', to the formatter.
1309      * <p>
1310      * This appends an instruction to format/parse the generic textual
1311      * name of the zone to the builder. The generic name is the same throughout the whole
1312      * year, ignoring any daylight saving changes. For example, 'Pacific Time' is the
1313      * generic name, whereas 'Pacific Standard Time' and 'Pacific Daylight Time' are the
1314      * specific names, see {@link #appendZoneText(TextStyle)}.
1315      * <p>
1316      * This method also allows a set of preferred {@link ZoneId} to be
1317      * specified for parsing. The matched preferred zone id will be used if the
1318      * textural zone name being parsed is not unique.
1319      * <p>
1320      * See {@link #appendGenericZoneText(TextStyle)} for details about
1321      * formatting and parsing.
1322      *
1323      * @param textStyle  the text style to use, not null
1324      * @param preferredZones  the set of preferred zone ids, not null
1325      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1326      * @since 9
1327      */
1328     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendGenericZoneText(TextStyle textStyle,
1329                                                           Set<ZoneId> preferredZones) {
1330         appendInternal(new ZoneTextPrinterParser(textStyle, preferredZones, true));
1331         return this;
1332     }
1333 
1334     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
1335     /**
1336      * Appends the chronology ID, such as 'ISO' or 'ThaiBuddhist', to the formatter.
1337      * <p>
1338      * This appends an instruction to format/parse the chronology ID to the builder.
1339      * <p>
1340      * During formatting, the chronology is obtained using a mechanism equivalent
1341      * to querying the temporal with {@link TemporalQueries#chronology()}.
1342      * It will be printed using the result of {@link Chronology#getId()}.
1343      * If the chronology cannot be obtained then an exception is thrown unless the
1344      * section of the formatter is optional.
1345      * <p>
1346      * During parsing, the chronology is parsed and must match one of the chronologies
1347      * in {@link Chronology#getAvailableChronologies()}.
1348      * If the chronology cannot be parsed then an exception is thrown unless the
1349      * section of the formatter is optional.
1350      * The parser uses the {@linkplain #parseCaseInsensitive() case sensitive} setting.
1351      *
1352      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1353      */
1354     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendChronologyId() {
1355         appendInternal(new ChronoPrinterParser(null));
1356         return this;
1357     }
1358 
1359     /**
1360      * Appends the chronology name to the formatter.
1361      * <p>
1362      * The calendar system name will be output during a format.
1363      * If the chronology cannot be obtained then an exception will be thrown.
1364      *
1365      * @param textStyle  the text style to use, not null
1366      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1367      */
1368     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendChronologyText(TextStyle textStyle) {
1369         Objects.requireNonNull(textStyle, "textStyle");
1370         appendInternal(new ChronoPrinterParser(textStyle));
1371         return this;
1372     }
1373 
1374     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
1375     /**
1376      * Appends a localized date-time pattern to the formatter.
1377      * <p>
1378      * This appends a localized section to the builder, suitable for outputting
1379      * a date, time or date-time combination. The format of the localized
1380      * section is lazily looked up based on four items:
1381      * <ul>
1382      * <li>the {@code dateStyle} specified to this method
1383      * <li>the {@code timeStyle} specified to this method
1384      * <li>the {@code Locale} of the {@code DateTimeFormatter}
1385      * <li>the {@code Chronology}, selecting the best available
1386      * </ul>
1387      * During formatting, the chronology is obtained from the temporal object
1388      * being formatted, which may have been overridden by
1389      * {@link DateTimeFormatter#withChronology(Chronology)}.
1390      * The {@code FULL} and {@code LONG} styles typically require a time-zone.
1391      * When formatting using these styles, a {@code ZoneId} must be available,
1392      * either by using {@code ZonedDateTime} or {@link DateTimeFormatter#withZone}.
1393      * <p>
1394      * During parsing, if a chronology has already been parsed, then it is used.
1395      * Otherwise the default from {@code DateTimeFormatter.withChronology(Chronology)}
1396      * is used, with {@code IsoChronology} as the fallback.
1397      * <p>
1398      * Note that this method provides similar functionality to methods on
1399      * {@code DateFormat} such as {@link java.text.DateFormat#getDateTimeInstance(int, int)}.
1400      *
1401      * @param dateStyle  the date style to use, null means no date required
1402      * @param timeStyle  the time style to use, null means no time required
1403      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1404      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if both the date and time styles are null
1405      */
1406     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendLocalized(FormatStyle dateStyle, FormatStyle timeStyle) {
1407         if (dateStyle == null && timeStyle == null) {
1408             throw new IllegalArgumentException("Either the date or time style must be non-null");
1409         }
1410         appendInternal(new LocalizedPrinterParser(dateStyle, timeStyle));
1411         return this;
1412     }
1413 
1414     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
1415     /**
1416      * Appends a character literal to the formatter.
1417      * <p>
1418      * This character will be output during a format.
1419      *
1420      * @param literal  the literal to append, not null
1421      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1422      */
1423     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendLiteral(char literal) {
1424         appendInternal(new CharLiteralPrinterParser(literal));
1425         return this;
1426     }
1427 
1428     /**
1429      * Appends a string literal to the formatter.
1430      * <p>
1431      * This string will be output during a format.
1432      * <p>
1433      * If the literal is empty, nothing is added to the formatter.
1434      *
1435      * @param literal  the literal to append, not null
1436      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1437      */
1438     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendLiteral(String literal) {
1439         Objects.requireNonNull(literal, "literal");
1440         if (!literal.isEmpty()) {
1441             if (literal.length() == 1) {
1442                 appendInternal(new CharLiteralPrinterParser(literal.charAt(0)));
1443             } else {
1444                 appendInternal(new StringLiteralPrinterParser(literal));
1445             }
1446         }
1447         return this;
1448     }
1449 
1450     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
1451     /**
1452      * Appends all the elements of a formatter to the builder.
1453      * <p>
1454      * This method has the same effect as appending each of the constituent
1455      * parts of the formatter directly to this builder.
1456      *
1457      * @param formatter  the formatter to add, not null
1458      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1459      */
1460     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder append(DateTimeFormatter formatter) {
1461         Objects.requireNonNull(formatter, "formatter");
1462         appendInternal(formatter.toPrinterParser(false));
1463         return this;
1464     }
1465 
1466     /**
1467      * Appends a formatter to the builder which will optionally format/parse.
1468      * <p>
1469      * This method has the same effect as appending each of the constituent
1470      * parts directly to this builder surrounded by an {@link #optionalStart()} and
1471      * {@link #optionalEnd()}.
1472      * <p>
1473      * The formatter will format if data is available for all the fields contained within it.
1474      * The formatter will parse if the string matches, otherwise no error is returned.
1475      *
1476      * @param formatter  the formatter to add, not null
1477      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1478      */
1479     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendOptional(DateTimeFormatter formatter) {
1480         Objects.requireNonNull(formatter, "formatter");
1481         appendInternal(formatter.toPrinterParser(true));
1482         return this;
1483     }
1484 
1485     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
1486     /**
1487      * Appends the elements defined by the specified pattern to the builder.
1488      * <p>
1489      * All letters 'A' to 'Z' and 'a' to 'z' are reserved as pattern letters.
1490      * The characters '#', '{' and '}' are reserved for future use.
1491      * The characters '[' and ']' indicate optional patterns.
1492      * The following pattern letters are defined:
1493      * <pre>
1494      *  Symbol  Meaning                     Presentation      Examples
1495      *  ------  -------                     ------------      -------
1496      *   G       era                         text              AD; Anno Domini; A
1497      *   u       year                        year              2004; 04
1498      *   y       year-of-era                 year              2004; 04
1499      *   D       day-of-year                 number            189
1500      *   M/L     month-of-year               number/text       7; 07; Jul; July; J
1501      *   d       day-of-month                number            10
1502      *   g       modified-julian-day         number            2451334
1503      *
1504      *   Q/q     quarter-of-year             number/text       3; 03; Q3; 3rd quarter
1505      *   Y       week-based-year             year              1996; 96
1506      *   w       week-of-week-based-year     number            27
1507      *   W       week-of-month               number            4
1508      *   E       day-of-week                 text              Tue; Tuesday; T
1509      *   e/c     localized day-of-week       number/text       2; 02; Tue; Tuesday; T
1510      *   F       day-of-week-in-month        number            3
1511      *
1512      *   a       am-pm-of-day                text              PM
1513      *   h       clock-hour-of-am-pm (1-12)  number            12
1514      *   K       hour-of-am-pm (0-11)        number            0
1515      *   k       clock-hour-of-day (1-24)    number            24
1516      *
1517      *   H       hour-of-day (0-23)          number            0
1518      *   m       minute-of-hour              number            30
1519      *   s       second-of-minute            number            55
1520      *   S       fraction-of-second          fraction          978
1521      *   A       milli-of-day                number            1234
1522      *   n       nano-of-second              number            987654321
1523      *   N       nano-of-day                 number            1234000000
1524      *
1525      *   V       time-zone ID                zone-id           America/Los_Angeles; Z; -08:30
1526      *   v       generic time-zone name      zone-name         PT, Pacific Time
1527      *   z       time-zone name              zone-name         Pacific Standard Time; PST
1528      *   O       localized zone-offset       offset-O          GMT+8; GMT+08:00; UTC-08:00;
1529      *   X       zone-offset 'Z' for zero    offset-X          Z; -08; -0830; -08:30; -083015; -08:30:15
1530      *   x       zone-offset                 offset-x          +0000; -08; -0830; -08:30; -083015; -08:30:15
1531      *   Z       zone-offset                 offset-Z          +0000; -0800; -08:00
1532      *
1533      *   p       pad next                    pad modifier      1
1534      *
1535      *   '       escape for text             delimiter
1536      *   ''      single quote                literal           '
1537      *   [       optional section start
1538      *   ]       optional section end
1539      *   #       reserved for future use
1540      *   {       reserved for future use
1541      *   }       reserved for future use
1542      * </pre>
1543      * <p>
1544      * The count of pattern letters determine the format.
1545      * See <a href="DateTimeFormatter.html#patterns">DateTimeFormatter</a> for a user-focused description of the patterns.
1546      * The following tables define how the pattern letters map to the builder.
1547      * <p>
1548      * <b>Date fields</b>: Pattern letters to output a date.
1549      * <pre>
1550      *  Pattern  Count  Equivalent builder methods
1551      *  -------  -----  --------------------------
1552      *    G       1      appendText(ChronoField.ERA, TextStyle.SHORT)
1553      *    GG      2      appendText(ChronoField.ERA, TextStyle.SHORT)
1554      *    GGG     3      appendText(ChronoField.ERA, TextStyle.SHORT)
1555      *    GGGG    4      appendText(ChronoField.ERA, TextStyle.FULL)
1556      *    GGGGG   5      appendText(ChronoField.ERA, TextStyle.NARROW)
1557      *
1558      *    u       1      appendValue(ChronoField.YEAR, 1, 19, SignStyle.NORMAL)
1559      *    uu      2      appendValueReduced(ChronoField.YEAR, 2, 2000)
1560      *    uuu     3      appendValue(ChronoField.YEAR, 3, 19, SignStyle.NORMAL)
1561      *    u..u    4..n   appendValue(ChronoField.YEAR, n, 19, SignStyle.EXCEEDS_PAD)
1562      *    y       1      appendValue(ChronoField.YEAR_OF_ERA, 1, 19, SignStyle.NORMAL)
1563      *    yy      2      appendValueReduced(ChronoField.YEAR_OF_ERA, 2, 2000)
1564      *    yyy     3      appendValue(ChronoField.YEAR_OF_ERA, 3, 19, SignStyle.NORMAL)
1565      *    y..y    4..n   appendValue(ChronoField.YEAR_OF_ERA, n, 19, SignStyle.EXCEEDS_PAD)
1566      *    Y       1      append special localized WeekFields element for numeric week-based-year
1567      *    YY      2      append special localized WeekFields element for reduced numeric week-based-year 2 digits
1568      *    YYY     3      append special localized WeekFields element for numeric week-based-year (3, 19, SignStyle.NORMAL)
1569      *    Y..Y    4..n   append special localized WeekFields element for numeric week-based-year (n, 19, SignStyle.EXCEEDS_PAD)
1570      *
1571      *    Q       1      appendValue(IsoFields.QUARTER_OF_YEAR)
1572      *    QQ      2      appendValue(IsoFields.QUARTER_OF_YEAR, 2)
1573      *    QQQ     3      appendText(IsoFields.QUARTER_OF_YEAR, TextStyle.SHORT)
1574      *    QQQQ    4      appendText(IsoFields.QUARTER_OF_YEAR, TextStyle.FULL)
1575      *    QQQQQ   5      appendText(IsoFields.QUARTER_OF_YEAR, TextStyle.NARROW)
1576      *    q       1      appendValue(IsoFields.QUARTER_OF_YEAR)
1577      *    qq      2      appendValue(IsoFields.QUARTER_OF_YEAR, 2)
1578      *    qqq     3      appendText(IsoFields.QUARTER_OF_YEAR, TextStyle.SHORT_STANDALONE)
1579      *    qqqq    4      appendText(IsoFields.QUARTER_OF_YEAR, TextStyle.FULL_STANDALONE)
1580      *    qqqqq   5      appendText(IsoFields.QUARTER_OF_YEAR, TextStyle.NARROW_STANDALONE)
1581      *
1582      *    M       1      appendValue(ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR)
1583      *    MM      2      appendValue(ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR, 2)
1584      *    MMM     3      appendText(ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR, TextStyle.SHORT)
1585      *    MMMM    4      appendText(ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR, TextStyle.FULL)
1586      *    MMMMM   5      appendText(ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR, TextStyle.NARROW)
1587      *    L       1      appendValue(ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR)
1588      *    LL      2      appendValue(ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR, 2)
1589      *    LLL     3      appendText(ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR, TextStyle.SHORT_STANDALONE)
1590      *    LLLL    4      appendText(ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR, TextStyle.FULL_STANDALONE)
1591      *    LLLLL   5      appendText(ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR, TextStyle.NARROW_STANDALONE)
1592      *
1593      *    w       1      append special localized WeekFields element for numeric week-of-year
1594      *    ww      2      append special localized WeekFields element for numeric week-of-year, zero-padded
1595      *    W       1      append special localized WeekFields element for numeric week-of-month
1596      *    d       1      appendValue(ChronoField.DAY_OF_MONTH)
1597      *    dd      2      appendValue(ChronoField.DAY_OF_MONTH, 2)
1598      *    D       1      appendValue(ChronoField.DAY_OF_YEAR)
1599      *    DD      2      appendValue(ChronoField.DAY_OF_YEAR, 2, 3, SignStyle.NOT_NEGATIVE)
1600      *    DDD     3      appendValue(ChronoField.DAY_OF_YEAR, 3)
1601      *    F       1      appendValue(ChronoField.ALIGNED_DAY_OF_WEEK_IN_MONTH)
1602      *    g..g    1..n   appendValue(JulianFields.MODIFIED_JULIAN_DAY, n, 19, SignStyle.NORMAL)
1603      *    E       1      appendText(ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK, TextStyle.SHORT)
1604      *    EE      2      appendText(ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK, TextStyle.SHORT)
1605      *    EEE     3      appendText(ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK, TextStyle.SHORT)
1606      *    EEEE    4      appendText(ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK, TextStyle.FULL)
1607      *    EEEEE   5      appendText(ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK, TextStyle.NARROW)
1608      *    e       1      append special localized WeekFields element for numeric day-of-week
1609      *    ee      2      append special localized WeekFields element for numeric day-of-week, zero-padded
1610      *    eee     3      appendText(ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK, TextStyle.SHORT)
1611      *    eeee    4      appendText(ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK, TextStyle.FULL)
1612      *    eeeee   5      appendText(ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK, TextStyle.NARROW)
1613      *    c       1      append special localized WeekFields element for numeric day-of-week
1614      *    ccc     3      appendText(ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK, TextStyle.SHORT_STANDALONE)
1615      *    cccc    4      appendText(ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK, TextStyle.FULL_STANDALONE)
1616      *    ccccc   5      appendText(ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK, TextStyle.NARROW_STANDALONE)
1617      * </pre>
1618      * <p>
1619      * <b>Time fields</b>: Pattern letters to output a time.
1620      * <pre>
1621      *  Pattern  Count  Equivalent builder methods
1622      *  -------  -----  --------------------------
1623      *    a       1      appendText(ChronoField.AMPM_OF_DAY, TextStyle.SHORT)
1624      *    h       1      appendValue(ChronoField.CLOCK_HOUR_OF_AMPM)
1625      *    hh      2      appendValue(ChronoField.CLOCK_HOUR_OF_AMPM, 2)
1626      *    H       1      appendValue(ChronoField.HOUR_OF_DAY)
1627      *    HH      2      appendValue(ChronoField.HOUR_OF_DAY, 2)
1628      *    k       1      appendValue(ChronoField.CLOCK_HOUR_OF_DAY)
1629      *    kk      2      appendValue(ChronoField.CLOCK_HOUR_OF_DAY, 2)
1630      *    K       1      appendValue(ChronoField.HOUR_OF_AMPM)
1631      *    KK      2      appendValue(ChronoField.HOUR_OF_AMPM, 2)
1632      *    m       1      appendValue(ChronoField.MINUTE_OF_HOUR)
1633      *    mm      2      appendValue(ChronoField.MINUTE_OF_HOUR, 2)
1634      *    s       1      appendValue(ChronoField.SECOND_OF_MINUTE)
1635      *    ss      2      appendValue(ChronoField.SECOND_OF_MINUTE, 2)
1636      *
1637      *    S..S    1..n   appendFraction(ChronoField.NANO_OF_SECOND, n, n, false)
1638      *    A..A    1..n   appendValue(ChronoField.MILLI_OF_DAY, n, 19, SignStyle.NOT_NEGATIVE)
1639      *    n..n    1..n   appendValue(ChronoField.NANO_OF_SECOND, n, 19, SignStyle.NOT_NEGATIVE)
1640      *    N..N    1..n   appendValue(ChronoField.NANO_OF_DAY, n, 19, SignStyle.NOT_NEGATIVE)
1641      * </pre>
1642      * <p>
1643      * <b>Zone ID</b>: Pattern letters to output {@code ZoneId}.
1644      * <pre>
1645      *  Pattern  Count  Equivalent builder methods
1646      *  -------  -----  --------------------------
1647      *    VV      2      appendZoneId()
1648      *    v       1      appendGenericZoneText(TextStyle.SHORT)
1649      *    vvvv    4      appendGenericZoneText(TextStyle.FULL)
1650      *    z       1      appendZoneText(TextStyle.SHORT)
1651      *    zz      2      appendZoneText(TextStyle.SHORT)
1652      *    zzz     3      appendZoneText(TextStyle.SHORT)
1653      *    zzzz    4      appendZoneText(TextStyle.FULL)
1654      * </pre>
1655      * <p>
1656      * <b>Zone offset</b>: Pattern letters to output {@code ZoneOffset}.
1657      * <pre>
1658      *  Pattern  Count  Equivalent builder methods
1659      *  -------  -----  --------------------------
1660      *    O       1      appendLocalizedOffset(TextStyle.SHORT)
1661      *    OOOO    4      appendLocalizedOffset(TextStyle.FULL)
1662      *    X       1      appendOffset("+HHmm","Z")
1663      *    XX      2      appendOffset("+HHMM","Z")
1664      *    XXX     3      appendOffset("+HH:MM","Z")
1665      *    XXXX    4      appendOffset("+HHMMss","Z")
1666      *    XXXXX   5      appendOffset("+HH:MM:ss","Z")
1667      *    x       1      appendOffset("+HHmm","+00")
1668      *    xx      2      appendOffset("+HHMM","+0000")
1669      *    xxx     3      appendOffset("+HH:MM","+00:00")
1670      *    xxxx    4      appendOffset("+HHMMss","+0000")
1671      *    xxxxx   5      appendOffset("+HH:MM:ss","+00:00")
1672      *    Z       1      appendOffset("+HHMM","+0000")
1673      *    ZZ      2      appendOffset("+HHMM","+0000")
1674      *    ZZZ     3      appendOffset("+HHMM","+0000")
1675      *    ZZZZ    4      appendLocalizedOffset(TextStyle.FULL)
1676      *    ZZZZZ   5      appendOffset("+HH:MM:ss","Z")
1677      * </pre>
1678      * <p>
1679      * <b>Modifiers</b>: Pattern letters that modify the rest of the pattern:
1680      * <pre>
1681      *  Pattern  Count  Equivalent builder methods
1682      *  -------  -----  --------------------------
1683      *    [       1      optionalStart()
1684      *    ]       1      optionalEnd()
1685      *    p..p    1..n   padNext(n)
1686      * </pre>
1687      * <p>
1688      * Any sequence of letters not specified above, unrecognized letter or
1689      * reserved character will throw an exception.
1690      * Future versions may add to the set of patterns.
1691      * It is recommended to use single quotes around all characters that you want
1692      * to output directly to ensure that future changes do not break your application.
1693      * <p>
1694      * Note that the pattern string is similar, but not identical, to
1695      * {@link java.text.SimpleDateFormat SimpleDateFormat}.
1696      * The pattern string is also similar, but not identical, to that defined by the
1697      * Unicode Common Locale Data Repository (CLDR/LDML).
1698      * Pattern letters 'X' and 'u' are aligned with Unicode CLDR/LDML.
1699      * By contrast, {@code SimpleDateFormat} uses 'u' for the numeric day of week.
1700      * Pattern letters 'y' and 'Y' parse years of two digits and more than 4 digits differently.
1701      * Pattern letters 'n', 'A', 'N', and 'p' are added.
1702      * Number types will reject large numbers.
1703      *
1704      * @param pattern  the pattern to add, not null
1705      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1706      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the pattern is invalid
1707      */
1708     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendPattern(String pattern) {
1709         Objects.requireNonNull(pattern, "pattern");
1710         parsePattern(pattern);
1711         return this;
1712     }
1713 
1714     private void parsePattern(String pattern) {
1715         for (int pos = 0; pos < pattern.length(); pos++) {
1716             char cur = pattern.charAt(pos);
1717             if ((cur >= 'A' && cur <= 'Z') || (cur >= 'a' && cur <= 'z')) {
1718                 int start = pos++;
1719                 for ( ; pos < pattern.length() && pattern.charAt(pos) == cur; pos++);  // short loop
1720                 int count = pos - start;
1721                 // padding
1722                 if (cur == 'p') {
1723                     int pad = 0;
1724                     if (pos < pattern.length()) {
1725                         cur = pattern.charAt(pos);
1726                         if ((cur >= 'A' && cur <= 'Z') || (cur >= 'a' && cur <= 'z')) {
1727                             pad = count;
1728                             start = pos++;
1729                             for ( ; pos < pattern.length() && pattern.charAt(pos) == cur; pos++);  // short loop
1730                             count = pos - start;
1731                         }
1732                     }
1733                     if (pad == 0) {
1734                         throw new IllegalArgumentException(
1735                                 "Pad letter 'p' must be followed by valid pad pattern: " + pattern);
1736                     }
1737                     padNext(pad); // pad and continue parsing
1738                 }
1739                 // main rules
1740                 TemporalField field = FIELD_MAP.get(cur);
1741                 if (field != null) {
1742                     parseField(cur, count, field);
1743                 } else if (cur == 'z') {
1744                     if (count > 4) {
1745                         throw new IllegalArgumentException("Too many pattern letters: " + cur);
1746                     } else if (count == 4) {
1747                         appendZoneText(TextStyle.FULL);
1748                     } else {
1749                         appendZoneText(TextStyle.SHORT);
1750                     }
1751                 } else if (cur == 'V') {
1752                     if (count != 2) {
1753                         throw new IllegalArgumentException("Pattern letter count must be 2: " + cur);
1754                     }
1755                     appendZoneId();
1756                 } else if (cur == 'v') {
1757                     if (count == 1) {
1758                         appendGenericZoneText(TextStyle.SHORT);
1759                     } else if (count == 4) {
1760                         appendGenericZoneText(TextStyle.FULL);
1761                     } else {
1762                         throw new IllegalArgumentException("Wrong number of  pattern letters: " + cur);
1763                     }
1764                 } else if (cur == 'Z') {
1765                     if (count < 4) {
1766                         appendOffset("+HHMM", "+0000");
1767                     } else if (count == 4) {
1768                         appendLocalizedOffset(TextStyle.FULL);
1769                     } else if (count == 5) {
1770                         appendOffset("+HH:MM:ss","Z");
1771                     } else {
1772                         throw new IllegalArgumentException("Too many pattern letters: " + cur);
1773                     }
1774                 } else if (cur == 'O') {
1775                     if (count == 1) {
1776                         appendLocalizedOffset(TextStyle.SHORT);
1777                     } else if (count == 4) {
1778                         appendLocalizedOffset(TextStyle.FULL);
1779                     } else {
1780                         throw new IllegalArgumentException("Pattern letter count must be 1 or 4: " + cur);
1781                     }
1782                 } else if (cur == 'X') {
1783                     if (count > 5) {
1784                         throw new IllegalArgumentException("Too many pattern letters: " + cur);
1785                     }
1786                     appendOffset(OffsetIdPrinterParser.PATTERNS[count + (count == 1 ? 0 : 1)], "Z");
1787                 } else if (cur == 'x') {
1788                     if (count > 5) {
1789                         throw new IllegalArgumentException("Too many pattern letters: " + cur);
1790                     }
1791                     String zero = (count == 1 ? "+00" : (count % 2 == 0 ? "+0000" : "+00:00"));
1792                     appendOffset(OffsetIdPrinterParser.PATTERNS[count + (count == 1 ? 0 : 1)], zero);
1793                 } else if (cur == 'W') {
1794                     // Fields defined by Locale
1795                     if (count > 1) {
1796                         throw new IllegalArgumentException("Too many pattern letters: " + cur);
1797                     }
1798                     appendValue(new WeekBasedFieldPrinterParser(cur, count, count, count));
1799                 } else if (cur == 'w') {
1800                     // Fields defined by Locale
1801                     if (count > 2) {
1802                         throw new IllegalArgumentException("Too many pattern letters: " + cur);
1803                     }
1804                     appendValue(new WeekBasedFieldPrinterParser(cur, count, count, 2));
1805                 } else if (cur == 'Y') {
1806                     // Fields defined by Locale
1807                     if (count == 2) {
1808                         appendValue(new WeekBasedFieldPrinterParser(cur, count, count, 2));
1809                     } else {
1810                         appendValue(new WeekBasedFieldPrinterParser(cur, count, count, 19));
1811                     }
1812                 } else {
1813                     throw new IllegalArgumentException("Unknown pattern letter: " + cur);
1814                 }
1815                 pos--;
1816 
1817             } else if (cur == '\'') {
1818                 // parse literals
1819                 int start = pos++;
1820                 for ( ; pos < pattern.length(); pos++) {
1821                     if (pattern.charAt(pos) == '\'') {
1822                         if (pos + 1 < pattern.length() && pattern.charAt(pos + 1) == '\'') {
1823                             pos++;
1824                         } else {
1825                             break;  // end of literal
1826                         }
1827                     }
1828                 }
1829                 if (pos >= pattern.length()) {
1830                     throw new IllegalArgumentException("Pattern ends with an incomplete string literal: " + pattern);
1831                 }
1832                 String str = pattern.substring(start + 1, pos);
1833                 if (str.isEmpty()) {
1834                     appendLiteral('\'');
1835                 } else {
1836                     appendLiteral(str.replace("''", "'"));
1837                 }
1838 
1839             } else if (cur == '[') {
1840                 optionalStart();
1841 
1842             } else if (cur == ']') {
1843                 if (active.parent == null) {
1844                     throw new IllegalArgumentException("Pattern invalid as it contains ] without previous [");
1845                 }
1846                 optionalEnd();
1847 
1848             } else if (cur == '{' || cur == '}' || cur == '#') {
1849                 throw new IllegalArgumentException("Pattern includes reserved character: '" + cur + "'");
1850             } else {
1851                 appendLiteral(cur);
1852             }
1853         }
1854     }
1855 
1856     @SuppressWarnings("fallthrough")
1857     private void parseField(char cur, int count, TemporalField field) {
1858         boolean standalone = false;
1859         switch (cur) {
1860             case 'u':
1861             case 'y':
1862                 if (count == 2) {
1863                     appendValueReduced(field, 2, 2, ReducedPrinterParser.BASE_DATE);
1864                 } else if (count < 4) {
1865                     appendValue(field, count, 19, SignStyle.NORMAL);
1866                 } else {
1867                     appendValue(field, count, 19, SignStyle.EXCEEDS_PAD);
1868                 }
1869                 break;
1870             case 'c':
1871                 if (count == 1) {
1872                     appendValue(new WeekBasedFieldPrinterParser(cur, count, count, count));
1873                     break;
1874                 } else if (count == 2) {
1875                     throw new IllegalArgumentException("Invalid pattern \"cc\"");
1876                 }
1877                 /*fallthrough*/
1878             case 'L':
1879             case 'q':
1880                 standalone = true;
1881                 /*fallthrough*/
1882             case 'M':
1883             case 'Q':
1884             case 'E':
1885             case 'e':
1886                 switch (count) {
1887                     case 1:
1888                     case 2:
1889                         if (cur == 'e') {
1890                             appendValue(new WeekBasedFieldPrinterParser(cur, count, count, count));
1891                         } else if (cur == 'E') {
1892                             appendText(field, TextStyle.SHORT);
1893                         } else {
1894                             if (count == 1) {
1895                                 appendValue(field);
1896                             } else {
1897                                 appendValue(field, 2);
1898                             }
1899                         }
1900                         break;
1901                     case 3:
1902                         appendText(field, standalone ? TextStyle.SHORT_STANDALONE : TextStyle.SHORT);
1903                         break;
1904                     case 4:
1905                         appendText(field, standalone ? TextStyle.FULL_STANDALONE : TextStyle.FULL);
1906                         break;
1907                     case 5:
1908                         appendText(field, standalone ? TextStyle.NARROW_STANDALONE : TextStyle.NARROW);
1909                         break;
1910                     default:
1911                         throw new IllegalArgumentException("Too many pattern letters: " + cur);
1912                 }
1913                 break;
1914             case 'a':
1915                 if (count == 1) {
1916                     appendText(field, TextStyle.SHORT);
1917                 } else {
1918                     throw new IllegalArgumentException("Too many pattern letters: " + cur);
1919                 }
1920                 break;
1921             case 'G':
1922                 switch (count) {
1923                     case 1:
1924                     case 2:
1925                     case 3:
1926                         appendText(field, TextStyle.SHORT);
1927                         break;
1928                     case 4:
1929                         appendText(field, TextStyle.FULL);
1930                         break;
1931                     case 5:
1932                         appendText(field, TextStyle.NARROW);
1933                         break;
1934                     default:
1935                         throw new IllegalArgumentException("Too many pattern letters: " + cur);
1936                 }
1937                 break;
1938             case 'S':
1939                 appendFraction(NANO_OF_SECOND, count, count, false);
1940                 break;
1941             case 'F':
1942                 if (count == 1) {
1943                     appendValue(field);
1944                 } else {
1945                     throw new IllegalArgumentException("Too many pattern letters: " + cur);
1946                 }
1947                 break;
1948             case 'd':
1949             case 'h':
1950             case 'H':
1951             case 'k':
1952             case 'K':
1953             case 'm':
1954             case 's':
1955                 if (count == 1) {
1956                     appendValue(field);
1957                 } else if (count == 2) {
1958                     appendValue(field, count);
1959                 } else {
1960                     throw new IllegalArgumentException("Too many pattern letters: " + cur);
1961                 }
1962                 break;
1963             case 'D':
1964                 if (count == 1) {
1965                     appendValue(field);
1966                 } else if (count == 2 || count == 3) {
1967                     appendValue(field, count, 3, SignStyle.NOT_NEGATIVE);
1968                 } else {
1969                     throw new IllegalArgumentException("Too many pattern letters: " + cur);
1970                 }
1971                 break;
1972             case 'g':
1973                 appendValue(field, count, 19, SignStyle.NORMAL);
1974                 break;
1975             case 'A':
1976             case 'n':
1977             case 'N':
1978                 appendValue(field, count, 19, SignStyle.NOT_NEGATIVE);
1979                 break;
1980             default:
1981                 if (count == 1) {
1982                     appendValue(field);
1983                 } else {
1984                     appendValue(field, count);
1985                 }
1986                 break;
1987         }
1988     }
1989 
1990     /** Map of letters to fields. */
1991     private static final Map<Character, TemporalField> FIELD_MAP = new HashMap<>();
1992     static {
1993         // SDF = SimpleDateFormat
1994         FIELD_MAP.put('G', ChronoField.ERA);                       // SDF, LDML (different to both for 1/2 chars)
1995         FIELD_MAP.put('y', ChronoField.YEAR_OF_ERA);               // SDF, LDML
1996         FIELD_MAP.put('u', ChronoField.YEAR);                      // LDML (different in SDF)
1997         FIELD_MAP.put('Q', IsoFields.QUARTER_OF_YEAR);             // LDML (removed quarter from 310)
1998         FIELD_MAP.put('q', IsoFields.QUARTER_OF_YEAR);             // LDML (stand-alone)
1999         FIELD_MAP.put('M', ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR);             // SDF, LDML
2000         FIELD_MAP.put('L', ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR);             // SDF, LDML (stand-alone)
2001         FIELD_MAP.put('D', ChronoField.DAY_OF_YEAR);               // SDF, LDML
2002         FIELD_MAP.put('d', ChronoField.DAY_OF_MONTH);              // SDF, LDML
2003         FIELD_MAP.put('F', ChronoField.ALIGNED_DAY_OF_WEEK_IN_MONTH);  // SDF, LDML
2004         FIELD_MAP.put('E', ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK);               // SDF, LDML (different to both for 1/2 chars)
2005         FIELD_MAP.put('c', ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK);               // LDML (stand-alone)
2006         FIELD_MAP.put('e', ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK);               // LDML (needs localized week number)
2007         FIELD_MAP.put('a', ChronoField.AMPM_OF_DAY);               // SDF, LDML
2008         FIELD_MAP.put('H', ChronoField.HOUR_OF_DAY);               // SDF, LDML
2009         FIELD_MAP.put('k', ChronoField.CLOCK_HOUR_OF_DAY);         // SDF, LDML
2010         FIELD_MAP.put('K', ChronoField.HOUR_OF_AMPM);              // SDF, LDML
2011         FIELD_MAP.put('h', ChronoField.CLOCK_HOUR_OF_AMPM);        // SDF, LDML
2012         FIELD_MAP.put('m', ChronoField.MINUTE_OF_HOUR);            // SDF, LDML
2013         FIELD_MAP.put('s', ChronoField.SECOND_OF_MINUTE);          // SDF, LDML
2014         FIELD_MAP.put('S', ChronoField.NANO_OF_SECOND);            // LDML (SDF uses milli-of-second number)
2015         FIELD_MAP.put('A', ChronoField.MILLI_OF_DAY);              // LDML
2016         FIELD_MAP.put('n', ChronoField.NANO_OF_SECOND);            // 310 (proposed for LDML)
2017         FIELD_MAP.put('N', ChronoField.NANO_OF_DAY);               // 310 (proposed for LDML)
2018         FIELD_MAP.put('g', JulianFields.MODIFIED_JULIAN_DAY);
2019         // 310 - z - time-zone names, matches LDML and SimpleDateFormat 1 to 4
2020         // 310 - Z - matches SimpleDateFormat and LDML
2021         // 310 - V - time-zone id, matches LDML
2022         // 310 - v - general timezone names, not matching exactly with LDML because LDML specify to fall back
2023         //           to 'VVVV' if general-nonlocation unavailable but here it's not falling back because of lack of data
2024         // 310 - p - prefix for padding
2025         // 310 - X - matches LDML, almost matches SDF for 1, exact match 2&3, extended 4&5
2026         // 310 - x - matches LDML
2027         // 310 - w, W, and Y are localized forms matching LDML
2028         // LDML - U - cycle year name, not supported by 310 yet
2029         // LDML - l - deprecated
2030         // LDML - j - not relevant
2031     }
2032 
2033     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2034     /**
2035      * Causes the next added printer/parser to pad to a fixed width using a space.
2036      * <p>
2037      * This padding will pad to a fixed width using spaces.
2038      * <p>
2039      * During formatting, the decorated element will be output and then padded
2040      * to the specified width. An exception will be thrown during formatting if
2041      * the pad width is exceeded.
2042      * <p>
2043      * During parsing, the padding and decorated element are parsed.
2044      * If parsing is lenient, then the pad width is treated as a maximum.
2045      * The padding is parsed greedily. Thus, if the decorated element starts with
2046      * the pad character, it will not be parsed.
2047      *
2048      * @param padWidth  the pad width, 1 or greater
2049      * @return this, for chaining, not null
2050      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if pad width is too small
2051      */
2052     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder padNext(int padWidth) {
2053         return padNext(padWidth, ' ');
2054     }
2055 
2056     /**
2057      * Causes the next added printer/parser to pad to a fixed width.
2058      * <p>
2059      * This padding is intended for padding other than zero-padding.
2060      * Zero-padding should be achieved using the appendValue methods.
2061      * <p>
2062      * During formatting, the decorated element will be output and then padded
2063      * to the specified width. An exception will be thrown during formatting if
2064      * the pad width is exceeded.
2065      * <p>
2066      * During parsing, the padding and decorated element are parsed.
2067      * If parsing is lenient, then the pad width is treated as a maximum.
2068      * If parsing is case insensitive, then the pad character is matched ignoring case.
2069      * The padding is parsed greedily. Thus, if the decorated element starts with
2070      * the pad character, it will not be parsed.
2071      *
2072      * @param padWidth  the pad width, 1 or greater
2073      * @param padChar  the pad character
2074      * @return this, for chaining, not null
2075      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if pad width is too small
2076      */
2077     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder padNext(int padWidth, char padChar) {
2078         if (padWidth < 1) {
2079             throw new IllegalArgumentException("The pad width must be at least one but was " + padWidth);
2080         }
2081         active.padNextWidth = padWidth;
2082         active.padNextChar = padChar;
2083         active.valueParserIndex = -1;
2084         return this;
2085     }
2086 
2087     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2088     /**
2089      * Mark the start of an optional section.
2090      * <p>
2091      * The output of formatting can include optional sections, which may be nested.
2092      * An optional section is started by calling this method and ended by calling
2093      * {@link #optionalEnd()} or by ending the build process.
2094      * <p>
2095      * All elements in the optional section are treated as optional.
2096      * During formatting, the section is only output if data is available in the
2097      * {@code TemporalAccessor} for all the elements in the section.
2098      * During parsing, the whole section may be missing from the parsed string.
2099      * <p>
2100      * For example, consider a builder setup as
2101      * {@code builder.appendValue(HOUR_OF_DAY,2).optionalStart().appendValue(MINUTE_OF_HOUR,2)}.
2102      * The optional section ends automatically at the end of the builder.
2103      * During formatting, the minute will only be output if its value can be obtained from the date-time.
2104      * During parsing, the input will be successfully parsed whether the minute is present or not.
2105      *
2106      * @return this, for chaining, not null
2107      */
2108     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder optionalStart() {
2109         active.valueParserIndex = -1;
2110         active = new DateTimeFormatterBuilder(active, true);
2111         return this;
2112     }
2113 
2114     /**
2115      * Ends an optional section.
2116      * <p>
2117      * The output of formatting can include optional sections, which may be nested.
2118      * An optional section is started by calling {@link #optionalStart()} and ended
2119      * using this method (or at the end of the builder).
2120      * <p>
2121      * Calling this method without having previously called {@code optionalStart}
2122      * will throw an exception.
2123      * Calling this method immediately after calling {@code optionalStart} has no effect
2124      * on the formatter other than ending the (empty) optional section.
2125      * <p>
2126      * All elements in the optional section are treated as optional.
2127      * During formatting, the section is only output if data is available in the
2128      * {@code TemporalAccessor} for all the elements in the section.
2129      * During parsing, the whole section may be missing from the parsed string.
2130      * <p>
2131      * For example, consider a builder setup as
2132      * {@code builder.appendValue(HOUR_OF_DAY,2).optionalStart().appendValue(MINUTE_OF_HOUR,2).optionalEnd()}.
2133      * During formatting, the minute will only be output if its value can be obtained from the date-time.
2134      * During parsing, the input will be successfully parsed whether the minute is present or not.
2135      *
2136      * @return this, for chaining, not null
2137      * @throws IllegalStateException if there was no previous call to {@code optionalStart}
2138      */
2139     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder optionalEnd() {
2140         if (active.parent == null) {
2141             throw new IllegalStateException("Cannot call optionalEnd() as there was no previous call to optionalStart()");
2142         }
2143         if (active.printerParsers.size() > 0) {
2144             CompositePrinterParser cpp = new CompositePrinterParser(active.printerParsers, active.optional);
2145             active = active.parent;
2146             appendInternal(cpp);
2147         } else {
2148             active = active.parent;
2149         }
2150         return this;
2151     }
2152 
2153     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2154     /**
2155      * Appends a printer and/or parser to the internal list handling padding.
2156      *
2157      * @param pp  the printer-parser to add, not null
2158      * @return the index into the active parsers list
2159      */
2160     private int appendInternal(DateTimePrinterParser pp) {
2161         Objects.requireNonNull(pp, "pp");
2162         if (active.padNextWidth > 0) {
2163             if (pp != null) {
2164                 pp = new PadPrinterParserDecorator(pp, active.padNextWidth, active.padNextChar);
2165             }
2166             active.padNextWidth = 0;
2167             active.padNextChar = 0;
2168         }
2169         active.printerParsers.add(pp);
2170         active.valueParserIndex = -1;
2171         return active.printerParsers.size() - 1;
2172     }
2173 
2174     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2175     /**
2176      * Completes this builder by creating the {@code DateTimeFormatter}
2177      * using the default locale.
2178      * <p>
2179      * This will create a formatter with the {@linkplain Locale#getDefault(Locale.Category) default FORMAT locale}.
2180      * Numbers will be printed and parsed using the standard DecimalStyle.
2181      * The resolver style will be {@link ResolverStyle#SMART SMART}.
2182      * <p>
2183      * Calling this method will end any open optional sections by repeatedly
2184      * calling {@link #optionalEnd()} before creating the formatter.
2185      * <p>
2186      * This builder can still be used after creating the formatter if desired,
2187      * although the state may have been changed by calls to {@code optionalEnd}.
2188      *
2189      * @return the created formatter, not null
2190      */
2191     public DateTimeFormatter toFormatter() {
2192         return toFormatter(Locale.getDefault(Locale.Category.FORMAT));
2193     }
2194 
2195     /**
2196      * Completes this builder by creating the {@code DateTimeFormatter}
2197      * using the specified locale.
2198      * <p>
2199      * This will create a formatter with the specified locale.
2200      * Numbers will be printed and parsed using the standard DecimalStyle.
2201      * The resolver style will be {@link ResolverStyle#SMART SMART}.
2202      * <p>
2203      * Calling this method will end any open optional sections by repeatedly
2204      * calling {@link #optionalEnd()} before creating the formatter.
2205      * <p>
2206      * This builder can still be used after creating the formatter if desired,
2207      * although the state may have been changed by calls to {@code optionalEnd}.
2208      *
2209      * @param locale  the locale to use for formatting, not null
2210      * @return the created formatter, not null
2211      */
2212     public DateTimeFormatter toFormatter(Locale locale) {
2213         return toFormatter(locale, ResolverStyle.SMART, null);
2214     }
2215 
2216     /**
2217      * Completes this builder by creating the formatter.
2218      * This uses the default locale.
2219      *
2220      * @param resolverStyle  the resolver style to use, not null
2221      * @return the created formatter, not null
2222      */
2223     DateTimeFormatter toFormatter(ResolverStyle resolverStyle, Chronology chrono) {
2224         return toFormatter(Locale.getDefault(Locale.Category.FORMAT), resolverStyle, chrono);
2225     }
2226 
2227     /**
2228      * Completes this builder by creating the formatter.
2229      *
2230      * @param locale  the locale to use for formatting, not null
2231      * @param chrono  the chronology to use, may be null
2232      * @return the created formatter, not null
2233      */
2234     private DateTimeFormatter toFormatter(Locale locale, ResolverStyle resolverStyle, Chronology chrono) {
2235         Objects.requireNonNull(locale, "locale");
2236         while (active.parent != null) {
2237             optionalEnd();
2238         }
2239         CompositePrinterParser pp = new CompositePrinterParser(printerParsers, false);
2240         return new DateTimeFormatter(pp, locale, DecimalStyle.STANDARD,
2241                 resolverStyle, null, chrono, null);
2242     }
2243 
2244     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2245     /**
2246      * Strategy for formatting/parsing date-time information.
2247      * <p>
2248      * The printer may format any part, or the whole, of the input date-time object.
2249      * Typically, a complete format is constructed from a number of smaller
2250      * units, each outputting a single field.
2251      * <p>
2252      * The parser may parse any piece of text from the input, storing the result
2253      * in the context. Typically, each individual parser will just parse one
2254      * field, such as the day-of-month, storing the value in the context.
2255      * Once the parse is complete, the caller will then resolve the parsed values
2256      * to create the desired object, such as a {@code LocalDate}.
2257      * <p>
2258      * The parse position will be updated during the parse. Parsing will start at
2259      * the specified index and the return value specifies the new parse position
2260      * for the next parser. If an error occurs, the returned index will be negative
2261      * and will have the error position encoded using the complement operator.
2262      *
2263      * @implSpec
2264      * This interface must be implemented with care to ensure other classes operate correctly.
2265      * All implementations that can be instantiated must be final, immutable and thread-safe.
2266      * <p>
2267      * The context is not a thread-safe object and a new instance will be created
2268      * for each format that occurs. The context must not be stored in an instance
2269      * variable or shared with any other threads.
2270      */
2271     interface DateTimePrinterParser {
2272 
2273         /**
2274          * Prints the date-time object to the buffer.
2275          * <p>
2276          * The context holds information to use during the format.
2277          * It also contains the date-time information to be printed.
2278          * <p>
2279          * The buffer must not be mutated beyond the content controlled by the implementation.
2280          *
2281          * @param context  the context to format using, not null
2282          * @param buf  the buffer to append to, not null
2283          * @return false if unable to query the value from the date-time, true otherwise
2284          * @throws DateTimeException if the date-time cannot be printed successfully
2285          */
2286         boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf);
2287 
2288         /**
2289          * Parses text into date-time information.
2290          * <p>
2291          * The context holds information to use during the parse.
2292          * It is also used to store the parsed date-time information.
2293          *
2294          * @param context  the context to use and parse into, not null
2295          * @param text  the input text to parse, not null
2296          * @param position  the position to start parsing at, from 0 to the text length
2297          * @return the new parse position, where negative means an error with the
2298          *  error position encoded using the complement ~ operator
2299          * @throws NullPointerException if the context or text is null
2300          * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException if the position is invalid
2301          */
2302         int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position);
2303     }
2304 
2305     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2306     /**
2307      * Composite printer and parser.
2308      */
2309     static final class CompositePrinterParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
2310         private final DateTimePrinterParser[] printerParsers;
2311         private final boolean optional;
2312 
2313         CompositePrinterParser(List<DateTimePrinterParser> printerParsers, boolean optional) {
2314             this(printerParsers.toArray(new DateTimePrinterParser[printerParsers.size()]), optional);
2315         }
2316 
2317         CompositePrinterParser(DateTimePrinterParser[] printerParsers, boolean optional) {
2318             this.printerParsers = printerParsers;
2319             this.optional = optional;
2320         }
2321 
2322         /**
2323          * Returns a copy of this printer-parser with the optional flag changed.
2324          *
2325          * @param optional  the optional flag to set in the copy
2326          * @return the new printer-parser, not null
2327          */
2328         public CompositePrinterParser withOptional(boolean optional) {
2329             if (optional == this.optional) {
2330                 return this;
2331             }
2332             return new CompositePrinterParser(printerParsers, optional);
2333         }
2334 
2335         @Override
2336         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
2337             int length = buf.length();
2338             if (optional) {
2339                 context.startOptional();
2340             }
2341             try {
2342                 for (DateTimePrinterParser pp : printerParsers) {
2343                     if (pp.format(context, buf) == false) {
2344                         buf.setLength(length);  // reset buffer
2345                         return true;
2346                     }
2347                 }
2348             } finally {
2349                 if (optional) {
2350                     context.endOptional();
2351                 }
2352             }
2353             return true;
2354         }
2355 
2356         @Override
2357         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
2358             if (optional) {
2359                 context.startOptional();
2360                 int pos = position;
2361                 for (DateTimePrinterParser pp : printerParsers) {
2362                     pos = pp.parse(context, text, pos);
2363                     if (pos < 0) {
2364                         context.endOptional(false);
2365                         return position;  // return original position
2366                     }
2367                 }
2368                 context.endOptional(true);
2369                 return pos;
2370             } else {
2371                 for (DateTimePrinterParser pp : printerParsers) {
2372                     position = pp.parse(context, text, position);
2373                     if (position < 0) {
2374                         break;
2375                     }
2376                 }
2377                 return position;
2378             }
2379         }
2380 
2381         @Override
2382         public String toString() {
2383             StringBuilder buf = new StringBuilder();
2384             if (printerParsers != null) {
2385                 buf.append(optional ? "[" : "(");
2386                 for (DateTimePrinterParser pp : printerParsers) {
2387                     buf.append(pp);
2388                 }
2389                 buf.append(optional ? "]" : ")");
2390             }
2391             return buf.toString();
2392         }
2393     }
2394 
2395     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2396     /**
2397      * Pads the output to a fixed width.
2398      */
2399     static final class PadPrinterParserDecorator implements DateTimePrinterParser {
2400         private final DateTimePrinterParser printerParser;
2401         private final int padWidth;
2402         private final char padChar;
2403 
2404         /**
2405          * Constructor.
2406          *
2407          * @param printerParser  the printer, not null
2408          * @param padWidth  the width to pad to, 1 or greater
2409          * @param padChar  the pad character
2410          */
2411         PadPrinterParserDecorator(DateTimePrinterParser printerParser, int padWidth, char padChar) {
2412             // input checked by DateTimeFormatterBuilder
2413             this.printerParser = printerParser;
2414             this.padWidth = padWidth;
2415             this.padChar = padChar;
2416         }
2417 
2418         @Override
2419         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
2420             int preLen = buf.length();
2421             if (printerParser.format(context, buf) == false) {
2422                 return false;
2423             }
2424             int len = buf.length() - preLen;
2425             if (len > padWidth) {
2426                 throw new DateTimeException(
2427                     "Cannot print as output of " + len + " characters exceeds pad width of " + padWidth);
2428             }
2429             for (int i = 0; i < padWidth - len; i++) {
2430                 buf.insert(preLen, padChar);
2431             }
2432             return true;
2433         }
2434 
2435         @Override
2436         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
2437             // cache context before changed by decorated parser
2438             final boolean strict = context.isStrict();
2439             // parse
2440             if (position > text.length()) {
2441                 throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException();
2442             }
2443             if (position == text.length()) {
2444                 return ~position;  // no more characters in the string
2445             }
2446             int endPos = position + padWidth;
2447             if (endPos > text.length()) {
2448                 if (strict) {
2449                     return ~position;  // not enough characters in the string to meet the parse width
2450                 }
2451                 endPos = text.length();
2452             }
2453             int pos = position;
2454             while (pos < endPos && context.charEquals(text.charAt(pos), padChar)) {
2455                 pos++;
2456             }
2457             text = text.subSequence(0, endPos);
2458             int resultPos = printerParser.parse(context, text, pos);
2459             if (resultPos != endPos && strict) {
2460                 return ~(position + pos);  // parse of decorated field didn't parse to the end
2461             }
2462             return resultPos;
2463         }
2464 
2465         @Override
2466         public String toString() {
2467             return "Pad(" + printerParser + "," + padWidth + (padChar == ' ' ? ")" : ",'" + padChar + "')");
2468         }
2469     }
2470 
2471     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2472     /**
2473      * Enumeration to apply simple parse settings.
2474      */
2475     static enum SettingsParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
2476         SENSITIVE,
2477         INSENSITIVE,
2478         STRICT,
2479         LENIENT;
2480 
2481         @Override
2482         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
2483             return true;  // nothing to do here
2484         }
2485 
2486         @Override
2487         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
2488             // using ordinals to avoid javac synthetic inner class
2489             switch (ordinal()) {
2490                 case 0: context.setCaseSensitive(true); break;
2491                 case 1: context.setCaseSensitive(false); break;
2492                 case 2: context.setStrict(true); break;
2493                 case 3: context.setStrict(false); break;
2494             }
2495             return position;
2496         }
2497 
2498         @Override
2499         public String toString() {
2500             // using ordinals to avoid javac synthetic inner class
2501             switch (ordinal()) {
2502                 case 0: return "ParseCaseSensitive(true)";
2503                 case 1: return "ParseCaseSensitive(false)";
2504                 case 2: return "ParseStrict(true)";
2505                 case 3: return "ParseStrict(false)";
2506             }
2507             throw new IllegalStateException("Unreachable");
2508         }
2509     }
2510 
2511     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2512     /**
2513      * Defaults a value into the parse if not currently present.
2514      */
2515     static class DefaultValueParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
2516         private final TemporalField field;
2517         private final long value;
2518 
2519         DefaultValueParser(TemporalField field, long value) {
2520             this.field = field;
2521             this.value = value;
2522         }
2523 
2524         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
2525             return true;
2526         }
2527 
2528         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
2529             if (context.getParsed(field) == null) {
2530                 context.setParsedField(field, value, position, position);
2531             }
2532             return position;
2533         }
2534     }
2535 
2536     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2537     /**
2538      * Prints or parses a character literal.
2539      */
2540     static final class CharLiteralPrinterParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
2541         private final char literal;
2542 
2543         CharLiteralPrinterParser(char literal) {
2544             this.literal = literal;
2545         }
2546 
2547         @Override
2548         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
2549             buf.append(literal);
2550             return true;
2551         }
2552 
2553         @Override
2554         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
2555             int length = text.length();
2556             if (position == length) {
2557                 return ~position;
2558             }
2559             char ch = text.charAt(position);
2560             if (ch != literal) {
2561                 if (context.isCaseSensitive() ||
2562                         (Character.toUpperCase(ch) != Character.toUpperCase(literal) &&
2563                          Character.toLowerCase(ch) != Character.toLowerCase(literal))) {
2564                     return ~position;
2565                 }
2566             }
2567             return position + 1;
2568         }
2569 
2570         @Override
2571         public String toString() {
2572             if (literal == '\'') {
2573                 return "''";
2574             }
2575             return "'" + literal + "'";
2576         }
2577     }
2578 
2579     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2580     /**
2581      * Prints or parses a string literal.
2582      */
2583     static final class StringLiteralPrinterParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
2584         private final String literal;
2585 
2586         StringLiteralPrinterParser(String literal) {
2587             this.literal = literal;  // validated by caller
2588         }
2589 
2590         @Override
2591         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
2592             buf.append(literal);
2593             return true;
2594         }
2595 
2596         @Override
2597         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
2598             int length = text.length();
2599             if (position > length || position < 0) {
2600                 throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException();
2601             }
2602             if (context.subSequenceEquals(text, position, literal, 0, literal.length()) == false) {
2603                 return ~position;
2604             }
2605             return position + literal.length();
2606         }
2607 
2608         @Override
2609         public String toString() {
2610             String converted = literal.replace("'", "''");
2611             return "'" + converted + "'";
2612         }
2613     }
2614 
2615     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2616     /**
2617      * Prints and parses a numeric date-time field with optional padding.
2618      */
2619     static class NumberPrinterParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
2620 
2621         /**
2622          * Array of 10 to the power of n.
2623          */
2624         static final long[] EXCEED_POINTS = new long[] {
2625             0L,
2626             10L,
2627             100L,
2628             1000L,
2629             10000L,
2630             100000L,
2631             1000000L,
2632             10000000L,
2633             100000000L,
2634             1000000000L,
2635             10000000000L,
2636         };
2637 
2638         final TemporalField field;
2639         final int minWidth;
2640         final int maxWidth;
2641         private final SignStyle signStyle;
2642         final int subsequentWidth;
2643 
2644         /**
2645          * Constructor.
2646          *
2647          * @param field  the field to format, not null
2648          * @param minWidth  the minimum field width, from 1 to 19
2649          * @param maxWidth  the maximum field width, from minWidth to 19
2650          * @param signStyle  the positive/negative sign style, not null
2651          */
2652         NumberPrinterParser(TemporalField field, int minWidth, int maxWidth, SignStyle signStyle) {
2653             // validated by caller
2654             this.field = field;
2655             this.minWidth = minWidth;
2656             this.maxWidth = maxWidth;
2657             this.signStyle = signStyle;
2658             this.subsequentWidth = 0;
2659         }
2660 
2661         /**
2662          * Constructor.
2663          *
2664          * @param field  the field to format, not null
2665          * @param minWidth  the minimum field width, from 1 to 19
2666          * @param maxWidth  the maximum field width, from minWidth to 19
2667          * @param signStyle  the positive/negative sign style, not null
2668          * @param subsequentWidth  the width of subsequent non-negative numbers, 0 or greater,
2669          *  -1 if fixed width due to active adjacent parsing
2670          */
2671         protected NumberPrinterParser(TemporalField field, int minWidth, int maxWidth, SignStyle signStyle, int subsequentWidth) {
2672             // validated by caller
2673             this.field = field;
2674             this.minWidth = minWidth;
2675             this.maxWidth = maxWidth;
2676             this.signStyle = signStyle;
2677             this.subsequentWidth = subsequentWidth;
2678         }
2679 
2680         /**
2681          * Returns a new instance with fixed width flag set.
2682          *
2683          * @return a new updated printer-parser, not null
2684          */
2685         NumberPrinterParser withFixedWidth() {
2686             if (subsequentWidth == -1) {
2687                 return this;
2688             }
2689             return new NumberPrinterParser(field, minWidth, maxWidth, signStyle, -1);
2690         }
2691 
2692         /**
2693          * Returns a new instance with an updated subsequent width.
2694          *
2695          * @param subsequentWidth  the width of subsequent non-negative numbers, 0 or greater
2696          * @return a new updated printer-parser, not null
2697          */
2698         NumberPrinterParser withSubsequentWidth(int subsequentWidth) {
2699             return new NumberPrinterParser(field, minWidth, maxWidth, signStyle, this.subsequentWidth + subsequentWidth);
2700         }
2701 
2702         @Override
2703         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
2704             Long valueLong = context.getValue(field);
2705             if (valueLong == null) {
2706                 return false;
2707             }
2708             long value = getValue(context, valueLong);
2709             DecimalStyle decimalStyle = context.getDecimalStyle();
2710             String str = (value == Long.MIN_VALUE ? "9223372036854775808" : Long.toString(Math.abs(value)));
2711             if (str.length() > maxWidth) {
2712                 throw new DateTimeException("Field " + field +
2713                     " cannot be printed as the value " + value +
2714                     " exceeds the maximum print width of " + maxWidth);
2715             }
2716             str = decimalStyle.convertNumberToI18N(str);
2717 
2718             if (value >= 0) {
2719                 switch (signStyle) {
2720                     case EXCEEDS_PAD:
2721                         if (minWidth < 19 && value >= EXCEED_POINTS[minWidth]) {
2722                             buf.append(decimalStyle.getPositiveSign());
2723                         }
2724                         break;
2725                     case ALWAYS:
2726                         buf.append(decimalStyle.getPositiveSign());
2727                         break;
2728                 }
2729             } else {
2730                 switch (signStyle) {
2731                     case NORMAL:
2732                     case EXCEEDS_PAD:
2733                     case ALWAYS:
2734                         buf.append(decimalStyle.getNegativeSign());
2735                         break;
2736                     case NOT_NEGATIVE:
2737                         throw new DateTimeException("Field " + field +
2738                             " cannot be printed as the value " + value +
2739                             " cannot be negative according to the SignStyle");
2740                 }
2741             }
2742             for (int i = 0; i < minWidth - str.length(); i++) {
2743                 buf.append(decimalStyle.getZeroDigit());
2744             }
2745             buf.append(str);
2746             return true;
2747         }
2748 
2749         /**
2750          * Gets the value to output.
2751          *
2752          * @param context  the context
2753          * @param value  the value of the field, not null
2754          * @return the value
2755          */
2756         long getValue(DateTimePrintContext context, long value) {
2757             return value;
2758         }
2759 
2760         /**
2761          * For NumberPrinterParser, the width is fixed depending on the
2762          * minWidth, maxWidth, signStyle and whether subsequent fields are fixed.
2763          * @param context the context
2764          * @return true if the field is fixed width
2765          * @see DateTimeFormatterBuilder#appendValue(java.time.temporal.TemporalField, int)
2766          */
2767         boolean isFixedWidth(DateTimeParseContext context) {
2768             return subsequentWidth == -1 ||
2769                 (subsequentWidth > 0 && minWidth == maxWidth && signStyle == SignStyle.NOT_NEGATIVE);
2770         }
2771 
2772         @Override
2773         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
2774             int length = text.length();
2775             if (position == length) {
2776                 return ~position;
2777             }
2778             char sign = text.charAt(position);  // IOOBE if invalid position
2779             boolean negative = false;
2780             boolean positive = false;
2781             if (sign == context.getDecimalStyle().getPositiveSign()) {
2782                 if (signStyle.parse(true, context.isStrict(), minWidth == maxWidth) == false) {
2783                     return ~position;
2784                 }
2785                 positive = true;
2786                 position++;
2787             } else if (sign == context.getDecimalStyle().getNegativeSign()) {
2788                 if (signStyle.parse(false, context.isStrict(), minWidth == maxWidth) == false) {
2789                     return ~position;
2790                 }
2791                 negative = true;
2792                 position++;
2793             } else {
2794                 if (signStyle == SignStyle.ALWAYS && context.isStrict()) {
2795                     return ~position;
2796                 }
2797             }
2798             int effMinWidth = (context.isStrict() || isFixedWidth(context) ? minWidth : 1);
2799             int minEndPos = position + effMinWidth;
2800             if (minEndPos > length) {
2801                 return ~position;
2802             }
2803             int effMaxWidth = (context.isStrict() || isFixedWidth(context) ? maxWidth : 9) + Math.max(subsequentWidth, 0);
2804             long total = 0;
2805             BigInteger totalBig = null;
2806             int pos = position;
2807             for (int pass = 0; pass < 2; pass++) {
2808                 int maxEndPos = Math.min(pos + effMaxWidth, length);
2809                 while (pos < maxEndPos) {
2810                     char ch = text.charAt(pos++);
2811                     int digit = context.getDecimalStyle().convertToDigit(ch);
2812                     if (digit < 0) {
2813                         pos--;
2814                         if (pos < minEndPos) {
2815                             return ~position;  // need at least min width digits
2816                         }
2817                         break;
2818                     }
2819                     if ((pos - position) > 18) {
2820                         if (totalBig == null) {
2821                             totalBig = BigInteger.valueOf(total);
2822                         }
2823                         totalBig = totalBig.multiply(BigInteger.TEN).add(BigInteger.valueOf(digit));
2824                     } else {
2825                         total = total * 10 + digit;
2826                     }
2827                 }
2828                 if (subsequentWidth > 0 && pass == 0) {
2829                     // re-parse now we know the correct width
2830                     int parseLen = pos - position;
2831                     effMaxWidth = Math.max(effMinWidth, parseLen - subsequentWidth);
2832                     pos = position;
2833                     total = 0;
2834                     totalBig = null;
2835                 } else {
2836                     break;
2837                 }
2838             }
2839             if (negative) {
2840                 if (totalBig != null) {
2841                     if (totalBig.equals(BigInteger.ZERO) && context.isStrict()) {
2842                         return ~(position - 1);  // minus zero not allowed
2843                     }
2844                     totalBig = totalBig.negate();
2845                 } else {
2846                     if (total == 0 && context.isStrict()) {
2847                         return ~(position - 1);  // minus zero not allowed
2848                     }
2849                     total = -total;
2850                 }
2851             } else if (signStyle == SignStyle.EXCEEDS_PAD && context.isStrict()) {
2852                 int parseLen = pos - position;
2853                 if (positive) {
2854                     if (parseLen <= minWidth) {
2855                         return ~(position - 1);  // '+' only parsed if minWidth exceeded
2856                     }
2857                 } else {
2858                     if (parseLen > minWidth) {
2859                         return ~position;  // '+' must be parsed if minWidth exceeded
2860                     }
2861                 }
2862             }
2863             if (totalBig != null) {
2864                 if (totalBig.bitLength() > 63) {
2865                     // overflow, parse 1 less digit
2866                     totalBig = totalBig.divide(BigInteger.TEN);
2867                     pos--;
2868                 }
2869                 return setValue(context, totalBig.longValue(), position, pos);
2870             }
2871             return setValue(context, total, position, pos);
2872         }
2873 
2874         /**
2875          * Stores the value.
2876          *
2877          * @param context  the context to store into, not null
2878          * @param value  the value
2879          * @param errorPos  the position of the field being parsed
2880          * @param successPos  the position after the field being parsed
2881          * @return the new position
2882          */
2883         int setValue(DateTimeParseContext context, long value, int errorPos, int successPos) {
2884             return context.setParsedField(field, value, errorPos, successPos);
2885         }
2886 
2887         @Override
2888         public String toString() {
2889             if (minWidth == 1 && maxWidth == 19 && signStyle == SignStyle.NORMAL) {
2890                 return "Value(" + field + ")";
2891             }
2892             if (minWidth == maxWidth && signStyle == SignStyle.NOT_NEGATIVE) {
2893                 return "Value(" + field + "," + minWidth + ")";
2894             }
2895             return "Value(" + field + "," + minWidth + "," + maxWidth + "," + signStyle + ")";
2896         }
2897     }
2898 
2899     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2900     /**
2901      * Prints and parses a reduced numeric date-time field.
2902      */
2903     static final class ReducedPrinterParser extends NumberPrinterParser {
2904         /**
2905          * The base date for reduced value parsing.
2906          */
2907         static final LocalDate BASE_DATE = LocalDate.of(2000, 1, 1);
2908 
2909         private final int baseValue;
2910         private final ChronoLocalDate baseDate;
2911 
2912         /**
2913          * Constructor.
2914          *
2915          * @param field  the field to format, validated not null
2916          * @param minWidth  the minimum field width, from 1 to 10
2917          * @param maxWidth  the maximum field width, from 1 to 10
2918          * @param baseValue  the base value
2919          * @param baseDate  the base date
2920          */
2921         ReducedPrinterParser(TemporalField field, int minWidth, int maxWidth,
2922                 int baseValue, ChronoLocalDate baseDate) {
2923             this(field, minWidth, maxWidth, baseValue, baseDate, 0);
2924             if (minWidth < 1 || minWidth > 10) {
2925                 throw new IllegalArgumentException("The minWidth must be from 1 to 10 inclusive but was " + minWidth);
2926             }
2927             if (maxWidth < 1 || maxWidth > 10) {
2928                 throw new IllegalArgumentException("The maxWidth must be from 1 to 10 inclusive but was " + minWidth);
2929             }
2930             if (maxWidth < minWidth) {
2931                 throw new IllegalArgumentException("Maximum width must exceed or equal the minimum width but " +
2932                         maxWidth + " < " + minWidth);
2933             }
2934             if (baseDate == null) {
2935                 if (field.range().isValidValue(baseValue) == false) {
2936                     throw new IllegalArgumentException("The base value must be within the range of the field");
2937                 }
2938                 if ((((long) baseValue) + EXCEED_POINTS[maxWidth]) > Integer.MAX_VALUE) {
2939                     throw new DateTimeException("Unable to add printer-parser as the range exceeds the capacity of an int");
2940                 }
2941             }
2942         }
2943 
2944         /**
2945          * Constructor.
2946          * The arguments have already been checked.
2947          *
2948          * @param field  the field to format, validated not null
2949          * @param minWidth  the minimum field width, from 1 to 10
2950          * @param maxWidth  the maximum field width, from 1 to 10
2951          * @param baseValue  the base value
2952          * @param baseDate  the base date
2953          * @param subsequentWidth the subsequentWidth for this instance
2954          */
2955         private ReducedPrinterParser(TemporalField field, int minWidth, int maxWidth,
2956                 int baseValue, ChronoLocalDate baseDate, int subsequentWidth) {
2957             super(field, minWidth, maxWidth, SignStyle.NOT_NEGATIVE, subsequentWidth);
2958             this.baseValue = baseValue;
2959             this.baseDate = baseDate;
2960         }
2961 
2962         @Override
2963         long getValue(DateTimePrintContext context, long value) {
2964             long absValue = Math.abs(value);
2965             int baseValue = this.baseValue;
2966             if (baseDate != null) {
2967                 Chronology chrono = Chronology.from(context.getTemporal());
2968                 baseValue = chrono.date(baseDate).get(field);
2969             }
2970             if (value >= baseValue && value < baseValue + EXCEED_POINTS[minWidth]) {
2971                 // Use the reduced value if it fits in minWidth
2972                 return absValue % EXCEED_POINTS[minWidth];
2973             }
2974             // Otherwise truncate to fit in maxWidth
2975             return absValue % EXCEED_POINTS[maxWidth];
2976         }
2977 
2978         @Override
2979         int setValue(DateTimeParseContext context, long value, int errorPos, int successPos) {
2980             int baseValue = this.baseValue;
2981             if (baseDate != null) {
2982                 Chronology chrono = context.getEffectiveChronology();
2983                 baseValue = chrono.date(baseDate).get(field);
2984 
2985                 // In case the Chronology is changed later, add a callback when/if it changes
2986                 final long initialValue = value;
2987                 context.addChronoChangedListener(
2988                         (_unused) ->  {
2989                             /* Repeat the set of the field using the current Chronology
2990                              * The success/error position is ignored because the value is
2991                              * intentionally being overwritten.
2992                              */
2993                             setValue(context, initialValue, errorPos, successPos);
2994                         });
2995             }
2996             int parseLen = successPos - errorPos;
2997             if (parseLen == minWidth && value >= 0) {
2998                 long range = EXCEED_POINTS[minWidth];
2999                 long lastPart = baseValue % range;
3000                 long basePart = baseValue - lastPart;
3001                 if (baseValue > 0) {
3002                     value = basePart + value;
3003                 } else {
3004                     value = basePart - value;
3005                 }
3006                 if (value < baseValue) {
3007                     value += range;
3008                 }
3009             }
3010             return context.setParsedField(field, value, errorPos, successPos);
3011         }
3012 
3013         /**
3014          * Returns a new instance with fixed width flag set.
3015          *
3016          * @return a new updated printer-parser, not null
3017          */
3018         @Override
3019         ReducedPrinterParser withFixedWidth() {
3020             if (subsequentWidth == -1) {
3021                 return this;
3022             }
3023             return new ReducedPrinterParser(field, minWidth, maxWidth, baseValue, baseDate, -1);
3024         }
3025 
3026         /**
3027          * Returns a new instance with an updated subsequent width.
3028          *
3029          * @param subsequentWidth  the width of subsequent non-negative numbers, 0 or greater
3030          * @return a new updated printer-parser, not null
3031          */
3032         @Override
3033         ReducedPrinterParser withSubsequentWidth(int subsequentWidth) {
3034             return new ReducedPrinterParser(field, minWidth, maxWidth, baseValue, baseDate,
3035                     this.subsequentWidth + subsequentWidth);
3036         }
3037 
3038         /**
3039          * For a ReducedPrinterParser, fixed width is false if the mode is strict,
3040          * otherwise it is set as for NumberPrinterParser.
3041          * @param context the context
3042          * @return if the field is fixed width
3043          * @see DateTimeFormatterBuilder#appendValueReduced(java.time.temporal.TemporalField, int, int, int)
3044          */
3045         @Override
3046         boolean isFixedWidth(DateTimeParseContext context) {
3047            if (context.isStrict() == false) {
3048                return false;
3049            }
3050            return super.isFixedWidth(context);
3051         }
3052 
3053         @Override
3054         public String toString() {
3055             return "ReducedValue(" + field + "," + minWidth + "," + maxWidth +
3056                     "," + Objects.requireNonNullElse(baseDate, baseValue) + ")";
3057         }
3058     }
3059 
3060     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
3061     /**
3062      * Prints and parses a numeric date-time field with optional padding.
3063      */
3064     static final class FractionPrinterParser extends NumberPrinterParser {
3065         private final boolean decimalPoint;
3066 
3067         /**
3068          * Constructor.
3069          *
3070          * @param field  the field to output, not null
3071          * @param minWidth  the minimum width to output, from 0 to 9
3072          * @param maxWidth  the maximum width to output, from 0 to 9
3073          * @param decimalPoint  whether to output the localized decimal point symbol
3074          */
3075         FractionPrinterParser(TemporalField field, int minWidth, int maxWidth, boolean decimalPoint) {
3076             this(field, minWidth, maxWidth, decimalPoint, 0);
3077             Objects.requireNonNull(field, "field");
3078             if (field.range().isFixed() == false) {
3079                 throw new IllegalArgumentException("Field must have a fixed set of values: " + field);
3080             }
3081             if (minWidth < 0 || minWidth > 9) {
3082                 throw new IllegalArgumentException("Minimum width must be from 0 to 9 inclusive but was " + minWidth);
3083             }
3084             if (maxWidth < 1 || maxWidth > 9) {
3085                 throw new IllegalArgumentException("Maximum width must be from 1 to 9 inclusive but was " + maxWidth);
3086             }
3087             if (maxWidth < minWidth) {
3088                 throw new IllegalArgumentException("Maximum width must exceed or equal the minimum width but " +
3089                         maxWidth + " < " + minWidth);
3090             }
3091         }
3092 
3093         /**
3094          * Constructor.
3095          *
3096          * @param field  the field to output, not null
3097          * @param minWidth  the minimum width to output, from 0 to 9
3098          * @param maxWidth  the maximum width to output, from 0 to 9
3099          * @param decimalPoint  whether to output the localized decimal point symbol
3100          * @param subsequentWidth the subsequentWidth for this instance
3101          */
3102         FractionPrinterParser(TemporalField field, int minWidth, int maxWidth, boolean decimalPoint, int subsequentWidth) {
3103             super(field, minWidth, maxWidth, SignStyle.NOT_NEGATIVE, subsequentWidth);
3104             this.decimalPoint = decimalPoint;
3105         }
3106 
3107         /**
3108          * Returns a new instance with fixed width flag set.
3109          *
3110          * @return a new updated printer-parser, not null
3111          */
3112         @Override
3113         FractionPrinterParser withFixedWidth() {
3114             if (subsequentWidth == -1) {
3115                 return this;
3116             }
3117             return new FractionPrinterParser(field, minWidth, maxWidth, decimalPoint, -1);
3118         }
3119 
3120         /**
3121          * Returns a new instance with an updated subsequent width.
3122          *
3123          * @param subsequentWidth  the width of subsequent non-negative numbers, 0 or greater
3124          * @return a new updated printer-parser, not null
3125          */
3126         @Override
3127         FractionPrinterParser withSubsequentWidth(int subsequentWidth) {
3128             return new FractionPrinterParser(field, minWidth, maxWidth, decimalPoint, this.subsequentWidth + subsequentWidth);
3129         }
3130 
3131         /**
3132          * For FractionPrinterPrinterParser, the width is fixed if context is sttrict,
3133          * minWidth equal to maxWidth and decimalpoint is absent.
3134          * @param context the context
3135          * @return if the field is fixed width
3136          * @see DateTimeFormatterBuilder#appendValueFraction(java.time.temporal.TemporalField, int, int, boolean)
3137          */
3138         @Override
3139         boolean isFixedWidth(DateTimeParseContext context) {
3140             if (context.isStrict() && minWidth == maxWidth && decimalPoint == false) {
3141                 return true;
3142             }
3143             return false;
3144         }
3145 
3146         @Override
3147         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
3148             Long value = context.getValue(field);
3149             if (value == null) {
3150                 return false;
3151             }
3152             DecimalStyle decimalStyle = context.getDecimalStyle();
3153             BigDecimal fraction = convertToFraction(value);
3154             if (fraction.scale() == 0) {  // scale is zero if value is zero
3155                 if (minWidth > 0) {
3156                     if (decimalPoint) {
3157                         buf.append(decimalStyle.getDecimalSeparator());
3158                     }
3159                     for (int i = 0; i < minWidth; i++) {
3160                         buf.append(decimalStyle.getZeroDigit());
3161                     }
3162                 }
3163             } else {
3164                 int outputScale = Math.min(Math.max(fraction.scale(), minWidth), maxWidth);
3165                 fraction = fraction.setScale(outputScale, RoundingMode.FLOOR);
3166                 String str = fraction.toPlainString().substring(2);
3167                 str = decimalStyle.convertNumberToI18N(str);
3168                 if (decimalPoint) {
3169                     buf.append(decimalStyle.getDecimalSeparator());
3170                 }
3171                 buf.append(str);
3172             }
3173             return true;
3174         }
3175 
3176         @Override
3177         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
3178             int effectiveMin = (context.isStrict() || isFixedWidth(context) ? minWidth : 0);
3179             int effectiveMax = (context.isStrict() || isFixedWidth(context) ? maxWidth : 9);
3180             int length = text.length();
3181             if (position == length) {
3182                 // valid if whole field is optional, invalid if minimum width
3183                 return (effectiveMin > 0 ? ~position : position);
3184             }
3185             if (decimalPoint) {
3186                 if (text.charAt(position) != context.getDecimalStyle().getDecimalSeparator()) {
3187                     // valid if whole field is optional, invalid if minimum width
3188                     return (effectiveMin > 0 ? ~position : position);
3189                 }
3190                 position++;
3191             }
3192             int minEndPos = position + effectiveMin;
3193             if (minEndPos > length) {
3194                 return ~position;  // need at least min width digits
3195             }
3196             int maxEndPos = Math.min(position + effectiveMax, length);
3197             int total = 0;  // can use int because we are only parsing up to 9 digits
3198             int pos = position;
3199             while (pos < maxEndPos) {
3200                 char ch = text.charAt(pos++);
3201                 int digit = context.getDecimalStyle().convertToDigit(ch);
3202                 if (digit < 0) {
3203                     if (pos < minEndPos) {
3204                         return ~position;  // need at least min width digits
3205                     }
3206                     pos--;
3207                     break;
3208                 }
3209                 total = total * 10 + digit;
3210             }
3211             BigDecimal fraction = new BigDecimal(total).movePointLeft(pos - position);
3212             long value = convertFromFraction(fraction);
3213             return context.setParsedField(field, value, position, pos);
3214         }
3215 
3216         /**
3217          * Converts a value for this field to a fraction between 0 and 1.
3218          * <p>
3219          * The fractional value is between 0 (inclusive) and 1 (exclusive).
3220          * It can only be returned if the {@link java.time.temporal.TemporalField#range() value range} is fixed.
3221          * The fraction is obtained by calculation from the field range using 9 decimal
3222          * places and a rounding mode of {@link RoundingMode#FLOOR FLOOR}.
3223          * The calculation is inaccurate if the values do not run continuously from smallest to largest.
3224          * <p>
3225          * For example, the second-of-minute value of 15 would be returned as 0.25,
3226          * assuming the standard definition of 60 seconds in a minute.
3227          *
3228          * @param value  the value to convert, must be valid for this rule
3229          * @return the value as a fraction within the range, from 0 to 1, not null
3230          * @throws DateTimeException if the value cannot be converted to a fraction
3231          */
3232         private BigDecimal convertToFraction(long value) {
3233             ValueRange range = field.range();
3234             range.checkValidValue(value, field);
3235             BigDecimal minBD = BigDecimal.valueOf(range.getMinimum());
3236             BigDecimal rangeBD = BigDecimal.valueOf(range.getMaximum()).subtract(minBD).add(BigDecimal.ONE);
3237             BigDecimal valueBD = BigDecimal.valueOf(value).subtract(minBD);
3238             BigDecimal fraction = valueBD.divide(rangeBD, 9, RoundingMode.FLOOR);
3239             // stripTrailingZeros bug
3240             return fraction.compareTo(BigDecimal.ZERO) == 0 ? BigDecimal.ZERO : fraction.stripTrailingZeros();
3241         }
3242 
3243         /**
3244          * Converts a fraction from 0 to 1 for this field to a value.
3245          * <p>
3246          * The fractional value must be between 0 (inclusive) and 1 (exclusive).
3247          * It can only be returned if the {@link java.time.temporal.TemporalField#range() value range} is fixed.
3248          * The value is obtained by calculation from the field range and a rounding
3249          * mode of {@link RoundingMode#FLOOR FLOOR}.
3250          * The calculation is inaccurate if the values do not run continuously from smallest to largest.
3251          * <p>
3252          * For example, the fractional second-of-minute of 0.25 would be converted to 15,
3253          * assuming the standard definition of 60 seconds in a minute.
3254          *
3255          * @param fraction  the fraction to convert, not null
3256          * @return the value of the field, valid for this rule
3257          * @throws DateTimeException if the value cannot be converted
3258          */
3259         private long convertFromFraction(BigDecimal fraction) {
3260             ValueRange range = field.range();
3261             BigDecimal minBD = BigDecimal.valueOf(range.getMinimum());
3262             BigDecimal rangeBD = BigDecimal.valueOf(range.getMaximum()).subtract(minBD).add(BigDecimal.ONE);
3263             BigDecimal valueBD = fraction.multiply(rangeBD).setScale(0, RoundingMode.FLOOR).add(minBD);
3264             return valueBD.longValueExact();
3265         }
3266 
3267         @Override
3268         public String toString() {
3269             String decimal = (decimalPoint ? ",DecimalPoint" : "");
3270             return "Fraction(" + field + "," + minWidth + "," + maxWidth + decimal + ")";
3271         }
3272     }
3273 
3274     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
3275     /**
3276      * Prints or parses field text.
3277      */
3278     static final class TextPrinterParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
3279         private final TemporalField field;
3280         private final TextStyle textStyle;
3281         private final DateTimeTextProvider provider;
3282         /**
3283          * The cached number printer parser.
3284          * Immutable and volatile, so no synchronization needed.
3285          */
3286         private volatile NumberPrinterParser numberPrinterParser;
3287 
3288         /**
3289          * Constructor.
3290          *
3291          * @param field  the field to output, not null
3292          * @param textStyle  the text style, not null
3293          * @param provider  the text provider, not null
3294          */
3295         TextPrinterParser(TemporalField field, TextStyle textStyle, DateTimeTextProvider provider) {
3296             // validated by caller
3297             this.field = field;
3298             this.textStyle = textStyle;
3299             this.provider = provider;
3300         }
3301 
3302         @Override
3303         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
3304             Long value = context.getValue(field);
3305             if (value == null) {
3306                 return false;
3307             }
3308             String text;
3309             Chronology chrono = context.getTemporal().query(TemporalQueries.chronology());
3310             if (chrono == null || chrono == IsoChronology.INSTANCE) {
3311                 text = provider.getText(field, value, textStyle, context.getLocale());
3312             } else {
3313                 text = provider.getText(chrono, field, value, textStyle, context.getLocale());
3314             }
3315             if (text == null) {
3316                 return numberPrinterParser().format(context, buf);
3317             }
3318             buf.append(text);
3319             return true;
3320         }
3321 
3322         @Override
3323         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence parseText, int position) {
3324             int length = parseText.length();
3325             if (position < 0 || position > length) {
3326                 throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException();
3327             }
3328             TextStyle style = (context.isStrict() ? textStyle : null);
3329             Chronology chrono = context.getEffectiveChronology();
3330             Iterator<Entry<String, Long>> it;
3331             if (chrono == null || chrono == IsoChronology.INSTANCE) {
3332                 it = provider.getTextIterator(field, style, context.getLocale());
3333             } else {
3334                 it = provider.getTextIterator(chrono, field, style, context.getLocale());
3335             }
3336             if (it != null) {
3337                 while (it.hasNext()) {
3338                     Entry<String, Long> entry = it.next();
3339                     String itText = entry.getKey();
3340                     if (context.subSequenceEquals(itText, 0, parseText, position, itText.length())) {
3341                         return context.setParsedField(field, entry.getValue(), position, position + itText.length());
3342                     }
3343                 }
3344                 if (field == ERA && !context.isStrict()) {
3345                     // parse the possible era name from era.toString()
3346                     List<Era> eras = chrono.eras();
3347                     for (Era era : eras) {
3348                         String name = era.toString();
3349                         if (context.subSequenceEquals(name, 0, parseText, position, name.length())) {
3350                             return context.setParsedField(field, era.getValue(), position, position + name.length());
3351                         }
3352                     }
3353                 }
3354                 if (context.isStrict()) {
3355                     return ~position;
3356                 }
3357             }
3358             return numberPrinterParser().parse(context, parseText, position);
3359         }
3360 
3361         /**
3362          * Create and cache a number printer parser.
3363          * @return the number printer parser for this field, not null
3364          */
3365         private NumberPrinterParser numberPrinterParser() {
3366             if (numberPrinterParser == null) {
3367                 numberPrinterParser = new NumberPrinterParser(field, 1, 19, SignStyle.NORMAL);
3368             }
3369             return numberPrinterParser;
3370         }
3371 
3372         @Override
3373         public String toString() {
3374             if (textStyle == TextStyle.FULL) {
3375                 return "Text(" + field + ")";
3376             }
3377             return "Text(" + field + "," + textStyle + ")";
3378         }
3379     }
3380 
3381     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
3382     /**
3383      * Prints or parses an ISO-8601 instant.
3384      */
3385     static final class InstantPrinterParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
3386         // days in a 400 year cycle = 146097
3387         // days in a 10,000 year cycle = 146097 * 25
3388         // seconds per day = 86400
3389         private static final long SECONDS_PER_10000_YEARS = 146097L * 25L * 86400L;
3390         private static final long SECONDS_0000_TO_1970 = ((146097L * 5L) - (30L * 365L + 7L)) * 86400L;
3391         private final int fractionalDigits;
3392 
3393         InstantPrinterParser(int fractionalDigits) {
3394             this.fractionalDigits = fractionalDigits;
3395         }
3396 
3397         @Override
3398         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
3399             // use INSTANT_SECONDS, thus this code is not bound by Instant.MAX
3400             Long inSecs = context.getValue(INSTANT_SECONDS);
3401             Long inNanos = null;
3402             if (context.getTemporal().isSupported(NANO_OF_SECOND)) {
3403                 inNanos = context.getTemporal().getLong(NANO_OF_SECOND);
3404             }
3405             if (inSecs == null) {
3406                 return false;
3407             }
3408             long inSec = inSecs;
3409             int inNano = NANO_OF_SECOND.checkValidIntValue(inNanos != null ? inNanos : 0);
3410             // format mostly using LocalDateTime.toString
3411             if (inSec >= -SECONDS_0000_TO_1970) {
3412                 // current era
3413                 long zeroSecs = inSec - SECONDS_PER_10000_YEARS + SECONDS_0000_TO_1970;
3414                 long hi = Math.floorDiv(zeroSecs, SECONDS_PER_10000_YEARS) + 1;
3415                 long lo = Math.floorMod(zeroSecs, SECONDS_PER_10000_YEARS);
3416                 LocalDateTime ldt = LocalDateTime.ofEpochSecond(lo - SECONDS_0000_TO_1970, 0, ZoneOffset.UTC);
3417                 if (hi > 0) {
3418                     buf.append('+').append(hi);
3419                 }
3420                 buf.append(ldt);
3421                 if (ldt.getSecond() == 0) {
3422                     buf.append(":00");
3423                 }
3424             } else {
3425                 // before current era
3426                 long zeroSecs = inSec + SECONDS_0000_TO_1970;
3427                 long hi = zeroSecs / SECONDS_PER_10000_YEARS;
3428                 long lo = zeroSecs % SECONDS_PER_10000_YEARS;
3429                 LocalDateTime ldt = LocalDateTime.ofEpochSecond(lo - SECONDS_0000_TO_1970, 0, ZoneOffset.UTC);
3430                 int pos = buf.length();
3431                 buf.append(ldt);
3432                 if (ldt.getSecond() == 0) {
3433                     buf.append(":00");
3434                 }
3435                 if (hi < 0) {
3436                     if (ldt.getYear() == -10_000) {
3437                         buf.replace(pos, pos + 2, Long.toString(hi - 1));
3438                     } else if (lo == 0) {
3439                         buf.insert(pos, hi);
3440                     } else {
3441                         buf.insert(pos + 1, Math.abs(hi));
3442                     }
3443                 }
3444             }
3445             // add fraction
3446             if ((fractionalDigits < 0 && inNano > 0) || fractionalDigits > 0) {
3447                 buf.append('.');
3448                 int div = 100_000_000;
3449                 for (int i = 0; ((fractionalDigits == -1 && inNano > 0) ||
3450                                     (fractionalDigits == -2 && (inNano > 0 || (i % 3) != 0)) ||
3451                                     i < fractionalDigits); i++) {
3452                     int digit = inNano / div;
3453                     buf.append((char) (digit + '0'));
3454                     inNano = inNano - (digit * div);
3455                     div = div / 10;
3456                 }
3457             }
3458             buf.append('Z');
3459             return true;
3460         }
3461 
3462         @Override
3463         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
3464             // new context to avoid overwriting fields like year/month/day
3465             int minDigits = (fractionalDigits < 0 ? 0 : fractionalDigits);
3466             int maxDigits = (fractionalDigits < 0 ? 9 : fractionalDigits);
3467             CompositePrinterParser parser = new DateTimeFormatterBuilder()
3468                     .append(DateTimeFormatter.ISO_LOCAL_DATE).appendLiteral('T')
3469                     .appendValue(HOUR_OF_DAY, 2).appendLiteral(':')
3470                     .appendValue(MINUTE_OF_HOUR, 2).appendLiteral(':')
3471                     .appendValue(SECOND_OF_MINUTE, 2)
3472                     .appendFraction(NANO_OF_SECOND, minDigits, maxDigits, true)
3473                     .appendOffsetId()
3474                     .toFormatter().toPrinterParser(false);
3475             DateTimeParseContext newContext = context.copy();
3476             int pos = parser.parse(newContext, text, position);
3477             if (pos < 0) {
3478                 return pos;
3479             }
3480             // parser restricts most fields to 2 digits, so definitely int
3481             // correctly parsed nano is also guaranteed to be valid
3482             long yearParsed = newContext.getParsed(YEAR);
3483             int month = newContext.getParsed(MONTH_OF_YEAR).intValue();
3484             int day = newContext.getParsed(DAY_OF_MONTH).intValue();
3485             int hour = newContext.getParsed(HOUR_OF_DAY).intValue();
3486             int min = newContext.getParsed(MINUTE_OF_HOUR).intValue();
3487             Long secVal = newContext.getParsed(SECOND_OF_MINUTE);
3488             Long nanoVal = newContext.getParsed(NANO_OF_SECOND);
3489             int sec = (secVal != null ? secVal.intValue() : 0);
3490             int nano = (nanoVal != null ? nanoVal.intValue() : 0);
3491             int offset = newContext.getParsed(OFFSET_SECONDS).intValue();
3492             int days = 0;
3493             if (hour == 24 && min == 0 && sec == 0 && nano == 0) {
3494                 hour = 0;
3495                 days = 1;
3496             } else if (hour == 23 && min == 59 && sec == 60) {
3497                 context.setParsedLeapSecond();
3498                 sec = 59;
3499             }
3500             int year = (int) yearParsed % 10_000;
3501             long instantSecs;
3502             try {
3503                 LocalDateTime ldt = LocalDateTime.of(year, month, day, hour, min, sec, 0).plusDays(days);
3504                 instantSecs = ldt.toEpochSecond(ZoneOffset.ofTotalSeconds(offset));
3505                 instantSecs += Math.multiplyExact(yearParsed / 10_000L, SECONDS_PER_10000_YEARS);
3506             } catch (RuntimeException ex) {
3507                 return ~position;
3508             }
3509             int successPos = pos;
3510             successPos = context.setParsedField(INSTANT_SECONDS, instantSecs, position, successPos);
3511             return context.setParsedField(NANO_OF_SECOND, nano, position, successPos);
3512         }
3513 
3514         @Override
3515         public String toString() {
3516             return "Instant()";
3517         }
3518     }
3519 
3520     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
3521     /**
3522      * Prints or parses an offset ID.
3523      */
3524     static final class OffsetIdPrinterParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
3525         static final String[] PATTERNS = new String[] {
3526                 "+HH", "+HHmm", "+HH:mm", "+HHMM", "+HH:MM", "+HHMMss", "+HH:MM:ss", "+HHMMSS", "+HH:MM:SS", "+HHmmss", "+HH:mm:ss",
3527                 "+H",  "+Hmm",  "+H:mm",  "+HMM",  "+H:MM",  "+HMMss",  "+H:MM:ss",  "+HMMSS",  "+H:MM:SS",  "+Hmmss",  "+H:mm:ss",
3528         };  // order used in pattern builder
3529         static final OffsetIdPrinterParser INSTANCE_ID_Z = new OffsetIdPrinterParser("+HH:MM:ss", "Z");
3530         static final OffsetIdPrinterParser INSTANCE_ID_ZERO = new OffsetIdPrinterParser("+HH:MM:ss", "0");
3531 
3532         private final String noOffsetText;
3533         private final int type;
3534         private final int style;
3535 
3536         /**
3537          * Constructor.
3538          *
3539          * @param pattern  the pattern
3540          * @param noOffsetText  the text to use for UTC, not null
3541          */
3542         OffsetIdPrinterParser(String pattern, String noOffsetText) {
3543             Objects.requireNonNull(pattern, "pattern");
3544             Objects.requireNonNull(noOffsetText, "noOffsetText");
3545             this.type = checkPattern(pattern);
3546             this.style = type % 11;
3547             this.noOffsetText = noOffsetText;
3548         }
3549 
3550         private int checkPattern(String pattern) {
3551             for (int i = 0; i < PATTERNS.length; i++) {
3552                 if (PATTERNS[i].equals(pattern)) {
3553                     return i;
3554                 }
3555             }
3556             throw new IllegalArgumentException("Invalid zone offset pattern: " + pattern);
3557         }
3558 
3559         private boolean isPaddedHour() {
3560             return type < 11;
3561         }
3562 
3563         private boolean isColon() {
3564             return style > 0 && (style % 2) == 0;
3565         }
3566 
3567         @Override
3568         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
3569             Long offsetSecs = context.getValue(OFFSET_SECONDS);
3570             if (offsetSecs == null) {
3571                 return false;
3572             }
3573             int totalSecs = Math.toIntExact(offsetSecs);
3574             if (totalSecs == 0) {
3575                 buf.append(noOffsetText);
3576             } else {
3577                 int absHours = Math.abs((totalSecs / 3600) % 100);  // anything larger than 99 silently dropped
3578                 int absMinutes = Math.abs((totalSecs / 60) % 60);
3579                 int absSeconds = Math.abs(totalSecs % 60);
3580                 int bufPos = buf.length();
3581                 int output = absHours;
3582                 buf.append(totalSecs < 0 ? "-" : "+");
3583                 if (isPaddedHour() || absHours >= 10) {
3584                     formatZeroPad(false, absHours, buf);
3585                 } else {
3586                     buf.append((char) (absHours + '0'));
3587                 }
3588                 if ((style >= 3 && style <= 8) || (style >= 9 && absSeconds > 0) || (style >= 1 && absMinutes > 0)) {
3589                     formatZeroPad(isColon(), absMinutes, buf);
3590                     output += absMinutes;
3591                     if (style == 7 || style == 8 || (style >= 5 && absSeconds > 0)) {
3592                         formatZeroPad(isColon(), absSeconds, buf);
3593                         output += absSeconds;
3594                     }
3595                 }
3596                 if (output == 0) {
3597                     buf.setLength(bufPos);
3598                     buf.append(noOffsetText);
3599                 }
3600             }
3601             return true;
3602         }
3603 
3604         private void formatZeroPad(boolean colon, int value, StringBuilder buf) {
3605             buf.append(colon ? ":" : "")
3606                     .append((char) (value / 10 + '0'))
3607                     .append((char) (value % 10 + '0'));
3608         }
3609 
3610         @Override
3611         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
3612             int length = text.length();
3613             int noOffsetLen = noOffsetText.length();
3614             if (noOffsetLen == 0) {
3615                 if (position == length) {
3616                     return context.setParsedField(OFFSET_SECONDS, 0, position, position);
3617                 }
3618             } else {
3619                 if (position == length) {
3620                     return ~position;
3621                 }
3622                 if (context.subSequenceEquals(text, position, noOffsetText, 0, noOffsetLen)) {
3623                     return context.setParsedField(OFFSET_SECONDS, 0, position, position + noOffsetLen);
3624                 }
3625             }
3626 
3627             // parse normal plus/minus offset
3628             char sign = text.charAt(position);  // IOOBE if invalid position
3629             if (sign == '+' || sign == '-') {
3630                 // starts
3631                 int negative = (sign == '-' ? -1 : 1);
3632                 boolean isColon = isColon();
3633                 boolean paddedHour = isPaddedHour();
3634                 int[] array = new int[4];
3635                 array[0] = position + 1;
3636                 int parseType = type;
3637                 // select parse type when lenient
3638                 if (!context.isStrict()) {
3639                     if (paddedHour) {
3640                         if (isColon || (parseType == 0 && length > position + 3 && text.charAt(position + 3) == ':')) {
3641                             isColon = true; // needed in cases like ("+HH", "+01:01")
3642                             parseType = 10;
3643                         } else {
3644                             parseType = 9;
3645                         }
3646                     } else {
3647                         if (isColon || (parseType == 11 && length > position + 3 && (text.charAt(position + 2) == ':' || text.charAt(position + 3) == ':'))) {
3648                             isColon = true;
3649                             parseType = 21;  // needed in cases like ("+H", "+1:01")
3650                         } else {
3651                             parseType = 20;
3652                         }
3653                     }
3654                 }
3655                 // parse according to the selected pattern
3656                 switch (parseType) {
3657                     case 0: // +HH
3658                     case 11: // +H
3659                         parseHour(text, paddedHour, array);
3660                         break;
3661                     case 1: // +HHmm
3662                     case 2: // +HH:mm
3663                     case 13: // +H:mm
3664                         parseHour(text, paddedHour, array);
3665                         parseMinute(text, isColon, false, array);
3666                         break;
3667                     case 3: // +HHMM
3668                     case 4: // +HH:MM
3669                     case 15: // +H:MM
3670                         parseHour(text, paddedHour, array);
3671                         parseMinute(text, isColon, true, array);
3672                         break;
3673                     case 5: // +HHMMss
3674                     case 6: // +HH:MM:ss
3675                     case 17: // +H:MM:ss
3676                         parseHour(text, paddedHour, array);
3677                         parseMinute(text, isColon, true, array);
3678                         parseSecond(text, isColon, false, array);
3679                         break;
3680                     case 7: // +HHMMSS
3681                     case 8: // +HH:MM:SS
3682                     case 19: // +H:MM:SS
3683                         parseHour(text, paddedHour, array);
3684                         parseMinute(text, isColon, true, array);
3685                         parseSecond(text, isColon, true, array);
3686                         break;
3687                     case 9: // +HHmmss
3688                     case 10: // +HH:mm:ss
3689                     case 21: // +H:mm:ss
3690                         parseHour(text, paddedHour, array);
3691                         parseOptionalMinuteSecond(text, isColon, array);
3692                         break;
3693                     case 12: // +Hmm
3694                         parseVariableWidthDigits(text, 1, 4, array);
3695                         break;
3696                     case 14: // +HMM
3697                         parseVariableWidthDigits(text, 3, 4, array);
3698                         break;
3699                     case 16: // +HMMss
3700                         parseVariableWidthDigits(text, 3, 6, array);
3701                         break;
3702                     case 18: // +HMMSS
3703                         parseVariableWidthDigits(text, 5, 6, array);
3704                         break;
3705                     case 20: // +Hmmss
3706                         parseVariableWidthDigits(text, 1, 6, array);
3707                         break;
3708                 }
3709                 if (array[0] > 0) {
3710                     if (array[1] > 23 || array[2] > 59 || array[3] > 59) {
3711                         throw new DateTimeException("Value out of range: Hour[0-23], Minute[0-59], Second[0-59]");
3712                     }
3713                     long offsetSecs = negative * (array[1] * 3600L + array[2] * 60L + array[3]);
3714                     return context.setParsedField(OFFSET_SECONDS, offsetSecs, position, array[0]);
3715                 }
3716             }
3717             // handle special case of empty no offset text
3718             if (noOffsetLen == 0) {
3719                 return context.setParsedField(OFFSET_SECONDS, 0, position, position);
3720             }
3721             return ~position;
3722         }
3723 
3724         private void parseHour(CharSequence parseText, boolean paddedHour, int[] array) {
3725             if (paddedHour) {
3726                 // parse two digits
3727                 if (!parseDigits(parseText, false, 1, array)) {
3728                     array[0] = ~array[0];
3729                 }
3730             } else {
3731                 // parse one or two digits
3732                 parseVariableWidthDigits(parseText, 1, 2, array);
3733             }
3734         }
3735 
3736         private void parseMinute(CharSequence parseText, boolean isColon, boolean mandatory, int[] array) {
3737             if (!parseDigits(parseText, isColon, 2, array)) {
3738                 if (mandatory) {
3739                     array[0] = ~array[0];
3740                 }
3741             }
3742         }
3743 
3744         private void parseSecond(CharSequence parseText, boolean isColon, boolean mandatory, int[] array) {
3745             if (!parseDigits(parseText, isColon, 3, array)) {
3746                 if (mandatory) {
3747                     array[0] = ~array[0];
3748                 }
3749             }
3750         }
3751 
3752         private void parseOptionalMinuteSecond(CharSequence parseText, boolean isColon, int[] array) {
3753             if (parseDigits(parseText, isColon, 2, array)) {
3754                 parseDigits(parseText, isColon, 3, array);
3755             }
3756         }
3757 
3758         private boolean parseDigits(CharSequence parseText, boolean isColon, int arrayIndex, int[] array) {
3759             int pos = array[0];
3760             if (pos < 0) {
3761                 return true;
3762             }
3763             if (isColon && arrayIndex != 1) { //  ':' will precede only in case of minute/second
3764                 if (pos + 1 > parseText.length() || parseText.charAt(pos) != ':') {
3765                     return false;
3766                 }
3767                 pos++;
3768             }
3769             if (pos + 2 > parseText.length()) {
3770                 return false;
3771             }
3772             char ch1 = parseText.charAt(pos++);
3773             char ch2 = parseText.charAt(pos++);
3774             if (ch1 < '0' || ch1 > '9' || ch2 < '0' || ch2 > '9') {
3775                 return false;
3776             }
3777             int value = (ch1 - 48) * 10 + (ch2 - 48);
3778             if (value < 0 || value > 59) {
3779                 return false;
3780             }
3781             array[arrayIndex] = value;
3782             array[0] = pos;
3783             return true;
3784         }
3785 
3786         private void parseVariableWidthDigits(CharSequence parseText, int minDigits, int maxDigits, int[] array) {
3787             // scan the text to find the available number of digits up to maxDigits
3788             // so long as the number available is minDigits or more, the input is valid
3789             // then parse the number of available digits
3790             int pos = array[0];
3791             int available = 0;
3792             char[] chars = new char[maxDigits];
3793             for (int i = 0; i < maxDigits; i++) {
3794                 if (pos + 1  > parseText.length()) {
3795                     break;
3796                 }
3797                 char ch = parseText.charAt(pos++);
3798                 if (ch < '0' || ch > '9') {
3799                     pos--;
3800                     break;
3801                 }
3802                 chars[i] = ch;
3803                 available++;
3804             }
3805             if (available < minDigits) {
3806                 array[0] = ~array[0];
3807                 return;
3808             }
3809             switch (available) {
3810                 case 1:
3811                     array[1] = (chars[0] - 48);
3812                     break;
3813                 case 2:
3814                     array[1] = ((chars[0] - 48) * 10 + (chars[1] - 48));
3815                     break;
3816                 case 3:
3817                     array[1] = (chars[0] - 48);
3818                     array[2] = ((chars[1] - 48) * 10 + (chars[2] - 48));
3819                     break;
3820                 case 4:
3821                     array[1] = ((chars[0] - 48) * 10 + (chars[1] - 48));
3822                     array[2] = ((chars[2] - 48) * 10 + (chars[3] - 48));
3823                     break;
3824                 case 5:
3825                     array[1] = (chars[0] - 48);
3826                     array[2] = ((chars[1] - 48) * 10 + (chars[2] - 48));
3827                     array[3] = ((chars[3] - 48) * 10 + (chars[4] - 48));
3828                     break;
3829                 case 6:
3830                     array[1] = ((chars[0] - 48) * 10 + (chars[1] - 48));
3831                     array[2] = ((chars[2] - 48) * 10 + (chars[3] - 48));
3832                     array[3] = ((chars[4] - 48) * 10 + (chars[5] - 48));
3833                     break;
3834             }
3835             array[0] = pos;
3836         }
3837 
3838         @Override
3839         public String toString() {
3840             String converted = noOffsetText.replace("'", "''");
3841             return "Offset(" + PATTERNS[type] + ",'" + converted + "')";
3842         }
3843     }
3844 
3845     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
3846     /**
3847      * Prints or parses an offset ID.
3848      */
3849     static final class LocalizedOffsetIdPrinterParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
3850         private final TextStyle style;
3851 
3852         /**
3853          * Constructor.
3854          *
3855          * @param style  the style, not null
3856          */
3857         LocalizedOffsetIdPrinterParser(TextStyle style) {
3858             this.style = style;
3859         }
3860 
3861         private static StringBuilder appendHMS(StringBuilder buf, int t) {
3862             return buf.append((char)(t / 10 + '0'))
3863                       .append((char)(t % 10 + '0'));
3864         }
3865 
3866         @Override
3867         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
3868             Long offsetSecs = context.getValue(OFFSET_SECONDS);
3869             if (offsetSecs == null) {
3870                 return false;
3871             }
3872             String key = "timezone.gmtZeroFormat";
3873             String gmtText = DateTimeTextProvider.getLocalizedResource(key, context.getLocale());
3874             if(gmtText == null) {
3875                 gmtText = "GMT";  // Default to "GMT"
3876             }
3877             buf.append(gmtText);
3878             int totalSecs = Math.toIntExact(offsetSecs);
3879             if (totalSecs != 0) {
3880                 int absHours = Math.abs((totalSecs / 3600) % 100);  // anything larger than 99 silently dropped
3881                 int absMinutes = Math.abs((totalSecs / 60) % 60);
3882                 int absSeconds = Math.abs(totalSecs % 60);
3883                 buf.append(totalSecs < 0 ? "-" : "+");
3884                 if (style == TextStyle.FULL) {
3885                     appendHMS(buf, absHours);
3886                     buf.append(':');
3887                     appendHMS(buf, absMinutes);
3888                     if (absSeconds != 0) {
3889                        buf.append(':');
3890                        appendHMS(buf, absSeconds);
3891                     }
3892                 } else {
3893                     if (absHours >= 10) {
3894                         buf.append((char)(absHours / 10 + '0'));
3895                     }
3896                     buf.append((char)(absHours % 10 + '0'));
3897                     if (absMinutes != 0 || absSeconds != 0) {
3898                         buf.append(':');
3899                         appendHMS(buf, absMinutes);
3900                         if (absSeconds != 0) {
3901                             buf.append(':');
3902                             appendHMS(buf, absSeconds);
3903                         }
3904                     }
3905                 }
3906             }
3907             return true;
3908         }
3909 
3910         int getDigit(CharSequence text, int position) {
3911             char c = text.charAt(position);
3912             if (c < '0' || c > '9') {
3913                 return -1;
3914             }
3915             return c - '0';
3916         }
3917 
3918         @Override
3919         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
3920             int pos = position;
3921             int end = text.length();
3922             String key = "timezone.gmtZeroFormat";
3923             String gmtText = DateTimeTextProvider.getLocalizedResource(key, context.getLocale());
3924             if(gmtText == null) {
3925                 gmtText = "GMT";  // Default to "GMT"
3926             }
3927             if (!context.subSequenceEquals(text, pos, gmtText, 0, gmtText.length())) {
3928                     return ~position;
3929                 }
3930             pos += gmtText.length();
3931             // parse normal plus/minus offset
3932             int negative = 0;
3933             if (pos == end) {
3934                 return context.setParsedField(OFFSET_SECONDS, 0, position, pos);
3935             }
3936             char sign = text.charAt(pos);  // IOOBE if invalid position
3937             if (sign == '+') {
3938                 negative = 1;
3939             } else if (sign == '-') {
3940                 negative = -1;
3941             } else {
3942                 return context.setParsedField(OFFSET_SECONDS, 0, position, pos);
3943             }
3944             pos++;
3945             int h = 0;
3946             int m = 0;
3947             int s = 0;
3948             if (style == TextStyle.FULL) {
3949                 int h1 = getDigit(text, pos++);
3950                 int h2 = getDigit(text, pos++);
3951                 if (h1 < 0 || h2 < 0 || text.charAt(pos++) != ':') {
3952                     return ~position;
3953                 }
3954                 h = h1 * 10 + h2;
3955                 int m1 = getDigit(text, pos++);
3956                 int m2 = getDigit(text, pos++);
3957                 if (m1 < 0 || m2 < 0) {
3958                     return ~position;
3959                 }
3960                 m = m1 * 10 + m2;
3961                 if (pos + 2 < end && text.charAt(pos) == ':') {
3962                     int s1 = getDigit(text, pos + 1);
3963                     int s2 = getDigit(text, pos + 2);
3964                     if (s1 >= 0 && s2 >= 0) {
3965                         s = s1 * 10 + s2;
3966                         pos += 3;
3967                     }
3968                 }
3969             } else {
3970                 h = getDigit(text, pos++);
3971                 if (h < 0) {
3972                     return ~position;
3973                 }
3974                 if (pos < end) {
3975                     int h2 = getDigit(text, pos);
3976                     if (h2 >=0) {
3977                         h = h * 10 + h2;
3978                         pos++;
3979                     }
3980                     if (pos + 2 < end && text.charAt(pos) == ':') {
3981                         if (pos + 2 < end && text.charAt(pos) == ':') {
3982                             int m1 = getDigit(text, pos + 1);
3983                             int m2 = getDigit(text, pos + 2);
3984                             if (m1 >= 0 && m2 >= 0) {
3985                                 m = m1 * 10 + m2;
3986                                 pos += 3;
3987                                 if (pos + 2 < end && text.charAt(pos) == ':') {
3988                                     int s1 = getDigit(text, pos + 1);
3989                                     int s2 = getDigit(text, pos + 2);
3990                                     if (s1 >= 0 && s2 >= 0) {
3991                                         s = s1 * 10 + s2;
3992                                         pos += 3;
3993                                    }
3994                                 }
3995                             }
3996                         }
3997                     }
3998                 }
3999             }
4000             long offsetSecs = negative * (h * 3600L + m * 60L + s);
4001             return context.setParsedField(OFFSET_SECONDS, offsetSecs, position, pos);
4002         }
4003 
4004         @Override
4005         public String toString() {
4006             return "LocalizedOffset(" + style + ")";
4007         }
4008     }
4009 
4010     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
4011     /**
4012      * Prints or parses a zone ID.
4013      */
4014     static final class ZoneTextPrinterParser extends ZoneIdPrinterParser {
4015 
4016         /** The text style to output. */
4017         private final TextStyle textStyle;
4018 
4019         /** The preferred zoneid map */
4020         private Set<String> preferredZones;
4021 
4022         /**  Display in generic time-zone format. True in case of pattern letter 'v' */
4023         private final boolean isGeneric;
4024         ZoneTextPrinterParser(TextStyle textStyle, Set<ZoneId> preferredZones, boolean isGeneric) {
4025             super(TemporalQueries.zone(), "ZoneText(" + textStyle + ")");
4026             this.textStyle = Objects.requireNonNull(textStyle, "textStyle");
4027             this.isGeneric = isGeneric;
4028             if (preferredZones != null && preferredZones.size() != 0) {
4029                 this.preferredZones = new HashSet<>();
4030                 for (ZoneId id : preferredZones) {
4031                     this.preferredZones.add(id.getId());
4032                 }
4033             }
4034         }
4035 
4036         private static final int STD = 0;
4037         private static final int DST = 1;
4038         private static final int GENERIC = 2;
4039         private static final Map<String, SoftReference<Map<Locale, String[]>>> cache =
4040             new ConcurrentHashMap<>();
4041 
4042         private String getDisplayName(String id, int type, Locale locale) {
4043             if (textStyle == TextStyle.NARROW) {
4044                 return null;
4045             }
4046             String[] names;
4047             SoftReference<Map<Locale, String[]>> ref = cache.get(id);
4048             Map<Locale, String[]> perLocale = null;
4049             if (ref == null || (perLocale = ref.get()) == null ||
4050                 (names = perLocale.get(locale)) == null) {
4051                 names = TimeZoneNameUtility.retrieveDisplayNames(id, locale);
4052                 if (names == null) {
4053                     return null;
4054                 }
4055                 names = Arrays.copyOfRange(names, 0, 7);
4056                 names[5] =
4057                     TimeZoneNameUtility.retrieveGenericDisplayName(id, TimeZone.LONG, locale);
4058                 if (names[5] == null) {
4059                     names[5] = names[0]; // use the id
4060                 }
4061                 names[6] =
4062                     TimeZoneNameUtility.retrieveGenericDisplayName(id, TimeZone.SHORT, locale);
4063                 if (names[6] == null) {
4064                     names[6] = names[0];
4065                 }
4066                 if (perLocale == null) {
4067                     perLocale = new ConcurrentHashMap<>();
4068                 }
4069                 perLocale.put(locale, names);
4070                 cache.put(id, new SoftReference<>(perLocale));
4071             }
4072             switch (type) {
4073             case STD:
4074                 return names[textStyle.zoneNameStyleIndex() + 1];
4075             case DST:
4076                 return names[textStyle.zoneNameStyleIndex() + 3];
4077             }
4078             return names[textStyle.zoneNameStyleIndex() + 5];
4079         }
4080 
4081         @Override
4082         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
4083             ZoneId zone = context.getValue(TemporalQueries.zoneId());
4084             if (zone == null) {
4085                 return false;
4086             }
4087             String zname = zone.getId();
4088             if (!(zone instanceof ZoneOffset)) {
4089                 TemporalAccessor dt = context.getTemporal();
4090                 int type = GENERIC;
4091                 if (!isGeneric) {
4092                     if (dt.isSupported(ChronoField.INSTANT_SECONDS)) {
4093                         type = zone.getRules().isDaylightSavings(Instant.from(dt)) ? DST : STD;
4094                     } else if (dt.isSupported(ChronoField.EPOCH_DAY) &&
4095                                dt.isSupported(ChronoField.NANO_OF_DAY)) {
4096                         LocalDate date = LocalDate.ofEpochDay(dt.getLong(ChronoField.EPOCH_DAY));
4097                         LocalTime time = LocalTime.ofNanoOfDay(dt.getLong(ChronoField.NANO_OF_DAY));
4098                         LocalDateTime ldt = date.atTime(time);
4099                         if (zone.getRules().getTransition(ldt) == null) {
4100                             type = zone.getRules().isDaylightSavings(ldt.atZone(zone).toInstant()) ? DST : STD;
4101                         }
4102                     }
4103                 }
4104                 String name = getDisplayName(zname, type, context.getLocale());
4105                 if (name != null) {
4106                     zname = name;
4107                 }
4108             }
4109             buf.append(zname);
4110             return true;
4111         }
4112 
4113         // cache per instance for now
4114         private final Map<Locale, Entry<Integer, SoftReference<PrefixTree>>>
4115             cachedTree = new HashMap<>();
4116         private final Map<Locale, Entry<Integer, SoftReference<PrefixTree>>>
4117             cachedTreeCI = new HashMap<>();
4118 
4119         @Override
4120         protected PrefixTree getTree(DateTimeParseContext context) {
4121             if (textStyle == TextStyle.NARROW) {
4122                 return super.getTree(context);
4123             }
4124             Locale locale = context.getLocale();
4125             boolean isCaseSensitive = context.isCaseSensitive();
4126             Set<String> regionIds = ZoneRulesProvider.getAvailableZoneIds();
4127             int regionIdsSize = regionIds.size();
4128 
4129             Map<Locale, Entry<Integer, SoftReference<PrefixTree>>> cached =
4130                 isCaseSensitive ? cachedTree : cachedTreeCI;
4131 
4132             Entry<Integer, SoftReference<PrefixTree>> entry = null;
4133             PrefixTree tree = null;
4134             String[][] zoneStrings = null;
4135             if ((entry = cached.get(locale)) == null ||
4136                 (entry.getKey() != regionIdsSize ||
4137                 (tree = entry.getValue().get()) == null)) {
4138                 tree = PrefixTree.newTree(context);
4139                 zoneStrings = TimeZoneNameUtility.getZoneStrings(locale);
4140                 for (String[] names : zoneStrings) {
4141                     String zid = names[0];
4142                     if (!regionIds.contains(zid)) {
4143                         continue;
4144                     }
4145                     tree.add(zid, zid);    // don't convert zid -> metazone
4146                     zid = ZoneName.toZid(zid, locale);
4147                     int i = textStyle == TextStyle.FULL ? 1 : 2;
4148                     for (; i < names.length; i += 2) {
4149                         tree.add(names[i], zid);
4150                     }
4151                 }
4152                 // if we have a set of preferred zones, need a copy and
4153                 // add the preferred zones again to overwrite
4154                 if (preferredZones != null) {
4155                     for (String[] names : zoneStrings) {
4156                         String zid = names[0];
4157                         if (!preferredZones.contains(zid) || !regionIds.contains(zid)) {
4158                             continue;
4159                         }
4160                         int i = textStyle == TextStyle.FULL ? 1 : 2;
4161                         for (; i < names.length; i += 2) {
4162                             tree.add(names[i], zid);
4163                        }
4164                     }
4165                 }
4166                 cached.put(locale, new SimpleImmutableEntry<>(regionIdsSize, new SoftReference<>(tree)));
4167             }
4168             return tree;
4169         }
4170     }
4171 
4172     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
4173     /**
4174      * Prints or parses a zone ID.
4175      */
4176     static class ZoneIdPrinterParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
4177         private final TemporalQuery<ZoneId> query;
4178         private final String description;
4179 
4180         ZoneIdPrinterParser(TemporalQuery<ZoneId> query, String description) {
4181             this.query = query;
4182             this.description = description;
4183         }
4184 
4185         @Override
4186         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
4187             ZoneId zone = context.getValue(query);
4188             if (zone == null) {
4189                 return false;
4190             }
4191             buf.append(zone.getId());
4192             return true;
4193         }
4194 
4195         /**
4196          * The cached tree to speed up parsing.
4197          */
4198         private static volatile Entry<Integer, PrefixTree> cachedPrefixTree;
4199         private static volatile Entry<Integer, PrefixTree> cachedPrefixTreeCI;
4200 
4201         protected PrefixTree getTree(DateTimeParseContext context) {
4202             // prepare parse tree
4203             Set<String> regionIds = ZoneRulesProvider.getAvailableZoneIds();
4204             final int regionIdsSize = regionIds.size();
4205             Entry<Integer, PrefixTree> cached = context.isCaseSensitive()
4206                                                 ? cachedPrefixTree : cachedPrefixTreeCI;
4207             if (cached == null || cached.getKey() != regionIdsSize) {
4208                 synchronized (this) {
4209                     cached = context.isCaseSensitive() ? cachedPrefixTree : cachedPrefixTreeCI;
4210                     if (cached == null || cached.getKey() != regionIdsSize) {
4211                         cached = new SimpleImmutableEntry<>(regionIdsSize, PrefixTree.newTree(regionIds, context));
4212                         if (context.isCaseSensitive()) {
4213                             cachedPrefixTree = cached;
4214                         } else {
4215                             cachedPrefixTreeCI = cached;
4216                         }
4217                     }
4218                 }
4219             }
4220             return cached.getValue();
4221         }
4222 
4223         /**
4224          * This implementation looks for the longest matching string.
4225          * For example, parsing Etc/GMT-2 will return Etc/GMC-2 rather than just
4226          * Etc/GMC although both are valid.
4227          */
4228         @Override
4229         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
4230             int length = text.length();
4231             if (position > length) {
4232                 throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException();
4233             }
4234             if (position == length) {
4235                 return ~position;
4236             }
4237 
4238             // handle fixed time-zone IDs
4239             char nextChar = text.charAt(position);
4240             if (nextChar == '+' || nextChar == '-') {
4241                 return parseOffsetBased(context, text, position, position, OffsetIdPrinterParser.INSTANCE_ID_Z);
4242             } else if (length >= position + 2) {
4243                 char nextNextChar = text.charAt(position + 1);
4244                 if (context.charEquals(nextChar, 'U') && context.charEquals(nextNextChar, 'T')) {
4245                     if (length >= position + 3 && context.charEquals(text.charAt(position + 2), 'C')) {
4246                         return parseOffsetBased(context, text, position, position + 3, OffsetIdPrinterParser.INSTANCE_ID_ZERO);
4247                     }
4248                     return parseOffsetBased(context, text, position, position + 2, OffsetIdPrinterParser.INSTANCE_ID_ZERO);
4249                 } else if (context.charEquals(nextChar, 'G') && length >= position + 3 &&
4250                         context.charEquals(nextNextChar, 'M') && context.charEquals(text.charAt(position + 2), 'T')) {
4251                     if (length >= position + 4 && context.charEquals(text.charAt(position + 3), '0')) {
4252                         context.setParsed(ZoneId.of("GMT0"));
4253                         return position + 4;
4254                     }
4255                     return parseOffsetBased(context, text, position, position + 3, OffsetIdPrinterParser.INSTANCE_ID_ZERO);
4256                 }
4257             }
4258 
4259             // parse
4260             PrefixTree tree = getTree(context);
4261             ParsePosition ppos = new ParsePosition(position);
4262             String parsedZoneId = tree.match(text, ppos);
4263             if (parsedZoneId == null) {
4264                 if (context.charEquals(nextChar, 'Z')) {
4265                     context.setParsed(ZoneOffset.UTC);
4266                     return position + 1;
4267                 }
4268                 return ~position;
4269             }
4270             context.setParsed(ZoneId.of(parsedZoneId));
4271             return ppos.getIndex();
4272         }
4273 
4274         /**
4275          * Parse an offset following a prefix and set the ZoneId if it is valid.
4276          * To matching the parsing of ZoneId.of the values are not normalized
4277          * to ZoneOffsets.
4278          *
4279          * @param context the parse context
4280          * @param text the input text
4281          * @param prefixPos start of the prefix
4282          * @param position start of text after the prefix
4283          * @param parser parser for the value after the prefix
4284          * @return the position after the parse
4285          */
4286         private int parseOffsetBased(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int prefixPos, int position, OffsetIdPrinterParser parser) {
4287             String prefix = text.subSequence(prefixPos, position).toString().toUpperCase();
4288             if (position >= text.length()) {
4289                 context.setParsed(ZoneId.of(prefix));
4290                 return position;
4291             }
4292 
4293             // '0' or 'Z' after prefix is not part of a valid ZoneId; use bare prefix
4294             if (text.charAt(position) == '0' ||
4295                 context.charEquals(text.charAt(position), 'Z')) {
4296                 context.setParsed(ZoneId.of(prefix));
4297                 return position;
4298             }
4299 
4300             DateTimeParseContext newContext = context.copy();
4301             int endPos = parser.parse(newContext, text, position);
4302             try {
4303                 if (endPos < 0) {
4304                     if (parser == OffsetIdPrinterParser.INSTANCE_ID_Z) {
4305                         return ~prefixPos;
4306                     }
4307                     context.setParsed(ZoneId.of(prefix));
4308                     return position;
4309                 }
4310                 int offset = (int) newContext.getParsed(OFFSET_SECONDS).longValue();
4311                 ZoneOffset zoneOffset = ZoneOffset.ofTotalSeconds(offset);
4312                 context.setParsed(ZoneId.ofOffset(prefix, zoneOffset));
4313                 return endPos;
4314             } catch (DateTimeException dte) {
4315                 return ~prefixPos;
4316             }
4317         }
4318 
4319         @Override
4320         public String toString() {
4321             return description;
4322         }
4323     }
4324 
4325     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
4326     /**
4327      * A String based prefix tree for parsing time-zone names.
4328      */
4329     static class PrefixTree {
4330         protected String key;
4331         protected String value;
4332         protected char c0;    // performance optimization to avoid the
4333                               // boundary check cost of key.charat(0)
4334         protected PrefixTree child;
4335         protected PrefixTree sibling;
4336 
4337         private PrefixTree(String k, String v, PrefixTree child) {
4338             this.key = k;
4339             this.value = v;
4340             this.child = child;
4341             if (k.isEmpty()) {
4342                 c0 = 0xffff;
4343             } else {
4344                 c0 = key.charAt(0);
4345             }
4346         }
4347 
4348         /**
4349          * Creates a new prefix parsing tree based on parse context.
4350          *
4351          * @param context  the parse context
4352          * @return the tree, not null
4353          */
4354         public static PrefixTree newTree(DateTimeParseContext context) {
4355             //if (!context.isStrict()) {
4356             //    return new LENIENT("", null, null);
4357             //}
4358             if (context.isCaseSensitive()) {
4359                 return new PrefixTree("", null, null);
4360             }
4361             return new CI("", null, null);
4362         }
4363 
4364         /**
4365          * Creates a new prefix parsing tree.
4366          *
4367          * @param keys  a set of strings to build the prefix parsing tree, not null
4368          * @param context  the parse context
4369          * @return the tree, not null
4370          */
4371         public static  PrefixTree newTree(Set<String> keys, DateTimeParseContext context) {
4372             PrefixTree tree = newTree(context);
4373             for (String k : keys) {
4374                 tree.add0(k, k);
4375             }
4376             return tree;
4377         }
4378 
4379         /**
4380          * Clone a copy of this tree
4381          */
4382         public PrefixTree copyTree() {
4383             PrefixTree copy = new PrefixTree(key, value, null);
4384             if (child != null) {
4385                 copy.child = child.copyTree();
4386             }
4387             if (sibling != null) {
4388                 copy.sibling = sibling.copyTree();
4389             }
4390             return copy;
4391         }
4392 
4393 
4394         /**
4395          * Adds a pair of {key, value} into the prefix tree.
4396          *
4397          * @param k  the key, not null
4398          * @param v  the value, not null
4399          * @return  true if the pair is added successfully
4400          */
4401         public boolean add(String k, String v) {
4402             return add0(k, v);
4403         }
4404 
4405         private boolean add0(String k, String v) {
4406             k = toKey(k);
4407             int prefixLen = prefixLength(k);
4408             if (prefixLen == key.length()) {
4409                 if (prefixLen < k.length()) {  // down the tree
4410                     String subKey = k.substring(prefixLen);
4411                     PrefixTree c = child;
4412                     while (c != null) {
4413                         if (isEqual(c.c0, subKey.charAt(0))) {
4414                             return c.add0(subKey, v);
4415                         }
4416                         c = c.sibling;
4417                     }
4418                     // add the node as the child of the current node
4419                     c = newNode(subKey, v, null);
4420                     c.sibling = child;
4421                     child = c;
4422                     return true;
4423                 }
4424                 // have an existing <key, value> already, overwrite it
4425                 // if (value != null) {
4426                 //    return false;
4427                 //}
4428                 value = v;
4429                 return true;
4430             }
4431             // split the existing node
4432             PrefixTree n1 = newNode(key.substring(prefixLen), value, child);
4433             key = k.substring(0, prefixLen);
4434             child = n1;
4435             if (prefixLen < k.length()) {
4436                 PrefixTree n2 = newNode(k.substring(prefixLen), v, null);
4437                 child.sibling = n2;
4438                 value = null;
4439             } else {
4440                 value = v;
4441             }
4442             return true;
4443         }
4444 
4445         /**
4446          * Match text with the prefix tree.
4447          *
4448          * @param text  the input text to parse, not null
4449          * @param off  the offset position to start parsing at
4450          * @param end  the end position to stop parsing
4451          * @return the resulting string, or null if no match found.
4452          */
4453         public String match(CharSequence text, int off, int end) {
4454             if (!prefixOf(text, off, end)){
4455                 return null;
4456             }
4457             if (child != null && (off += key.length()) != end) {
4458                 PrefixTree c = child;
4459                 do {
4460                     if (isEqual(c.c0, text.charAt(off))) {
4461                         String found = c.match(text, off, end);
4462                         if (found != null) {
4463                             return found;
4464                         }
4465                         return value;
4466                     }
4467                     c = c.sibling;
4468                 } while (c != null);
4469             }
4470             return value;
4471         }
4472 
4473         /**
4474          * Match text with the prefix tree.
4475          *
4476          * @param text  the input text to parse, not null
4477          * @param pos  the position to start parsing at, from 0 to the text
4478          *  length. Upon return, position will be updated to the new parse
4479          *  position, or unchanged, if no match found.
4480          * @return the resulting string, or null if no match found.
4481          */
4482         public String match(CharSequence text, ParsePosition pos) {
4483             int off = pos.getIndex();
4484             int end = text.length();
4485             if (!prefixOf(text, off, end)){
4486                 return null;
4487             }
4488             off += key.length();
4489             if (child != null && off != end) {
4490                 PrefixTree c = child;
4491                 do {
4492                     if (isEqual(c.c0, text.charAt(off))) {
4493                         pos.setIndex(off);
4494                         String found = c.match(text, pos);
4495                         if (found != null) {
4496                             return found;
4497                         }
4498                         break;
4499                     }
4500                     c = c.sibling;
4501                 } while (c != null);
4502             }
4503             pos.setIndex(off);
4504             return value;
4505         }
4506 
4507         protected String toKey(String k) {
4508             return k;
4509         }
4510 
4511         protected PrefixTree newNode(String k, String v, PrefixTree child) {
4512             return new PrefixTree(k, v, child);
4513         }
4514 
4515         protected boolean isEqual(char c1, char c2) {
4516             return c1 == c2;
4517         }
4518 
4519         protected boolean prefixOf(CharSequence text, int off, int end) {
4520             if (text instanceof String) {
4521                 return ((String)text).startsWith(key, off);
4522             }
4523             int len = key.length();
4524             if (len > end - off) {
4525                 return false;
4526             }
4527             int off0 = 0;
4528             while (len-- > 0) {
4529                 if (!isEqual(key.charAt(off0++), text.charAt(off++))) {
4530                     return false;
4531                 }
4532             }
4533             return true;
4534         }
4535 
4536         private int prefixLength(String k) {
4537             int off = 0;
4538             while (off < k.length() && off < key.length()) {
4539                 if (!isEqual(k.charAt(off), key.charAt(off))) {
4540                     return off;
4541                 }
4542                 off++;
4543             }
4544             return off;
4545         }
4546 
4547         /**
4548          * Case Insensitive prefix tree.
4549          */
4550         private static class CI extends PrefixTree {
4551 
4552             private CI(String k, String v, PrefixTree child) {
4553                 super(k, v, child);
4554             }
4555 
4556             @Override
4557             protected CI newNode(String k, String v, PrefixTree child) {
4558                 return new CI(k, v, child);
4559             }
4560 
4561             @Override
4562             protected boolean isEqual(char c1, char c2) {
4563                 return DateTimeParseContext.charEqualsIgnoreCase(c1, c2);
4564             }
4565 
4566             @Override
4567             protected boolean prefixOf(CharSequence text, int off, int end) {
4568                 int len = key.length();
4569                 if (len > end - off) {
4570                     return false;
4571                 }
4572                 int off0 = 0;
4573                 while (len-- > 0) {
4574                     if (!isEqual(key.charAt(off0++), text.charAt(off++))) {
4575                         return false;
4576                     }
4577                 }
4578                 return true;
4579             }
4580         }
4581 
4582         /**
4583          * Lenient prefix tree. Case insensitive and ignores characters
4584          * like space, underscore and slash.
4585          */
4586         private static class LENIENT extends CI {
4587 
4588             private LENIENT(String k, String v, PrefixTree child) {
4589                 super(k, v, child);
4590             }
4591 
4592             @Override
4593             protected CI newNode(String k, String v, PrefixTree child) {
4594                 return new LENIENT(k, v, child);
4595             }
4596 
4597             private boolean isLenientChar(char c) {
4598                 return c == ' ' || c == '_' || c == '/';
4599             }
4600 
4601             protected String toKey(String k) {
4602                 for (int i = 0; i < k.length(); i++) {
4603                     if (isLenientChar(k.charAt(i))) {
4604                         StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder(k.length());
4605                         sb.append(k, 0, i);
4606                         i++;
4607                         while (i < k.length()) {
4608                             if (!isLenientChar(k.charAt(i))) {
4609                                 sb.append(k.charAt(i));
4610                             }
4611                             i++;
4612                         }
4613                         return sb.toString();
4614                     }
4615                 }
4616                 return k;
4617             }
4618 
4619             @Override
4620             public String match(CharSequence text, ParsePosition pos) {
4621                 int off = pos.getIndex();
4622                 int end = text.length();
4623                 int len = key.length();
4624                 int koff = 0;
4625                 while (koff < len && off < end) {
4626                     if (isLenientChar(text.charAt(off))) {
4627                         off++;
4628                         continue;
4629                     }
4630                     if (!isEqual(key.charAt(koff++), text.charAt(off++))) {
4631                         return null;
4632                     }
4633                 }
4634                 if (koff != len) {
4635                     return null;
4636                 }
4637                 if (child != null && off != end) {
4638                     int off0 = off;
4639                     while (off0 < end && isLenientChar(text.charAt(off0))) {
4640                         off0++;
4641                     }
4642                     if (off0 < end) {
4643                         PrefixTree c = child;
4644                         do {
4645                             if (isEqual(c.c0, text.charAt(off0))) {
4646                                 pos.setIndex(off0);
4647                                 String found = c.match(text, pos);
4648                                 if (found != null) {
4649                                     return found;
4650                                 }
4651                                 break;
4652                             }
4653                             c = c.sibling;
4654                         } while (c != null);
4655                     }
4656                 }
4657                 pos.setIndex(off);
4658                 return value;
4659             }
4660         }
4661     }
4662 
4663     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
4664     /**
4665      * Prints or parses a chronology.
4666      */
4667     static final class ChronoPrinterParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
4668         /** The text style to output, null means the ID. */
4669         private final TextStyle textStyle;
4670 
4671         ChronoPrinterParser(TextStyle textStyle) {
4672             // validated by caller
4673             this.textStyle = textStyle;
4674         }
4675 
4676         @Override
4677         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
4678             Chronology chrono = context.getValue(TemporalQueries.chronology());
4679             if (chrono == null) {
4680                 return false;
4681             }
4682             if (textStyle == null) {
4683                 buf.append(chrono.getId());
4684             } else {
4685                 buf.append(getChronologyName(chrono, context.getLocale()));
4686             }
4687             return true;
4688         }
4689 
4690         @Override
4691         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
4692             // simple looping parser to find the chronology
4693             if (position < 0 || position > text.length()) {
4694                 throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException();
4695             }
4696             Set<Chronology> chronos = Chronology.getAvailableChronologies();
4697             Chronology bestMatch = null;
4698             int matchLen = -1;
4699             for (Chronology chrono : chronos) {
4700                 String name;
4701                 if (textStyle == null) {
4702                     name = chrono.getId();
4703                 } else {
4704                     name = getChronologyName(chrono, context.getLocale());
4705                 }
4706                 int nameLen = name.length();
4707                 if (nameLen > matchLen && context.subSequenceEquals(text, position, name, 0, nameLen)) {
4708                     bestMatch = chrono;
4709                     matchLen = nameLen;
4710                 }
4711             }
4712             if (bestMatch == null) {
4713                 return ~position;
4714             }
4715             context.setParsed(bestMatch);
4716             return position + matchLen;
4717         }
4718 
4719         /**
4720          * Returns the chronology name of the given chrono in the given locale
4721          * if available, or the chronology Id otherwise. The regular ResourceBundle
4722          * search path is used for looking up the chronology name.
4723          *
4724          * @param chrono  the chronology, not null
4725          * @param locale  the locale, not null
4726          * @return the chronology name of chrono in locale, or the id if no name is available
4727          * @throws NullPointerException if chrono or locale is null
4728          */
4729         private String getChronologyName(Chronology chrono, Locale locale) {
4730             String key = "calendarname." + chrono.getCalendarType();
4731             String name = DateTimeTextProvider.getLocalizedResource(key, locale);
4732             return Objects.requireNonNullElseGet(name, () -> chrono.getId());
4733         }
4734     }
4735 
4736     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
4737     /**
4738      * Prints or parses a localized pattern.
4739      */
4740     static final class LocalizedPrinterParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
4741         /** Cache of formatters. */
4742         private static final ConcurrentMap<String, DateTimeFormatter> FORMATTER_CACHE = new ConcurrentHashMap<>(16, 0.75f, 2);
4743 
4744         private final FormatStyle dateStyle;
4745         private final FormatStyle timeStyle;
4746 
4747         /**
4748          * Constructor.
4749          *
4750          * @param dateStyle  the date style to use, may be null
4751          * @param timeStyle  the time style to use, may be null
4752          */
4753         LocalizedPrinterParser(FormatStyle dateStyle, FormatStyle timeStyle) {
4754             // validated by caller
4755             this.dateStyle = dateStyle;
4756             this.timeStyle = timeStyle;
4757         }
4758 
4759         @Override
4760         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
4761             Chronology chrono = Chronology.from(context.getTemporal());
4762             return formatter(context.getLocale(), chrono).toPrinterParser(false).format(context, buf);
4763         }
4764 
4765         @Override
4766         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
4767             Chronology chrono = context.getEffectiveChronology();
4768             return formatter(context.getLocale(), chrono).toPrinterParser(false).parse(context, text, position);
4769         }
4770 
4771         /**
4772          * Gets the formatter to use.
4773          * <p>
4774          * The formatter will be the most appropriate to use for the date and time style in the locale.
4775          * For example, some locales will use the month name while others will use the number.
4776          *
4777          * @param locale  the locale to use, not null
4778          * @param chrono  the chronology to use, not null
4779          * @return the formatter, not null
4780          * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the formatter cannot be found
4781          */
4782         private DateTimeFormatter formatter(Locale locale, Chronology chrono) {
4783             String key = chrono.getId() + '|' + locale.toString() + '|' + dateStyle + timeStyle;
4784             DateTimeFormatter formatter = FORMATTER_CACHE.get(key);
4785             if (formatter == null) {
4786                 String pattern = getLocalizedDateTimePattern(dateStyle, timeStyle, chrono, locale);
4787                 formatter = new DateTimeFormatterBuilder().appendPattern(pattern).toFormatter(locale);
4788                 DateTimeFormatter old = FORMATTER_CACHE.putIfAbsent(key, formatter);
4789                 if (old != null) {
4790                     formatter = old;
4791                 }
4792             }
4793             return formatter;
4794         }
4795 
4796         @Override
4797         public String toString() {
4798             return "Localized(" + (dateStyle != null ? dateStyle : "") + "," +
4799                 (timeStyle != null ? timeStyle : "") + ")";
4800         }
4801     }
4802 
4803     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
4804     /**
4805      * Prints or parses a localized pattern from a localized field.
4806      * The specific formatter and parameters is not selected until
4807      * the field is to be printed or parsed.
4808      * The locale is needed to select the proper WeekFields from which
4809      * the field for day-of-week, week-of-month, or week-of-year is selected.
4810      * Hence the inherited field NumberPrinterParser.field is unused.
4811      */
4812     static final class WeekBasedFieldPrinterParser extends NumberPrinterParser {
4813         private char chr;
4814         private int count;
4815 
4816         /**
4817          * Constructor.
4818          *
4819          * @param chr the pattern format letter that added this PrinterParser.
4820          * @param count the repeat count of the format letter
4821          * @param minWidth  the minimum field width, from 1 to 19
4822          * @param maxWidth  the maximum field width, from minWidth to 19
4823          */
4824         WeekBasedFieldPrinterParser(char chr, int count, int minWidth, int maxWidth) {
4825             this(chr, count, minWidth, maxWidth, 0);
4826         }
4827 
4828         /**
4829          * Constructor.
4830          *
4831          * @param chr the pattern format letter that added this PrinterParser.
4832          * @param count the repeat count of the format letter
4833          * @param minWidth  the minimum field width, from 1 to 19
4834          * @param maxWidth  the maximum field width, from minWidth to 19
4835          * @param subsequentWidth  the width of subsequent non-negative numbers, 0 or greater,
4836          * -1 if fixed width due to active adjacent parsing
4837          */
4838         WeekBasedFieldPrinterParser(char chr, int count, int minWidth, int maxWidth,
4839                 int subsequentWidth) {
4840             super(null, minWidth, maxWidth, SignStyle.NOT_NEGATIVE, subsequentWidth);
4841             this.chr = chr;
4842             this.count = count;
4843         }
4844 
4845         /**
4846          * Returns a new instance with fixed width flag set.
4847          *
4848          * @return a new updated printer-parser, not null
4849          */
4850         @Override
4851         WeekBasedFieldPrinterParser withFixedWidth() {
4852             if (subsequentWidth == -1) {
4853                 return this;
4854             }
4855             return new WeekBasedFieldPrinterParser(chr, count, minWidth, maxWidth, -1);
4856         }
4857 
4858         /**
4859          * Returns a new instance with an updated subsequent width.
4860          *
4861          * @param subsequentWidth  the width of subsequent non-negative numbers, 0 or greater
4862          * @return a new updated printer-parser, not null
4863          */
4864         @Override
4865         WeekBasedFieldPrinterParser withSubsequentWidth(int subsequentWidth) {
4866             return new WeekBasedFieldPrinterParser(chr, count, minWidth, maxWidth,
4867                     this.subsequentWidth + subsequentWidth);
4868         }
4869 
4870         @Override
4871         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
4872             return printerParser(context.getLocale()).format(context, buf);
4873         }
4874 
4875         @Override
4876         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
4877             return printerParser(context.getLocale()).parse(context, text, position);
4878         }
4879 
4880         /**
4881          * Gets the printerParser to use based on the field and the locale.
4882          *
4883          * @param locale  the locale to use, not null
4884          * @return the formatter, not null
4885          * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the formatter cannot be found
4886          */
4887         private DateTimePrinterParser printerParser(Locale locale) {
4888             WeekFields weekDef = WeekFields.of(locale);
4889             TemporalField field = null;
4890             switch (chr) {
4891                 case 'Y':
4892                     field = weekDef.weekBasedYear();
4893                     if (count == 2) {
4894                         return new ReducedPrinterParser(field, 2, 2, 0, ReducedPrinterParser.BASE_DATE,
4895                                 this.subsequentWidth);
4896                     } else {
4897                         return new NumberPrinterParser(field, count, 19,
4898                                 (count < 4) ? SignStyle.NORMAL : SignStyle.EXCEEDS_PAD,
4899                                 this.subsequentWidth);
4900                     }
4901                 case 'e':
4902                 case 'c':
4903                     field = weekDef.dayOfWeek();
4904                     break;
4905                 case 'w':
4906                     field = weekDef.weekOfWeekBasedYear();
4907                     break;
4908                 case 'W':
4909                     field = weekDef.weekOfMonth();
4910                     break;
4911                 default:
4912                     throw new IllegalStateException("unreachable");
4913             }
4914             return new NumberPrinterParser(field, minWidth, maxWidth, SignStyle.NOT_NEGATIVE,
4915                     this.subsequentWidth);
4916         }
4917 
4918         @Override
4919         public String toString() {
4920             StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder(30);
4921             sb.append("Localized(");
4922             if (chr == 'Y') {
4923                 if (count == 1) {
4924                     sb.append("WeekBasedYear");
4925                 } else if (count == 2) {
4926                     sb.append("ReducedValue(WeekBasedYear,2,2,2000-01-01)");
4927                 } else {
4928                     sb.append("WeekBasedYear,").append(count).append(",")
4929                             .append(19).append(",")
4930                             .append((count < 4) ? SignStyle.NORMAL : SignStyle.EXCEEDS_PAD);
4931                 }
4932             } else {
4933                 switch (chr) {
4934                     case 'c':
4935                     case 'e':
4936                         sb.append("DayOfWeek");
4937                         break;
4938                     case 'w':
4939                         sb.append("WeekOfWeekBasedYear");
4940                         break;
4941                     case 'W':
4942                         sb.append("WeekOfMonth");
4943                         break;
4944                     default:
4945                         break;
4946                 }
4947                 sb.append(",");
4948                 sb.append(count);
4949             }
4950             sb.append(")");
4951             return sb.toString();
4952         }
4953     }
4954 
4955     //-------------------------------------------------------------------------
4956     /**
4957      * Length comparator.
4958      */
4959     static final Comparator<String> LENGTH_SORT = new Comparator<String>() {
4960         @Override
4961         public int compare(String str1, String str2) {
4962             return str1.length() == str2.length() ? str1.compareTo(str2) : str1.length() - str2.length();
4963         }
4964     };
4965 }
--- EOF ---