1 /*
   2  * Copyright (c) 2003, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
   3  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
   4  *
   5  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   6  * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
   7  * published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
   8  * particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
   9  * by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
  10  *
  11  * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  12  * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  13  * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  14  * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  15  * accompanied this code).
  16  *
  17  * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  18  * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  19  * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  20  *
  21  * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  22  * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  23  * questions.
  24  */
  25 
  26 package java.util;
  27 
  28 import java.io.BufferedWriter;
  29 import java.io.Closeable;
  30 import java.io.IOException;
  31 import java.io.File;
  32 import java.io.FileOutputStream;
  33 import java.io.FileNotFoundException;
  34 import java.io.Flushable;
  35 import java.io.OutputStream;
  36 import java.io.OutputStreamWriter;
  37 import java.io.PrintStream;
  38 import java.io.UnsupportedEncodingException;
  39 import java.math.BigDecimal;
  40 import java.math.BigInteger;
  41 import java.math.MathContext;
  42 import java.math.RoundingMode;
  43 import java.nio.charset.Charset;
  44 import java.nio.charset.IllegalCharsetNameException;
  45 import java.nio.charset.UnsupportedCharsetException;
  46 import java.text.DateFormatSymbols;
  47 import java.text.DecimalFormat;
  48 import java.text.DecimalFormatSymbols;
  49 import java.text.NumberFormat;
  50 import java.util.regex.Matcher;
  51 import java.util.regex.Pattern;
  52 
  53 import sun.misc.DoubleConsts;
  54 import sun.misc.FormattedFloatingDecimal;
  55 
  56 /**
  57  * An interpreter for printf-style format strings.  This class provides support
  58  * for layout justification and alignment, common formats for numeric, string,
  59  * and date/time data, and locale-specific output.  Common Java types such as
  60  * {@code byte}, {@link java.math.BigDecimal BigDecimal}, and {@link Calendar}
  61  * are supported.  Limited formatting customization for arbitrary user types is
  62  * provided through the {@link Formattable} interface.
  63  *
  64  * <p> Formatters are not necessarily safe for multithreaded access.  Thread
  65  * safety is optional and is the responsibility of users of methods in this
  66  * class.
  67  *
  68  * <p> Formatted printing for the Java language is heavily inspired by C's
  69  * {@code printf}.  Although the format strings are similar to C, some
  70  * customizations have been made to accommodate the Java language and exploit
  71  * some of its features.  Also, Java formatting is more strict than C's; for
  72  * example, if a conversion is incompatible with a flag, an exception will be
  73  * thrown.  In C inapplicable flags are silently ignored.  The format strings
  74  * are thus intended to be recognizable to C programmers but not necessarily
  75  * completely compatible with those in C.
  76  *
  77  * <p> Examples of expected usage:
  78  *
  79  * <blockquote><pre>
  80  *   StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
  81  *   // Send all output to the Appendable object sb
  82  *   Formatter formatter = new Formatter(sb, Locale.US);
  83  *
  84  *   // Explicit argument indices may be used to re-order output.
  85  *   formatter.format("%4$2s %3$2s %2$2s %1$2s", "a", "b", "c", "d")
  86  *   // -&gt; " d  c  b  a"
  87  *
  88  *   // Optional locale as the first argument can be used to get
  89  *   // locale-specific formatting of numbers.  The precision and width can be
  90  *   // given to round and align the value.
  91  *   formatter.format(Locale.FRANCE, "e = %+10.4f", Math.E);
  92  *   // -&gt; "e =    +2,7183"
  93  *
  94  *   // The '(' numeric flag may be used to format negative numbers with
  95  *   // parentheses rather than a minus sign.  Group separators are
  96  *   // automatically inserted.
  97  *   formatter.format("Amount gained or lost since last statement: $ %(,.2f",
  98  *                    balanceDelta);
  99  *   // -&gt; "Amount gained or lost since last statement: $ (6,217.58)"
 100  * </pre></blockquote>
 101  *
 102  * <p> Convenience methods for common formatting requests exist as illustrated
 103  * by the following invocations:
 104  *
 105  * <blockquote><pre>
 106  *   // Writes a formatted string to System.out.
 107  *   System.out.format("Local time: %tT", Calendar.getInstance());
 108  *   // -&gt; "Local time: 13:34:18"
 109  *
 110  *   // Writes formatted output to System.err.
 111  *   System.err.printf("Unable to open file '%1$s': %2$s",
 112  *                     fileName, exception.getMessage());
 113  *   // -&gt; "Unable to open file 'food': No such file or directory"
 114  * </pre></blockquote>
 115  *
 116  * <p> Like C's {@code sprintf(3)}, Strings may be formatted using the static
 117  * method {@link String#format(String,Object...) String.format}:
 118  *
 119  * <blockquote><pre>
 120  *   // Format a string containing a date.
 121  *   import java.util.Calendar;
 122  *   import java.util.GregorianCalendar;
 123  *   import static java.util.Calendar.*;
 124  *
 125  *   Calendar c = new GregorianCalendar(1995, MAY, 23);
 126  *   String s = String.format("Duke's Birthday: %1$tm %1$te,%1$tY", c);
 127  *   // -&gt; s == "Duke's Birthday: May 23, 1995"
 128  * </pre></blockquote>
 129  *
 130  * <h3><a name="org">Organization</a></h3>
 131  *
 132  * <p> This specification is divided into two sections.  The first section, <a
 133  * href="#summary">Summary</a>, covers the basic formatting concepts.  This
 134  * section is intended for users who want to get started quickly and are
 135  * familiar with formatted printing in other programming languages.  The second
 136  * section, <a href="#detail">Details</a>, covers the specific implementation
 137  * details.  It is intended for users who want more precise specification of
 138  * formatting behavior.
 139  *
 140  * <h3><a name="summary">Summary</a></h3>
 141  *
 142  * <p> This section is intended to provide a brief overview of formatting
 143  * concepts.  For precise behavioral details, refer to the <a
 144  * href="#detail">Details</a> section.
 145  *
 146  * <h4><a name="syntax">Format String Syntax</a></h4>
 147  *
 148  * <p> Every method which produces formatted output requires a <i>format
 149  * string</i> and an <i>argument list</i>.  The format string is a {@link
 150  * String} which may contain fixed text and one or more embedded <i>format
 151  * specifiers</i>.  Consider the following example:
 152  *
 153  * <blockquote><pre>
 154  *   Calendar c = ...;
 155  *   String s = String.format("Duke's Birthday: %1$tm %1$te,%1$tY", c);
 156  * </pre></blockquote>
 157  *
 158  * This format string is the first argument to the {@code format} method.  It
 159  * contains three format specifiers "{@code %1$tm}", "{@code %1$te}", and
 160  * "{@code %1$tY}" which indicate how the arguments should be processed and
 161  * where they should be inserted in the text.  The remaining portions of the
 162  * format string are fixed text including {@code "Dukes Birthday: "} and any
 163  * other spaces or punctuation.
 164  *
 165  * The argument list consists of all arguments passed to the method after the
 166  * format string.  In the above example, the argument list is of size one and
 167  * consists of the {@link java.util.Calendar Calendar} object {@code c}.
 168  *
 169  * <ul>
 170  *
 171  * <li> The format specifiers for general, character, and numeric types have
 172  * the following syntax:
 173  *
 174  * <blockquote><pre>
 175  *   %[argument_index$][flags][width][.precision]conversion
 176  * </pre></blockquote>
 177  *
 178  * <p> The optional <i>argument_index</i> is a decimal integer indicating the
 179  * position of the argument in the argument list.  The first argument is
 180  * referenced by "{@code 1$}", the second by "{@code 2$}", etc.
 181  *
 182  * <p> The optional <i>flags</i> is a set of characters that modify the output
 183  * format.  The set of valid flags depends on the conversion.
 184  *
 185  * <p> The optional <i>width</i> is a non-negative decimal integer indicating
 186  * the minimum number of characters to be written to the output.
 187  *
 188  * <p> The optional <i>precision</i> is a non-negative decimal integer usually
 189  * used to restrict the number of characters.  The specific behavior depends on
 190  * the conversion.
 191  *
 192  * <p> The required <i>conversion</i> is a character indicating how the
 193  * argument should be formatted.  The set of valid conversions for a given
 194  * argument depends on the argument's data type.
 195  *
 196  * <li> The format specifiers for types which are used to represents dates and
 197  * times have the following syntax:
 198  *
 199  * <blockquote><pre>
 200  *   %[argument_index$][flags][width]conversion
 201  * </pre></blockquote>
 202  *
 203  * <p> The optional <i>argument_index</i>, <i>flags</i> and <i>width</i> are
 204  * defined as above.
 205  *
 206  * <p> The required <i>conversion</i> is a two character sequence.  The first
 207  * character is {@code 't'} or {@code 'T'}.  The second character indicates
 208  * the format to be used.  These characters are similar to but not completely
 209  * identical to those defined by GNU {@code date} and POSIX
 210  * {@code strftime(3c)}.
 211  *
 212  * <li> The format specifiers which do not correspond to arguments have the
 213  * following syntax:
 214  *
 215  * <blockquote><pre>
 216  *   %[flags][width]conversion
 217  * </pre></blockquote>
 218  *
 219  * <p> The optional <i>flags</i> and <i>width</i> is defined as above.
 220  *
 221  * <p> The required <i>conversion</i> is a character indicating content to be
 222  * inserted in the output.
 223  *
 224  * </ul>
 225  *
 226  * <h4> Conversions </h4>
 227  *
 228  * <p> Conversions are divided into the following categories:
 229  *
 230  * <ol>
 231  *
 232  * <li> <b>General</b> - may be applied to any argument
 233  * type
 234  *
 235  * <li> <b>Character</b> - may be applied to basic types which represent
 236  * Unicode characters: {@code char}, {@link Character}, {@code byte}, {@link
 237  * Byte}, {@code short}, and {@link Short}. This conversion may also be
 238  * applied to the types {@code int} and {@link Integer} when {@link
 239  * Character#isValidCodePoint} returns {@code true}
 240  *
 241  * <li> <b>Numeric</b>
 242  *
 243  * <ol>
 244  *
 245  * <li> <b>Integral</b> - may be applied to Java integral types: {@code byte},
 246  * {@link Byte}, {@code short}, {@link Short}, {@code int} and {@link
 247  * Integer}, {@code long}, {@link Long}, and {@link java.math.BigInteger
 248  * BigInteger}
 249  *
 250  * <li><b>Floating Point</b> - may be applied to Java floating-point types:
 251  * {@code float}, {@link Float}, {@code double}, {@link Double}, and {@link
 252  * java.math.BigDecimal BigDecimal}
 253  *
 254  * </ol>
 255  *
 256  * <li> <b>Date/Time</b> - may be applied to Java types which are capable of
 257  * encoding a date or time: {@code long}, {@link Long}, {@link Calendar}, and
 258  * {@link Date}.
 259  *
 260  * <li> <b>Percent</b> - produces a literal {@code '%'}
 261  * (<tt>'&#92;u0025'</tt>)
 262  *
 263  * <li> <b>Line Separator</b> - produces the platform-specific line separator
 264  *
 265  * </ol>
 266  *
 267  * <p> The following table summarizes the supported conversions.  Conversions
 268  * denoted by an upper-case character (i.e. {@code 'B'}, {@code 'H'},
 269  * {@code 'S'}, {@code 'C'}, {@code 'X'}, {@code 'E'}, {@code 'G'},
 270  * {@code 'A'}, and {@code 'T'}) are the same as those for the corresponding
 271  * lower-case conversion characters except that the result is converted to
 272  * upper case according to the rules of the prevailing {@link java.util.Locale
 273  * Locale}.  The result is equivalent to the following invocation of {@link
 274  * String#toUpperCase()}
 275  *
 276  * <pre>
 277  *    out.toUpperCase() </pre>
 278  *
 279  * <table cellpadding=5 summary="genConv">
 280  *
 281  * <tr><th valign="bottom"> Conversion
 282  *     <th valign="bottom"> Argument Category
 283  *     <th valign="bottom"> Description
 284  *
 285  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'b'}, {@code 'B'}
 286  *     <td valign="top"> general
 287  *     <td> If the argument <i>arg</i> is {@code null}, then the result is
 288  *     "{@code false}".  If <i>arg</i> is a {@code boolean} or {@link
 289  *     Boolean}, then the result is the string returned by {@link
 290  *     String#valueOf(boolean) String.valueOf(arg)}.  Otherwise, the result is
 291  *     "true".
 292  *
 293  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'h'}, {@code 'H'}
 294  *     <td valign="top"> general
 295  *     <td> If the argument <i>arg</i> is {@code null}, then the result is
 296  *     "{@code null}".  Otherwise, the result is obtained by invoking
 297  *     {@code Integer.toHexString(arg.hashCode())}.
 298  *
 299  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 's'}, {@code 'S'}
 300  *     <td valign="top"> general
 301  *     <td> If the argument <i>arg</i> is {@code null}, then the result is
 302  *     "{@code null}".  If <i>arg</i> implements {@link Formattable}, then
 303  *     {@link Formattable#formatTo arg.formatTo} is invoked. Otherwise, the
 304  *     result is obtained by invoking {@code arg.toString()}.
 305  *
 306  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'c'}, {@code 'C'}
 307  *     <td valign="top"> character
 308  *     <td> The result is a Unicode character
 309  *
 310  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'd'}
 311  *     <td valign="top"> integral
 312  *     <td> The result is formatted as a decimal integer
 313  *
 314  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'o'}
 315  *     <td valign="top"> integral
 316  *     <td> The result is formatted as an octal integer
 317  *
 318  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'x'}, {@code 'X'}
 319  *     <td valign="top"> integral
 320  *     <td> The result is formatted as a hexadecimal integer
 321  *
 322  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'e'}, {@code 'E'}
 323  *     <td valign="top"> floating point
 324  *     <td> The result is formatted as a decimal number in computerized
 325  *     scientific notation
 326  *
 327  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'f'}
 328  *     <td valign="top"> floating point
 329  *     <td> The result is formatted as a decimal number
 330  *
 331  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'g'}, {@code 'G'}
 332  *     <td valign="top"> floating point
 333  *     <td> The result is formatted using computerized scientific notation or
 334  *     decimal format, depending on the precision and the value after rounding.
 335  *
 336  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'a'}, {@code 'A'}
 337  *     <td valign="top"> floating point
 338  *     <td> The result is formatted as a hexadecimal floating-point number with
 339  *     a significand and an exponent
 340  *
 341  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 't'}, {@code 'T'}
 342  *     <td valign="top"> date/time
 343  *     <td> Prefix for date and time conversion characters.  See <a
 344  *     href="#dt">Date/Time Conversions</a>.
 345  *
 346  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code '%'}
 347  *     <td valign="top"> percent
 348  *     <td> The result is a literal {@code '%'} (<tt>'&#92;u0025'</tt>)
 349  *
 350  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'n'}
 351  *     <td valign="top"> line separator
 352  *     <td> The result is the platform-specific line separator
 353  *
 354  * </table>
 355  *
 356  * <p> Any characters not explicitly defined as conversions are illegal and are
 357  * reserved for future extensions.
 358  *
 359  * <h4><a name="dt">Date/Time Conversions</a></h4>
 360  *
 361  * <p> The following date and time conversion suffix characters are defined for
 362  * the {@code 't'} and {@code 'T'} conversions.  The types are similar to but
 363  * not completely identical to those defined by GNU {@code date} and POSIX
 364  * {@code strftime(3c)}.  Additional conversion types are provided to access
 365  * Java-specific functionality (e.g. {@code 'L'} for milliseconds within the
 366  * second).
 367  *
 368  * <p> The following conversion characters are used for formatting times:
 369  *
 370  * <table cellpadding=5 summary="time">
 371  *
 372  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'H'}
 373  *     <td> Hour of the day for the 24-hour clock, formatted as two digits with
 374  *     a leading zero as necessary i.e. {@code 00 - 23}.
 375  *
 376  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'I'}
 377  *     <td> Hour for the 12-hour clock, formatted as two digits with a leading
 378  *     zero as necessary, i.e.  {@code 01 - 12}.
 379  *
 380  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'k'}
 381  *     <td> Hour of the day for the 24-hour clock, i.e. {@code 0 - 23}.
 382  *
 383  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'l'}
 384  *     <td> Hour for the 12-hour clock, i.e. {@code 1 - 12}.
 385  *
 386  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'M'}
 387  *     <td> Minute within the hour formatted as two digits with a leading zero
 388  *     as necessary, i.e.  {@code 00 - 59}.
 389  *
 390  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'S'}
 391  *     <td> Seconds within the minute, formatted as two digits with a leading
 392  *     zero as necessary, i.e. {@code 00 - 60} ("{@code 60}" is a special
 393  *     value required to support leap seconds).
 394  *
 395  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'L'}
 396  *     <td> Millisecond within the second formatted as three digits with
 397  *     leading zeros as necessary, i.e. {@code 000 - 999}.
 398  *
 399  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'N'}
 400  *     <td> Nanosecond within the second, formatted as nine digits with leading
 401  *     zeros as necessary, i.e. {@code 000000000 - 999999999}.
 402  *
 403  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'p'}
 404  *     <td> Locale-specific {@linkplain
 405  *     java.text.DateFormatSymbols#getAmPmStrings morning or afternoon} marker
 406  *     in lower case, e.g."{@code am}" or "{@code pm}". Use of the conversion
 407  *     prefix {@code 'T'} forces this output to upper case.
 408  *
 409  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'z'}
 410  *     <td> <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc0822.txt">RFC&nbsp;822</a>
 411  *     style numeric time zone offset from GMT, e.g. {@code -0800}.  This
 412  *     value will be adjusted as necessary for Daylight Saving Time.  For
 413  *     {@code long}, {@link Long}, and {@link Date} the time zone used is
 414  *     the {@linkplain TimeZone#getDefault() default time zone} for this
 415  *     instance of the Java virtual machine.
 416  *
 417  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'Z'}
 418  *     <td> A string representing the abbreviation for the time zone.  This
 419  *     value will be adjusted as necessary for Daylight Saving Time.  For
 420  *     {@code long}, {@link Long}, and {@link Date} the  time zone used is
 421  *     the {@linkplain TimeZone#getDefault() default time zone} for this
 422  *     instance of the Java virtual machine.  The Formatter's locale will
 423  *     supersede the locale of the argument (if any).
 424  *
 425  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 's'}
 426  *     <td> Seconds since the beginning of the epoch starting at 1 January 1970
 427  *     {@code 00:00:00} UTC, i.e. {@code Long.MIN_VALUE/1000} to
 428  *     {@code Long.MAX_VALUE/1000}.
 429  *
 430  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'Q'}
 431  *     <td> Milliseconds since the beginning of the epoch starting at 1 January
 432  *     1970 {@code 00:00:00} UTC, i.e. {@code Long.MIN_VALUE} to
 433  *     {@code Long.MAX_VALUE}.
 434  *
 435  * </table>
 436  *
 437  * <p> The following conversion characters are used for formatting dates:
 438  *
 439  * <table cellpadding=5 summary="date">
 440  *
 441  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'B'}
 442  *     <td> Locale-specific {@linkplain java.text.DateFormatSymbols#getMonths
 443  *     full month name}, e.g. {@code "January"}, {@code "February"}.
 444  *
 445  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'b'}
 446  *     <td> Locale-specific {@linkplain
 447  *     java.text.DateFormatSymbols#getShortMonths abbreviated month name},
 448  *     e.g. {@code "Jan"}, {@code "Feb"}.
 449  *
 450  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'h'}
 451  *     <td> Same as {@code 'b'}.
 452  *
 453  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'A'}
 454  *     <td> Locale-specific full name of the {@linkplain
 455  *     java.text.DateFormatSymbols#getWeekdays day of the week},
 456  *     e.g. {@code "Sunday"}, {@code "Monday"}
 457  *
 458  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'a'}
 459  *     <td> Locale-specific short name of the {@linkplain
 460  *     java.text.DateFormatSymbols#getShortWeekdays day of the week},
 461  *     e.g. {@code "Sun"}, {@code "Mon"}
 462  *
 463  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'C'}
 464  *     <td> Four-digit year divided by {@code 100}, formatted as two digits
 465  *     with leading zero as necessary, i.e. {@code 00 - 99}
 466  *
 467  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'Y'}
 468  *     <td> Year, formatted as at least four digits with leading zeros as
 469  *     necessary, e.g. {@code 0092} equals {@code 92} CE for the Gregorian
 470  *     calendar.
 471  *
 472  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'y'}
 473  *     <td> Last two digits of the year, formatted with leading zeros as
 474  *     necessary, i.e. {@code 00 - 99}.
 475  *
 476  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'j'}
 477  *     <td> Day of year, formatted as three digits with leading zeros as
 478  *     necessary, e.g. {@code 001 - 366} for the Gregorian calendar.
 479  *
 480  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'm'}
 481  *     <td> Month, formatted as two digits with leading zeros as necessary,
 482  *     i.e. {@code 01 - 13}.
 483  *
 484  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'd'}
 485  *     <td> Day of month, formatted as two digits with leading zeros as
 486  *     necessary, i.e. {@code 01 - 31}
 487  *
 488  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'e'}
 489  *     <td> Day of month, formatted as two digits, i.e. {@code 1 - 31}.
 490  *
 491  * </table>
 492  *
 493  * <p> The following conversion characters are used for formatting common
 494  * date/time compositions.
 495  *
 496  * <table cellpadding=5 summary="composites">
 497  *
 498  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'R'}
 499  *     <td> Time formatted for the 24-hour clock as {@code "%tH:%tM"}
 500  *
 501  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'T'}
 502  *     <td> Time formatted for the 24-hour clock as {@code "%tH:%tM:%tS"}.
 503  *
 504  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'r'}
 505  *     <td> Time formatted for the 12-hour clock as {@code "%tI:%tM:%tS %Tp"}.
 506  *     The location of the morning or afternoon marker ({@code '%Tp'}) may be
 507  *     locale-dependent.
 508  *
 509  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'D'}
 510  *     <td> Date formatted as {@code "%tm/%td/%ty"}.
 511  *
 512  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'F'}
 513  *     <td> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/NOTE-datetime">ISO&nbsp;8601</a>
 514  *     complete date formatted as {@code "%tY-%tm-%td"}.
 515  *
 516  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'c'}
 517  *     <td> Date and time formatted as {@code "%ta %tb %td %tT %tZ %tY"},
 518  *     e.g. {@code "Sun Jul 20 16:17:00 EDT 1969"}.
 519  *
 520  * </table>
 521  *
 522  * <p> Any characters not explicitly defined as date/time conversion suffixes
 523  * are illegal and are reserved for future extensions.
 524  *
 525  * <h4> Flags </h4>
 526  *
 527  * <p> The following table summarizes the supported flags.  <i>y</i> means the
 528  * flag is supported for the indicated argument types.
 529  *
 530  * <table cellpadding=5 summary="genConv">
 531  *
 532  * <tr><th valign="bottom"> Flag <th valign="bottom"> General
 533  *     <th valign="bottom"> Character <th valign="bottom"> Integral
 534  *     <th valign="bottom"> Floating Point
 535  *     <th valign="bottom"> Date/Time
 536  *     <th valign="bottom"> Description
 537  *
 538  * <tr><td> '-' <td align="center" valign="top"> y
 539  *     <td align="center" valign="top"> y
 540  *     <td align="center" valign="top"> y
 541  *     <td align="center" valign="top"> y
 542  *     <td align="center" valign="top"> y
 543  *     <td> The result will be left-justified.
 544  *
 545  * <tr><td> '#' <td align="center" valign="top"> y<sup>1</sup>
 546  *     <td align="center" valign="top"> -
 547  *     <td align="center" valign="top"> y<sup>3</sup>
 548  *     <td align="center" valign="top"> y
 549  *     <td align="center" valign="top"> -
 550  *     <td> The result should use a conversion-dependent alternate form
 551  *
 552  * <tr><td> '+' <td align="center" valign="top"> -
 553  *     <td align="center" valign="top"> -
 554  *     <td align="center" valign="top"> y<sup>4</sup>
 555  *     <td align="center" valign="top"> y
 556  *     <td align="center" valign="top"> -
 557  *     <td> The result will always include a sign
 558  *
 559  * <tr><td> '&nbsp;&nbsp;' <td align="center" valign="top"> -
 560  *     <td align="center" valign="top"> -
 561  *     <td align="center" valign="top"> y<sup>4</sup>
 562  *     <td align="center" valign="top"> y
 563  *     <td align="center" valign="top"> -
 564  *     <td> The result will include a leading space for positive values
 565  *
 566  * <tr><td> '0' <td align="center" valign="top"> -
 567  *     <td align="center" valign="top"> -
 568  *     <td align="center" valign="top"> y
 569  *     <td align="center" valign="top"> y
 570  *     <td align="center" valign="top"> -
 571  *     <td> The result will be zero-padded
 572  *
 573  * <tr><td> ',' <td align="center" valign="top"> -
 574  *     <td align="center" valign="top"> -
 575  *     <td align="center" valign="top"> y<sup>2</sup>
 576  *     <td align="center" valign="top"> y<sup>5</sup>
 577  *     <td align="center" valign="top"> -
 578  *     <td> The result will include locale-specific {@linkplain
 579  *     java.text.DecimalFormatSymbols#getGroupingSeparator grouping separators}
 580  *
 581  * <tr><td> '(' <td align="center" valign="top"> -
 582  *     <td align="center" valign="top"> -
 583  *     <td align="center" valign="top"> y<sup>4</sup>
 584  *     <td align="center" valign="top"> y<sup>5</sup>
 585  *     <td align="center"> -
 586  *     <td> The result will enclose negative numbers in parentheses
 587  *
 588  * </table>
 589  *
 590  * <p> <sup>1</sup> Depends on the definition of {@link Formattable}.
 591  *
 592  * <p> <sup>2</sup> For {@code 'd'} conversion only.
 593  *
 594  * <p> <sup>3</sup> For {@code 'o'}, {@code 'x'}, and {@code 'X'}
 595  * conversions only.
 596  *
 597  * <p> <sup>4</sup> For {@code 'd'}, {@code 'o'}, {@code 'x'}, and
 598  * {@code 'X'} conversions applied to {@link java.math.BigInteger BigInteger}
 599  * or {@code 'd'} applied to {@code byte}, {@link Byte}, {@code short}, {@link
 600  * Short}, {@code int} and {@link Integer}, {@code long}, and {@link Long}.
 601  *
 602  * <p> <sup>5</sup> For {@code 'e'}, {@code 'E'}, {@code 'f'},
 603  * {@code 'g'}, and {@code 'G'} conversions only.
 604  *
 605  * <p> Any characters not explicitly defined as flags are illegal and are
 606  * reserved for future extensions.
 607  *
 608  * <h4> Width </h4>
 609  *
 610  * <p> The width is the minimum number of characters to be written to the
 611  * output.  For the line separator conversion, width is not applicable; if it
 612  * is provided, an exception will be thrown.
 613  *
 614  * <h4> Precision </h4>
 615  *
 616  * <p> For general argument types, the precision is the maximum number of
 617  * characters to be written to the output.
 618  *
 619  * <p> For the floating-point conversions {@code 'e'}, {@code 'E'}, and
 620  * {@code 'f'} the precision is the number of digits after the decimal
 621  * separator.  If the conversion is {@code 'g'} or {@code 'G'}, then the
 622  * precision is the total number of digits in the resulting magnitude after
 623  * rounding.  If the conversion is {@code 'a'} or {@code 'A'}, then the
 624  * precision must not be specified.
 625  *
 626  * <p> For character, integral, and date/time argument types and the percent
 627  * and line separator conversions, the precision is not applicable; if a
 628  * precision is provided, an exception will be thrown.
 629  *
 630  * <h4> Argument Index </h4>
 631  *
 632  * <p> The argument index is a decimal integer indicating the position of the
 633  * argument in the argument list.  The first argument is referenced by
 634  * "{@code 1$}", the second by "{@code 2$}", etc.
 635  *
 636  * <p> Another way to reference arguments by position is to use the
 637  * {@code '<'} (<tt>'&#92;u003c'</tt>) flag, which causes the argument for
 638  * the previous format specifier to be re-used.  For example, the following two
 639  * statements would produce identical strings:
 640  *
 641  * <blockquote><pre>
 642  *   Calendar c = ...;
 643  *   String s1 = String.format("Duke's Birthday: %1$tm %1$te,%1$tY", c);
 644  *
 645  *   String s2 = String.format("Duke's Birthday: %1$tm %&lt;te,%&lt;tY", c);
 646  * </pre></blockquote>
 647  *
 648  * <hr>
 649  * <h3><a name="detail">Details</a></h3>
 650  *
 651  * <p> This section is intended to provide behavioral details for formatting,
 652  * including conditions and exceptions, supported data types, localization, and
 653  * interactions between flags, conversions, and data types.  For an overview of
 654  * formatting concepts, refer to the <a href="#summary">Summary</a>
 655  *
 656  * <p> Any characters not explicitly defined as conversions, date/time
 657  * conversion suffixes, or flags are illegal and are reserved for
 658  * future extensions.  Use of such a character in a format string will
 659  * cause an {@link UnknownFormatConversionException} or {@link
 660  * UnknownFormatFlagsException} to be thrown.
 661  *
 662  * <p> If the format specifier contains a width or precision with an invalid
 663  * value or which is otherwise unsupported, then a {@link
 664  * IllegalFormatWidthException} or {@link IllegalFormatPrecisionException}
 665  * respectively will be thrown.
 666  *
 667  * <p> If a format specifier contains a conversion character that is not
 668  * applicable to the corresponding argument, then an {@link
 669  * IllegalFormatConversionException} will be thrown.
 670  *
 671  * <p> All specified exceptions may be thrown by any of the {@code format}
 672  * methods of {@code Formatter} as well as by any {@code format} convenience
 673  * methods such as {@link String#format(String,Object...) String.format} and
 674  * {@link java.io.PrintStream#printf(String,Object...) PrintStream.printf}.
 675  *
 676  * <p> Conversions denoted by an upper-case character (i.e. {@code 'B'},
 677  * {@code 'H'}, {@code 'S'}, {@code 'C'}, {@code 'X'}, {@code 'E'},
 678  * {@code 'G'}, {@code 'A'}, and {@code 'T'}) are the same as those for the
 679  * corresponding lower-case conversion characters except that the result is
 680  * converted to upper case according to the rules of the prevailing {@link
 681  * java.util.Locale Locale}.  The result is equivalent to the following
 682  * invocation of {@link String#toUpperCase()}
 683  *
 684  * <pre>
 685  *    out.toUpperCase() </pre>
 686  *
 687  * <h4><a name="dgen">General</a></h4>
 688  *
 689  * <p> The following general conversions may be applied to any argument type:
 690  *
 691  * <table cellpadding=5 summary="dgConv">
 692  *
 693  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'b'}
 694  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0062'</tt>
 695  *     <td> Produces either "{@code true}" or "{@code false}" as returned by
 696  *     {@link Boolean#toString(boolean)}.
 697  *
 698  *     <p> If the argument is {@code null}, then the result is
 699  *     "{@code false}".  If the argument is a {@code boolean} or {@link
 700  *     Boolean}, then the result is the string returned by {@link
 701  *     String#valueOf(boolean) String.valueOf()}.  Otherwise, the result is
 702  *     "{@code true}".
 703  *
 704  *     <p> If the {@code '#'} flag is given, then a {@link
 705  *     FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException} will be thrown.
 706  *
 707  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'B'}
 708  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0042'</tt>
 709  *     <td> The upper-case variant of {@code 'b'}.
 710  *
 711  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'h'}
 712  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0068'</tt>
 713  *     <td> Produces a string representing the hash code value of the object.
 714  *
 715  *     <p> If the argument, <i>arg</i> is {@code null}, then the
 716  *     result is "{@code null}".  Otherwise, the result is obtained
 717  *     by invoking {@code Integer.toHexString(arg.hashCode())}.
 718  *
 719  *     <p> If the {@code '#'} flag is given, then a {@link
 720  *     FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException} will be thrown.
 721  *
 722  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'H'}
 723  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0048'</tt>
 724  *     <td> The upper-case variant of {@code 'h'}.
 725  *
 726  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 's'}
 727  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0073'</tt>
 728  *     <td> Produces a string.
 729  *
 730  *     <p> If the argument is {@code null}, then the result is
 731  *     "{@code null}".  If the argument implements {@link Formattable}, then
 732  *     its {@link Formattable#formatTo formatTo} method is invoked.
 733  *     Otherwise, the result is obtained by invoking the argument's
 734  *     {@code toString()} method.
 735  *
 736  *     <p> If the {@code '#'} flag is given and the argument is not a {@link
 737  *     Formattable} , then a {@link FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException}
 738  *     will be thrown.
 739  *
 740  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'S'}
 741  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0053'</tt>
 742  *     <td> The upper-case variant of {@code 's'}.
 743  *
 744  * </table>
 745  *
 746  * <p> The following <a name="dFlags">flags</a> apply to general conversions:
 747  *
 748  * <table cellpadding=5 summary="dFlags">
 749  *
 750  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code '-'}
 751  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u002d'</tt>
 752  *     <td> Left justifies the output.  Spaces (<tt>'&#92;u0020'</tt>) will be
 753  *     added at the end of the converted value as required to fill the minimum
 754  *     width of the field.  If the width is not provided, then a {@link
 755  *     MissingFormatWidthException} will be thrown.  If this flag is not given
 756  *     then the output will be right-justified.
 757  *
 758  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code '#'}
 759  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0023'</tt>
 760  *     <td> Requires the output use an alternate form.  The definition of the
 761  *     form is specified by the conversion.
 762  *
 763  * </table>
 764  *
 765  * <p> The <a name="genWidth">width</a> is the minimum number of characters to
 766  * be written to the
 767  * output.  If the length of the converted value is less than the width then
 768  * the output will be padded by <tt>'&nbsp;&nbsp;'</tt> (<tt>'&#92;u0020'</tt>)
 769  * until the total number of characters equals the width.  The padding is on
 770  * the left by default.  If the {@code '-'} flag is given, then the padding
 771  * will be on the right.  If the width is not specified then there is no
 772  * minimum.
 773  *
 774  * <p> The precision is the maximum number of characters to be written to the
 775  * output.  The precision is applied before the width, thus the output will be
 776  * truncated to {@code precision} characters even if the width is greater than
 777  * the precision.  If the precision is not specified then there is no explicit
 778  * limit on the number of characters.
 779  *
 780  * <h4><a name="dchar">Character</a></h4>
 781  *
 782  * This conversion may be applied to {@code char} and {@link Character}.  It
 783  * may also be applied to the types {@code byte}, {@link Byte},
 784  * {@code short}, and {@link Short}, {@code int} and {@link Integer} when
 785  * {@link Character#isValidCodePoint} returns {@code true}.  If it returns
 786  * {@code false} then an {@link IllegalFormatCodePointException} will be
 787  * thrown.
 788  *
 789  * <table cellpadding=5 summary="charConv">
 790  *
 791  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'c'}
 792  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0063'</tt>
 793  *     <td> Formats the argument as a Unicode character as described in <a
 794  *     href="../lang/Character.html#unicode">Unicode Character
 795  *     Representation</a>.  This may be more than one 16-bit {@code char} in
 796  *     the case where the argument represents a supplementary character.
 797  *
 798  *     <p> If the {@code '#'} flag is given, then a {@link
 799  *     FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException} will be thrown.
 800  *
 801  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'C'}
 802  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0043'</tt>
 803  *     <td> The upper-case variant of {@code 'c'}.
 804  *
 805  * </table>
 806  *
 807  * <p> The {@code '-'} flag defined for <a href="#dFlags">General
 808  * conversions</a> applies.  If the {@code '#'} flag is given, then a {@link
 809  * FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException} will be thrown.
 810  *
 811  * <p> The width is defined as for <a href="#genWidth">General conversions</a>.
 812  *
 813  * <p> The precision is not applicable.  If the precision is specified then an
 814  * {@link IllegalFormatPrecisionException} will be thrown.
 815  *
 816  * <h4><a name="dnum">Numeric</a></h4>
 817  *
 818  * <p> Numeric conversions are divided into the following categories:
 819  *
 820  * <ol>
 821  *
 822  * <li> <a href="#dnint"><b>Byte, Short, Integer, and Long</b></a>
 823  *
 824  * <li> <a href="#dnbint"><b>BigInteger</b></a>
 825  *
 826  * <li> <a href="#dndec"><b>Float and Double</b></a>
 827  *
 828  * <li> <a href="#dnbdec"><b>BigDecimal</b></a>
 829  *
 830  * </ol>
 831  *
 832  * <p> Numeric types will be formatted according to the following algorithm:
 833  *
 834  * <p><b><a name="l10n algorithm"> Number Localization Algorithm</a></b>
 835  *
 836  * <p> After digits are obtained for the integer part, fractional part, and
 837  * exponent (as appropriate for the data type), the following transformation
 838  * is applied:
 839  *
 840  * <ol>
 841  *
 842  * <li> Each digit character <i>d</i> in the string is replaced by a
 843  * locale-specific digit computed relative to the current locale's
 844  * {@linkplain java.text.DecimalFormatSymbols#getZeroDigit() zero digit}
 845  * <i>z</i>; that is <i>d&nbsp;-&nbsp;</i> {@code '0'}
 846  * <i>&nbsp;+&nbsp;z</i>.
 847  *
 848  * <li> If a decimal separator is present, a locale-specific {@linkplain
 849  * java.text.DecimalFormatSymbols#getDecimalSeparator decimal separator} is
 850  * substituted.
 851  *
 852  * <li> If the {@code ','} (<tt>'&#92;u002c'</tt>)
 853  * <a name="l10n group">flag</a> is given, then the locale-specific {@linkplain
 854  * java.text.DecimalFormatSymbols#getGroupingSeparator grouping separator} is
 855  * inserted by scanning the integer part of the string from least significant
 856  * to most significant digits and inserting a separator at intervals defined by
 857  * the locale's {@linkplain java.text.DecimalFormat#getGroupingSize() grouping
 858  * size}.
 859  *
 860  * <li> If the {@code '0'} flag is given, then the locale-specific {@linkplain
 861  * java.text.DecimalFormatSymbols#getZeroDigit() zero digits} are inserted
 862  * after the sign character, if any, and before the first non-zero digit, until
 863  * the length of the string is equal to the requested field width.
 864  *
 865  * <li> If the value is negative and the {@code '('} flag is given, then a
 866  * {@code '('} (<tt>'&#92;u0028'</tt>) is prepended and a {@code ')'}
 867  * (<tt>'&#92;u0029'</tt>) is appended.
 868  *
 869  * <li> If the value is negative (or floating-point negative zero) and
 870  * {@code '('} flag is not given, then a {@code '-'} (<tt>'&#92;u002d'</tt>)
 871  * is prepended.
 872  *
 873  * <li> If the {@code '+'} flag is given and the value is positive or zero (or
 874  * floating-point positive zero), then a {@code '+'} (<tt>'&#92;u002b'</tt>)
 875  * will be prepended.
 876  *
 877  * </ol>
 878  *
 879  * <p> If the value is NaN or positive infinity the literal strings "NaN" or
 880  * "Infinity" respectively, will be output.  If the value is negative infinity,
 881  * then the output will be "(Infinity)" if the {@code '('} flag is given
 882  * otherwise the output will be "-Infinity".  These values are not localized.
 883  *
 884  * <p><a name="dnint"><b> Byte, Short, Integer, and Long </b></a>
 885  *
 886  * <p> The following conversions may be applied to {@code byte}, {@link Byte},
 887  * {@code short}, {@link Short}, {@code int} and {@link Integer},
 888  * {@code long}, and {@link Long}.
 889  *
 890  * <table cellpadding=5 summary="IntConv">
 891  *
 892  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'd'}
 893  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0054'</tt>
 894  *     <td> Formats the argument as a decimal integer. The <a
 895  *     href="#l10n algorithm">localization algorithm</a> is applied.
 896  *
 897  *     <p> If the {@code '0'} flag is given and the value is negative, then
 898  *     the zero padding will occur after the sign.
 899  *
 900  *     <p> If the {@code '#'} flag is given then a {@link
 901  *     FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException} will be thrown.
 902  *
 903  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'o'}
 904  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u006f'</tt>
 905  *     <td> Formats the argument as an integer in base eight.  No localization
 906  *     is applied.
 907  *
 908  *     <p> If <i>x</i> is negative then the result will be an unsigned value
 909  *     generated by adding 2<sup>n</sup> to the value where {@code n} is the
 910  *     number of bits in the type as returned by the static {@code SIZE} field
 911  *     in the {@linkplain Byte#SIZE Byte}, {@linkplain Short#SIZE Short},
 912  *     {@linkplain Integer#SIZE Integer}, or {@linkplain Long#SIZE Long}
 913  *     classes as appropriate.
 914  *
 915  *     <p> If the {@code '#'} flag is given then the output will always begin
 916  *     with the radix indicator {@code '0'}.
 917  *
 918  *     <p> If the {@code '0'} flag is given then the output will be padded
 919  *     with leading zeros to the field width following any indication of sign.
 920  *
 921  *     <p> If {@code '('}, {@code '+'}, '&nbsp&nbsp;', or {@code ','} flags
 922  *     are given then a {@link FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException} will be
 923  *     thrown.
 924  *
 925  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'x'}
 926  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0078'</tt>
 927  *     <td> Formats the argument as an integer in base sixteen. No
 928  *     localization is applied.
 929  *
 930  *     <p> If <i>x</i> is negative then the result will be an unsigned value
 931  *     generated by adding 2<sup>n</sup> to the value where {@code n} is the
 932  *     number of bits in the type as returned by the static {@code SIZE} field
 933  *     in the {@linkplain Byte#SIZE Byte}, {@linkplain Short#SIZE Short},
 934  *     {@linkplain Integer#SIZE Integer}, or {@linkplain Long#SIZE Long}
 935  *     classes as appropriate.
 936  *
 937  *     <p> If the {@code '#'} flag is given then the output will always begin
 938  *     with the radix indicator {@code "0x"}.
 939  *
 940  *     <p> If the {@code '0'} flag is given then the output will be padded to
 941  *     the field width with leading zeros after the radix indicator or sign (if
 942  *     present).
 943  *
 944  *     <p> If {@code '('}, <tt>'&nbsp;&nbsp;'</tt>, {@code '+'}, or
 945  *     {@code ','} flags are given then a {@link
 946  *     FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException} will be thrown.
 947  *
 948  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'X'}
 949  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0058'</tt>
 950  *     <td> The upper-case variant of {@code 'x'}.  The entire string
 951  *     representing the number will be converted to {@linkplain
 952  *     String#toUpperCase upper case} including the {@code 'x'} (if any) and
 953  *     all hexadecimal digits {@code 'a'} - {@code 'f'}
 954  *     (<tt>'&#92;u0061'</tt> -  <tt>'&#92;u0066'</tt>).
 955  *
 956  * </table>
 957  *
 958  * <p> If the conversion is {@code 'o'}, {@code 'x'}, or {@code 'X'} and
 959  * both the {@code '#'} and the {@code '0'} flags are given, then result will
 960  * contain the radix indicator ({@code '0'} for octal and {@code "0x"} or
 961  * {@code "0X"} for hexadecimal), some number of zeros (based on the width),
 962  * and the value.
 963  *
 964  * <p> If the {@code '-'} flag is not given, then the space padding will occur
 965  * before the sign.
 966  *
 967  * <p> The following <a name="intFlags">flags</a> apply to numeric integral
 968  * conversions:
 969  *
 970  * <table cellpadding=5 summary="intFlags">
 971  *
 972  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code '+'}
 973  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u002b'</tt>
 974  *     <td> Requires the output to include a positive sign for all positive
 975  *     numbers.  If this flag is not given then only negative values will
 976  *     include a sign.
 977  *
 978  *     <p> If both the {@code '+'} and <tt>'&nbsp;&nbsp;'</tt> flags are given
 979  *     then an {@link IllegalFormatFlagsException} will be thrown.
 980  *
 981  * <tr><td valign="top"> <tt>'&nbsp;&nbsp;'</tt>
 982  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0020'</tt>
 983  *     <td> Requires the output to include a single extra space
 984  *     (<tt>'&#92;u0020'</tt>) for non-negative values.
 985  *
 986  *     <p> If both the {@code '+'} and <tt>'&nbsp;&nbsp;'</tt> flags are given
 987  *     then an {@link IllegalFormatFlagsException} will be thrown.
 988  *
 989  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code '0'}
 990  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0030'</tt>
 991  *     <td> Requires the output to be padded with leading {@linkplain
 992  *     java.text.DecimalFormatSymbols#getZeroDigit zeros} to the minimum field
 993  *     width following any sign or radix indicator except when converting NaN
 994  *     or infinity.  If the width is not provided, then a {@link
 995  *     MissingFormatWidthException} will be thrown.
 996  *
 997  *     <p> If both the {@code '-'} and {@code '0'} flags are given then an
 998  *     {@link IllegalFormatFlagsException} will be thrown.
 999  *
1000  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code ','}
1001  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u002c'</tt>
1002  *     <td> Requires the output to include the locale-specific {@linkplain
1003  *     java.text.DecimalFormatSymbols#getGroupingSeparator group separators} as
1004  *     described in the <a href="#l10n group">"group" section</a> of the
1005  *     localization algorithm.
1006  *
1007  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code '('}
1008  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0028'</tt>
1009  *     <td> Requires the output to prepend a {@code '('}
1010  *     (<tt>'&#92;u0028'</tt>) and append a {@code ')'}
1011  *     (<tt>'&#92;u0029'</tt>) to negative values.
1012  *
1013  * </table>
1014  *
1015  * <p> If no <a name="intdFlags">flags</a> are given the default formatting is
1016  * as follows:
1017  *
1018  * <ul>
1019  *
1020  * <li> The output is right-justified within the {@code width}
1021  *
1022  * <li> Negative numbers begin with a {@code '-'} (<tt>'&#92;u002d'</tt>)
1023  *
1024  * <li> Positive numbers and zero do not include a sign or extra leading
1025  * space
1026  *
1027  * <li> No grouping separators are included
1028  *
1029  * </ul>
1030  *
1031  * <p> The <a name="intWidth">width</a> is the minimum number of characters to
1032  * be written to the output.  This includes any signs, digits, grouping
1033  * separators, radix indicator, and parentheses.  If the length of the
1034  * converted value is less than the width then the output will be padded by
1035  * spaces (<tt>'&#92;u0020'</tt>) until the total number of characters equals
1036  * width.  The padding is on the left by default.  If {@code '-'} flag is
1037  * given then the padding will be on the right.  If width is not specified then
1038  * there is no minimum.
1039  *
1040  * <p> The precision is not applicable.  If precision is specified then an
1041  * {@link IllegalFormatPrecisionException} will be thrown.
1042  *
1043  * <p><a name="dnbint"><b> BigInteger </b></a>
1044  *
1045  * <p> The following conversions may be applied to {@link
1046  * java.math.BigInteger}.
1047  *
1048  * <table cellpadding=5 summary="BIntConv">
1049  *
1050  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'd'}
1051  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0054'</tt>
1052  *     <td> Requires the output to be formatted as a decimal integer. The <a
1053  *     href="#l10n algorithm">localization algorithm</a> is applied.
1054  *
1055  *     <p> If the {@code '#'} flag is given {@link
1056  *     FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException} will be thrown.
1057  *
1058  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'o'}
1059  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u006f'</tt>
1060  *     <td> Requires the output to be formatted as an integer in base eight.
1061  *     No localization is applied.
1062  *
1063  *     <p> If <i>x</i> is negative then the result will be a signed value
1064  *     beginning with {@code '-'} (<tt>'&#92;u002d'</tt>).  Signed output is
1065  *     allowed for this type because unlike the primitive types it is not
1066  *     possible to create an unsigned equivalent without assuming an explicit
1067  *     data-type size.
1068  *
1069  *     <p> If <i>x</i> is positive or zero and the {@code '+'} flag is given
1070  *     then the result will begin with {@code '+'} (<tt>'&#92;u002b'</tt>).
1071  *
1072  *     <p> If the {@code '#'} flag is given then the output will always begin
1073  *     with {@code '0'} prefix.
1074  *
1075  *     <p> If the {@code '0'} flag is given then the output will be padded
1076  *     with leading zeros to the field width following any indication of sign.
1077  *
1078  *     <p> If the {@code ','} flag is given then a {@link
1079  *     FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException} will be thrown.
1080  *
1081  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'x'}
1082  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0078'</tt>
1083  *     <td> Requires the output to be formatted as an integer in base
1084  *     sixteen.  No localization is applied.
1085  *
1086  *     <p> If <i>x</i> is negative then the result will be a signed value
1087  *     beginning with {@code '-'} (<tt>'&#92;u002d'</tt>).  Signed output is
1088  *     allowed for this type because unlike the primitive types it is not
1089  *     possible to create an unsigned equivalent without assuming an explicit
1090  *     data-type size.
1091  *
1092  *     <p> If <i>x</i> is positive or zero and the {@code '+'} flag is given
1093  *     then the result will begin with {@code '+'} (<tt>'&#92;u002b'</tt>).
1094  *
1095  *     <p> If the {@code '#'} flag is given then the output will always begin
1096  *     with the radix indicator {@code "0x"}.
1097  *
1098  *     <p> If the {@code '0'} flag is given then the output will be padded to
1099  *     the field width with leading zeros after the radix indicator or sign (if
1100  *     present).
1101  *
1102  *     <p> If the {@code ','} flag is given then a {@link
1103  *     FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException} will be thrown.
1104  *
1105  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'X'}
1106  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0058'</tt>
1107  *     <td> The upper-case variant of {@code 'x'}.  The entire string
1108  *     representing the number will be converted to {@linkplain
1109  *     String#toUpperCase upper case} including the {@code 'x'} (if any) and
1110  *     all hexadecimal digits {@code 'a'} - {@code 'f'}
1111  *     (<tt>'&#92;u0061'</tt> - <tt>'&#92;u0066'</tt>).
1112  *
1113  * </table>
1114  *
1115  * <p> If the conversion is {@code 'o'}, {@code 'x'}, or {@code 'X'} and
1116  * both the {@code '#'} and the {@code '0'} flags are given, then result will
1117  * contain the base indicator ({@code '0'} for octal and {@code "0x"} or
1118  * {@code "0X"} for hexadecimal), some number of zeros (based on the width),
1119  * and the value.
1120  *
1121  * <p> If the {@code '0'} flag is given and the value is negative, then the
1122  * zero padding will occur after the sign.
1123  *
1124  * <p> If the {@code '-'} flag is not given, then the space padding will occur
1125  * before the sign.
1126  *
1127  * <p> All <a href="#intFlags">flags</a> defined for Byte, Short, Integer, and
1128  * Long apply.  The <a href="#intdFlags">default behavior</a> when no flags are
1129  * given is the same as for Byte, Short, Integer, and Long.
1130  *
1131  * <p> The specification of <a href="#intWidth">width</a> is the same as
1132  * defined for Byte, Short, Integer, and Long.
1133  *
1134  * <p> The precision is not applicable.  If precision is specified then an
1135  * {@link IllegalFormatPrecisionException} will be thrown.
1136  *
1137  * <p><a name="dndec"><b> Float and Double</b></a>
1138  *
1139  * <p> The following conversions may be applied to {@code float}, {@link
1140  * Float}, {@code double} and {@link Double}.
1141  *
1142  * <table cellpadding=5 summary="floatConv">
1143  *
1144  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'e'}
1145  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0065'</tt>
1146  *     <td> Requires the output to be formatted using <a
1147  *     name="scientific">computerized scientific notation</a>.  The <a
1148  *     href="#l10n algorithm">localization algorithm</a> is applied.
1149  *
1150  *     <p> The formatting of the magnitude <i>m</i> depends upon its value.
1151  *
1152  *     <p> If <i>m</i> is NaN or infinite, the literal strings "NaN" or
1153  *     "Infinity", respectively, will be output.  These values are not
1154  *     localized.
1155  *
1156  *     <p> If <i>m</i> is positive-zero or negative-zero, then the exponent
1157  *     will be {@code "+00"}.
1158  *
1159  *     <p> Otherwise, the result is a string that represents the sign and
1160  *     magnitude (absolute value) of the argument.  The formatting of the sign
1161  *     is described in the <a href="#l10n algorithm">localization
1162  *     algorithm</a>. The formatting of the magnitude <i>m</i> depends upon its
1163  *     value.
1164  *
1165  *     <p> Let <i>n</i> be the unique integer such that 10<sup><i>n</i></sup>
1166  *     &lt;= <i>m</i> &lt; 10<sup><i>n</i>+1</sup>; then let <i>a</i> be the
1167  *     mathematically exact quotient of <i>m</i> and 10<sup><i>n</i></sup> so
1168  *     that 1 &lt;= <i>a</i> &lt; 10. The magnitude is then represented as the
1169  *     integer part of <i>a</i>, as a single decimal digit, followed by the
1170  *     decimal separator followed by decimal digits representing the fractional
1171  *     part of <i>a</i>, followed by the exponent symbol {@code 'e'}
1172  *     (<tt>'&#92;u0065'</tt>), followed by the sign of the exponent, followed
1173  *     by a representation of <i>n</i> as a decimal integer, as produced by the
1174  *     method {@link Long#toString(long, int)}, and zero-padded to include at
1175  *     least two digits.
1176  *
1177  *     <p> The number of digits in the result for the fractional part of
1178  *     <i>m</i> or <i>a</i> is equal to the precision.  If the precision is not
1179  *     specified then the default value is {@code 6}. If the precision is less
1180  *     than the number of digits which would appear after the decimal point in
1181  *     the string returned by {@link Float#toString(float)} or {@link
1182  *     Double#toString(double)} respectively, then the value will be rounded
1183  *     using the {@linkplain java.math.BigDecimal#ROUND_HALF_UP round half up
1184  *     algorithm}.  Otherwise, zeros may be appended to reach the precision.
1185  *     For a canonical representation of the value, use {@link
1186  *     Float#toString(float)} or {@link Double#toString(double)} as
1187  *     appropriate.
1188  *
1189  *     <p>If the {@code ','} flag is given, then an {@link
1190  *     FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException} will be thrown.
1191  *
1192  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'E'}
1193  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0045'</tt>
1194  *     <td> The upper-case variant of {@code 'e'}.  The exponent symbol
1195  *     will be {@code 'E'} (<tt>'&#92;u0045'</tt>).
1196  *
1197  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'g'}
1198  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0067'</tt>
1199  *     <td> Requires the output to be formatted in general scientific notation
1200  *     as described below. The <a href="#l10n algorithm">localization
1201  *     algorithm</a> is applied.
1202  *
1203  *     <p> After rounding for the precision, the formatting of the resulting
1204  *     magnitude <i>m</i> depends on its value.
1205  *
1206  *     <p> If <i>m</i> is greater than or equal to 10<sup>-4</sup> but less
1207  *     than 10<sup>precision</sup> then it is represented in <i><a
1208  *     href="#decimal">decimal format</a></i>.
1209  *
1210  *     <p> If <i>m</i> is less than 10<sup>-4</sup> or greater than or equal to
1211  *     10<sup>precision</sup>, then it is represented in <i><a
1212  *     href="#scientific">computerized scientific notation</a></i>.
1213  *
1214  *     <p> The total number of significant digits in <i>m</i> is equal to the
1215  *     precision.  If the precision is not specified, then the default value is
1216  *     {@code 6}.  If the precision is {@code 0}, then it is taken to be
1217  *     {@code 1}.
1218  *
1219  *     <p> If the {@code '#'} flag is given then an {@link
1220  *     FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException} will be thrown.
1221  *
1222  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'G'}
1223  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0047'</tt>
1224  *     <td> The upper-case variant of {@code 'g'}.
1225  *
1226  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'f'}
1227  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0066'</tt>
1228  *     <td> Requires the output to be formatted using <a name="decimal">decimal
1229  *     format</a>.  The <a href="#l10n algorithm">localization algorithm</a> is
1230  *     applied.
1231  *
1232  *     <p> The result is a string that represents the sign and magnitude
1233  *     (absolute value) of the argument.  The formatting of the sign is
1234  *     described in the <a href="#l10n algorithm">localization
1235  *     algorithm</a>. The formatting of the magnitude <i>m</i> depends upon its
1236  *     value.
1237  *
1238  *     <p> If <i>m</i> NaN or infinite, the literal strings "NaN" or
1239  *     "Infinity", respectively, will be output.  These values are not
1240  *     localized.
1241  *
1242  *     <p> The magnitude is formatted as the integer part of <i>m</i>, with no
1243  *     leading zeroes, followed by the decimal separator followed by one or
1244  *     more decimal digits representing the fractional part of <i>m</i>.
1245  *
1246  *     <p> The number of digits in the result for the fractional part of
1247  *     <i>m</i> or <i>a</i> is equal to the precision.  If the precision is not
1248  *     specified then the default value is {@code 6}. If the precision is less
1249  *     than the number of digits which would appear after the decimal point in
1250  *     the string returned by {@link Float#toString(float)} or {@link
1251  *     Double#toString(double)} respectively, then the value will be rounded
1252  *     using the {@linkplain java.math.BigDecimal#ROUND_HALF_UP round half up
1253  *     algorithm}.  Otherwise, zeros may be appended to reach the precision.
1254  *     For a canonical representation of the value, use {@link
1255  *     Float#toString(float)} or {@link Double#toString(double)} as
1256  *     appropriate.
1257  *
1258  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'a'}
1259  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0061'</tt>
1260  *     <td> Requires the output to be formatted in hexadecimal exponential
1261  *     form.  No localization is applied.
1262  *
1263  *     <p> The result is a string that represents the sign and magnitude
1264  *     (absolute value) of the argument <i>x</i>.
1265  *
1266  *     <p> If <i>x</i> is negative or a negative-zero value then the result
1267  *     will begin with {@code '-'} (<tt>'&#92;u002d'</tt>).
1268  *
1269  *     <p> If <i>x</i> is positive or a positive-zero value and the
1270  *     {@code '+'} flag is given then the result will begin with {@code '+'}
1271  *     (<tt>'&#92;u002b'</tt>).
1272  *
1273  *     <p> The formatting of the magnitude <i>m</i> depends upon its value.
1274  *
1275  *     <ul>
1276  *
1277  *     <li> If the value is NaN or infinite, the literal strings "NaN" or
1278  *     "Infinity", respectively, will be output.
1279  *
1280  *     <li> If <i>m</i> is zero then it is represented by the string
1281  *     {@code "0x0.0p0"}.
1282  *
1283  *     <li> If <i>m</i> is a {@code double} value with a normalized
1284  *     representation then substrings are used to represent the significand and
1285  *     exponent fields.  The significand is represented by the characters
1286  *     {@code "0x1."} followed by the hexadecimal representation of the rest
1287  *     of the significand as a fraction.  The exponent is represented by
1288  *     {@code 'p'} (<tt>'&#92;u0070'</tt>) followed by a decimal string of the
1289  *     unbiased exponent as if produced by invoking {@link
1290  *     Integer#toString(int) Integer.toString} on the exponent value.
1291  *
1292  *     <li> If <i>m</i> is a {@code double} value with a subnormal
1293  *     representation then the significand is represented by the characters
1294  *     {@code '0x0.'} followed by the hexadecimal representation of the rest
1295  *     of the significand as a fraction.  The exponent is represented by
1296  *     {@code 'p-1022'}.  Note that there must be at least one nonzero digit
1297  *     in a subnormal significand.
1298  *
1299  *     </ul>
1300  *
1301  *     <p> If the {@code '('} or {@code ','} flags are given, then a {@link
1302  *     FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException} will be thrown.
1303  *
1304  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'A'}
1305  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0041'</tt>
1306  *     <td> The upper-case variant of {@code 'a'}.  The entire string
1307  *     representing the number will be converted to upper case including the
1308  *     {@code 'x'} (<tt>'&#92;u0078'</tt>) and {@code 'p'}
1309  *     (<tt>'&#92;u0070'</tt> and all hexadecimal digits {@code 'a'} -
1310  *     {@code 'f'} (<tt>'&#92;u0061'</tt> - <tt>'&#92;u0066'</tt>).
1311  *
1312  * </table>
1313  *
1314  * <p> All <a href="#intFlags">flags</a> defined for Byte, Short, Integer, and
1315  * Long apply.
1316  *
1317  * <p> If the {@code '#'} flag is given, then the decimal separator will
1318  * always be present.
1319  *
1320  * <p> If no <a name="floatdFlags">flags</a> are given the default formatting
1321  * is as follows:
1322  *
1323  * <ul>
1324  *
1325  * <li> The output is right-justified within the {@code width}
1326  *
1327  * <li> Negative numbers begin with a {@code '-'}
1328  *
1329  * <li> Positive numbers and positive zero do not include a sign or extra
1330  * leading space
1331  *
1332  * <li> No grouping separators are included
1333  *
1334  * <li> The decimal separator will only appear if a digit follows it
1335  *
1336  * </ul>
1337  *
1338  * <p> The <a name="floatDWidth">width</a> is the minimum number of characters
1339  * to be written to the output.  This includes any signs, digits, grouping
1340  * separators, decimal separators, exponential symbol, radix indicator,
1341  * parentheses, and strings representing infinity and NaN as applicable.  If
1342  * the length of the converted value is less than the width then the output
1343  * will be padded by spaces (<tt>'&#92;u0020'</tt>) until the total number of
1344  * characters equals width.  The padding is on the left by default.  If the
1345  * {@code '-'} flag is given then the padding will be on the right.  If width
1346  * is not specified then there is no minimum.
1347  *
1348  * <p> If the <a name="floatDPrec">conversion</a> is {@code 'e'},
1349  * {@code 'E'} or {@code 'f'}, then the precision is the number of digits
1350  * after the decimal separator.  If the precision is not specified, then it is
1351  * assumed to be {@code 6}.
1352  *
1353  * <p> If the conversion is {@code 'g'} or {@code 'G'}, then the precision is
1354  * the total number of significant digits in the resulting magnitude after
1355  * rounding.  If the precision is not specified, then the default value is
1356  * {@code 6}.  If the precision is {@code 0}, then it is taken to be
1357  * {@code 1}.
1358  *
1359  * <p> If the conversion is {@code 'a'} or {@code 'A'}, then the precision
1360  * is the number of hexadecimal digits after the decimal separator.  If the
1361  * precision is not provided, then all of the digits as returned by {@link
1362  * Double#toHexString(double)} will be output.
1363  *
1364  * <p><a name="dnbdec"><b> BigDecimal </b></a>
1365  *
1366  * <p> The following conversions may be applied {@link java.math.BigDecimal
1367  * BigDecimal}.
1368  *
1369  * <table cellpadding=5 summary="floatConv">
1370  *
1371  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'e'}
1372  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0065'</tt>
1373  *     <td> Requires the output to be formatted using <a
1374  *     name="bscientific">computerized scientific notation</a>.  The <a
1375  *     href="#l10n algorithm">localization algorithm</a> is applied.
1376  *
1377  *     <p> The formatting of the magnitude <i>m</i> depends upon its value.
1378  *
1379  *     <p> If <i>m</i> is positive-zero or negative-zero, then the exponent
1380  *     will be {@code "+00"}.
1381  *
1382  *     <p> Otherwise, the result is a string that represents the sign and
1383  *     magnitude (absolute value) of the argument.  The formatting of the sign
1384  *     is described in the <a href="#l10n algorithm">localization
1385  *     algorithm</a>. The formatting of the magnitude <i>m</i> depends upon its
1386  *     value.
1387  *
1388  *     <p> Let <i>n</i> be the unique integer such that 10<sup><i>n</i></sup>
1389  *     &lt;= <i>m</i> &lt; 10<sup><i>n</i>+1</sup>; then let <i>a</i> be the
1390  *     mathematically exact quotient of <i>m</i> and 10<sup><i>n</i></sup> so
1391  *     that 1 &lt;= <i>a</i> &lt; 10. The magnitude is then represented as the
1392  *     integer part of <i>a</i>, as a single decimal digit, followed by the
1393  *     decimal separator followed by decimal digits representing the fractional
1394  *     part of <i>a</i>, followed by the exponent symbol {@code 'e'}
1395  *     (<tt>'&#92;u0065'</tt>), followed by the sign of the exponent, followed
1396  *     by a representation of <i>n</i> as a decimal integer, as produced by the
1397  *     method {@link Long#toString(long, int)}, and zero-padded to include at
1398  *     least two digits.
1399  *
1400  *     <p> The number of digits in the result for the fractional part of
1401  *     <i>m</i> or <i>a</i> is equal to the precision.  If the precision is not
1402  *     specified then the default value is {@code 6}.  If the precision is
1403  *     less than the number of digits to the right of the decimal point then
1404  *     the value will be rounded using the
1405  *     {@linkplain java.math.BigDecimal#ROUND_HALF_UP round half up
1406  *     algorithm}.  Otherwise, zeros may be appended to reach the precision.
1407  *     For a canonical representation of the value, use {@link
1408  *     BigDecimal#toString()}.
1409  *
1410  *     <p> If the {@code ','} flag is given, then an {@link
1411  *     FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException} will be thrown.
1412  *
1413  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'E'}
1414  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0045'</tt>
1415  *     <td> The upper-case variant of {@code 'e'}.  The exponent symbol
1416  *     will be {@code 'E'} (<tt>'&#92;u0045'</tt>).
1417  *
1418  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'g'}
1419  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0067'</tt>
1420  *     <td> Requires the output to be formatted in general scientific notation
1421  *     as described below. The <a href="#l10n algorithm">localization
1422  *     algorithm</a> is applied.
1423  *
1424  *     <p> After rounding for the precision, the formatting of the resulting
1425  *     magnitude <i>m</i> depends on its value.
1426  *
1427  *     <p> If <i>m</i> is greater than or equal to 10<sup>-4</sup> but less
1428  *     than 10<sup>precision</sup> then it is represented in <i><a
1429  *     href="#bdecimal">decimal format</a></i>.
1430  *
1431  *     <p> If <i>m</i> is less than 10<sup>-4</sup> or greater than or equal to
1432  *     10<sup>precision</sup>, then it is represented in <i><a
1433  *     href="#bscientific">computerized scientific notation</a></i>.
1434  *
1435  *     <p> The total number of significant digits in <i>m</i> is equal to the
1436  *     precision.  If the precision is not specified, then the default value is
1437  *     {@code 6}.  If the precision is {@code 0}, then it is taken to be
1438  *     {@code 1}.
1439  *
1440  *     <p> If the {@code '#'} flag is given then an {@link
1441  *     FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException} will be thrown.
1442  *
1443  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'G'}
1444  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0047'</tt>
1445  *     <td> The upper-case variant of {@code 'g'}.
1446  *
1447  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'f'}
1448  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0066'</tt>
1449  *     <td> Requires the output to be formatted using <a name="bdecimal">decimal
1450  *     format</a>.  The <a href="#l10n algorithm">localization algorithm</a> is
1451  *     applied.
1452  *
1453  *     <p> The result is a string that represents the sign and magnitude
1454  *     (absolute value) of the argument.  The formatting of the sign is
1455  *     described in the <a href="#l10n algorithm">localization
1456  *     algorithm</a>. The formatting of the magnitude <i>m</i> depends upon its
1457  *     value.
1458  *
1459  *     <p> The magnitude is formatted as the integer part of <i>m</i>, with no
1460  *     leading zeroes, followed by the decimal separator followed by one or
1461  *     more decimal digits representing the fractional part of <i>m</i>.
1462  *
1463  *     <p> The number of digits in the result for the fractional part of
1464  *     <i>m</i> or <i>a</i> is equal to the precision. If the precision is not
1465  *     specified then the default value is {@code 6}.  If the precision is
1466  *     less than the number of digits to the right of the decimal point
1467  *     then the value will be rounded using the
1468  *     {@linkplain java.math.BigDecimal#ROUND_HALF_UP round half up
1469  *     algorithm}.  Otherwise, zeros may be appended to reach the precision.
1470  *     For a canonical representation of the value, use {@link
1471  *     BigDecimal#toString()}.
1472  *
1473  * </table>
1474  *
1475  * <p> All <a href="#intFlags">flags</a> defined for Byte, Short, Integer, and
1476  * Long apply.
1477  *
1478  * <p> If the {@code '#'} flag is given, then the decimal separator will
1479  * always be present.
1480  *
1481  * <p> The <a href="#floatdFlags">default behavior</a> when no flags are
1482  * given is the same as for Float and Double.
1483  *
1484  * <p> The specification of <a href="#floatDWidth">width</a> and <a
1485  * href="#floatDPrec">precision</a> is the same as defined for Float and
1486  * Double.
1487  *
1488  * <h4><a name="ddt">Date/Time</a></h4>
1489  *
1490  * <p> This conversion may be applied to {@code long}, {@link Long}, {@link
1491  * Calendar}, and {@link Date}.
1492  *
1493  * <table cellpadding=5 summary="DTConv">
1494  *
1495  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 't'}
1496  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0074'</tt>
1497  *     <td> Prefix for date and time conversion characters.
1498  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'T'}
1499  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0054'</tt>
1500  *     <td> The upper-case variant of {@code 't'}.
1501  *
1502  * </table>
1503  *
1504  * <p> The following date and time conversion character suffixes are defined
1505  * for the {@code 't'} and {@code 'T'} conversions.  The types are similar to
1506  * but not completely identical to those defined by GNU {@code date} and
1507  * POSIX {@code strftime(3c)}.  Additional conversion types are provided to
1508  * access Java-specific functionality (e.g. {@code 'L'} for milliseconds
1509  * within the second).
1510  *
1511  * <p> The following conversion characters are used for formatting times:
1512  *
1513  * <table cellpadding=5 summary="time">
1514  *
1515  * <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'H'}
1516  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0048'</tt>
1517  *     <td> Hour of the day for the 24-hour clock, formatted as two digits with
1518  *     a leading zero as necessary i.e. {@code 00 - 23}. {@code 00}
1519  *     corresponds to midnight.
1520  *
1521  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'I'}
1522  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0049'</tt>
1523  *     <td> Hour for the 12-hour clock, formatted as two digits with a leading
1524  *     zero as necessary, i.e.  {@code 01 - 12}.  {@code 01} corresponds to
1525  *     one o'clock (either morning or afternoon).
1526  *
1527  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'k'}
1528  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u006b'</tt>
1529  *     <td> Hour of the day for the 24-hour clock, i.e. {@code 0 - 23}.
1530  *     {@code 0} corresponds to midnight.
1531  *
1532  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'l'}
1533  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u006c'</tt>
1534  *     <td> Hour for the 12-hour clock, i.e. {@code 1 - 12}.  {@code 1}
1535  *     corresponds to one o'clock (either morning or afternoon).
1536  *
1537  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'M'}
1538  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u004d'</tt>
1539  *     <td> Minute within the hour formatted as two digits with a leading zero
1540  *     as necessary, i.e.  {@code 00 - 59}.
1541  *
1542  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'S'}
1543  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0053'</tt>
1544  *     <td> Seconds within the minute, formatted as two digits with a leading
1545  *     zero as necessary, i.e. {@code 00 - 60} ("{@code 60}" is a special
1546  *     value required to support leap seconds).
1547  *
1548  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'L'}
1549  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u004c'</tt>
1550  *     <td> Millisecond within the second formatted as three digits with
1551  *     leading zeros as necessary, i.e. {@code 000 - 999}.
1552  *
1553  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'N'}
1554  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u004e'</tt>
1555  *     <td> Nanosecond within the second, formatted as nine digits with leading
1556  *     zeros as necessary, i.e. {@code 000000000 - 999999999}.  The precision
1557  *     of this value is limited by the resolution of the underlying operating
1558  *     system or hardware.
1559  *
1560  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'p'}
1561  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0070'</tt>
1562  *     <td> Locale-specific {@linkplain
1563  *     java.text.DateFormatSymbols#getAmPmStrings morning or afternoon} marker
1564  *     in lower case, e.g."{@code am}" or "{@code pm}".  Use of the
1565  *     conversion prefix {@code 'T'} forces this output to upper case.  (Note
1566  *     that {@code 'p'} produces lower-case output.  This is different from
1567  *     GNU {@code date} and POSIX {@code strftime(3c)} which produce
1568  *     upper-case output.)
1569  *
1570  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'z'}
1571  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u007a'</tt>
1572  *     <td> <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc0822.txt">RFC&nbsp;822</a>
1573  *     style numeric time zone offset from GMT, e.g. {@code -0800}.  This
1574  *     value will be adjusted as necessary for Daylight Saving Time.  For
1575  *     {@code long}, {@link Long}, and {@link Date} the time zone used is
1576  *     the {@linkplain TimeZone#getDefault() default time zone} for this
1577  *     instance of the Java virtual machine.
1578  *
1579  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'Z'}
1580  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u005a'</tt>
1581  *     <td> A string representing the abbreviation for the time zone.  This
1582  *     value will be adjusted as necessary for Daylight Saving Time.  For
1583  *     {@code long}, {@link Long}, and {@link Date} the time zone used is
1584  *     the {@linkplain TimeZone#getDefault() default time zone} for this
1585  *     instance of the Java virtual machine.  The Formatter's locale will
1586  *     supersede the locale of the argument (if any).
1587  *
1588  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 's'}
1589  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0073'</tt>
1590  *     <td> Seconds since the beginning of the epoch starting at 1 January 1970
1591  *     {@code 00:00:00} UTC, i.e. {@code Long.MIN_VALUE/1000} to
1592  *     {@code Long.MAX_VALUE/1000}.
1593  *
1594  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'Q'}
1595  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u004f'</tt>
1596  *     <td> Milliseconds since the beginning of the epoch starting at 1 January
1597  *     1970 {@code 00:00:00} UTC, i.e. {@code Long.MIN_VALUE} to
1598  *     {@code Long.MAX_VALUE}. The precision of this value is limited by
1599  *     the resolution of the underlying operating system or hardware.
1600  *
1601  * </table>
1602  *
1603  * <p> The following conversion characters are used for formatting dates:
1604  *
1605  * <table cellpadding=5 summary="date">
1606  *
1607  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'B'}
1608  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0042'</tt>
1609  *     <td> Locale-specific {@linkplain java.text.DateFormatSymbols#getMonths
1610  *     full month name}, e.g. {@code "January"}, {@code "February"}.
1611  *
1612  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'b'}
1613  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0062'</tt>
1614  *     <td> Locale-specific {@linkplain
1615  *     java.text.DateFormatSymbols#getShortMonths abbreviated month name},
1616  *     e.g. {@code "Jan"}, {@code "Feb"}.
1617  *
1618  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'h'}
1619  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0068'</tt>
1620  *     <td> Same as {@code 'b'}.
1621  *
1622  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'A'}
1623  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0041'</tt>
1624  *     <td> Locale-specific full name of the {@linkplain
1625  *     java.text.DateFormatSymbols#getWeekdays day of the week},
1626  *     e.g. {@code "Sunday"}, {@code "Monday"}
1627  *
1628  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'a'}
1629  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0061'</tt>
1630  *     <td> Locale-specific short name of the {@linkplain
1631  *     java.text.DateFormatSymbols#getShortWeekdays day of the week},
1632  *     e.g. {@code "Sun"}, {@code "Mon"}
1633  *
1634  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'C'}
1635  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0043'</tt>
1636  *     <td> Four-digit year divided by {@code 100}, formatted as two digits
1637  *     with leading zero as necessary, i.e. {@code 00 - 99}
1638  *
1639  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'Y'}
1640  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0059'</tt> <td> Year, formatted to at least
1641  *     four digits with leading zeros as necessary, e.g. {@code 0092} equals
1642  *     {@code 92} CE for the Gregorian calendar.
1643  *
1644  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'y'}
1645  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0079'</tt>
1646  *     <td> Last two digits of the year, formatted with leading zeros as
1647  *     necessary, i.e. {@code 00 - 99}.
1648  *
1649  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'j'}
1650  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u006a'</tt>
1651  *     <td> Day of year, formatted as three digits with leading zeros as
1652  *     necessary, e.g. {@code 001 - 366} for the Gregorian calendar.
1653  *     {@code 001} corresponds to the first day of the year.
1654  *
1655  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'm'}
1656  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u006d'</tt>
1657  *     <td> Month, formatted as two digits with leading zeros as necessary,
1658  *     i.e. {@code 01 - 13}, where "{@code 01}" is the first month of the
1659  *     year and ("{@code 13}" is a special value required to support lunar
1660  *     calendars).
1661  *
1662  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'd'}
1663  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0064'</tt>
1664  *     <td> Day of month, formatted as two digits with leading zeros as
1665  *     necessary, i.e. {@code 01 - 31}, where "{@code 01}" is the first day
1666  *     of the month.
1667  *
1668  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'e'}
1669  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0065'</tt>
1670  *     <td> Day of month, formatted as two digits, i.e. {@code 1 - 31} where
1671  *     "{@code 1}" is the first day of the month.
1672  *
1673  * </table>
1674  *
1675  * <p> The following conversion characters are used for formatting common
1676  * date/time compositions.
1677  *
1678  * <table cellpadding=5 summary="composites">
1679  *
1680  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'R'}
1681  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0052'</tt>
1682  *     <td> Time formatted for the 24-hour clock as {@code "%tH:%tM"}
1683  *
1684  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'T'}
1685  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0054'</tt>
1686  *     <td> Time formatted for the 24-hour clock as {@code "%tH:%tM:%tS"}.
1687  *
1688  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'r'}
1689  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0072'</tt>
1690  *     <td> Time formatted for the 12-hour clock as {@code "%tI:%tM:%tS
1691  *     %Tp"}.  The location of the morning or afternoon marker
1692  *     ({@code '%Tp'}) may be locale-dependent.
1693  *
1694  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'D'}
1695  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0044'</tt>
1696  *     <td> Date formatted as {@code "%tm/%td/%ty"}.
1697  *
1698  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'F'}
1699  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0046'</tt>
1700  *     <td> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/NOTE-datetime">ISO&nbsp;8601</a>
1701  *     complete date formatted as {@code "%tY-%tm-%td"}.
1702  *
1703  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'c'}
1704  *     <td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0063'</tt>
1705  *     <td> Date and time formatted as {@code "%ta %tb %td %tT %tZ %tY"},
1706  *     e.g. {@code "Sun Jul 20 16:17:00 EDT 1969"}.
1707  *
1708  * </table>
1709  *
1710  * <p> The {@code '-'} flag defined for <a href="#dFlags">General
1711  * conversions</a> applies.  If the {@code '#'} flag is given, then a {@link
1712  * FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException} will be thrown.
1713  *
1714  * <p> The <a name="dtWidth">width</a> is the minimum number of characters to
1715  * be written to the output.  If the length of the converted value is less than
1716  * the {@code width} then the output will be padded by spaces
1717  * (<tt>'&#92;u0020'</tt>) until the total number of characters equals width.
1718  * The padding is on the left by default.  If the {@code '-'} flag is given
1719  * then the padding will be on the right.  If width is not specified then there
1720  * is no minimum.
1721  *
1722  * <p> The precision is not applicable.  If the precision is specified then an
1723  * {@link IllegalFormatPrecisionException} will be thrown.
1724  *
1725  * <h4><a name="dper">Percent</a></h4>
1726  *
1727  * <p> The conversion does not correspond to any argument.
1728  *
1729  * <table cellpadding=5 summary="DTConv">
1730  *
1731  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code '%'}
1732  *     <td> The result is a literal {@code '%'} (<tt>'&#92;u0025'</tt>)
1733  *
1734  * <p> The <a name="dtWidth">width</a> is the minimum number of characters to
1735  * be written to the output including the {@code '%'}.  If the length of the
1736  * converted value is less than the {@code width} then the output will be
1737  * padded by spaces (<tt>'&#92;u0020'</tt>) until the total number of
1738  * characters equals width.  The padding is on the left.  If width is not
1739  * specified then just the {@code '%'} is output.
1740  *
1741  * <p> The {@code '-'} flag defined for <a href="#dFlags">General
1742  * conversions</a> applies.  If any other flags are provided, then a
1743  * {@link FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException} will be thrown.
1744  *
1745  * <p> The precision is not applicable.  If the precision is specified an
1746  * {@link IllegalFormatPrecisionException} will be thrown.
1747  *
1748  * </table>
1749  *
1750  * <h4><a name="dls">Line Separator</a></h4>
1751  *
1752  * <p> The conversion does not correspond to any argument.
1753  *
1754  * <table cellpadding=5 summary="DTConv">
1755  *
1756  * <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'n'}
1757  *     <td> the platform-specific line separator as returned by {@link
1758  *     System#getProperty System.getProperty("line.separator")}.
1759  *
1760  * </table>
1761  *
1762  * <p> Flags, width, and precision are not applicable.  If any are provided an
1763  * {@link IllegalFormatFlagsException}, {@link IllegalFormatWidthException},
1764  * and {@link IllegalFormatPrecisionException}, respectively will be thrown.
1765  *
1766  * <h4><a name="dpos">Argument Index</a></h4>
1767  *
1768  * <p> Format specifiers can reference arguments in three ways:
1769  *
1770  * <ul>
1771  *
1772  * <li> <i>Explicit indexing</i> is used when the format specifier contains an
1773  * argument index.  The argument index is a decimal integer indicating the
1774  * position of the argument in the argument list.  The first argument is
1775  * referenced by "{@code 1$}", the second by "{@code 2$}", etc.  An argument
1776  * may be referenced more than once.
1777  *
1778  * <p> For example:
1779  *
1780  * <blockquote><pre>
1781  *   formatter.format("%4$s %3$s %2$s %1$s %4$s %3$s %2$s %1$s",
1782  *                    "a", "b", "c", "d")
1783  *   // -&gt; "d c b a d c b a"
1784  * </pre></blockquote>
1785  *
1786  * <li> <i>Relative indexing</i> is used when the format specifier contains a
1787  * {@code '<'} (<tt>'&#92;u003c'</tt>) flag which causes the argument for
1788  * the previous format specifier to be re-used.  If there is no previous
1789  * argument, then a {@link MissingFormatArgumentException} is thrown.
1790  *
1791  * <blockquote><pre>
1792  *    formatter.format("%s %s %&lt;s %&lt;s", "a", "b", "c", "d")
1793  *    // -&gt; "a b b b"
1794  *    // "c" and "d" are ignored because they are not referenced
1795  * </pre></blockquote>
1796  *
1797  * <li> <i>Ordinary indexing</i> is used when the format specifier contains
1798  * neither an argument index nor a {@code '<'} flag.  Each format specifier
1799  * which uses ordinary indexing is assigned a sequential implicit index into
1800  * argument list which is independent of the indices used by explicit or
1801  * relative indexing.
1802  *
1803  * <blockquote><pre>
1804  *   formatter.format("%s %s %s %s", "a", "b", "c", "d")
1805  *   // -&gt; "a b c d"
1806  * </pre></blockquote>
1807  *
1808  * </ul>
1809  *
1810  * <p> It is possible to have a format string which uses all forms of indexing,
1811  * for example:
1812  *
1813  * <blockquote><pre>
1814  *   formatter.format("%2$s %s %&lt;s %s", "a", "b", "c", "d")
1815  *   // -&gt; "b a a b"
1816  *   // "c" and "d" are ignored because they are not referenced
1817  * </pre></blockquote>
1818  *
1819  * <p> The maximum number of arguments is limited by the maximum dimension of a
1820  * Java array as defined by
1821  * <cite>The Java&trade; Virtual Machine Specification</cite>.
1822  * If the argument index is does not correspond to an
1823  * available argument, then a {@link MissingFormatArgumentException} is thrown.
1824  *
1825  * <p> If there are more arguments than format specifiers, the extra arguments
1826  * are ignored.
1827  *
1828  * <p> Unless otherwise specified, passing a {@code null} argument to any
1829  * method or constructor in this class will cause a {@link
1830  * NullPointerException} to be thrown.
1831  *
1832  * @author  Iris Clark
1833  * @since 1.5
1834  */
1835 public final class Formatter implements Closeable, Flushable {
1836     private Appendable a;
1837     private final Locale l;
1838 
1839     private IOException lastException;
1840 
1841     private final char zero;
1842     private static double scaleUp;
1843 
1844     // 1 (sign) + 19 (max # sig digits) + 1 ('.') + 1 ('e') + 1 (sign)
1845     // + 3 (max # exp digits) + 4 (error) = 30
1846     private static final int MAX_FD_CHARS = 30;
1847 
1848     /**
1849      * Returns a charset object for the given charset name.
1850      * @throws NullPointerException          is csn is null
1851      * @throws UnsupportedEncodingException  if the charset is not supported
1852      */
1853     private static Charset toCharset(String csn)
1854         throws UnsupportedEncodingException
1855     {
1856         Objects.requireNonNull(csn, "charsetName");
1857         try {
1858             return Charset.forName(csn);
1859         } catch (IllegalCharsetNameException|UnsupportedCharsetException unused) {
1860             // UnsupportedEncodingException should be thrown
1861             throw new UnsupportedEncodingException(csn);
1862         }
1863     }
1864 
1865     private static final Appendable nonNullAppendable(Appendable a) {
1866         if (a == null)
1867             return new StringBuilder();
1868 
1869         return a;
1870     }
1871 
1872     /* Private constructors */
1873     private Formatter(Locale l, Appendable a) {
1874         this.a = a;
1875         this.l = l;
1876         this.zero = getZero(l);
1877     }
1878 
1879     private Formatter(Charset charset, Locale l, File file)
1880         throws FileNotFoundException
1881     {
1882         this(l,
1883              new BufferedWriter(new OutputStreamWriter(new FileOutputStream(file), charset)));
1884     }
1885 
1886     /**
1887      * Constructs a new formatter.
1888      *
1889      * <p> The destination of the formatted output is a {@link StringBuilder}
1890      * which may be retrieved by invoking {@link #out out()} and whose
1891      * current content may be converted into a string by invoking {@link
1892      * #toString toString()}.  The locale used is the {@linkplain
1893      * Locale#getDefault() default locale} for this instance of the Java
1894      * virtual machine.
1895      */
1896     public Formatter() {
1897         this(Locale.getDefault(Locale.Category.FORMAT), new StringBuilder());
1898     }
1899 
1900     /**
1901      * Constructs a new formatter with the specified destination.
1902      *
1903      * <p> The locale used is the {@linkplain Locale#getDefault() default
1904      * locale} for this instance of the Java virtual machine.
1905      *
1906      * @param  a
1907      *         Destination for the formatted output.  If {@code a} is
1908      *         {@code null} then a {@link StringBuilder} will be created.
1909      */
1910     public Formatter(Appendable a) {
1911         this(Locale.getDefault(Locale.Category.FORMAT), nonNullAppendable(a));
1912     }
1913 
1914     /**
1915      * Constructs a new formatter with the specified locale.
1916      *
1917      * <p> The destination of the formatted output is a {@link StringBuilder}
1918      * which may be retrieved by invoking {@link #out out()} and whose current
1919      * content may be converted into a string by invoking {@link #toString
1920      * toString()}.
1921      *
1922      * @param  l
1923      *         The {@linkplain java.util.Locale locale} to apply during
1924      *         formatting.  If {@code l} is {@code null} then no localization
1925      *         is applied.
1926      */
1927     public Formatter(Locale l) {
1928         this(l, new StringBuilder());
1929     }
1930 
1931     /**
1932      * Constructs a new formatter with the specified destination and locale.
1933      *
1934      * @param  a
1935      *         Destination for the formatted output.  If {@code a} is
1936      *         {@code null} then a {@link StringBuilder} will be created.
1937      *
1938      * @param  l
1939      *         The {@linkplain java.util.Locale locale} to apply during
1940      *         formatting.  If {@code l} is {@code null} then no localization
1941      *         is applied.
1942      */
1943     public Formatter(Appendable a, Locale l) {
1944         this(l, nonNullAppendable(a));
1945     }
1946 
1947     /**
1948      * Constructs a new formatter with the specified file name.
1949      *
1950      * <p> The charset used is the {@linkplain
1951      * java.nio.charset.Charset#defaultCharset() default charset} for this
1952      * instance of the Java virtual machine.
1953      *
1954      * <p> The locale used is the {@linkplain Locale#getDefault() default
1955      * locale} for this instance of the Java virtual machine.
1956      *
1957      * @param  fileName
1958      *         The name of the file to use as the destination of this
1959      *         formatter.  If the file exists then it will be truncated to
1960      *         zero size; otherwise, a new file will be created.  The output
1961      *         will be written to the file and is buffered.
1962      *
1963      * @throws  SecurityException
1964      *          If a security manager is present and {@link
1965      *          SecurityManager#checkWrite checkWrite(fileName)} denies write
1966      *          access to the file
1967      *
1968      * @throws  FileNotFoundException
1969      *          If the given file name does not denote an existing, writable
1970      *          regular file and a new regular file of that name cannot be
1971      *          created, or if some other error occurs while opening or
1972      *          creating the file
1973      */
1974     public Formatter(String fileName) throws FileNotFoundException {
1975         this(Locale.getDefault(Locale.Category.FORMAT),
1976              new BufferedWriter(new OutputStreamWriter(new FileOutputStream(fileName))));
1977     }
1978 
1979     /**
1980      * Constructs a new formatter with the specified file name and charset.
1981      *
1982      * <p> The locale used is the {@linkplain Locale#getDefault default
1983      * locale} for this instance of the Java virtual machine.
1984      *
1985      * @param  fileName
1986      *         The name of the file to use as the destination of this
1987      *         formatter.  If the file exists then it will be truncated to
1988      *         zero size; otherwise, a new file will be created.  The output
1989      *         will be written to the file and is buffered.
1990      *
1991      * @param  csn
1992      *         The name of a supported {@linkplain java.nio.charset.Charset
1993      *         charset}
1994      *
1995      * @throws  FileNotFoundException
1996      *          If the given file name does not denote an existing, writable
1997      *          regular file and a new regular file of that name cannot be
1998      *          created, or if some other error occurs while opening or
1999      *          creating the file
2000      *
2001      * @throws  SecurityException
2002      *          If a security manager is present and {@link
2003      *          SecurityManager#checkWrite checkWrite(fileName)} denies write
2004      *          access to the file
2005      *
2006      * @throws  UnsupportedEncodingException
2007      *          If the named charset is not supported
2008      */
2009     public Formatter(String fileName, String csn)
2010         throws FileNotFoundException, UnsupportedEncodingException
2011     {
2012         this(fileName, csn, Locale.getDefault(Locale.Category.FORMAT));
2013     }
2014 
2015     /**
2016      * Constructs a new formatter with the specified file name, charset, and
2017      * locale.
2018      *
2019      * @param  fileName
2020      *         The name of the file to use as the destination of this
2021      *         formatter.  If the file exists then it will be truncated to
2022      *         zero size; otherwise, a new file will be created.  The output
2023      *         will be written to the file and is buffered.
2024      *
2025      * @param  csn
2026      *         The name of a supported {@linkplain java.nio.charset.Charset
2027      *         charset}
2028      *
2029      * @param  l
2030      *         The {@linkplain java.util.Locale locale} to apply during
2031      *         formatting.  If {@code l} is {@code null} then no localization
2032      *         is applied.
2033      *
2034      * @throws  FileNotFoundException
2035      *          If the given file name does not denote an existing, writable
2036      *          regular file and a new regular file of that name cannot be
2037      *          created, or if some other error occurs while opening or
2038      *          creating the file
2039      *
2040      * @throws  SecurityException
2041      *          If a security manager is present and {@link
2042      *          SecurityManager#checkWrite checkWrite(fileName)} denies write
2043      *          access to the file
2044      *
2045      * @throws  UnsupportedEncodingException
2046      *          If the named charset is not supported
2047      */
2048     public Formatter(String fileName, String csn, Locale l)
2049         throws FileNotFoundException, UnsupportedEncodingException
2050     {
2051         this(toCharset(csn), l, new File(fileName));
2052     }
2053 
2054     /**
2055      * Constructs a new formatter with the specified file.
2056      *
2057      * <p> The charset used is the {@linkplain
2058      * java.nio.charset.Charset#defaultCharset() default charset} for this
2059      * instance of the Java virtual machine.
2060      *
2061      * <p> The locale used is the {@linkplain Locale#getDefault() default
2062      * locale} for this instance of the Java virtual machine.
2063      *
2064      * @param  file
2065      *         The file to use as the destination of this formatter.  If the
2066      *         file exists then it will be truncated to zero size; otherwise,
2067      *         a new file will be created.  The output will be written to the
2068      *         file and is buffered.
2069      *
2070      * @throws  SecurityException
2071      *          If a security manager is present and {@link
2072      *          SecurityManager#checkWrite checkWrite(file.getPath())} denies
2073      *          write access to the file
2074      *
2075      * @throws  FileNotFoundException
2076      *          If the given file object does not denote an existing, writable
2077      *          regular file and a new regular file of that name cannot be
2078      *          created, or if some other error occurs while opening or
2079      *          creating the file
2080      */
2081     public Formatter(File file) throws FileNotFoundException {
2082         this(Locale.getDefault(Locale.Category.FORMAT),
2083              new BufferedWriter(new OutputStreamWriter(new FileOutputStream(file))));
2084     }
2085 
2086     /**
2087      * Constructs a new formatter with the specified file and charset.
2088      *
2089      * <p> The locale used is the {@linkplain Locale#getDefault default
2090      * locale} for this instance of the Java virtual machine.
2091      *
2092      * @param  file
2093      *         The file to use as the destination of this formatter.  If the
2094      *         file exists then it will be truncated to zero size; otherwise,
2095      *         a new file will be created.  The output will be written to the
2096      *         file and is buffered.
2097      *
2098      * @param  csn
2099      *         The name of a supported {@linkplain java.nio.charset.Charset
2100      *         charset}
2101      *
2102      * @throws  FileNotFoundException
2103      *          If the given file object does not denote an existing, writable
2104      *          regular file and a new regular file of that name cannot be
2105      *          created, or if some other error occurs while opening or
2106      *          creating the file
2107      *
2108      * @throws  SecurityException
2109      *          If a security manager is present and {@link
2110      *          SecurityManager#checkWrite checkWrite(file.getPath())} denies
2111      *          write access to the file
2112      *
2113      * @throws  UnsupportedEncodingException
2114      *          If the named charset is not supported
2115      */
2116     public Formatter(File file, String csn)
2117         throws FileNotFoundException, UnsupportedEncodingException
2118     {
2119         this(file, csn, Locale.getDefault(Locale.Category.FORMAT));
2120     }
2121 
2122     /**
2123      * Constructs a new formatter with the specified file, charset, and
2124      * locale.
2125      *
2126      * @param  file
2127      *         The file to use as the destination of this formatter.  If the
2128      *         file exists then it will be truncated to zero size; otherwise,
2129      *         a new file will be created.  The output will be written to the
2130      *         file and is buffered.
2131      *
2132      * @param  csn
2133      *         The name of a supported {@linkplain java.nio.charset.Charset
2134      *         charset}
2135      *
2136      * @param  l
2137      *         The {@linkplain java.util.Locale locale} to apply during
2138      *         formatting.  If {@code l} is {@code null} then no localization
2139      *         is applied.
2140      *
2141      * @throws  FileNotFoundException
2142      *          If the given file object does not denote an existing, writable
2143      *          regular file and a new regular file of that name cannot be
2144      *          created, or if some other error occurs while opening or
2145      *          creating the file
2146      *
2147      * @throws  SecurityException
2148      *          If a security manager is present and {@link
2149      *          SecurityManager#checkWrite checkWrite(file.getPath())} denies
2150      *          write access to the file
2151      *
2152      * @throws  UnsupportedEncodingException
2153      *          If the named charset is not supported
2154      */
2155     public Formatter(File file, String csn, Locale l)
2156         throws FileNotFoundException, UnsupportedEncodingException
2157     {
2158         this(toCharset(csn), l, file);
2159     }
2160 
2161     /**
2162      * Constructs a new formatter with the specified print stream.
2163      *
2164      * <p> The locale used is the {@linkplain Locale#getDefault() default
2165      * locale} for this instance of the Java virtual machine.
2166      *
2167      * <p> Characters are written to the given {@link java.io.PrintStream
2168      * PrintStream} object and are therefore encoded using that object's
2169      * charset.
2170      *
2171      * @param  ps
2172      *         The stream to use as the destination of this formatter.
2173      */
2174     public Formatter(PrintStream ps) {
2175         this(Locale.getDefault(Locale.Category.FORMAT),
2176              (Appendable)Objects.requireNonNull(ps));
2177     }
2178 
2179     /**
2180      * Constructs a new formatter with the specified output stream.
2181      *
2182      * <p> The charset used is the {@linkplain
2183      * java.nio.charset.Charset#defaultCharset() default charset} for this
2184      * instance of the Java virtual machine.
2185      *
2186      * <p> The locale used is the {@linkplain Locale#getDefault() default
2187      * locale} for this instance of the Java virtual machine.
2188      *
2189      * @param  os
2190      *         The output stream to use as the destination of this formatter.
2191      *         The output will be buffered.
2192      */
2193     public Formatter(OutputStream os) {
2194         this(Locale.getDefault(Locale.Category.FORMAT),
2195              new BufferedWriter(new OutputStreamWriter(os)));
2196     }
2197 
2198     /**
2199      * Constructs a new formatter with the specified output stream and
2200      * charset.
2201      *
2202      * <p> The locale used is the {@linkplain Locale#getDefault default
2203      * locale} for this instance of the Java virtual machine.
2204      *
2205      * @param  os
2206      *         The output stream to use as the destination of this formatter.
2207      *         The output will be buffered.
2208      *
2209      * @param  csn
2210      *         The name of a supported {@linkplain java.nio.charset.Charset
2211      *         charset}
2212      *
2213      * @throws  UnsupportedEncodingException
2214      *          If the named charset is not supported
2215      */
2216     public Formatter(OutputStream os, String csn)
2217         throws UnsupportedEncodingException
2218     {
2219         this(os, csn, Locale.getDefault(Locale.Category.FORMAT));
2220     }
2221 
2222     /**
2223      * Constructs a new formatter with the specified output stream, charset,
2224      * and locale.
2225      *
2226      * @param  os
2227      *         The output stream to use as the destination of this formatter.
2228      *         The output will be buffered.
2229      *
2230      * @param  csn
2231      *         The name of a supported {@linkplain java.nio.charset.Charset
2232      *         charset}
2233      *
2234      * @param  l
2235      *         The {@linkplain java.util.Locale locale} to apply during
2236      *         formatting.  If {@code l} is {@code null} then no localization
2237      *         is applied.
2238      *
2239      * @throws  UnsupportedEncodingException
2240      *          If the named charset is not supported
2241      */
2242     public Formatter(OutputStream os, String csn, Locale l)
2243         throws UnsupportedEncodingException
2244     {
2245         this(l, new BufferedWriter(new OutputStreamWriter(os, csn)));
2246     }
2247 
2248     private static char getZero(Locale l) {
2249         if ((l != null) && !l.equals(Locale.US)) {
2250             DecimalFormatSymbols dfs = DecimalFormatSymbols.getInstance(l);
2251             return dfs.getZeroDigit();
2252         } else {
2253             return '0';
2254         }
2255     }
2256 
2257     /**
2258      * Returns the locale set by the construction of this formatter.
2259      *
2260      * <p> The {@link #format(java.util.Locale,String,Object...) format} method
2261      * for this object which has a locale argument does not change this value.
2262      *
2263      * @return  {@code null} if no localization is applied, otherwise a
2264      *          locale
2265      *
2266      * @throws  FormatterClosedException
2267      *          If this formatter has been closed by invoking its {@link
2268      *          #close()} method
2269      */
2270     public Locale locale() {
2271         ensureOpen();
2272         return l;
2273     }
2274 
2275     /**
2276      * Returns the destination for the output.
2277      *
2278      * @return  The destination for the output
2279      *
2280      * @throws  FormatterClosedException
2281      *          If this formatter has been closed by invoking its {@link
2282      *          #close()} method
2283      */
2284     public Appendable out() {
2285         ensureOpen();
2286         return a;
2287     }
2288 
2289     /**
2290      * Returns the result of invoking {@code toString()} on the destination
2291      * for the output.  For example, the following code formats text into a
2292      * {@link StringBuilder} then retrieves the resultant string:
2293      *
2294      * <blockquote><pre>
2295      *   Formatter f = new Formatter();
2296      *   f.format("Last reboot at %tc", lastRebootDate);
2297      *   String s = f.toString();
2298      *   // -&gt; s == "Last reboot at Sat Jan 01 00:00:00 PST 2000"
2299      * </pre></blockquote>
2300      *
2301      * <p> An invocation of this method behaves in exactly the same way as the
2302      * invocation
2303      *
2304      * <pre>
2305      *     out().toString() </pre>
2306      *
2307      * <p> Depending on the specification of {@code toString} for the {@link
2308      * Appendable}, the returned string may or may not contain the characters
2309      * written to the destination.  For instance, buffers typically return
2310      * their contents in {@code toString()}, but streams cannot since the
2311      * data is discarded.
2312      *
2313      * @return  The result of invoking {@code toString()} on the destination
2314      *          for the output
2315      *
2316      * @throws  FormatterClosedException
2317      *          If this formatter has been closed by invoking its {@link
2318      *          #close()} method
2319      */
2320     public String toString() {
2321         ensureOpen();
2322         return a.toString();
2323     }
2324 
2325     /**
2326      * Flushes this formatter.  If the destination implements the {@link
2327      * java.io.Flushable} interface, its {@code flush} method will be invoked.
2328      *
2329      * <p> Flushing a formatter writes any buffered output in the destination
2330      * to the underlying stream.
2331      *
2332      * @throws  FormatterClosedException
2333      *          If this formatter has been closed by invoking its {@link
2334      *          #close()} method
2335      */
2336     public void flush() {
2337         ensureOpen();
2338         if (a instanceof Flushable) {
2339             try {
2340                 ((Flushable)a).flush();
2341             } catch (IOException ioe) {
2342                 lastException = ioe;
2343             }
2344         }
2345     }
2346 
2347     /**
2348      * Closes this formatter.  If the destination implements the {@link
2349      * java.io.Closeable} interface, its {@code close} method will be invoked.
2350      *
2351      * <p> Closing a formatter allows it to release resources it may be holding
2352      * (such as open files).  If the formatter is already closed, then invoking
2353      * this method has no effect.
2354      *
2355      * <p> Attempting to invoke any methods except {@link #ioException()} in
2356      * this formatter after it has been closed will result in a {@link
2357      * FormatterClosedException}.
2358      */
2359     public void close() {
2360         if (a == null)
2361             return;
2362         try {
2363             if (a instanceof Closeable)
2364                 ((Closeable)a).close();
2365         } catch (IOException ioe) {
2366             lastException = ioe;
2367         } finally {
2368             a = null;
2369         }
2370     }
2371 
2372     private void ensureOpen() {
2373         if (a == null)
2374             throw new FormatterClosedException();
2375     }
2376 
2377     /**
2378      * Returns the {@code IOException} last thrown by this formatter's {@link
2379      * Appendable}.
2380      *
2381      * <p> If the destination's {@code append()} method never throws
2382      * {@code IOException}, then this method will always return {@code null}.
2383      *
2384      * @return  The last exception thrown by the Appendable or {@code null} if
2385      *          no such exception exists.
2386      */
2387     public IOException ioException() {
2388         return lastException;
2389     }
2390 
2391     /**
2392      * Writes a formatted string to this object's destination using the
2393      * specified format string and arguments.  The locale used is the one
2394      * defined during the construction of this formatter.
2395      *
2396      * @param  format
2397      *         A format string as described in <a href="#syntax">Format string
2398      *         syntax</a>.
2399      *
2400      * @param  args
2401      *         Arguments referenced by the format specifiers in the format
2402      *         string.  If there are more arguments than format specifiers, the
2403      *         extra arguments are ignored.  The maximum number of arguments is
2404      *         limited by the maximum dimension of a Java array as defined by
2405      *         <cite>The Java&trade; Virtual Machine Specification</cite>.
2406      *
2407      * @throws  IllegalFormatException
2408      *          If a format string contains an illegal syntax, a format
2409      *          specifier that is incompatible with the given arguments,
2410      *          insufficient arguments given the format string, or other
2411      *          illegal conditions.  For specification of all possible
2412      *          formatting errors, see the <a href="#detail">Details</a>
2413      *          section of the formatter class specification.
2414      *
2415      * @throws  FormatterClosedException
2416      *          If this formatter has been closed by invoking its {@link
2417      *          #close()} method
2418      *
2419      * @return  This formatter
2420      */
2421     public Formatter format(String format, Object ... args) {
2422         return format(l, format, args);
2423     }
2424 
2425     /**
2426      * Writes a formatted string to this object's destination using the
2427      * specified locale, format string, and arguments.
2428      *
2429      * @param  l
2430      *         The {@linkplain java.util.Locale locale} to apply during
2431      *         formatting.  If {@code l} is {@code null} then no localization
2432      *         is applied.  This does not change this object's locale that was
2433      *         set during construction.
2434      *
2435      * @param  format
2436      *         A format string as described in <a href="#syntax">Format string
2437      *         syntax</a>
2438      *
2439      * @param  args
2440      *         Arguments referenced by the format specifiers in the format
2441      *         string.  If there are more arguments than format specifiers, the
2442      *         extra arguments are ignored.  The maximum number of arguments is
2443      *         limited by the maximum dimension of a Java array as defined by
2444      *         <cite>The Java&trade; Virtual Machine Specification</cite>.
2445      *
2446      * @throws  IllegalFormatException
2447      *          If a format string contains an illegal syntax, a format
2448      *          specifier that is incompatible with the given arguments,
2449      *          insufficient arguments given the format string, or other
2450      *          illegal conditions.  For specification of all possible
2451      *          formatting errors, see the <a href="#detail">Details</a>
2452      *          section of the formatter class specification.
2453      *
2454      * @throws  FormatterClosedException
2455      *          If this formatter has been closed by invoking its {@link
2456      *          #close()} method
2457      *
2458      * @return  This formatter
2459      */
2460     public Formatter format(Locale l, String format, Object ... args) {
2461         ensureOpen();
2462 
2463         // index of last argument referenced
2464         int last = -1;
2465         // last ordinary index
2466         int lasto = -1;
2467 
2468         FormatString[] fsa = parse(format);
2469         for (int i = 0; i < fsa.length; i++) {
2470             FormatString fs = fsa[i];
2471             int index = fs.index();
2472             try {
2473                 switch (index) {
2474                 case -2:  // fixed string, "%n", or "%%"
2475                     fs.print(null, l);
2476                     break;
2477                 case -1:  // relative index
2478                     if (last < 0 || (args != null && last > args.length - 1))
2479                         throw new MissingFormatArgumentException(fs.toString());
2480                     fs.print((args == null ? null : args[last]), l);
2481                     break;
2482                 case 0:  // ordinary index
2483                     lasto++;
2484                     last = lasto;
2485                     if (args != null && lasto > args.length - 1)
2486                         throw new MissingFormatArgumentException(fs.toString());
2487                     fs.print((args == null ? null : args[lasto]), l);
2488                     break;
2489                 default:  // explicit index
2490                     last = index - 1;
2491                     if (args != null && last > args.length - 1)
2492                         throw new MissingFormatArgumentException(fs.toString());
2493                     fs.print((args == null ? null : args[last]), l);
2494                     break;
2495                 }
2496             } catch (IOException x) {
2497                 lastException = x;
2498             }
2499         }
2500         return this;
2501     }
2502 
2503     // %[argument_index$][flags][width][.precision][t]conversion
2504     private static final String formatSpecifier
2505         = "%(\\d+\\$)?([-#+ 0,(\\<]*)?(\\d+)?(\\.\\d+)?([tT])?([a-zA-Z%])";
2506 
2507     private static Pattern fsPattern = Pattern.compile(formatSpecifier);
2508 
2509     /**
2510      * Finds format specifiers in the format string.
2511      */
2512     private FormatString[] parse(String s) {
2513         ArrayList<FormatString> al = new ArrayList<>();
2514         Matcher m = fsPattern.matcher(s);
2515         for (int i = 0, len = s.length(); i < len; ) {
2516             if (m.find(i)) {
2517                 // Anything between the start of the string and the beginning
2518                 // of the format specifier is either fixed text or contains
2519                 // an invalid format string.
2520                 if (m.start() != i) {
2521                     // Make sure we didn't miss any invalid format specifiers
2522                     checkText(s, i, m.start());
2523                     // Assume previous characters were fixed text
2524                     al.add(new FixedString(s.substring(i, m.start())));
2525                 }
2526 
2527                 al.add(new FormatSpecifier(m));
2528                 i = m.end();
2529             } else {
2530                 // No more valid format specifiers.  Check for possible invalid
2531                 // format specifiers.
2532                 checkText(s, i, len);
2533                 // The rest of the string is fixed text
2534                 al.add(new FixedString(s.substring(i)));
2535                 break;
2536             }
2537         }
2538         return al.toArray(new FormatString[al.size()]);
2539     }
2540 
2541     private static void checkText(String s, int start, int end) {
2542         for (int i = start; i < end; i++) {
2543             // Any '%' found in the region starts an invalid format specifier.
2544             if (s.charAt(i) == '%') {
2545                 char c = (i == end - 1) ? '%' : s.charAt(i + 1);
2546                 throw new UnknownFormatConversionException(String.valueOf(c));
2547             }
2548         }
2549     }
2550 
2551     private interface FormatString {
2552         int index();
2553         void print(Object arg, Locale l) throws IOException;
2554         String toString();
2555     }
2556 
2557     private class FixedString implements FormatString {
2558         private String s;
2559         FixedString(String s) { this.s = s; }
2560         public int index() { return -2; }
2561         public void print(Object arg, Locale l)
2562             throws IOException { a.append(s); }
2563         public String toString() { return s; }
2564     }
2565 
2566     public enum BigDecimalLayoutForm { SCIENTIFIC, DECIMAL_FLOAT };
2567 
2568     private class FormatSpecifier implements FormatString {
2569         private int index = -1;
2570         private Flags f = Flags.NONE;
2571         private int width;
2572         private int precision;
2573         private boolean dt = false;
2574         private char c;
2575 
2576         private int index(String s) {
2577             if (s != null) {
2578                 try {
2579                     index = Integer.parseInt(s.substring(0, s.length() - 1));
2580                 } catch (NumberFormatException x) {
2581                     assert(false);
2582                 }
2583             } else {
2584                 index = 0;
2585             }
2586             return index;
2587         }
2588 
2589         public int index() {
2590             return index;
2591         }
2592 
2593         private Flags flags(String s) {
2594             f = Flags.parse(s);
2595             if (f.contains(Flags.PREVIOUS))
2596                 index = -1;
2597             return f;
2598         }
2599 
2600         Flags flags() {
2601             return f;
2602         }
2603 
2604         private int width(String s) {
2605             width = -1;
2606             if (s != null) {
2607                 try {
2608                     width  = Integer.parseInt(s);
2609                     if (width < 0)
2610                         throw new IllegalFormatWidthException(width);
2611                 } catch (NumberFormatException x) {
2612                     assert(false);
2613                 }
2614             }
2615             return width;
2616         }
2617 
2618         int width() {
2619             return width;
2620         }
2621 
2622         private int precision(String s) {
2623             precision = -1;
2624             if (s != null) {
2625                 try {
2626                     // remove the '.'
2627                     precision = Integer.parseInt(s.substring(1));
2628                     if (precision < 0)
2629                         throw new IllegalFormatPrecisionException(precision);
2630                 } catch (NumberFormatException x) {
2631                     assert(false);
2632                 }
2633             }
2634             return precision;
2635         }
2636 
2637         int precision() {
2638             return precision;
2639         }
2640 
2641         private char conversion(String s) {
2642             c = s.charAt(0);
2643             if (!dt) {
2644                 if (!Conversion.isValid(c))
2645                     throw new UnknownFormatConversionException(String.valueOf(c));
2646                 if (Character.isUpperCase(c))
2647                     f.add(Flags.UPPERCASE);
2648                 c = Character.toLowerCase(c);
2649                 if (Conversion.isText(c))
2650                     index = -2;
2651             }
2652             return c;
2653         }
2654 
2655         private char conversion() {
2656             return c;
2657         }
2658 
2659         FormatSpecifier(Matcher m) {
2660             int idx = 1;
2661 
2662             index(m.group(idx++));
2663             flags(m.group(idx++));
2664             width(m.group(idx++));
2665             precision(m.group(idx++));
2666 
2667             String tT = m.group(idx++);
2668             if (tT != null) {
2669                 dt = true;
2670                 if (tT.equals("T"))
2671                     f.add(Flags.UPPERCASE);
2672             }
2673 
2674             conversion(m.group(idx));
2675 
2676             if (dt)
2677                 checkDateTime();
2678             else if (Conversion.isGeneral(c))
2679                 checkGeneral();
2680             else if (Conversion.isCharacter(c))
2681                 checkCharacter();
2682             else if (Conversion.isInteger(c))
2683                 checkInteger();
2684             else if (Conversion.isFloat(c))
2685                 checkFloat();
2686             else if (Conversion.isText(c))
2687                 checkText();
2688             else
2689                 throw new UnknownFormatConversionException(String.valueOf(c));
2690         }
2691 
2692         public void print(Object arg, Locale l) throws IOException {
2693             if (dt) {
2694                 printDateTime(arg, l);
2695                 return;
2696             }
2697             switch(c) {
2698             case Conversion.DECIMAL_INTEGER:
2699             case Conversion.OCTAL_INTEGER:
2700             case Conversion.HEXADECIMAL_INTEGER:
2701                 printInteger(arg, l);
2702                 break;
2703             case Conversion.SCIENTIFIC:
2704             case Conversion.GENERAL:
2705             case Conversion.DECIMAL_FLOAT:
2706             case Conversion.HEXADECIMAL_FLOAT:
2707                 printFloat(arg, l);
2708                 break;
2709             case Conversion.CHARACTER:
2710             case Conversion.CHARACTER_UPPER:
2711                 printCharacter(arg);
2712                 break;
2713             case Conversion.BOOLEAN:
2714                 printBoolean(arg);
2715                 break;
2716             case Conversion.STRING:
2717                 printString(arg, l);
2718                 break;
2719             case Conversion.HASHCODE:
2720                 printHashCode(arg);
2721                 break;
2722             case Conversion.LINE_SEPARATOR:
2723                 a.append(System.lineSeparator());
2724                 break;
2725             case Conversion.PERCENT_SIGN:
2726                 a.append('%');
2727                 break;
2728             default:
2729                 assert false;
2730             }
2731         }
2732 
2733         private void printInteger(Object arg, Locale l) throws IOException {
2734             if (arg == null)
2735                 print("null");
2736             else if (arg instanceof Byte)
2737                 print(((Byte)arg).byteValue(), l);
2738             else if (arg instanceof Short)
2739                 print(((Short)arg).shortValue(), l);
2740             else if (arg instanceof Integer)
2741                 print(((Integer)arg).intValue(), l);
2742             else if (arg instanceof Long)
2743                 print(((Long)arg).longValue(), l);
2744             else if (arg instanceof BigInteger)
2745                 print(((BigInteger)arg), l);
2746             else
2747                 failConversion(c, arg);
2748         }
2749 
2750         private void printFloat(Object arg, Locale l) throws IOException {
2751             if (arg == null)
2752                 print("null");
2753             else if (arg instanceof Float)
2754                 print(((Float)arg).floatValue(), l);
2755             else if (arg instanceof Double)
2756                 print(((Double)arg).doubleValue(), l);
2757             else if (arg instanceof BigDecimal)
2758                 print(((BigDecimal)arg), l);
2759             else
2760                 failConversion(c, arg);
2761         }
2762 
2763         private void printDateTime(Object arg, Locale l) throws IOException {
2764             if (arg == null) {
2765                 print("null");
2766                 return;
2767             }
2768             Calendar cal = null;
2769 
2770             // Instead of Calendar.setLenient(true), perhaps we should
2771             // wrap the IllegalArgumentException that might be thrown?
2772             if (arg instanceof Long) {
2773                 // Note that the following method uses an instance of the
2774                 // default time zone (TimeZone.getDefaultRef().
2775                 cal = Calendar.getInstance(l == null ? Locale.US : l);
2776                 cal.setTimeInMillis((Long)arg);
2777             } else if (arg instanceof Date) {
2778                 // Note that the following method uses an instance of the
2779                 // default time zone (TimeZone.getDefaultRef().
2780                 cal = Calendar.getInstance(l == null ? Locale.US : l);
2781                 cal.setTime((Date)arg);
2782             } else if (arg instanceof Calendar) {
2783                 cal = (Calendar) ((Calendar)arg).clone();
2784                 cal.setLenient(true);
2785             } else {
2786                 failConversion(c, arg);
2787             }
2788             // Use the provided locale so that invocations of
2789             // localizedMagnitude() use optimizations for null.
2790             print(cal, c, l);
2791         }
2792 
2793         private void printCharacter(Object arg) throws IOException {
2794             if (arg == null) {
2795                 print("null");
2796                 return;
2797             }
2798             String s = null;
2799             if (arg instanceof Character) {
2800                 s = ((Character)arg).toString();
2801             } else if (arg instanceof Byte) {
2802                 byte i = ((Byte)arg).byteValue();
2803                 if (Character.isValidCodePoint(i))
2804                     s = new String(Character.toChars(i));
2805                 else
2806                     throw new IllegalFormatCodePointException(i);
2807             } else if (arg instanceof Short) {
2808                 short i = ((Short)arg).shortValue();
2809                 if (Character.isValidCodePoint(i))
2810                     s = new String(Character.toChars(i));
2811                 else
2812                     throw new IllegalFormatCodePointException(i);
2813             } else if (arg instanceof Integer) {
2814                 int i = ((Integer)arg).intValue();
2815                 if (Character.isValidCodePoint(i))
2816                     s = new String(Character.toChars(i));
2817                 else
2818                     throw new IllegalFormatCodePointException(i);
2819             } else {
2820                 failConversion(c, arg);
2821             }
2822             print(s);
2823         }
2824 
2825         private void printString(Object arg, Locale l) throws IOException {
2826             if (arg instanceof Formattable) {
2827                 Formatter fmt = Formatter.this;
2828                 if (fmt.locale() != l)
2829                     fmt = new Formatter(fmt.out(), l);
2830                 ((Formattable)arg).formatTo(fmt, f.valueOf(), width, precision);
2831             } else {
2832                 if (f.contains(Flags.ALTERNATE))
2833                     failMismatch(Flags.ALTERNATE, 's');
2834                 if (arg == null)
2835                     print("null");
2836                 else
2837                     print(arg.toString());
2838             }
2839         }
2840 
2841         private void printBoolean(Object arg) throws IOException {
2842             String s;
2843             if (arg != null)
2844                 s = ((arg instanceof Boolean)
2845                      ? ((Boolean)arg).toString()
2846                      : Boolean.toString(true));
2847             else
2848                 s = Boolean.toString(false);
2849             print(s);
2850         }
2851 
2852         private void printHashCode(Object arg) throws IOException {
2853             String s = (arg == null
2854                         ? "null"
2855                         : Integer.toHexString(arg.hashCode()));
2856             print(s);
2857         }
2858 
2859         private void print(String s) throws IOException {
2860             if (precision != -1 && precision < s.length())
2861                 s = s.substring(0, precision);
2862             if (f.contains(Flags.UPPERCASE))
2863                 s = s.toUpperCase();
2864             a.append(justify(s));
2865         }
2866 
2867         private String justify(String s) {
2868             if (width == -1)
2869                 return s;
2870             StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
2871             boolean pad = f.contains(Flags.LEFT_JUSTIFY);
2872             int sp = width - s.length();
2873             if (!pad)
2874                 for (int i = 0; i < sp; i++) sb.append(' ');
2875             sb.append(s);
2876             if (pad)
2877                 for (int i = 0; i < sp; i++) sb.append(' ');
2878             return sb.toString();
2879         }
2880 
2881         public String toString() {
2882             StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder("%");
2883             // Flags.UPPERCASE is set internally for legal conversions.
2884             Flags dupf = f.dup().remove(Flags.UPPERCASE);
2885             sb.append(dupf.toString());
2886             if (index > 0)
2887                 sb.append(index).append('$');
2888             if (width != -1)
2889                 sb.append(width);
2890             if (precision != -1)
2891                 sb.append('.').append(precision);
2892             if (dt)
2893                 sb.append(f.contains(Flags.UPPERCASE) ? 'T' : 't');
2894             sb.append(f.contains(Flags.UPPERCASE)
2895                       ? Character.toUpperCase(c) : c);
2896             return sb.toString();
2897         }
2898 
2899         private void checkGeneral() {
2900             if ((c == Conversion.BOOLEAN || c == Conversion.HASHCODE)
2901                 && f.contains(Flags.ALTERNATE))
2902                 failMismatch(Flags.ALTERNATE, c);
2903             // '-' requires a width
2904             if (width == -1 && f.contains(Flags.LEFT_JUSTIFY))
2905                 throw new MissingFormatWidthException(toString());
2906             checkBadFlags(Flags.PLUS, Flags.LEADING_SPACE, Flags.ZERO_PAD,
2907                           Flags.GROUP, Flags.PARENTHESES);
2908         }
2909 
2910         private void checkDateTime() {
2911             if (precision != -1)
2912                 throw new IllegalFormatPrecisionException(precision);
2913             if (!DateTime.isValid(c))
2914                 throw new UnknownFormatConversionException("t" + c);
2915             checkBadFlags(Flags.ALTERNATE, Flags.PLUS, Flags.LEADING_SPACE,
2916                           Flags.ZERO_PAD, Flags.GROUP, Flags.PARENTHESES);
2917             // '-' requires a width
2918             if (width == -1 && f.contains(Flags.LEFT_JUSTIFY))
2919                 throw new MissingFormatWidthException(toString());
2920         }
2921 
2922         private void checkCharacter() {
2923             if (precision != -1)
2924                 throw new IllegalFormatPrecisionException(precision);
2925             checkBadFlags(Flags.ALTERNATE, Flags.PLUS, Flags.LEADING_SPACE,
2926                           Flags.ZERO_PAD, Flags.GROUP, Flags.PARENTHESES);
2927             // '-' requires a width
2928             if (width == -1 && f.contains(Flags.LEFT_JUSTIFY))
2929                 throw new MissingFormatWidthException(toString());
2930         }
2931 
2932         private void checkInteger() {
2933             checkNumeric();
2934             if (precision != -1)
2935                 throw new IllegalFormatPrecisionException(precision);
2936 
2937             if (c == Conversion.DECIMAL_INTEGER)
2938                 checkBadFlags(Flags.ALTERNATE);
2939             else if (c == Conversion.OCTAL_INTEGER)
2940                 checkBadFlags(Flags.GROUP);
2941             else
2942                 checkBadFlags(Flags.GROUP);
2943         }
2944 
2945         private void checkBadFlags(Flags ... badFlags) {
2946             for (int i = 0; i < badFlags.length; i++)
2947                 if (f.contains(badFlags[i]))
2948                     failMismatch(badFlags[i], c);
2949         }
2950 
2951         private void checkFloat() {
2952             checkNumeric();
2953             if (c == Conversion.DECIMAL_FLOAT) {
2954             } else if (c == Conversion.HEXADECIMAL_FLOAT) {
2955                 checkBadFlags(Flags.PARENTHESES, Flags.GROUP);
2956             } else if (c == Conversion.SCIENTIFIC) {
2957                 checkBadFlags(Flags.GROUP);
2958             } else if (c == Conversion.GENERAL) {
2959                 checkBadFlags(Flags.ALTERNATE);
2960             }
2961         }
2962 
2963         private void checkNumeric() {
2964             if (width != -1 && width < 0)
2965                 throw new IllegalFormatWidthException(width);
2966 
2967             if (precision != -1 && precision < 0)
2968                 throw new IllegalFormatPrecisionException(precision);
2969 
2970             // '-' and '0' require a width
2971             if (width == -1
2972                 && (f.contains(Flags.LEFT_JUSTIFY) || f.contains(Flags.ZERO_PAD)))
2973                 throw new MissingFormatWidthException(toString());
2974 
2975             // bad combination
2976             if ((f.contains(Flags.PLUS) && f.contains(Flags.LEADING_SPACE))
2977                 || (f.contains(Flags.LEFT_JUSTIFY) && f.contains(Flags.ZERO_PAD)))
2978                 throw new IllegalFormatFlagsException(f.toString());
2979         }
2980 
2981         private void checkText() {
2982             if (precision != -1)
2983                 throw new IllegalFormatPrecisionException(precision);
2984             switch (c) {
2985             case Conversion.PERCENT_SIGN:
2986                 if (f.valueOf() != Flags.LEFT_JUSTIFY.valueOf()
2987                     && f.valueOf() != Flags.NONE.valueOf())
2988                     throw new IllegalFormatFlagsException(f.toString());
2989                 // '-' requires a width
2990                 if (width == -1 && f.contains(Flags.LEFT_JUSTIFY))
2991                     throw new MissingFormatWidthException(toString());
2992                 break;
2993             case Conversion.LINE_SEPARATOR:
2994                 if (width != -1)
2995                     throw new IllegalFormatWidthException(width);
2996                 if (f.valueOf() != Flags.NONE.valueOf())
2997                     throw new IllegalFormatFlagsException(f.toString());
2998                 break;
2999             default:
3000                 assert false;
3001             }
3002         }
3003 
3004         private void print(byte value, Locale l) throws IOException {
3005             long v = value;
3006             if (value < 0
3007                 && (c == Conversion.OCTAL_INTEGER
3008                     || c == Conversion.HEXADECIMAL_INTEGER)) {
3009                 v += (1L << 8);
3010                 assert v >= 0 : v;
3011             }
3012             print(v, l);
3013         }
3014 
3015         private void print(short value, Locale l) throws IOException {
3016             long v = value;
3017             if (value < 0
3018                 && (c == Conversion.OCTAL_INTEGER
3019                     || c == Conversion.HEXADECIMAL_INTEGER)) {
3020                 v += (1L << 16);
3021                 assert v >= 0 : v;
3022             }
3023             print(v, l);
3024         }
3025 
3026         private void print(int value, Locale l) throws IOException {
3027             long v = value;
3028             if (value < 0
3029                 && (c == Conversion.OCTAL_INTEGER
3030                     || c == Conversion.HEXADECIMAL_INTEGER)) {
3031                 v += (1L << 32);
3032                 assert v >= 0 : v;
3033             }
3034             print(v, l);
3035         }
3036 
3037         private void print(long value, Locale l) throws IOException {
3038 
3039             StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
3040 
3041             if (c == Conversion.DECIMAL_INTEGER) {
3042                 boolean neg = value < 0;
3043                 char[] va;
3044                 if (value < 0)
3045                     va = Long.toString(value, 10).substring(1).toCharArray();
3046                 else
3047                     va = Long.toString(value, 10).toCharArray();
3048 
3049                 // leading sign indicator
3050                 leadingSign(sb, neg);
3051 
3052                 // the value
3053                 localizedMagnitude(sb, va, f, adjustWidth(width, f, neg), l);
3054 
3055                 // trailing sign indicator
3056                 trailingSign(sb, neg);
3057             } else if (c == Conversion.OCTAL_INTEGER) {
3058                 checkBadFlags(Flags.PARENTHESES, Flags.LEADING_SPACE,
3059                               Flags.PLUS);
3060                 String s = Long.toOctalString(value);
3061                 int len = (f.contains(Flags.ALTERNATE)
3062                            ? s.length() + 1
3063                            : s.length());
3064 
3065                 // apply ALTERNATE (radix indicator for octal) before ZERO_PAD
3066                 if (f.contains(Flags.ALTERNATE))
3067                     sb.append('0');
3068                 if (f.contains(Flags.ZERO_PAD))
3069                     for (int i = 0; i < width - len; i++) sb.append('0');
3070                 sb.append(s);
3071             } else if (c == Conversion.HEXADECIMAL_INTEGER) {
3072                 checkBadFlags(Flags.PARENTHESES, Flags.LEADING_SPACE,
3073                               Flags.PLUS);
3074                 String s = Long.toHexString(value);
3075                 int len = (f.contains(Flags.ALTERNATE)
3076                            ? s.length() + 2
3077                            : s.length());
3078 
3079                 // apply ALTERNATE (radix indicator for hex) before ZERO_PAD
3080                 if (f.contains(Flags.ALTERNATE))
3081                     sb.append(f.contains(Flags.UPPERCASE) ? "0X" : "0x");
3082                 if (f.contains(Flags.ZERO_PAD))
3083                     for (int i = 0; i < width - len; i++) sb.append('0');
3084                 if (f.contains(Flags.UPPERCASE))
3085                     s = s.toUpperCase();
3086                 sb.append(s);
3087             }
3088 
3089             // justify based on width
3090             a.append(justify(sb.toString()));
3091         }
3092 
3093         // neg := val < 0
3094         private StringBuilder leadingSign(StringBuilder sb, boolean neg) {
3095             if (!neg) {
3096                 if (f.contains(Flags.PLUS)) {
3097                     sb.append('+');
3098                 } else if (f.contains(Flags.LEADING_SPACE)) {
3099                     sb.append(' ');
3100                 }
3101             } else {
3102                 if (f.contains(Flags.PARENTHESES))
3103                     sb.append('(');
3104                 else
3105                     sb.append('-');
3106             }
3107             return sb;
3108         }
3109 
3110         // neg := val < 0
3111         private StringBuilder trailingSign(StringBuilder sb, boolean neg) {
3112             if (neg && f.contains(Flags.PARENTHESES))
3113                 sb.append(')');
3114             return sb;
3115         }
3116 
3117         private void print(BigInteger value, Locale l) throws IOException {
3118             StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
3119             boolean neg = value.signum() == -1;
3120             BigInteger v = value.abs();
3121 
3122             // leading sign indicator
3123             leadingSign(sb, neg);
3124 
3125             // the value
3126             if (c == Conversion.DECIMAL_INTEGER) {
3127                 char[] va = v.toString().toCharArray();
3128                 localizedMagnitude(sb, va, f, adjustWidth(width, f, neg), l);
3129             } else if (c == Conversion.OCTAL_INTEGER) {
3130                 String s = v.toString(8);
3131 
3132                 int len = s.length() + sb.length();
3133                 if (neg && f.contains(Flags.PARENTHESES))
3134                     len++;
3135 
3136                 // apply ALTERNATE (radix indicator for octal) before ZERO_PAD
3137                 if (f.contains(Flags.ALTERNATE)) {
3138                     len++;
3139                     sb.append('0');
3140                 }
3141                 if (f.contains(Flags.ZERO_PAD)) {
3142                     for (int i = 0; i < width - len; i++)
3143                         sb.append('0');
3144                 }
3145                 sb.append(s);
3146             } else if (c == Conversion.HEXADECIMAL_INTEGER) {
3147                 String s = v.toString(16);
3148 
3149                 int len = s.length() + sb.length();
3150                 if (neg && f.contains(Flags.PARENTHESES))
3151                     len++;
3152 
3153                 // apply ALTERNATE (radix indicator for hex) before ZERO_PAD
3154                 if (f.contains(Flags.ALTERNATE)) {
3155                     len += 2;
3156                     sb.append(f.contains(Flags.UPPERCASE) ? "0X" : "0x");
3157                 }
3158                 if (f.contains(Flags.ZERO_PAD))
3159                     for (int i = 0; i < width - len; i++)
3160                         sb.append('0');
3161                 if (f.contains(Flags.UPPERCASE))
3162                     s = s.toUpperCase();
3163                 sb.append(s);
3164             }
3165 
3166             // trailing sign indicator
3167             trailingSign(sb, (value.signum() == -1));
3168 
3169             // justify based on width
3170             a.append(justify(sb.toString()));
3171         }
3172 
3173         private void print(float value, Locale l) throws IOException {
3174             print((double) value, l);
3175         }
3176 
3177         private void print(double value, Locale l) throws IOException {
3178             StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
3179             boolean neg = Double.compare(value, 0.0) == -1;
3180 
3181             if (!Double.isNaN(value)) {
3182                 double v = Math.abs(value);
3183 
3184                 // leading sign indicator
3185                 leadingSign(sb, neg);
3186 
3187                 // the value
3188                 if (!Double.isInfinite(v))
3189                     print(sb, v, l, f, c, precision, neg);
3190                 else
3191                     sb.append(f.contains(Flags.UPPERCASE)
3192                               ? "INFINITY" : "Infinity");
3193 
3194                 // trailing sign indicator
3195                 trailingSign(sb, neg);
3196             } else {
3197                 sb.append(f.contains(Flags.UPPERCASE) ? "NAN" : "NaN");
3198             }
3199 
3200             // justify based on width
3201             a.append(justify(sb.toString()));
3202         }
3203 
3204         // !Double.isInfinite(value) && !Double.isNaN(value)
3205         private void print(StringBuilder sb, double value, Locale l,
3206                            Flags f, char c, int precision, boolean neg)
3207             throws IOException
3208         {
3209             if (c == Conversion.SCIENTIFIC) {
3210                 // Create a new FormattedFloatingDecimal with the desired
3211                 // precision.
3212                 int prec = (precision == -1 ? 6 : precision);
3213 
3214                 FormattedFloatingDecimal fd
3215                     = new FormattedFloatingDecimal(value, prec,
3216                         FormattedFloatingDecimal.Form.SCIENTIFIC);
3217 
3218                 char[] v = new char[MAX_FD_CHARS];
3219                 int len = fd.getChars(v);
3220 
3221                 char[] mant = addZeros(mantissa(v, len), prec);
3222 
3223                 // If the precision is zero and the '#' flag is set, add the
3224                 // requested decimal point.
3225                 if (f.contains(Flags.ALTERNATE) && (prec == 0))
3226                     mant = addDot(mant);
3227 
3228                 char[] exp = (value == 0.0)
3229                     ? new char[] {'+','0','0'} : exponent(v, len);
3230 
3231                 int newW = width;
3232                 if (width != -1)
3233                     newW = adjustWidth(width - exp.length - 1, f, neg);
3234                 localizedMagnitude(sb, mant, f, newW, l);
3235 
3236                 sb.append(f.contains(Flags.UPPERCASE) ? 'E' : 'e');
3237 
3238                 Flags flags = f.dup().remove(Flags.GROUP);
3239                 char sign = exp[0];
3240                 assert(sign == '+' || sign == '-');
3241                 sb.append(sign);
3242 
3243                 char[] tmp = new char[exp.length - 1];
3244                 System.arraycopy(exp, 1, tmp, 0, exp.length - 1);
3245                 sb.append(localizedMagnitude(null, tmp, flags, -1, l));
3246             } else if (c == Conversion.DECIMAL_FLOAT) {
3247                 // Create a new FormattedFloatingDecimal with the desired
3248                 // precision.
3249                 int prec = (precision == -1 ? 6 : precision);
3250 
3251                 FormattedFloatingDecimal fd
3252                     = new FormattedFloatingDecimal(value, prec,
3253                         FormattedFloatingDecimal.Form.DECIMAL_FLOAT);
3254 
3255                 // MAX_FD_CHARS + 1 (round?)
3256                 char[] v = new char[MAX_FD_CHARS + 1
3257                                    + Math.abs(fd.getExponent())];
3258                 int len = fd.getChars(v);
3259 
3260                 char[] mant = addZeros(mantissa(v, len), prec);
3261 
3262                 // If the precision is zero and the '#' flag is set, add the
3263                 // requested decimal point.
3264                 if (f.contains(Flags.ALTERNATE) && (prec == 0))
3265                     mant = addDot(mant);
3266 
3267                 int newW = width;
3268                 if (width != -1)
3269                     newW = adjustWidth(width, f, neg);
3270                 localizedMagnitude(sb, mant, f, newW, l);
3271             } else if (c == Conversion.GENERAL) {
3272                 int prec = precision;
3273                 if (precision == -1)
3274                     prec = 6;
3275                 else if (precision == 0)
3276                     prec = 1;
3277 
3278                 FormattedFloatingDecimal fd
3279                     = new FormattedFloatingDecimal(value, prec,
3280                         FormattedFloatingDecimal.Form.GENERAL);
3281 
3282                 // MAX_FD_CHARS + 1 (round?)
3283                 char[] v = new char[MAX_FD_CHARS + 1
3284                                    + Math.abs(fd.getExponent())];
3285                 int len = fd.getChars(v);
3286 
3287                 char[] exp = exponent(v, len);
3288                 if (exp != null) {
3289                     prec -= 1;
3290                 } else {
3291                     prec = prec - (value == 0 ? 0 : fd.getExponentRounded()) - 1;
3292                 }
3293 
3294                 char[] mant = addZeros(mantissa(v, len), prec);
3295                 // If the precision is zero and the '#' flag is set, add the
3296                 // requested decimal point.
3297                 if (f.contains(Flags.ALTERNATE) && (prec == 0))
3298                     mant = addDot(mant);
3299 
3300                 int newW = width;
3301                 if (width != -1) {
3302                     if (exp != null)
3303                         newW = adjustWidth(width - exp.length - 1, f, neg);
3304                     else
3305                         newW = adjustWidth(width, f, neg);
3306                 }
3307                 localizedMagnitude(sb, mant, f, newW, l);
3308 
3309                 if (exp != null) {
3310                     sb.append(f.contains(Flags.UPPERCASE) ? 'E' : 'e');
3311 
3312                     Flags flags = f.dup().remove(Flags.GROUP);
3313                     char sign = exp[0];
3314                     assert(sign == '+' || sign == '-');
3315                     sb.append(sign);
3316 
3317                     char[] tmp = new char[exp.length - 1];
3318                     System.arraycopy(exp, 1, tmp, 0, exp.length - 1);
3319                     sb.append(localizedMagnitude(null, tmp, flags, -1, l));
3320                 }
3321             } else if (c == Conversion.HEXADECIMAL_FLOAT) {
3322                 int prec = precision;
3323                 if (precision == -1)
3324                     // assume that we want all of the digits
3325                     prec = 0;
3326                 else if (precision == 0)
3327                     prec = 1;
3328 
3329                 String s = hexDouble(value, prec);
3330 
3331                 char[] va;
3332                 boolean upper = f.contains(Flags.UPPERCASE);
3333                 sb.append(upper ? "0X" : "0x");
3334 
3335                 if (f.contains(Flags.ZERO_PAD))
3336                     for (int i = 0; i < width - s.length() - 2; i++)
3337                         sb.append('0');
3338 
3339                 int idx = s.indexOf('p');
3340                 va = s.substring(0, idx).toCharArray();
3341                 if (upper) {
3342                     String tmp = new String(va);
3343                     // don't localize hex
3344                     tmp = tmp.toUpperCase(Locale.US);
3345                     va = tmp.toCharArray();
3346                 }
3347                 sb.append(prec != 0 ? addZeros(va, prec) : va);
3348                 sb.append(upper ? 'P' : 'p');
3349                 sb.append(s.substring(idx+1));
3350             }
3351         }
3352 
3353         private char[] mantissa(char[] v, int len) {
3354             int i;
3355             for (i = 0; i < len; i++) {
3356                 if (v[i] == 'e')
3357                     break;
3358             }
3359             char[] tmp = new char[i];
3360             System.arraycopy(v, 0, tmp, 0, i);
3361             return tmp;
3362         }
3363 
3364         private char[] exponent(char[] v, int len) {
3365             int i;
3366             for (i = len - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
3367                 if (v[i] == 'e')
3368                     break;
3369             }
3370             if (i == -1)
3371                 return null;
3372             char[] tmp = new char[len - i - 1];
3373             System.arraycopy(v, i + 1, tmp, 0, len - i - 1);
3374             return tmp;
3375         }
3376 
3377         // Add zeros to the requested precision.
3378         private char[] addZeros(char[] v, int prec) {
3379             // Look for the dot.  If we don't find one, the we'll need to add
3380             // it before we add the zeros.
3381             int i;
3382             for (i = 0; i < v.length; i++) {
3383                 if (v[i] == '.')
3384                     break;
3385             }
3386             boolean needDot = false;
3387             if (i == v.length) {
3388                 needDot = true;
3389             }
3390 
3391             // Determine existing precision.
3392             int outPrec = v.length - i - (needDot ? 0 : 1);
3393             assert (outPrec <= prec);
3394             if (outPrec == prec)
3395                 return v;
3396 
3397             // Create new array with existing contents.
3398             char[] tmp
3399                 = new char[v.length + prec - outPrec + (needDot ? 1 : 0)];
3400             System.arraycopy(v, 0, tmp, 0, v.length);
3401 
3402             // Add dot if previously determined to be necessary.
3403             int start = v.length;
3404             if (needDot) {
3405                 tmp[v.length] = '.';
3406                 start++;
3407             }
3408 
3409             // Add zeros.
3410             for (int j = start; j < tmp.length; j++)
3411                 tmp[j] = '0';
3412 
3413             return tmp;
3414         }
3415 
3416         // Method assumes that d > 0.
3417         private String hexDouble(double d, int prec) {
3418             // Let Double.toHexString handle simple cases
3419             if(!Double.isFinite(d) || d == 0.0 || prec == 0 || prec >= 13)
3420                 // remove "0x"
3421                 return Double.toHexString(d).substring(2);
3422             else {
3423                 assert(prec >= 1 && prec <= 12);
3424 
3425                 int exponent  = Math.getExponent(d);
3426                 boolean subnormal
3427                     = (exponent == DoubleConsts.MIN_EXPONENT - 1);
3428 
3429                 // If this is subnormal input so normalize (could be faster to
3430                 // do as integer operation).
3431                 if (subnormal) {
3432                     scaleUp = Math.scalb(1.0, 54);
3433                     d *= scaleUp;
3434                     // Calculate the exponent.  This is not just exponent + 54
3435                     // since the former is not the normalized exponent.
3436                     exponent = Math.getExponent(d);
3437                     assert exponent >= DoubleConsts.MIN_EXPONENT &&
3438                         exponent <= DoubleConsts.MAX_EXPONENT: exponent;
3439                 }
3440 
3441                 int precision = 1 + prec*4;
3442                 int shiftDistance
3443                     =  DoubleConsts.SIGNIFICAND_WIDTH - precision;
3444                 assert(shiftDistance >= 1 && shiftDistance < DoubleConsts.SIGNIFICAND_WIDTH);
3445 
3446                 long doppel = Double.doubleToLongBits(d);
3447                 // Deterime the number of bits to keep.
3448                 long newSignif
3449                     = (doppel & (DoubleConsts.EXP_BIT_MASK
3450                                  | DoubleConsts.SIGNIF_BIT_MASK))
3451                                      >> shiftDistance;
3452                 // Bits to round away.
3453                 long roundingBits = doppel & ~(~0L << shiftDistance);
3454 
3455                 // To decide how to round, look at the low-order bit of the
3456                 // working significand, the highest order discarded bit (the
3457                 // round bit) and whether any of the lower order discarded bits
3458                 // are nonzero (the sticky bit).
3459 
3460                 boolean leastZero = (newSignif & 0x1L) == 0L;
3461                 boolean round
3462                     = ((1L << (shiftDistance - 1) ) & roundingBits) != 0L;
3463                 boolean sticky  = shiftDistance > 1 &&
3464                     (~(1L<< (shiftDistance - 1)) & roundingBits) != 0;
3465                 if((leastZero && round && sticky) || (!leastZero && round)) {
3466                     newSignif++;
3467                 }
3468 
3469                 long signBit = doppel & DoubleConsts.SIGN_BIT_MASK;
3470                 newSignif = signBit | (newSignif << shiftDistance);
3471                 double result = Double.longBitsToDouble(newSignif);
3472 
3473                 if (Double.isInfinite(result) ) {
3474                     // Infinite result generated by rounding
3475                     return "1.0p1024";
3476                 } else {
3477                     String res = Double.toHexString(result).substring(2);
3478                     if (!subnormal)
3479                         return res;
3480                     else {
3481                         // Create a normalized subnormal string.
3482                         int idx = res.indexOf('p');
3483                         if (idx == -1) {
3484                             // No 'p' character in hex string.
3485                             assert false;
3486                             return null;
3487                         } else {
3488                             // Get exponent and append at the end.
3489                             String exp = res.substring(idx + 1);
3490                             int iexp = Integer.parseInt(exp) -54;
3491                             return res.substring(0, idx) + "p"
3492                                 + Integer.toString(iexp);
3493                         }
3494                     }
3495                 }
3496             }
3497         }
3498 
3499         private void print(BigDecimal value, Locale l) throws IOException {
3500             if (c == Conversion.HEXADECIMAL_FLOAT)
3501                 failConversion(c, value);
3502             StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
3503             boolean neg = value.signum() == -1;
3504             BigDecimal v = value.abs();
3505             // leading sign indicator
3506             leadingSign(sb, neg);
3507 
3508             // the value
3509             print(sb, v, l, f, c, precision, neg);
3510 
3511             // trailing sign indicator
3512             trailingSign(sb, neg);
3513 
3514             // justify based on width
3515             a.append(justify(sb.toString()));
3516         }
3517 
3518         // value > 0
3519         private void print(StringBuilder sb, BigDecimal value, Locale l,
3520                            Flags f, char c, int precision, boolean neg)
3521             throws IOException
3522         {
3523             if (c == Conversion.SCIENTIFIC) {
3524                 // Create a new BigDecimal with the desired precision.
3525                 int prec = (precision == -1 ? 6 : precision);
3526                 int scale = value.scale();
3527                 int origPrec = value.precision();
3528                 int nzeros = 0;
3529                 int compPrec;
3530 
3531                 if (prec > origPrec - 1) {
3532                     compPrec = origPrec;
3533                     nzeros = prec - (origPrec - 1);
3534                 } else {
3535                     compPrec = prec + 1;
3536                 }
3537 
3538                 MathContext mc = new MathContext(compPrec);
3539                 BigDecimal v
3540                     = new BigDecimal(value.unscaledValue(), scale, mc);
3541 
3542                 BigDecimalLayout bdl
3543                     = new BigDecimalLayout(v.unscaledValue(), v.scale(),
3544                                            BigDecimalLayoutForm.SCIENTIFIC);
3545 
3546                 char[] mant = bdl.mantissa();
3547 
3548                 // Add a decimal point if necessary.  The mantissa may not
3549                 // contain a decimal point if the scale is zero (the internal
3550                 // representation has no fractional part) or the original
3551                 // precision is one. Append a decimal point if '#' is set or if
3552                 // we require zero padding to get to the requested precision.
3553                 if ((origPrec == 1 || !bdl.hasDot())
3554                     && (nzeros > 0 || (f.contains(Flags.ALTERNATE))))
3555                     mant = addDot(mant);
3556 
3557                 // Add trailing zeros in the case precision is greater than
3558                 // the number of available digits after the decimal separator.
3559                 mant = trailingZeros(mant, nzeros);
3560 
3561                 char[] exp = bdl.exponent();
3562                 int newW = width;
3563                 if (width != -1)
3564                     newW = adjustWidth(width - exp.length - 1, f, neg);
3565                 localizedMagnitude(sb, mant, f, newW, l);
3566 
3567                 sb.append(f.contains(Flags.UPPERCASE) ? 'E' : 'e');
3568 
3569                 Flags flags = f.dup().remove(Flags.GROUP);
3570                 char sign = exp[0];
3571                 assert(sign == '+' || sign == '-');
3572                 sb.append(exp[0]);
3573 
3574                 char[] tmp = new char[exp.length - 1];
3575                 System.arraycopy(exp, 1, tmp, 0, exp.length - 1);
3576                 sb.append(localizedMagnitude(null, tmp, flags, -1, l));
3577             } else if (c == Conversion.DECIMAL_FLOAT) {
3578                 // Create a new BigDecimal with the desired precision.
3579                 int prec = (precision == -1 ? 6 : precision);
3580                 int scale = value.scale();
3581 
3582                 if (scale > prec) {
3583                     // more "scale" digits than the requested "precision"
3584                     int compPrec = value.precision();
3585                     if (compPrec <= scale) {
3586                         // case of 0.xxxxxx
3587                         value = value.setScale(prec, RoundingMode.HALF_UP);
3588                     } else {
3589                         compPrec -= (scale - prec);
3590                         value = new BigDecimal(value.unscaledValue(),
3591                                                scale,
3592                                                new MathContext(compPrec));
3593                     }
3594                 }
3595                 BigDecimalLayout bdl = new BigDecimalLayout(
3596                                            value.unscaledValue(),
3597                                            value.scale(),
3598                                            BigDecimalLayoutForm.DECIMAL_FLOAT);
3599 
3600                 char mant[] = bdl.mantissa();
3601                 int nzeros = (bdl.scale() < prec ? prec - bdl.scale() : 0);
3602 
3603                 // Add a decimal point if necessary.  The mantissa may not
3604                 // contain a decimal point if the scale is zero (the internal
3605                 // representation has no fractional part).  Append a decimal
3606                 // point if '#' is set or we require zero padding to get to the
3607                 // requested precision.
3608                 if (bdl.scale() == 0 && (f.contains(Flags.ALTERNATE) || nzeros > 0))
3609                     mant = addDot(bdl.mantissa());
3610 
3611                 // Add trailing zeros if the precision is greater than the
3612                 // number of available digits after the decimal separator.
3613                 mant = trailingZeros(mant, nzeros);
3614 
3615                 localizedMagnitude(sb, mant, f, adjustWidth(width, f, neg), l);
3616             } else if (c == Conversion.GENERAL) {
3617                 int prec = precision;
3618                 if (precision == -1)
3619                     prec = 6;
3620                 else if (precision == 0)
3621                     prec = 1;
3622 
3623                 BigDecimal tenToTheNegFour = BigDecimal.valueOf(1, 4);
3624                 BigDecimal tenToThePrec = BigDecimal.valueOf(1, -prec);
3625                 if ((value.equals(BigDecimal.ZERO))
3626                     || ((value.compareTo(tenToTheNegFour) != -1)
3627                         && (value.compareTo(tenToThePrec) == -1))) {
3628 
3629                     int e = - value.scale()
3630                         + (value.unscaledValue().toString().length() - 1);
3631 
3632                     // xxx.yyy
3633                     //   g precision (# sig digits) = #x + #y
3634                     //   f precision = #y
3635                     //   exponent = #x - 1
3636                     // => f precision = g precision - exponent - 1
3637                     // 0.000zzz
3638                     //   g precision (# sig digits) = #z
3639                     //   f precision = #0 (after '.') + #z
3640                     //   exponent = - #0 (after '.') - 1
3641                     // => f precision = g precision - exponent - 1
3642                     prec = prec - e - 1;
3643 
3644                     print(sb, value, l, f, Conversion.DECIMAL_FLOAT, prec,
3645                           neg);
3646                 } else {
3647                     print(sb, value, l, f, Conversion.SCIENTIFIC, prec - 1, neg);
3648                 }
3649             } else if (c == Conversion.HEXADECIMAL_FLOAT) {
3650                 // This conversion isn't supported.  The error should be
3651                 // reported earlier.
3652                 assert false;
3653             }
3654         }
3655 
3656         private class BigDecimalLayout {
3657             private StringBuilder mant;
3658             private StringBuilder exp;
3659             private boolean dot = false;
3660             private int scale;
3661 
3662             public BigDecimalLayout(BigInteger intVal, int scale, BigDecimalLayoutForm form) {
3663                 layout(intVal, scale, form);
3664             }
3665 
3666             public boolean hasDot() {
3667                 return dot;
3668             }
3669 
3670             public int scale() {
3671                 return scale;
3672             }
3673 
3674             // char[] with canonical string representation
3675             public char[] layoutChars() {
3676                 StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder(mant);
3677                 if (exp != null) {
3678                     sb.append('E');
3679                     sb.append(exp);
3680                 }
3681                 return toCharArray(sb);
3682             }
3683 
3684             public char[] mantissa() {
3685                 return toCharArray(mant);
3686             }
3687 
3688             // The exponent will be formatted as a sign ('+' or '-') followed
3689             // by the exponent zero-padded to include at least two digits.
3690             public char[] exponent() {
3691                 return toCharArray(exp);
3692             }
3693 
3694             private char[] toCharArray(StringBuilder sb) {
3695                 if (sb == null)
3696                     return null;
3697                 char[] result = new char[sb.length()];
3698                 sb.getChars(0, result.length, result, 0);
3699                 return result;
3700             }
3701 
3702             private void layout(BigInteger intVal, int scale, BigDecimalLayoutForm form) {
3703                 char coeff[] = intVal.toString().toCharArray();
3704                 this.scale = scale;
3705 
3706                 // Construct a buffer, with sufficient capacity for all cases.
3707                 // If E-notation is needed, length will be: +1 if negative, +1
3708                 // if '.' needed, +2 for "E+", + up to 10 for adjusted
3709                 // exponent.  Otherwise it could have +1 if negative, plus
3710                 // leading "0.00000"
3711                 mant = new StringBuilder(coeff.length + 14);
3712 
3713                 if (scale == 0) {
3714                     int len = coeff.length;
3715                     if (len > 1) {
3716                         mant.append(coeff[0]);
3717                         if (form == BigDecimalLayoutForm.SCIENTIFIC) {
3718                             mant.append('.');
3719                             dot = true;
3720                             mant.append(coeff, 1, len - 1);
3721                             exp = new StringBuilder("+");
3722                             if (len < 10)
3723                                 exp.append("0").append(len - 1);
3724                             else
3725                                 exp.append(len - 1);
3726                         } else {
3727                             mant.append(coeff, 1, len - 1);
3728                         }
3729                     } else {
3730                         mant.append(coeff);
3731                         if (form == BigDecimalLayoutForm.SCIENTIFIC)
3732                             exp = new StringBuilder("+00");
3733                     }
3734                     return;
3735                 }
3736                 long adjusted = -(long) scale + (coeff.length - 1);
3737                 if (form == BigDecimalLayoutForm.DECIMAL_FLOAT) {
3738                     // count of padding zeros
3739                     int pad = scale - coeff.length;
3740                     if (pad >= 0) {
3741                         // 0.xxx form
3742                         mant.append("0.");
3743                         dot = true;
3744                         for (; pad > 0 ; pad--) mant.append('0');
3745                         mant.append(coeff);
3746                     } else {
3747                         if (-pad < coeff.length) {
3748                             // xx.xx form
3749                             mant.append(coeff, 0, -pad);
3750                             mant.append('.');
3751                             dot = true;
3752                             mant.append(coeff, -pad, scale);
3753                         } else {
3754                             // xx form
3755                             mant.append(coeff, 0, coeff.length);
3756                             for (int i = 0; i < -scale; i++)
3757                                 mant.append('0');
3758                             this.scale = 0;
3759                         }
3760                     }
3761                 } else {
3762                     // x.xxx form
3763                     mant.append(coeff[0]);
3764                     if (coeff.length > 1) {
3765                         mant.append('.');
3766                         dot = true;
3767                         mant.append(coeff, 1, coeff.length-1);
3768                     }
3769                     exp = new StringBuilder();
3770                     if (adjusted != 0) {
3771                         long abs = Math.abs(adjusted);
3772                         // require sign
3773                         exp.append(adjusted < 0 ? '-' : '+');
3774                         if (abs < 10)
3775                             exp.append('0');
3776                         exp.append(abs);
3777                     } else {
3778                         exp.append("+00");
3779                     }
3780                 }
3781             }
3782         }
3783 
3784         private int adjustWidth(int width, Flags f, boolean neg) {
3785             int newW = width;
3786             if (newW != -1 && neg && f.contains(Flags.PARENTHESES))
3787                 newW--;
3788             return newW;
3789         }
3790 
3791         // Add a '.' to th mantissa if required
3792         private char[] addDot(char[] mant) {
3793             char[] tmp = mant;
3794             tmp = new char[mant.length + 1];
3795             System.arraycopy(mant, 0, tmp, 0, mant.length);
3796             tmp[tmp.length - 1] = '.';
3797             return tmp;
3798         }
3799 
3800         // Add trailing zeros in the case precision is greater than the number
3801         // of available digits after the decimal separator.
3802         private char[] trailingZeros(char[] mant, int nzeros) {
3803             char[] tmp = mant;
3804             if (nzeros > 0) {
3805                 tmp = new char[mant.length + nzeros];
3806                 System.arraycopy(mant, 0, tmp, 0, mant.length);
3807                 for (int i = mant.length; i < tmp.length; i++)
3808                     tmp[i] = '0';
3809             }
3810             return tmp;
3811         }
3812 
3813         private void print(Calendar t, char c, Locale l)  throws IOException
3814         {
3815             StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
3816             print(sb, t, c, l);
3817 
3818             // justify based on width
3819             String s = justify(sb.toString());
3820             if (f.contains(Flags.UPPERCASE))
3821                 s = s.toUpperCase();
3822 
3823             a.append(s);
3824         }
3825 
3826         private Appendable print(StringBuilder sb, Calendar t, char c,
3827                                  Locale l)
3828             throws IOException
3829         {
3830             assert(width == -1);
3831             if (sb == null)
3832                 sb = new StringBuilder();
3833             switch (c) {
3834             case DateTime.HOUR_OF_DAY_0: // 'H' (00 - 23)
3835             case DateTime.HOUR_0:        // 'I' (01 - 12)
3836             case DateTime.HOUR_OF_DAY:   // 'k' (0 - 23) -- like H
3837             case DateTime.HOUR:        { // 'l' (1 - 12) -- like I
3838                 int i = t.get(Calendar.HOUR_OF_DAY);
3839                 if (c == DateTime.HOUR_0 || c == DateTime.HOUR)
3840                     i = (i == 0 || i == 12 ? 12 : i % 12);
3841                 Flags flags = (c == DateTime.HOUR_OF_DAY_0
3842                                || c == DateTime.HOUR_0
3843                                ? Flags.ZERO_PAD
3844                                : Flags.NONE);
3845                 sb.append(localizedMagnitude(null, i, flags, 2, l));
3846                 break;
3847             }
3848             case DateTime.MINUTE:      { // 'M' (00 - 59)
3849                 int i = t.get(Calendar.MINUTE);
3850                 Flags flags = Flags.ZERO_PAD;
3851                 sb.append(localizedMagnitude(null, i, flags, 2, l));
3852                 break;
3853             }
3854             case DateTime.NANOSECOND:  { // 'N' (000000000 - 999999999)
3855                 int i = t.get(Calendar.MILLISECOND) * 1000000;
3856                 Flags flags = Flags.ZERO_PAD;
3857                 sb.append(localizedMagnitude(null, i, flags, 9, l));
3858                 break;
3859             }
3860             case DateTime.MILLISECOND: { // 'L' (000 - 999)
3861                 int i = t.get(Calendar.MILLISECOND);
3862                 Flags flags = Flags.ZERO_PAD;
3863                 sb.append(localizedMagnitude(null, i, flags, 3, l));
3864                 break;
3865             }
3866             case DateTime.MILLISECOND_SINCE_EPOCH: { // 'Q' (0 - 99...?)
3867                 long i = t.getTimeInMillis();
3868                 Flags flags = Flags.NONE;
3869                 sb.append(localizedMagnitude(null, i, flags, width, l));
3870                 break;
3871             }
3872             case DateTime.AM_PM:       { // 'p' (am or pm)
3873                 // Calendar.AM = 0, Calendar.PM = 1, LocaleElements defines upper
3874                 String[] ampm = { "AM", "PM" };
3875                 if (l != null && l != Locale.US) {
3876                     DateFormatSymbols dfs = DateFormatSymbols.getInstance(l);
3877                     ampm = dfs.getAmPmStrings();
3878                 }
3879                 String s = ampm[t.get(Calendar.AM_PM)];
3880                 sb.append(s.toLowerCase(l != null ? l : Locale.US));
3881                 break;
3882             }
3883             case DateTime.SECONDS_SINCE_EPOCH: { // 's' (0 - 99...?)
3884                 long i = t.getTimeInMillis() / 1000;
3885                 Flags flags = Flags.NONE;
3886                 sb.append(localizedMagnitude(null, i, flags, width, l));
3887                 break;
3888             }
3889             case DateTime.SECOND:      { // 'S' (00 - 60 - leap second)
3890                 int i = t.get(Calendar.SECOND);
3891                 Flags flags = Flags.ZERO_PAD;
3892                 sb.append(localizedMagnitude(null, i, flags, 2, l));
3893                 break;
3894             }
3895             case DateTime.ZONE_NUMERIC: { // 'z' ({-|+}####) - ls minus?
3896                 int i = t.get(Calendar.ZONE_OFFSET) + t.get(Calendar.DST_OFFSET);
3897                 boolean neg = i < 0;
3898                 sb.append(neg ? '-' : '+');
3899                 if (neg)
3900                     i = -i;
3901                 int min = i / 60000;
3902                 // combine minute and hour into a single integer
3903                 int offset = (min / 60) * 100 + (min % 60);
3904                 Flags flags = Flags.ZERO_PAD;
3905 
3906                 sb.append(localizedMagnitude(null, offset, flags, 4, l));
3907                 break;
3908             }
3909             case DateTime.ZONE:        { // 'Z' (symbol)
3910                 TimeZone tz = t.getTimeZone();
3911                 sb.append(tz.getDisplayName((t.get(Calendar.DST_OFFSET) != 0),
3912                                            TimeZone.SHORT,
3913                                             (l == null) ? Locale.US : l));
3914                 break;
3915             }
3916 
3917             // Date
3918             case DateTime.NAME_OF_DAY_ABBREV:     // 'a'
3919             case DateTime.NAME_OF_DAY:          { // 'A'
3920                 int i = t.get(Calendar.DAY_OF_WEEK);
3921                 Locale lt = ((l == null) ? Locale.US : l);
3922                 DateFormatSymbols dfs = DateFormatSymbols.getInstance(lt);
3923                 if (c == DateTime.NAME_OF_DAY)
3924                     sb.append(dfs.getWeekdays()[i]);
3925                 else
3926                     sb.append(dfs.getShortWeekdays()[i]);
3927                 break;
3928             }
3929             case DateTime.NAME_OF_MONTH_ABBREV:   // 'b'
3930             case DateTime.NAME_OF_MONTH_ABBREV_X: // 'h' -- same b
3931             case DateTime.NAME_OF_MONTH:        { // 'B'
3932                 int i = t.get(Calendar.MONTH);
3933                 Locale lt = ((l == null) ? Locale.US : l);
3934                 DateFormatSymbols dfs = DateFormatSymbols.getInstance(lt);
3935                 if (c == DateTime.NAME_OF_MONTH)
3936                     sb.append(dfs.getMonths()[i]);
3937                 else
3938                     sb.append(dfs.getShortMonths()[i]);
3939                 break;
3940             }
3941             case DateTime.CENTURY:                // 'C' (00 - 99)
3942             case DateTime.YEAR_2:                 // 'y' (00 - 99)
3943             case DateTime.YEAR_4:               { // 'Y' (0000 - 9999)
3944                 int i = t.get(Calendar.YEAR);
3945                 int size = 2;
3946                 switch (c) {
3947                 case DateTime.CENTURY:
3948                     i /= 100;
3949                     break;
3950                 case DateTime.YEAR_2:
3951                     i %= 100;
3952                     break;
3953                 case DateTime.YEAR_4:
3954                     size = 4;
3955                     break;
3956                 }
3957                 Flags flags = Flags.ZERO_PAD;
3958                 sb.append(localizedMagnitude(null, i, flags, size, l));
3959                 break;
3960             }
3961             case DateTime.DAY_OF_MONTH_0:         // 'd' (01 - 31)
3962             case DateTime.DAY_OF_MONTH:         { // 'e' (1 - 31) -- like d
3963                 int i = t.get(Calendar.DATE);
3964                 Flags flags = (c == DateTime.DAY_OF_MONTH_0
3965                                ? Flags.ZERO_PAD
3966                                : Flags.NONE);
3967                 sb.append(localizedMagnitude(null, i, flags, 2, l));
3968                 break;
3969             }
3970             case DateTime.DAY_OF_YEAR:          { // 'j' (001 - 366)
3971                 int i = t.get(Calendar.DAY_OF_YEAR);
3972                 Flags flags = Flags.ZERO_PAD;
3973                 sb.append(localizedMagnitude(null, i, flags, 3, l));
3974                 break;
3975             }
3976             case DateTime.MONTH:                { // 'm' (01 - 12)
3977                 int i = t.get(Calendar.MONTH) + 1;
3978                 Flags flags = Flags.ZERO_PAD;
3979                 sb.append(localizedMagnitude(null, i, flags, 2, l));
3980                 break;
3981             }
3982 
3983             // Composites
3984             case DateTime.TIME:         // 'T' (24 hour hh:mm:ss - %tH:%tM:%tS)
3985             case DateTime.TIME_24_HOUR:    { // 'R' (hh:mm same as %H:%M)
3986                 char sep = ':';
3987                 print(sb, t, DateTime.HOUR_OF_DAY_0, l).append(sep);
3988                 print(sb, t, DateTime.MINUTE, l);
3989                 if (c == DateTime.TIME) {
3990                     sb.append(sep);
3991                     print(sb, t, DateTime.SECOND, l);
3992                 }
3993                 break;
3994             }
3995             case DateTime.TIME_12_HOUR:    { // 'r' (hh:mm:ss [AP]M)
3996                 char sep = ':';
3997                 print(sb, t, DateTime.HOUR_0, l).append(sep);
3998                 print(sb, t, DateTime.MINUTE, l).append(sep);
3999                 print(sb, t, DateTime.SECOND, l).append(' ');
4000                 // this may be in wrong place for some locales
4001                 StringBuilder tsb = new StringBuilder();
4002                 print(tsb, t, DateTime.AM_PM, l);
4003                 sb.append(tsb.toString().toUpperCase(l != null ? l : Locale.US));
4004                 break;
4005             }
4006             case DateTime.DATE_TIME:    { // 'c' (Sat Nov 04 12:02:33 EST 1999)
4007                 char sep = ' ';
4008                 print(sb, t, DateTime.NAME_OF_DAY_ABBREV, l).append(sep);
4009                 print(sb, t, DateTime.NAME_OF_MONTH_ABBREV, l).append(sep);
4010                 print(sb, t, DateTime.DAY_OF_MONTH_0, l).append(sep);
4011                 print(sb, t, DateTime.TIME, l).append(sep);
4012                 print(sb, t, DateTime.ZONE, l).append(sep);
4013                 print(sb, t, DateTime.YEAR_4, l);
4014                 break;
4015             }
4016             case DateTime.DATE:            { // 'D' (mm/dd/yy)
4017                 char sep = '/';
4018                 print(sb, t, DateTime.MONTH, l).append(sep);
4019                 print(sb, t, DateTime.DAY_OF_MONTH_0, l).append(sep);
4020                 print(sb, t, DateTime.YEAR_2, l);
4021                 break;
4022             }
4023             case DateTime.ISO_STANDARD_DATE: { // 'F' (%Y-%m-%d)
4024                 char sep = '-';
4025                 print(sb, t, DateTime.YEAR_4, l).append(sep);
4026                 print(sb, t, DateTime.MONTH, l).append(sep);
4027                 print(sb, t, DateTime.DAY_OF_MONTH_0, l);
4028                 break;
4029             }
4030             default:
4031                 assert false;
4032             }
4033             return sb;
4034         }
4035 
4036         // -- Methods to support throwing exceptions --
4037 
4038         private void failMismatch(Flags f, char c) {
4039             String fs = f.toString();
4040             throw new FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException(fs, c);
4041         }
4042 
4043         private void failConversion(char c, Object arg) {
4044             throw new IllegalFormatConversionException(c, arg.getClass());
4045         }
4046 
4047         private char getZero(Locale l) {
4048             if ((l != null) &&  !l.equals(locale())) {
4049                 DecimalFormatSymbols dfs = DecimalFormatSymbols.getInstance(l);
4050                 return dfs.getZeroDigit();
4051             }
4052             return zero;
4053         }
4054 
4055         private StringBuilder
4056             localizedMagnitude(StringBuilder sb, long value, Flags f,
4057                                int width, Locale l)
4058         {
4059             char[] va = Long.toString(value, 10).toCharArray();
4060             return localizedMagnitude(sb, va, f, width, l);
4061         }
4062 
4063         private StringBuilder
4064             localizedMagnitude(StringBuilder sb, char[] value, Flags f,
4065                                int width, Locale l)
4066         {
4067             if (sb == null)
4068                 sb = new StringBuilder();
4069             int begin = sb.length();
4070 
4071             char zero = getZero(l);
4072 
4073             // determine localized grouping separator and size
4074             char grpSep = '\0';
4075             int  grpSize = -1;
4076             char decSep = '\0';
4077 
4078             int len = value.length;
4079             int dot = len;
4080             for (int j = 0; j < len; j++) {
4081                 if (value[j] == '.') {
4082                     dot = j;
4083                     break;
4084                 }
4085             }
4086 
4087             if (dot < len) {
4088                 if (l == null || l.equals(Locale.US)) {
4089                     decSep  = '.';
4090                 } else {
4091                     DecimalFormatSymbols dfs = DecimalFormatSymbols.getInstance(l);
4092                     decSep  = dfs.getDecimalSeparator();
4093                 }
4094             }
4095 
4096             if (f.contains(Flags.GROUP)) {
4097                 if (l == null || l.equals(Locale.US)) {
4098                     grpSep = ',';
4099                     grpSize = 3;
4100                 } else {
4101                     DecimalFormatSymbols dfs = DecimalFormatSymbols.getInstance(l);
4102                     grpSep = dfs.getGroupingSeparator();
4103                     DecimalFormat df = (DecimalFormat) NumberFormat.getIntegerInstance(l);
4104                     grpSize = df.getGroupingSize();
4105                 }
4106             }
4107 
4108             // localize the digits inserting group separators as necessary
4109             for (int j = 0; j < len; j++) {
4110                 if (j == dot) {
4111                     sb.append(decSep);
4112                     // no more group separators after the decimal separator
4113                     grpSep = '\0';
4114                     continue;
4115                 }
4116 
4117                 char c = value[j];
4118                 sb.append((char) ((c - '0') + zero));
4119                 if (grpSep != '\0' && j != dot - 1 && ((dot - j) % grpSize == 1))
4120                     sb.append(grpSep);
4121             }
4122 
4123             // apply zero padding
4124             len = sb.length();
4125             if (width != -1 && f.contains(Flags.ZERO_PAD))
4126                 for (int k = 0; k < width - len; k++)
4127                     sb.insert(begin, zero);
4128 
4129             return sb;
4130         }
4131     }
4132 
4133     private static class Flags {
4134         private int flags;
4135 
4136         static final Flags NONE          = new Flags(0);      // ''
4137 
4138         // duplicate declarations from Formattable.java
4139         static final Flags LEFT_JUSTIFY  = new Flags(1<<0);   // '-'
4140         static final Flags UPPERCASE     = new Flags(1<<1);   // '^'
4141         static final Flags ALTERNATE     = new Flags(1<<2);   // '#'
4142 
4143         // numerics
4144         static final Flags PLUS          = new Flags(1<<3);   // '+'
4145         static final Flags LEADING_SPACE = new Flags(1<<4);   // ' '
4146         static final Flags ZERO_PAD      = new Flags(1<<5);   // '0'
4147         static final Flags GROUP         = new Flags(1<<6);   // ','
4148         static final Flags PARENTHESES   = new Flags(1<<7);   // '('
4149 
4150         // indexing
4151         static final Flags PREVIOUS      = new Flags(1<<8);   // '<'
4152 
4153         private Flags(int f) {
4154             flags = f;
4155         }
4156 
4157         public int valueOf() {
4158             return flags;
4159         }
4160 
4161         public boolean contains(Flags f) {
4162             return (flags & f.valueOf()) == f.valueOf();
4163         }
4164 
4165         public Flags dup() {
4166             return new Flags(flags);
4167         }
4168 
4169         private Flags add(Flags f) {
4170             flags |= f.valueOf();
4171             return this;
4172         }
4173 
4174         public Flags remove(Flags f) {
4175             flags &= ~f.valueOf();
4176             return this;
4177         }
4178 
4179         public static Flags parse(String s) {
4180             char[] ca = s.toCharArray();
4181             Flags f = new Flags(0);
4182             for (int i = 0; i < ca.length; i++) {
4183                 Flags v = parse(ca[i]);
4184                 if (f.contains(v))
4185                     throw new DuplicateFormatFlagsException(v.toString());
4186                 f.add(v);
4187             }
4188             return f;
4189         }
4190 
4191         // parse those flags which may be provided by users
4192         private static Flags parse(char c) {
4193             switch (c) {
4194             case '-': return LEFT_JUSTIFY;
4195             case '#': return ALTERNATE;
4196             case '+': return PLUS;
4197             case ' ': return LEADING_SPACE;
4198             case '0': return ZERO_PAD;
4199             case ',': return GROUP;
4200             case '(': return PARENTHESES;
4201             case '<': return PREVIOUS;
4202             default:
4203                 throw new UnknownFormatFlagsException(String.valueOf(c));
4204             }
4205         }
4206 
4207         // Returns a string representation of the current {@code Flags}.
4208         public static String toString(Flags f) {
4209             return f.toString();
4210         }
4211 
4212         public String toString() {
4213             StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
4214             if (contains(LEFT_JUSTIFY))  sb.append('-');
4215             if (contains(UPPERCASE))     sb.append('^');
4216             if (contains(ALTERNATE))     sb.append('#');
4217             if (contains(PLUS))          sb.append('+');
4218             if (contains(LEADING_SPACE)) sb.append(' ');
4219             if (contains(ZERO_PAD))      sb.append('0');
4220             if (contains(GROUP))         sb.append(',');
4221             if (contains(PARENTHESES))   sb.append('(');
4222             if (contains(PREVIOUS))      sb.append('<');
4223             return sb.toString();
4224         }
4225     }
4226 
4227     private static class Conversion {
4228         // Byte, Short, Integer, Long, BigInteger
4229         // (and associated primitives due to autoboxing)
4230         static final char DECIMAL_INTEGER     = 'd';
4231         static final char OCTAL_INTEGER       = 'o';
4232         static final char HEXADECIMAL_INTEGER = 'x';
4233         static final char HEXADECIMAL_INTEGER_UPPER = 'X';
4234 
4235         // Float, Double, BigDecimal
4236         // (and associated primitives due to autoboxing)
4237         static final char SCIENTIFIC          = 'e';
4238         static final char SCIENTIFIC_UPPER    = 'E';
4239         static final char GENERAL             = 'g';
4240         static final char GENERAL_UPPER       = 'G';
4241         static final char DECIMAL_FLOAT       = 'f';
4242         static final char HEXADECIMAL_FLOAT   = 'a';
4243         static final char HEXADECIMAL_FLOAT_UPPER = 'A';
4244 
4245         // Character, Byte, Short, Integer
4246         // (and associated primitives due to autoboxing)
4247         static final char CHARACTER           = 'c';
4248         static final char CHARACTER_UPPER     = 'C';
4249 
4250         // java.util.Date, java.util.Calendar, long
4251         static final char DATE_TIME           = 't';
4252         static final char DATE_TIME_UPPER     = 'T';
4253 
4254         // if (arg.TYPE != boolean) return boolean
4255         // if (arg != null) return true; else return false;
4256         static final char BOOLEAN             = 'b';
4257         static final char BOOLEAN_UPPER       = 'B';
4258         // if (arg instanceof Formattable) arg.formatTo()
4259         // else arg.toString();
4260         static final char STRING              = 's';
4261         static final char STRING_UPPER        = 'S';
4262         // arg.hashCode()
4263         static final char HASHCODE            = 'h';
4264         static final char HASHCODE_UPPER      = 'H';
4265 
4266         static final char LINE_SEPARATOR      = 'n';
4267         static final char PERCENT_SIGN        = '%';
4268 
4269         static boolean isValid(char c) {
4270             return (isGeneral(c) || isInteger(c) || isFloat(c) || isText(c)
4271                     || c == 't' || isCharacter(c));
4272         }
4273 
4274         // Returns true iff the Conversion is applicable to all objects.
4275         static boolean isGeneral(char c) {
4276             switch (c) {
4277             case BOOLEAN:
4278             case BOOLEAN_UPPER:
4279             case STRING:
4280             case STRING_UPPER:
4281             case HASHCODE:
4282             case HASHCODE_UPPER:
4283                 return true;
4284             default:
4285                 return false;
4286             }
4287         }
4288 
4289         // Returns true iff the Conversion is applicable to character.
4290         static boolean isCharacter(char c) {
4291             switch (c) {
4292             case CHARACTER:
4293             case CHARACTER_UPPER:
4294                 return true;
4295             default:
4296                 return false;
4297             }
4298         }
4299 
4300         // Returns true iff the Conversion is an integer type.
4301         static boolean isInteger(char c) {
4302             switch (c) {
4303             case DECIMAL_INTEGER:
4304             case OCTAL_INTEGER:
4305             case HEXADECIMAL_INTEGER:
4306             case HEXADECIMAL_INTEGER_UPPER:
4307                 return true;
4308             default:
4309                 return false;
4310             }
4311         }
4312 
4313         // Returns true iff the Conversion is a floating-point type.
4314         static boolean isFloat(char c) {
4315             switch (c) {
4316             case SCIENTIFIC:
4317             case SCIENTIFIC_UPPER:
4318             case GENERAL:
4319             case GENERAL_UPPER:
4320             case DECIMAL_FLOAT:
4321             case HEXADECIMAL_FLOAT:
4322             case HEXADECIMAL_FLOAT_UPPER:
4323                 return true;
4324             default:
4325                 return false;
4326             }
4327         }
4328 
4329         // Returns true iff the Conversion does not require an argument
4330         static boolean isText(char c) {
4331             switch (c) {
4332             case LINE_SEPARATOR:
4333             case PERCENT_SIGN:
4334                 return true;
4335             default:
4336                 return false;
4337             }
4338         }
4339     }
4340 
4341     private static class DateTime {
4342         static final char HOUR_OF_DAY_0 = 'H'; // (00 - 23)
4343         static final char HOUR_0        = 'I'; // (01 - 12)
4344         static final char HOUR_OF_DAY   = 'k'; // (0 - 23) -- like H
4345         static final char HOUR          = 'l'; // (1 - 12) -- like I
4346         static final char MINUTE        = 'M'; // (00 - 59)
4347         static final char NANOSECOND    = 'N'; // (000000000 - 999999999)
4348         static final char MILLISECOND   = 'L'; // jdk, not in gnu (000 - 999)
4349         static final char MILLISECOND_SINCE_EPOCH = 'Q'; // (0 - 99...?)
4350         static final char AM_PM         = 'p'; // (am or pm)
4351         static final char SECONDS_SINCE_EPOCH = 's'; // (0 - 99...?)
4352         static final char SECOND        = 'S'; // (00 - 60 - leap second)
4353         static final char TIME          = 'T'; // (24 hour hh:mm:ss)
4354         static final char ZONE_NUMERIC  = 'z'; // (-1200 - +1200) - ls minus?
4355         static final char ZONE          = 'Z'; // (symbol)
4356 
4357         // Date
4358         static final char NAME_OF_DAY_ABBREV    = 'a'; // 'a'
4359         static final char NAME_OF_DAY           = 'A'; // 'A'
4360         static final char NAME_OF_MONTH_ABBREV  = 'b'; // 'b'
4361         static final char NAME_OF_MONTH         = 'B'; // 'B'
4362         static final char CENTURY               = 'C'; // (00 - 99)
4363         static final char DAY_OF_MONTH_0        = 'd'; // (01 - 31)
4364         static final char DAY_OF_MONTH          = 'e'; // (1 - 31) -- like d
4365 // *    static final char ISO_WEEK_OF_YEAR_2    = 'g'; // cross %y %V
4366 // *    static final char ISO_WEEK_OF_YEAR_4    = 'G'; // cross %Y %V
4367         static final char NAME_OF_MONTH_ABBREV_X  = 'h'; // -- same b
4368         static final char DAY_OF_YEAR           = 'j'; // (001 - 366)
4369         static final char MONTH                 = 'm'; // (01 - 12)
4370 // *    static final char DAY_OF_WEEK_1         = 'u'; // (1 - 7) Monday
4371 // *    static final char WEEK_OF_YEAR_SUNDAY   = 'U'; // (0 - 53) Sunday+
4372 // *    static final char WEEK_OF_YEAR_MONDAY_01 = 'V'; // (01 - 53) Monday+
4373 // *    static final char DAY_OF_WEEK_0         = 'w'; // (0 - 6) Sunday
4374 // *    static final char WEEK_OF_YEAR_MONDAY   = 'W'; // (00 - 53) Monday
4375         static final char YEAR_2                = 'y'; // (00 - 99)
4376         static final char YEAR_4                = 'Y'; // (0000 - 9999)
4377 
4378         // Composites
4379         static final char TIME_12_HOUR  = 'r'; // (hh:mm:ss [AP]M)
4380         static final char TIME_24_HOUR  = 'R'; // (hh:mm same as %H:%M)
4381 // *    static final char LOCALE_TIME   = 'X'; // (%H:%M:%S) - parse format?
4382         static final char DATE_TIME             = 'c';
4383                                             // (Sat Nov 04 12:02:33 EST 1999)
4384         static final char DATE                  = 'D'; // (mm/dd/yy)
4385         static final char ISO_STANDARD_DATE     = 'F'; // (%Y-%m-%d)
4386 // *    static final char LOCALE_DATE           = 'x'; // (mm/dd/yy)
4387 
4388         static boolean isValid(char c) {
4389             switch (c) {
4390             case HOUR_OF_DAY_0:
4391             case HOUR_0:
4392             case HOUR_OF_DAY:
4393             case HOUR:
4394             case MINUTE:
4395             case NANOSECOND:
4396             case MILLISECOND:
4397             case MILLISECOND_SINCE_EPOCH:
4398             case AM_PM:
4399             case SECONDS_SINCE_EPOCH:
4400             case SECOND:
4401             case TIME:
4402             case ZONE_NUMERIC:
4403             case ZONE:
4404 
4405             // Date
4406             case NAME_OF_DAY_ABBREV:
4407             case NAME_OF_DAY:
4408             case NAME_OF_MONTH_ABBREV:
4409             case NAME_OF_MONTH:
4410             case CENTURY:
4411             case DAY_OF_MONTH_0:
4412             case DAY_OF_MONTH:
4413 // *        case ISO_WEEK_OF_YEAR_2:
4414 // *        case ISO_WEEK_OF_YEAR_4:
4415             case NAME_OF_MONTH_ABBREV_X:
4416             case DAY_OF_YEAR:
4417             case MONTH:
4418 // *        case DAY_OF_WEEK_1:
4419 // *        case WEEK_OF_YEAR_SUNDAY:
4420 // *        case WEEK_OF_YEAR_MONDAY_01:
4421 // *        case DAY_OF_WEEK_0:
4422 // *        case WEEK_OF_YEAR_MONDAY:
4423             case YEAR_2:
4424             case YEAR_4:
4425 
4426             // Composites
4427             case TIME_12_HOUR:
4428             case TIME_24_HOUR:
4429 // *        case LOCALE_TIME:
4430             case DATE_TIME:
4431             case DATE:
4432             case ISO_STANDARD_DATE:
4433 // *        case LOCALE_DATE:
4434                 return true;
4435             default:
4436                 return false;
4437             }
4438         }
4439     }
4440 }