1 /*
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   3  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
   4  *
   5  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
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   7  * published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
   8  * particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
   9  * by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
  10  *
  11  * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  12  * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  13  * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  14  * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  15  * accompanied this code).
  16  *
  17  * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  18  * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  19  * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  20  *
  21  * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  22  * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  23  * questions.
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  25 
  26 /*
  27  * This file is available under and governed by the GNU General Public
  28  * License version 2 only, as published by the Free Software Foundation.
  29  * However, the following notice accompanied the original version of this
  30  * file:
  31  *
  32  * Copyright (c) 2007-2012, Stephen Colebourne & Michael Nascimento Santos
  33  *
  34  * All rights reserved.
  35  *
  36  * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
  37  * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
  38  *
  39  *  * Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice,
  40  *    this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
  41  *
  42  *  * Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice,
  43  *    this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation
  44  *    and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
  45  *
  46  *  * Neither the name of JSR-310 nor the names of its contributors
  47  *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
  48  *    without specific prior written permission.
  49  *
  50  * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
  51  * "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
  52  * LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR
  53  * A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR
  54  * CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL,
  55  * EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
  56  * PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR
  57  * PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF
  58  * LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING
  59  * NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS
  60  * SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
  61  */
  62 package java.time;
  63 
  64 import static java.time.LocalTime.NANOS_PER_HOUR;
  65 import static java.time.LocalTime.NANOS_PER_MINUTE;
  66 import static java.time.LocalTime.NANOS_PER_SECOND;
  67 import static java.time.LocalTime.SECONDS_PER_DAY;
  68 import static java.time.temporal.ChronoField.NANO_OF_DAY;
  69 import static java.time.temporal.ChronoField.OFFSET_SECONDS;
  70 import static java.time.temporal.ChronoUnit.NANOS;
  71 
  72 import java.io.IOException;
  73 import java.io.ObjectInput;
  74 import java.io.ObjectOutput;
  75 import java.io.InvalidObjectException;
  76 import java.io.ObjectInputStream;
  77 import java.io.Serializable;
  78 import java.time.format.DateTimeFormatter;
  79 import java.time.format.DateTimeParseException;
  80 import java.time.temporal.ChronoField;
  81 import java.time.temporal.ChronoUnit;
  82 import java.time.temporal.Temporal;
  83 import java.time.temporal.TemporalAccessor;
  84 import java.time.temporal.TemporalAdjuster;
  85 import java.time.temporal.TemporalAmount;
  86 import java.time.temporal.TemporalField;
  87 import java.time.temporal.TemporalQueries;
  88 import java.time.temporal.TemporalQuery;
  89 import java.time.temporal.TemporalUnit;
  90 import java.time.temporal.UnsupportedTemporalTypeException;
  91 import java.time.temporal.ValueRange;
  92 import java.time.zone.ZoneRules;
  93 import java.util.Objects;
  94 
  95 /**
  96  * A time with an offset from UTC/Greenwich in the ISO-8601 calendar system,
  97  * such as {@code 10:15:30+01:00}.
  98  * <p>
  99  * {@code OffsetTime} is an immutable date-time object that represents a time, often
 100  * viewed as hour-minute-second-offset.
 101  * This class stores all time fields, to a precision of nanoseconds,
 102  * as well as a zone offset.
 103  * For example, the value "13:45.30.123456789+02:00" can be stored
 104  * in an {@code OffsetTime}.
 105  *
 106  * <p>
 107  * This is a <a href="{@docRoot}/java/lang/doc-files/ValueBased.html">value-based</a>
 108  * class; use of identity-sensitive operations (including reference equality
 109  * ({@code ==}), identity hash code, or synchronization) on instances of
 110  * {@code OffsetTime} may have unpredictable results and should be avoided.
 111  * The {@code equals} method should be used for comparisons.
 112  *
 113  * @implSpec
 114  * This class is immutable and thread-safe.
 115  *
 116  * @since 1.8
 117  */
 118 public final class OffsetTime
 119         implements Temporal, TemporalAdjuster, Comparable<OffsetTime>, Serializable {
 120 
 121     /**
 122      * The minimum supported {@code OffsetTime}, '00:00:00+18:00'.
 123      * This is the time of midnight at the start of the day in the maximum offset
 124      * (larger offsets are earlier on the time-line).
 125      * This combines {@link LocalTime#MIN} and {@link ZoneOffset#MAX}.
 126      * This could be used by an application as a "far past" date.
 127      */
 128     public static final OffsetTime MIN = LocalTime.MIN.atOffset(ZoneOffset.MAX);
 129     /**
 130      * The maximum supported {@code OffsetTime}, '23:59:59.999999999-18:00'.
 131      * This is the time just before midnight at the end of the day in the minimum offset
 132      * (larger negative offsets are later on the time-line).
 133      * This combines {@link LocalTime#MAX} and {@link ZoneOffset#MIN}.
 134      * This could be used by an application as a "far future" date.
 135      */
 136     public static final OffsetTime MAX = LocalTime.MAX.atOffset(ZoneOffset.MIN);
 137 
 138     /**
 139      * Serialization version.
 140      */
 141     private static final long serialVersionUID = 7264499704384272492L;
 142 
 143     /**
 144      * The local date-time.
 145      */
 146     private final LocalTime time;
 147     /**
 148      * The offset from UTC/Greenwich.
 149      */
 150     private final ZoneOffset offset;
 151 
 152     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 153     /**
 154      * Obtains the current time from the system clock in the default time-zone.
 155      * <p>
 156      * This will query the {@link Clock#systemDefaultZone() system clock} in the default
 157      * time-zone to obtain the current time.
 158      * The offset will be calculated from the time-zone in the clock.
 159      * <p>
 160      * Using this method will prevent the ability to use an alternate clock for testing
 161      * because the clock is hard-coded.
 162      *
 163      * @return the current time using the system clock and default time-zone, not null
 164      */
 165     public static OffsetTime now() {
 166         return now(Clock.systemDefaultZone());
 167     }
 168 
 169     /**
 170      * Obtains the current time from the system clock in the specified time-zone.
 171      * <p>
 172      * This will query the {@link Clock#system(ZoneId) system clock} to obtain the current time.
 173      * Specifying the time-zone avoids dependence on the default time-zone.
 174      * The offset will be calculated from the specified time-zone.
 175      * <p>
 176      * Using this method will prevent the ability to use an alternate clock for testing
 177      * because the clock is hard-coded.
 178      *
 179      * @param zone  the zone ID to use, not null
 180      * @return the current time using the system clock, not null
 181      */
 182     public static OffsetTime now(ZoneId zone) {
 183         return now(Clock.system(zone));
 184     }
 185 
 186     /**
 187      * Obtains the current time from the specified clock.
 188      * <p>
 189      * This will query the specified clock to obtain the current time.
 190      * The offset will be calculated from the time-zone in the clock.
 191      * <p>
 192      * Using this method allows the use of an alternate clock for testing.
 193      * The alternate clock may be introduced using {@link Clock dependency injection}.
 194      *
 195      * @param clock  the clock to use, not null
 196      * @return the current time, not null
 197      */
 198     public static OffsetTime now(Clock clock) {
 199         Objects.requireNonNull(clock, "clock");
 200         final Instant now = clock.instant();  // called once
 201         return ofInstant(now, clock.getZone().getRules().getOffset(now));
 202     }
 203 
 204     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 205     /**
 206      * Obtains an instance of {@code OffsetTime} from a local time and an offset.
 207      *
 208      * @param time  the local time, not null
 209      * @param offset  the zone offset, not null
 210      * @return the offset time, not null
 211      */
 212     public static OffsetTime of(LocalTime time, ZoneOffset offset) {
 213         return new OffsetTime(time, offset);
 214     }
 215 
 216     /**
 217      * Obtains an instance of {@code OffsetTime} from an hour, minute, second and nanosecond.
 218      * <p>
 219      * This creates an offset time with the four specified fields.
 220      * <p>
 221      * This method exists primarily for writing test cases.
 222      * Non test-code will typically use other methods to create an offset time.
 223      * {@code LocalTime} has two additional convenience variants of the
 224      * equivalent factory method taking fewer arguments.
 225      * They are not provided here to reduce the footprint of the API.
 226      *
 227      * @param hour  the hour-of-day to represent, from 0 to 23
 228      * @param minute  the minute-of-hour to represent, from 0 to 59
 229      * @param second  the second-of-minute to represent, from 0 to 59
 230      * @param nanoOfSecond  the nano-of-second to represent, from 0 to 999,999,999
 231      * @param offset  the zone offset, not null
 232      * @return the offset time, not null
 233      * @throws DateTimeException if the value of any field is out of range
 234      */
 235     public static OffsetTime of(int hour, int minute, int second, int nanoOfSecond, ZoneOffset offset) {
 236         return new OffsetTime(LocalTime.of(hour, minute, second, nanoOfSecond), offset);
 237     }
 238 
 239     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 240     /**
 241      * Obtains an instance of {@code OffsetTime} from an {@code Instant} and zone ID.
 242      * <p>
 243      * This creates an offset time with the same instant as that specified.
 244      * Finding the offset from UTC/Greenwich is simple as there is only one valid
 245      * offset for each instant.
 246      * <p>
 247      * The date component of the instant is dropped during the conversion.
 248      * This means that the conversion can never fail due to the instant being
 249      * out of the valid range of dates.
 250      *
 251      * @param instant  the instant to create the time from, not null
 252      * @param zone  the time-zone, which may be an offset, not null
 253      * @return the offset time, not null
 254      */
 255     public static OffsetTime ofInstant(Instant instant, ZoneId zone) {
 256         Objects.requireNonNull(instant, "instant");
 257         Objects.requireNonNull(zone, "zone");
 258         ZoneRules rules = zone.getRules();
 259         ZoneOffset offset = rules.getOffset(instant);
 260         long localSecond = instant.getEpochSecond() + offset.getTotalSeconds();  // overflow caught later
 261         int secsOfDay = Math.floorMod(localSecond, SECONDS_PER_DAY);
 262         LocalTime time = LocalTime.ofNanoOfDay(secsOfDay * NANOS_PER_SECOND + instant.getNano());
 263         return new OffsetTime(time, offset);
 264     }
 265 
 266     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 267     /**
 268      * Obtains an instance of {@code OffsetTime} from a temporal object.
 269      * <p>
 270      * This obtains an offset time based on the specified temporal.
 271      * A {@code TemporalAccessor} represents an arbitrary set of date and time information,
 272      * which this factory converts to an instance of {@code OffsetTime}.
 273      * <p>
 274      * The conversion extracts and combines the {@code ZoneOffset} and the
 275      * {@code LocalTime} from the temporal object.
 276      * Implementations are permitted to perform optimizations such as accessing
 277      * those fields that are equivalent to the relevant objects.
 278      * <p>
 279      * This method matches the signature of the functional interface {@link TemporalQuery}
 280      * allowing it to be used as a query via method reference, {@code OffsetTime::from}.
 281      *
 282      * @param temporal  the temporal object to convert, not null
 283      * @return the offset time, not null
 284      * @throws DateTimeException if unable to convert to an {@code OffsetTime}
 285      */
 286     public static OffsetTime from(TemporalAccessor temporal) {
 287         if (temporal instanceof OffsetTime) {
 288             return (OffsetTime) temporal;
 289         }
 290         try {
 291             LocalTime time = LocalTime.from(temporal);
 292             ZoneOffset offset = ZoneOffset.from(temporal);
 293             return new OffsetTime(time, offset);
 294         } catch (DateTimeException ex) {
 295             throw new DateTimeException("Unable to obtain OffsetTime from TemporalAccessor: " +
 296                     temporal + " of type " + temporal.getClass().getName(), ex);
 297         }
 298     }
 299 
 300     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 301     /**
 302      * Obtains an instance of {@code OffsetTime} from a text string such as {@code 10:15:30+01:00}.
 303      * <p>
 304      * The string must represent a valid time and is parsed using
 305      * {@link java.time.format.DateTimeFormatter#ISO_OFFSET_TIME}.
 306      *
 307      * @param text  the text to parse such as "10:15:30+01:00", not null
 308      * @return the parsed local time, not null
 309      * @throws DateTimeParseException if the text cannot be parsed
 310      */
 311     public static OffsetTime parse(CharSequence text) {
 312         return parse(text, DateTimeFormatter.ISO_OFFSET_TIME);
 313     }
 314 
 315     /**
 316      * Obtains an instance of {@code OffsetTime} from a text string using a specific formatter.
 317      * <p>
 318      * The text is parsed using the formatter, returning a time.
 319      *
 320      * @param text  the text to parse, not null
 321      * @param formatter  the formatter to use, not null
 322      * @return the parsed offset time, not null
 323      * @throws DateTimeParseException if the text cannot be parsed
 324      */
 325     public static OffsetTime parse(CharSequence text, DateTimeFormatter formatter) {
 326         Objects.requireNonNull(formatter, "formatter");
 327         return formatter.parse(text, OffsetTime::from);
 328     }
 329 
 330     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 331     /**
 332      * Constructor.
 333      *
 334      * @param time  the local time, not null
 335      * @param offset  the zone offset, not null
 336      */
 337     private OffsetTime(LocalTime time, ZoneOffset offset) {
 338         this.time = Objects.requireNonNull(time, "time");
 339         this.offset = Objects.requireNonNull(offset, "offset");
 340     }
 341 
 342     /**
 343      * Returns a new time based on this one, returning {@code this} where possible.
 344      *
 345      * @param time  the time to create with, not null
 346      * @param offset  the zone offset to create with, not null
 347      */
 348     private OffsetTime with(LocalTime time, ZoneOffset offset) {
 349         if (this.time == time && this.offset.equals(offset)) {
 350             return this;
 351         }
 352         return new OffsetTime(time, offset);
 353     }
 354 
 355     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 356     /**
 357      * Checks if the specified field is supported.
 358      * <p>
 359      * This checks if this time can be queried for the specified field.
 360      * If false, then calling the {@link #range(TemporalField) range},
 361      * {@link #get(TemporalField) get} and {@link #with(TemporalField, long)}
 362      * methods will throw an exception.
 363      * <p>
 364      * If the field is a {@link ChronoField} then the query is implemented here.
 365      * The supported fields are:
 366      * <ul>
 367      * <li>{@code NANO_OF_SECOND}
 368      * <li>{@code NANO_OF_DAY}
 369      * <li>{@code MICRO_OF_SECOND}
 370      * <li>{@code MICRO_OF_DAY}
 371      * <li>{@code MILLI_OF_SECOND}
 372      * <li>{@code MILLI_OF_DAY}
 373      * <li>{@code SECOND_OF_MINUTE}
 374      * <li>{@code SECOND_OF_DAY}
 375      * <li>{@code MINUTE_OF_HOUR}
 376      * <li>{@code MINUTE_OF_DAY}
 377      * <li>{@code HOUR_OF_AMPM}
 378      * <li>{@code CLOCK_HOUR_OF_AMPM}
 379      * <li>{@code HOUR_OF_DAY}
 380      * <li>{@code CLOCK_HOUR_OF_DAY}
 381      * <li>{@code AMPM_OF_DAY}
 382      * <li>{@code OFFSET_SECONDS}
 383      * </ul>
 384      * All other {@code ChronoField} instances will return false.
 385      * <p>
 386      * If the field is not a {@code ChronoField}, then the result of this method
 387      * is obtained by invoking {@code TemporalField.isSupportedBy(TemporalAccessor)}
 388      * passing {@code this} as the argument.
 389      * Whether the field is supported is determined by the field.
 390      *
 391      * @param field  the field to check, null returns false
 392      * @return true if the field is supported on this time, false if not
 393      */
 394     @Override
 395     public boolean isSupported(TemporalField field) {
 396         if (field instanceof ChronoField) {
 397             return field.isTimeBased() || field == OFFSET_SECONDS;
 398         }
 399         return field != null && field.isSupportedBy(this);
 400     }
 401 
 402     /**
 403      * Checks if the specified unit is supported.
 404      * <p>
 405      * This checks if the specified unit can be added to, or subtracted from, this offset-time.
 406      * If false, then calling the {@link #plus(long, TemporalUnit)} and
 407      * {@link #minus(long, TemporalUnit) minus} methods will throw an exception.
 408      * <p>
 409      * If the unit is a {@link ChronoUnit} then the query is implemented here.
 410      * The supported units are:
 411      * <ul>
 412      * <li>{@code NANOS}
 413      * <li>{@code MICROS}
 414      * <li>{@code MILLIS}
 415      * <li>{@code SECONDS}
 416      * <li>{@code MINUTES}
 417      * <li>{@code HOURS}
 418      * <li>{@code HALF_DAYS}
 419      * </ul>
 420      * All other {@code ChronoUnit} instances will return false.
 421      * <p>
 422      * If the unit is not a {@code ChronoUnit}, then the result of this method
 423      * is obtained by invoking {@code TemporalUnit.isSupportedBy(Temporal)}
 424      * passing {@code this} as the argument.
 425      * Whether the unit is supported is determined by the unit.
 426      *
 427      * @param unit  the unit to check, null returns false
 428      * @return true if the unit can be added/subtracted, false if not
 429      */
 430     @Override  // override for Javadoc
 431     public boolean isSupported(TemporalUnit unit) {
 432         if (unit instanceof ChronoUnit) {
 433             return unit.isTimeBased();
 434         }
 435         return unit != null && unit.isSupportedBy(this);
 436     }
 437 
 438     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 439     /**
 440      * Gets the range of valid values for the specified field.
 441      * <p>
 442      * The range object expresses the minimum and maximum valid values for a field.
 443      * This time is used to enhance the accuracy of the returned range.
 444      * If it is not possible to return the range, because the field is not supported
 445      * or for some other reason, an exception is thrown.
 446      * <p>
 447      * If the field is a {@link ChronoField} then the query is implemented here.
 448      * The {@link #isSupported(TemporalField) supported fields} will return
 449      * appropriate range instances.
 450      * All other {@code ChronoField} instances will throw an {@code UnsupportedTemporalTypeException}.
 451      * <p>
 452      * If the field is not a {@code ChronoField}, then the result of this method
 453      * is obtained by invoking {@code TemporalField.rangeRefinedBy(TemporalAccessor)}
 454      * passing {@code this} as the argument.
 455      * Whether the range can be obtained is determined by the field.
 456      *
 457      * @param field  the field to query the range for, not null
 458      * @return the range of valid values for the field, not null
 459      * @throws DateTimeException if the range for the field cannot be obtained
 460      * @throws UnsupportedTemporalTypeException if the field is not supported
 461      */
 462     @Override
 463     public ValueRange range(TemporalField field) {
 464         if (field instanceof ChronoField) {
 465             if (field == OFFSET_SECONDS) {
 466                 return field.range();
 467             }
 468             return time.range(field);
 469         }
 470         return field.rangeRefinedBy(this);
 471     }
 472 
 473     /**
 474      * Gets the value of the specified field from this time as an {@code int}.
 475      * <p>
 476      * This queries this time for the value of the specified field.
 477      * The returned value will always be within the valid range of values for the field.
 478      * If it is not possible to return the value, because the field is not supported
 479      * or for some other reason, an exception is thrown.
 480      * <p>
 481      * If the field is a {@link ChronoField} then the query is implemented here.
 482      * The {@link #isSupported(TemporalField) supported fields} will return valid
 483      * values based on this time, except {@code NANO_OF_DAY} and {@code MICRO_OF_DAY}
 484      * which are too large to fit in an {@code int} and throw a {@code UnsupportedTemporalTypeException}.
 485      * All other {@code ChronoField} instances will throw an {@code UnsupportedTemporalTypeException}.
 486      * <p>
 487      * If the field is not a {@code ChronoField}, then the result of this method
 488      * is obtained by invoking {@code TemporalField.getFrom(TemporalAccessor)}
 489      * passing {@code this} as the argument. Whether the value can be obtained,
 490      * and what the value represents, is determined by the field.
 491      *
 492      * @param field  the field to get, not null
 493      * @return the value for the field
 494      * @throws DateTimeException if a value for the field cannot be obtained or
 495      *         the value is outside the range of valid values for the field
 496      * @throws UnsupportedTemporalTypeException if the field is not supported or
 497      *         the range of values exceeds an {@code int}
 498      * @throws ArithmeticException if numeric overflow occurs
 499      */
 500     @Override  // override for Javadoc
 501     public int get(TemporalField field) {
 502         return Temporal.super.get(field);
 503     }
 504 
 505     /**
 506      * Gets the value of the specified field from this time as a {@code long}.
 507      * <p>
 508      * This queries this time for the value of the specified field.
 509      * If it is not possible to return the value, because the field is not supported
 510      * or for some other reason, an exception is thrown.
 511      * <p>
 512      * If the field is a {@link ChronoField} then the query is implemented here.
 513      * The {@link #isSupported(TemporalField) supported fields} will return valid
 514      * values based on this time.
 515      * All other {@code ChronoField} instances will throw an {@code UnsupportedTemporalTypeException}.
 516      * <p>
 517      * If the field is not a {@code ChronoField}, then the result of this method
 518      * is obtained by invoking {@code TemporalField.getFrom(TemporalAccessor)}
 519      * passing {@code this} as the argument. Whether the value can be obtained,
 520      * and what the value represents, is determined by the field.
 521      *
 522      * @param field  the field to get, not null
 523      * @return the value for the field
 524      * @throws DateTimeException if a value for the field cannot be obtained
 525      * @throws UnsupportedTemporalTypeException if the field is not supported
 526      * @throws ArithmeticException if numeric overflow occurs
 527      */
 528     @Override
 529     public long getLong(TemporalField field) {
 530         if (field instanceof ChronoField) {
 531             if (field == OFFSET_SECONDS) {
 532                 return offset.getTotalSeconds();
 533             }
 534             return time.getLong(field);
 535         }
 536         return field.getFrom(this);
 537     }
 538 
 539     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 540     /**
 541      * Gets the zone offset, such as '+01:00'.
 542      * <p>
 543      * This is the offset of the local time from UTC/Greenwich.
 544      *
 545      * @return the zone offset, not null
 546      */
 547     public ZoneOffset getOffset() {
 548         return offset;
 549     }
 550 
 551     /**
 552      * Returns a copy of this {@code OffsetTime} with the specified offset ensuring
 553      * that the result has the same local time.
 554      * <p>
 555      * This method returns an object with the same {@code LocalTime} and the specified {@code ZoneOffset}.
 556      * No calculation is needed or performed.
 557      * For example, if this time represents {@code 10:30+02:00} and the offset specified is
 558      * {@code +03:00}, then this method will return {@code 10:30+03:00}.
 559      * <p>
 560      * To take into account the difference between the offsets, and adjust the time fields,
 561      * use {@link #withOffsetSameInstant}.
 562      * <p>
 563      * This instance is immutable and unaffected by this method call.
 564      *
 565      * @param offset  the zone offset to change to, not null
 566      * @return an {@code OffsetTime} based on this time with the requested offset, not null
 567      */
 568     public OffsetTime withOffsetSameLocal(ZoneOffset offset) {
 569         return offset != null && offset.equals(this.offset) ? this : new OffsetTime(time, offset);
 570     }
 571 
 572     /**
 573      * Returns a copy of this {@code OffsetTime} with the specified offset ensuring
 574      * that the result is at the same instant on an implied day.
 575      * <p>
 576      * This method returns an object with the specified {@code ZoneOffset} and a {@code LocalTime}
 577      * adjusted by the difference between the two offsets.
 578      * This will result in the old and new objects representing the same instant on an implied day.
 579      * This is useful for finding the local time in a different offset.
 580      * For example, if this time represents {@code 10:30+02:00} and the offset specified is
 581      * {@code +03:00}, then this method will return {@code 11:30+03:00}.
 582      * <p>
 583      * To change the offset without adjusting the local time use {@link #withOffsetSameLocal}.
 584      * <p>
 585      * This instance is immutable and unaffected by this method call.
 586      *
 587      * @param offset  the zone offset to change to, not null
 588      * @return an {@code OffsetTime} based on this time with the requested offset, not null
 589      */
 590     public OffsetTime withOffsetSameInstant(ZoneOffset offset) {
 591         if (offset.equals(this.offset)) {
 592             return this;
 593         }
 594         int difference = offset.getTotalSeconds() - this.offset.getTotalSeconds();
 595         LocalTime adjusted = time.plusSeconds(difference);
 596         return new OffsetTime(adjusted, offset);
 597     }
 598 
 599     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 600     /**
 601      * Gets the {@code LocalTime} part of this date-time.
 602      * <p>
 603      * This returns a {@code LocalTime} with the same hour, minute, second and
 604      * nanosecond as this date-time.
 605      *
 606      * @return the time part of this date-time, not null
 607      */
 608     public LocalTime toLocalTime() {
 609         return time;
 610     }
 611 
 612     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 613     /**
 614      * Gets the hour-of-day field.
 615      *
 616      * @return the hour-of-day, from 0 to 23
 617      */
 618     public int getHour() {
 619         return time.getHour();
 620     }
 621 
 622     /**
 623      * Gets the minute-of-hour field.
 624      *
 625      * @return the minute-of-hour, from 0 to 59
 626      */
 627     public int getMinute() {
 628         return time.getMinute();
 629     }
 630 
 631     /**
 632      * Gets the second-of-minute field.
 633      *
 634      * @return the second-of-minute, from 0 to 59
 635      */
 636     public int getSecond() {
 637         return time.getSecond();
 638     }
 639 
 640     /**
 641      * Gets the nano-of-second field.
 642      *
 643      * @return the nano-of-second, from 0 to 999,999,999
 644      */
 645     public int getNano() {
 646         return time.getNano();
 647     }
 648 
 649     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 650     /**
 651      * Returns an adjusted copy of this time.
 652      * <p>
 653      * This returns an {@code OffsetTime}, based on this one, with the time adjusted.
 654      * The adjustment takes place using the specified adjuster strategy object.
 655      * Read the documentation of the adjuster to understand what adjustment will be made.
 656      * <p>
 657      * A simple adjuster might simply set the one of the fields, such as the hour field.
 658      * A more complex adjuster might set the time to the last hour of the day.
 659      * <p>
 660      * The classes {@link LocalTime} and {@link ZoneOffset} implement {@code TemporalAdjuster},
 661      * thus this method can be used to change the time or offset:
 662      * <pre>
 663      *  result = offsetTime.with(time);
 664      *  result = offsetTime.with(offset);
 665      * </pre>
 666      * <p>
 667      * The result of this method is obtained by invoking the
 668      * {@link TemporalAdjuster#adjustInto(Temporal)} method on the
 669      * specified adjuster passing {@code this} as the argument.
 670      * <p>
 671      * This instance is immutable and unaffected by this method call.
 672      *
 673      * @param adjuster the adjuster to use, not null
 674      * @return an {@code OffsetTime} based on {@code this} with the adjustment made, not null
 675      * @throws DateTimeException if the adjustment cannot be made
 676      * @throws ArithmeticException if numeric overflow occurs
 677      */
 678     @Override
 679     public OffsetTime with(TemporalAdjuster adjuster) {
 680         // optimizations
 681         if (adjuster instanceof LocalTime) {
 682             return with((LocalTime) adjuster, offset);
 683         } else if (adjuster instanceof ZoneOffset) {
 684             return with(time, (ZoneOffset) adjuster);
 685         } else if (adjuster instanceof OffsetTime) {
 686             return (OffsetTime) adjuster;
 687         }
 688         return (OffsetTime) adjuster.adjustInto(this);
 689     }
 690 
 691     /**
 692      * Returns a copy of this time with the specified field set to a new value.
 693      * <p>
 694      * This returns an {@code OffsetTime}, based on this one, with the value
 695      * for the specified field changed.
 696      * This can be used to change any supported field, such as the hour, minute or second.
 697      * If it is not possible to set the value, because the field is not supported or for
 698      * some other reason, an exception is thrown.
 699      * <p>
 700      * If the field is a {@link ChronoField} then the adjustment is implemented here.
 701      * <p>
 702      * The {@code OFFSET_SECONDS} field will return a time with the specified offset.
 703      * The local time is unaltered. If the new offset value is outside the valid range
 704      * then a {@code DateTimeException} will be thrown.
 705      * <p>
 706      * The other {@link #isSupported(TemporalField) supported fields} will behave as per
 707      * the matching method on {@link LocalTime#with(TemporalField, long)} LocalTime}.
 708      * In this case, the offset is not part of the calculation and will be unchanged.
 709      * <p>
 710      * All other {@code ChronoField} instances will throw an {@code UnsupportedTemporalTypeException}.
 711      * <p>
 712      * If the field is not a {@code ChronoField}, then the result of this method
 713      * is obtained by invoking {@code TemporalField.adjustInto(Temporal, long)}
 714      * passing {@code this} as the argument. In this case, the field determines
 715      * whether and how to adjust the instant.
 716      * <p>
 717      * This instance is immutable and unaffected by this method call.
 718      *
 719      * @param field  the field to set in the result, not null
 720      * @param newValue  the new value of the field in the result
 721      * @return an {@code OffsetTime} based on {@code this} with the specified field set, not null
 722      * @throws DateTimeException if the field cannot be set
 723      * @throws UnsupportedTemporalTypeException if the field is not supported
 724      * @throws ArithmeticException if numeric overflow occurs
 725      */
 726     @Override
 727     public OffsetTime with(TemporalField field, long newValue) {
 728         if (field instanceof ChronoField) {
 729             if (field == OFFSET_SECONDS) {
 730                 ChronoField f = (ChronoField) field;
 731                 return with(time, ZoneOffset.ofTotalSeconds(f.checkValidIntValue(newValue)));
 732             }
 733             return with(time.with(field, newValue), offset);
 734         }
 735         return field.adjustInto(this, newValue);
 736     }
 737 
 738     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 739     /**
 740      * Returns a copy of this {@code OffsetTime} with the hour-of-day altered.
 741      * <p>
 742      * The offset does not affect the calculation and will be the same in the result.
 743      * <p>
 744      * This instance is immutable and unaffected by this method call.
 745      *
 746      * @param hour  the hour-of-day to set in the result, from 0 to 23
 747      * @return an {@code OffsetTime} based on this time with the requested hour, not null
 748      * @throws DateTimeException if the hour value is invalid
 749      */
 750     public OffsetTime withHour(int hour) {
 751         return with(time.withHour(hour), offset);
 752     }
 753 
 754     /**
 755      * Returns a copy of this {@code OffsetTime} with the minute-of-hour altered.
 756      * <p>
 757      * The offset does not affect the calculation and will be the same in the result.
 758      * <p>
 759      * This instance is immutable and unaffected by this method call.
 760      *
 761      * @param minute  the minute-of-hour to set in the result, from 0 to 59
 762      * @return an {@code OffsetTime} based on this time with the requested minute, not null
 763      * @throws DateTimeException if the minute value is invalid
 764      */
 765     public OffsetTime withMinute(int minute) {
 766         return with(time.withMinute(minute), offset);
 767     }
 768 
 769     /**
 770      * Returns a copy of this {@code OffsetTime} with the second-of-minute altered.
 771      * <p>
 772      * The offset does not affect the calculation and will be the same in the result.
 773      * <p>
 774      * This instance is immutable and unaffected by this method call.
 775      *
 776      * @param second  the second-of-minute to set in the result, from 0 to 59
 777      * @return an {@code OffsetTime} based on this time with the requested second, not null
 778      * @throws DateTimeException if the second value is invalid
 779      */
 780     public OffsetTime withSecond(int second) {
 781         return with(time.withSecond(second), offset);
 782     }
 783 
 784     /**
 785      * Returns a copy of this {@code OffsetTime} with the nano-of-second altered.
 786      * <p>
 787      * The offset does not affect the calculation and will be the same in the result.
 788      * <p>
 789      * This instance is immutable and unaffected by this method call.
 790      *
 791      * @param nanoOfSecond  the nano-of-second to set in the result, from 0 to 999,999,999
 792      * @return an {@code OffsetTime} based on this time with the requested nanosecond, not null
 793      * @throws DateTimeException if the nanos value is invalid
 794      */
 795     public OffsetTime withNano(int nanoOfSecond) {
 796         return with(time.withNano(nanoOfSecond), offset);
 797     }
 798 
 799     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 800     /**
 801      * Returns a copy of this {@code OffsetTime} with the time truncated.
 802      * <p>
 803      * Truncation returns a copy of the original time with fields
 804      * smaller than the specified unit set to zero.
 805      * For example, truncating with the {@link ChronoUnit#MINUTES minutes} unit
 806      * will set the second-of-minute and nano-of-second field to zero.
 807      * <p>
 808      * The unit must have a {@linkplain TemporalUnit#getDuration() duration}
 809      * that divides into the length of a standard day without remainder.
 810      * This includes all supplied time units on {@link ChronoUnit} and
 811      * {@link ChronoUnit#DAYS DAYS}. Other units throw an exception.
 812      * <p>
 813      * The offset does not affect the calculation and will be the same in the result.
 814      * <p>
 815      * This instance is immutable and unaffected by this method call.
 816      *
 817      * @param unit  the unit to truncate to, not null
 818      * @return an {@code OffsetTime} based on this time with the time truncated, not null
 819      * @throws DateTimeException if unable to truncate
 820      * @throws UnsupportedTemporalTypeException if the unit is not supported
 821      */
 822     public OffsetTime truncatedTo(TemporalUnit unit) {
 823         return with(time.truncatedTo(unit), offset);
 824     }
 825 
 826     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 827     /**
 828      * Returns a copy of this time with the specified amount added.
 829      * <p>
 830      * This returns an {@code OffsetTime}, based on this one, with the specified amount added.
 831      * The amount is typically {@link Duration} but may be any other type implementing
 832      * the {@link TemporalAmount} interface.
 833      * <p>
 834      * The calculation is delegated to the amount object by calling
 835      * {@link TemporalAmount#addTo(Temporal)}. The amount implementation is free
 836      * to implement the addition in any way it wishes, however it typically
 837      * calls back to {@link #plus(long, TemporalUnit)}. Consult the documentation
 838      * of the amount implementation to determine if it can be successfully added.
 839      * <p>
 840      * This instance is immutable and unaffected by this method call.
 841      *
 842      * @param amountToAdd  the amount to add, not null
 843      * @return an {@code OffsetTime} based on this time with the addition made, not null
 844      * @throws DateTimeException if the addition cannot be made
 845      * @throws ArithmeticException if numeric overflow occurs
 846      */
 847     @Override
 848     public OffsetTime plus(TemporalAmount amountToAdd) {
 849         return (OffsetTime) amountToAdd.addTo(this);
 850     }
 851 
 852     /**
 853      * Returns a copy of this time with the specified amount added.
 854      * <p>
 855      * This returns an {@code OffsetTime}, based on this one, with the amount
 856      * in terms of the unit added. If it is not possible to add the amount, because the
 857      * unit is not supported or for some other reason, an exception is thrown.
 858      * <p>
 859      * If the field is a {@link ChronoUnit} then the addition is implemented by
 860      * {@link LocalTime#plus(long, TemporalUnit)}.
 861      * The offset is not part of the calculation and will be unchanged in the result.
 862      * <p>
 863      * If the field is not a {@code ChronoUnit}, then the result of this method
 864      * is obtained by invoking {@code TemporalUnit.addTo(Temporal, long)}
 865      * passing {@code this} as the argument. In this case, the unit determines
 866      * whether and how to perform the addition.
 867      * <p>
 868      * This instance is immutable and unaffected by this method call.
 869      *
 870      * @param amountToAdd  the amount of the unit to add to the result, may be negative
 871      * @param unit  the unit of the amount to add, not null
 872      * @return an {@code OffsetTime} based on this time with the specified amount added, not null
 873      * @throws DateTimeException if the addition cannot be made
 874      * @throws UnsupportedTemporalTypeException if the unit is not supported
 875      * @throws ArithmeticException if numeric overflow occurs
 876      */
 877     @Override
 878     public OffsetTime plus(long amountToAdd, TemporalUnit unit) {
 879         if (unit instanceof ChronoUnit) {
 880             return with(time.plus(amountToAdd, unit), offset);
 881         }
 882         return unit.addTo(this, amountToAdd);
 883     }
 884 
 885     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 886     /**
 887      * Returns a copy of this {@code OffsetTime} with the specified number of hours added.
 888      * <p>
 889      * This adds the specified number of hours to this time, returning a new time.
 890      * The calculation wraps around midnight.
 891      * <p>
 892      * This instance is immutable and unaffected by this method call.
 893      *
 894      * @param hours  the hours to add, may be negative
 895      * @return an {@code OffsetTime} based on this time with the hours added, not null
 896      */
 897     public OffsetTime plusHours(long hours) {
 898         return with(time.plusHours(hours), offset);
 899     }
 900 
 901     /**
 902      * Returns a copy of this {@code OffsetTime} with the specified number of minutes added.
 903      * <p>
 904      * This adds the specified number of minutes to this time, returning a new time.
 905      * The calculation wraps around midnight.
 906      * <p>
 907      * This instance is immutable and unaffected by this method call.
 908      *
 909      * @param minutes  the minutes to add, may be negative
 910      * @return an {@code OffsetTime} based on this time with the minutes added, not null
 911      */
 912     public OffsetTime plusMinutes(long minutes) {
 913         return with(time.plusMinutes(minutes), offset);
 914     }
 915 
 916     /**
 917      * Returns a copy of this {@code OffsetTime} with the specified number of seconds added.
 918      * <p>
 919      * This adds the specified number of seconds to this time, returning a new time.
 920      * The calculation wraps around midnight.
 921      * <p>
 922      * This instance is immutable and unaffected by this method call.
 923      *
 924      * @param seconds  the seconds to add, may be negative
 925      * @return an {@code OffsetTime} based on this time with the seconds added, not null
 926      */
 927     public OffsetTime plusSeconds(long seconds) {
 928         return with(time.plusSeconds(seconds), offset);
 929     }
 930 
 931     /**
 932      * Returns a copy of this {@code OffsetTime} with the specified number of nanoseconds added.
 933      * <p>
 934      * This adds the specified number of nanoseconds to this time, returning a new time.
 935      * The calculation wraps around midnight.
 936      * <p>
 937      * This instance is immutable and unaffected by this method call.
 938      *
 939      * @param nanos  the nanos to add, may be negative
 940      * @return an {@code OffsetTime} based on this time with the nanoseconds added, not null
 941      */
 942     public OffsetTime plusNanos(long nanos) {
 943         return with(time.plusNanos(nanos), offset);
 944     }
 945 
 946     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 947     /**
 948      * Returns a copy of this time with the specified amount subtracted.
 949      * <p>
 950      * This returns an {@code OffsetTime}, based on this one, with the specified amount subtracted.
 951      * The amount is typically {@link Duration} but may be any other type implementing
 952      * the {@link TemporalAmount} interface.
 953      * <p>
 954      * The calculation is delegated to the amount object by calling
 955      * {@link TemporalAmount#subtractFrom(Temporal)}. The amount implementation is free
 956      * to implement the subtraction in any way it wishes, however it typically
 957      * calls back to {@link #minus(long, TemporalUnit)}. Consult the documentation
 958      * of the amount implementation to determine if it can be successfully subtracted.
 959      * <p>
 960      * This instance is immutable and unaffected by this method call.
 961      *
 962      * @param amountToSubtract  the amount to subtract, not null
 963      * @return an {@code OffsetTime} based on this time with the subtraction made, not null
 964      * @throws DateTimeException if the subtraction cannot be made
 965      * @throws ArithmeticException if numeric overflow occurs
 966      */
 967     @Override
 968     public OffsetTime minus(TemporalAmount amountToSubtract) {
 969         return (OffsetTime) amountToSubtract.subtractFrom(this);
 970     }
 971 
 972     /**
 973      * Returns a copy of this time with the specified amount subtracted.
 974      * <p>
 975      * This returns an {@code OffsetTime}, based on this one, with the amount
 976      * in terms of the unit subtracted. If it is not possible to subtract the amount,
 977      * because the unit is not supported or for some other reason, an exception is thrown.
 978      * <p>
 979      * This method is equivalent to {@link #plus(long, TemporalUnit)} with the amount negated.
 980      * See that method for a full description of how addition, and thus subtraction, works.
 981      * <p>
 982      * This instance is immutable and unaffected by this method call.
 983      *
 984      * @param amountToSubtract  the amount of the unit to subtract from the result, may be negative
 985      * @param unit  the unit of the amount to subtract, not null
 986      * @return an {@code OffsetTime} based on this time with the specified amount subtracted, not null
 987      * @throws DateTimeException if the subtraction cannot be made
 988      * @throws UnsupportedTemporalTypeException if the unit is not supported
 989      * @throws ArithmeticException if numeric overflow occurs
 990      */
 991     @Override
 992     public OffsetTime minus(long amountToSubtract, TemporalUnit unit) {
 993         return (amountToSubtract == Long.MIN_VALUE ? plus(Long.MAX_VALUE, unit).plus(1, unit) : plus(-amountToSubtract, unit));
 994     }
 995 
 996     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 997     /**
 998      * Returns a copy of this {@code OffsetTime} with the specified number of hours subtracted.
 999      * <p>
1000      * This subtracts the specified number of hours from this time, returning a new time.
1001      * The calculation wraps around midnight.
1002      * <p>
1003      * This instance is immutable and unaffected by this method call.
1004      *
1005      * @param hours  the hours to subtract, may be negative
1006      * @return an {@code OffsetTime} based on this time with the hours subtracted, not null
1007      */
1008     public OffsetTime minusHours(long hours) {
1009         return with(time.minusHours(hours), offset);
1010     }
1011 
1012     /**
1013      * Returns a copy of this {@code OffsetTime} with the specified number of minutes subtracted.
1014      * <p>
1015      * This subtracts the specified number of minutes from this time, returning a new time.
1016      * The calculation wraps around midnight.
1017      * <p>
1018      * This instance is immutable and unaffected by this method call.
1019      *
1020      * @param minutes  the minutes to subtract, may be negative
1021      * @return an {@code OffsetTime} based on this time with the minutes subtracted, not null
1022      */
1023     public OffsetTime minusMinutes(long minutes) {
1024         return with(time.minusMinutes(minutes), offset);
1025     }
1026 
1027     /**
1028      * Returns a copy of this {@code OffsetTime} with the specified number of seconds subtracted.
1029      * <p>
1030      * This subtracts the specified number of seconds from this time, returning a new time.
1031      * The calculation wraps around midnight.
1032      * <p>
1033      * This instance is immutable and unaffected by this method call.
1034      *
1035      * @param seconds  the seconds to subtract, may be negative
1036      * @return an {@code OffsetTime} based on this time with the seconds subtracted, not null
1037      */
1038     public OffsetTime minusSeconds(long seconds) {
1039         return with(time.minusSeconds(seconds), offset);
1040     }
1041 
1042     /**
1043      * Returns a copy of this {@code OffsetTime} with the specified number of nanoseconds subtracted.
1044      * <p>
1045      * This subtracts the specified number of nanoseconds from this time, returning a new time.
1046      * The calculation wraps around midnight.
1047      * <p>
1048      * This instance is immutable and unaffected by this method call.
1049      *
1050      * @param nanos  the nanos to subtract, may be negative
1051      * @return an {@code OffsetTime} based on this time with the nanoseconds subtracted, not null
1052      */
1053     public OffsetTime minusNanos(long nanos) {
1054         return with(time.minusNanos(nanos), offset);
1055     }
1056 
1057     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
1058     /**
1059      * Queries this time using the specified query.
1060      * <p>
1061      * This queries this time using the specified query strategy object.
1062      * The {@code TemporalQuery} object defines the logic to be used to
1063      * obtain the result. Read the documentation of the query to understand
1064      * what the result of this method will be.
1065      * <p>
1066      * The result of this method is obtained by invoking the
1067      * {@link TemporalQuery#queryFrom(TemporalAccessor)} method on the
1068      * specified query passing {@code this} as the argument.
1069      *
1070      * @param <R> the type of the result
1071      * @param query  the query to invoke, not null
1072      * @return the query result, null may be returned (defined by the query)
1073      * @throws DateTimeException if unable to query (defined by the query)
1074      * @throws ArithmeticException if numeric overflow occurs (defined by the query)
1075      */
1076     @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
1077     @Override
1078     public <R> R query(TemporalQuery<R> query) {
1079         if (query == TemporalQueries.offset() || query == TemporalQueries.zone()) {
1080             return (R) offset;
1081         } else if (query == TemporalQueries.zoneId() | query == TemporalQueries.chronology() || query == TemporalQueries.localDate()) {
1082             return null;
1083         } else if (query == TemporalQueries.localTime()) {
1084             return (R) time;
1085         } else if (query == TemporalQueries.precision()) {
1086             return (R) NANOS;
1087         }
1088         // inline TemporalAccessor.super.query(query) as an optimization
1089         // non-JDK classes are not permitted to make this optimization
1090         return query.queryFrom(this);
1091     }
1092 
1093     /**
1094      * Adjusts the specified temporal object to have the same offset and time
1095      * as this object.
1096      * <p>
1097      * This returns a temporal object of the same observable type as the input
1098      * with the offset and time changed to be the same as this.
1099      * <p>
1100      * The adjustment is equivalent to using {@link Temporal#with(TemporalField, long)}
1101      * twice, passing {@link ChronoField#NANO_OF_DAY} and
1102      * {@link ChronoField#OFFSET_SECONDS} as the fields.
1103      * <p>
1104      * In most cases, it is clearer to reverse the calling pattern by using
1105      * {@link Temporal#with(TemporalAdjuster)}:
1106      * <pre>
1107      *   // these two lines are equivalent, but the second approach is recommended
1108      *   temporal = thisOffsetTime.adjustInto(temporal);
1109      *   temporal = temporal.with(thisOffsetTime);
1110      * </pre>
1111      * <p>
1112      * This instance is immutable and unaffected by this method call.
1113      *
1114      * @param temporal  the target object to be adjusted, not null
1115      * @return the adjusted object, not null
1116      * @throws DateTimeException if unable to make the adjustment
1117      * @throws ArithmeticException if numeric overflow occurs
1118      */
1119     @Override
1120     public Temporal adjustInto(Temporal temporal) {
1121         return temporal
1122                 .with(NANO_OF_DAY, time.toNanoOfDay())
1123                 .with(OFFSET_SECONDS, offset.getTotalSeconds());
1124     }
1125 
1126     /**
1127      * Calculates the amount of time until another time in terms of the specified unit.
1128      * <p>
1129      * This calculates the amount of time between two {@code OffsetTime}
1130      * objects in terms of a single {@code TemporalUnit}.
1131      * The start and end points are {@code this} and the specified time.
1132      * The result will be negative if the end is before the start.
1133      * For example, the amount in hours between two times can be calculated
1134      * using {@code startTime.until(endTime, HOURS)}.
1135      * <p>
1136      * The {@code Temporal} passed to this method is converted to a
1137      * {@code OffsetTime} using {@link #from(TemporalAccessor)}.
1138      * If the offset differs between the two times, then the specified
1139      * end time is normalized to have the same offset as this time.
1140      * <p>
1141      * The calculation returns a whole number, representing the number of
1142      * complete units between the two times.
1143      * For example, the amount in hours between 11:30Z and 13:29Z will only
1144      * be one hour as it is one minute short of two hours.
1145      * <p>
1146      * There are two equivalent ways of using this method.
1147      * The first is to invoke this method.
1148      * The second is to use {@link TemporalUnit#between(Temporal, Temporal)}:
1149      * <pre>
1150      *   // these two lines are equivalent
1151      *   amount = start.until(end, MINUTES);
1152      *   amount = MINUTES.between(start, end);
1153      * </pre>
1154      * The choice should be made based on which makes the code more readable.
1155      * <p>
1156      * The calculation is implemented in this method for {@link ChronoUnit}.
1157      * The units {@code NANOS}, {@code MICROS}, {@code MILLIS}, {@code SECONDS},
1158      * {@code MINUTES}, {@code HOURS} and {@code HALF_DAYS} are supported.
1159      * Other {@code ChronoUnit} values will throw an exception.
1160      * <p>
1161      * If the unit is not a {@code ChronoUnit}, then the result of this method
1162      * is obtained by invoking {@code TemporalUnit.between(Temporal, Temporal)}
1163      * passing {@code this} as the first argument and the converted input temporal
1164      * as the second argument.
1165      * <p>
1166      * This instance is immutable and unaffected by this method call.
1167      *
1168      * @param endExclusive  the end time, exclusive, which is converted to an {@code OffsetTime}, not null
1169      * @param unit  the unit to measure the amount in, not null
1170      * @return the amount of time between this time and the end time
1171      * @throws DateTimeException if the amount cannot be calculated, or the end
1172      *  temporal cannot be converted to an {@code OffsetTime}
1173      * @throws UnsupportedTemporalTypeException if the unit is not supported
1174      * @throws ArithmeticException if numeric overflow occurs
1175      */
1176     @Override
1177     public long until(Temporal endExclusive, TemporalUnit unit) {
1178         OffsetTime end = OffsetTime.from(endExclusive);
1179         if (unit instanceof ChronoUnit) {
1180             long nanosUntil = end.toEpochNano() - toEpochNano();  // no overflow
1181             switch ((ChronoUnit) unit) {
1182                 case NANOS: return nanosUntil;
1183                 case MICROS: return nanosUntil / 1000;
1184                 case MILLIS: return nanosUntil / 1000_000;
1185                 case SECONDS: return nanosUntil / NANOS_PER_SECOND;
1186                 case MINUTES: return nanosUntil / NANOS_PER_MINUTE;
1187                 case HOURS: return nanosUntil / NANOS_PER_HOUR;
1188                 case HALF_DAYS: return nanosUntil / (12 * NANOS_PER_HOUR);
1189             }
1190             throw new UnsupportedTemporalTypeException("Unsupported unit: " + unit);
1191         }
1192         return unit.between(this, end);
1193     }
1194 
1195     /**
1196      * Formats this time using the specified formatter.
1197      * <p>
1198      * This time will be passed to the formatter to produce a string.
1199      *
1200      * @param formatter  the formatter to use, not null
1201      * @return the formatted time string, not null
1202      * @throws DateTimeException if an error occurs during printing
1203      */
1204     public String format(DateTimeFormatter formatter) {
1205         Objects.requireNonNull(formatter, "formatter");
1206         return formatter.format(this);
1207     }
1208 
1209     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
1210     /**
1211      * Combines this time with a date to create an {@code OffsetDateTime}.
1212      * <p>
1213      * This returns an {@code OffsetDateTime} formed from this time and the specified date.
1214      * All possible combinations of date and time are valid.
1215      *
1216      * @param date  the date to combine with, not null
1217      * @return the offset date-time formed from this time and the specified date, not null
1218      */
1219     public OffsetDateTime atDate(LocalDate date) {
1220         return OffsetDateTime.of(date, time, offset);
1221     }
1222 
1223     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
1224     /**
1225      * Converts this time to epoch nanos based on 1970-01-01Z.
1226      *
1227      * @return the epoch nanos value
1228      */
1229     private long toEpochNano() {
1230         long nod = time.toNanoOfDay();
1231         long offsetNanos = offset.getTotalSeconds() * NANOS_PER_SECOND;
1232         return nod - offsetNanos;
1233     }
1234 
1235     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
1236     /**
1237      * Compares this {@code OffsetTime} to another time.
1238      * <p>
1239      * The comparison is based first on the UTC equivalent instant, then on the local time.
1240      * It is "consistent with equals", as defined by {@link Comparable}.
1241      * <p>
1242      * For example, the following is the comparator order:
1243      * <ol>
1244      * <li>{@code 10:30+01:00}</li>
1245      * <li>{@code 11:00+01:00}</li>
1246      * <li>{@code 12:00+02:00}</li>
1247      * <li>{@code 11:30+01:00}</li>
1248      * <li>{@code 12:00+01:00}</li>
1249      * <li>{@code 12:30+01:00}</li>
1250      * </ol>
1251      * Values #2 and #3 represent the same instant on the time-line.
1252      * When two values represent the same instant, the local time is compared
1253      * to distinguish them. This step is needed to make the ordering
1254      * consistent with {@code equals()}.
1255      * <p>
1256      * To compare the underlying local time of two {@code TemporalAccessor} instances,
1257      * use {@link ChronoField#NANO_OF_DAY} as a comparator.
1258      *
1259      * @param other  the other time to compare to, not null
1260      * @return the comparator value, negative if less, positive if greater
1261      */
1262     @Override
1263     public int compareTo(OffsetTime other) {
1264         if (offset.equals(other.offset)) {
1265             return time.compareTo(other.time);
1266         }
1267         int compare = Long.compare(toEpochNano(), other.toEpochNano());
1268         if (compare == 0) {
1269             compare = time.compareTo(other.time);
1270         }
1271         return compare;
1272     }
1273 
1274     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
1275     /**
1276      * Checks if the instant of this {@code OffsetTime} is after that of the
1277      * specified time applying both times to a common date.
1278      * <p>
1279      * This method differs from the comparison in {@link #compareTo} in that it
1280      * only compares the instant of the time. This is equivalent to converting both
1281      * times to an instant using the same date and comparing the instants.
1282      *
1283      * @param other  the other time to compare to, not null
1284      * @return true if this is after the instant of the specified time
1285      */
1286     public boolean isAfter(OffsetTime other) {
1287         return toEpochNano() > other.toEpochNano();
1288     }
1289 
1290     /**
1291      * Checks if the instant of this {@code OffsetTime} is before that of the
1292      * specified time applying both times to a common date.
1293      * <p>
1294      * This method differs from the comparison in {@link #compareTo} in that it
1295      * only compares the instant of the time. This is equivalent to converting both
1296      * times to an instant using the same date and comparing the instants.
1297      *
1298      * @param other  the other time to compare to, not null
1299      * @return true if this is before the instant of the specified time
1300      */
1301     public boolean isBefore(OffsetTime other) {
1302         return toEpochNano() < other.toEpochNano();
1303     }
1304 
1305     /**
1306      * Checks if the instant of this {@code OffsetTime} is equal to that of the
1307      * specified time applying both times to a common date.
1308      * <p>
1309      * This method differs from the comparison in {@link #compareTo} and {@link #equals}
1310      * in that it only compares the instant of the time. This is equivalent to converting both
1311      * times to an instant using the same date and comparing the instants.
1312      *
1313      * @param other  the other time to compare to, not null
1314      * @return true if this is equal to the instant of the specified time
1315      */
1316     public boolean isEqual(OffsetTime other) {
1317         return toEpochNano() == other.toEpochNano();
1318     }
1319 
1320     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
1321     /**
1322      * Checks if this time is equal to another time.
1323      * <p>
1324      * The comparison is based on the local-time and the offset.
1325      * To compare for the same instant on the time-line, use {@link #isEqual(OffsetTime)}.
1326      * <p>
1327      * Only objects of type {@code OffsetTime} are compared, other types return false.
1328      * To compare the underlying local time of two {@code TemporalAccessor} instances,
1329      * use {@link ChronoField#NANO_OF_DAY} as a comparator.
1330      *
1331      * @param obj  the object to check, null returns false
1332      * @return true if this is equal to the other time
1333      */
1334     @Override
1335     public boolean equals(Object obj) {
1336         if (this == obj) {
1337             return true;
1338         }
1339         if (obj instanceof OffsetTime) {
1340             OffsetTime other = (OffsetTime) obj;
1341             return time.equals(other.time) && offset.equals(other.offset);
1342         }
1343         return false;
1344     }
1345 
1346     /**
1347      * A hash code for this time.
1348      *
1349      * @return a suitable hash code
1350      */
1351     @Override
1352     public int hashCode() {
1353         return time.hashCode() ^ offset.hashCode();
1354     }
1355 
1356     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
1357     /**
1358      * Outputs this time as a {@code String}, such as {@code 10:15:30+01:00}.
1359      * <p>
1360      * The output will be one of the following ISO-8601 formats:
1361      * <ul>
1362      * <li>{@code HH:mmXXXXX}</li>
1363      * <li>{@code HH:mm:ssXXXXX}</li>
1364      * <li>{@code HH:mm:ss.SSSXXXXX}</li>
1365      * <li>{@code HH:mm:ss.SSSSSSXXXXX}</li>
1366      * <li>{@code HH:mm:ss.SSSSSSSSSXXXXX}</li>
1367      * </ul>
1368      * The format used will be the shortest that outputs the full value of
1369      * the time where the omitted parts are implied to be zero.
1370      *
1371      * @return a string representation of this time, not null
1372      */
1373     @Override
1374     public String toString() {
1375         return time.toString() + offset.toString();
1376     }
1377 
1378     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
1379     /**
1380      * Writes the object using a
1381      * <a href="../../serialized-form.html#java.time.Ser">dedicated serialized form</a>.
1382      * @serialData
1383      * <pre>
1384      *  out.writeByte(9);  // identifies an OffsetTime
1385      *  // the <a href="../../serialized-form.html#java.time.LocalTime">time</a> excluding the one byte header
1386      *  // the <a href="../../serialized-form.html#java.time.ZoneOffset">offset</a> excluding the one byte header
1387      * </pre>
1388      *
1389      * @return the instance of {@code Ser}, not null
1390      */
1391     private Object writeReplace() {
1392         return new Ser(Ser.OFFSET_TIME_TYPE, this);
1393     }
1394 
1395     /**
1396      * Defend against malicious streams.
1397      *
1398      * @param s the stream to read
1399      * @throws InvalidObjectException always
1400      */
1401     private void readObject(ObjectInputStream s) throws InvalidObjectException {
1402         throw new InvalidObjectException("Deserialization via serialization delegate");
1403     }
1404 
1405     void writeExternal(ObjectOutput out) throws IOException {
1406         time.writeExternal(out);
1407         offset.writeExternal(out);
1408     }
1409 
1410     static OffsetTime readExternal(ObjectInput in) throws IOException, ClassNotFoundException {
1411         LocalTime time = LocalTime.readExternal(in);
1412         ZoneOffset offset = ZoneOffset.readExternal(in);
1413         return OffsetTime.of(time, offset);
1414     }
1415 
1416 }