1 /*
   2  * Copyright (c) 1997, 2014, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
   3  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
   4  *
   5  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   6  * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
   7  * published by the Free Software Foundation.
   8  *
   9  * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  10  * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  11  * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  12  * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  13  * accompanied this code).
  14  *
  15  * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  16  * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  17  * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  18  *
  19  * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  20  * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  21  * questions.
  22  *
  23  */
  24 
  25 #include "precompiled.hpp"
  26 #include "classfile/classLoader.hpp"
  27 #include "classfile/classLoaderData.hpp"
  28 #include "classfile/javaClasses.hpp"
  29 #if INCLUDE_CDS
  30 #include "classfile/sharedClassUtil.hpp"
  31 #endif
  32 #include "classfile/stringTable.hpp"
  33 #include "classfile/systemDictionary.hpp"
  34 #include "classfile/vmSymbols.hpp"
  35 #include "code/codeCache.hpp"
  36 #include "code/dependencies.hpp"
  37 #include "gc_interface/collectedHeap.inline.hpp"
  38 #include "interpreter/interpreter.hpp"
  39 #include "memory/cardTableModRefBS.hpp"
  40 #include "memory/filemap.hpp"
  41 #include "memory/gcLocker.inline.hpp"
  42 #include "memory/genCollectedHeap.hpp"
  43 #include "memory/genRemSet.hpp"
  44 #include "memory/generation.hpp"
  45 #include "memory/metadataFactory.hpp"
  46 #include "memory/metaspaceShared.hpp"
  47 #include "memory/oopFactory.hpp"
  48 #include "memory/space.hpp"
  49 #include "memory/universe.hpp"
  50 #include "memory/universe.inline.hpp"
  51 #include "oops/constantPool.hpp"
  52 #include "oops/instanceClassLoaderKlass.hpp"
  53 #include "oops/instanceKlass.hpp"
  54 #include "oops/instanceMirrorKlass.hpp"
  55 #include "oops/instanceRefKlass.hpp"
  56 #include "oops/oop.inline.hpp"
  57 #include "oops/typeArrayKlass.hpp"
  58 #include "prims/jvmtiRedefineClassesTrace.hpp"
  59 #include "runtime/arguments.hpp"
  60 #include "runtime/atomic.inline.hpp"
  61 #include "runtime/deoptimization.hpp"
  62 #include "runtime/fprofiler.hpp"
  63 #include "runtime/handles.inline.hpp"
  64 #include "runtime/init.hpp"
  65 #include "runtime/java.hpp"
  66 #include "runtime/javaCalls.hpp"
  67 #include "runtime/sharedRuntime.hpp"
  68 #include "runtime/synchronizer.hpp"
  69 #include "runtime/thread.inline.hpp"
  70 #include "runtime/timer.hpp"
  71 #include "runtime/vm_operations.hpp"
  72 #include "services/memoryService.hpp"
  73 #include "utilities/copy.hpp"
  74 #include "utilities/events.hpp"
  75 #include "utilities/hashtable.inline.hpp"
  76 #include "utilities/preserveException.hpp"
  77 #include "utilities/macros.hpp"
  78 #if INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
  79 #include "gc_implementation/shared/adaptiveSizePolicy.hpp"
  80 #include "gc_implementation/concurrentMarkSweep/cmsCollectorPolicy.hpp"
  81 #include "gc_implementation/g1/g1CollectedHeap.inline.hpp"
  82 #include "gc_implementation/g1/g1CollectorPolicy.hpp"
  83 #include "gc_implementation/parallelScavenge/parallelScavengeHeap.hpp"
  84 #endif // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
  85 
  86 PRAGMA_FORMAT_MUTE_WARNINGS_FOR_GCC
  87 
  88 // Known objects
  89 Klass* Universe::_boolArrayKlassObj                 = NULL;
  90 Klass* Universe::_byteArrayKlassObj                 = NULL;
  91 Klass* Universe::_charArrayKlassObj                 = NULL;
  92 Klass* Universe::_intArrayKlassObj                  = NULL;
  93 Klass* Universe::_shortArrayKlassObj                = NULL;
  94 Klass* Universe::_longArrayKlassObj                 = NULL;
  95 Klass* Universe::_singleArrayKlassObj               = NULL;
  96 Klass* Universe::_doubleArrayKlassObj               = NULL;
  97 Klass* Universe::_typeArrayKlassObjs[T_VOID+1]      = { NULL /*, NULL...*/ };
  98 Klass* Universe::_objectArrayKlassObj               = NULL;
  99 oop Universe::_int_mirror                             = NULL;
 100 oop Universe::_float_mirror                           = NULL;
 101 oop Universe::_double_mirror                          = NULL;
 102 oop Universe::_byte_mirror                            = NULL;
 103 oop Universe::_bool_mirror                            = NULL;
 104 oop Universe::_char_mirror                            = NULL;
 105 oop Universe::_long_mirror                            = NULL;
 106 oop Universe::_short_mirror                           = NULL;
 107 oop Universe::_void_mirror                            = NULL;
 108 oop Universe::_mirrors[T_VOID+1]                      = { NULL /*, NULL...*/ };
 109 oop Universe::_main_thread_group                      = NULL;
 110 oop Universe::_system_thread_group                    = NULL;
 111 objArrayOop Universe::_the_empty_class_klass_array    = NULL;
 112 Array<Klass*>* Universe::_the_array_interfaces_array = NULL;
 113 oop Universe::_the_null_string                        = NULL;
 114 oop Universe::_the_min_jint_string                   = NULL;
 115 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_finalizer_register_cache = NULL;
 116 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_loader_addClass_cache    = NULL;
 117 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_pd_implies_cache         = NULL;
 118 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap          = NULL;
 119 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace          = NULL;
 120 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace    = NULL;
 121 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size         = NULL;
 122 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit  = NULL;
 123 objArrayOop Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_array = NULL;
 124 volatile jint Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count = 0;
 125 bool Universe::_verify_in_progress                    = false;
 126 oop Universe::_null_ptr_exception_instance            = NULL;
 127 oop Universe::_arithmetic_exception_instance          = NULL;
 128 oop Universe::_virtual_machine_error_instance         = NULL;
 129 oop Universe::_vm_exception                           = NULL;
 130 Method* Universe::_throw_illegal_access_error         = NULL;
 131 Array<int>* Universe::_the_empty_int_array            = NULL;
 132 Array<u2>* Universe::_the_empty_short_array           = NULL;
 133 Array<Klass*>* Universe::_the_empty_klass_array     = NULL;
 134 Array<Method*>* Universe::_the_empty_method_array   = NULL;
 135 
 136 // These variables are guarded by FullGCALot_lock.
 137 debug_only(objArrayOop Universe::_fullgc_alot_dummy_array = NULL;)
 138 debug_only(int Universe::_fullgc_alot_dummy_next      = 0;)
 139 
 140 // Heap
 141 int             Universe::_verify_count = 0;
 142 
 143 int             Universe::_base_vtable_size = 0;
 144 bool            Universe::_bootstrapping = false;
 145 bool            Universe::_fully_initialized = false;
 146 
 147 size_t          Universe::_heap_capacity_at_last_gc;
 148 size_t          Universe::_heap_used_at_last_gc = 0;
 149 
 150 CollectedHeap*  Universe::_collectedHeap = NULL;
 151 
 152 NarrowPtrStruct Universe::_narrow_oop = { NULL, 0, true };
 153 NarrowPtrStruct Universe::_narrow_klass = { NULL, 0, true };
 154 address Universe::_narrow_ptrs_base;
 155 
 156 void Universe::basic_type_classes_do(void f(Klass*)) {
 157   f(boolArrayKlassObj());
 158   f(byteArrayKlassObj());
 159   f(charArrayKlassObj());
 160   f(intArrayKlassObj());
 161   f(shortArrayKlassObj());
 162   f(longArrayKlassObj());
 163   f(singleArrayKlassObj());
 164   f(doubleArrayKlassObj());
 165 }
 166 
 167 void Universe::oops_do(OopClosure* f, bool do_all) {
 168 
 169   f->do_oop((oop*) &_int_mirror);
 170   f->do_oop((oop*) &_float_mirror);
 171   f->do_oop((oop*) &_double_mirror);
 172   f->do_oop((oop*) &_byte_mirror);
 173   f->do_oop((oop*) &_bool_mirror);
 174   f->do_oop((oop*) &_char_mirror);
 175   f->do_oop((oop*) &_long_mirror);
 176   f->do_oop((oop*) &_short_mirror);
 177   f->do_oop((oop*) &_void_mirror);
 178 
 179   for (int i = T_BOOLEAN; i < T_VOID+1; i++) {
 180     f->do_oop((oop*) &_mirrors[i]);
 181   }
 182   assert(_mirrors[0] == NULL && _mirrors[T_BOOLEAN - 1] == NULL, "checking");
 183 
 184   f->do_oop((oop*)&_the_empty_class_klass_array);
 185   f->do_oop((oop*)&_the_null_string);
 186   f->do_oop((oop*)&_the_min_jint_string);
 187   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_java_heap);
 188   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_metaspace);
 189   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace);
 190   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_array_size);
 191   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit);
 192     f->do_oop((oop*)&_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_array);
 193   f->do_oop((oop*)&_null_ptr_exception_instance);
 194   f->do_oop((oop*)&_arithmetic_exception_instance);
 195   f->do_oop((oop*)&_virtual_machine_error_instance);
 196   f->do_oop((oop*)&_main_thread_group);
 197   f->do_oop((oop*)&_system_thread_group);
 198   f->do_oop((oop*)&_vm_exception);
 199   debug_only(f->do_oop((oop*)&_fullgc_alot_dummy_array);)
 200 }
 201 
 202 // Serialize metadata in and out of CDS archive, not oops.
 203 void Universe::serialize(SerializeClosure* f, bool do_all) {
 204 
 205   f->do_ptr((void**)&_boolArrayKlassObj);
 206   f->do_ptr((void**)&_byteArrayKlassObj);
 207   f->do_ptr((void**)&_charArrayKlassObj);
 208   f->do_ptr((void**)&_intArrayKlassObj);
 209   f->do_ptr((void**)&_shortArrayKlassObj);
 210   f->do_ptr((void**)&_longArrayKlassObj);
 211   f->do_ptr((void**)&_singleArrayKlassObj);
 212   f->do_ptr((void**)&_doubleArrayKlassObj);
 213   f->do_ptr((void**)&_objectArrayKlassObj);
 214 
 215   {
 216     for (int i = 0; i < T_VOID+1; i++) {
 217       if (_typeArrayKlassObjs[i] != NULL) {
 218         assert(i >= T_BOOLEAN, "checking");
 219         f->do_ptr((void**)&_typeArrayKlassObjs[i]);
 220       } else if (do_all) {
 221         f->do_ptr((void**)&_typeArrayKlassObjs[i]);
 222       }
 223     }
 224   }
 225 
 226   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_array_interfaces_array);
 227   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_int_array);
 228   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_short_array);
 229   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_method_array);
 230   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_klass_array);
 231   _finalizer_register_cache->serialize(f);
 232   _loader_addClass_cache->serialize(f);
 233   _pd_implies_cache->serialize(f);
 234 }
 235 
 236 void Universe::check_alignment(uintx size, uintx alignment, const char* name) {
 237   if (size < alignment || size % alignment != 0) {
 238     vm_exit_during_initialization(
 239       err_msg("Size of %s (" UINTX_FORMAT " bytes) must be aligned to " UINTX_FORMAT " bytes", name, size, alignment));
 240   }
 241 }
 242 
 243 void initialize_basic_type_klass(Klass* k, TRAPS) {
 244   Klass* ok = SystemDictionary::Object_klass();
 245   if (UseSharedSpaces) {
 246     ClassLoaderData* loader_data = ClassLoaderData::the_null_class_loader_data();
 247     assert(k->super() == ok, "u3");
 248     k->restore_unshareable_info(loader_data, Handle(), CHECK);
 249   } else {
 250     k->initialize_supers(ok, CHECK);
 251   }
 252   k->append_to_sibling_list();
 253 }
 254 
 255 void Universe::genesis(TRAPS) {
 256   ResourceMark rm;
 257 
 258   { FlagSetting fs(_bootstrapping, true);
 259 
 260     { MutexLocker mc(Compile_lock);
 261 
 262       // determine base vtable size; without that we cannot create the array klasses
 263       compute_base_vtable_size();
 264 
 265       if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
 266         _boolArrayKlassObj      = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_BOOLEAN, sizeof(jboolean), CHECK);
 267         _charArrayKlassObj      = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_CHAR,    sizeof(jchar),    CHECK);
 268         _singleArrayKlassObj    = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_FLOAT,   sizeof(jfloat),   CHECK);
 269         _doubleArrayKlassObj    = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_DOUBLE,  sizeof(jdouble),  CHECK);
 270         _byteArrayKlassObj      = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_BYTE,    sizeof(jbyte),    CHECK);
 271         _shortArrayKlassObj     = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_SHORT,   sizeof(jshort),   CHECK);
 272         _intArrayKlassObj       = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_INT,     sizeof(jint),     CHECK);
 273         _longArrayKlassObj      = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_LONG,    sizeof(jlong),    CHECK);
 274 
 275         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_BOOLEAN] = _boolArrayKlassObj;
 276         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_CHAR]    = _charArrayKlassObj;
 277         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_FLOAT]   = _singleArrayKlassObj;
 278         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_DOUBLE]  = _doubleArrayKlassObj;
 279         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_BYTE]    = _byteArrayKlassObj;
 280         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_SHORT]   = _shortArrayKlassObj;
 281         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_INT]     = _intArrayKlassObj;
 282         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_LONG]    = _longArrayKlassObj;
 283 
 284         ClassLoaderData* null_cld = ClassLoaderData::the_null_class_loader_data();
 285 
 286         _the_array_interfaces_array = MetadataFactory::new_array<Klass*>(null_cld, 2, NULL, CHECK);
 287         _the_empty_int_array        = MetadataFactory::new_array<int>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 288         _the_empty_short_array      = MetadataFactory::new_array<u2>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 289         _the_empty_method_array     = MetadataFactory::new_array<Method*>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 290         _the_empty_klass_array      = MetadataFactory::new_array<Klass*>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 291       }
 292     }
 293 
 294     vmSymbols::initialize(CHECK);
 295 
 296     SystemDictionary::initialize(CHECK);
 297 
 298     Klass* ok = SystemDictionary::Object_klass();
 299 
 300     _the_null_string            = StringTable::intern("null", CHECK);
 301     _the_min_jint_string       = StringTable::intern("-2147483648", CHECK);
 302 
 303     if (UseSharedSpaces) {
 304       // Verify shared interfaces array.
 305       assert(_the_array_interfaces_array->at(0) ==
 306              SystemDictionary::Cloneable_klass(), "u3");
 307       assert(_the_array_interfaces_array->at(1) ==
 308              SystemDictionary::Serializable_klass(), "u3");
 309     } else {
 310       // Set up shared interfaces array.  (Do this before supers are set up.)
 311       _the_array_interfaces_array->at_put(0, SystemDictionary::Cloneable_klass());
 312       _the_array_interfaces_array->at_put(1, SystemDictionary::Serializable_klass());
 313     }
 314 
 315     initialize_basic_type_klass(boolArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 316     initialize_basic_type_klass(charArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 317     initialize_basic_type_klass(singleArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 318     initialize_basic_type_klass(doubleArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 319     initialize_basic_type_klass(byteArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 320     initialize_basic_type_klass(shortArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 321     initialize_basic_type_klass(intArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 322     initialize_basic_type_klass(longArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 323   } // end of core bootstrapping
 324 
 325   // Maybe this could be lifted up now that object array can be initialized
 326   // during the bootstrapping.
 327 
 328   // OLD
 329   // Initialize _objectArrayKlass after core bootstraping to make
 330   // sure the super class is set up properly for _objectArrayKlass.
 331   // ---
 332   // NEW
 333   // Since some of the old system object arrays have been converted to
 334   // ordinary object arrays, _objectArrayKlass will be loaded when
 335   // SystemDictionary::initialize(CHECK); is run. See the extra check
 336   // for Object_klass_loaded in objArrayKlassKlass::allocate_objArray_klass_impl.
 337   _objectArrayKlassObj = InstanceKlass::
 338     cast(SystemDictionary::Object_klass())->array_klass(1, CHECK);
 339   // OLD
 340   // Add the class to the class hierarchy manually to make sure that
 341   // its vtable is initialized after core bootstrapping is completed.
 342   // ---
 343   // New
 344   // Have already been initialized.
 345   _objectArrayKlassObj->append_to_sibling_list();
 346 
 347   // Compute is_jdk version flags.
 348   // Only 1.3 or later has the java.lang.Shutdown class.
 349   // Only 1.4 or later has the java.lang.CharSequence interface.
 350   // Only 1.5 or later has the java.lang.management.MemoryUsage class.
 351   if (JDK_Version::is_partially_initialized()) {
 352     uint8_t jdk_version;
 353     Klass* k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_null(
 354         vmSymbols::java_lang_management_MemoryUsage(), THREAD);
 355     CLEAR_PENDING_EXCEPTION; // ignore exceptions
 356     if (k == NULL) {
 357       k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_null(
 358           vmSymbols::java_lang_CharSequence(), THREAD);
 359       CLEAR_PENDING_EXCEPTION; // ignore exceptions
 360       if (k == NULL) {
 361         k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_null(
 362             vmSymbols::java_lang_Shutdown(), THREAD);
 363         CLEAR_PENDING_EXCEPTION; // ignore exceptions
 364         if (k == NULL) {
 365           jdk_version = 2;
 366         } else {
 367           jdk_version = 3;
 368         }
 369       } else {
 370         jdk_version = 4;
 371       }
 372     } else {
 373       jdk_version = 5;
 374     }
 375     JDK_Version::fully_initialize(jdk_version);
 376   }
 377 
 378   #ifdef ASSERT
 379   if (FullGCALot) {
 380     // Allocate an array of dummy objects.
 381     // We'd like these to be at the bottom of the old generation,
 382     // so that when we free one and then collect,
 383     // (almost) the whole heap moves
 384     // and we find out if we actually update all the oops correctly.
 385     // But we can't allocate directly in the old generation,
 386     // so we allocate wherever, and hope that the first collection
 387     // moves these objects to the bottom of the old generation.
 388     // We can allocate directly in the permanent generation, so we do.
 389     int size;
 390     if (UseConcMarkSweepGC) {
 391       warning("Using +FullGCALot with concurrent mark sweep gc "
 392               "will not force all objects to relocate");
 393       size = FullGCALotDummies;
 394     } else {
 395       size = FullGCALotDummies * 2;
 396     }
 397     objArrayOop    naked_array = oopFactory::new_objArray(SystemDictionary::Object_klass(), size, CHECK);
 398     objArrayHandle dummy_array(THREAD, naked_array);
 399     int i = 0;
 400     while (i < size) {
 401         // Allocate dummy in old generation
 402       oop dummy = InstanceKlass::cast(SystemDictionary::Object_klass())->allocate_instance(CHECK);
 403       dummy_array->obj_at_put(i++, dummy);
 404     }
 405     {
 406       // Only modify the global variable inside the mutex.
 407       // If we had a race to here, the other dummy_array instances
 408       // and their elements just get dropped on the floor, which is fine.
 409       MutexLocker ml(FullGCALot_lock);
 410       if (_fullgc_alot_dummy_array == NULL) {
 411         _fullgc_alot_dummy_array = dummy_array();
 412       }
 413     }
 414     assert(i == _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->length(), "just checking");
 415   }
 416   #endif
 417 
 418   // Initialize dependency array for null class loader
 419   ClassLoaderData::the_null_class_loader_data()->init_dependencies(CHECK);
 420 
 421 }
 422 
 423 // CDS support for patching vtables in metadata in the shared archive.
 424 // All types inherited from Metadata have vtables, but not types inherited
 425 // from MetaspaceObj, because the latter does not have virtual functions.
 426 // If the metadata type has a vtable, it cannot be shared in the read-only
 427 // section of the CDS archive, because the vtable pointer is patched.
 428 static inline void add_vtable(void** list, int* n, void* o, int count) {
 429   guarantee((*n) < count, "vtable list too small");
 430   void* vtable = dereference_vptr(o);
 431   assert(*(void**)(vtable) != NULL, "invalid vtable");
 432   list[(*n)++] = vtable;
 433 }
 434 
 435 void Universe::init_self_patching_vtbl_list(void** list, int count) {
 436   int n = 0;
 437   { InstanceKlass o;          add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 438   { InstanceClassLoaderKlass o; add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 439   { InstanceMirrorKlass o;    add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 440   { InstanceRefKlass o;       add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 441   { TypeArrayKlass o;         add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 442   { ObjArrayKlass o;          add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 443   { Method o;                 add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 444   { ConstantPool o;           add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 445 }
 446 
 447 void Universe::initialize_basic_type_mirrors(TRAPS) {
 448     assert(_int_mirror==NULL, "basic type mirrors already initialized");
 449     _int_mirror     =
 450       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("int",    T_INT, CHECK);
 451     _float_mirror   =
 452       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("float",  T_FLOAT,   CHECK);
 453     _double_mirror  =
 454       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("double", T_DOUBLE,  CHECK);
 455     _byte_mirror    =
 456       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("byte",   T_BYTE, CHECK);
 457     _bool_mirror    =
 458       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("boolean",T_BOOLEAN, CHECK);
 459     _char_mirror    =
 460       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("char",   T_CHAR, CHECK);
 461     _long_mirror    =
 462       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("long",   T_LONG, CHECK);
 463     _short_mirror   =
 464       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("short",  T_SHORT,   CHECK);
 465     _void_mirror    =
 466       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("void",   T_VOID, CHECK);
 467 
 468     _mirrors[T_INT]     = _int_mirror;
 469     _mirrors[T_FLOAT]   = _float_mirror;
 470     _mirrors[T_DOUBLE]  = _double_mirror;
 471     _mirrors[T_BYTE]    = _byte_mirror;
 472     _mirrors[T_BOOLEAN] = _bool_mirror;
 473     _mirrors[T_CHAR]    = _char_mirror;
 474     _mirrors[T_LONG]    = _long_mirror;
 475     _mirrors[T_SHORT]   = _short_mirror;
 476     _mirrors[T_VOID]    = _void_mirror;
 477   //_mirrors[T_OBJECT]  = InstanceKlass::cast(_object_klass)->java_mirror();
 478   //_mirrors[T_ARRAY]   = InstanceKlass::cast(_object_klass)->java_mirror();
 479 }
 480 
 481 void Universe::fixup_mirrors(TRAPS) {
 482   // Bootstrap problem: all classes gets a mirror (java.lang.Class instance) assigned eagerly,
 483   // but we cannot do that for classes created before java.lang.Class is loaded. Here we simply
 484   // walk over permanent objects created so far (mostly classes) and fixup their mirrors. Note
 485   // that the number of objects allocated at this point is very small.
 486   assert(SystemDictionary::Class_klass_loaded(), "java.lang.Class should be loaded");
 487   HandleMark hm(THREAD);
 488   // Cache the start of the static fields
 489   InstanceMirrorKlass::init_offset_of_static_fields();
 490 
 491   GrowableArray <Klass*>* list = java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror_list();
 492   int list_length = list->length();
 493   for (int i = 0; i < list_length; i++) {
 494     Klass* k = list->at(i);
 495     assert(k->is_klass(), "List should only hold classes");
 496     EXCEPTION_MARK;
 497     KlassHandle kh(THREAD, k);
 498     java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror(kh, CATCH);
 499 }
 500   delete java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror_list();
 501   java_lang_Class::set_fixup_mirror_list(NULL);
 502 }
 503 
 504 static bool has_run_finalizers_on_exit = false;
 505 
 506 void Universe::run_finalizers_on_exit() {
 507   if (has_run_finalizers_on_exit) return;
 508   has_run_finalizers_on_exit = true;
 509 
 510   // Called on VM exit. This ought to be run in a separate thread.
 511   if (TraceReferenceGC) tty->print_cr("Callback to run finalizers on exit");
 512   {
 513     PRESERVE_EXCEPTION_MARK;
 514     KlassHandle finalizer_klass(THREAD, SystemDictionary::Finalizer_klass());
 515     JavaValue result(T_VOID);
 516     JavaCalls::call_static(
 517       &result,
 518       finalizer_klass,
 519       vmSymbols::run_finalizers_on_exit_name(),
 520       vmSymbols::void_method_signature(),
 521       THREAD
 522     );
 523     // Ignore any pending exceptions
 524     CLEAR_PENDING_EXCEPTION;
 525   }
 526 }
 527 
 528 
 529 // initialize_vtable could cause gc if
 530 // 1) we specified true to initialize_vtable and
 531 // 2) this ran after gc was enabled
 532 // In case those ever change we use handles for oops
 533 void Universe::reinitialize_vtable_of(KlassHandle k_h, TRAPS) {
 534   // init vtable of k and all subclasses
 535   Klass* ko = k_h();
 536   klassVtable* vt = ko->vtable();
 537   if (vt) vt->initialize_vtable(false, CHECK);
 538   if (ko->oop_is_instance()) {
 539     InstanceKlass* ik = (InstanceKlass*)ko;
 540     for (KlassHandle s_h(THREAD, ik->subklass());
 541          s_h() != NULL;
 542          s_h = KlassHandle(THREAD, s_h()->next_sibling())) {
 543       reinitialize_vtable_of(s_h, CHECK);
 544     }
 545   }
 546 }
 547 
 548 
 549 void initialize_itable_for_klass(Klass* k, TRAPS) {
 550   InstanceKlass::cast(k)->itable()->initialize_itable(false, CHECK);
 551 }
 552 
 553 
 554 void Universe::reinitialize_itables(TRAPS) {
 555   SystemDictionary::classes_do(initialize_itable_for_klass, CHECK);
 556 
 557 }
 558 
 559 
 560 bool Universe::on_page_boundary(void* addr) {
 561   return ((uintptr_t) addr) % os::vm_page_size() == 0;
 562 }
 563 
 564 
 565 bool Universe::should_fill_in_stack_trace(Handle throwable) {
 566   // never attempt to fill in the stack trace of preallocated errors that do not have
 567   // backtrace. These errors are kept alive forever and may be "re-used" when all
 568   // preallocated errors with backtrace have been consumed. Also need to avoid
 569   // a potential loop which could happen if an out of memory occurs when attempting
 570   // to allocate the backtrace.
 571   return ((throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap) &&
 572           (throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace)  &&
 573           (throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace)  &&
 574           (throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size) &&
 575           (throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit));
 576 }
 577 
 578 
 579 oop Universe::gen_out_of_memory_error(oop default_err) {
 580   // generate an out of memory error:
 581   // - if there is a preallocated error with backtrace available then return it wth
 582   //   a filled in stack trace.
 583   // - if there are no preallocated errors with backtrace available then return
 584   //   an error without backtrace.
 585   int next;
 586   if (_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count > 0) {
 587     next = (int)Atomic::add(-1, &_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count);
 588     assert(next < (int)PreallocatedOutOfMemoryErrorCount, "avail count is corrupt");
 589   } else {
 590     next = -1;
 591   }
 592   if (next < 0) {
 593     // all preallocated errors have been used.
 594     // return default
 595     return default_err;
 596   } else {
 597     // get the error object at the slot and set set it to NULL so that the
 598     // array isn't keeping it alive anymore.
 599     oop exc = preallocated_out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at(next);
 600     assert(exc != NULL, "slot has been used already");
 601     preallocated_out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at_put(next, NULL);
 602 
 603     // use the message from the default error
 604     oop msg = java_lang_Throwable::message(default_err);
 605     assert(msg != NULL, "no message");
 606     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(exc, msg);
 607 
 608     // populate the stack trace and return it.
 609     java_lang_Throwable::fill_in_stack_trace_of_preallocated_backtrace(exc);
 610     return exc;
 611   }
 612 }
 613 
 614 intptr_t Universe::_non_oop_bits = 0;
 615 
 616 void* Universe::non_oop_word() {
 617   // Neither the high bits nor the low bits of this value is allowed
 618   // to look like (respectively) the high or low bits of a real oop.
 619   //
 620   // High and low are CPU-specific notions, but low always includes
 621   // the low-order bit.  Since oops are always aligned at least mod 4,
 622   // setting the low-order bit will ensure that the low half of the
 623   // word will never look like that of a real oop.
 624   //
 625   // Using the OS-supplied non-memory-address word (usually 0 or -1)
 626   // will take care of the high bits, however many there are.
 627 
 628   if (_non_oop_bits == 0) {
 629     _non_oop_bits = (intptr_t)os::non_memory_address_word() | 1;
 630   }
 631 
 632   return (void*)_non_oop_bits;
 633 }
 634 
 635 jint universe_init() {
 636   assert(!Universe::_fully_initialized, "called after initialize_vtables");
 637   guarantee(1 << LogHeapWordSize == sizeof(HeapWord),
 638          "LogHeapWordSize is incorrect.");
 639   guarantee(sizeof(oop) >= sizeof(HeapWord), "HeapWord larger than oop?");
 640   guarantee(sizeof(oop) % sizeof(HeapWord) == 0,
 641             "oop size is not not a multiple of HeapWord size");
 642   TraceTime timer("Genesis", TraceStartupTime);
 643   JavaClasses::compute_hard_coded_offsets();
 644 
 645   jint status = Universe::initialize_heap();
 646   if (status != JNI_OK) {
 647     return status;
 648   }
 649 
 650   Metaspace::global_initialize();
 651 
 652   // Create memory for metadata.  Must be after initializing heap for
 653   // DumpSharedSpaces.
 654   ClassLoaderData::init_null_class_loader_data();
 655 
 656   // We have a heap so create the Method* caches before
 657   // Metaspace::initialize_shared_spaces() tries to populate them.
 658   Universe::_finalizer_register_cache = new LatestMethodCache();
 659   Universe::_loader_addClass_cache    = new LatestMethodCache();
 660   Universe::_pd_implies_cache         = new LatestMethodCache();
 661 
 662   if (UseSharedSpaces) {
 663     // Read the data structures supporting the shared spaces (shared
 664     // system dictionary, symbol table, etc.).  After that, access to
 665     // the file (other than the mapped regions) is no longer needed, and
 666     // the file is closed. Closing the file does not affect the
 667     // currently mapped regions.
 668     MetaspaceShared::initialize_shared_spaces();
 669     StringTable::create_table();
 670   } else {
 671     SymbolTable::create_table();
 672     StringTable::create_table();
 673     ClassLoader::create_package_info_table();
 674 
 675     if (DumpSharedSpaces) {
 676       MetaspaceShared::prepare_for_dumping();
 677     }
 678   }
 679 
 680   return JNI_OK;
 681 }
 682 
 683 // Choose the heap base address and oop encoding mode
 684 // when compressed oops are used:
 685 // Unscaled  - Use 32-bits oops without encoding when
 686 //     NarrowOopHeapBaseMin + heap_size < 4Gb
 687 // ZeroBased - Use zero based compressed oops with encoding when
 688 //     NarrowOopHeapBaseMin + heap_size < 32Gb
 689 // HeapBased - Use compressed oops with heap base + encoding.
 690 
 691 // 4Gb
 692 static const uint64_t UnscaledOopHeapMax = (uint64_t(max_juint) + 1);
 693 // 32Gb
 694 // OopEncodingHeapMax == UnscaledOopHeapMax << LogMinObjAlignmentInBytes;
 695 
 696 char* Universe::preferred_heap_base(size_t heap_size, size_t alignment, NARROW_OOP_MODE mode) {
 697   assert(is_size_aligned((size_t)OopEncodingHeapMax, alignment), "Must be");
 698   assert(is_size_aligned((size_t)UnscaledOopHeapMax, alignment), "Must be");
 699   assert(is_size_aligned(heap_size, alignment), "Must be");
 700 
 701   uintx heap_base_min_address_aligned = align_size_up(HeapBaseMinAddress, alignment);
 702 
 703   size_t base = 0;
 704 #ifdef _LP64
 705   if (UseCompressedOops) {
 706     assert(mode == UnscaledNarrowOop  ||
 707            mode == ZeroBasedNarrowOop ||
 708            mode == HeapBasedNarrowOop, "mode is invalid");
 709     const size_t total_size = heap_size + heap_base_min_address_aligned;
 710     // Return specified base for the first request.
 711     if (!FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(HeapBaseMinAddress) && (mode == UnscaledNarrowOop)) {
 712       base = heap_base_min_address_aligned;
 713 
 714     // If the total size is small enough to allow UnscaledNarrowOop then
 715     // just use UnscaledNarrowOop.
 716     } else if ((total_size <= OopEncodingHeapMax) && (mode != HeapBasedNarrowOop)) {
 717       if ((total_size <= UnscaledOopHeapMax) && (mode == UnscaledNarrowOop) &&
 718           (Universe::narrow_oop_shift() == 0)) {
 719         // Use 32-bits oops without encoding and
 720         // place heap's top on the 4Gb boundary
 721         base = (UnscaledOopHeapMax - heap_size);
 722       } else {
 723         // Can't reserve with NarrowOopShift == 0
 724         Universe::set_narrow_oop_shift(LogMinObjAlignmentInBytes);
 725 
 726         if (mode == UnscaledNarrowOop ||
 727             mode == ZeroBasedNarrowOop && total_size <= UnscaledOopHeapMax) {
 728 
 729           // Use zero based compressed oops with encoding and
 730           // place heap's top on the 32Gb boundary in case
 731           // total_size > 4Gb or failed to reserve below 4Gb.
 732           uint64_t heap_top = OopEncodingHeapMax;
 733 
 734           // For small heaps, save some space for compressed class pointer
 735           // space so it can be decoded with no base.
 736           if (UseCompressedClassPointers && !UseSharedSpaces &&
 737               OopEncodingHeapMax <= 32*G) {
 738 
 739             uint64_t class_space = align_size_up(CompressedClassSpaceSize, alignment);
 740             assert(is_size_aligned((size_t)OopEncodingHeapMax-class_space,
 741                    alignment), "difference must be aligned too");
 742             uint64_t new_top = OopEncodingHeapMax-class_space;
 743 
 744             if (total_size <= new_top) {
 745               heap_top = new_top;
 746             }
 747           }
 748 
 749           // Align base to the adjusted top of the heap
 750           base = heap_top - heap_size;
 751         }
 752       }
 753     } else {
 754       // UnscaledNarrowOop encoding didn't work, and no base was found for ZeroBasedOops or
 755       // HeapBasedNarrowOop encoding was requested.  So, can't reserve below 32Gb.
 756       Universe::set_narrow_oop_shift(LogMinObjAlignmentInBytes);
 757     }
 758 
 759     // Set narrow_oop_base and narrow_oop_use_implicit_null_checks
 760     // used in ReservedHeapSpace() constructors.
 761     // The final values will be set in initialize_heap() below.
 762     if ((base != 0) && ((base + heap_size) <= OopEncodingHeapMax)) {
 763       // Use zero based compressed oops
 764       Universe::set_narrow_oop_base(NULL);
 765       // Don't need guard page for implicit checks in indexed
 766       // addressing mode with zero based Compressed Oops.
 767       Universe::set_narrow_oop_use_implicit_null_checks(true);
 768     } else {
 769       // Set to a non-NULL value so the ReservedSpace ctor computes
 770       // the correct no-access prefix.
 771       // The final value will be set in initialize_heap() below.
 772       Universe::set_narrow_oop_base((address)UnscaledOopHeapMax);
 773 #if defined(_WIN64) || defined(AIX)
 774       if (UseLargePages) {
 775         // Cannot allocate guard pages for implicit checks in indexed
 776         // addressing mode when large pages are specified on windows.
 777         Universe::set_narrow_oop_use_implicit_null_checks(false);
 778       }
 779 #endif //  _WIN64
 780     }
 781   }
 782 #endif
 783 
 784   assert(is_ptr_aligned((char*)base, alignment), "Must be");
 785   return (char*)base; // also return NULL (don't care) for 32-bit VM
 786 }
 787 
 788 jint Universe::initialize_heap() {
 789 
 790   if (UseParallelGC) {
 791 #if INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
 792     Universe::_collectedHeap = new ParallelScavengeHeap();
 793 #else  // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
 794     fatal("UseParallelGC not supported in this VM.");
 795 #endif // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
 796 
 797   } else if (UseG1GC) {
 798 #if INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
 799     G1CollectorPolicy* g1p = new G1CollectorPolicy();
 800     g1p->initialize_all();
 801     G1CollectedHeap* g1h = new G1CollectedHeap(g1p);
 802     Universe::_collectedHeap = g1h;
 803 #else  // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
 804     fatal("UseG1GC not supported in java kernel vm.");
 805 #endif // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
 806 
 807   } else {
 808     GenCollectorPolicy *gc_policy;
 809 
 810     if (UseSerialGC) {
 811       gc_policy = new MarkSweepPolicy();
 812     } else if (UseConcMarkSweepGC) {
 813 #if INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
 814       gc_policy = new ConcurrentMarkSweepPolicy();
 815 #else  // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
 816       fatal("UseConcMarkSweepGC not supported in this VM.");
 817 #endif // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
 818     } else { // default old generation
 819       gc_policy = new MarkSweepPolicy();
 820     }
 821     gc_policy->initialize_all();
 822 
 823     Universe::_collectedHeap = new GenCollectedHeap(gc_policy);
 824   }
 825 
 826   ThreadLocalAllocBuffer::set_max_size(Universe::heap()->max_tlab_size());
 827 
 828   jint status = Universe::heap()->initialize();
 829   if (status != JNI_OK) {
 830     return status;
 831   }
 832 
 833 #ifdef _LP64
 834   if (UseCompressedOops) {
 835     // Subtract a page because something can get allocated at heap base.
 836     // This also makes implicit null checking work, because the
 837     // memory+1 page below heap_base needs to cause a signal.
 838     // See needs_explicit_null_check.
 839     // Only set the heap base for compressed oops because it indicates
 840     // compressed oops for pstack code.
 841     if (((uint64_t)Universe::heap()->reserved_region().end() > OopEncodingHeapMax)) {
 842       // Can't reserve heap below 32Gb.
 843       // keep the Universe::narrow_oop_base() set in Universe::reserve_heap()
 844       Universe::set_narrow_oop_shift(LogMinObjAlignmentInBytes);
 845 #ifdef AIX
 846       // There is no protected page before the heap. This assures all oops
 847       // are decoded so that NULL is preserved, so this page will not be accessed.
 848       Universe::set_narrow_oop_use_implicit_null_checks(false);
 849 #endif
 850     } else {
 851       Universe::set_narrow_oop_base(0);
 852 #ifdef _WIN64
 853       if (!Universe::narrow_oop_use_implicit_null_checks()) {
 854         // Don't need guard page for implicit checks in indexed addressing
 855         // mode with zero based Compressed Oops.
 856         Universe::set_narrow_oop_use_implicit_null_checks(true);
 857       }
 858 #endif //  _WIN64
 859       if((uint64_t)Universe::heap()->reserved_region().end() > UnscaledOopHeapMax) {
 860         // Can't reserve heap below 4Gb.
 861         Universe::set_narrow_oop_shift(LogMinObjAlignmentInBytes);
 862       } else {
 863         Universe::set_narrow_oop_shift(0);
 864       }
 865     }
 866 
 867     Universe::set_narrow_ptrs_base(Universe::narrow_oop_base());
 868 
 869     if (PrintCompressedOopsMode || (PrintMiscellaneous && Verbose)) {
 870       Universe::print_compressed_oops_mode();
 871     }
 872   }
 873   // Universe::narrow_oop_base() is one page below the heap.
 874   assert((intptr_t)Universe::narrow_oop_base() <= (intptr_t)(Universe::heap()->base() -
 875          os::vm_page_size()) ||
 876          Universe::narrow_oop_base() == NULL, "invalid value");
 877   assert(Universe::narrow_oop_shift() == LogMinObjAlignmentInBytes ||
 878          Universe::narrow_oop_shift() == 0, "invalid value");
 879 #endif
 880 
 881   // We will never reach the CATCH below since Exceptions::_throw will cause
 882   // the VM to exit if an exception is thrown during initialization
 883 
 884   if (UseTLAB) {
 885     assert(Universe::heap()->supports_tlab_allocation(),
 886            "Should support thread-local allocation buffers");
 887     ThreadLocalAllocBuffer::startup_initialization();
 888   }
 889   return JNI_OK;
 890 }
 891 
 892 void Universe::print_compressed_oops_mode() {
 893   tty->cr();
 894   tty->print("heap address: " PTR_FORMAT ", size: " SIZE_FORMAT " MB",
 895               Universe::heap()->base(), Universe::heap()->reserved_region().byte_size()/M);
 896 
 897   tty->print(", Compressed Oops mode: %s", narrow_oop_mode_to_string(narrow_oop_mode()));
 898       
 899   if (Universe::narrow_oop_base() != 0) {
 900     tty->print(":" PTR_FORMAT, Universe::narrow_oop_base());
 901   }
 902 
 903   if (Universe::narrow_oop_shift() != 0) {
 904     tty->print(", Oop shift amount: %d", Universe::narrow_oop_shift());
 905   }
 906 
 907   tty->cr();
 908   tty->cr();
 909 }
 910 
 911 // Reserve the Java heap, which is now the same for all GCs.
 912 ReservedSpace Universe::reserve_heap(size_t heap_size, size_t alignment) {
 913   assert(alignment <= Arguments::conservative_max_heap_alignment(),
 914       err_msg("actual alignment "SIZE_FORMAT" must be within maximum heap alignment "SIZE_FORMAT,
 915           alignment, Arguments::conservative_max_heap_alignment()));
 916   size_t total_reserved = align_size_up(heap_size, alignment);
 917   assert(!UseCompressedOops || (total_reserved <= (OopEncodingHeapMax - os::vm_page_size())),
 918       "heap size is too big for compressed oops");
 919 
 920   bool use_large_pages = UseLargePages && is_size_aligned(alignment, os::large_page_size());
 921   assert(!UseLargePages
 922       || UseParallelGC
 923       || use_large_pages, "Wrong alignment to use large pages");
 924 
 925   char* addr = Universe::preferred_heap_base(total_reserved, alignment, Universe::UnscaledNarrowOop);
 926 
 927   ReservedHeapSpace total_rs(total_reserved, alignment, use_large_pages, addr);
 928 
 929   if (UseCompressedOops) {
 930     if (addr != NULL && !total_rs.is_reserved()) {
 931       // Failed to reserve at specified address - the requested memory
 932       // region is taken already, for example, by 'java' launcher.
 933       // Try again to reserver heap higher.
 934       addr = Universe::preferred_heap_base(total_reserved, alignment, Universe::ZeroBasedNarrowOop);
 935 
 936       ReservedHeapSpace total_rs0(total_reserved, alignment,
 937           use_large_pages, addr);
 938 
 939       if (addr != NULL && !total_rs0.is_reserved()) {
 940         // Failed to reserve at specified address again - give up.
 941         addr = Universe::preferred_heap_base(total_reserved, alignment, Universe::HeapBasedNarrowOop);
 942         assert(addr == NULL, "");
 943 
 944         ReservedHeapSpace total_rs1(total_reserved, alignment,
 945             use_large_pages, addr);
 946         total_rs = total_rs1;
 947       } else {
 948         total_rs = total_rs0;
 949       }
 950     }
 951   }
 952 
 953   if (!total_rs.is_reserved()) {
 954     vm_exit_during_initialization(err_msg("Could not reserve enough space for " SIZE_FORMAT "KB object heap", total_reserved/K));
 955     return total_rs;
 956   }
 957 
 958   if (UseCompressedOops) {
 959     // Universe::initialize_heap() will reset this to NULL if unscaled
 960     // or zero-based narrow oops are actually used.
 961     address base = (address)(total_rs.base() - os::vm_page_size());
 962     Universe::set_narrow_oop_base(base);
 963   }
 964   return total_rs;
 965 }
 966 
 967 
 968 // It's the caller's responsibility to ensure glitch-freedom
 969 // (if required).
 970 void Universe::update_heap_info_at_gc() {
 971   _heap_capacity_at_last_gc = heap()->capacity();
 972   _heap_used_at_last_gc     = heap()->used();
 973 }
 974 
 975 
 976 const char* Universe::narrow_oop_mode_to_string(Universe::NARROW_OOP_MODE mode) {
 977   switch (mode) {
 978     case UnscaledNarrowOop:
 979       return "32-bit";
 980     case ZeroBasedNarrowOop:
 981       return "Zero based";
 982     case HeapBasedNarrowOop:
 983       return "Non-zero based";
 984   }
 985 
 986   ShouldNotReachHere();
 987   return "";
 988 }
 989 
 990 
 991 Universe::NARROW_OOP_MODE Universe::narrow_oop_mode() {
 992   if (narrow_oop_base() != 0) {
 993     return HeapBasedNarrowOop;
 994   }
 995 
 996   if (narrow_oop_shift() != 0) {
 997     return ZeroBasedNarrowOop;
 998   }
 999 
1000   return UnscaledNarrowOop;
1001 }
1002 
1003 
1004 void universe2_init() {
1005   EXCEPTION_MARK;
1006   Universe::genesis(CATCH);
1007 }
1008 
1009 
1010 bool universe_post_init() {
1011   assert(!is_init_completed(), "Error: initialization not yet completed!");
1012   Universe::_fully_initialized = true;
1013   EXCEPTION_MARK;
1014   { ResourceMark rm;
1015     Interpreter::initialize();      // needed for interpreter entry points
1016     if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
1017       HandleMark hm(THREAD);
1018       KlassHandle ok_h(THREAD, SystemDictionary::Object_klass());
1019       Universe::reinitialize_vtable_of(ok_h, CHECK_false);
1020       Universe::reinitialize_itables(CHECK_false);
1021     }
1022   }
1023 
1024   HandleMark hm(THREAD);
1025   Klass* k;
1026   instanceKlassHandle k_h;
1027     // Setup preallocated empty java.lang.Class array
1028     Universe::_the_empty_class_klass_array = oopFactory::new_objArray(SystemDictionary::Class_klass(), 0, CHECK_false);
1029 
1030     // Setup preallocated OutOfMemoryError errors
1031     k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(vmSymbols::java_lang_OutOfMemoryError(), true, CHECK_false);
1032     k_h = instanceKlassHandle(THREAD, k);
1033     Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap = k_h->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1034     Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace = k_h->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1035     Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace = k_h->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1036     Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size = k_h->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1037     Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit =
1038       k_h->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1039 
1040     // Setup preallocated NullPointerException
1041     // (this is currently used for a cheap & dirty solution in compiler exception handling)
1042     k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(vmSymbols::java_lang_NullPointerException(), true, CHECK_false);
1043     Universe::_null_ptr_exception_instance = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1044     // Setup preallocated ArithmeticException
1045     // (this is currently used for a cheap & dirty solution in compiler exception handling)
1046     k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(vmSymbols::java_lang_ArithmeticException(), true, CHECK_false);
1047     Universe::_arithmetic_exception_instance = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1048     // Virtual Machine Error for when we get into a situation we can't resolve
1049     k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(
1050       vmSymbols::java_lang_VirtualMachineError(), true, CHECK_false);
1051     bool linked = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->link_class_or_fail(CHECK_false);
1052     if (!linked) {
1053       tty->print_cr("Unable to link/verify VirtualMachineError class");
1054       return false; // initialization failed
1055     }
1056     Universe::_virtual_machine_error_instance =
1057       InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1058 
1059     Universe::_vm_exception = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1060 
1061   if (!DumpSharedSpaces) {
1062     // These are the only Java fields that are currently set during shared space dumping.
1063     // We prefer to not handle this generally, so we always reinitialize these detail messages.
1064     Handle msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Java heap space", CHECK_false);
1065     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap, msg());
1066 
1067     msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Metaspace", CHECK_false);
1068     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace, msg());
1069     msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Compressed class space", CHECK_false);
1070     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace, msg());
1071 
1072     msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Requested array size exceeds VM limit", CHECK_false);
1073     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size, msg());
1074 
1075     msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("GC overhead limit exceeded", CHECK_false);
1076     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit, msg());
1077 
1078     msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("/ by zero", CHECK_false);
1079     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_arithmetic_exception_instance, msg());
1080 
1081     // Setup the array of errors that have preallocated backtrace
1082     k = Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap->klass();
1083     assert(k->name() == vmSymbols::java_lang_OutOfMemoryError(), "should be out of memory error");
1084     k_h = instanceKlassHandle(THREAD, k);
1085 
1086     int len = (StackTraceInThrowable) ? (int)PreallocatedOutOfMemoryErrorCount : 0;
1087     Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_array = oopFactory::new_objArray(k_h(), len, CHECK_false);
1088     for (int i=0; i<len; i++) {
1089       oop err = k_h->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1090       Handle err_h = Handle(THREAD, err);
1091       java_lang_Throwable::allocate_backtrace(err_h, CHECK_false);
1092       Universe::preallocated_out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at_put(i, err_h());
1093     }
1094     Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count = (jint)len;
1095   }
1096 
1097 
1098   // Setup static method for registering finalizers
1099   // The finalizer klass must be linked before looking up the method, in
1100   // case it needs to get rewritten.
1101   InstanceKlass::cast(SystemDictionary::Finalizer_klass())->link_class(CHECK_false);
1102   Method* m = InstanceKlass::cast(SystemDictionary::Finalizer_klass())->find_method(
1103                                   vmSymbols::register_method_name(),
1104                                   vmSymbols::register_method_signature());
1105   if (m == NULL || !m->is_static()) {
1106     tty->print_cr("Unable to link/verify Finalizer.register method");
1107     return false; // initialization failed (cannot throw exception yet)
1108   }
1109   Universe::_finalizer_register_cache->init(
1110     SystemDictionary::Finalizer_klass(), m);
1111 
1112   InstanceKlass::cast(SystemDictionary::misc_Unsafe_klass())->link_class(CHECK_false);
1113   m = InstanceKlass::cast(SystemDictionary::misc_Unsafe_klass())->find_method(
1114                                   vmSymbols::throwIllegalAccessError_name(),
1115                                   vmSymbols::void_method_signature());
1116   if (m != NULL && !m->is_static()) {
1117     // Note null is okay; this method is used in itables, and if it is null,
1118     // then AbstractMethodError is thrown instead.
1119     tty->print_cr("Unable to link/verify Unsafe.throwIllegalAccessError method");
1120     return false; // initialization failed (cannot throw exception yet)
1121   }
1122   Universe::_throw_illegal_access_error = m;
1123 
1124   // Setup method for registering loaded classes in class loader vector
1125   InstanceKlass::cast(SystemDictionary::ClassLoader_klass())->link_class(CHECK_false);
1126   m = InstanceKlass::cast(SystemDictionary::ClassLoader_klass())->find_method(vmSymbols::addClass_name(), vmSymbols::class_void_signature());
1127   if (m == NULL || m->is_static()) {
1128     tty->print_cr("Unable to link/verify ClassLoader.addClass method");
1129     return false; // initialization failed (cannot throw exception yet)
1130   }
1131   Universe::_loader_addClass_cache->init(
1132     SystemDictionary::ClassLoader_klass(), m);
1133 
1134   // Setup method for checking protection domain
1135   InstanceKlass::cast(SystemDictionary::ProtectionDomain_klass())->link_class(CHECK_false);
1136   m = InstanceKlass::cast(SystemDictionary::ProtectionDomain_klass())->
1137             find_method(vmSymbols::impliesCreateAccessControlContext_name(),
1138                         vmSymbols::void_boolean_signature());
1139   // Allow NULL which should only happen with bootstrapping.
1140   if (m != NULL) {
1141     if (m->is_static()) {
1142       // NoSuchMethodException doesn't actually work because it tries to run the
1143       // <init> function before java_lang_Class is linked. Print error and exit.
1144       tty->print_cr("ProtectionDomain.impliesCreateAccessControlContext() has the wrong linkage");
1145       return false; // initialization failed
1146     }
1147     Universe::_pd_implies_cache->init(
1148       SystemDictionary::ProtectionDomain_klass(), m);;
1149   }
1150 
1151   // This needs to be done before the first scavenge/gc, since
1152   // it's an input to soft ref clearing policy.
1153   {
1154     MutexLocker x(Heap_lock);
1155     Universe::update_heap_info_at_gc();
1156   }
1157 
1158   // ("weak") refs processing infrastructure initialization
1159   Universe::heap()->post_initialize();
1160 
1161   // Initialize performance counters for metaspaces
1162   MetaspaceCounters::initialize_performance_counters();
1163   CompressedClassSpaceCounters::initialize_performance_counters();
1164 
1165   MemoryService::add_metaspace_memory_pools();
1166 
1167   MemoryService::set_universe_heap(Universe::_collectedHeap);
1168 #if INCLUDE_CDS
1169   if (UseSharedSpaces) {
1170     SharedClassUtil::initialize(CHECK_false);
1171   }
1172 #endif
1173   return true;
1174 }
1175 
1176 
1177 void Universe::compute_base_vtable_size() {
1178   _base_vtable_size = ClassLoader::compute_Object_vtable();
1179 }
1180 
1181 
1182 // %%% The Universe::flush_foo methods belong in CodeCache.
1183 
1184 // Flushes compiled methods dependent on dependee.
1185 void Universe::flush_dependents_on(instanceKlassHandle dependee) {
1186   assert_lock_strong(Compile_lock);
1187 
1188   if (CodeCache::number_of_nmethods_with_dependencies() == 0) return;
1189 
1190   // CodeCache can only be updated by a thread_in_VM and they will all be
1191   // stopped during the safepoint so CodeCache will be safe to update without
1192   // holding the CodeCache_lock.
1193 
1194   KlassDepChange changes(dependee);
1195 
1196   // Compute the dependent nmethods
1197   if (CodeCache::mark_for_deoptimization(changes) > 0) {
1198     // At least one nmethod has been marked for deoptimization
1199     VM_Deoptimize op;
1200     VMThread::execute(&op);
1201   }
1202 }
1203 
1204 // Flushes compiled methods dependent on a particular CallSite
1205 // instance when its target is different than the given MethodHandle.
1206 void Universe::flush_dependents_on(Handle call_site, Handle method_handle) {
1207   assert_lock_strong(Compile_lock);
1208 
1209   if (CodeCache::number_of_nmethods_with_dependencies() == 0) return;
1210 
1211   // CodeCache can only be updated by a thread_in_VM and they will all be
1212   // stopped during the safepoint so CodeCache will be safe to update without
1213   // holding the CodeCache_lock.
1214 
1215   CallSiteDepChange changes(call_site(), method_handle());
1216 
1217   // Compute the dependent nmethods that have a reference to a
1218   // CallSite object.  We use InstanceKlass::mark_dependent_nmethod
1219   // directly instead of CodeCache::mark_for_deoptimization because we
1220   // want dependents on the call site class only not all classes in
1221   // the ContextStream.
1222   int marked = 0;
1223   {
1224     MutexLockerEx mu(CodeCache_lock, Mutex::_no_safepoint_check_flag);
1225     InstanceKlass* call_site_klass = InstanceKlass::cast(call_site->klass());
1226     marked = call_site_klass->mark_dependent_nmethods(changes);
1227   }
1228   if (marked > 0) {
1229     // At least one nmethod has been marked for deoptimization
1230     VM_Deoptimize op;
1231     VMThread::execute(&op);
1232   }
1233 }
1234 
1235 #ifdef HOTSWAP
1236 // Flushes compiled methods dependent on dependee in the evolutionary sense
1237 void Universe::flush_evol_dependents_on(instanceKlassHandle ev_k_h) {
1238   // --- Compile_lock is not held. However we are at a safepoint.
1239   assert_locked_or_safepoint(Compile_lock);
1240   if (CodeCache::number_of_nmethods_with_dependencies() == 0) return;
1241 
1242   // CodeCache can only be updated by a thread_in_VM and they will all be
1243   // stopped during the safepoint so CodeCache will be safe to update without
1244   // holding the CodeCache_lock.
1245 
1246   // Compute the dependent nmethods
1247   if (CodeCache::mark_for_evol_deoptimization(ev_k_h) > 0) {
1248     // At least one nmethod has been marked for deoptimization
1249 
1250     // All this already happens inside a VM_Operation, so we'll do all the work here.
1251     // Stuff copied from VM_Deoptimize and modified slightly.
1252 
1253     // We do not want any GCs to happen while we are in the middle of this VM operation
1254     ResourceMark rm;
1255     DeoptimizationMarker dm;
1256 
1257     // Deoptimize all activations depending on marked nmethods
1258     Deoptimization::deoptimize_dependents();
1259 
1260     // Make the dependent methods not entrant (in VM_Deoptimize they are made zombies)
1261     CodeCache::make_marked_nmethods_not_entrant();
1262   }
1263 }
1264 #endif // HOTSWAP
1265 
1266 
1267 // Flushes compiled methods dependent on dependee
1268 void Universe::flush_dependents_on_method(methodHandle m_h) {
1269   // --- Compile_lock is not held. However we are at a safepoint.
1270   assert_locked_or_safepoint(Compile_lock);
1271 
1272   // CodeCache can only be updated by a thread_in_VM and they will all be
1273   // stopped dring the safepoint so CodeCache will be safe to update without
1274   // holding the CodeCache_lock.
1275 
1276   // Compute the dependent nmethods
1277   if (CodeCache::mark_for_deoptimization(m_h()) > 0) {
1278     // At least one nmethod has been marked for deoptimization
1279 
1280     // All this already happens inside a VM_Operation, so we'll do all the work here.
1281     // Stuff copied from VM_Deoptimize and modified slightly.
1282 
1283     // We do not want any GCs to happen while we are in the middle of this VM operation
1284     ResourceMark rm;
1285     DeoptimizationMarker dm;
1286 
1287     // Deoptimize all activations depending on marked nmethods
1288     Deoptimization::deoptimize_dependents();
1289 
1290     // Make the dependent methods not entrant (in VM_Deoptimize they are made zombies)
1291     CodeCache::make_marked_nmethods_not_entrant();
1292   }
1293 }
1294 
1295 void Universe::print() {
1296   print_on(gclog_or_tty);
1297 }
1298 
1299 void Universe::print_on(outputStream* st, bool extended) {
1300   st->print_cr("Heap");
1301   if (!extended) {
1302     heap()->print_on(st);
1303   } else {
1304     heap()->print_extended_on(st);
1305   }
1306 }
1307 
1308 void Universe::print_heap_at_SIGBREAK() {
1309   if (PrintHeapAtSIGBREAK) {
1310     MutexLocker hl(Heap_lock);
1311     print_on(tty);
1312     tty->cr();
1313     tty->flush();
1314   }
1315 }
1316 
1317 void Universe::print_heap_before_gc(outputStream* st, bool ignore_extended) {
1318   st->print_cr("{Heap before GC invocations=%u (full %u):",
1319                heap()->total_collections(),
1320                heap()->total_full_collections());
1321   if (!PrintHeapAtGCExtended || ignore_extended) {
1322     heap()->print_on(st);
1323   } else {
1324     heap()->print_extended_on(st);
1325   }
1326 }
1327 
1328 void Universe::print_heap_after_gc(outputStream* st, bool ignore_extended) {
1329   st->print_cr("Heap after GC invocations=%u (full %u):",
1330                heap()->total_collections(),
1331                heap()->total_full_collections());
1332   if (!PrintHeapAtGCExtended || ignore_extended) {
1333     heap()->print_on(st);
1334   } else {
1335     heap()->print_extended_on(st);
1336   }
1337   st->print_cr("}");
1338 }
1339 
1340 void Universe::verify(VerifyOption option, const char* prefix, bool silent) {
1341   // The use of _verify_in_progress is a temporary work around for
1342   // 6320749.  Don't bother with a creating a class to set and clear
1343   // it since it is only used in this method and the control flow is
1344   // straight forward.
1345   _verify_in_progress = true;
1346 
1347   COMPILER2_PRESENT(
1348     assert(!DerivedPointerTable::is_active(),
1349          "DPT should not be active during verification "
1350          "(of thread stacks below)");
1351   )
1352 
1353   ResourceMark rm;
1354   HandleMark hm;  // Handles created during verification can be zapped
1355   _verify_count++;
1356 
1357   if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("%s", prefix);
1358   if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("[Verifying ");
1359   if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("threads ");
1360   Threads::verify();
1361   if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("heap ");
1362   heap()->verify(silent, option);
1363   if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("syms ");
1364   SymbolTable::verify();
1365   if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("strs ");
1366   StringTable::verify();
1367   {
1368     MutexLockerEx mu(CodeCache_lock, Mutex::_no_safepoint_check_flag);
1369     if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("zone ");
1370     CodeCache::verify();
1371   }
1372   if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("dict ");
1373   SystemDictionary::verify();
1374 #ifndef PRODUCT
1375   if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("cldg ");
1376   ClassLoaderDataGraph::verify();
1377 #endif
1378   if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("metaspace chunks ");
1379   MetaspaceAux::verify_free_chunks();
1380   if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("hand ");
1381   JNIHandles::verify();
1382   if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("C-heap ");
1383   os::check_heap();
1384   if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("code cache ");
1385   CodeCache::verify_oops();
1386   if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print_cr("]");
1387 
1388   _verify_in_progress = false;
1389 }
1390 
1391 // Oop verification (see MacroAssembler::verify_oop)
1392 
1393 static uintptr_t _verify_oop_data[2]   = {0, (uintptr_t)-1};
1394 static uintptr_t _verify_klass_data[2] = {0, (uintptr_t)-1};
1395 
1396 
1397 #ifndef PRODUCT
1398 
1399 static void calculate_verify_data(uintptr_t verify_data[2],
1400                                   HeapWord* low_boundary,
1401                                   HeapWord* high_boundary) {
1402   assert(low_boundary < high_boundary, "bad interval");
1403 
1404   // decide which low-order bits we require to be clear:
1405   size_t alignSize = MinObjAlignmentInBytes;
1406   size_t min_object_size = CollectedHeap::min_fill_size();
1407 
1408   // make an inclusive limit:
1409   uintptr_t max = (uintptr_t)high_boundary - min_object_size*wordSize;
1410   uintptr_t min = (uintptr_t)low_boundary;
1411   assert(min < max, "bad interval");
1412   uintptr_t diff = max ^ min;
1413 
1414   // throw away enough low-order bits to make the diff vanish
1415   uintptr_t mask = (uintptr_t)(-1);
1416   while ((mask & diff) != 0)
1417     mask <<= 1;
1418   uintptr_t bits = (min & mask);
1419   assert(bits == (max & mask), "correct mask");
1420   // check an intermediate value between min and max, just to make sure:
1421   assert(bits == ((min + (max-min)/2) & mask), "correct mask");
1422 
1423   // require address alignment, too:
1424   mask |= (alignSize - 1);
1425 
1426   if (!(verify_data[0] == 0 && verify_data[1] == (uintptr_t)-1)) {
1427     assert(verify_data[0] == mask && verify_data[1] == bits, "mask stability");
1428   }
1429   verify_data[0] = mask;
1430   verify_data[1] = bits;
1431 }
1432 
1433 // Oop verification (see MacroAssembler::verify_oop)
1434 
1435 uintptr_t Universe::verify_oop_mask() {
1436   MemRegion m = heap()->reserved_region();
1437   calculate_verify_data(_verify_oop_data,
1438                         m.start(),
1439                         m.end());
1440   return _verify_oop_data[0];
1441 }
1442 
1443 
1444 
1445 uintptr_t Universe::verify_oop_bits() {
1446   verify_oop_mask();
1447   return _verify_oop_data[1];
1448 }
1449 
1450 uintptr_t Universe::verify_mark_mask() {
1451   return markOopDesc::lock_mask_in_place;
1452 }
1453 
1454 uintptr_t Universe::verify_mark_bits() {
1455   intptr_t mask = verify_mark_mask();
1456   intptr_t bits = (intptr_t)markOopDesc::prototype();
1457   assert((bits & ~mask) == 0, "no stray header bits");
1458   return bits;
1459 }
1460 #endif // PRODUCT
1461 
1462 
1463 void Universe::compute_verify_oop_data() {
1464   verify_oop_mask();
1465   verify_oop_bits();
1466   verify_mark_mask();
1467   verify_mark_bits();
1468 }
1469 
1470 
1471 void LatestMethodCache::init(Klass* k, Method* m) {
1472   if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
1473     _klass = k;
1474   }
1475 #ifndef PRODUCT
1476   else {
1477     // sharing initilization should have already set up _klass
1478     assert(_klass != NULL, "just checking");
1479   }
1480 #endif
1481 
1482   _method_idnum = m->method_idnum();
1483   assert(_method_idnum >= 0, "sanity check");
1484 }
1485 
1486 
1487 Method* LatestMethodCache::get_method() {
1488   if (klass() == NULL) return NULL;
1489   InstanceKlass* ik = InstanceKlass::cast(klass());
1490   Method* m = ik->method_with_idnum(method_idnum());
1491   assert(m != NULL, "sanity check");
1492   return m;
1493 }
1494 
1495 
1496 #ifdef ASSERT
1497 // Release dummy object(s) at bottom of heap
1498 bool Universe::release_fullgc_alot_dummy() {
1499   MutexLocker ml(FullGCALot_lock);
1500   if (_fullgc_alot_dummy_array != NULL) {
1501     if (_fullgc_alot_dummy_next >= _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->length()) {
1502       // No more dummies to release, release entire array instead
1503       _fullgc_alot_dummy_array = NULL;
1504       return false;
1505     }
1506     if (!UseConcMarkSweepGC) {
1507       // Release dummy at bottom of old generation
1508       _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->obj_at_put(_fullgc_alot_dummy_next++, NULL);
1509     }
1510     // Release dummy at bottom of permanent generation
1511     _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->obj_at_put(_fullgc_alot_dummy_next++, NULL);
1512   }
1513   return true;
1514 }
1515 
1516 #endif // ASSERT