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   3     <head>
   4         <title>OpenJDK Build README</title>
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   8         <table width="100%">
   9             <tr>
  10                 <td align="center">
  11                     <img alt="OpenJDK" 
  12                          src="http://openjdk.java.net/images/openjdk.png" 
  13                          width=256 />
  14                 </td>
  15             </tr>
  16             <tr>
  17                 <td align=center>
  18                     <h1>OpenJDK Build README</h1>
  19                 </td>
  20             </tr>
  21         </table>
  22         <!-- ------------------------------------------------------ --> 
  23         <hr>
  24         <h2><a name="introduction">Introduction</a></h2>
  25         <blockquote>
  26             <p>
  27                 This README file contains build instructions for the
  28                 <a href="http://openjdk.java.net"  target="_blank">OpenJDK</a>.
  29                 Building the source code for the
  30                 OpenJDK
  31                 requires
  32                 a certain degree of technical expertise.
  33         </blockquote>
  34         <!-- ------------------------------------------------------ -->
  35         <hr>
  36         <h2><a name="contents">Contents</a></h2>
  37         <blockquote>
  38             <ul>
  39                 <li><a href="#introduction">Introduction</a></li>
  40                 <li><a href="#hg">Use of Mercurial</a>
  41                     <ul>
  42                         <li><a href="#get_source">Getting the Source</a></li>
  43                     </ul>
  44                 </li>
  45                 <li><a href="#MBE">Minimum Build Environments</a></li>
  46                 <li><a href="#SDBE">Specific Developer Build Environments</a>
  47                     <ul>
  48                         <li><a href="#fedora">Fedora Linux</a> </li>
  49                         <li><a href="#centos">CentOS Linux</a> </li>
  50                         <li><a href="#debian">Debian GNU/Linux</a></li>
  51                         <li><a href="#ubuntu">Ubuntu Linux</a> </li>
  52                         <li><a href="#opensuse">OpenSUSE</a></li>
  53                         <li><a href="#mandriva">Mandriva</a></li>
  54                         <li><a href="#opensolaris">OpenSolaris</a></li>
  55                     </ul>
  56                 </li>
  57                 <li><a href="#directories">Source Directory Structure</a> 
  58                     <ul>
  59                         <li><a href="#drops">Managing the Source Drops</a></li>
  60                     </ul>
  61                 </li>
  62                 <li><a href="#building">Build Information</a>
  63                     <ul>
  64                         <li><a href="#gmake">GNU Make (<tt><i>gmake</i></tt>)</a> </li>
  65                         <li><a href="#linux">Basic Linux System Setup</a> </li>
  66                         <li><a href="#solaris">Basic Solaris System Setup</a> </li>
  67                         <li><a href="#windows">Basic Windows System Setup</a> </li>
  68                         <li><a href="#macosx">Basic Mac OS X System Setup</a></li>
  69                         <li><a href="#dependencies">Build Dependencies</a>
  70                             <ul>
  71                                 <li><a href="#bootjdk">Bootstrap JDK</a> </li>
  72                                 <li><a href="#importjdk">Optional Import JDK</a> </li>
  73                                 <li><a href="#ant">Ant 1.7.1</a> </li>
  74                                 <li><a href="#cacerts">Certificate Authority File (cacert)</a> </li>
  75                                 <li><a href="#compilers">Compilers</a>
  76                                     <ul>
  77                                         <li><a href="#msvc32">Microsoft Visual Studio Professional/Express for 32 bit</a> </li>
  78                                         <li><a href="#msvc64">Microsoft Visual Studio Professional for 64 bit</a> </li>
  79                                         <li><a href="#mssdk64">Microsoft Windows SDK for 64 bit</a> </li>
  80                                         <li><a href="#gcc">Linux gcc/binutils</a> </li>
  81                                         <li><a href="#studio">Sun Studio</a> </li>
  82                                     </ul>
  83                                 </li>
  84                                 <li><a href="#zip">Zip and Unzip</a> </li>
  85                                 <li><a href="#freetype">FreeType2 Fonts</a> </li>
  86                                 <li>Linux and Solaris:
  87                                     <ul>
  88                                         <li><a href="#cups">CUPS Include files</a> </li>
  89                                         <li><a href="#xrender">XRender Include files</a></li>
  90                                     </ul>
  91                                 </li>
  92                                 <li>Linux only:
  93                                     <ul>
  94                                         <li><a href="#alsa">ALSA files</a> </li>
  95                                     </ul>
  96                                 </li>
  97                                 <li>Windows only:
  98                                     <ul>
  99                                         <li>Unix Command Tools (<a href="#cygwin">CYGWIN</a>)</li>
 100                                         <li><a href="#dxsdk">DirectX 9.0 SDK</a> </li>
 101                                     </ul>
 102                                 </li>
 103                             </ul>
 104                         </li>
 105                     </ul>
 106                 </li>
 107                 <li><a href="#creating">Creating the Build</a> </li>
 108                 <li><a href="#testing">Testing the Build</a> </li>
 109                 <li><a href="#variables">Environment/Make Variables</a></li>
 110                 <li><a href="#troubleshooting">Troubleshooting</a></li>
 111             </ul>
 112         </blockquote>
 113 
 114         <!-- ------------------------------------------------------ -->
 115         <hr>
 116         <h2><a name="hg">Use of Mercurial</a></h2>
 117         <blockquote>
 118             The OpenJDK sources are maintained with the revision control system
 119             <a href="http://mercurial.selenic.com/wiki/Mercurial">Mercurial</a>.
 120             If you are new to Mercurial, please see the
 121             <a href="http://mercurial.selenic.com/wiki/BeginnersGuides">Beginner Guides</a>
 122             or refer to the <a href="http://hgbook.red-bean.com/">Mercurial Book</a>.
 123             The first few chapters of the book provide an excellent overview of
 124             Mercurial, what it is and how it works.
 125             <br>
 126             For using Mercurial with the OpenJDK refer to the
 127             <a href="http://openjdk.java.net/guide/repositories.html#installConfig">
 128                 Developer Guide: Installing and Configuring Mercurial</a>
 129             section for more information.
 130 
 131             <!-- ------------------------------------------------------ -->
 132             <h3><a name="get_source">Getting the Source</a></h3>
 133             <blockquote>
 134                 To get the entire set of OpenJDK Mercurial repositories
 135                 use the script <code>get_source.sh</code> located in the root repository:
 136                 <blockquote>
 137                     <tt>
 138                         hg clone http://hg.openjdk.java.net/jdk8/jdk8 <i>YourOpenJDK</i>
 139                         <br>cd <i>YourOpenJDK</i>
 140                         <br>sh ./get_source.sh
 141                     </tt>
 142                 </blockquote>
 143                 Once you have all the repositories, the
 144                 script <tt>make/scripts/hgforest.sh</tt>
 145                 can be used to repeat the same <tt>hg</tt>
 146                 command on every repository in the forest, e.g.
 147                 <blockquote>
 148                     <tt>
 149                         cd <i>YourOpenJDK</i>
 150                         <br>sh ./make/scripts/hgforest.sh pull -u
 151                     </tt>
 152                 </blockquote>
 153             </blockquote>
 154 
 155         </blockquote>
 156 
 157         <!-- ------------------------------------------------------ -->
 158         <hr>
 159         <h2><a name="MBE">Minimum Build Environments</a></h2>
 160         <blockquote>
 161             This file often describes specific requirements for what we call the
 162             "minimum build environments" (MBE) for this 
 163             specific release of the JDK,
 164             Building with the MBE will generate the most compatible
 165             bits that install on, and run correctly on, the most variations
 166             of the same base OS and hardware architecture.
 167             These usually represent what is often called the
 168             least common denominator platforms.
 169             It is understood that most developers will NOT be using these 
 170             specific platforms, and in fact creating these specific platforms
 171             may be difficult due to the age of some of this software.
 172             <p>
 173                 The minimum OS and C/C++ compiler versions needed for building the
 174                 OpenJDK:
 175             <p>
 176             <table border="1">
 177                 <thead>
 178                     <tr>
 179                         <th>Base OS and Architecture</th>
 180                         <th>OS</th>
 181                         <th>C/C++ Compiler</th>
 182                         <th>BOOT JDK</th>
 183                     </tr>
 184                 </thead>
 185                 <tbody>
 186                     <tr>
 187                         <td>Linux X86 (32-bit)</td>
 188                         <td>Fedora 9</td>
 189                         <td>gcc 4.3 </td>
 190                         <td>JDK 6u18</td>
 191                     </tr>
 192                     <tr>
 193                         <td>Linux X64 (64-bit)</td>
 194                         <td>Fedora 9</td>
 195                         <td>gcc 4.3 </td>
 196                         <td>JDK 6u18</td>
 197                     </tr>
 198                     <tr>
 199                         <td>Solaris SPARC (32-bit)</td>
 200                         <td>Solaris 10 Update 6</td>
 201                         <td>Sun Studio 12 Update 1 + patches</td>
 202                         <td>JDK 6u18</td>
 203                     </tr>
 204                     <tr>
 205                         <td>Solaris SPARCV9 (64-bit)</td>
 206                         <td>Solaris 10 Update 6</td>
 207                         <td>Sun Studio 12 Update 1 + patches</td>
 208                         <td>JDK 6u18</td>
 209                     </tr>
 210                     <tr>
 211                         <td>Solaris X86 (32-bit)</td>
 212                         <td>Solaris 10 Update 6</td>
 213                         <td>Sun Studio 12 Update 1 + patches</td>
 214                         <td>JDK 6u18</td>
 215                     </tr>
 216                     <tr>
 217                         <td>Solaris X64 (64-bit)</td>
 218                         <td>Solaris 10 Update 6</td>
 219                         <td>Sun Studio 12 Update 1 + patches</td>
 220                         <td>JDK 6u18</td>
 221                     </tr>
 222                     <tr>
 223                         <td>Windows X86 (32-bit)</td>
 224                         <td>Windows XP</td>
 225                         <td>Microsoft Visual Studio C++ 2010 Professional Edition</td>
 226                         <td>JDK 6u18</td>
 227                     </tr>
 228                     <tr>
 229                         <td>Windows X64 (64-bit)</td>
 230                         <td>Windows Server 2003 - Enterprise x64 Edition</td>
 231                         <td>Microsoft Visual Studio C++ 2010 Professional Edition</td>
 232                         <td>JDK 6u18</td>
 233                     </tr>
 234                     <tr>
 235                         <td>Mac OS X X64 (64-bit)</td>
 236                         <td>Mac OS X 10.7.3 "Lion"</td>
 237                         <td>XCode 4.1 or later</td>
 238                         <td>JDK 6u18</td>
 239                     </tr>
 240                 </tbody>
 241             </table>
 242             <p>
 243             These same sources do indeed build on many more systems than the
 244             above older generation systems, again the above is just a minimum.
 245             <p>
 246             Compilation problems with newer or different C/C++ compilers is a
 247             common problem.
 248             Similarly, compilation problems related to changes to the
 249                 <tt>/usr/include</tt> or system header files is also a
 250             common problem with newer or unreleased OS versions.
 251             Please report these types of problems as bugs so that they
 252             can be dealt with accordingly.
 253         </blockquote>
 254         <!-- ------------------------------------------------------ -->
 255         <hr>
 256         <h2><a name="SDBE">Specific Developer Build Environments</a></h2>
 257         <blockquote>
 258             We won't be listing all the possible environments, but
 259             we will try to provide what information we have available to us.
 260         </blockquote>
 261         <!-- ------------------------------------------------------ -->
 262         <h3><a name="fedora">Fedora</a></h3>
 263         <blockquote>
 264             <h4>Fedora 9</h4>
 265             <p>
 266             <blockquote>
 267                 After installing <a href="http://fedoraproject.org">Fedora</a> 9
 268               you need to install several build dependencies. The simplest
 269               way to do it is to execute the following commands as user 
 270                 <tt>root</tt>:
 271                 <p/>
 272                 <code>yum-builddep java-1.6.0-openjdk</code>
 273                 <p/>
 274                 <code>yum install gcc gcc-c++</code>
 275                 <p/>
 276               In addition, it's necessary to set a few environment variables for the build:
 277 
 278                 <p/>
 279                 <code>export LANG=C ALT_BOOTDIR=/usr/lib/jvm/java-openjdk</code>
 280             </blockquote>
 281             <h4>Fedora 10</h4>
 282             <p>
 283             <blockquote>
 284                 After installing <a href="http://fedoraproject.org">Fedora</a> 10
 285               you need to install several build dependencies. The simplest
 286               way to do it is to execute the following commands as user 
 287                 <tt>root</tt>:
 288                 <p/>
 289                 <code>yum-builddep java-1.6.0-openjdk</code>
 290                 <p/>
 291                 <code>yum install gcc gcc-c++</code>
 292                 <p/>
 293               In addition, it's necessary to set a few environment variables for the build:
 294 
 295                 <p/>
 296                 <code>export LANG=C ALT_BOOTDIR=/usr/lib/jvm/java-openjdk</code>
 297             </blockquote>
 298             <h4>Fedora 11</h4>
 299             <p>
 300             <blockquote>
 301                 After installing <a href="http://fedoraproject.org">Fedora</a> 11
 302               you need to install several build dependencies. The simplest
 303               way to do it is to execute the following commands as user 
 304                 <tt>root</tt>:
 305                 <p/>
 306                 <code>yum-builddep java-1.6.0-openjdk</code>
 307                 <p/>
 308                 <code>yum install gcc gcc-c++</code>
 309                 <p/>
 310               In addition, it's necessary to set a few environment variables for the build:
 311 
 312                 <p/>
 313                 <code>export LANG=C ALT_BOOTDIR=/usr/lib/jvm/java-openjdk</code>
 314             </blockquote>
 315         </blockquote>
 316         <!-- ------------------------------------------------------ -->
 317         <h3><a name="centos">CentOS 5.5</a></h3>
 318         <blockquote>
 319             After installing
 320             <a href="http://www.centos.org/">CentOS 5.5</a>
 321             you need to make sure you have
 322             the following Development bundles installed:
 323             <blockquote>
 324                 <ul>
 325                     <li>Development Libraries</li>
 326                     <li>Development Tools</li>
 327                     <li>Java Development</li>
 328                     <li>X Software Development (Including XFree86-devel)</li>
 329                 </ul>
 330             </blockquote>
 331             <p>
 332                 Plus the following packages:
 333             <blockquote>
 334                 <ul>
 335                     <li>cups devel: Cups Development Package</li>
 336                     <li>alsa devel: Alsa Development Package</li>
 337                     <li>ant: Ant Package</li>
 338                     <li>Xi devel: libXi.so Development Package</li>
 339                 </ul>
 340             </blockquote>
 341             <p>
 342                 The freetype 2.3 packages don't seem to be available,
 343                 but the freetype 2.3 sources can be downloaded, built,
 344                 and installed easily enough from
 345                 <a href="http://downloads.sourceforge.net/freetype">
 346                     the freetype site</a>.
 347                 Build and install with something like:
 348             <blockquote>
 349                 <tt>./configure && make && sudo -u root make install</tt>
 350             </blockquote>
 351             <p>
 352                 Mercurial packages could not be found easily, but a Google
 353                 search should find ones, and they usually include Python if
 354                 it's needed.
 355         </blockquote>
 356         <!-- ------------------------------------------------------ -->
 357         <h3><a name="debian">Debian</a></h3>
 358         <blockquote>
 359             <h4>Debian 5.0 (Lenny)</h4>
 360             <p>
 361             <blockquote>
 362                 After installing <a href="http://debian.org">Debian</a> 5 
 363                 you need to install several build dependencies. 
 364                 The simplest way to install the build dependencies is to 
 365                 execute the following commands as user <tt>root</tt>:
 366                 <p/>
 367                 <code>aptitude build-dep openjdk-6</code>
 368                 <p/>
 369                 <code>aptitude install openjdk-6-jdk libmotif-dev</code>
 370                 <p/>
 371                 In addition, it's necessary to set a few environment variables for the build:
 372                 <p/>
 373                 <code>export LANG=C ALT_BOOTDIR=/usr/lib/jvm/java-6-openjdk</code>
 374             </blockquote>
 375         </blockquote>
 376         <!-- ====================================================== -->
 377         <h3><a name="ubuntu">Ubuntu</a></h3>
 378         <blockquote>
 379             <h4>Ubuntu 8.04</h4>
 380             <p>
 381             <blockquote>
 382                 After installing <a href="http://ubuntu.org">Ubuntu</a> 8.04 
 383                 you need to install several build dependencies. 
 384                 <p/>
 385                 First, you need to enable the universe repository in the 
 386                 Software Sources application and reload the repository 
 387                 information. The Software Sources application is available 
 388                 under the System/Administration menu. 
 389                 <p/>
 390                 The simplest way to install the build dependencies is to 
 391                 execute the following commands:
 392                 <p/>
 393                 <code>sudo aptitude build-dep openjdk-6</code>
 394                 <p/>
 395                 <code>sudo aptitude install openjdk-6-jdk</code>
 396                 <p/>
 397                 In addition, it's necessary to set a few environment variables for the build:
 398                 <p/>
 399                 <code>export LANG=C ALT_BOOTDIR=/usr/lib/jvm/java-6-openjdk</code>
 400             </blockquote>
 401             <h4>Ubuntu 8.10</h4>
 402             <p>
 403             <blockquote>
 404                 After installing <a href="http://ubuntu.org">Ubuntu</a> 8.10 
 405                 you need to install several build dependencies. The simplest
 406                 way to do it is to execute the following commands:
 407                 <p/>
 408                 <code>sudo aptitude build-dep openjdk-6</code>
 409                 <p/>
 410                 <code>sudo aptitude install openjdk-6-jdk</code>
 411                 <p/>
 412                 In addition, it's necessary to set a few environment variables for the build:
 413                 <p/>
 414                 <code>export LANG=C ALT_BOOTDIR=/usr/lib/jvm/java-6-openjdk</code>
 415             </blockquote>
 416             <h4>Ubuntu 9.04</h4>
 417             <p>
 418             <blockquote>
 419                 After installing <a href="http://ubuntu.org">Ubuntu</a> 9.04 
 420                 you need to install several build dependencies. The simplest
 421                 way to do it is to execute the following commands:
 422                 <p/>
 423                 <code>sudo aptitude build-dep openjdk-6</code>
 424                 <p/>
 425                 <code>sudo aptitude install openjdk-6-jdk</code>
 426                 <p/>
 427                 In addition, it's necessary to set a few environment variables for the build:
 428                 <p/>
 429                 <code>export LANG=C ALT_BOOTDIR=/usr/lib/jvm/java-6-openjdk</code>
 430             </blockquote>
 431         </blockquote>
 432         <!-- ====================================================== -->
 433         <h3><a name="opensuse">OpenSUSE</a></h3>
 434         <blockquote>
 435             <h4>OpenSUSE 11.1</h4>
 436             <p>
 437             <blockquote>
 438                 After installing <a href="http://opensuse.org">OpenSUSE</a> 11.1 
 439                 you need to install several build dependencies. 
 440                 The simplest way to install the build dependencies is to 
 441                 execute the following commands:
 442                 <p/>
 443                 <code>sudo zypper source-install -d java-1_6_0-openjdk</code>
 444                 <p/>
 445                 <code>sudo zypper install make</code>
 446                 <p/>
 447                 In addition, it is necessary to set a few environment variables for the build:
 448                 <p/>
 449                 <code>export LANG=C ALT_BOOTDIR=/usr/lib/jvm/java-1.6.0-openjdk</code>
 450                 <p/>
 451                 Finally, you need to unset the <code>JAVA_HOME</code> environment variable:
 452                 <p/>
 453                 <code>export -n JAVA_HOME</code>
 454             </blockquote>
 455         </blockquote>
 456         <!-- ====================================================== -->
 457         <h3><a name="mandriva">Mandriva</a></h3>
 458         <blockquote>
 459             <h4>Mandriva Linux One 2009 Spring</h4>
 460             <p>
 461             <blockquote>
 462                 After installing <a href="http://mandriva.org">Mandriva</a> Linux One 2009 Spring 
 463                 you need to install several build dependencies. 
 464                 The simplest way to install the build dependencies is to 
 465                 execute the following commands as user <tt>root</tt>:
 466                 <p/>
 467                 <code>urpmi java-1.6.0-openjdk-devel ant make gcc gcc-c++ freetype-devel zip unzip libcups2-devel libxrender1-devel libalsa2-devel libstc++-static-devel libxtst6-devel libxi-devel</code>
 468                 <p/>
 469                 In addition, it is necessary to set a few environment variables for the build:
 470                 <p/>
 471                 <code>export LANG=C ALT_BOOTDIR=/usr/lib/jvm/java-1.6.0-openjdk</code>
 472             </blockquote>
 473         </blockquote>
 474         <!-- ====================================================== -->
 475         <h3><a name="opensolaris">OpenSolaris</a></h3>
 476         <blockquote>
 477             <h4>OpenSolaris 2009.06</h4>
 478             <p>
 479             <blockquote>
 480                 After installing <a href="http://opensolaris.org">OpenSolaris</a> 2009.06 
 481                 you need to install several build dependencies. 
 482                 The simplest way to install the build dependencies is to 
 483                 execute the following commands:
 484                 <p/>
 485                 <code>pfexec pkg install SUNWgmake SUNWj6dev SUNWant sunstudioexpress SUNWcups SUNWzip SUNWunzip SUNWxwhl SUNWxorg-headers SUNWaudh SUNWfreetype2</code>
 486                 <p/>
 487                 In addition, it is necessary to set a few environment variables for the build:
 488                 <p/>
 489                 <code>export LANG=C ALT_COMPILER_PATH=/opt/SunStudioExpress/bin/ ALT_CUPS_HEADERS_PATH=/usr/include/</code>
 490                 <p/>
 491                 Finally, you need to make sure that the build process can find the Sun Studio compilers:
 492                 <p/>
 493                 <code>export PATH=$PATH:/opt/SunStudioExpress/bin/</code>
 494             </blockquote>
 495         </blockquote>
 496         <!-- ------------------------------------------------------ -->  
 497         <hr>
 498         <h2><a name="directories">Source Directory Structure</a></h2>
 499         <blockquote>
 500             <p>
 501                 The source code for the OpenJDK is delivered in a set of
 502                 directories:
 503                 <tt>hotspot</tt>,
 504                 <tt>langtools</tt>,
 505                 <tt>corba</tt>,
 506                 <tt>jaxws</tt>,
 507                 <tt>jaxp</tt>,
 508                 and
 509                 <tt>jdk</tt>.
 510                 The <tt>hotspot</tt> directory contains the source code and make
 511                 files for building the OpenJDK Hotspot Virtual Machine.
 512                 The <tt>langtools</tt> directory contains the source code and make
 513                 files for building the OpenJDK javac and language tools.
 514                 The <tt>corba</tt> directory contains the source code and make
 515                 files for building the OpenJDK Corba files.
 516                 The <tt>jaxws</tt> directory contains the source code and make
 517                 files for building the OpenJDK JAXWS files.
 518                 The <tt>jaxp</tt> directory contains the source code and make
 519                 files for building the OpenJDK JAXP files.
 520                 The <tt>jdk</tt> directory contains the source code and make files for
 521                 building the OpenJDK runtime libraries and misc files.
 522                 The top level <tt>Makefile</tt>
 523                 is used to build the entire OpenJDK.
 524 
 525             <h3><a name="drops">Managing the Source Drops</a></h3>
 526             <blockquote>
 527                 <p>
 528                     The repositories <tt>jaxp</tt> and <tt>jaxws</tt> actually
 529                     do not contain the sources for JAXP or JAX-WS.
 530                     These products have their own open source procedures at their
 531                     <a href="http://jaxp.java.net/">JAXP</a> and
 532                     <a href="http://jax-ws.java.net/">JAX-WS</a> home pages.
 533                     The OpenJDK project does need access to these sources to build
 534                     a complete JDK image because JAXP and JAX-WS are part of the JDK.
 535                     The current process for delivery of the JAXP and JAX-WS sources
 536                     involves so called "source drop bundles" downloaded from a public
 537                     website.
 538                     There are many reasons for this current mechanism, and it is
 539                     understood that this is not ideal for the open source community.
 540                     It is possible this process could change in the future.
 541                     <br>
 542                     <b>NOTE:</b> The <a href="http://download.java.net/openjdk/jdk8/">
 543                         Complete OpenJDK Source Bundles</a> <u>will</u> contain the JAXP and
 544                     JAX-WS sources.
 545                 </p>
 546 
 547                 <h4><a name="dropcreation">Creation of New Source Drop Bundles</a></h4>
 548                 <blockquote>
 549                     <ol>
 550                         <li>
 551                             The JAXP or JAX-WS team prepares a new zip bundle,
 552                             places a copy in a public download area on java.net,
 553                             sends us a link and a list of CRs (Change Request Numbers).
 554                             The older download bundles should not be deleted.
 555                             It is the responsibility of the JAXP and JAX-WS team to
 556                             place the proper GPL legal notices on the sources
 557                             and do any filtering or java re-packaging for the
 558                             OpenJDK instances of these classes.
 559                         </li>
 560                         <li>
 561                             The OpenJDK team copies this new bundle into shared
 562                             area (e.g. <tt>/java/devtools/share/jdk8-drops</tt>).
 563                             Older bundles are never deleted so we retain the history.
 564                         </li>
 565                         <li>
 566                             The OpenJDK team edits the ant property file
 567                             <tt>jaxp/jaxp.properties</tt> or
 568                             <tt>jaxws/jaxws.properties</tt> to update the
 569                             base URL, the zip bundle name, and the MD5 checksum
 570                             of the zip bundle
 571                             (on Solaris: <tt>sum -c md5 <i>bundlename</i></tt>)
 572                         </li>
 573                         <li>
 574                             OpenJDK team reviews and commits those changes with the
 575                             given CRs.
 576                         </li>
 577                     </ol>
 578                 </blockquote>
 579 
 580                 <h4><a name="dropusage">Using Source Drop Bundles</a></h4>
 581                 <blockquote>
 582                     <p>
 583                         The ant scripts that build <tt>jaxp</tt> and <tt>jaxws</tt>
 584                         will attempt to locate these zip bundles from the directory
 585                         in the environment variable
 586                         <tt><a href="#ALT_DROPS_DIR">ALT_DROPS_DIR</a></tt>.
 587                         The checksums protect from getting the wrong, corrupted, or
 588                         improperly modified sources.
 589                         Once the sources are made available, the population will not
 590                         happen again unless a <tt>make clobber</tt> is requested
 591                         or the <tt>jaxp/drop/</tt> or <tt>jaxws/drop/</tt>
 592                         directory is explicitly deleted.
 593                         <br>
 594                         <b>NOTE:</b> The default Makefile and ant script behavior
 595                         is to NOT download these bundles from the public http site.
 596                         In general, doing downloads
 597                         during the build process is not advised, it creates too much
 598                         unpredictability in the build process.
 599                         However, you can use <tt>make ALLOW_DOWNLOADS=true</tt> to
 600                         tell the ant script that the download of the zip bundle is
 601                         acceptable.
 602                     </p>
 603                     <p>
 604                         The recommended procedure for keeping a cache of these
 605                         source bundles would be to download them once, place them
 606                         in a directory outside the repositories, and then set
 607                         <tt><a href="#ALT_DROPS_DIR">ALT_DROPS_DIR</a></tt> to refer
 608                         to that directory.
 609                         These drop bundles do change occasionally, so the newer
 610                         bundles may need to be added to this area from time to time.
 611                     </p>
 612                 </blockquote>
 613             </blockquote>
 614         </blockquote>
 615         <!-- ------------------------------------------------------ -->
 616         <hr>
 617         <h2><a name="building">Build Information</a></h2>
 618         <blockquote>
 619             Building the OpenJDK
 620             is done with a <a href="#gmake">GNU <tt>make</tt></a> command line
 621             and various
 622             environment or make variable settings that direct the makefile rules
 623             to where various components have been installed.
 624             Where possible the makefiles will attempt to located the various
 625             components in the default locations or any component specific 
 626             variable settings.
 627             When the normal defaults fail or components cannot be found,
 628             the various
 629             <tt>ALT_*</tt> variables (alternates)
 630             can be used to help the makefiles locate components.
 631             <p>
 632                 Refer to the bash/sh/ksh setup file
 633                 <tt>jdk/make/jdk_generic_profile.sh</tt>
 634                 if you need help in setting up your environment variables.
 635                 A build could be as simple as:
 636             <blockquote>
 637                 <pre><tt>
 638                 bash
 639                 . jdk/make/jdk_generic_profile.sh
 640                 <a href="#gmake"><tt>make</tt></a> sanity &amp;&amp; <a href="#gmake"><tt>make</tt></a>
 641                 </tt></pre>
 642             </blockquote>
 643             <p>
 644                 Of course ksh or sh would work too.
 645                 But some customization will probably be necessary.
 646                 The <tt>sanity</tt> rule will make some basic checks on build
 647                 dependencies and generate appropriate warning messages
 648                 regarding missing, out of date, or newer than expected components
 649                 found on your system.
 650         </blockquote>
 651         <!-- ------------------------------------------------------ -->
 652         <hr>
 653         <h3><a name="gmake">GNU make (<tt><i>gmake</i></tt>)</a></h3>
 654         <blockquote>
 655             The Makefiles in the OpenJDK are only valid when used with the 
 656             GNU version of the utility command <tt>make</tt>
 657             (<tt><i>gmake</i></tt>).
 658             A few notes about using GNU make:
 659             <ul>
 660                 <li>
 661                     You need GNU make version 3.81 or newer.
 662                 </li>
 663                 <li>
 664                     Place the location of the GNU make binary in the <tt>PATH</tt>. 
 665                 </li>
 666                 <li>
 667                     <strong>Linux:</strong>
 668                     The <tt>/usr/bin/make</tt> should be 3.81 or newer
 669                     and should work fine for you.
 670                     If this version is not 3.81 or newer,
 671                     see the <a href="#buildgmake">"Building GNU make"</a> section.
 672                 </li>
 673                 <li>
 674                     <strong>Solaris:</strong>
 675                     Do NOT use <tt>/usr/bin/make</tt> on Solaris.
 676                     If your Solaris system has the software
 677                     from the Solaris Companion CD installed, 
 678                     you should try and use <tt>gmake</tt>
 679                     which will be located in either the <tt>/opt/sfw/bin</tt> or 
 680                     <tt>/usr/sfw/bin</tt> directory.
 681                     In more recent versions of Solaris GNU make might be found
 682                     at <tt>/usr/bin/gmake</tt>.<br>
 683                     <b>NOTE:</b> It is very likely that this <tt>gmake</tt>
 684                     could be 3.80, you need 3.81, in which case,
 685                     see the <a href="#buildgmake">"Building GNU make"</a> section.
 686                 </li>
 687                 <li>
 688                     <strong>Windows:</strong>
 689                     Make sure you start your build inside a bash/sh/ksh shell
 690                     and are using a <tt>make.exe</tt> utility built for that
 691                     environment (a cygwin <tt>make.exe</tt> is not the same
 692                     as a <tt>make.exe</tt> built for something like
 693                     <a href="http://www.mkssoftware.com/">MKS</a>). 
 694                     <br>
 695                     <b>WARNING:</b> Watch out on some make 3.81 versions, it may
 696                     not work due to a lack of support for MS-DOS drive letter paths
 697                     like <tt>C:/</tt> or <tt>C:\</tt>.
 698                     <br>
 699                     You may be able to use the information at the
 700                     <a href="http://developer.mozilla.org/en/docs/Windows_build_prerequisites_using_cygwin#make" target="_blank">
 701                         mozilla developer center</a>
 702                     on this topic.
 703                     <br>
 704                     It's hoped that when make 3.82 starts shipping in a future cygwin
 705                     release that this MS-DOS path issue will be fixed.
 706                     <br>
 707                     It may be possible to download the version at
 708                     <a href="http://www.cmake.org/files/cygwin/make.exe">
 709                         www.cmake.org make.exe</a>.
 710                     <br>
 711                     It might be necessary for you to build your own GNU make 3.81,
 712                     see the <a href="#buildgmake">"Building GNU make"</a> section
 713                     in that case.
 714                 </li>
 715             </ul>
 716             <p>
 717                 Information on GNU make, and access to ftp download sites, are
 718                 available on the
 719                 <a href="http://www.gnu.org/software/make/make.html" target="_blank">
 720                     GNU make web site
 721                 </a>.
 722                 The latest source to GNU make is available at
 723                 <a href="http://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/make/" target="_blank">
 724                     ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/make/</a>.
 725             </p>
 726             <!-- ------------------------------------------------------ -->
 727             <h4><a name="buildgmake">Building GNU make</a></h4>
 728             <blockquote>
 729                 First step is to get the GNU make 3.81 source from
 730                 <a href="http://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/make/" target="_blank">
 731                     ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/make/</a>.
 732                 Building is a little different depending on the OS and unix toolset
 733                 on Windows:
 734                 <ul>
 735                     <li>
 736                         <strong>Linux:</strong>
 737                         <tt>./configure && make</tt>
 738                     </li>
 739                     <li>
 740                         <strong>Solaris:</strong>
 741                         <tt>./configure && gmake CC=gcc</tt>
 742                     </li>
 743                     <li>
 744                         <strong>Windows for CYGWIN:</strong>
 745                         <tt>./configure && make</tt>
 746                     </li>
 747                     <li>
 748                         <strong>Windows for MKS: (CYGWIN is recommended)</strong>
 749                         <tt>./configure && make -f Makefile.win32</tt>
 750                     </li>
 751                 </ul>
 752             </blockquote>
 753         </blockquote>
 754         <!-- ------------------------------------------------------ -->
 755         <hr>
 756         <h3><a name="linux">Basic Linux System Setup</a></h3>
 757         <blockquote>
 758             <strong>i586 only:</strong>
 759             The minimum recommended hardware for building the Linux version
 760             is a Pentium class processor or better, at least 256 MB of RAM, and
 761             approximately 1.5 GB of free disk space.
 762             <p> 
 763                 <strong>X64 only:</strong>
 764                 The minimum recommended hardware for building the Linux
 765                 version is an AMD Opteron class processor, at least 512 MB of RAM, and
 766                 approximately 4 GB of free disk space.
 767             <p> 
 768                 The build will use the tools contained in
 769                 <tt>/bin</tt> and
 770                 <tt>/usr/bin</tt>
 771                 of a standard installation of the Linux operating environment.
 772                 You should ensure that these directories are in your
 773                 <tt>PATH</tt>.
 774             <p>
 775                 Note that some Linux systems have a habit of pre-populating
 776                 your environment variables for you, for example <tt>JAVA_HOME</tt>
 777                 might get pre-defined for you to refer to the JDK installed on
 778                 your Linux system.
 779                 You will need to unset <tt>JAVA_HOME</tt>.
 780                 It's a good idea to run <tt>env</tt> and verify the
 781                 environment variables you are getting from the default system
 782                 settings make sense for building the
 783                 OpenJDK.
 784         </blockquote>
 785         <!-- ------------------------------------------------------ -->
 786         <h4><a name="linux_checklist">Basic Linux Check List</a></h4>
 787         <blockquote>
 788             <ol>
 789                 <li>
 790                     Install the
 791                     <a href="#bootjdk">Bootstrap JDK</a>, set
 792                     <tt><a href="#ALT_BOOTDIR">ALT_BOOTDIR</a></tt>.
 793                 </li>
 794                 <li>
 795                     <a href="#importjdk">Optional Import JDK</a>, set
 796                     <tt><a href="#ALT_JDK_IMPORT_PATH">ALT_JDK_IMPORT_PATH</a></tt>.
 797                 </li>
 798                 <li>
 799                     Install or upgrade the <a href="#freetype">FreeType development
 800                         package</a>.
 801                 </li>
 802                 <li>
 803                     Install
 804                     <a href="#ant">Ant 1.7.1 or newer</a>,
 805                     make sure it is in your PATH.
 806                 </li>
 807             </ol>
 808         </blockquote>
 809         <!-- ------------------------------------------------------ -->
 810         <hr>
 811         <h3><a name="solaris">Basic Solaris System Setup</a></h3>
 812         <blockquote>
 813             The minimum recommended hardware for building the
 814             Solaris SPARC version is an UltraSPARC with 512 MB of RAM. 
 815             For building
 816             the Solaris x86 version, a Pentium class processor or better and at
 817             least 512 MB of RAM are recommended. 
 818             Approximately 1.4 GB of free disk
 819             space is needed for a 32-bit build.
 820             <p>
 821                 If you are building the 64-bit version, you should
 822                 run the command "isainfo -v" to verify that you have a
 823                 64-bit installation, it should say <tt>sparcv9</tt> or
 824                 <tt>amd64</tt>.
 825                 An additional 7 GB of free disk space is needed
 826                 for a 64-bit build.
 827             <p> 
 828                 The build uses the tools contained in <tt>/usr/ccs/bin</tt>
 829                 and <tt>/usr/bin</tt> of a standard developer or full installation of
 830                 the Solaris operating environment.
 831             <p> 
 832                 Solaris patches specific to the JDK can be downloaded from the
 833                 <a href="http://sunsolve.sun.com/show.do?target=patches/JavaSE" target="_blank">
 834                     SunSolve JDK Solaris patches download page</a>.
 835                 You should ensure that the latest patch cluster for
 836                 your version of the Solaris operating environment has also
 837                 been installed.
 838         </blockquote>
 839         <!-- ------------------------------------------------------ -->
 840         <h4><a name="solaris_checklist">Basic Solaris Check List</a></h4>
 841         <blockquote>
 842             <ol>
 843                 <li>
 844                     Install the
 845                     <a href="#bootjdk">Bootstrap JDK</a>, set
 846                     <tt><a href="#ALT_BOOTDIR">ALT_BOOTDIR</a></tt>.
 847                 </li>
 848                 <li>
 849                     <a href="#importjdk">Optional Import JDK</a>, set
 850                     <tt><a href="#ALT_JDK_IMPORT_PATH">ALT_JDK_IMPORT_PATH</a></tt>.
 851                 </li>
 852                 <li>
 853                     Install the
 854                     <a href="#studio">Sun Studio Compilers</a>, set
 855                     <a href="#ALT_COMPILER_PATH"><tt>ALT_COMPILER_PATH</tt></a>.
 856                 </li>
 857                 <li>
 858                     Install the
 859                     <a href="#cups">CUPS Include files</a>, set
 860                     <tt><a href="#ALT_CUPS_HEADERS_PATH">ALT_CUPS_HEADERS_PATH</a></tt>.
 861                 </li>
 862                 <li>
 863                     Install the <a href="#xrender">XRender Include files</a>.
 864                 </li>
 865                 <li>
 866                     Install
 867                     <a href="#ant">Ant 1.7.1 or newer</a>,
 868                     make sure it is in your PATH.
 869                 </li>
 870             </ol>
 871         </blockquote>
 872         <!-- ------------------------------------------------------ -->
 873         <hr>
 874         <h3><a name="windows">Basic Windows System Setup</a></h3>
 875         <blockquote> 
 876             <strong>i586 only:</strong>
 877             The minimum recommended hardware for building the 32-bit or X86
 878             Windows version is an Pentium class processor or better, at least
 879             512 MB of RAM, and approximately 600 MB of free disk space.
 880             <strong>
 881                 NOTE: The Windows build machines need to use the
 882                 file system NTFS. 
 883                 Build machines formatted to FAT32 will not work 
 884                 because FAT32 doesn't support case-sensitivity in file names.
 885             </strong>
 886             <p> 
 887                 <strong>X64 only:</strong>
 888                 The minimum recommended hardware for building
 889                 the Windows X64 version is an AMD Opteron class processor, at least 1
 890                 GB of RAM, and approximately 10 GB of free disk space.
 891         </blockquote>
 892         <!-- ------------------------------------------------------ -->
 893         <h4><a name="paths">Windows Paths</a></h4>
 894         <blockquote>
 895             <strong>Windows:</strong>
 896             Note that GNU make is a historic utility and is based very
 897             heavily on shell scripting, so it does not tolerate the Windows habit
 898             of having spaces in pathnames or the use of the <tt>\</tt>characters in pathnames.
 899             Luckily on most Windows systems, you can use <tt>/</tt>instead of \, and
 900             there is always a 'short' pathname without spaces for any path that 
 901             contains spaces.
 902             Unfortunately, this short pathname can be somewhat dynamic and the
 903             formula is difficult to explain.
 904             You can use <tt>cygpath</tt> utility to map pathnames with spaces
 905             or the <tt>\</tt>character into the <tt>C:/</tt> style of pathname
 906             (called 'mixed'), e.g.
 907             <tt>cygpath -s -m "<i>path</i>"</tt>.
 908             <p>
 909                 The makefiles will try to translate any pathnames supplied
 910                 to it into the <tt>C:/</tt> style automatically.
 911             <p>
 912                 Note that use of CYGWIN creates a unique problem with regards to
 913                 setting <a href="#path"><tt>PATH</tt></a>. Normally on Windows
 914                 the <tt>PATH</tt> variable contains directories
 915                 separated with the ";" character (Solaris and Linux uses ":").
 916                 With CYGWIN, it uses ":", but that means that paths like "C:/path"
 917                 cannot be placed in the CYGWIN version  of <tt>PATH</tt> and
 918                 instead CYGWIN uses something like <tt>/cygdrive/c/path</tt>
 919                 which CYGWIN understands, but only CYGWIN understands.
 920                 So be careful with paths on Windows.
 921         </blockquote>
 922         <!-- ------------------------------------------------------ -->
 923         <h4><a name="windows_checklist">Basic Windows Check List</a></h4>
 924         <blockquote>
 925             <ol>
 926                 <li>
 927                     Install the
 928                     <a href="#cygwin">CYGWIN product</a>. 
 929                 </li>
 930                 <li>
 931                     Install the 
 932                     <a href="#bootjdk">Bootstrap JDK</a>, set
 933                     <tt><a href="#ALT_BOOTDIR">ALT_BOOTDIR</a></tt>.
 934                 </li>
 935                 <li>
 936                     <a href="#importjdk">Optional Import JDK</a>, set
 937                     <tt><a href="#ALT_JDK_IMPORT_PATH">ALT_JDK_IMPORT_PATH</a></tt>.
 938                 </li>
 939                 <li>
 940                     Install the
 941                     <a href="#msvc32">Microsoft Visual Studio Compilers</a>).
 942                 </li>
 943                 <li>
 944                     Setup all environment variables for compilers 
 945                     (see <a href="#msvc32">compilers</a>).
 946                 </li>
 947                 <li>
 948                     Install 
 949                     <a href="#dxsdk">Microsoft DirectX SDK</a>.
 950                 </li>
 951                 <li>
 952                     Install
 953                     <a href="#ant">Ant 1.7.1 or newer</a>,
 954                     make sure it is in your PATH and set
 955                     <tt><a href="#ANT_HOME">ANT_HOME</a></tt>.
 956                 </li>
 957             </ol>
 958         </blockquote>
 959         <!-- ------------------------------------------------------ -->
 960         <hr>
 961         <h3><a name="macosx">Basic Mac OS X System Setup</a></h3>
 962         <blockquote> 
 963             <strong>X64 only:</strong>
 964             The minimum recommended hardware for building
 965             the Mac OS X version is any 64-bit capable Intel processor, at least 2
 966             GB of RAM, and approximately 3 GB of free disk space. You should also
 967             have OS X Lion 10.7.3 installed.
 968         </blockquote>
 969         <!-- ------------------------------------------------------ -->
 970 
 971         <h4><a name="macosx_checklist">Basic Mac OS X Check List</a></h4>
 972         <blockquote>
 973             <ol>
 974                 <li>
 975                     Install <a href="https://developer.apple.com/xcode/">XCode 4.1</a> or newer  
 976                 </li>
 977                 <li>
 978                     Install <a href="http://support.apple.com/kb/dl1421" target="_blank">"Java for OS X Lion Update 1"</a>, 
 979                     set <tt><a href="#ALT_BOOTDIR">ALT_BOOTDIR</a> to <code>`/usr/libexec/java_home -v 1.6`</code></tt>
 980                 </li>
 981                 <li>
 982                     <a href="#importjdk">Optional Import JDK</a>, set
 983                     <tt><a href="#ALT_JDK_IMPORT_PATH">ALT_JDK_IMPORT_PATH</a></tt>.
 984                 </li>
 985             </ol>
 986         </blockquote>
 987         <!-- ------------------------------------------------------ -->
 988         <hr>
 989         <h3><a name="dependencies">Build Dependencies</a></h3>
 990         <blockquote>
 991             Depending on the platform, the OpenJDK build process has some basic
 992             dependencies on components not part of the OpenJDK sources.
 993             Some of these are specific to a platform, some even specific to
 994             an architecture.
 995             Each dependency will have a set of ALT variables that can be set
 996             to tell the makefiles where to locate the component.
 997             In most cases setting these ALT variables may not be necessary
 998             and the makefiles will find defaults on the system in standard
 999             install locations or through component specific variables.
1000             <!-- ------------------------------------------------------ -->
1001             <h4><a name="bootjdk">Bootstrap JDK</a></h4>
1002             <blockquote>
1003                 All OpenJDK builds require access to the previously released 
1004                 JDK 6, this is often called a bootstrap JDK.
1005                 The JDK 6 binaries can be downloaded from Sun's 
1006                 <a href="http://java.sun.com/javase/downloads/index.jsp"
1007                    target="_blank">JDK 6 download site</a>.
1008                 For build performance reasons
1009                 is very important that this bootstrap JDK be made available on the
1010                 local disk of the machine doing the build.
1011                 You should always set 
1012                 <tt><a href="#ALT_BOOTDIR">ALT_BOOTDIR</a></tt>
1013                 to point to the location of
1014                 the bootstrap JDK installation, this is the directory pathname
1015                 that contains a <tt>bin, lib, and include</tt>
1016                 It's also a good idea to also place its <tt>bin</tt> directory
1017                 in the <tt>PATH</tt> environment variable, although it's
1018                 not required.
1019                 <p>
1020                     <strong>Solaris:</strong>
1021                     Some pre-installed JDK images may be available to you in the
1022                     directory <tt>/usr/jdk/instances</tt>.
1023                     If you don't set
1024                     <tt><a href="#ALT_BOOTDIR">ALT_BOOTDIR</a></tt>
1025                     the makefiles will look in that location for a JDK it can use.
1026             </blockquote>
1027             <!-- ------------------------------------------------------ -->
1028             <h4><a name="importjdk">Optional Import JDK</a></h4>
1029             <blockquote>
1030                 The <tt><a href="#ALT_JDK_IMPORT_PATH">ALT_JDK_IMPORT_PATH</a></tt>
1031                 setting is only needed if you are not building the entire
1032                 JDK. For example, if you have built the entire JDK once, and
1033                 wanted to avoid repeatedly building the Hotspot VM, you could
1034                 set this to the location of the previous JDK install image
1035                 and the build will copy the needed files from this import area.
1036             </blockquote>
1037             <!-- ------------------------------------------------------ -->
1038             <h4><a name="ant">Ant</a></h4>
1039             <blockquote>
1040                 All OpenJDK builds require access to least Ant 1.7.1.
1041                 The Ant tool is available from the 
1042                 <a href="http://archive.apache.org/dist/ant/binaries/apache-ant-1.7.1-bin.zip" target="_blank">
1043                     Ant 1.7.1 archive download site</a>.
1044                 You should always make sure <tt>ant</tt> is in your PATH, and
1045                 on Windows you may also need to set 
1046                 <tt><a href="#ANT_HOME">ANT_HOME</a></tt>
1047                 to point to the location of
1048                 the Ant installation, this is the directory pathname
1049                 that contains a <tt>bin and lib</tt>.
1050                 <br>
1051                 <b>WARNING:</b> Ant versions used from IDE tools like NetBeans
1052                 or installed via system packages may not operate the same
1053                 as the one obtained from the Ant download bundles.
1054                 These system and IDE installers sometimes choose to change
1055                 the ant installation enough to cause differences.
1056             </blockquote>
1057             <!-- ------------------------------------------------------ -->
1058             <h4><a name="cacerts">Certificate Authority File (cacert)</a></h4>
1059             <blockquote>
1060                 See <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Certificate_Authority" target="_blank">
1061                     http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Certificate_Authority</a>
1062                 for a better understanding of the Certificate Authority (CA).
1063                 A certificates file named "cacerts"
1064                 represents a system-wide keystore with CA certificates. 
1065                 In JDK and JRE
1066                 binary bundles, the "cacerts" file contains root CA certificates from
1067                 several public CAs (e.g., VeriSign, Thawte, and Baltimore).
1068                 The source contain a cacerts file
1069                 without CA root certificates. 
1070                 Formal JDK builders will need to secure
1071                 permission from each public CA and include the certificates into their
1072                 own custom cacerts file. 
1073                 Failure to provide a populated cacerts file
1074                 will result in verification errors of a certificate chain during runtime.
1075                 The variable 
1076                 <tt><a href="#ALT_CACERTS_FILE">ALT_CACERTS_FILE</a></tt>
1077                 can be used to override the default location of the
1078                 cacerts file that will get placed in your build.
1079                 By default an empty cacerts file is provided and that should be
1080                 fine for most JDK developers.
1081             </blockquote>
1082             <!-- ------------------------------------------------------ -->
1083             <h4><a name="compilers">Compilers</a></h4>
1084             <blockquote>
1085                 <strong><a name="gcc">Linux gcc/binutils</a></strong>
1086                 <blockquote>
1087                     The GNU gcc compiler version should be 4.3 or newer.
1088                     The compiler used should be the default compiler installed
1089                     in <tt>/usr/bin</tt>.
1090                 </blockquote>
1091                 <strong><a name="studio">Solaris: Sun Studio</a></strong>
1092                 <blockquote>
1093                     At a minimum, the
1094                     <a href="http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/server-storage/solarisstudio/downloads/index.htm" target="_blank">
1095                         Sun Studio 12 Update 1 Compilers</a>
1096                     (containing version 5.10 of the C and C++ compilers) is required,
1097                     including specific patches.
1098                     <p>
1099                     The Solaris SPARC patch list is:
1100                     <ul>
1101                         <li>
1102                             118683-05: SunOS 5.10: Patch for profiling libraries and assembler
1103                         </li>
1104                         <li>
1105                             119963-21: SunOS 5.10: Shared library patch for C++
1106                         </li>
1107                         <li>
1108                             120753-08: SunOS 5.10: Microtasking libraries (libmtsk) patch
1109                         </li>
1110                         <li>
1111                             128228-09: Sun Studio 12 Update 1: Patch for Sun C++ Compiler
1112                         </li>
1113                         <li>
1114                             141860-03: Sun Studio 12 Update 1: Patch for Compiler Common patch for Sun C C++ F77 F95
1115                         </li>
1116                         <li>
1117                             141861-05: Sun Studio 12 Update 1: Patch for Sun C Compiler
1118                         </li>
1119                         <li>
1120                             142371-01: Sun Studio 12.1 Update 1: Patch for dbx
1121                         </li>
1122                         <li>
1123                             143384-02: Sun Studio 12 Update 1: Patch for debuginfo handling
1124                         </li>
1125                         <li>
1126                             143385-02: Sun Studio 12 Update 1: Patch for Compiler Common patch for Sun C C++ F77 F95
1127                         </li>
1128                         <li>
1129                             142369-01: Sun Studio 12.1: Patch for Performance Analyzer Tools
1130                         </li>
1131                     </ul>
1132                     <p>
1133                         The Solaris X86 patch list is:
1134                     <ul>
1135                         <li>
1136                             119961-07: SunOS 5.10_x86, x64, Patch for profiling libraries and assembler
1137                         </li>
1138                         <li>
1139                             119964-21: SunOS 5.10_x86: Shared library patch for C++_x86
1140                         </li>
1141                         <li>
1142                             120754-08: SunOS 5.10_x86: Microtasking libraries (libmtsk) patch
1143                         </li>
1144                         <li>
1145                             141858-06: Sun Studio 12 Update 1_x86: Sun Compiler Common patch for x86 backend
1146                         </li>
1147                         <li>
1148                             128229-09: Sun Studio 12 Update 1_x86: Patch for C++ Compiler
1149                         </li>
1150                         <li>
1151                             142363-05: Sun Studio 12 Update 1_x86: Patch for C Compiler
1152                         </li>
1153                         <li>
1154                             142368-01: Sun Studio 12.1_x86: Patch for Performance Analyzer Tools
1155                         </li>
1156                     </ul>
1157                     <p> 
1158                         Set
1159                         <a href="#ALT_COMPILER_PATH"><tt>ALT_COMPILER_PATH</tt></a>
1160                         to point to the location of
1161                         the compiler binaries, and place this location in the <tt>PATH</tt>.
1162                     <p>
1163                         The Oracle Solaris Studio Express compilers at:
1164                         <a href="http://developers.sun.com/sunstudio/downloads/express.jsp" target="_blank">
1165                             Oracle Solaris Studio Express Download site</a>
1166                         are also an option, although these compilers have not
1167                         been extensively used yet.
1168                 </blockquote>
1169                 <strong><a name="msvc32">Windows i586: Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 Compilers</a></strong>
1170                 <blockquote>
1171                     <p>
1172                         <b>BEGIN WARNING</b>: JDK 7 has transitioned to
1173                         use the newest VS2010 Microsoft compilers.
1174                         No other compilers are known to build the entire JDK,
1175                         including non-open portions.
1176                         Visual Studio 2010 Express compilers are now able to build all the
1177                         open source repositories, but this is 32 bit only. To build 64 bit
1178                         Windows binaries use the the 7.1 Windows SDK.
1179                         <b>END WARNING.</b>
1180                     <p>
1181                         The 32-bit OpenJDK Windows build requires
1182                         Microsoft Visual Studio C++ 2010 (VS2010) Professional
1183                         Edition or Express compiler.
1184                         The compiler and other tools are expected to reside
1185                         in the location defined by the variable
1186                         <tt>VS100COMNTOOLS</tt> which
1187                         is set by the Microsoft Visual Studio installer.
1188                     <p> 
1189                         Once the compiler is installed,
1190                         it is recommended that you run <tt>VCVARS32.BAT</tt>
1191                         to set the compiler environment variables
1192                         <tt>INCLUDE</tt>,
1193                         <tt>LIB</tt>, and
1194                         <tt>PATH</tt>
1195                         prior to building the
1196                         OpenJDK.
1197                         The above environment variables <b>MUST</b> be set.
1198                         This compiler also contains the Windows SDK v 7.0a,
1199                         which is an update to the Windows 7 SDK.
1200                     <p>
1201                         <b>WARNING:</b> Make sure you check out the
1202                         <a href="#cygwin">CYGWIN link.exe WARNING</a>.
1203                         The path <tt>/usr/bin</tt> must be after the path to the
1204                         Visual Studio product.
1205                 </blockquote>
1206                 <strong><a name="msvc64">Windows x64: Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 Professional Compiler</a></strong>
1207                 <blockquote>
1208                     For <b>X64</b>, the set up is much the same as 32 bit
1209                     except that you run <tt>amd64\VCVARS64.BAT</tt>
1210                     to set the compiler environment variables.
1211                     Previously 64 bit builds had to use the 64 bit compiler in
1212                     an unbundled Windows SDK but this is no longer necessary if
1213                     you have VS2010 Professional.
1214                 </blockquote>
1215                 <strong><a name="mssdk64">Windows x64: Microsoft Windows 7.1 SDK 64 bit compilers.</a></strong>
1216                 For a free alternative for 64 bit builds, use the 7.1 SDK.
1217                 Microsoft say that to set up your paths for this run
1218                 <pre>
1219     c:\Program Files\Microsoft SDKs\Windows\v7.1\bin\setenv.cmd /x64.
1220                 </pre>
1221                 What was tested is just directly setting up LIB, INCLUDE,
1222                 PATH and based on the installation directories using the
1223                 DOS short name appropriate for the system, (you will
1224                 need to set them for yours, not just blindly copy this) eg :
1225                 <pre>
1226     set VSINSTALLDIR=c:\PROGRA~2\MICROS~1.0
1227     set WindowsSdkDir=c:\PROGRA~1\MICROS~1\Windows\v7.1
1228     set PATH=%VSINSTALLDIR%\vc\bin\amd64;%VSINSTALLDIR%\Common7\IDE;%WindowsSdkDir%\bin;%PATH%
1229     set INCLUDE=%VSINSTALLDIR%\vc\include;%WindowsSdkDir%\include
1230     set LIB=%VSINSTALLDIR%\vc\lib\amd64;%WindowsSdkDir%\lib\x64
1231                 </pre>
1232                 <strong><a name="llvmgcc">OS X Lion 10.7.3: LLVM GCC</a></strong>
1233                 <blockquote>
1234                    LLVM GCC is bundled with XCode. The version should be at least 4.2.1.
1235                 </blockquote>
1236             </blockquote>
1237             <!-- ------------------------------------------------------ --> 
1238             <h4><a name="zip">Zip and Unzip</a></h4>
1239             <blockquote>
1240                 Version 2.2 (November 3rd 1997) or newer of the zip utility 
1241                 and version 5.12 or newer of the unzip utility is needed 
1242                 to build the JDK.
1243                 With Solaris, Linux, and Windows CYGWIN, the zip and unzip
1244                 utilities installed on the system should be fine.
1245                 Information and the source code for
1246                 ZIP.EXE and UNZIP.EXE is available on the
1247                 <a href="http://www.info-zip.org" 
1248                    target="_blank">info-zip web site</a>.
1249             </blockquote>
1250             <!-- ------------------------------------------------------ -->
1251             <h4><a name="cups">Common UNIX Printing System (CUPS) Headers (Solaris &amp; Linux)</a></h4>
1252             <blockquote>
1253                 <strong>Solaris:</strong>
1254                 CUPS header files are required for building the 
1255                 OpenJDK on Solaris.
1256                 The Solaris header files can be obtained by installing 
1257                 the package <strong>SFWcups</strong> from the Solaris Software
1258                 Companion CD/DVD, these often will be installed into 
1259                 <tt>/opt/sfw/cups</tt>.
1260                 <p>
1261                     <strong>Linux:</strong>
1262                     CUPS header files are required for building the
1263                     OpenJDK on Linux.
1264                     The Linux header files are usually available from a "cups"
1265                     development package, it's recommended that you try and use
1266                     the package provided by the particular version of Linux that
1267                     you are using.
1268                 <p>
1269                     The CUPS header files can always be downloaded from
1270                     <a href="http://www.cups.org" target="_blank">www.cups.org</a>.
1271                     The variable
1272                     <tt><a href="#ALT_CUPS_HEADERS_PATH">ALT_CUPS_HEADERS_PATH</a></tt>
1273                     can be used to override the default location of the
1274                     CUPS Header files.
1275             </blockquote>
1276             <!-- ------------------------------------------------------ -->
1277             <h4><a name="xrender">XRender Extension Headers (Solaris &amp; Linux)</a></h4>
1278             <blockquote>
1279                 <p>
1280                     <strong>Solaris:</strong>
1281                     XRender header files are required for building the
1282                     OpenJDK on Solaris.
1283                     The XRender header file is included with the other X11 header files
1284                     in the package <strong>SFWxwinc</strong> on new enough versions of
1285                     Solaris and will be installed in
1286                     <tt>/usr/X11/include/X11/extensions/Xrender.h</tt>
1287                 </p><p>
1288                     <strong>Linux:</strong>
1289                     XRender header files are required for building the
1290                     OpenJDK on Linux.
1291                     The Linux header files are usually available from a "Xrender"
1292                     development package, it's recommended that you try and use
1293                     the package provided by the particular distribution of Linux that
1294                     you are using.
1295                 </p>
1296             </blockquote>
1297             <!-- ------------------------------------------------------ -->
1298             <h4><a name="freetype">FreeType 2</a></h4>
1299             <blockquote>
1300                 Version 2.3 or newer of FreeType is required for building the OpenJDK.
1301                 On Unix systems required files can be available as part of your
1302                 distribution (while you still may need to upgrade them).
1303                 Note that you need development version of package that 
1304                 includes both FreeType library and header files.
1305                 <p>
1306                     You can always download latest FreeType version from the
1307                     <a href="http://www.freetype.org" target="_blank">FreeType website</a>.
1308                 <p>
1309                     Makefiles will try to pick FreeType from /usr/lib and /usr/include.
1310                     In case it is installed elsewhere you will need to set environment
1311                     variables
1312                     <tt><a href="#ALT_FREETYPE_LIB_PATH">ALT_FREETYPE_LIB_PATH</a></tt>
1313                     and
1314                     <tt><a href="#ALT_FREETYPE_HEADERS_PATH">ALT_FREETYPE_HEADERS_PATH</a></tt>
1315                     to refer to place where library and header files are installed.
1316                 <p>
1317                     Building the freetype 2 libraries from scratch is also possible,
1318                     however on Windows refer to the
1319                     <a href="http://freetype.freedesktop.org/wiki/FreeType_DLL">
1320                         Windows FreeType DLL build instructions</a>.
1321                 <p>
1322                     Note that by default FreeType is built with byte code hinting
1323                     support disabled due to licensing restrictions.
1324                     In this case, text appearance and metrics are expected to
1325                     differ from Sun's official JDK build.
1326                     See
1327                     <a href="http://freetype.sourceforge.net/freetype2/index.html">
1328                         the SourceForge FreeType2 Home Page
1329                     </a>
1330                     for more information.
1331             </blockquote>    
1332             <!-- ------------------------------------------------------ -->
1333             <h4><a name="alsa">Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA) (Linux only)</a></h4>
1334             <blockquote>
1335                 <strong>Linux only:</strong>
1336                 Version 0.9.1 or newer of the ALSA files are
1337                 required for building the OpenJDK on Linux.
1338                 These Linux files are usually available from an "alsa"
1339                 of "libasound"
1340                 development package, it's highly recommended that you try and use
1341                 the package provided by the particular version of Linux that
1342                 you are using.
1343                 The makefiles will check this emit a sanity error if it is
1344                 missing or the wrong version.
1345                 <p>
1346                     In particular, older Linux systems will likely not have the
1347                     right version of ALSA installed, for example
1348                     Redhat AS 2.1 U2 and SuSE 8.1 do not include a sufficiently
1349                     recent ALSA distribution.
1350                     On rpm-based systems, you can see if ALSA is installed by
1351                     running this command:
1352                 <pre>
1353                     <tt>rpm -qa | grep alsa</tt>
1354                 </pre>
1355                 Both <tt>alsa</tt> and <tt>alsa-devel</tt> packages are needed.
1356                 <p> 
1357                     If your distribution does not come with ALSA, and you can't
1358                     find ALSA packages built for your particular system,
1359                     you can try to install the pre-built ALSA rpm packages from
1360                     <a href="http://www.freshrpms.net/" target="_blank">
1361                         <tt>www.freshrpms.net</tt></a>.
1362                     Note that installing a newer ALSA could
1363                     break sound output if an older version of ALSA was previously
1364                     installed on the system, but it will enable JDK compilation.
1365                 <blockquote>
1366                     Installation: execute as root<br>
1367                     [i586]: <code>rpm -Uv --force alsa-lib-devel-0.9.1-rh61.i386.rpm</code><br>
1368                     [x64]: <code>rpm -Uv --force alsa-lib-devel-0.9.8-amd64.x86_64.rpm</code><br>
1369                     Uninstallation:<br>
1370                     [i586]: <code>rpm -ev alsa-lib-devel-0.9.1-rh61</code><br>
1371                     [x64]:<code>rpm -ev alsa-lib-devel-0.9.8-amd64</code><br>
1372                     Make sure that you do not link to the static library
1373                     (<tt>libasound.a</tt>),
1374                     by verifying that the dynamic library (<tt>libasound.so</tt>) is
1375                     correctly installed in <tt>/usr/lib</tt>.
1376                 </blockquote>
1377                 As a last resort you can go to the
1378                 <a href="http://www.alsa-project.org" target="_blank">
1379                     Advanced Linux Sound Architecture Site</a> and build it from
1380                 source.
1381                 <blockquote>
1382                     Download driver and library
1383                     source tarballs from 
1384                     <a href="http://www.alsa-project.org" target="_blank">ALSA's homepage</a>. 
1385                     As root, execute the following
1386                     commands (you may need to adapt the version number):
1387                     <pre>
1388                         <tt>
1389                             $ tar xjf alsa-driver-0.9.1.tar.bz2
1390                             $ cd alsa-driver-0.9.1
1391                             $ ./configure
1392                             $ make install
1393                             $ cd ..
1394                             $ tar xjf alsa-lib-0.9.1.tar.bz2
1395                             $ cd alsa-lib-0.9.1
1396                             $ ./configure
1397                             $ make install
1398                         </tt>
1399                     </pre>
1400                     Should one of the above steps fail, refer to the documentation on
1401                     ALSA's home page.
1402                 </blockquote>
1403                 Note that this is a minimum install that enables
1404                 building the JDK platform. To actually use ALSA sound drivers, more
1405                 steps are necessary as outlined in the documentation on ALSA's homepage.
1406                 <p>
1407                     ALSA can be uninstalled by executing <tt>make uninstall</tt> first in
1408                     the <tt>alsa-lib-0.9.1</tt> directory and then in
1409                     <tt>alsa-driver-0.9.1</tt>.
1410             </blockquote>
1411             There are no ALT* variables to change the assumed locations of ALSA,
1412             the makefiles will expect to find the ALSA include files and library at:
1413             <tt>/usr/include/alsa</tt> and <tt>/usr/lib/libasound.so</tt>.
1414         </blockquote>
1415         <!-- ------------------------------------------------------ -->
1416         <h4>Windows Specific Dependencies</h4>
1417         <blockquote>
1418             <strong>Unix Command Tools (<a name="cygwin">CYGWIN</a>)</strong>
1419             <blockquote> 
1420                 The OpenJDK requires access to a set of unix command tools
1421                 on Windows which can be supplied by 
1422                 <a href="http://www.cygwin.com" target="_blank">CYGWIN</a>. 
1423                 <p>
1424                     The OpenJDK build requires CYGWIN version 1.5.12 or newer.
1425                     Information about CYGWIN can
1426                     be obtained from the CYGWIN website at
1427                     <a href="http://www.cygwin.com" target="_blank">www.cygwin.com</a>.
1428                 <p>
1429                     By default CYGWIN doesn't install all the tools required for building
1430                     the OpenJDK.
1431                     Along with the default installation, you need to install
1432                     the following tools.
1433                 <blockquote>
1434                     <table border="1">
1435                         <thead>
1436                             <tr>
1437                                 <td>Binary Name</td>
1438                                 <td>Category</td>
1439                                 <td>Package</td>
1440                                 <td>Description</td>
1441                             </tr>
1442                         </thead>
1443                         <tbody>
1444                             <tr>
1445                                 <td>ar.exe</td>
1446                                 <td>Devel</td>
1447                                 <td>binutils</td>
1448                                 <td>The GNU assembler, linker and binary
1449                                     utilities</td>
1450                             </tr>
1451                             <tr>
1452                                 <td>make.exe</td>
1453                                 <td>Devel</td>
1454                                 <td>make</td>
1455                                 <td>The GNU version of the 'make' utility built for CYGWIN.<br>
1456                                     <b>NOTE</b>: See <a href="#gmake">the GNU make section</a></td>
1457                             </tr>
1458                             <tr>
1459                                 <td>m4.exe</td>
1460                                 <td>Interpreters</td>
1461                                 <td>m4</td>
1462                                 <td>GNU implementation of the traditional Unix macro
1463                                     processor</td>
1464                             </tr>
1465                             <tr>
1466                                 <td>cpio.exe</td>
1467                                 <td>Utils</td>
1468                                 <td>cpio</td>
1469                                 <td>A program to manage archives of files</td>
1470                             </tr>
1471                             <tr>
1472                                 <td>gawk.exe</td>
1473                                 <td>Utils</td>
1474                                 <td>awk</td>
1475                                 <td>Pattern-directed scanning and processing language</td>
1476                             </tr>
1477                             <tr>
1478                                 <td>file.exe</td>
1479                                 <td>Utils</td>
1480                                 <td>file</td>
1481                                 <td>Determines file type using 'magic' numbers</td>
1482                             </tr>
1483                             <tr>
1484                                 <td>zip.exe</td>
1485                                 <td>Archive</td>
1486                                 <td>zip</td>
1487                                 <td>Package and compress (archive) files</td>
1488                             </tr>
1489                             <tr>
1490                                 <td>unzip.exe</td>
1491                                 <td>Archive</td>
1492                                 <td>unzip</td>
1493                                 <td>Extract compressed files in a ZIP archive</td>
1494                             </tr>
1495                             <tr>
1496                                 <td>free.exe</td>
1497                                 <td>System</td>
1498                                 <td>procps</td>
1499                                 <td>Display amount of free and used memory in the system</td>
1500                             </tr>
1501                         </tbody>
1502                     </table>
1503                 </blockquote>
1504                 <p>
1505                     Note that the CYGWIN software can conflict with other non-CYGWIN
1506                     software on your Windows system.
1507                     CYGWIN provides a
1508                     <a href="http://cygwin.com/faq/faq.using.html" target="_blank">FAQ</a> for
1509                     known issues and problems, of particular interest is the
1510                     section on
1511                     <a href="http://cygwin.com/faq/faq.using.html#faq.using.bloda" target="_blank">
1512                         BLODA (applications that interfere with CYGWIN)</a>.
1513                 <p>
1514                     <b>WARNING:</b>
1515                     Be very careful with <b><tt>link.exe</tt></b>, it will conflict
1516                     with the Visual Studio version. You need the Visual Studio
1517                     version of <tt>link.exe</tt>, not the CYGWIN one.
1518                     So it's important that the Visual Studio paths in PATH preceed
1519                     the CYGWIN path <tt>/usr/bin</tt>.
1520             </blockquote>
1521             <strong><a name="dxsdk">Microsoft DirectX 9.0 SDK header files and libraries</a></strong>
1522             <blockquote>
1523                 Microsoft DirectX 9.0 SDK (Summer 2004)
1524                 headers are required for building
1525                 OpenJDK.
1526                 This SDK can be downloaded from 
1527                 <a href="http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyId=FD044A42-9912-42A3-9A9E-D857199F888E&amp;displaylang=en" target="_blank">
1528                     Microsoft DirectX 9.0 SDK (Summer 2004)</a>.
1529                 If the link above becomes obsolete, the SDK can be found from 
1530                 <a href="http://download.microsoft.com" target="_blank">the Microsoft Download Site</a>
1531                 (search with "DirectX 9.0 SDK Update Summer 2004"). 
1532                 The location of this SDK can be set with 
1533                 <tt><a href="#ALT_DXSDK_PATH">ALT_DXSDK_PATH</a></tt>
1534                 but it's normally found via the DirectX environment variable
1535                 <tt>DXSDK_DIR</tt>.
1536             </blockquote>
1537             <strong><a name="msvcrNN"><tt>MSVCR100.DLL</tt></a></strong>
1538             <blockquote> 
1539                 The OpenJDK build requires access to a redistributable
1540                 <tt>MSVCR100.DLL</tt>.
1541                 This is usually picked up automatically from the redist
1542                 directories of Visual Studio 2010.
1543                 If this cannot be found set the 
1544                 <a href="#ALT_MSVCRNN_DLL_PATH"><tt>ALT_MSVCRNN_DLL_PATH</tt></a>
1545                 variable to the location of this file.
1546                 <p> 
1547             </blockquote>
1548         </blockquote>
1549         <!-- ------------------------------------------------------ -->
1550         <hr>
1551         <h2><a name="creating">Creating the Build</a></h2>
1552         <blockquote>
1553             Once a machine is setup to build the OpenJDK,
1554             the steps to create the build are fairly simple.
1555             The various ALT settings can either be made into  variables
1556             or can be supplied on the 
1557             <a href="#gmake"><tt><i>gmake</i></tt></a> 
1558             command.
1559             <ol>
1560                 <li>Use the sanity rule to double check all the ALT settings:
1561                     <blockquote>
1562                         <tt>
1563                             <i>gmake</i> 
1564                             sanity
1565                             [ARCH_DATA_MODEL=<i>32 or 64</i>]
1566                             [other "ALT_" overrides]
1567                         </tt>
1568                     </blockquote>
1569                 </li>
1570                 <li>Start the build with the command:
1571                     <blockquote>
1572                         <tt>
1573                             <i>gmake</i> 
1574                             [ARCH_DATA_MODEL=<i>32 or 64</i>]
1575                             [ALT_OUTPUTDIR=<i>output_directory</i>] 
1576                             [other "ALT_" overrides] 
1577                         </tt>
1578                     </blockquote>
1579                 </li>
1580             </ol>
1581             <p>
1582                 <strong>Solaris:</strong>
1583                 Note that ARCH_DATA_MODEL is really only needed on Solaris to
1584                 indicate you want to built the 64-bit version.
1585                 And before the Solaris 64-bit binaries can be used, they
1586                 must be merged with the binaries from a separate 32-bit build.
1587                 The merged binaries may then be used in either 32-bit or 64-bit mode, with
1588                 the selection occurring at runtime
1589                 with the <tt>-d32</tt> or <tt>-d64</tt> options.
1590         </blockquote>
1591         <!-- ------------------------------------------------------ -->
1592         <hr>
1593         <h2><a name="testing">Testing the Build</a></h2>
1594         <blockquote>
1595             When the build is completed, you should see the generated
1596             binaries and associated files in the <tt>j2sdk-image</tt> 
1597             directory in the output directory. 
1598             The default output directory is
1599             <tt>build/<i>platform</i></tt>,
1600             where <tt><i>platform</i></tt> is one of
1601             <blockquote>
1602                 <ul>
1603                     <li><tt>solaris-sparc</tt></li>
1604                     <li><tt>solaris-sparcv9</tt></li>
1605                     <li><tt>solaris-i586</tt></li>
1606                     <li><tt>solaris-amd64</tt></li>
1607                     <li><tt>linux-i586</tt></li>
1608                     <li><tt>linux-amd64</tt></li>
1609                     <li><tt>windows-i586</tt></li>
1610                     <li><tt>windows-amd64</tt></li>
1611                 </ul>
1612             </blockquote>
1613             In particular, the 
1614             <tt>build/<i>platform</i>/j2sdk-image/bin</tt>
1615             directory should contain executables for the 
1616             OpenJDK tools and utilities.
1617             <p>
1618                 You can test that the build completed properly by using the build
1619                 to run the various demos that you will find in the
1620                 <tt>build/<i>platform</i>/j2sdk-image/demo</tt>
1621                 directory.
1622             <p>
1623                 The provided regression tests can be run with the <tt>jtreg</tt>
1624                 utility from
1625                 <a href="http://openjdk.java.net/jtreg/" target="_blank">the jtreg site</a>.
1626         </blockquote>
1627         <!-- ------------------------------------------------------ -->
1628         <hr>
1629         <h2><a name="variables">Environment/Make Variables</a></h2>
1630         <p>
1631             Some of the
1632             environment or make variables (just called <b>variables</b> in this
1633             document) that can impact the build are:
1634         <blockquote>
1635             <dl>
1636                 <dt><a name="path"><tt>PATH</tt></a> </dt>
1637                 <dd>Typically you want to set the <tt>PATH</tt> to include:
1638                     <ul>
1639                         <li>The location of the GNU make binary</li>
1640                         <li>The location of the Bootstrap JDK <tt>java</tt> 
1641                             (see <a href="#bootjdk">Bootstrap JDK</a>)</li>
1642                         <li>The location of the C/C++ compilers 
1643                             (see <a href="#compilers"><tt>compilers</tt></a>)</li>
1644                         <li>The location or locations for the Unix command utilities
1645                             (e.g. <tt>/usr/bin</tt>)</li>
1646                     </ul>
1647                 </dd>
1648                 <dt><tt>MILESTONE</tt> </dt>
1649                 <dd>
1650                     The milestone name for the build (<i>e.g.</i>"beta"). 
1651                     The default value is "internal".
1652                 </dd>
1653                 <dt><tt>BUILD_NUMBER</tt> </dt>
1654                 <dd>
1655                     The build number for the build (<i>e.g.</i> "b27"). 
1656                     The default value is "b00".
1657                 </dd>
1658                 <dt><a name="arch_data_model"><tt>ARCH_DATA_MODEL</tt></a></dt>
1659                 <dd>The <tt>ARCH_DATA_MODEL</tt> variable
1660                     is used to specify whether the build is to generate 32-bit or 64-bit
1661                     binaries. 
1662                     The Solaris build supports either 32-bit or 64-bit builds, but
1663                     Windows and Linux will support only one, depending on the specific
1664                     OS being used.
1665                     Normally, setting this variable is only necessary on Solaris.
1666                     Set <tt>ARCH_DATA_MODEL</tt> to <tt>32</tt> for generating 32-bit binaries, 
1667                     or to <tt>64</tt> for generating 64-bit binaries.
1668                 </dd>
1669                 <dt><a name="ALT_BOOTDIR"><tt>ALT_BOOTDIR</tt></a></dt>
1670                 <dd>
1671                     The location of the bootstrap JDK installation. 
1672                     See <a href="#bootjdk">Bootstrap JDK</a> for more information.
1673                     You should always install your own local Bootstrap JDK and
1674                     always set <tt>ALT_BOOTDIR</tt> explicitly.
1675                 </dd>
1676                 <dt><a name="ALT_JDK_IMPORT_PATH"><tt>ALT_JDK_IMPORT_PATH</tt></a></dt>
1677                 <dd>
1678                     The location of a previously built JDK installation. 
1679                     See <a href="#importjdk">Optional Import JDK</a> for more information.
1680                 </dd>
1681                 <dt><a name="ALT_OUTPUTDIR"><tt>ALT_OUTPUTDIR</tt></a> </dt>
1682                 <dd>
1683                     An override for specifying the (absolute) path of where the
1684                     build output is to go.
1685                     The default output directory will be build/<i>platform</i>.
1686                 </dd>
1687                 <dt><a name="ALT_COMPILER_PATH"><tt>ALT_COMPILER_PATH</tt></a> </dt>
1688                 <dd>
1689                     The location of the C/C++ compiler.
1690                     The default varies depending on the platform. 
1691                 </dd>
1692                 <dt><tt><a name="ALT_CACERTS_FILE">ALT_CACERTS_FILE</a></tt></dt>
1693                 <dd>
1694                     The location of the <a href="#cacerts">cacerts</a> file.
1695                     The default will refer to 
1696                     <tt>jdk/src/share/lib/security/cacerts</tt>.
1697                 </dd>
1698                 <dt><a name="ALT_CUPS_HEADERS_PATH"><tt>ALT_CUPS_HEADERS_PATH</tt></a> </dt>
1699                 <dd>
1700                     The location of the CUPS header files.
1701                     See <a href="#cups">CUPS information</a> for more information.
1702                     If this path does not exist the fallback path is 
1703                     <tt>/usr/include</tt>.
1704                 </dd>
1705                 <dt><a name="ALT_FREETYPE_LIB_PATH"><tt>ALT_FREETYPE_LIB_PATH</tt></a></dt>
1706                 <dd>
1707                     The location of the FreeType shared library. 
1708                     See <a href="#freetype">FreeType information</a> for details. 
1709                 </dd>
1710                 <dt><a name="ALT_FREETYPE_HEADERS_PATH"><tt>ALT_FREETYPE_HEADERS_PATH</tt></a></dt>
1711                 <dd>
1712                     The location of the FreeType header files.
1713                     See <a href="#freetype">FreeType information</a> for details. 
1714                 </dd>
1715                 <dt><a name="ALT_JDK_DEVTOOLS_PATH"><tt>ALT_JDK_DEVTOOLS_PATH</tt></a></dt>
1716                 <dd>
1717                     The default root location of the devtools.
1718                     The default value is 
1719                     <tt>$(ALT_SLASH_JAVA)/devtools</tt>.
1720                 </dd>
1721                 <dt><tt><a name="ALT_DEVTOOLS_PATH">ALT_DEVTOOLS_PATH</a></tt> </dt>
1722                 <dd>
1723                     The location of tools like the 
1724                     <a href="#zip"><tt>zip</tt> and <tt>unzip</tt></a>
1725                     binaries, but might also contain the GNU make utility
1726                     (<tt><i>gmake</i></tt>).
1727                     So this area is a bit of a grab bag, especially on Windows.
1728                     The default value depends on the platform and
1729                     Unix Commands being used.
1730                     On Linux the default will be 
1731                     <tt>$(ALT_JDK_DEVTOOLS_PATH)/linux/bin</tt>, 
1732                     on Solaris
1733                     <tt>$(ALT_JDK_DEVTOOLS_PATH)/<i>{sparc,i386}</i>/bin</tt>, 
1734                     and on Windows with CYGWIN
1735                     <tt>/usr/bin</tt>.
1736                 </dd>
1737                 <dt><tt><a name="ALT_DROPS_DIR">ALT_DROPS_DIR</a></tt> </dt>
1738                 <dd>
1739                     The location of any source drop bundles
1740                     (see <a href="#drops">Managing the Source Drops</a>).
1741                     The default will be
1742                     <tt>$(ALT_JDK_DEVTOOLS_PATH)/share/jdk8-drops</tt>.
1743                 </dd>
1744                 <dt><a name="ALT_UNIXCCS_PATH"><tt>ALT_UNIXCCS_PATH</tt></a></dt>
1745                 <dd>
1746                     <strong>Solaris only:</strong>
1747                     An override for specifying where the Unix CCS
1748                     command set are located.
1749                     The default location is <tt>/usr/ccs/bin</tt> 
1750                 </dd>
1751                 <dt><a name="ALT_SLASH_JAVA"><tt>ALT_SLASH_JAVA</tt></a></dt>
1752                 <dd>
1753                     The default root location for many of the ALT path locations
1754                     of the following ALT variables.
1755                     The default value is 
1756                     <tt>"/java"</tt> on Solaris and Linux, 
1757                     <tt>"J:"</tt> on Windows.
1758                 </dd>
1759                 <dt><a name="ALT_BUILD_JDK_IMPORT_PATH"><tt>ALT_BUILD_JDK_IMPORT_PATH</tt></a></dt>
1760                 <dd>
1761                     These are useful in managing builds on multiple platforms.
1762                     The default network location for all of the import JDK images
1763                     for all platforms. 
1764                     If <tt><a href="#ALT_JDK_IMPORT_PATH">ALT_JDK_IMPORT_PATH</a></tt>
1765                     is not set, this directory will be used and should contain 
1766                     the following directories:
1767                     <tt>solaris-sparc</tt>,
1768                     <tt>solaris-i586</tt>,
1769                     <tt>solaris-sparcv9</tt>,
1770                     <tt>solaris-amd64</tt>,
1771                     <tt>linux-i586</tt>,
1772                     <tt>linux-amd64</tt>,
1773                     <tt>windows-i586</tt>,
1774                     and
1775                     <tt>windows-amd64</tt>.
1776                     Where each of these directories contain the import JDK image
1777                     for that platform.
1778                 </dd>
1779                 <dt><a name="ALT_OPENWIN_HOME"><tt>ALT_OPENWIN_HOME</tt></a></dt>
1780                 <dd>
1781                     The top-level directory of the libraries and include files for the platform's 
1782                     graphical programming environment. The default location is platform specific. 
1783                     For example, on Linux it defaults to <tt>/usr/X11R6/</tt>.
1784                 </dd>
1785                 <dt><strong>Windows specific:</strong></dt>
1786                 <dd>
1787                     <dl>
1788                         <dt><a name="ALT_WINDOWSSDKDIR"><tt>ALT_WINDOWSSDKDIR</tt></a> </dt>
1789                         <dd>
1790                             The location of the 
1791                             Microsoft Windows SDK where some tools will be
1792                             located.
1793                             The default is whatever WINDOWSSDKDIR is set to
1794                             (or WindowsSdkDir) or the path
1795                             <br>
1796                             <tt>c:\Program Files\Microsoft SDKs\Windows\v7.0a</tt>
1797                         </dd>
1798                         <dt><tt><a name="ALT_DXSDK_PATH">ALT_DXSDK_PATH</a></tt> </dt>
1799                         <dd>
1800                             The location of the 
1801                             <a href="#dxsdk">Microsoft DirectX 9 SDK</a>.
1802                             The default will be to try and use the DirectX environment
1803                             variable <tt>DXSDK_DIR</tt>,
1804                             failing that, look in <tt>C:/DXSDK</tt>.
1805                         </dd>
1806                         <dt><tt><a name="ALT_MSVCRNN_DLL_PATH">ALT_MSVCRNN_DLL_PATH</a></tt> </dt>
1807                         <dd>
1808                             The location of the 
1809                             <a href="#msvcrNN"><tt>MSVCR100.DLL</tt></a>. 
1810                         </dd>
1811                     </dl>
1812                 </dd>
1813                 <dt><strong>Cross-Compilation Support:</strong></dt>
1814                 <dd>
1815                     <dl>
1816                         <dt><a name="CROSS_COMPILE_ARCH"><tt>CROSS_COMPILE_ARCH</tt></a> </dt>
1817                         <dd>
1818                             Set to the target architecture of a cross-compilation build. If set, this
1819                             variable is used to signify that we are cross-compiling. The expectation
1820                             is that <a href="#ALT_COMPILER_PATH"><tt>ALT_COMPILER_PATH</tt></a> is set
1821                             to point to the cross-compiler and that any cross-compilation specific flags
1822                             are passed using <a href="#EXTRA_CFLAGS"><tt>EXTRA_CFLAGS</tt></a>.
1823                             The <a href="#ALT_OPENWIN_HOME"><tt>ALT_OPENWIN_HOME</tt></a> variable should 
1824                             also be set to point to the graphical header files (e.g. X11) provided with 
1825                             the cross-compiler.
1826                             When cross-compiling we skip execution of any demos etc that may be built, and
1827                             also skip binary-file verification.
1828                         </dd>
1829                         <dt><tt><a name="EXTRA_CFLAGS">EXTRA_CFLAGS</a></tt> </dt>
1830                         <dd>
1831                            Used to pass cross-compilation options to the cross-compiler.
1832                            These are added to the <tt>CFLAGS</tt> and <tt>CXXFLAGS</tt> variables. 
1833                         </dd>
1834                         <dt><tt><a name="USE_ONLY_BOOTDIR_TOOLS">USE_ONLY_BOOTDIR_TOOLS</a></tt> </dt>
1835                         <dd>
1836                             Used primarily for cross-compilation builds (and always set in that case)
1837                             this variable indicates that tools from the boot JDK should be used during
1838                             the build process, not the tools (<tt>javac</tt>, <tt>javah</tt>, <tt>jar</tt>)
1839                             just built (which can't execute on the build host).
1840                         </dd>
1841                         <dt><tt><a name="HOST_CC">HOST_CC</a></tt> </dt>
1842                         <dd>
1843                             The location of the C compiler to generate programs to run on the build host.
1844                             Some parts of the build generate programs that are then compiled and executed
1845                             to produce other parts of the build. Normally the primary C compiler is used
1846                             to do this, but when cross-compiling that would be the cross-compiler and the
1847                             resulting program could not be executed. 
1848                             On Linux this defaults to <tt>/usr/bin/gcc</tt>; on other platforms it must be
1849                             set explicitly.
1850                         </dd>
1851                     </dl>
1852                 <dt><strong>Specialized Build Options:</strong></dt>
1853                 <dd>
1854                   Some build variables exist to support specialized build environments and/or specialized
1855                   build products. Their use is only supported in those contexts:
1856                     <dl>
1857                         <dt><tt><a name="BUILD_CLIENT_ONLY">BUILD_CLIENT_ONLY</a></tt> </dt>
1858                         <dd>
1859                             Indicates this build will only contain the Hotspot client VM. In addition to
1860                             controlling the Hotspot build target, it ensures that we don't try to copy
1861                             any server VM files/directories, and defines a default <tt>jvm.cfg</tt> file
1862                             suitable for a client-only environment. Using this in a 64-bit build will
1863                             generate a sanity warning as 64-bit client builds are not directly supported.
1864                         </dd>
1865                         <dt><tt><a name="BUILD_HEADLESS_ONLY"></a>BUILD_HEADLESS_ONLY</tt> </dt>
1866                         <dd>
1867                             Used when the build environment has no graphical capabilities at all. This
1868                             excludes building anything that requires graphical libraries to be available.
1869                         </dd>
1870                         <dt><tt><a name="JAVASE_EMBEDDED"></a>JAVASE_EMBEDDED</tt> </dt>
1871                         <dd>
1872                             Used to indicate this is a build of the Oracle Java SE Embedded product. 
1873                             This will enable the directives included in the SE-Embedded specific build 
1874                             files.
1875                         </dd>
1876                         <dt><tt><a name="LIBZIP_CAN_USE_MMAP">LIBZIP_CAN_USE_MMAP</a></tt> </dt>
1877                         <dd>
1878                             If set to false, disables the use of mmap by the zip utility. Otherwise,
1879                             mmap will be used.
1880                         </dd>
1881                         <dt><tt><a name="COMPRESS_JARS"></a>COMPRESS_JARS</tt> </dt>
1882                         <dd>
1883                           If set to true, causes certain jar files that would otherwise be built without
1884                           compression, to use compression.
1885                         </dd>
1886                     </dl>
1887                 </dd>
1888             </dl>
1889         </blockquote>
1890         <!-- ------------------------------------------------------ -->
1891         <hr>
1892         <h2><a name="hints">Hints and Tips</a></h2>
1893         <blockquote>
1894             You don't have to use all these hints and tips, and in fact people do actually
1895             build with systems that contradict these, but they might prove to be
1896             helpful to some.
1897             <ul>
1898                 <li>
1899                     If <tt>make sanity</tt> does not work, find out why, fix that
1900                     before going any further. Or at least understand what the
1901                     complaints are from it.
1902                 </li>
1903                 <li>
1904                     JDK: Keep in mind that you are building a JDK, but you need
1905                     a JDK (BOOTDIR JDK) to build this JDK.
1906                 </li>
1907                 <li>
1908                     Ant: The ant utility is a java application and besides having
1909                     ant available to you, it's important that ant finds the right
1910                     java to run with. Make sure you can type <tt>ant -version</tt>
1911                     and get clean results with no error messages.
1912                 </li>
1913                 <li>
1914                     Linux: Try and favor the system packages over building your own
1915                     or getting packages from other areas.
1916                     Most Linux builds should be possible with the system's
1917                     available packages.
1918                 </li>
1919                 <li>
1920                     Solaris: Typically you will need to get compilers on your systems
1921                     and occasionally GNU make 3.81 if a gmake binary is not available.
1922                     The gmake binary might not be 3.81, be careful.
1923                 </li>
1924                 <li>
1925                     Windows VS2010:
1926                     <ul>
1927                         <li>
1928                             Only the C++ part of VS2010 is needed.
1929                             Try to let the installation go to the default install directory.
1930                             Always reboot your system after installing VS2010.
1931                             The system environment variable VS100COMNTOOLS should be
1932                             set in your environment.
1933                         </li>
1934                         <li>
1935                             Make sure that TMP and TEMP are also set in the environment
1936                             and refer to Windows paths that exist, like <tt>C:\temp</tt>,
1937                             not <tt>/tmp</tt>, not <tt>/cygdrive/c/temp</tt>, and not <tt>C:/temp</tt>.
1938                             <tt>C:\temp</tt> is just an example, it is assumed that this area is
1939                             private to the user, so by default after installs you should
1940                             see a unique user path in these variables.
1941                         </li>
1942                         <li>
1943                             You need to use vsvars32.bat or vsvars64.bat to get the
1944                             PATH, INCLUDE, LIB, LIBPATH, and WINDOWSSDKDIR
1945                             variables set in your shell environment.
1946                             These bat files are not easy to use from a shell environment.
1947                             However, there is a script placed in the root jdk8 repository called
1948                             vsvars.sh that can help, it should only be done once in a shell
1949                             that will be doing the build, e.g.<br>
1950                             <tt>sh ./make/scripts/vsvars.sh -v10 > settings<br>
1951                                 eval `cat settings`</tt><br>
1952                             Or just <tt>eval `sh ./make/scripts/vsvars.sh -v10`</tt>.
1953                         </li>
1954                     </ul>
1955                 </li>
1956                 <li>
1957                     Windows: PATH order is critical, see the
1958                     <a href="#paths">paths</a> section for more information.
1959                 </li>
1960                 <li>
1961                     Windows 64bit builds: Use ARCH_DATA_MODEL=64.
1962                 </li>
1963             </ul>
1964         </blockquote>
1965         <!-- ------------------------------------------------------ -->
1966         <hr>
1967         <h2><a name="troubleshooting">Troubleshooting</a></h2>
1968         <blockquote>
1969             A build can fail for any number of reasons. 
1970             Most failures
1971             are a result of trying to build in an environment in which all the
1972             pre-build requirements have not been met. 
1973             The first step in
1974             troubleshooting a build failure is to recheck that you have satisfied
1975             all the pre-build requirements for your platform.
1976             Look for the check list of the platform you are building on in the
1977             <a href="#contents">Table of Contents</a>.
1978             <p>
1979                 You can validate your build environment by using the <tt>sanity</tt>
1980                 target.
1981                 Any errors listed
1982                 will stop the build from starting, and any warnings may result in
1983                 a flawed product build.
1984                 We strongly encourage you to evaluate every
1985                 sanity check warning and fix it if required, before you proceed
1986                 further with your build.
1987             <p>
1988                 Some of the more common problems with builds are briefly described
1989                 below, with suggestions for remedies.
1990             <ul>
1991                 <li>
1992                     <b>Corrupted Bundles on Windows:</b>
1993                     <blockquote>
1994                         Some virus scanning software has been known to corrupt the
1995                         downloading of zip bundles.
1996                         It may be necessary to disable the 'on access' or 'real time'
1997                         virus scanning features to prevent this corruption.
1998                         This type of "real time" virus scanning can also slow down the
1999                         build process significantly.
2000                         Temporarily disabling the feature, or excluding the build
2001                         output directory may be necessary to get correct and faster builds.
2002                     </blockquote>
2003                 </li>
2004                 <li>
2005                     <b>Slow Builds:</b>
2006                     <blockquote>
2007                         If your build machine seems to be overloaded from too many
2008                         simultaneous C++ compiles, try setting the <tt>HOTSPOT_BUILD_JOBS</tt>
2009                         variable to <tt>1</tt> (if you're using a multiple CPU
2010                         machine, setting it to more than the the number of CPUs is probably
2011                         not a good idea).
2012                         <p>
2013                             Creating the javadocs can be very slow, if you are running
2014                             javadoc, consider skipping that step.
2015                         <p>
2016                             Faster hardware and more RAM always helps too.
2017                             The VM build tends to be CPU intensive (many C++ compiles),
2018                             and the rest of the JDK will often be disk intensive.
2019                         <p>
2020                             Faster compiles are possible using a tool called
2021                             <a href="http://ccache.samba.org/" target="_blank">ccache</a>.
2022                     </blockquote>
2023                 </li>
2024                 <li>
2025                     <b>File time issues:</b>
2026                     <blockquote>
2027                         If you see warnings that refer to file time stamps, e.g.
2028                         <blockquote>
2029                             <i>Warning message:</i><tt> File `xxx' has modification time in
2030                                 the future.</tt>
2031                             <br>
2032                             <i>Warning message:</i> <tt> Clock skew detected. Your build may
2033                                 be incomplete.</tt>
2034                         </blockquote>
2035                         These warnings can occur when the clock on the build machine is out of
2036                         sync with the timestamps on the source files. Other errors, apparently
2037                         unrelated but in fact caused by the clock skew, can occur along with
2038                         the clock skew warnings. These secondary errors may tend to obscure the
2039                         fact that the true root cause of the problem is an out-of-sync clock.
2040                         For example, an out-of-sync clock has been known to cause an old
2041                         version of javac to be used to compile some files, resulting in errors
2042                         when the pre-1.4 compiler ran across the new <tt>assert</tt> keyword
2043                         in the 1.4 source code.
2044                         <p>
2045                             If you see these warnings, reset the clock on the build
2046                             machine, run "<tt><i>gmake</i> clobber</tt>" or delete the directory
2047                             containing the build output, and restart the build from the beginning.
2048                     </blockquote>
2049                 </li>
2050                 <li>
2051                     <b>Error message: <tt>Trouble writing out table to disk</tt></b>
2052                     <blockquote>
2053                         Increase the amount of swap space on your build machine.
2054                     </blockquote>
2055                 </li>
2056                 <li>
2057                     <b>Error Message: <tt>libstdc++ not found:</tt></b>
2058                     <blockquote>
2059                         This is caused by a missing libstdc++.a library.
2060                         This is installed as part of a specific package
2061                         (e.g. libstdc++.so.devel.386).
2062                         By default some 64-bit Linux versions (e.g. Fedora)
2063                         only install the 64-bit version of the libstdc++ package.
2064                         Various parts of the JDK build require a static
2065                         link of the C++ runtime libraries to allow for maximum
2066                         portability of the built images.
2067                     </blockquote>
2068                 </li>
2069                 <li>
2070                     <b>Error Message: <tt>cannot restore segment prot after reloc</tt></b>
2071                     <blockquote>
2072                         This is probably an issue with SELinux (See
2073                         <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SELinux" target="_blank">
2074                             http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SELinux</a>).
2075                         Parts of the VM is built without the <tt>-fPIC</tt> for
2076                         performance reasons.
2077                         <p>
2078                             To completely disable SELinux:
2079                         <ol>
2080                             <li><tt>$ su root</tt></li>
2081                             <li><tt># system-config-securitylevel</tt></li>
2082                             <li><tt>In the window that appears, select the SELinux tab</tt></li>
2083                             <li><tt>Disable SELinux</tt></li>
2084                         </ol>
2085                         <p>
2086                             Alternatively, instead of completely disabling it you could
2087                             disable just this one check.
2088                         <ol>
2089                             <li>Select System->Administration->SELinux Management</li>
2090                             <li>In the SELinux Management Tool which appears,
2091                                 select "Boolean" from the menu on the left</li>
2092                             <li>Expand the "Memory Protection" group</li>
2093                             <li>Check the first item, labeled
2094                                 "Allow all unconfined executables to use libraries requiring text relocation ..."</li>
2095                         </ol>
2096                     </blockquote>
2097                 </li>
2098                 <li>
2099                     <b>Windows Error Messages:</b><br>
2100                     <tt>*** fatal error - couldn't allocate heap, ... </tt><br>
2101                     <tt>rm fails with "Directory not empty"</tt><br>
2102                     <tt>unzip fails with "cannot create ... Permission denied"</tt><br>
2103                     <tt>unzip fails with "cannot create ... Error 50"</tt><br>
2104                     <blockquote>
2105                         The CYGWIN software can conflict with other non-CYGWIN
2106                         software. See the CYGWIN FAQ section on
2107                         <a href="http://cygwin.com/faq/faq.using.html#faq.using.bloda" target="_blank">
2108                             BLODA (applications that interfere with CYGWIN)</a>.
2109                     </blockquote>
2110                 </li>
2111                 <li>
2112                     <b>Windows Error Message: <tt>spawn failed</tt></b>
2113                     <blockquote>
2114                         Try rebooting the system, or there could be some kind of
2115                         issue with the disk or disk partition being used.
2116                         Sometimes it comes with a "Permission Denied" message.
2117                     </blockquote>
2118                 </li>
2119             </ul>
2120         </blockquote>
2121         <hr>
2122     </body>
2123 </html>