1 /*
   2  * Copyright (c) 1997, 2014, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
   3  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
   4  *
   5  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   6  * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
   7  * published by the Free Software Foundation.
   8  *
   9  * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  10  * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  11  * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  12  * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  13  * accompanied this code).
  14  *
  15  * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  16  * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  17  * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  18  *
  19  * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  20  * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  21  * questions.
  22  *
  23  */
  24 
  25 #include "precompiled.hpp"
  26 #include "classfile/classLoader.hpp"
  27 #include "classfile/classLoaderData.hpp"
  28 #include "classfile/javaClasses.hpp"
  29 #if INCLUDE_CDS
  30 #include "classfile/sharedClassUtil.hpp"
  31 #endif
  32 #include "classfile/stringTable.hpp"
  33 #include "classfile/systemDictionary.hpp"
  34 #include "classfile/vmSymbols.hpp"
  35 #include "code/codeCache.hpp"
  36 #include "code/dependencies.hpp"
  37 #include "gc_interface/collectedHeap.inline.hpp"
  38 #include "interpreter/interpreter.hpp"
  39 #include "memory/cardTableModRefBS.hpp"
  40 #include "memory/filemap.hpp"
  41 #include "memory/gcLocker.inline.hpp"
  42 #include "memory/genCollectedHeap.hpp"
  43 #include "memory/genRemSet.hpp"
  44 #include "memory/generation.hpp"
  45 #include "memory/metadataFactory.hpp"
  46 #include "memory/metaspaceShared.hpp"
  47 #include "memory/oopFactory.hpp"
  48 #include "memory/space.hpp"
  49 #include "memory/universe.hpp"
  50 #include "memory/universe.inline.hpp"
  51 #include "oops/constantPool.hpp"
  52 #include "oops/instanceClassLoaderKlass.hpp"
  53 #include "oops/instanceKlass.hpp"
  54 #include "oops/instanceMirrorKlass.hpp"
  55 #include "oops/instanceRefKlass.hpp"
  56 #include "oops/oop.inline.hpp"
  57 #include "oops/typeArrayKlass.hpp"
  58 #include "prims/jvmtiRedefineClassesTrace.hpp"
  59 #include "runtime/arguments.hpp"
  60 #include "runtime/atomic.inline.hpp"
  61 #include "runtime/deoptimization.hpp"
  62 #include "runtime/fprofiler.hpp"
  63 #include "runtime/handles.inline.hpp"
  64 #include "runtime/init.hpp"
  65 #include "runtime/java.hpp"
  66 #include "runtime/javaCalls.hpp"
  67 #include "runtime/sharedRuntime.hpp"
  68 #include "runtime/synchronizer.hpp"
  69 #include "runtime/thread.inline.hpp"
  70 #include "runtime/timer.hpp"
  71 #include "runtime/vm_operations.hpp"
  72 #include "services/memoryService.hpp"
  73 #include "utilities/copy.hpp"
  74 #include "utilities/events.hpp"
  75 #include "utilities/hashtable.inline.hpp"
  76 #include "utilities/preserveException.hpp"
  77 #include "utilities/macros.hpp"
  78 #if INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
  79 #include "gc_implementation/shared/adaptiveSizePolicy.hpp"
  80 #include "gc_implementation/concurrentMarkSweep/cmsCollectorPolicy.hpp"
  81 #include "gc_implementation/g1/g1CollectedHeap.inline.hpp"
  82 #include "gc_implementation/g1/g1CollectorPolicy.hpp"
  83 #include "gc_implementation/parallelScavenge/parallelScavengeHeap.hpp"
  84 #endif // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
  85 
  86 PRAGMA_FORMAT_MUTE_WARNINGS_FOR_GCC
  87 
  88 // Known objects
  89 Klass* Universe::_boolArrayKlassObj                 = NULL;
  90 Klass* Universe::_byteArrayKlassObj                 = NULL;
  91 Klass* Universe::_charArrayKlassObj                 = NULL;
  92 Klass* Universe::_intArrayKlassObj                  = NULL;
  93 Klass* Universe::_shortArrayKlassObj                = NULL;
  94 Klass* Universe::_longArrayKlassObj                 = NULL;
  95 Klass* Universe::_singleArrayKlassObj               = NULL;
  96 Klass* Universe::_doubleArrayKlassObj               = NULL;
  97 Klass* Universe::_typeArrayKlassObjs[T_VOID+1]      = { NULL /*, NULL...*/ };
  98 Klass* Universe::_objectArrayKlassObj               = NULL;
  99 oop Universe::_int_mirror                             = NULL;
 100 oop Universe::_float_mirror                           = NULL;
 101 oop Universe::_double_mirror                          = NULL;
 102 oop Universe::_byte_mirror                            = NULL;
 103 oop Universe::_bool_mirror                            = NULL;
 104 oop Universe::_char_mirror                            = NULL;
 105 oop Universe::_long_mirror                            = NULL;
 106 oop Universe::_short_mirror                           = NULL;
 107 oop Universe::_void_mirror                            = NULL;
 108 oop Universe::_mirrors[T_VOID+1]                      = { NULL /*, NULL...*/ };
 109 oop Universe::_main_thread_group                      = NULL;
 110 oop Universe::_system_thread_group                    = NULL;
 111 objArrayOop Universe::_the_empty_class_klass_array    = NULL;
 112 Array<Klass*>* Universe::_the_array_interfaces_array = NULL;
 113 oop Universe::_the_null_string                        = NULL;
 114 oop Universe::_the_min_jint_string                   = NULL;
 115 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_finalizer_register_cache = NULL;
 116 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_loader_addClass_cache    = NULL;
 117 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_pd_implies_cache         = NULL;
 118 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap          = NULL;
 119 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace          = NULL;
 120 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace    = NULL;
 121 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size         = NULL;
 122 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit  = NULL;
 123 objArrayOop Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_array = NULL;
 124 volatile jint Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count = 0;
 125 bool Universe::_verify_in_progress                    = false;
 126 oop Universe::_null_ptr_exception_instance            = NULL;
 127 oop Universe::_arithmetic_exception_instance          = NULL;
 128 oop Universe::_virtual_machine_error_instance         = NULL;
 129 oop Universe::_vm_exception                           = NULL;
 130 oop Universe::_allocation_context_notification_obj    = NULL;
 131 
 132 Method* Universe::_throw_illegal_access_error         = NULL;
 133 Array<int>* Universe::_the_empty_int_array            = NULL;
 134 Array<u2>* Universe::_the_empty_short_array           = NULL;
 135 Array<Klass*>* Universe::_the_empty_klass_array     = NULL;
 136 Array<Method*>* Universe::_the_empty_method_array   = NULL;
 137 
 138 // These variables are guarded by FullGCALot_lock.
 139 debug_only(objArrayOop Universe::_fullgc_alot_dummy_array = NULL;)
 140 debug_only(int Universe::_fullgc_alot_dummy_next      = 0;)
 141 
 142 // Heap
 143 int             Universe::_verify_count = 0;
 144 
 145 int             Universe::_base_vtable_size = 0;
 146 bool            Universe::_bootstrapping = false;
 147 bool            Universe::_fully_initialized = false;
 148 
 149 size_t          Universe::_heap_capacity_at_last_gc;
 150 size_t          Universe::_heap_used_at_last_gc = 0;
 151 
 152 CollectedHeap*  Universe::_collectedHeap = NULL;
 153 
 154 NarrowPtrStruct Universe::_narrow_oop = { NULL, 0, true };
 155 NarrowPtrStruct Universe::_narrow_klass = { NULL, 0, true };
 156 address Universe::_narrow_ptrs_base;
 157 
 158 void Universe::basic_type_classes_do(void f(Klass*)) {
 159   f(boolArrayKlassObj());
 160   f(byteArrayKlassObj());
 161   f(charArrayKlassObj());
 162   f(intArrayKlassObj());
 163   f(shortArrayKlassObj());
 164   f(longArrayKlassObj());
 165   f(singleArrayKlassObj());
 166   f(doubleArrayKlassObj());
 167 }
 168 
 169 void Universe::oops_do(OopClosure* f, bool do_all) {
 170 
 171   f->do_oop((oop*) &_int_mirror);
 172   f->do_oop((oop*) &_float_mirror);
 173   f->do_oop((oop*) &_double_mirror);
 174   f->do_oop((oop*) &_byte_mirror);
 175   f->do_oop((oop*) &_bool_mirror);
 176   f->do_oop((oop*) &_char_mirror);
 177   f->do_oop((oop*) &_long_mirror);
 178   f->do_oop((oop*) &_short_mirror);
 179   f->do_oop((oop*) &_void_mirror);
 180 
 181   for (int i = T_BOOLEAN; i < T_VOID+1; i++) {
 182     f->do_oop((oop*) &_mirrors[i]);
 183   }
 184   assert(_mirrors[0] == NULL && _mirrors[T_BOOLEAN - 1] == NULL, "checking");
 185 
 186   f->do_oop((oop*)&_the_empty_class_klass_array);
 187   f->do_oop((oop*)&_the_null_string);
 188   f->do_oop((oop*)&_the_min_jint_string);
 189   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_java_heap);
 190   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_metaspace);
 191   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace);
 192   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_array_size);
 193   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit);
 194     f->do_oop((oop*)&_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_array);
 195   f->do_oop((oop*)&_null_ptr_exception_instance);
 196   f->do_oop((oop*)&_arithmetic_exception_instance);
 197   f->do_oop((oop*)&_virtual_machine_error_instance);
 198   f->do_oop((oop*)&_main_thread_group);
 199   f->do_oop((oop*)&_system_thread_group);
 200   f->do_oop((oop*)&_vm_exception);
 201   f->do_oop((oop*)&_allocation_context_notification_obj);
 202   debug_only(f->do_oop((oop*)&_fullgc_alot_dummy_array);)
 203 }
 204 
 205 // Serialize metadata in and out of CDS archive, not oops.
 206 void Universe::serialize(SerializeClosure* f, bool do_all) {
 207 
 208   f->do_ptr((void**)&_boolArrayKlassObj);
 209   f->do_ptr((void**)&_byteArrayKlassObj);
 210   f->do_ptr((void**)&_charArrayKlassObj);
 211   f->do_ptr((void**)&_intArrayKlassObj);
 212   f->do_ptr((void**)&_shortArrayKlassObj);
 213   f->do_ptr((void**)&_longArrayKlassObj);
 214   f->do_ptr((void**)&_singleArrayKlassObj);
 215   f->do_ptr((void**)&_doubleArrayKlassObj);
 216   f->do_ptr((void**)&_objectArrayKlassObj);
 217 
 218   {
 219     for (int i = 0; i < T_VOID+1; i++) {
 220       if (_typeArrayKlassObjs[i] != NULL) {
 221         assert(i >= T_BOOLEAN, "checking");
 222         f->do_ptr((void**)&_typeArrayKlassObjs[i]);
 223       } else if (do_all) {
 224         f->do_ptr((void**)&_typeArrayKlassObjs[i]);
 225       }
 226     }
 227   }
 228 
 229   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_array_interfaces_array);
 230   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_int_array);
 231   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_short_array);
 232   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_method_array);
 233   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_klass_array);
 234   _finalizer_register_cache->serialize(f);
 235   _loader_addClass_cache->serialize(f);
 236   _pd_implies_cache->serialize(f);
 237 }
 238 
 239 void Universe::check_alignment(uintx size, uintx alignment, const char* name) {
 240   if (size < alignment || size % alignment != 0) {
 241     vm_exit_during_initialization(
 242       err_msg("Size of %s (" UINTX_FORMAT " bytes) must be aligned to " UINTX_FORMAT " bytes", name, size, alignment));
 243   }
 244 }
 245 
 246 void initialize_basic_type_klass(Klass* k, TRAPS) {
 247   Klass* ok = SystemDictionary::Object_klass();
 248   if (UseSharedSpaces) {
 249     ClassLoaderData* loader_data = ClassLoaderData::the_null_class_loader_data();
 250     assert(k->super() == ok, "u3");
 251     k->restore_unshareable_info(loader_data, Handle(), CHECK);
 252   } else {
 253     k->initialize_supers(ok, CHECK);
 254   }
 255   k->append_to_sibling_list();
 256 }
 257 
 258 void Universe::genesis(TRAPS) {
 259   ResourceMark rm;
 260 
 261   { FlagSetting fs(_bootstrapping, true);
 262 
 263     { MutexLocker mc(Compile_lock);
 264 
 265       // determine base vtable size; without that we cannot create the array klasses
 266       compute_base_vtable_size();
 267 
 268       if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
 269         _boolArrayKlassObj      = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_BOOLEAN, sizeof(jboolean), CHECK);
 270         _charArrayKlassObj      = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_CHAR,    sizeof(jchar),    CHECK);
 271         _singleArrayKlassObj    = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_FLOAT,   sizeof(jfloat),   CHECK);
 272         _doubleArrayKlassObj    = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_DOUBLE,  sizeof(jdouble),  CHECK);
 273         _byteArrayKlassObj      = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_BYTE,    sizeof(jbyte),    CHECK);
 274         _shortArrayKlassObj     = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_SHORT,   sizeof(jshort),   CHECK);
 275         _intArrayKlassObj       = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_INT,     sizeof(jint),     CHECK);
 276         _longArrayKlassObj      = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_LONG,    sizeof(jlong),    CHECK);
 277 
 278         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_BOOLEAN] = _boolArrayKlassObj;
 279         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_CHAR]    = _charArrayKlassObj;
 280         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_FLOAT]   = _singleArrayKlassObj;
 281         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_DOUBLE]  = _doubleArrayKlassObj;
 282         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_BYTE]    = _byteArrayKlassObj;
 283         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_SHORT]   = _shortArrayKlassObj;
 284         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_INT]     = _intArrayKlassObj;
 285         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_LONG]    = _longArrayKlassObj;
 286 
 287         ClassLoaderData* null_cld = ClassLoaderData::the_null_class_loader_data();
 288 
 289         _the_array_interfaces_array = MetadataFactory::new_array<Klass*>(null_cld, 2, NULL, CHECK);
 290         _the_empty_int_array        = MetadataFactory::new_array<int>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 291         _the_empty_short_array      = MetadataFactory::new_array<u2>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 292         _the_empty_method_array     = MetadataFactory::new_array<Method*>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 293         _the_empty_klass_array      = MetadataFactory::new_array<Klass*>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 294       }
 295     }
 296 
 297     vmSymbols::initialize(CHECK);
 298 
 299     SystemDictionary::initialize(CHECK);
 300 
 301     Klass* ok = SystemDictionary::Object_klass();
 302 
 303     _the_null_string            = StringTable::intern("null", CHECK);
 304     _the_min_jint_string       = StringTable::intern("-2147483648", CHECK);
 305 
 306     if (UseSharedSpaces) {
 307       // Verify shared interfaces array.
 308       assert(_the_array_interfaces_array->at(0) ==
 309              SystemDictionary::Cloneable_klass(), "u3");
 310       assert(_the_array_interfaces_array->at(1) ==
 311              SystemDictionary::Serializable_klass(), "u3");
 312     } else {
 313       // Set up shared interfaces array.  (Do this before supers are set up.)
 314       _the_array_interfaces_array->at_put(0, SystemDictionary::Cloneable_klass());
 315       _the_array_interfaces_array->at_put(1, SystemDictionary::Serializable_klass());
 316     }
 317 
 318     initialize_basic_type_klass(boolArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 319     initialize_basic_type_klass(charArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 320     initialize_basic_type_klass(singleArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 321     initialize_basic_type_klass(doubleArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 322     initialize_basic_type_klass(byteArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 323     initialize_basic_type_klass(shortArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 324     initialize_basic_type_klass(intArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 325     initialize_basic_type_klass(longArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 326   } // end of core bootstrapping
 327 
 328   // Maybe this could be lifted up now that object array can be initialized
 329   // during the bootstrapping.
 330 
 331   // OLD
 332   // Initialize _objectArrayKlass after core bootstraping to make
 333   // sure the super class is set up properly for _objectArrayKlass.
 334   // ---
 335   // NEW
 336   // Since some of the old system object arrays have been converted to
 337   // ordinary object arrays, _objectArrayKlass will be loaded when
 338   // SystemDictionary::initialize(CHECK); is run. See the extra check
 339   // for Object_klass_loaded in objArrayKlassKlass::allocate_objArray_klass_impl.
 340   _objectArrayKlassObj = InstanceKlass::
 341     cast(SystemDictionary::Object_klass())->array_klass(1, CHECK);
 342   // OLD
 343   // Add the class to the class hierarchy manually to make sure that
 344   // its vtable is initialized after core bootstrapping is completed.
 345   // ---
 346   // New
 347   // Have already been initialized.
 348   _objectArrayKlassObj->append_to_sibling_list();
 349 
 350   // Compute is_jdk version flags.
 351   // Only 1.3 or later has the java.lang.Shutdown class.
 352   // Only 1.4 or later has the java.lang.CharSequence interface.
 353   // Only 1.5 or later has the java.lang.management.MemoryUsage class.
 354   if (JDK_Version::is_partially_initialized()) {
 355     uint8_t jdk_version;
 356     Klass* k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_null(
 357         vmSymbols::java_lang_management_MemoryUsage(), THREAD);
 358     CLEAR_PENDING_EXCEPTION; // ignore exceptions
 359     if (k == NULL) {
 360       k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_null(
 361           vmSymbols::java_lang_CharSequence(), THREAD);
 362       CLEAR_PENDING_EXCEPTION; // ignore exceptions
 363       if (k == NULL) {
 364         k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_null(
 365             vmSymbols::java_lang_Shutdown(), THREAD);
 366         CLEAR_PENDING_EXCEPTION; // ignore exceptions
 367         if (k == NULL) {
 368           jdk_version = 2;
 369         } else {
 370           jdk_version = 3;
 371         }
 372       } else {
 373         jdk_version = 4;
 374       }
 375     } else {
 376       jdk_version = 5;
 377     }
 378     JDK_Version::fully_initialize(jdk_version);
 379   }
 380 
 381   #ifdef ASSERT
 382   if (FullGCALot) {
 383     // Allocate an array of dummy objects.
 384     // We'd like these to be at the bottom of the old generation,
 385     // so that when we free one and then collect,
 386     // (almost) the whole heap moves
 387     // and we find out if we actually update all the oops correctly.
 388     // But we can't allocate directly in the old generation,
 389     // so we allocate wherever, and hope that the first collection
 390     // moves these objects to the bottom of the old generation.
 391     // We can allocate directly in the permanent generation, so we do.
 392     int size;
 393     if (UseConcMarkSweepGC) {
 394       warning("Using +FullGCALot with concurrent mark sweep gc "
 395               "will not force all objects to relocate");
 396       size = FullGCALotDummies;
 397     } else {
 398       size = FullGCALotDummies * 2;
 399     }
 400     objArrayOop    naked_array = oopFactory::new_objArray(SystemDictionary::Object_klass(), size, CHECK);
 401     objArrayHandle dummy_array(THREAD, naked_array);
 402     int i = 0;
 403     while (i < size) {
 404         // Allocate dummy in old generation
 405       oop dummy = InstanceKlass::cast(SystemDictionary::Object_klass())->allocate_instance(CHECK);
 406       dummy_array->obj_at_put(i++, dummy);
 407     }
 408     {
 409       // Only modify the global variable inside the mutex.
 410       // If we had a race to here, the other dummy_array instances
 411       // and their elements just get dropped on the floor, which is fine.
 412       MutexLocker ml(FullGCALot_lock);
 413       if (_fullgc_alot_dummy_array == NULL) {
 414         _fullgc_alot_dummy_array = dummy_array();
 415       }
 416     }
 417     assert(i == _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->length(), "just checking");
 418   }
 419   #endif
 420 
 421   // Initialize dependency array for null class loader
 422   ClassLoaderData::the_null_class_loader_data()->init_dependencies(CHECK);
 423 
 424 }
 425 
 426 // CDS support for patching vtables in metadata in the shared archive.
 427 // All types inherited from Metadata have vtables, but not types inherited
 428 // from MetaspaceObj, because the latter does not have virtual functions.
 429 // If the metadata type has a vtable, it cannot be shared in the read-only
 430 // section of the CDS archive, because the vtable pointer is patched.
 431 static inline void add_vtable(void** list, int* n, void* o, int count) {
 432   guarantee((*n) < count, "vtable list too small");
 433   void* vtable = dereference_vptr(o);
 434   assert(*(void**)(vtable) != NULL, "invalid vtable");
 435   list[(*n)++] = vtable;
 436 }
 437 
 438 void Universe::init_self_patching_vtbl_list(void** list, int count) {
 439   int n = 0;
 440   { InstanceKlass o;          add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 441   { InstanceClassLoaderKlass o; add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 442   { InstanceMirrorKlass o;    add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 443   { InstanceRefKlass o;       add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 444   { TypeArrayKlass o;         add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 445   { ObjArrayKlass o;          add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 446   { Method o;                 add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 447   { ConstantPool o;           add_vtable(list, &n, &o, count); }
 448 }
 449 
 450 void Universe::initialize_basic_type_mirrors(TRAPS) {
 451     assert(_int_mirror==NULL, "basic type mirrors already initialized");
 452     _int_mirror     =
 453       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("int",    T_INT, CHECK);
 454     _float_mirror   =
 455       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("float",  T_FLOAT,   CHECK);
 456     _double_mirror  =
 457       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("double", T_DOUBLE,  CHECK);
 458     _byte_mirror    =
 459       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("byte",   T_BYTE, CHECK);
 460     _bool_mirror    =
 461       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("boolean",T_BOOLEAN, CHECK);
 462     _char_mirror    =
 463       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("char",   T_CHAR, CHECK);
 464     _long_mirror    =
 465       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("long",   T_LONG, CHECK);
 466     _short_mirror   =
 467       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("short",  T_SHORT,   CHECK);
 468     _void_mirror    =
 469       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("void",   T_VOID, CHECK);
 470 
 471     _mirrors[T_INT]     = _int_mirror;
 472     _mirrors[T_FLOAT]   = _float_mirror;
 473     _mirrors[T_DOUBLE]  = _double_mirror;
 474     _mirrors[T_BYTE]    = _byte_mirror;
 475     _mirrors[T_BOOLEAN] = _bool_mirror;
 476     _mirrors[T_CHAR]    = _char_mirror;
 477     _mirrors[T_LONG]    = _long_mirror;
 478     _mirrors[T_SHORT]   = _short_mirror;
 479     _mirrors[T_VOID]    = _void_mirror;
 480   //_mirrors[T_OBJECT]  = InstanceKlass::cast(_object_klass)->java_mirror();
 481   //_mirrors[T_ARRAY]   = InstanceKlass::cast(_object_klass)->java_mirror();
 482 }
 483 
 484 void Universe::fixup_mirrors(TRAPS) {
 485   // Bootstrap problem: all classes gets a mirror (java.lang.Class instance) assigned eagerly,
 486   // but we cannot do that for classes created before java.lang.Class is loaded. Here we simply
 487   // walk over permanent objects created so far (mostly classes) and fixup their mirrors. Note
 488   // that the number of objects allocated at this point is very small.
 489   assert(SystemDictionary::Class_klass_loaded(), "java.lang.Class should be loaded");
 490   HandleMark hm(THREAD);
 491   // Cache the start of the static fields
 492   InstanceMirrorKlass::init_offset_of_static_fields();
 493 
 494   GrowableArray <Klass*>* list = java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror_list();
 495   int list_length = list->length();
 496   for (int i = 0; i < list_length; i++) {
 497     Klass* k = list->at(i);
 498     assert(k->is_klass(), "List should only hold classes");
 499     EXCEPTION_MARK;
 500     KlassHandle kh(THREAD, k);
 501     java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror(kh, CATCH);
 502 }
 503   delete java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror_list();
 504   java_lang_Class::set_fixup_mirror_list(NULL);
 505 }
 506 
 507 static bool has_run_finalizers_on_exit = false;
 508 
 509 void Universe::run_finalizers_on_exit() {
 510   if (has_run_finalizers_on_exit) return;
 511   has_run_finalizers_on_exit = true;
 512 
 513   // Called on VM exit. This ought to be run in a separate thread.
 514   if (TraceReferenceGC) tty->print_cr("Callback to run finalizers on exit");
 515   {
 516     PRESERVE_EXCEPTION_MARK;
 517     KlassHandle finalizer_klass(THREAD, SystemDictionary::Finalizer_klass());
 518     JavaValue result(T_VOID);
 519     JavaCalls::call_static(
 520       &result,
 521       finalizer_klass,
 522       vmSymbols::run_finalizers_on_exit_name(),
 523       vmSymbols::void_method_signature(),
 524       THREAD
 525     );
 526     // Ignore any pending exceptions
 527     CLEAR_PENDING_EXCEPTION;
 528   }
 529 }
 530 
 531 
 532 // initialize_vtable could cause gc if
 533 // 1) we specified true to initialize_vtable and
 534 // 2) this ran after gc was enabled
 535 // In case those ever change we use handles for oops
 536 void Universe::reinitialize_vtable_of(KlassHandle k_h, TRAPS) {
 537   // init vtable of k and all subclasses
 538   Klass* ko = k_h();
 539   klassVtable* vt = ko->vtable();
 540   if (vt) vt->initialize_vtable(false, CHECK);
 541   if (ko->oop_is_instance()) {
 542     InstanceKlass* ik = (InstanceKlass*)ko;
 543     for (KlassHandle s_h(THREAD, ik->subklass());
 544          s_h() != NULL;
 545          s_h = KlassHandle(THREAD, s_h()->next_sibling())) {
 546       reinitialize_vtable_of(s_h, CHECK);
 547     }
 548   }
 549 }
 550 
 551 
 552 void initialize_itable_for_klass(Klass* k, TRAPS) {
 553   InstanceKlass::cast(k)->itable()->initialize_itable(false, CHECK);
 554 }
 555 
 556 
 557 void Universe::reinitialize_itables(TRAPS) {
 558   SystemDictionary::classes_do(initialize_itable_for_klass, CHECK);
 559 
 560 }
 561 
 562 
 563 bool Universe::on_page_boundary(void* addr) {
 564   return ((uintptr_t) addr) % os::vm_page_size() == 0;
 565 }
 566 
 567 
 568 bool Universe::should_fill_in_stack_trace(Handle throwable) {
 569   // never attempt to fill in the stack trace of preallocated errors that do not have
 570   // backtrace. These errors are kept alive forever and may be "re-used" when all
 571   // preallocated errors with backtrace have been consumed. Also need to avoid
 572   // a potential loop which could happen if an out of memory occurs when attempting
 573   // to allocate the backtrace.
 574   return ((throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap) &&
 575           (throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace)  &&
 576           (throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace)  &&
 577           (throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size) &&
 578           (throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit));
 579 }
 580 
 581 
 582 oop Universe::gen_out_of_memory_error(oop default_err) {
 583   // generate an out of memory error:
 584   // - if there is a preallocated error with backtrace available then return it wth
 585   //   a filled in stack trace.
 586   // - if there are no preallocated errors with backtrace available then return
 587   //   an error without backtrace.
 588   int next;
 589   if (_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count > 0) {
 590     next = (int)Atomic::add(-1, &_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count);
 591     assert(next < (int)PreallocatedOutOfMemoryErrorCount, "avail count is corrupt");
 592   } else {
 593     next = -1;
 594   }
 595   if (next < 0) {
 596     // all preallocated errors have been used.
 597     // return default
 598     return default_err;
 599   } else {
 600     // get the error object at the slot and set set it to NULL so that the
 601     // array isn't keeping it alive anymore.
 602     oop exc = preallocated_out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at(next);
 603     assert(exc != NULL, "slot has been used already");
 604     preallocated_out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at_put(next, NULL);
 605 
 606     // use the message from the default error
 607     oop msg = java_lang_Throwable::message(default_err);
 608     assert(msg != NULL, "no message");
 609     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(exc, msg);
 610 
 611     // populate the stack trace and return it.
 612     java_lang_Throwable::fill_in_stack_trace_of_preallocated_backtrace(exc);
 613     return exc;
 614   }
 615 }
 616 
 617 intptr_t Universe::_non_oop_bits = 0;
 618 
 619 void* Universe::non_oop_word() {
 620   // Neither the high bits nor the low bits of this value is allowed
 621   // to look like (respectively) the high or low bits of a real oop.
 622   //
 623   // High and low are CPU-specific notions, but low always includes
 624   // the low-order bit.  Since oops are always aligned at least mod 4,
 625   // setting the low-order bit will ensure that the low half of the
 626   // word will never look like that of a real oop.
 627   //
 628   // Using the OS-supplied non-memory-address word (usually 0 or -1)
 629   // will take care of the high bits, however many there are.
 630 
 631   if (_non_oop_bits == 0) {
 632     _non_oop_bits = (intptr_t)os::non_memory_address_word() | 1;
 633   }
 634 
 635   return (void*)_non_oop_bits;
 636 }
 637 
 638 jint universe_init() {
 639   assert(!Universe::_fully_initialized, "called after initialize_vtables");
 640   guarantee(1 << LogHeapWordSize == sizeof(HeapWord),
 641          "LogHeapWordSize is incorrect.");
 642   guarantee(sizeof(oop) >= sizeof(HeapWord), "HeapWord larger than oop?");
 643   guarantee(sizeof(oop) % sizeof(HeapWord) == 0,
 644             "oop size is not not a multiple of HeapWord size");
 645   TraceTime timer("Genesis", TraceStartupTime);
 646   JavaClasses::compute_hard_coded_offsets();
 647 
 648   jint status = Universe::initialize_heap();
 649   if (status != JNI_OK) {
 650     return status;
 651   }
 652 
 653   Metaspace::global_initialize();
 654 
 655   // Create memory for metadata.  Must be after initializing heap for
 656   // DumpSharedSpaces.
 657   ClassLoaderData::init_null_class_loader_data();
 658 
 659   // We have a heap so create the Method* caches before
 660   // Metaspace::initialize_shared_spaces() tries to populate them.
 661   Universe::_finalizer_register_cache = new LatestMethodCache();
 662   Universe::_loader_addClass_cache    = new LatestMethodCache();
 663   Universe::_pd_implies_cache         = new LatestMethodCache();
 664 
 665   if (UseSharedSpaces) {
 666     // Read the data structures supporting the shared spaces (shared
 667     // system dictionary, symbol table, etc.).  After that, access to
 668     // the file (other than the mapped regions) is no longer needed, and
 669     // the file is closed. Closing the file does not affect the
 670     // currently mapped regions.
 671     MetaspaceShared::initialize_shared_spaces();
 672     StringTable::create_table();
 673   } else {
 674     SymbolTable::create_table();
 675     StringTable::create_table();
 676     ClassLoader::create_package_info_table();
 677 
 678     if (DumpSharedSpaces) {
 679       MetaspaceShared::prepare_for_dumping();
 680     }
 681   }
 682 
 683   return JNI_OK;
 684 }
 685 
 686 // Choose the heap base address and oop encoding mode
 687 // when compressed oops are used:
 688 // Unscaled  - Use 32-bits oops without encoding when
 689 //     NarrowOopHeapBaseMin + heap_size < 4Gb
 690 // ZeroBased - Use zero based compressed oops with encoding when
 691 //     NarrowOopHeapBaseMin + heap_size < 32Gb
 692 // HeapBased - Use compressed oops with heap base + encoding.
 693 
 694 jint Universe::initialize_heap() {
 695 
 696   if (UseParallelGC) {
 697 #if INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
 698     Universe::_collectedHeap = new ParallelScavengeHeap();
 699 #else  // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
 700     fatal("UseParallelGC not supported in this VM.");
 701 #endif // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
 702 
 703   } else if (UseG1GC) {
 704 #if INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
 705     G1CollectorPolicy* g1p = new G1CollectorPolicy();
 706     g1p->initialize_all();
 707     G1CollectedHeap* g1h = new G1CollectedHeap(g1p);
 708     Universe::_collectedHeap = g1h;
 709 #else  // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
 710     fatal("UseG1GC not supported in java kernel vm.");
 711 #endif // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
 712 
 713   } else {
 714     GenCollectorPolicy *gc_policy;
 715 
 716     if (UseSerialGC) {
 717       gc_policy = new MarkSweepPolicy();
 718     } else if (UseConcMarkSweepGC) {
 719 #if INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
 720       gc_policy = new ConcurrentMarkSweepPolicy();
 721 #else  // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
 722       fatal("UseConcMarkSweepGC not supported in this VM.");
 723 #endif // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
 724     } else { // default old generation
 725       gc_policy = new MarkSweepPolicy();
 726     }
 727     gc_policy->initialize_all();
 728 
 729     Universe::_collectedHeap = new GenCollectedHeap(gc_policy);
 730   }
 731 
 732   ThreadLocalAllocBuffer::set_max_size(Universe::heap()->max_tlab_size());
 733 
 734   jint status = Universe::heap()->initialize();
 735   if (status != JNI_OK) {
 736     return status;
 737   }
 738 
 739 #ifdef _LP64
 740   if (UseCompressedOops) {
 741     // Subtract a page because something can get allocated at heap base.
 742     // This also makes implicit null checking work, because the
 743     // memory+1 page below heap_base needs to cause a signal.
 744     // See needs_explicit_null_check.
 745     // Only set the heap base for compressed oops because it indicates
 746     // compressed oops for pstack code.
 747     if ((uint64_t)Universe::heap()->reserved_region().end() > UnscaledOopHeapMax) {
 748       // Didn't reserve heap below 4Gb.  Must shift.
 749       Universe::set_narrow_oop_shift(LogMinObjAlignmentInBytes);
 750     }
 751     if ((uint64_t)Universe::heap()->reserved_region().end() <= OopEncodingHeapMax) {
 752       // Did reserve heap below 32Gb. Can use base == 0;
 753       Universe::set_narrow_oop_base(0);
 754     }
 755 
 756     Universe::set_narrow_ptrs_base(Universe::narrow_oop_base());
 757 
 758     if (PrintCompressedOopsMode || (PrintMiscellaneous && Verbose)) {
 759       Universe::print_compressed_oops_mode();
 760     }
 761 
 762     // Tell tests in which mode we run.
 763     Arguments::PropertyList_add(new SystemProperty("com.sap.vm.test.compressedOopsMode",
 764                                                    narrow_oop_mode_to_string(narrow_oop_mode()),
 765                                                    false));
 766   }
 767   // Universe::narrow_oop_base() is one page below the heap.
 768   assert((intptr_t)Universe::narrow_oop_base() <= (intptr_t)(Universe::heap()->base() -
 769          os::vm_page_size()) ||
 770          Universe::narrow_oop_base() == NULL, "invalid value");
 771   assert(Universe::narrow_oop_shift() == LogMinObjAlignmentInBytes ||
 772          Universe::narrow_oop_shift() == 0, "invalid value");
 773 #endif
 774 
 775   // We will never reach the CATCH below since Exceptions::_throw will cause
 776   // the VM to exit if an exception is thrown during initialization
 777 
 778   if (UseTLAB) {
 779     assert(Universe::heap()->supports_tlab_allocation(),
 780            "Should support thread-local allocation buffers");
 781     ThreadLocalAllocBuffer::startup_initialization();
 782   }
 783   return JNI_OK;
 784 }
 785 
 786 void Universe::print_compressed_oops_mode() {
 787   tty->cr();
 788   tty->print("heap address: " PTR_FORMAT ", size: " SIZE_FORMAT " MB",
 789               Universe::heap()->base(), Universe::heap()->reserved_region().byte_size()/M);
 790 
 791   tty->print(", Compressed Oops mode: %s", narrow_oop_mode_to_string(narrow_oop_mode()));
 792 
 793   if (Universe::narrow_oop_base() != 0) {
 794     tty->print(": " PTR_FORMAT, Universe::narrow_oop_base());
 795   }
 796 
 797   if (Universe::narrow_oop_shift() != 0) {
 798     tty->print(", Oop shift amount: %d", Universe::narrow_oop_shift());
 799   }
 800 
 801   if (!Universe::narrow_oop_use_implicit_null_checks()) {
 802     tty->print(", no protected page in front of the heap");
 803   }
 804 
 805   tty->cr();
 806   tty->cr();
 807 }
 808 
 809 #define SIZE_64K  ((uint64_t)       0x10000ULL)
 810 #define SIZE_256M ((uint64_t)    0x10000000ULL)
 811 #define SIZE_32G  ((uint64_t)   0x800000000ULL)
 812 
 813 // Helper for heap allocation. Returns an array with addresses
 814 // (OS-specific) which are suited for disjoint base mode. Array is
 815 // NULL terminated.
 816 char** Universe::get_attach_addresses_for_disjoint_mode() {
 817   static uintptr_t addresses[] = {
 818      2 * SIZE_32G,
 819      3 * SIZE_32G,
 820      4 * SIZE_32G,
 821      8 * SIZE_32G,
 822     10 * SIZE_32G,
 823      1 * SIZE_64K * SIZE_32G,
 824      2 * SIZE_64K * SIZE_32G,
 825      3 * SIZE_64K * SIZE_32G,
 826      4 * SIZE_64K * SIZE_32G,
 827     16 * SIZE_64K * SIZE_32G,
 828     32 * SIZE_64K * SIZE_32G,
 829     34 * SIZE_64K * SIZE_32G,
 830     0
 831   };
 832 
 833   // Sort out addresses smaller than HeapBaseMinAddress. This assumes
 834   // the array is sorted.
 835   uint i = 0;
 836   while (addresses[i] != 0 &&
 837          (addresses[i] < OopEncodingHeapMax || addresses[i] < HeapBaseMinAddress)) {
 838     i++;
 839   }
 840   uint start = i;
 841 
 842   // Avoid more steps than requested.
 843   i = 0;
 844   while (addresses[start+i] != 0) {
 845     if (i == HeapSearchSteps) {
 846       addresses[start+i] = 0;
 847       break;
 848     }
 849     i++;
 850   }
 851 
 852   return (char**) &addresses[start];
 853 }
 854 
 855 ReservedSpace Universe::reserve_heap(size_t heap_size, size_t alignment) {
 856 
 857   assert(alignment <= Arguments::conservative_max_heap_alignment(),
 858       err_msg("actual alignment "SIZE_FORMAT" must be within maximum heap alignment "SIZE_FORMAT,
 859           alignment, Arguments::conservative_max_heap_alignment()));
 860 
 861   size_t total_reserved = align_size_up(heap_size, alignment);
 862   assert(!UseCompressedOops || (total_reserved <= (OopEncodingHeapMax - os::vm_page_size())),
 863       "heap size is too big for compressed oops");
 864 
 865   bool use_large_pages = UseLargePages && is_size_aligned(alignment, os::large_page_size());
 866   assert(!UseLargePages
 867       || UseParallelGC
 868       || use_large_pages, "Wrong alignment to use large pages");
 869 
 870   // Now create the space.
 871   ReservedHeapSpace total_rs(total_reserved, alignment, use_large_pages);
 872 
 873   if (total_rs.is_reserved()) {
 874     assert((total_reserved == total_rs.size()) && ((uintptr_t)total_rs.base() % alignment == 0),
 875            "must be exactly of required size and alignment");
 876     // We are good.
 877 
 878     if (UseCompressedOops) {
 879       // Universe::initialize_heap() will reset this to NULL if unscaled
 880       // or zero-based narrow oops are actually used.
 881       // Else heap start and base MUST differ, so that NULL can be encoded nonambigous.
 882       Universe::set_narrow_oop_base((address)total_rs.compressed_oop_base());
 883     }
 884 
 885     return total_rs;
 886   }
 887 
 888   vm_exit_during_initialization(
 889     err_msg("Could not reserve enough space for " SIZE_FORMAT "KB object heap",
 890             total_reserved/K));
 891 
 892   // satisfy compiler
 893   ShouldNotReachHere();
 894   return ReservedHeapSpace(0, 0, false);
 895 }
 896 
 897 
 898 // It's the caller's responsibility to ensure glitch-freedom
 899 // (if required).
 900 void Universe::update_heap_info_at_gc() {
 901   _heap_capacity_at_last_gc = heap()->capacity();
 902   _heap_used_at_last_gc     = heap()->used();
 903 }
 904 
 905 
 906 const char* Universe::narrow_oop_mode_to_string(Universe::NARROW_OOP_MODE mode) {
 907   switch (mode) {
 908     case UnscaledNarrowOop:
 909       return "32-bit";
 910     case ZeroBasedNarrowOop:
 911       return "Zero based";
 912     case DisjointBaseNarrowOop:
 913       return "Non-zero disjoint base";
 914     case HeapBasedNarrowOop:
 915       return "Non-zero based";
 916   }
 917 
 918   ShouldNotReachHere();
 919   return "";
 920 }
 921 
 922 
 923 Universe::NARROW_OOP_MODE Universe::narrow_oop_mode() {
 924   if (narrow_oop_base_disjoint()) {
 925     return DisjointBaseNarrowOop;
 926   }
 927 
 928   if (narrow_oop_base() != 0) {
 929     return HeapBasedNarrowOop;
 930   }
 931 
 932   if (narrow_oop_shift() != 0) {
 933     return ZeroBasedNarrowOop;
 934   }
 935 
 936   return UnscaledNarrowOop;
 937 }
 938 
 939 
 940 void universe2_init() {
 941   EXCEPTION_MARK;
 942   Universe::genesis(CATCH);
 943 }
 944 
 945 
 946 bool universe_post_init() {
 947   assert(!is_init_completed(), "Error: initialization not yet completed!");
 948   Universe::_fully_initialized = true;
 949   EXCEPTION_MARK;
 950   { ResourceMark rm;
 951     Interpreter::initialize();      // needed for interpreter entry points
 952     if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
 953       HandleMark hm(THREAD);
 954       KlassHandle ok_h(THREAD, SystemDictionary::Object_klass());
 955       Universe::reinitialize_vtable_of(ok_h, CHECK_false);
 956       Universe::reinitialize_itables(CHECK_false);
 957     }
 958   }
 959 
 960   HandleMark hm(THREAD);
 961   Klass* k;
 962   instanceKlassHandle k_h;
 963     // Setup preallocated empty java.lang.Class array
 964     Universe::_the_empty_class_klass_array = oopFactory::new_objArray(SystemDictionary::Class_klass(), 0, CHECK_false);
 965 
 966     // Setup preallocated OutOfMemoryError errors
 967     k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(vmSymbols::java_lang_OutOfMemoryError(), true, CHECK_false);
 968     k_h = instanceKlassHandle(THREAD, k);
 969     Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap = k_h->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 970     Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace = k_h->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 971     Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace = k_h->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 972     Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size = k_h->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 973     Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit =
 974       k_h->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 975 
 976     // Setup preallocated NullPointerException
 977     // (this is currently used for a cheap & dirty solution in compiler exception handling)
 978     k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(vmSymbols::java_lang_NullPointerException(), true, CHECK_false);
 979     Universe::_null_ptr_exception_instance = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 980     // Setup preallocated ArithmeticException
 981     // (this is currently used for a cheap & dirty solution in compiler exception handling)
 982     k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(vmSymbols::java_lang_ArithmeticException(), true, CHECK_false);
 983     Universe::_arithmetic_exception_instance = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 984     // Virtual Machine Error for when we get into a situation we can't resolve
 985     k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(
 986       vmSymbols::java_lang_VirtualMachineError(), true, CHECK_false);
 987     bool linked = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->link_class_or_fail(CHECK_false);
 988     if (!linked) {
 989       tty->print_cr("Unable to link/verify VirtualMachineError class");
 990       return false; // initialization failed
 991     }
 992     Universe::_virtual_machine_error_instance =
 993       InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 994 
 995     Universe::_vm_exception = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 996 
 997   if (!DumpSharedSpaces) {
 998     // These are the only Java fields that are currently set during shared space dumping.
 999     // We prefer to not handle this generally, so we always reinitialize these detail messages.
1000     Handle msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Java heap space", CHECK_false);
1001     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap, msg());
1002 
1003     msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Metaspace", CHECK_false);
1004     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace, msg());
1005     msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Compressed class space", CHECK_false);
1006     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace, msg());
1007 
1008     msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Requested array size exceeds VM limit", CHECK_false);
1009     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size, msg());
1010 
1011     msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("GC overhead limit exceeded", CHECK_false);
1012     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit, msg());
1013 
1014     msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("/ by zero", CHECK_false);
1015     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_arithmetic_exception_instance, msg());
1016 
1017     // Setup the array of errors that have preallocated backtrace
1018     k = Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap->klass();
1019     assert(k->name() == vmSymbols::java_lang_OutOfMemoryError(), "should be out of memory error");
1020     k_h = instanceKlassHandle(THREAD, k);
1021 
1022     int len = (StackTraceInThrowable) ? (int)PreallocatedOutOfMemoryErrorCount : 0;
1023     Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_array = oopFactory::new_objArray(k_h(), len, CHECK_false);
1024     for (int i=0; i<len; i++) {
1025       oop err = k_h->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1026       Handle err_h = Handle(THREAD, err);
1027       java_lang_Throwable::allocate_backtrace(err_h, CHECK_false);
1028       Universe::preallocated_out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at_put(i, err_h());
1029     }
1030     Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count = (jint)len;
1031   }
1032 
1033 
1034   // Setup static method for registering finalizers
1035   // The finalizer klass must be linked before looking up the method, in
1036   // case it needs to get rewritten.
1037   InstanceKlass::cast(SystemDictionary::Finalizer_klass())->link_class(CHECK_false);
1038   Method* m = InstanceKlass::cast(SystemDictionary::Finalizer_klass())->find_method(
1039                                   vmSymbols::register_method_name(),
1040                                   vmSymbols::register_method_signature());
1041   if (m == NULL || !m->is_static()) {
1042     tty->print_cr("Unable to link/verify Finalizer.register method");
1043     return false; // initialization failed (cannot throw exception yet)
1044   }
1045   Universe::_finalizer_register_cache->init(
1046     SystemDictionary::Finalizer_klass(), m);
1047 
1048   InstanceKlass::cast(SystemDictionary::misc_Unsafe_klass())->link_class(CHECK_false);
1049   m = InstanceKlass::cast(SystemDictionary::misc_Unsafe_klass())->find_method(
1050                                   vmSymbols::throwIllegalAccessError_name(),
1051                                   vmSymbols::void_method_signature());
1052   if (m != NULL && !m->is_static()) {
1053     // Note null is okay; this method is used in itables, and if it is null,
1054     // then AbstractMethodError is thrown instead.
1055     tty->print_cr("Unable to link/verify Unsafe.throwIllegalAccessError method");
1056     return false; // initialization failed (cannot throw exception yet)
1057   }
1058   Universe::_throw_illegal_access_error = m;
1059 
1060   // Setup method for registering loaded classes in class loader vector
1061   InstanceKlass::cast(SystemDictionary::ClassLoader_klass())->link_class(CHECK_false);
1062   m = InstanceKlass::cast(SystemDictionary::ClassLoader_klass())->find_method(vmSymbols::addClass_name(), vmSymbols::class_void_signature());
1063   if (m == NULL || m->is_static()) {
1064     tty->print_cr("Unable to link/verify ClassLoader.addClass method");
1065     return false; // initialization failed (cannot throw exception yet)
1066   }
1067   Universe::_loader_addClass_cache->init(
1068     SystemDictionary::ClassLoader_klass(), m);
1069 
1070   // Setup method for checking protection domain
1071   InstanceKlass::cast(SystemDictionary::ProtectionDomain_klass())->link_class(CHECK_false);
1072   m = InstanceKlass::cast(SystemDictionary::ProtectionDomain_klass())->
1073             find_method(vmSymbols::impliesCreateAccessControlContext_name(),
1074                         vmSymbols::void_boolean_signature());
1075   // Allow NULL which should only happen with bootstrapping.
1076   if (m != NULL) {
1077     if (m->is_static()) {
1078       // NoSuchMethodException doesn't actually work because it tries to run the
1079       // <init> function before java_lang_Class is linked. Print error and exit.
1080       tty->print_cr("ProtectionDomain.impliesCreateAccessControlContext() has the wrong linkage");
1081       return false; // initialization failed
1082     }
1083     Universe::_pd_implies_cache->init(
1084       SystemDictionary::ProtectionDomain_klass(), m);;
1085   }
1086 
1087   // This needs to be done before the first scavenge/gc, since
1088   // it's an input to soft ref clearing policy.
1089   {
1090     MutexLocker x(Heap_lock);
1091     Universe::update_heap_info_at_gc();
1092   }
1093 
1094   // ("weak") refs processing infrastructure initialization
1095   Universe::heap()->post_initialize();
1096 
1097   // Initialize performance counters for metaspaces
1098   MetaspaceCounters::initialize_performance_counters();
1099   CompressedClassSpaceCounters::initialize_performance_counters();
1100 
1101   MemoryService::add_metaspace_memory_pools();
1102 
1103   MemoryService::set_universe_heap(Universe::_collectedHeap);
1104 #if INCLUDE_CDS
1105   if (UseSharedSpaces) {
1106     SharedClassUtil::initialize(CHECK_false);
1107   }
1108 #endif
1109   return true;
1110 }
1111 
1112 
1113 void Universe::compute_base_vtable_size() {
1114   _base_vtable_size = ClassLoader::compute_Object_vtable();
1115 }
1116 
1117 
1118 // %%% The Universe::flush_foo methods belong in CodeCache.
1119 
1120 // Flushes compiled methods dependent on dependee.
1121 void Universe::flush_dependents_on(instanceKlassHandle dependee) {
1122   assert_lock_strong(Compile_lock);
1123 
1124   if (CodeCache::number_of_nmethods_with_dependencies() == 0) return;
1125 
1126   // CodeCache can only be updated by a thread_in_VM and they will all be
1127   // stopped during the safepoint so CodeCache will be safe to update without
1128   // holding the CodeCache_lock.
1129 
1130   KlassDepChange changes(dependee);
1131 
1132   // Compute the dependent nmethods
1133   if (CodeCache::mark_for_deoptimization(changes) > 0) {
1134     // At least one nmethod has been marked for deoptimization
1135     VM_Deoptimize op;
1136     VMThread::execute(&op);
1137   }
1138 }
1139 
1140 // Flushes compiled methods dependent on a particular CallSite
1141 // instance when its target is different than the given MethodHandle.
1142 void Universe::flush_dependents_on(Handle call_site, Handle method_handle) {
1143   assert_lock_strong(Compile_lock);
1144 
1145   if (CodeCache::number_of_nmethods_with_dependencies() == 0) return;
1146 
1147   // CodeCache can only be updated by a thread_in_VM and they will all be
1148   // stopped during the safepoint so CodeCache will be safe to update without
1149   // holding the CodeCache_lock.
1150 
1151   CallSiteDepChange changes(call_site(), method_handle());
1152 
1153   // Compute the dependent nmethods that have a reference to a
1154   // CallSite object.  We use InstanceKlass::mark_dependent_nmethod
1155   // directly instead of CodeCache::mark_for_deoptimization because we
1156   // want dependents on the call site class only not all classes in
1157   // the ContextStream.
1158   int marked = 0;
1159   {
1160     MutexLockerEx mu(CodeCache_lock, Mutex::_no_safepoint_check_flag);
1161     InstanceKlass* call_site_klass = InstanceKlass::cast(call_site->klass());
1162     marked = call_site_klass->mark_dependent_nmethods(changes);
1163   }
1164   if (marked > 0) {
1165     // At least one nmethod has been marked for deoptimization
1166     VM_Deoptimize op;
1167     VMThread::execute(&op);
1168   }
1169 }
1170 
1171 #ifdef HOTSWAP
1172 // Flushes compiled methods dependent on dependee in the evolutionary sense
1173 void Universe::flush_evol_dependents_on(instanceKlassHandle ev_k_h) {
1174   // --- Compile_lock is not held. However we are at a safepoint.
1175   assert_locked_or_safepoint(Compile_lock);
1176   if (CodeCache::number_of_nmethods_with_dependencies() == 0) return;
1177 
1178   // CodeCache can only be updated by a thread_in_VM and they will all be
1179   // stopped during the safepoint so CodeCache will be safe to update without
1180   // holding the CodeCache_lock.
1181 
1182   // Compute the dependent nmethods
1183   if (CodeCache::mark_for_evol_deoptimization(ev_k_h) > 0) {
1184     // At least one nmethod has been marked for deoptimization
1185 
1186     // All this already happens inside a VM_Operation, so we'll do all the work here.
1187     // Stuff copied from VM_Deoptimize and modified slightly.
1188 
1189     // We do not want any GCs to happen while we are in the middle of this VM operation
1190     ResourceMark rm;
1191     DeoptimizationMarker dm;
1192 
1193     // Deoptimize all activations depending on marked nmethods
1194     Deoptimization::deoptimize_dependents();
1195 
1196     // Make the dependent methods not entrant (in VM_Deoptimize they are made zombies)
1197     CodeCache::make_marked_nmethods_not_entrant();
1198   }
1199 }
1200 #endif // HOTSWAP
1201 
1202 
1203 // Flushes compiled methods dependent on dependee
1204 void Universe::flush_dependents_on_method(methodHandle m_h) {
1205   // --- Compile_lock is not held. However we are at a safepoint.
1206   assert_locked_or_safepoint(Compile_lock);
1207 
1208   // CodeCache can only be updated by a thread_in_VM and they will all be
1209   // stopped dring the safepoint so CodeCache will be safe to update without
1210   // holding the CodeCache_lock.
1211 
1212   // Compute the dependent nmethods
1213   if (CodeCache::mark_for_deoptimization(m_h()) > 0) {
1214     // At least one nmethod has been marked for deoptimization
1215 
1216     // All this already happens inside a VM_Operation, so we'll do all the work here.
1217     // Stuff copied from VM_Deoptimize and modified slightly.
1218 
1219     // We do not want any GCs to happen while we are in the middle of this VM operation
1220     ResourceMark rm;
1221     DeoptimizationMarker dm;
1222 
1223     // Deoptimize all activations depending on marked nmethods
1224     Deoptimization::deoptimize_dependents();
1225 
1226     // Make the dependent methods not entrant (in VM_Deoptimize they are made zombies)
1227     CodeCache::make_marked_nmethods_not_entrant();
1228   }
1229 }
1230 
1231 void Universe::print() {
1232   print_on(gclog_or_tty);
1233 }
1234 
1235 void Universe::print_on(outputStream* st, bool extended) {
1236   st->print_cr("Heap");
1237   if (!extended) {
1238     heap()->print_on(st);
1239   } else {
1240     heap()->print_extended_on(st);
1241   }
1242 }
1243 
1244 void Universe::print_heap_at_SIGBREAK() {
1245   if (PrintHeapAtSIGBREAK) {
1246     MutexLocker hl(Heap_lock);
1247     print_on(tty);
1248     tty->cr();
1249     tty->flush();
1250   }
1251 }
1252 
1253 void Universe::print_heap_before_gc(outputStream* st, bool ignore_extended) {
1254   st->print_cr("{Heap before GC invocations=%u (full %u):",
1255                heap()->total_collections(),
1256                heap()->total_full_collections());
1257   if (!PrintHeapAtGCExtended || ignore_extended) {
1258     heap()->print_on(st);
1259   } else {
1260     heap()->print_extended_on(st);
1261   }
1262 }
1263 
1264 void Universe::print_heap_after_gc(outputStream* st, bool ignore_extended) {
1265   st->print_cr("Heap after GC invocations=%u (full %u):",
1266                heap()->total_collections(),
1267                heap()->total_full_collections());
1268   if (!PrintHeapAtGCExtended || ignore_extended) {
1269     heap()->print_on(st);
1270   } else {
1271     heap()->print_extended_on(st);
1272   }
1273   st->print_cr("}");
1274 }
1275 
1276 void Universe::verify(VerifyOption option, const char* prefix, bool silent) {
1277   // The use of _verify_in_progress is a temporary work around for
1278   // 6320749.  Don't bother with a creating a class to set and clear
1279   // it since it is only used in this method and the control flow is
1280   // straight forward.
1281   _verify_in_progress = true;
1282 
1283   COMPILER2_PRESENT(
1284     assert(!DerivedPointerTable::is_active(),
1285          "DPT should not be active during verification "
1286          "(of thread stacks below)");
1287   )
1288 
1289   ResourceMark rm;
1290   HandleMark hm;  // Handles created during verification can be zapped
1291   _verify_count++;
1292 
1293   if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("%s", prefix);
1294   if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("[Verifying ");
1295   if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("threads ");
1296   Threads::verify();
1297   if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("heap ");
1298   heap()->verify(silent, option);
1299   if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("syms ");
1300   SymbolTable::verify();
1301   if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("strs ");
1302   StringTable::verify();
1303   {
1304     MutexLockerEx mu(CodeCache_lock, Mutex::_no_safepoint_check_flag);
1305     if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("zone ");
1306     CodeCache::verify();
1307   }
1308   if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("dict ");
1309   SystemDictionary::verify();
1310 #ifndef PRODUCT
1311   if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("cldg ");
1312   ClassLoaderDataGraph::verify();
1313 #endif
1314   if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("metaspace chunks ");
1315   MetaspaceAux::verify_free_chunks();
1316   if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("hand ");
1317   JNIHandles::verify();
1318   if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("C-heap ");
1319   os::check_heap();
1320   if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("code cache ");
1321   CodeCache::verify_oops();
1322   if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print_cr("]");
1323 
1324   _verify_in_progress = false;
1325 }
1326 
1327 // Oop verification (see MacroAssembler::verify_oop)
1328 
1329 static uintptr_t _verify_oop_data[2]   = {0, (uintptr_t)-1};
1330 static uintptr_t _verify_klass_data[2] = {0, (uintptr_t)-1};
1331 
1332 
1333 #ifndef PRODUCT
1334 
1335 static void calculate_verify_data(uintptr_t verify_data[2],
1336                                   HeapWord* low_boundary,
1337                                   HeapWord* high_boundary) {
1338   assert(low_boundary < high_boundary, "bad interval");
1339 
1340   // decide which low-order bits we require to be clear:
1341   size_t alignSize = MinObjAlignmentInBytes;
1342   size_t min_object_size = CollectedHeap::min_fill_size();
1343 
1344   // make an inclusive limit:
1345   uintptr_t max = (uintptr_t)high_boundary - min_object_size*wordSize;
1346   uintptr_t min = (uintptr_t)low_boundary;
1347   assert(min < max, "bad interval");
1348   uintptr_t diff = max ^ min;
1349 
1350   // throw away enough low-order bits to make the diff vanish
1351   uintptr_t mask = (uintptr_t)(-1);
1352   while ((mask & diff) != 0)
1353     mask <<= 1;
1354   uintptr_t bits = (min & mask);
1355   assert(bits == (max & mask), "correct mask");
1356   // check an intermediate value between min and max, just to make sure:
1357   assert(bits == ((min + (max-min)/2) & mask), "correct mask");
1358 
1359   // require address alignment, too:
1360   mask |= (alignSize - 1);
1361 
1362   if (!(verify_data[0] == 0 && verify_data[1] == (uintptr_t)-1)) {
1363     assert(verify_data[0] == mask && verify_data[1] == bits, "mask stability");
1364   }
1365   verify_data[0] = mask;
1366   verify_data[1] = bits;
1367 }
1368 
1369 // Oop verification (see MacroAssembler::verify_oop)
1370 
1371 uintptr_t Universe::verify_oop_mask() {
1372   MemRegion m = heap()->reserved_region();
1373   calculate_verify_data(_verify_oop_data,
1374                         m.start(),
1375                         m.end());
1376   return _verify_oop_data[0];
1377 }
1378 
1379 
1380 
1381 uintptr_t Universe::verify_oop_bits() {
1382   verify_oop_mask();
1383   return _verify_oop_data[1];
1384 }
1385 
1386 uintptr_t Universe::verify_mark_mask() {
1387   return markOopDesc::lock_mask_in_place;
1388 }
1389 
1390 uintptr_t Universe::verify_mark_bits() {
1391   intptr_t mask = verify_mark_mask();
1392   intptr_t bits = (intptr_t)markOopDesc::prototype();
1393   assert((bits & ~mask) == 0, "no stray header bits");
1394   return bits;
1395 }
1396 #endif // PRODUCT
1397 
1398 
1399 void Universe::compute_verify_oop_data() {
1400   verify_oop_mask();
1401   verify_oop_bits();
1402   verify_mark_mask();
1403   verify_mark_bits();
1404 }
1405 
1406 
1407 void LatestMethodCache::init(Klass* k, Method* m) {
1408   if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
1409     _klass = k;
1410   }
1411 #ifndef PRODUCT
1412   else {
1413     // sharing initilization should have already set up _klass
1414     assert(_klass != NULL, "just checking");
1415   }
1416 #endif
1417 
1418   _method_idnum = m->method_idnum();
1419   assert(_method_idnum >= 0, "sanity check");
1420 }
1421 
1422 
1423 Method* LatestMethodCache::get_method() {
1424   if (klass() == NULL) return NULL;
1425   InstanceKlass* ik = InstanceKlass::cast(klass());
1426   Method* m = ik->method_with_idnum(method_idnum());
1427   assert(m != NULL, "sanity check");
1428   return m;
1429 }
1430 
1431 
1432 #ifdef ASSERT
1433 // Release dummy object(s) at bottom of heap
1434 bool Universe::release_fullgc_alot_dummy() {
1435   MutexLocker ml(FullGCALot_lock);
1436   if (_fullgc_alot_dummy_array != NULL) {
1437     if (_fullgc_alot_dummy_next >= _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->length()) {
1438       // No more dummies to release, release entire array instead
1439       _fullgc_alot_dummy_array = NULL;
1440       return false;
1441     }
1442     if (!UseConcMarkSweepGC) {
1443       // Release dummy at bottom of old generation
1444       _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->obj_at_put(_fullgc_alot_dummy_next++, NULL);
1445     }
1446     // Release dummy at bottom of permanent generation
1447     _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->obj_at_put(_fullgc_alot_dummy_next++, NULL);
1448   }
1449   return true;
1450 }
1451 
1452 #endif // ASSERT