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  28 
  29 <title>TIFF Metadata Format Specification and Usage Notes</title>
  30 </head>
  31 
  32 <body bgcolor="white">
  33 
  34 <center><h1>
  35 TIFF Metadata Format Specification and Usage Notes
  36 </h1></center>
  37 
  38     <p>
  39 <a href="#Reading">Reading Images</a><br/>
  40 <font size="-1">
  41 <ul>
  42 <li><a href="#ColorConversionRead">Color Conversion</a></li>
  43 <li><a href="#ColorSpacesRead">Color Spaces</a></li>
  44 <li><a href="#ICCProfilesRead">ICC Profiles</a></li>
  45 <li><a href="#MetadataIssuesRead">Metadata Issues</a>
  46 <font size="-2">
  47 <ul>
  48 <li><a href="#MapNativeStandard">Native to Standard Metadata Mapping</a></li>
  49 </ul>
  50 </font>
  51 </li>
  52 <li><a href="#ExifRead">Reading Exif Images</a>
  53 <font size="-2">
  54 <ul>
  55 <li><a href="#ExifReadTIFF">Reading Uncompressed Exif Images</a></li>
  56 <li><a href="#ExifReadJPEG">Reading Compressed Exif Images</a></li>
  57 </ul>
  58 </font>
  59 </li>
  60 </ul>
  61 </font>
  62 <a href="#Writing">Writing Images</a><br/>
  63 <font size="-1">
  64 <ul>
  65 <li><a href="#Compression">Compression</a></li>
  66 <li><a href="#ColorConversionWrite">Color Conversion</a></li>
  67 <li><a href="#ICCProfilesWrite">ICC Profiles</a></li>
  68 <li><a href="#MetadataIssuesWrite">Metadata Issues</a></li>
  69 <font size="-2">
  70 <ul>
  71 <li><a href="#MapStandardNative">Standard to Native Metadata Mapping</a></li>
  72 </ul>
  73 </font>
  74 <li><a href="#ExifWrite">Writing Exif Images</a>
  75 <font size="-2">
  76 <ul>
  77 <li><a href="#ExifWriteTIFF">Writing Uncompressed Exif Images</a></li>
  78 <li><a href="#ExifWriteJPEG">Writing Compressed Exif Images</a></li>
  79 </ul>
  80 </font>
  81 </li>
  82 </ul>
  83 </font>
  84 <a href="#StreamMetadata">Native Stream Metadata Format</a><br/>
  85 <a href="#ImageMetadata">Native Image Metadata Format</a>
  86 </p>
  87 
  88 <h3><a name="Reading"/>Reading Images</h3>
  89 
  90 TIFF images are read by an <a href="../../ImageReader.html">ImageReader</a>
  91 which may be controlled by its public interface as well as via a supplied
  92 <a href="../../plugins/tiff/TIFFImageReadParam.html">TIFFImageReadParam</a>.
  93 
  94 <!-- <h4>Supported Image Types</h4> -->
  95 
  96 <!-- Table? -->
  97 
  98 <h4><a name="ColorConversionRead"/>Color Conversion</h4>
  99 
 100 <p>If the source image data
 101 have photometric type CIE L*a*b* or YCbCr, and the destination color space
 102 type is RGB, then the source image data will be automatically converted to
 103 RGB using an internal color converter.</p>
 104 
 105 <h4><a name="ColorSpacesRead"/>Color Spaces</h4>
 106 
 107 The raw color space assigned by default, i.e., in the absence of a
 108 user-supplied <a href="../../ImageTypeSpecifier.html">ImageTypeSpecifier</a>,
 109 will be the first among the following which applies:
 110 
 111 <ul>
 112 <li>A color space created from the <a href="#ICCProfilesRead">ICC Profile</a>
 113 metadata field if it is present and compatible with the image data
 114 layout.</li>
 115 <a name="nonICCProfile"><li>sRGB if the image is monochrome/bilevel
 116 (a two-level color map is created internally).</li>
 117 <li>sRGB if the image is palette-color.</li>
 118 <li>Linear RGB if the image has three samples per pixel, has photometric type
 119 CIE L*a*b*, or has photometric type YCbCr and is <i>not</i>
 120 JPEG-compressed.</li>
 121 <li>A <a href="#DefaultCMYK">default CMYK color space</a> if the image has
 122 photometric type CMYK and four samples per pixel.</li>
 123 <li>Grayscale if the image has one or two samples per pixel and uniformly
 124 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, or 32 bits per sample or is floating point.</li>
 125 <li>sRGB if the image has three or four samples per pixel and uniformly
 126 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, or 32 bits per sample or is floating point.</li>
 127 <li>A fabricated, <a href="#GenericCS">generic color space</a> if the image
 128 has more than four samples per pixel and the number of bits per sample for
 129 all bands is the same and is a multiple of 8.</li>
 130 <li>Grayscale if the image has one or two samples per pixel regardless of
 131 the number of bits per sample.</li>
 132 <li>sRGB if the image has three or four samples per pixel regardless of
 133 the number of bits per sample.</li>
 134 <li>A fabricated, <a href="#GenericCS">generic color space</a> if the image
 135 has more than four samples per pixel regardless of the number of bits per
 136 sample.</li>
 137 </ul>
 138 
 139 <p><a name="DefaultCMYK"/>The normalized color coordinate transformations
 140 used for the default CMYK color space are defined as follows:
 141 
 142 <ul>
 143 <li>CMYK to linear RGB
 144 <pre>
 145 R = (1 - K)*(1 - C)
 146 G = (1 - K)*(1 - M)
 147 B = (1 - K)*(1 - Y)
 148 </pre>
 149 </li>
 150 <li>Linear RGB to CMYK
 151 <pre>
 152 K = min{1 - R, 1 - G, 1 - B}
 153 if(K != 1) {
 154     C = (1 - R - K)/(1 - K)
 155     M = (1 - G - K)/(1 - K)
 156     Y = (1 - B - K)/(1 - K)
 157 } else {
 158     C = M = Y = 0
 159 }
 160 </pre>
 161 </li>
 162 </ul>
 163 </p>
 164 
 165 <p><a name="GenericCS"/>The generic color space used when no other color space
 166 can be inferred is provided merely to enable the data to be loaded. It is not
 167 intended to provide accurate conversions of any kind.</p>
 168 
 169 <p>If the data are known to be in a color space not correctly handled by the
 170 foregoing, then an <code>ImageTypeSpecifier</code> should be
 171 supplied to the reader and should be derived from a color space which is correct
 172 for the data in question.</p>
 173 
 174 <h4><a name="ICCProfilesRead"/>ICC Profiles</h4>
 175 
 176 If an ICC profile is contained in the image metadata
 177 (<a href="../../plugins/tiff/BaselineTIFFTagSet.html">
 178 BaselineTIFFTagSet</a>.TAG_ICC_PROFILE, tag number 34675),
 179 an attempt will be made to use it to create the color space
 180 of the loaded image. It will be used if the data layout is of component type
 181 and the number of samples per pixel equals or is one greater than the number
 182 of components described by the ICC profile. If the ICC profile is not used
 183 then the color space will be inferred in one of the subsequent steps described
 184 <a href="#nonICCProfile">above</a>.
 185 
 186 <p>If for some reason the embedded ICC profile is not used automatically, then
 187 it may be used manually by following this procedure:
 188 
 189 <ol>
 190 <li>Obtain the image metadata from
 191 <code>ImageReader.getImageMetadata</code></li>
 192 <li>Extract the ICC profile field and its value.</li>
 193 <li>Create an <a href="../../../../java/awt/color/ICC_ColorSpace.html">
 194 ICC_ColorSpace</a> from an
 195 <a href="../../../../java/awt/color/ICC_Profile.html">
 196 ICC_Profile</a> created from the ICC profile field data
 197 using <code>ICC_Profile.getInstance(byte[])</code>.</li>
 198 <li>Create an <code>ImageTypeSpecifier</code> from the new color
 199 space using one of its factory methods which accepts an
 200 <code>ICC_ColorSpace</code>.
 201 <li>Create a compatible <a href="../../ImageReadParam.html">ImageReadParam</a>
 202 and set the <code>ImageTypeSpecifier</code> using
 203 <code>ImageReadParam.setDestinationType</code>.</li>
 204 <li>Pass the parameter object to the appropriate <code>read</code> method.</li>
 205 </ol>
 206 </p>
 207 
 208 <p>If the inferred color space not based on the ICC Profile field is compatible
 209 with the ICC profile-based color space, then a second
 210 <code>ImageTypeSpecifier</code> derived from this inferred color
 211 space will be included in the
 212 <a href="../../../../java/util/Iterator.html">Iterator</a> returned by
 213 <code>ImageReader.getImageTypes</code>. If the iterator contains
 214 more than one type, the first one will be based on the ICC profile and the
 215 second on the inferred color space.</p>
 216 
 217 <h4><a name="MetadataIssuesRead"/>Metadata Issues</h4>
 218 
 219 By default all fields in the TIFF image file directory (IFD) are loaded into
 220 the native image metadata object. In cases where the IFD includes fields which
 221 contain large amounts of data this could be very inefficient. Which fields
 222 are loaded may be controlled by setting which TIFF tags the reader is allowed
 223 to recognize and whether it is ignoring metadata. The reader is informed to
 224 disregard metadata as usual via the <code>ignoreMetadata</code> parameter of
 225 <code>ImageReader.setInput(Object,boolean,boolean)</code>. It is
 226 informed of which <a href="../../plugins/tiff/TIFFTag.html">TIFFTag</a>s to
 227 recognize or not to recognize via
 228 <code>TIFFImageReadParam.addAllowedTagSet(TIFFTagSet)</code>
 229 and
 230 <code>TIFFImageReadParam.removeAllowedTagSet(TIFFTagSet)</code>.
 231 If <code>ignoreMetadata</code> is <code>true</code>, then the reader will
 232 load into the native image metadata object only those fields which have a
 233 <code>TIFFTag</code> contained in the one of the allowed
 234 <code>TIFFTagSet</code>s.
 235 
 236 <p>Use of a <a href="../../plugins/tiff/TIFFDirectory.html">TIFFDirectory</a>
 237 object may simplify gaining access to metadata values. An instance of
 238 <code>TIFFDirectory</code> may be created from the <code>IIOMetadata</code>
 239 object returned by the TIFF reader using the
 240 <code>TIFFDirectory.createFromMetadata</code> method.</p>
 241 
 242 <h5><a name="MapNativeStandard"/>
 243 Mapping of TIFF Native Image Metadata to the Standard Metadata Format</h5>
 244 
 245 The derivation of standard metadata format
 246 <a href="standard_metadata.html">javax_imageio_1.0</a>
 247 elements from <a href="#ImageMetadata">TIFF native image metadata</a> is given
 248 in the following table.
 249 
 250 <p>
 251 <table border="1">
 252 <tr>
 253 <th>Standard Metadata Element</th>
 254 <th>Derivation from TIFF Fields</th>
 255 </tr>
 256 <tr>
 257 <td>/Chroma/ColorSpaceType@name</td>
 258 <td>PhotometricInterpretation: WhiteIsZero, BlackIsZero, TransparencyMask =
 259 "GRAY"; RGB, PaletteColor => "RGB"; CMYK => "CMYK";
 260 YCbCr => "YCbCr";
 261 CIELab, ICCLab => "Lab".</td>
 262 </tr>
 263 <tr>
 264 <td>/Chroma/NumChannels@value</td>
 265 <td>SamplesPerPixel</td>
 266 </tr>
 267 <tr>
 268 <td>/Chroma/BlackIsZero@value</td>
 269 <td>"TRUE" <=> PhotometricInterpretation => WhiteIsZero</td>
 270 </tr>
 271 <tr>
 272 <td>/Chroma/Palette</td>
 273 <td>ColorMap</td>
 274 </tr>
 275 <tr>
 276 <td>/Compression/CompressionTypeName@value</td>
 277 <td>Compression: Uncompressed => "none"; CCITT 1D => "CCITT
 278 RLE";
 279 Group 3 Fax => "CCITT T.4"; Group 4 Fax => "CCITT T.6";
 280 LZW => "LZW";
 281 JPEG => "Old JPEG"; New JPEG => "JPEG"; Zlib =>> "ZLib"; PackBits =>
 282 "PackBits";
 283 Deflate => "Deflate"; Exif JPEG => "JPEG".</td>
 284 </tr>
 285 <tr>
 286 <td>/Compression/Lossless@value</td>
 287 <td>Compression: JPEG or New JPEG => "FALSE"; otherwise "TRUE".</td>
 288 </tr>
 289 <tr>
 290 <td>/Data/PlanarConfiguration@value</td>
 291 <td>Chunky => "PixelInterleaved"; Planar => "PlaneInterleaved".</td>
 292 </tr>
 293 <tr>
 294 <td>/Data/SampleFormat@value</td>
 295 <td>PhotometricInterpretation PaletteColor => "Index";
 296 SampleFormat unsigned integer data => "UnsignedIntegral";
 297 SampleFormat two's complement signed integer data => "SignedIntegral";
 298 SampleFormat IEEE floating point data => "Real";
 299 otherwise element not emitted.
 300 </td>
 301 </tr>
 302 <tr>
 303 <td>/Data/BitsPerSample@value</td>
 304 <td>BitsPerSample as a space-separated list.</td>
 305 </tr>
 306 <tr>
 307 <td>/Data/SampleMSB@value</td>
 308 <td>FillOrder: left-to-right => space-separated list of BitsPerSample-1;
 309 right-to-left => space-separated list of 0s.</td>
 310 </tr>
 311 <tr>
 312 <td>/Dimension/PixelAspectRatio@value</td>
 313 <td>(1/XResolution)/(1/YResolution)</td>
 314 </tr>
 315 <tr>
 316 <td>/Dimension/ImageOrientation@value</td>
 317 <td>Orientation</td>
 318 </tr>
 319 <tr>
 320 <td>/Dimension/HorizontalPixelSize@value</td>
 321 <td>1/XResolution in millimeters if ResolutionUnit is not None.</td>
 322 </tr>
 323 <tr>
 324 <td>/Dimension/VerticalPixelSize@value</td>
 325 <td>1/YResolution in millimeters if ResolutionUnit is not None.</td>
 326 </tr>
 327 <tr>
 328 <td>/Dimension/HorizontalPosition@value</td>
 329 <td>XPosition in millimeters if ResolutionUnit is not None.</td>
 330 </tr>
 331 <tr>
 332 <td>/Dimension/VerticalPosition@value</td>
 333 <td>YPosition in millimeters if ResolutionUnit is not None.</td>
 334 </tr>
 335 <tr>
 336 <td>/Document/FormatVersion@value</td>
 337 <td>6.0</td>
 338 </tr>
 339 <tr>
 340 <td>/Document/SubimageInterpretation@value</td>
 341 <td>NewSubFileType: transparency => "TransparencyMask";
 342 reduced-resolution => "ReducedResolution";
 343 single page => "SinglePage".</td>
 344 </tr>
 345 <tr>
 346 <td>/Document/ImageCreationTime@value</td>
 347 <td>DateTime</td>
 348 </tr>
 349 <tr>
 350 <td>/Text/TextEntry</td>
 351 <td>DocumentName, ImageDescription, Make, Model, PageName, Software,
 352 Artist, HostComputer, InkNames, Copyright:
 353 /Text/TextEntry@keyword = field name,
 354 /Text/TextEntry@value = field value.<br>
 355 Example: TIFF Software field => /Text/TextEntry@keyword = "Software",
 356 /Text/TextEntry@value = Name and version number of the software package(s)
 357 used to create the image.</td>
 358 </tr>
 359 <tr>
 360 <td>/Transparency/Alpha@value</td>
 361 <td>ExtraSamples: associated alpha => "premultiplied";
 362 unassociated alpha => "nonpremultiplied".</td>
 363 </tr>
 364 </table>
 365 </p>
 366 
 367 <h4><a name="ExifRead"/>Reading Exif Images</h4>
 368 
 369 The TIFF reader may be used to read an uncompressed Exif image or the
 370 contents of the <tt>APP1</tt> marker segment of a compressed Exif image.
 371 
 372 <h5><a name="ExifReadTIFF"/>Reading Uncompressed Exif Images</h5>
 373 
 374 An uncompressed Exif image is a one- or two-page uncompressed TIFF image
 375 with a specific ordering of its IFD and image data content. Each pixel
 376 has three 8-bit samples with photometric interpretation RGB or YCbCr.
 377 The image stream must contain a single primary image and may contain a
 378 single thumbnail which if present must also be uncompressed. The usual
 379 <code>ImageReader</code> methods may be used to read the image
 380 data and metadata:
 381 
 382 <pre><code>
 383     ImageInputStream input;
 384     ImageReader tiffReader;
 385     ImageReadParam tiffReadParam;
 386 
 387     tiffReader.setInput(input);
 388 
 389     // Read primary image and IFD.
 390     BufferedImage image = tiffReader.read(0, tiffReadParam);
 391     IIOMetadata primaryIFD = tiffReader.getImageMetadata(0);
 392 
 393     // Read thumbnail if present.
 394     BufferedImage thumbnail = null;
 395     if (tiffReader.getNumImages(true) > 1) {
 396         thumbnail = tiffReader.read(1, tiffReadParam);
 397     }
 398 </code></pre>
 399 
 400 Note that the Exif thumbnail is treated as a separate page in the TIFF
 401 stream and not as a thumbnail, i.e.,
 402 <code>tiffReader.hasThumbnails(0)</code> will return <code>false</code>.
 403 
 404 <h5><a name="ExifReadJPEG"/>Reading Compressed Exif Images</h5>
 405 
 406 A compressed Exif image is a 3-band ISO/IEC 10918-1 baseline DCT JPEG stream
 407 with an inserted <tt>APP1</tt> marker segment. The parameters of the marker
 408 segment after the length are the 6-byte sequence
 409 <code>{'E',&nbsp;'x',&nbsp;'i',&nbsp;'f',&nbsp;0x00,&nbsp;0x00}</code></code>
 410 followed by a complete TIFF stream. The embedded TIFF stream contains a primary
 411 IFD describing the JPEG image optionally followed by a thumbnail IFD and
 412 compressed or uncompressed thumbnail image data. Note that the embedded TIFF
 413 stream does not contain any image data associated with the primary IFD
 414 nor any descriptive fields which duplicate information found in the JPEG
 415 stream itself.
 416 
 417 <p>The parameter content of the <tt>APP1</tt> marker segment may be obtained
 418 from the user object of the associated <code>Node</code> in a
 419 <tt>javax_imageio_jpeg_image_1.0</tt> native image metadata tree extracted
 420 from the image metadata object returned by the JPEG reader. This APP1 Exif
 421 node will be a child of the node named "markerSequence" and will
 422 have name <tt>unknown</tt> and an attribute named <tt>MarkerTag</tt> with
 423 integral value <code>0xE1</code> (<code>String</code> value
 424 <code>"225"</code>). The user object of this node will be a byte array
 425 which starts with the six bytes <code>{'E', 'x', 'i', 'f', '0', '0'}</code>.
 426 The primary IFD and the thumbnail IFD and image may be
 427 read from the user object by the usual <code>ImageReader</code>
 428 methods:
 429 
 430 <pre><code>
 431     ImageReader jpegReader;
 432     ImageReader tiffReader;
 433 
 434     // Obtain the APP1 Exif marker data from the JPEG image metadata.
 435     IIOMetadata jpegImageMetadata = jpegReader.getImageMetadata(0);
 436     String nativeFormat = jpegImageMetadata.getNativeMetadataFormatName();
 437     Node jpegImageMetadataTree = jpegImageMetadata.getAsTree(nativeFormat);
 438 
 439     // getExifMarkerData() returns the byte array which is the user object
 440     // of the APP1 Exif marker node.
 441     byte[] app1Params = getExifMarkerData(jpegImageMetadataTree);
 442     if (app1Params == null) {
 443         throw new IIOException("APP1 Exif marker not found.");
 444     }
 445 
 446     // Set up input, skipping Exif ID 6-byte sequence.
 447     MemoryCacheImageInputStream app1ExifInput
 448         = new MemoryCacheImageInputStream
 449             (new ByteArrayInputStream(app1Params, 6, app1Params.length - 6));
 450     tiffReader.setInput(app1ExifInput);
 451 
 452     // Read primary IFD.
 453     IIOMetadata primaryIFD = tiffReader.getImageMetadata(0);
 454 
 455     // Read thumbnail if present.
 456     BufferedImage thumbnail = null;
 457     if (tiffReader.getNumImages(true) > 1) {
 458         thumbnail = tiffReader.read(1, tiffReadParam);
 459     }
 460 
 461     // Read the primary image.
 462     BufferedImage image = jpegReader.read(0);
 463 </code></pre>
 464 
 465 Note that <code>tiffReader.getNumImages(true)</code> returns the number of
 466 IFDs in the embedded TIFF stream including those corresponding to empty
 467 images. Calling <code>tiffReader.read(0,&nbsp;readParam)</code> will throw
 468 an exception as the primary image in the embedded TIFF stream is always
 469 empty; the primary image should be obtained using the JPEG reader itself.
 470 </p>
 471 
 472 <h3><a name="Writing"/>Writing Images</h3>
 473 
 474 TIFF images are written by a <a href="../../ImageWriter.html">ImageWriter</a> which may be
 475 controlled by its public interface as well as via a supplied
 476 <a href="../../ImageWriteParam.html">ImageWriteParam</a>.  For an <code>ImageWriteParam</code> returned
 477 by the <code>getDefaultWriteParam()</code> method of the TIFF <code>ImageWriter</code>,
 478 the <code>canWriteTiles()</code> and <code>canWriteCompressed()</code> methods
 479 will return <code>true</code>; the <code>canOffsetTiles()</code> and
 480 <code>canWriteProgressive()</code> methods will return <code>false</code>.</p>
 481 
 482 The TIFF writer supports many optional capabilities including writing tiled
 483 images, inserting images, writing or inserting empty images, and replacing image
 484 data. Pixels may be replaced in either empty or non-empty images but if and
 485 only if the data are not compressed.
 486 
 487 <p> If tiles are being written, then each of their dimensions will be
 488 rounded to the nearest multiple of 16 per the TIFF specification. If
 489 JPEG-in-TIFF compression is being used, and tiles are being written
 490 each tile dimension will be rounded to the nearest multiple of 8 times
 491 the JPEG minimum coded unit (MCU) in that dimension. If JPEG-in-TIFF
 492 compression is being used and strips are being written, the number of
 493 rows per strip is rounded to a multiple of 8 times the maximum MCU over
 494 both dimensions.</p>
 495  
 496  <!-- <h4>Supported Image Types</h4> -->
 497 
 498 <!-- Table? -->
 499 
 500 <h4><a name="Compression"/>Compression</h4>
 501 
 502 The compression type may be set via the <code>setCompressionType()</code> method of
 503 the <code>ImageWriteParam</code> after setting the compression mode to
 504 <code>MODE_EXPLICIT</code>. The set of innately
 505 supported compression types is listed in the following table:
 506 
 507 <table border=1>
 508 <caption><b>Supported Compression Types</b></caption>
 509 <tr><th>Compression Type</th> <th>Description</th> <th>Reference</th></tr>
 510 <tr>
 511 <td>CCITT RLE</td>
 512 <td>Modified Huffman compression</td>
 513 <td>TIFF 6.0 Specification, Section 10</td>
 514 </tr>
 515 <tr>
 516 <td>CCITT T.4</td>
 517 <td>CCITT T.4 bilevel encoding/Group 3 facsimile compression</td>
 518 <td>TIFF 6.0 Specification, Section 11</td>
 519 </tr>
 520 <tr>
 521 <td>CCITT T.6</td>
 522 <td>CCITT T.6 bilevel encoding/Group 4 facsimile compression</td>
 523 <td>TIFF 6.0 Specification, Section 11</td></tr>
 524 <tr>
 525 <td>LZW</td>
 526 <td>LZW compression</td>
 527 <td>TIFF 6.0 Specification, Section 13</td></tr>
 528 <tr>
 529 <td>JPEG</td>
 530 <td>"New" JPEG-in-TIFF compression</td>
 531 <td><a href="ftp://ftp.sgi.com/graphics/tiff/TTN2.draft.txt">TIFF
 532 Technical Note #2</a></td>
 533 </tr>
 534 <tr>
 535 <td>ZLib</td>
 536 <td>"Deflate/Inflate" compression (see note following this table)</td>
 537 <td><a href="http://partners.adobe.com/asn/developer/pdfs/tn/TIFFphotoshop.pdf">
 538 Adobe Photoshop® TIFF Technical Notes</a> (PDF)</td>
 539 </tr>
 540 <tr>
 541 <td>PackBits</td>
 542 <td>Byte-oriented, run length compression</td>
 543 <td>TIFF 6.0 Specification, Section 9</td>
 544 </tr>
 545 <tr>
 546 <td>Deflate</td>
 547 <td>"Zip-in-TIFF" compression (see note following this table)</td>
 548 <td><a href="http://www.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc1950.txt">
 549 ZLIB Compressed Data Format Specification</a>,
 550 <a href="http://www.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc1951.txt">
 551 DEFLATE Compressed Data Format Specification</a></td>
 552 </tr>
 553 <tr>
 554 <td>Exif JPEG</td>
 555 <td>Exif-specific JPEG compression (see note following this table)</td>
 556 <td><a href="http://www.exif.org/Exif2-2.PDF">Exif 2.2 Specification</a>
 557 (PDF), section 4.5.5, "Basic Structure of Thumbnail Data"</td>
 558 </table>
 559 
 560 <p>
 561 Old-style JPEG compression as described in section 22 of the TIFF 6.0
 562 Specification is <i>not</i> supported.
 563 </p>
 564 
 565 <p> The CCITT compression types are applicable to bilevel (1-bit)
 566 images only.  The JPEG compression type is applicable to byte
 567 grayscale (1-band) and RGB (3-band) images only.</p>
 568 
 569 <p>
 570 ZLib and Deflate compression are identical except for the value of the
 571 TIFF Compression field: for ZLib the Compression field has value 8
 572 whereas for Deflate it has value 32946 (0x80b2). In both cases each
 573 image segment (strip or tile) is written as a single complete zlib data
 574 stream.
 575 </p>
 576 
 577 <p>
 578 "Exif JPEG" is a compression type used when writing the contents of an
 579 APP1 Exif marker segment for inclusion in a JPEG native image metadata
 580 tree. The contents appended to the output when this compression type is
 581 used are a function of whether an empty or non-empty image is written.
 582 If the image is empty, then a TIFF IFD adhering to the specification of
 583 a compressed Exif primary IFD is appended. If the image is non-empty,
 584 then a complete IFD and image adhering to the specification of a
 585 compressed Exif thumbnail IFD and image are appended. Note that the
 586 data of the empty image may <i>not</i> later be appended using the pixel
 587 replacement capability of the TIFF writer.
 588 </p>
 589 
 590 <p> If ZLib/Deflate or JPEG compression is used, the compression quality
 591 may be set. For ZLib/Deflate the supplied floating point quality value is
 592 rescaled to the range <tt>[1,&nbsp;9]</tt> and truncated to an integer
 593 to derive the Deflate compression level. For JPEG the floating point
 594 quality value is passed directly to the JPEG writer plug-in which
 595 interprets it in the usual way.</p>
 596 
 597 <h4><a name="ColorConversionWrite"/>Color Conversion</h4>
 598 
 599 <p>If the source image data
 600 color space type is RGB, and the destination photometric type is CIE L*a*b* or
 601 YCbCr, then the source image data will be automatically converted from
 602 RGB using an internal color converter.</p>
 603 
 604 <h4><a name="ICCProfilesWrite"/>ICC Profiles</h4>
 605 
 606 An <tt>ICC Profile</tt> field will be written if either:
 607 <ul>
 608 <li>one is present in the native image metadata
 609 <a href="../IIOMetadata.html">IIOMetadata</a> instance supplied to the writer,
 610 or</li>
 611 <li>the <a href="../../../../java/awt/color/ColorSpace.html">ColorSpace</a>
 612 of the destination <code>ImageTypeSpecifier</code> is an instance of
 613 <code>ICC_ColorSpace</code> which is not one of the standard
 614 color spaces defined by the <tt>CS_*</tt> constants in the
 615 <code>ColorSpace</code> class. The destination type is set via
 616 <code>ImageWriteParam.setDestinationType(ImageTypeSpecifier)</code> and defaults
 617 to the <code>ImageTypeSpecifier</code> of the image being written.
 618 </li>
 619 </ul>
 620 
 621 <h4><a name="MetadataIssuesWrite"/>Metadata Issues</h4>
 622 
 623 Some behavior of the writer is affected by or may affect the contents of
 624 the image metadata which may be supplied by the user.
 625 
 626 <p>For bilevel images, the <tt>FillOrder</tt>, and <tt>T4Options</tt>
 627 fields affect the output data. The data will be filled right-to-left if
 628 <tt>FillOrder</tt> is present with a value of 2
 629 (<code>BaselineTIFFTagSet.FILL_ORDER_RIGHT_TO_LEFT</code>)
 630 and will be filled left-to-right otherwise. The value of <tt>T4Options</tt>
 631 specifies whether the data should be 1D- or 2D-encoded and whether EOL
 632 padding should be used.</p>
 633 
 634 <p>For all images the value of the <tt>RowsPerStrip</tt> field is used
 635 to the set the number of rows per strip if the image is not tiled. The
 636 default number of rows per strip is either 8 or the number of rows which
 637 would fill no more than 8 kilobytes, whichever is larger.</p>
 638 
 639 <p>For all images the tile dimensions may be set using the <tt>TileWidth</tt>
 640 and <tt>TileLength</tt> field values if the tiling mode is
 641 <code>ImageWriteParam.MODE_COPY_FROM_METADATA</code>. If this mode
 642 is set but the fields are not, their respective default values are the image
 643 width and height.</p>
 644 
 645 <p>When using JPEG-in-TIFF compression, a <tt>JPEGTables</tt> field will be
 646 written to the IFD and abbreviated JPEG streams to each strip or tile if and
 647 only if a <tt>JPEGTables</tt> field is contained in the metadata object
 648 provided to the writer. If the contents of the <tt>JPEGTables</tt> field is
 649 a valid tables-only JPEG stream, then it will be used; otherwise the contents
 650 of the field will be replaced with default visually lossless tables. If no
 651 such <tt>JPEGTables</tt> field is present in the metadata, then no
 652 <tt>JPEGTables</tt> field will be written to the output and each strip or
 653 tile will be written as a separate, self-contained JPEG stream.</p>
 654 
 655 <p>When using Deflate/ZLib or LZW compression, if the image has 8 bits per
 656 sample, a horizontal differencing predictor will be used if the
 657 <tt>Predictor</tt> field is present with a value of 2
 658 (<code>BaselineTIFFTagSet.PREDICTOR_HORIZONTAL_DIFFERENCING</code>).
 659 If prediction is so requested but the image does not have
 660 8 bits per sample the field will be reset to have the value 1
 661 (<code>BaselineTIFFTagSet.PREDICTOR_NONE</code>).
 662 </p>
 663 
 664 <p>Some fields may be added or modified:
 665 
 666 <ul>
 667 <li><tt>PhotometricInterpretation</tt> if not present.</li>
 668 <li><tt>PlanarConfiguration</tt> if this field is present with value
 669 <tt>Planar</tt> is is reset to <tt>Chunky</tt>.</li>
 670 <li><tt>Compression</tt> always.</li>
 671 <li><tt>BitsPerSample</tt> if the image is not bilevel.</li>
 672 <li><tt>SamplesPerPixel</tt> always.</li>
 673 <li><tt>ExtraSamples</tt> if an alpha channel is present.</li>
 674 <li><tt>SampleFormat</tt> if not present and the data are 16- or 32-bit
 675 integers or floating point.</li>
 676 <li><tt>ColorMap</tt> if the <tt>PhotometricInterpretation</tt> is
 677 <tt>RGBPalette</tt>.</li>
 678 <li><tt>ImageWidth</tt> and <tt>ImageLength</tt> always.</li>
 679 <li><tt>TileWidth</tt>, <tt>TileLength</tt>, <tt>TileOffsets</tt>, and
 680 <tt>TileByteCounts</tt> if a tiled image is being written.</li>
 681 <li><tt>RowsPerStrip</tt>, <tt>StripOffsets</tt>, and <tt>StripByteCounts</tt>
 682 if a tiled image is <i>not</i> being written.</li>
 683 <li><tt>XResolution</tt>, <tt>YResolution</tt>, and <tt>ResolutionUnit</tt>
 684 if none of these is present.</li>
 685 <li><tt>YCbCrSubsampling</tt> and <tt>YCbCrPositioning</tt> if the
 686 photometric interpretation is YCbCr and the compression type is not JPEG
 687 (only [1,&nbsp;1] subsampling and cosited positioning are supported for
 688 non-JPEG YCbCr output).</li>
 689 <li><tt>YCbCrSubsampling</tt>, <tt>YCbCrPositioning</tt>, and
 690 <tt>ReferenceBlackWhite</tt>: if the compression type is JPEG and the color
 691 space is RGB these will be reset to [2,&nbsp;2] centered subsampling with no
 692 headroom/footroom (0:255,128:255,128:255).</li>
 693 </ul>
 694 
 695 <p>Some fields may be removed:
 696 
 697 <ul>
 698 <li><tt>BitsPerSample</tt> if the image is bilevel.</li>
 699 <li><tt>ExtraSamples</tt> if the image does not have an alpha channel.</li>
 700 <li><tt>ColorMap</tt> if the photometric interpretation is not
 701 <tt>RGBPalette</tt>.</li>
 702 <li><tt>TileWidth</tt>, <tt>TileLength</tt>, <tt>TileOffsets</tt>, and
 703 <tt>TileByteCounts</tt> if tiling <i>is not</i> being used.</li>
 704 <li><tt>RowsPerStrip</tt>, <tt>StripOffsets</tt>, and <tt>StripByteCounts</tt>
 705 if tiling <i>is</i> being used.</li>
 706 <li><tt>YCbCrSubsampling</tt>, <tt>YCbCrPositioning</tt>, and
 707 <tt>ReferenceBlackWhite</tt> if the compression type is JPEG and the
 708 color space is grayscale.</li>
 709 <li><tt>JPEGProc</tt>, <tt>JPEGInterchangeFormat</tt>,
 710 <tt>JPEGInterchangeFormatLength</tt>, <tt>JPEGRestartInterval</tt>,
 711 <tt>JPEGLosslessPredictors</tt>, <tt>JPEGPointTransforms</tt>,
 712 <tt>JPEGQTables</tt>, <tt>JPEGDCTables</tt>, and
 713 <tt>JPEGACTables</tt> if the compression type is JPEG.</li>
 714 </ul>
 715 </p>
 716 
 717 <p>Other fields present in the supplied metadata are uninterpreted and will
 718 be written as supplied.</p>
 719 
 720 <p>If an Exif image is being written, the set of fields present and their
 721 values will be modified such that the result is in accord with the Exif 2.2
 722 specification.</p>
 723 
 724 <p>Setting up the image metadata to write to a TIFF stream may be simplified
 725 by using the <code>TIFFDirectory</code> class
 726 which represents a TIFF IFD. A field in a TIFF IFD is represented by an
 727 instance of <a href="../../plugins/tiff/TIFFField.html">TIFFField</a>. For each
 728 field to be written a <code>TIFFField</code> may be added to the
 729 <code>TIFFDirectory</code> and the latter converted to an
 730 <code>IIOMetadata</code> object by invoking
 731 <code>TIFFDirectory.getAsMetadata</code>. The
 732 <code>IIOMetadata</code> object so obtained may then be passed to the TIFF
 733 writer.</p>
 734 
 735 <h5><a name="MapStandardNative"/>
 736 Mapping of the Standard Metadata Format to TIFF Native Image Metadata</h5>
 737 
 738 The derivation of <a href="#ImageMetadata">TIFF native image metadata</a>
 739 elements from the standard metadata format
 740 <a href="standard_metadata.html">javax_imageio_1.0</a> is
 741 given in the following table.
 742 
 743 <p>
 744 <table border="1">
 745 <tr>
 746 <th>TIFF Field</th>
 747 <th>Derivation from Standard Metadata Elements</th>
 748 </tr>
 749 <tr>
 750 <td>
 751 PhotometricInterpretation
 752 </td>
 753 <td>/Chroma/ColorSpaceType@name: "GRAY" and /Chroma/BlackIsZero@value = "FALSE"
 754 => WhiteIsZero; "GRAY" and /Document/SubimageInterpretation@value =
 755 "TransparencyMask" => TransparencyMask; "RGB" and /Chroma/Palette present =>
 756 PaletteColor; "GRAY" => BlackIsZero; "RGB" => RGB; "YCbCr" => YCbCr;
 757 "CMYK" => CMYK; "Lab" => CIELab.</td>
 758 </tr>
 759 <tr>
 760 <td>SamplesPerPixel</td>
 761 <td>/Chroma/NumChannels@value</td>
 762 </tr>
 763 <tr>
 764 <td>ColorMap</td>
 765 <td>/Chroma/Palette</td>
 766 </tr>
 767 <tr>
 768 <td>Compression</td>
 769 <td>/Compression/CompressionTypeName@value: "none" => Uncompressed;
 770 "CCITT RLE" => CCITT 1D; "CCITT T.4" => Group 3 Fax; "CCITT T.6" => Group 4
 771 Fax; "LZW" => LZW; "Old JPEG" => JPEG; "JPEG" => New JPEG; "ZLib" => ZLib;
 772 "PackBits" => PackBits; "Deflate" => Deflate.</td>
 773 </tr>
 774 <tr>
 775 <td>PlanarConfiguration</td>
 776 <td>/Data/PlanarConfiguration@value: "PixelInterleaved" => Chunky;
 777 "PlaneInterleaved" => Planar.</td>
 778 </tr>
 779 <tr>
 780 <td>SampleFormat</td>
 781 <td>/Data/SampleFormat@value: "SignedIntegral" => two's complement signed
 782 integer data; "UnsignedIntegral" => unsigned integer data; "Real" =>
 783 IEEE floating point data; "Index" => unsigned integer data.
 784 </td>
 785 </tr>
 786 <tr>
 787 <td>BitsPerSample</td>
 788 <td>/Data/BitsPerSample@value: space-separated list parsed to char array.</td>
 789 </tr>
 790 <tr>
 791 <td>FillOrder</td>
 792 <td>/Data/SampleMSB@value: if all values in space-separated list are 0s =>
 793 right-to-left; otherwise => left-to-right.
 794 </td>
 795 </tr>
 796 <tr>
 797 <td>XResolution</td>
 798 <td>(10 / /Dimension/HorizontalPixelSize@value) or
 799 (10 / (/Dimension/VerticalPixelSize@value *
 800 /Dimension/PixelAspectRatio@value))</td>
 801 </tr>
 802 <tr>
 803 <td>YResolution</td>
 804 <td>(10 / /Dimension/VerticalPixelSize@value) or
 805 (10 / (/Dimension/HorizontalPixelSize@value /
 806 /Dimension/PixelAspectRatio@value))</td>
 807 </tr>
 808 <tr>
 809 <td>ResolutionUnit</td>
 810 <td>Centimeter if XResolution or YResolution set; otherwise None.</td>
 811 </tr>
 812 <tr>
 813 <td>Orientation</td>
 814 <td>/Dimension/ImageOrientation@value</td>
 815 </tr>
 816 <tr>
 817 <td>XPosition</td>
 818 <td>/Dimension/HorizontalPosition@value / 10</td>
 819 </tr>
 820 <tr>
 821 <td>YPosition</td>
 822 <td>/Dimension/VerticalPosition@value / 10</td>
 823 </tr>
 824 <tr>
 825 <td>NewSubFileType</td>
 826 <td>/Document/SubimageInterpretation@value: "TransparencyMask" =>
 827 transparency mask; "ReducedResolution" => reduced-resolution;
 828 "SinglePage" => single page.</td>
 829 </tr>
 830 <tr>
 831 <td>DateTime</td>
 832 <td>/Document/ImageCreationTime@value</td>
 833 </tr>
 834 <tr>
 835 <td>DocumentName, ImageDescription, Make, Model, PageName, Software,
 836 Artist, HostComputer, InkNames, Copyright</td>
 837 <td>/Text/TextEntry: if /Text/TextEntry@keyword is the name of any of the
 838 TIFF Fields, e.g., "Software", then the field is added with content
 839 /Text/TextEntry@value and count 1.</td>
 840 </tr>
 841 <tr>
 842 <td>ExtraSamples</td>
 843 <td>/Transparency/Alpha@value: "premultiplied" => associated alpha, count 1;
 844 "nonpremultiplied" => unassociated alpha, count 1.</td>
 845 </tr>
 846 <tr>
 847 <td></td>
 848 <td></td>
 849 </tr>
 850 </table>
 851 </p>
 852 
 853 <h4><a name="ExifWrite"/>Writing Exif Images</h4>
 854 
 855 The TIFF writer may be used to write an uncompressed Exif image or the
 856 contents of the <tt>APP1</tt> marker segment of a compressed Exif image.
 857 
 858 <h5><a name="ExifWriteTIFF"/>Writing Uncompressed Exif Images</h5>
 859 
 860 When writing a sequence of images each image is normally recorded as
 861 {IFD,&nbsp;IFD Value,&nbsp;Image Data}. The Exif specification requires
 862 that an uncompressed Exif image be structured as follows:
 863 
 864 <ol>
 865 <a name="ExifStructure"/>
 866 <li>Image File Header</li>
 867 <li>Primary IFD</li>
 868 <li>Primary IFD Value</li>
 869 <li>Thumbnail IFD</li>
 870 <li>Thumbnail IFD Value</li>
 871 <li>Thumbnail Image Data</li>
 872 <li>Primary Image Data</li>
 873 </ol>
 874 
 875 To meet the requirement of the primary image data being recorded last, the
 876 primary image must be written initially as an empty image and have its data
 877 added via pixel replacement after the thumbnail IFD and image data have been
 878 written:
 879 
 880 <pre><code>
 881     ImageWriter tiffWriter;
 882     ImageWriteParam tiffWriteParam;
 883     IIOMetadata tiffStreamMetadata;
 884     IIOMetadata primaryIFD;
 885     BufferedImage image;
 886     BufferedImage thumbnail;
 887 
 888     // Specify uncompressed output.
 889     tiffWriteParam.setCompressionMode(ImageWriteParam.MODE_DISABLED);
 890 
 891     if (thumbnail != null) {
 892         // Write the TIFF header.
 893         tiffWriter.prepareWriteSequence(tiffStreamMetadata);
 894 
 895         // Append the primary IFD.
 896         tiffWriter.prepareInsertEmpty(-1, // append
 897                 new ImageTypeSpecifier(image),
 898                 image.getWidth(),
 899                 image.getHeight(),
 900                 primaryIFD,
 901                 null, // thumbnails
 902                 tiffWriteParam);
 903         tiffWriter.endInsertEmpty();
 904 
 905         // Append the thumbnail image data.
 906         tiffWriter.writeToSequence(new IIOImage(thumbnail, null, null),
 907                 tiffWriteParam);
 908 
 909         // Insert the primary image data.
 910         tiffWriter.prepareReplacePixels(0, new Rectangle(image.getWidth(),
 911                 image.getHeight()));
 912         tiffWriter.replacePixels(image, tiffWriteParam);
 913         tiffWriter.endReplacePixels();
 914 
 915         // End writing.
 916         tiffWriter.endWriteSequence();
 917     } else {
 918         // Write only the primary IFD and image data.
 919         tiffWriter.write(tiffStreamMetadata,
 920                 new IIOImage(image, null, primaryIFD),
 921                 tiffWriteParam);
 922     }
 923 </code></pre>
 924 
 925 <h5><a name="ExifWriteJPEG"/>Writing Compressed Exif Images</h5>
 926 
 927 The structure of the embedded TIFF stream in the <tt>APP1</tt> segment of a
 928 compressed Exif image is identical to the <a href="#ExifStructure">
 929 uncompressed Exif image structure</a> except that there are no primary
 930 image data, i.e., the primary IFD does not refer to any image data.
 931 
 932 <pre><code>
 933     ImageWriter tiffWriter;
 934     ImageWriteParam tiffWriteParam;
 935     IIOMetadata tiffStreamMetadata;
 936     BufferedImage image;
 937     BufferedImage thumbnail;
 938     IIOMetadata primaryIFD;
 939     ImageOutputStream output;
 940 
 941     // Set up an output to contain the APP1 Exif TIFF stream.
 942     ByteArrayOutputStream baos = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
 943     MemoryCacheImageOutputStream app1ExifOutput =
 944         new MemoryCacheImageOutputStream(baos);
 945     tiffWriter.setOutput(app1ExifOutput);
 946 
 947     // Set compression for the thumbnail.
 948     tiffWriteParam.setCompressionMode(ImageWriteParam.MODE_EXPLICIT);
 949     tiffWriteParam.setCompressionType("Exif JPEG");
 950 
 951     // Write the APP1 Exif TIFF stream.
 952     if (thumbnail != null) {
 953         // Write the TIFF header.
 954         tiffWriter.prepareWriteSequence(tiffStreamMetadata);
 955 
 956         // Append the primary IFD.
 957         tiffWriter.prepareInsertEmpty(-1, // append
 958                 new ImageTypeSpecifier(image),
 959                 image.getWidth(),
 960                 image.getHeight(),
 961                 primaryIFD,
 962                 null, // thumbnails
 963                 tiffWriteParam);
 964         tiffWriter.endInsertEmpty();
 965 
 966         // Append the thumbnail IFD and image data.
 967         tiffWriter.writeToSequence(new IIOImage(thumbnail, null,
 968                 null), tiffWriteParam);
 969 
 970         // End writing.
 971         tiffWriter.endWriteSequence();
 972     } else {
 973         // Write only the primary IFD.
 974         tiffWriter.prepareWriteEmpty(tiffStreamMetadata,
 975                 new ImageTypeSpecifier(image),
 976                 image.getWidth(),
 977                 image.getHeight(),
 978                 primaryIFD,
 979                 null, // thumbnails
 980                 tiffWriteParam);
 981         tiffWriter.endWriteEmpty();
 982     }
 983 
 984     // Flush data into byte stream.
 985     app1ExifOutput.flush();
 986 
 987     // Create APP1 parameter array.
 988     byte[] app1Parameters = new byte[6 + baos.size()];
 989 
 990     // Add APP1 Exif ID bytes.
 991     app1Parameters[0] = (byte) 'E';
 992     app1Parameters[1] = (byte) 'x';
 993     app1Parameters[2] = (byte) 'i';
 994     app1Parameters[3] = (byte) 'f';
 995     app1Parameters[4] = app1Parameters[5] = (byte) 0;
 996 
 997     // Append TIFF stream to APP1 parameters.
 998     System.arraycopy(baos.toByteArray(), 0, app1Parameters, 6, baos.size());
 999 
1000     // Create the APP1 Exif node to be added to native JPEG image metadata.
1001     IIOMetadataNode app1Node = new IIOMetadataNode("unknown");
1002     app1Node.setAttribute("MarkerTag", String.valueOf(0xE1));
1003     app1Node.setUserObject(app1Parameters);
1004 
1005     // Append the APP1 Exif marker to the "markerSequence" node.
1006     IIOMetadata jpegImageMetadata =
1007         jpegWriter.getDefaultImageMetadata(new ImageTypeSpecifier(image),
1008             jpegWriteParam);
1009     String nativeFormat = jpegImageMetadata.getNativeMetadataFormatName();
1010     Node tree = jpegImageMetadata.getAsTree(nativeFormat);
1011     NodeList children = tree.getChildNodes();
1012     int numChildren = children.getLength();
1013     for (int i = 0; i < numChildren; i++) {
1014         Node child = children.item(i);
1015         if (child.getNodeName().equals("markerSequence")) {
1016             child.appendChild(app1Node);
1017             break;
1018         }
1019     }
1020     jpegImageMetadata.setFromTree(nativeFormat, tree);
1021 
1022     // Write the JPEG image data including the APP1 Exif marker.
1023     jpegWriter.setOutput(output);
1024     jpegWriter.write(new IIOImage(image, null, jpegImageMetadata));
1025 </code></pre>
1026 
1027 The <code>"unknown"</code> node created above would be appended to the
1028 <code>"markerSequence"</code> node of the native JPEG image metadata
1029 and written to the JPEG stream when the primary image is written using
1030 the JPEG writer.
1031 
1032 <h3><a name="StreamMetadata"/>Stream Metadata</h3>
1033 
1034 The DTD for the TIFF native stream metadata format is as follows:
1035 
1036 <pre>
1037 &lt;!DOCTYPE "javax_imageio_tiff_stream_1.0" [
1038 
1039   &lt;!ELEMENT "javax_imageio_tiff_stream_1.0" (ByteOrder)>
1040 
1041     &lt;!ELEMENT "ByteOrder" EMPTY&gt;
1042       &lt;!-- The stream byte order --&gt; 
1043       &lt;!ATTLIST "ByteOrder" "value" #CDATA #REQUIRED&gt;
1044         &lt;!-- One of "BIG_ENDIAN" or "LITTLE_ENDIAN" --&gt; 
1045         &lt;!-- Data type: String --&gt;
1046 ]&gt;
1047 </pre>
1048 
1049 <h3><a name="ImageMetadata"/>Image Metadata</h3>
1050 
1051 The DTD for the TIFF native image metadata format is as follows:
1052 
1053 <pre>
1054 &lt;!DOCTYPE "javax_imageio_tiff_image_1.0" [
1055 
1056   &lt;!ELEMENT "javax_imageio_tiff_image_1.0" (TIFFIFD)*&gt;
1057 
1058     &lt;!ELEMENT "TIFFIFD" (TIFFField | TIFFIFD)*&gt;
1059       &lt;!-- An IFD (directory) containing fields --&gt; 
1060       &lt;!ATTLIST "TIFFIFD" "tagSets" #CDATA #REQUIRED&gt;
1061         &lt;!-- Data type: String --&gt;
1062       &lt;!ATTLIST "TIFFIFD" "parentTagNumber" #CDATA #IMPLIED&gt;
1063         &lt;!-- The tag number of the field pointing to this IFD --&gt; 
1064         &lt;!-- Data type: Integer --&gt;
1065       &lt;!ATTLIST "TIFFIFD" "parentTagName" #CDATA #IMPLIED&gt;
1066         &lt;!-- A mnemonic name for the field pointing to this IFD, if known 
1067              --&gt; 
1068         &lt;!-- Data type: String --&gt;
1069 
1070       &lt;!ELEMENT "TIFFField" (TIFFBytes | TIFFAsciis |
1071         TIFFShorts | TIFFSShorts | TIFFLongs | TIFFSLongs |
1072         TIFFRationals | TIFFSRationals |
1073         TIFFFloats | TIFFDoubles | TIFFUndefined)&gt;
1074         &lt;!-- A field containing data --&gt; 
1075         &lt;!ATTLIST "TIFFField" "number" #CDATA #REQUIRED&gt;
1076           &lt;!-- The tag number asociated with the field --&gt; 
1077           &lt;!-- Data type: String --&gt;
1078         &lt;!ATTLIST "TIFFField" "name" #CDATA #IMPLIED&gt;
1079           &lt;!-- A mnemonic name associated with the field, if known --&gt; 
1080           &lt;!-- Data type: String --&gt;
1081 
1082         &lt;!ELEMENT "TIFFBytes" (TIFFByte)*&gt;
1083           &lt;!-- A sequence of TIFFByte nodes --&gt; 
1084 
1085           &lt;!ELEMENT "TIFFByte" EMPTY&gt;
1086             &lt;!-- An integral value between 0 and 255 --&gt; 
1087             &lt;!ATTLIST "TIFFByte" "value" #CDATA #IMPLIED&gt;
1088               &lt;!-- The value --&gt; 
1089               &lt;!-- Data type: String --&gt;
1090             &lt;!ATTLIST "TIFFByte" "description" #CDATA #IMPLIED&gt;
1091               &lt;!-- A description, if available --&gt; 
1092               &lt;!-- Data type: String --&gt;
1093 
1094         &lt;!ELEMENT "TIFFAsciis" (TIFFAscii)*&gt;
1095           &lt;!-- A sequence of TIFFAscii nodes --&gt; 
1096 
1097           &lt;!ELEMENT "TIFFAscii" EMPTY&gt;
1098             &lt;!-- A String value --&gt; 
1099             &lt;!ATTLIST "TIFFAscii" "value" #CDATA #IMPLIED&gt;
1100               &lt;!-- The value --&gt; 
1101               &lt;!-- Data type: String --&gt;
1102 
1103         &lt;!ELEMENT "TIFFShorts" (TIFFShort)*&gt;
1104           &lt;!-- A sequence of TIFFShort nodes --&gt; 
1105 
1106           &lt;!ELEMENT "TIFFShort" EMPTY&gt;
1107             &lt;!-- An integral value between 0 and 65535 --&gt; 
1108             &lt;!ATTLIST "TIFFShort" "value" #CDATA #IMPLIED&gt;
1109               &lt;!-- The value --&gt; 
1110               &lt;!-- Data type: String --&gt;
1111             &lt;!ATTLIST "TIFFShort" "description" #CDATA #IMPLIED&gt;
1112               &lt;!-- A description, if available --&gt; 
1113               &lt;!-- Data type: String --&gt;
1114 
1115         &lt;!ELEMENT "TIFFSShorts" (TIFFSShort)*&gt;
1116           &lt;!-- A sequence of TIFFSShort nodes --&gt; 
1117 
1118           &lt;!ELEMENT "TIFFSShort" EMPTY&gt;
1119             &lt;!-- An integral value between -32768 and 32767 --&gt; 
1120             &lt;!ATTLIST "TIFFSShort" "value" #CDATA #IMPLIED&gt;
1121               &lt;!-- The value --&gt; 
1122               &lt;!-- Data type: String --&gt;
1123             &lt;!ATTLIST "TIFFSShort" "description" #CDATA #IMPLIED&gt;
1124               &lt;!-- A description, if available --&gt; 
1125               &lt;!-- Data type: String --&gt;
1126 
1127         &lt;!ELEMENT "TIFFLongs" (TIFFLong)*&gt;
1128           &lt;!-- A sequence of TIFFLong nodes --&gt; 
1129 
1130           &lt;!ELEMENT "TIFFLong" EMPTY&gt;
1131             &lt;!-- An integral value between 0 and 4294967295 --&gt; 
1132             &lt;!ATTLIST "TIFFLong" "value" #CDATA #IMPLIED&gt;
1133               &lt;!-- The value --&gt; 
1134               &lt;!-- Data type: String --&gt;
1135             &lt;!ATTLIST "TIFFLong" "description" #CDATA #IMPLIED&gt;
1136               &lt;!-- A description, if available --&gt; 
1137               &lt;!-- Data type: String --&gt;
1138 
1139         &lt;!ELEMENT "TIFFSLongs" (TIFFSLong)*&gt;
1140           &lt;!-- A sequence of TIFFSLong nodes --&gt; 
1141 
1142           &lt;!ELEMENT "TIFFSLong" EMPTY&gt;
1143             &lt;!-- An integral value between -2147483648 and 2147482647 --&gt; 
1144             &lt;!ATTLIST "TIFFSLong" "value" #CDATA #IMPLIED&gt;
1145               &lt;!-- The value --&gt; 
1146               &lt;!-- Data type: String --&gt;
1147             &lt;!ATTLIST "TIFFSLong" "description" #CDATA #IMPLIED&gt;
1148               &lt;!-- A description, if available --&gt; 
1149               &lt;!-- Data type: String --&gt;
1150 
1151         &lt;!ELEMENT "TIFFRationals" (TIFFRational)*&gt;
1152           &lt;!-- A sequence of TIFFRational nodes --&gt; 
1153 
1154           &lt;!ELEMENT "TIFFRational" EMPTY&gt;
1155             &lt;!-- A rational value consisting of an unsigned numerator and 
1156                  denominator --&gt; 
1157             &lt;!ATTLIST "TIFFRational" "value" #CDATA #IMPLIED&gt;
1158               &lt;!-- The numerator and denominator, separated by a slash --&gt; 
1159               &lt;!-- Data type: String --&gt;
1160 
1161         &lt;!ELEMENT "TIFFSRationals" (TIFFSRational)*&gt;
1162           &lt;!-- A sequence of TIFFSRational nodes --&gt; 
1163 
1164           &lt;!ELEMENT "TIFFSRational" EMPTY&gt;
1165             &lt;!-- A rational value consisting of a signed numerator and 
1166                  denominator --&gt; 
1167             &lt;!ATTLIST "TIFFSRational" "value" #CDATA #IMPLIED&gt;
1168               &lt;!-- The numerator and denominator, separated by a slash --&gt; 
1169               &lt;!-- Data type: String --&gt;
1170 
1171         &lt;!ELEMENT "TIFFFloats" (TIFFFloat)*&gt;
1172           &lt;!-- A sequence of TIFFFloat nodes --&gt; 
1173 
1174           &lt;!ELEMENT "TIFFFloat" EMPTY&gt;
1175             &lt;!-- A single-precision floating-point value --&gt; 
1176             &lt;!ATTLIST "TIFFFloat" "value" #CDATA #IMPLIED&gt;
1177               &lt;!-- The value --&gt; 
1178               &lt;!-- Data type: String --&gt;
1179 
1180         &lt;!ELEMENT "TIFFDoubles" (TIFFDouble)*&gt;
1181           &lt;!-- A sequence of TIFFDouble nodes --&gt; 
1182 
1183           &lt;!ELEMENT "TIFFDouble" EMPTY&gt;
1184             &lt;!-- A double-precision floating-point value --&gt; 
1185             &lt;!ATTLIST "TIFFDouble" "value" #CDATA #IMPLIED&gt;
1186               &lt;!-- The value --&gt; 
1187               &lt;!-- Data type: String --&gt;
1188 
1189         &lt;!ELEMENT "TIFFUndefined" EMPTY&gt;
1190           &lt;!-- Uninterpreted byte data --&gt; 
1191           &lt;!ATTLIST "TIFFUndefined" "value" #CDATA #IMPLIED&gt;
1192             &lt;!-- A list of comma-separated byte values --&gt; 
1193             &lt;!-- Data type: String --&gt;
1194 ]&gt;
1195 </pre>
1196 
1197 @since 9
1198 
1199 </body>
1200 </html>
--- EOF ---