1 /*
   2  * Copyright (c) 1997, 2017, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
   3  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
   4  *
   5  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   6  * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
   7  * published by the Free Software Foundation.
   8  *
   9  * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  10  * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  11  * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  12  * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  13  * accompanied this code).
  14  *
  15  * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  16  * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  17  * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  18  *
  19  * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  20  * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  21  * questions.
  22  *
  23  */
  24 
  25 #include "precompiled.hpp"
  26 #include "aot/aotLoader.hpp"
  27 #include "classfile/classLoader.hpp"
  28 #include "classfile/classLoaderData.hpp"
  29 #include "classfile/javaClasses.hpp"
  30 #include "classfile/stringTable.hpp"
  31 #include "classfile/systemDictionary.hpp"
  32 #include "classfile/vmSymbols.hpp"
  33 #include "code/codeCache.hpp"
  34 #include "code/dependencies.hpp"
  35 #include "gc/shared/cardTableModRefBS.hpp"
  36 #include "gc/shared/collectedHeap.inline.hpp"
  37 #include "gc/shared/gcLocker.inline.hpp"
  38 #include "gc/shared/genCollectedHeap.hpp"
  39 #include "gc/shared/generation.hpp"
  40 #include "gc/shared/gcTraceTime.inline.hpp"
  41 #include "gc/shared/space.hpp"
  42 #include "interpreter/interpreter.hpp"
  43 #include "logging/log.hpp"
  44 #include "logging/logStream.hpp"
  45 #include "memory/filemap.hpp"
  46 #include "memory/metadataFactory.hpp"
  47 #include "memory/metaspaceClosure.hpp"
  48 #include "memory/metaspaceShared.hpp"
  49 #include "memory/oopFactory.hpp"
  50 #include "memory/resourceArea.hpp"
  51 #include "memory/universe.hpp"
  52 #include "memory/universe.inline.hpp"
  53 #include "oops/constantPool.hpp"
  54 #include "oops/instanceClassLoaderKlass.hpp"
  55 #include "oops/instanceKlass.hpp"
  56 #include "oops/instanceMirrorKlass.hpp"
  57 #include "oops/instanceRefKlass.hpp"
  58 #include "oops/objArrayOop.inline.hpp"
  59 #include "oops/oop.inline.hpp"
  60 #include "oops/typeArrayKlass.hpp"
  61 #include "prims/resolvedMethodTable.hpp"
  62 #include "runtime/arguments.hpp"
  63 #include "runtime/atomic.hpp"
  64 #include "runtime/commandLineFlagConstraintList.hpp"
  65 #include "runtime/deoptimization.hpp"
  66 #include "runtime/handles.inline.hpp"
  67 #include "runtime/init.hpp"
  68 #include "runtime/java.hpp"
  69 #include "runtime/javaCalls.hpp"
  70 #include "runtime/sharedRuntime.hpp"
  71 #include "runtime/synchronizer.hpp"
  72 #include "runtime/thread.inline.hpp"
  73 #include "runtime/timerTrace.hpp"
  74 #include "runtime/vm_operations.hpp"
  75 #include "services/memoryService.hpp"
  76 #include "utilities/align.hpp"
  77 #include "utilities/copy.hpp"
  78 #include "utilities/debug.hpp"
  79 #include "utilities/events.hpp"
  80 #include "utilities/formatBuffer.hpp"
  81 #include "utilities/hashtable.inline.hpp"
  82 #include "utilities/macros.hpp"
  83 #include "utilities/ostream.hpp"
  84 #include "utilities/preserveException.hpp"
  85 #if INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
  86 #include "gc/cms/cmsCollectorPolicy.hpp"
  87 #include "gc/g1/g1CollectedHeap.inline.hpp"
  88 #include "gc/g1/g1CollectorPolicy.hpp"
  89 #include "gc/parallel/parallelScavengeHeap.hpp"
  90 #include "gc/shared/adaptiveSizePolicy.hpp"
  91 #endif // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
  92 #if INCLUDE_CDS
  93 #include "classfile/sharedClassUtil.hpp"
  94 #endif
  95 
  96 // Known objects
  97 Klass* Universe::_boolArrayKlassObj                 = NULL;
  98 Klass* Universe::_byteArrayKlassObj                 = NULL;
  99 Klass* Universe::_charArrayKlassObj                 = NULL;
 100 Klass* Universe::_intArrayKlassObj                  = NULL;
 101 Klass* Universe::_shortArrayKlassObj                = NULL;
 102 Klass* Universe::_longArrayKlassObj                 = NULL;
 103 Klass* Universe::_singleArrayKlassObj               = NULL;
 104 Klass* Universe::_doubleArrayKlassObj               = NULL;
 105 Klass* Universe::_typeArrayKlassObjs[T_VOID+1]      = { NULL /*, NULL...*/ };
 106 Klass* Universe::_objectArrayKlassObj               = NULL;
 107 oop Universe::_int_mirror                             = NULL;
 108 oop Universe::_float_mirror                           = NULL;
 109 oop Universe::_double_mirror                          = NULL;
 110 oop Universe::_byte_mirror                            = NULL;
 111 oop Universe::_bool_mirror                            = NULL;
 112 oop Universe::_char_mirror                            = NULL;
 113 oop Universe::_long_mirror                            = NULL;
 114 oop Universe::_short_mirror                           = NULL;
 115 oop Universe::_void_mirror                            = NULL;
 116 oop Universe::_mirrors[T_VOID+1]                      = { NULL /*, NULL...*/ };
 117 oop Universe::_main_thread_group                      = NULL;
 118 oop Universe::_system_thread_group                    = NULL;
 119 objArrayOop Universe::_the_empty_class_klass_array    = NULL;
 120 Array<Klass*>* Universe::_the_array_interfaces_array = NULL;
 121 oop Universe::_the_null_string                        = NULL;
 122 oop Universe::_the_min_jint_string                   = NULL;
 123 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_finalizer_register_cache = NULL;
 124 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_loader_addClass_cache    = NULL;
 125 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_pd_implies_cache         = NULL;
 126 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_throw_illegal_access_error_cache = NULL;
 127 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_do_stack_walk_cache     = NULL;
 128 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap          = NULL;
 129 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace          = NULL;
 130 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace    = NULL;
 131 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size         = NULL;
 132 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit  = NULL;
 133 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects    = NULL;
 134 oop Universe::_delayed_stack_overflow_error_message   = NULL;
 135 objArrayOop Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_array = NULL;
 136 volatile jint Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count = 0;
 137 bool Universe::_verify_in_progress                    = false;
 138 long Universe::verify_flags                           = Universe::Verify_All;
 139 oop Universe::_null_ptr_exception_instance            = NULL;
 140 oop Universe::_arithmetic_exception_instance          = NULL;
 141 oop Universe::_virtual_machine_error_instance         = NULL;
 142 oop Universe::_vm_exception                           = NULL;
 143 oop Universe::_allocation_context_notification_obj    = NULL;
 144 oop Universe::_reference_pending_list                 = NULL;
 145 
 146 Array<int>* Universe::_the_empty_int_array            = NULL;
 147 Array<u2>* Universe::_the_empty_short_array           = NULL;
 148 Array<Klass*>* Universe::_the_empty_klass_array     = NULL;
 149 Array<Method*>* Universe::_the_empty_method_array   = NULL;
 150 
 151 // These variables are guarded by FullGCALot_lock.
 152 debug_only(objArrayOop Universe::_fullgc_alot_dummy_array = NULL;)
 153 debug_only(int Universe::_fullgc_alot_dummy_next      = 0;)
 154 
 155 // Heap
 156 int             Universe::_verify_count = 0;
 157 
 158 // Oop verification (see MacroAssembler::verify_oop)
 159 uintptr_t       Universe::_verify_oop_mask = 0;
 160 uintptr_t       Universe::_verify_oop_bits = (uintptr_t) -1;
 161 
 162 int             Universe::_base_vtable_size = 0;
 163 bool            Universe::_bootstrapping = false;
 164 bool            Universe::_module_initialized = false;
 165 bool            Universe::_fully_initialized = false;
 166 
 167 size_t          Universe::_heap_capacity_at_last_gc;
 168 size_t          Universe::_heap_used_at_last_gc = 0;
 169 
 170 CollectedHeap*  Universe::_collectedHeap = NULL;
 171 
 172 NarrowPtrStruct Universe::_narrow_oop = { NULL, 0, true };
 173 NarrowPtrStruct Universe::_narrow_klass = { NULL, 0, true };
 174 address Universe::_narrow_ptrs_base;
 175 
 176 void Universe::basic_type_classes_do(void f(Klass*)) {
 177   f(boolArrayKlassObj());
 178   f(byteArrayKlassObj());
 179   f(charArrayKlassObj());
 180   f(intArrayKlassObj());
 181   f(shortArrayKlassObj());
 182   f(longArrayKlassObj());
 183   f(singleArrayKlassObj());
 184   f(doubleArrayKlassObj());
 185 }
 186 
 187 void Universe::oops_do(OopClosure* f, bool do_all) {
 188 
 189   f->do_oop((oop*) &_int_mirror);
 190   f->do_oop((oop*) &_float_mirror);
 191   f->do_oop((oop*) &_double_mirror);
 192   f->do_oop((oop*) &_byte_mirror);
 193   f->do_oop((oop*) &_bool_mirror);
 194   f->do_oop((oop*) &_char_mirror);
 195   f->do_oop((oop*) &_long_mirror);
 196   f->do_oop((oop*) &_short_mirror);
 197   f->do_oop((oop*) &_void_mirror);
 198 
 199   for (int i = T_BOOLEAN; i < T_VOID+1; i++) {
 200     f->do_oop((oop*) &_mirrors[i]);
 201   }
 202   assert(_mirrors[0] == NULL && _mirrors[T_BOOLEAN - 1] == NULL, "checking");
 203 
 204   f->do_oop((oop*)&_the_empty_class_klass_array);
 205   f->do_oop((oop*)&_the_null_string);
 206   f->do_oop((oop*)&_the_min_jint_string);
 207   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_java_heap);
 208   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_metaspace);
 209   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace);
 210   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_array_size);
 211   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit);
 212   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects);
 213   f->do_oop((oop*)&_delayed_stack_overflow_error_message);
 214   f->do_oop((oop*)&_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_array);
 215   f->do_oop((oop*)&_null_ptr_exception_instance);
 216   f->do_oop((oop*)&_arithmetic_exception_instance);
 217   f->do_oop((oop*)&_virtual_machine_error_instance);
 218   f->do_oop((oop*)&_main_thread_group);
 219   f->do_oop((oop*)&_system_thread_group);
 220   f->do_oop((oop*)&_vm_exception);
 221   f->do_oop((oop*)&_allocation_context_notification_obj);
 222   f->do_oop((oop*)&_reference_pending_list);
 223   debug_only(f->do_oop((oop*)&_fullgc_alot_dummy_array);)
 224 }
 225 
 226 void LatestMethodCache::metaspace_pointers_do(MetaspaceClosure* it) {
 227   it->push(&_klass);
 228 }
 229 
 230 void Universe::metaspace_pointers_do(MetaspaceClosure* it) {
 231   it->push(&_boolArrayKlassObj);
 232   it->push(&_byteArrayKlassObj);
 233   it->push(&_charArrayKlassObj);
 234   it->push(&_intArrayKlassObj);
 235   it->push(&_shortArrayKlassObj);
 236   it->push(&_longArrayKlassObj);
 237   it->push(&_singleArrayKlassObj);
 238   it->push(&_doubleArrayKlassObj);
 239   for (int i = 0; i < T_VOID+1; i++) {
 240     it->push(&_typeArrayKlassObjs[i]);
 241   }
 242   it->push(&_objectArrayKlassObj);
 243 
 244   it->push(&_the_empty_int_array);
 245   it->push(&_the_empty_short_array);
 246   it->push(&_the_empty_klass_array);
 247   it->push(&_the_empty_method_array);
 248   it->push(&_the_array_interfaces_array);
 249 
 250   _finalizer_register_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 251   _loader_addClass_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 252   _pd_implies_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 253   _throw_illegal_access_error_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 254   _do_stack_walk_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 255 }
 256 
 257 // Serialize metadata in and out of CDS archive, not oops.
 258 void Universe::serialize(SerializeClosure* f, bool do_all) {
 259 
 260   f->do_ptr((void**)&_boolArrayKlassObj);
 261   f->do_ptr((void**)&_byteArrayKlassObj);
 262   f->do_ptr((void**)&_charArrayKlassObj);
 263   f->do_ptr((void**)&_intArrayKlassObj);
 264   f->do_ptr((void**)&_shortArrayKlassObj);
 265   f->do_ptr((void**)&_longArrayKlassObj);
 266   f->do_ptr((void**)&_singleArrayKlassObj);
 267   f->do_ptr((void**)&_doubleArrayKlassObj);
 268   f->do_ptr((void**)&_objectArrayKlassObj);
 269 
 270   {
 271     for (int i = 0; i < T_VOID+1; i++) {
 272       if (_typeArrayKlassObjs[i] != NULL) {
 273         assert(i >= T_BOOLEAN, "checking");
 274         f->do_ptr((void**)&_typeArrayKlassObjs[i]);
 275       } else if (do_all) {
 276         f->do_ptr((void**)&_typeArrayKlassObjs[i]);
 277       }
 278     }
 279   }
 280 
 281   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_array_interfaces_array);
 282   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_int_array);
 283   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_short_array);
 284   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_method_array);
 285   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_klass_array);
 286   _finalizer_register_cache->serialize(f);
 287   _loader_addClass_cache->serialize(f);
 288   _pd_implies_cache->serialize(f);
 289   _throw_illegal_access_error_cache->serialize(f);
 290   _do_stack_walk_cache->serialize(f);
 291 }
 292 
 293 void Universe::check_alignment(uintx size, uintx alignment, const char* name) {
 294   if (size < alignment || size % alignment != 0) {
 295     vm_exit_during_initialization(
 296       err_msg("Size of %s (" UINTX_FORMAT " bytes) must be aligned to " UINTX_FORMAT " bytes", name, size, alignment));
 297   }
 298 }
 299 
 300 void initialize_basic_type_klass(Klass* k, TRAPS) {
 301   Klass* ok = SystemDictionary::Object_klass();
 302 #if INCLUDE_CDS
 303   if (UseSharedSpaces) {
 304     ClassLoaderData* loader_data = ClassLoaderData::the_null_class_loader_data();
 305     assert(k->super() == ok, "u3");
 306     k->restore_unshareable_info(loader_data, Handle(), CHECK);
 307   } else
 308 #endif
 309   {
 310     k->initialize_supers(ok, CHECK);
 311   }
 312   k->append_to_sibling_list();
 313 }
 314 
 315 void Universe::genesis(TRAPS) {
 316   ResourceMark rm;
 317 
 318   { FlagSetting fs(_bootstrapping, true);
 319 
 320     { MutexLocker mc(Compile_lock);
 321 
 322       java_lang_Class::allocate_fixup_lists();
 323 
 324       // determine base vtable size; without that we cannot create the array klasses
 325       compute_base_vtable_size();
 326 
 327       if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
 328         _boolArrayKlassObj      = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_BOOLEAN, sizeof(jboolean), CHECK);
 329         _charArrayKlassObj      = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_CHAR,    sizeof(jchar),    CHECK);
 330         _singleArrayKlassObj    = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_FLOAT,   sizeof(jfloat),   CHECK);
 331         _doubleArrayKlassObj    = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_DOUBLE,  sizeof(jdouble),  CHECK);
 332         _byteArrayKlassObj      = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_BYTE,    sizeof(jbyte),    CHECK);
 333         _shortArrayKlassObj     = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_SHORT,   sizeof(jshort),   CHECK);
 334         _intArrayKlassObj       = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_INT,     sizeof(jint),     CHECK);
 335         _longArrayKlassObj      = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_LONG,    sizeof(jlong),    CHECK);
 336 
 337         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_BOOLEAN] = _boolArrayKlassObj;
 338         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_CHAR]    = _charArrayKlassObj;
 339         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_FLOAT]   = _singleArrayKlassObj;
 340         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_DOUBLE]  = _doubleArrayKlassObj;
 341         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_BYTE]    = _byteArrayKlassObj;
 342         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_SHORT]   = _shortArrayKlassObj;
 343         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_INT]     = _intArrayKlassObj;
 344         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_LONG]    = _longArrayKlassObj;
 345 
 346         ClassLoaderData* null_cld = ClassLoaderData::the_null_class_loader_data();
 347 
 348         _the_array_interfaces_array = MetadataFactory::new_array<Klass*>(null_cld, 2, NULL, CHECK);
 349         _the_empty_int_array        = MetadataFactory::new_array<int>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 350         _the_empty_short_array      = MetadataFactory::new_array<u2>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 351         _the_empty_method_array     = MetadataFactory::new_array<Method*>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 352         _the_empty_klass_array      = MetadataFactory::new_array<Klass*>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 353       }
 354     }
 355 
 356     vmSymbols::initialize(CHECK);
 357 
 358     SystemDictionary::initialize(CHECK);
 359 
 360     Klass* ok = SystemDictionary::Object_klass();
 361 
 362     _the_null_string            = StringTable::intern("null", CHECK);
 363     _the_min_jint_string       = StringTable::intern("-2147483648", CHECK);
 364 
 365 #if INCLUDE_CDS
 366     if (UseSharedSpaces) {
 367       // Verify shared interfaces array.
 368       assert(_the_array_interfaces_array->at(0) ==
 369              SystemDictionary::Cloneable_klass(), "u3");
 370       assert(_the_array_interfaces_array->at(1) ==
 371              SystemDictionary::Serializable_klass(), "u3");
 372       MetaspaceShared::fixup_mapped_heap_regions();
 373     } else
 374 #endif
 375     {
 376       // Set up shared interfaces array.  (Do this before supers are set up.)
 377       _the_array_interfaces_array->at_put(0, SystemDictionary::Cloneable_klass());
 378       _the_array_interfaces_array->at_put(1, SystemDictionary::Serializable_klass());
 379     }
 380 
 381     initialize_basic_type_klass(boolArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 382     initialize_basic_type_klass(charArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 383     initialize_basic_type_klass(singleArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 384     initialize_basic_type_klass(doubleArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 385     initialize_basic_type_klass(byteArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 386     initialize_basic_type_klass(shortArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 387     initialize_basic_type_klass(intArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 388     initialize_basic_type_klass(longArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 389   } // end of core bootstrapping
 390 
 391   // Maybe this could be lifted up now that object array can be initialized
 392   // during the bootstrapping.
 393 
 394   // OLD
 395   // Initialize _objectArrayKlass after core bootstraping to make
 396   // sure the super class is set up properly for _objectArrayKlass.
 397   // ---
 398   // NEW
 399   // Since some of the old system object arrays have been converted to
 400   // ordinary object arrays, _objectArrayKlass will be loaded when
 401   // SystemDictionary::initialize(CHECK); is run. See the extra check
 402   // for Object_klass_loaded in objArrayKlassKlass::allocate_objArray_klass_impl.
 403   _objectArrayKlassObj = InstanceKlass::
 404     cast(SystemDictionary::Object_klass())->array_klass(1, CHECK);
 405   // OLD
 406   // Add the class to the class hierarchy manually to make sure that
 407   // its vtable is initialized after core bootstrapping is completed.
 408   // ---
 409   // New
 410   // Have already been initialized.
 411   _objectArrayKlassObj->append_to_sibling_list();
 412 
 413   #ifdef ASSERT
 414   if (FullGCALot) {
 415     // Allocate an array of dummy objects.
 416     // We'd like these to be at the bottom of the old generation,
 417     // so that when we free one and then collect,
 418     // (almost) the whole heap moves
 419     // and we find out if we actually update all the oops correctly.
 420     // But we can't allocate directly in the old generation,
 421     // so we allocate wherever, and hope that the first collection
 422     // moves these objects to the bottom of the old generation.
 423     // We can allocate directly in the permanent generation, so we do.
 424     int size;
 425     if (UseConcMarkSweepGC) {
 426       log_warning(gc)("Using +FullGCALot with concurrent mark sweep gc will not force all objects to relocate");
 427       size = FullGCALotDummies;
 428     } else {
 429       size = FullGCALotDummies * 2;
 430     }
 431     objArrayOop    naked_array = oopFactory::new_objArray(SystemDictionary::Object_klass(), size, CHECK);
 432     objArrayHandle dummy_array(THREAD, naked_array);
 433     int i = 0;
 434     while (i < size) {
 435         // Allocate dummy in old generation
 436       oop dummy = SystemDictionary::Object_klass()->allocate_instance(CHECK);
 437       dummy_array->obj_at_put(i++, dummy);
 438     }
 439     {
 440       // Only modify the global variable inside the mutex.
 441       // If we had a race to here, the other dummy_array instances
 442       // and their elements just get dropped on the floor, which is fine.
 443       MutexLocker ml(FullGCALot_lock);
 444       if (_fullgc_alot_dummy_array == NULL) {
 445         _fullgc_alot_dummy_array = dummy_array();
 446       }
 447     }
 448     assert(i == _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->length(), "just checking");
 449   }
 450   #endif
 451 
 452   // Initialize dependency array for null class loader
 453   ClassLoaderData::the_null_class_loader_data()->init_dependencies(CHECK);
 454 
 455 }
 456 
 457 void Universe::initialize_basic_type_mirrors(TRAPS) {
 458     assert(_int_mirror==NULL, "basic type mirrors already initialized");
 459     _int_mirror     =
 460       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("int",    T_INT, CHECK);
 461     _float_mirror   =
 462       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("float",  T_FLOAT,   CHECK);
 463     _double_mirror  =
 464       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("double", T_DOUBLE,  CHECK);
 465     _byte_mirror    =
 466       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("byte",   T_BYTE, CHECK);
 467     _bool_mirror    =
 468       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("boolean",T_BOOLEAN, CHECK);
 469     _char_mirror    =
 470       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("char",   T_CHAR, CHECK);
 471     _long_mirror    =
 472       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("long",   T_LONG, CHECK);
 473     _short_mirror   =
 474       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("short",  T_SHORT,   CHECK);
 475     _void_mirror    =
 476       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("void",   T_VOID, CHECK);
 477 
 478     _mirrors[T_INT]     = _int_mirror;
 479     _mirrors[T_FLOAT]   = _float_mirror;
 480     _mirrors[T_DOUBLE]  = _double_mirror;
 481     _mirrors[T_BYTE]    = _byte_mirror;
 482     _mirrors[T_BOOLEAN] = _bool_mirror;
 483     _mirrors[T_CHAR]    = _char_mirror;
 484     _mirrors[T_LONG]    = _long_mirror;
 485     _mirrors[T_SHORT]   = _short_mirror;
 486     _mirrors[T_VOID]    = _void_mirror;
 487   //_mirrors[T_OBJECT]  = _object_klass->java_mirror();
 488   //_mirrors[T_ARRAY]   = _object_klass->java_mirror();
 489 }
 490 
 491 void Universe::fixup_mirrors(TRAPS) {
 492   // Bootstrap problem: all classes gets a mirror (java.lang.Class instance) assigned eagerly,
 493   // but we cannot do that for classes created before java.lang.Class is loaded. Here we simply
 494   // walk over permanent objects created so far (mostly classes) and fixup their mirrors. Note
 495   // that the number of objects allocated at this point is very small.
 496   assert(SystemDictionary::Class_klass_loaded(), "java.lang.Class should be loaded");
 497   HandleMark hm(THREAD);
 498   // Cache the start of the static fields
 499   InstanceMirrorKlass::init_offset_of_static_fields();
 500 
 501   GrowableArray <Klass*>* list = java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror_list();
 502   int list_length = list->length();
 503   for (int i = 0; i < list_length; i++) {
 504     Klass* k = list->at(i);
 505     assert(k->is_klass(), "List should only hold classes");
 506     EXCEPTION_MARK;
 507     java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror(k, CATCH);
 508   }
 509   delete java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror_list();
 510   java_lang_Class::set_fixup_mirror_list(NULL);
 511 }
 512 
 513 #define assert_pll_locked(test) \
 514   assert(Heap_lock->test(), "Reference pending list access requires lock")
 515 
 516 #define assert_pll_ownership() assert_pll_locked(owned_by_self)
 517 
 518 oop Universe::reference_pending_list() {
 519   if (Thread::current()->is_VM_thread()) {
 520     assert_pll_locked(is_locked);
 521   } else {
 522     assert_pll_ownership();
 523   }
 524   return _reference_pending_list;
 525 }
 526 
 527 void Universe::set_reference_pending_list(oop list) {
 528   assert_pll_ownership();
 529   _reference_pending_list = list;
 530 }
 531 
 532 bool Universe::has_reference_pending_list() {
 533   assert_pll_ownership();
 534   return _reference_pending_list != NULL;
 535 }
 536 
 537 oop Universe::swap_reference_pending_list(oop list) {
 538   assert_pll_locked(is_locked);
 539   return (oop)Atomic::xchg_ptr(list, &_reference_pending_list);
 540 }
 541 
 542 #undef assert_pll_locked
 543 #undef assert_pll_ownership
 544 
 545 
 546 static bool has_run_finalizers_on_exit = false;
 547 
 548 void Universe::run_finalizers_on_exit() {
 549   if (has_run_finalizers_on_exit) return;
 550   has_run_finalizers_on_exit = true;
 551 
 552   // Called on VM exit. This ought to be run in a separate thread.
 553   log_trace(ref)("Callback to run finalizers on exit");
 554   {
 555     PRESERVE_EXCEPTION_MARK;
 556     Klass* finalizer_klass = SystemDictionary::Finalizer_klass();
 557     JavaValue result(T_VOID);
 558     JavaCalls::call_static(
 559       &result,
 560       finalizer_klass,
 561       vmSymbols::run_finalizers_on_exit_name(),
 562       vmSymbols::void_method_signature(),
 563       THREAD
 564     );
 565     // Ignore any pending exceptions
 566     CLEAR_PENDING_EXCEPTION;
 567   }
 568 }
 569 
 570 
 571 // initialize_vtable could cause gc if
 572 // 1) we specified true to initialize_vtable and
 573 // 2) this ran after gc was enabled
 574 // In case those ever change we use handles for oops
 575 void Universe::reinitialize_vtable_of(Klass* ko, TRAPS) {
 576   // init vtable of k and all subclasses
 577   ko->vtable().initialize_vtable(false, CHECK);
 578   if (ko->is_instance_klass()) {
 579     for (Klass* sk = ko->subklass();
 580          sk != NULL;
 581          sk = sk->next_sibling()) {
 582       reinitialize_vtable_of(sk, CHECK);
 583     }
 584   }
 585 }
 586 
 587 
 588 void initialize_itable_for_klass(InstanceKlass* k, TRAPS) {
 589   k->itable().initialize_itable(false, CHECK);
 590 }
 591 
 592 
 593 void Universe::reinitialize_itables(TRAPS) {
 594   ClassLoaderDataGraph::dictionary_classes_do(initialize_itable_for_klass, CHECK);
 595 }
 596 
 597 
 598 bool Universe::on_page_boundary(void* addr) {
 599   return is_aligned(addr, os::vm_page_size());
 600 }
 601 
 602 
 603 bool Universe::should_fill_in_stack_trace(Handle throwable) {
 604   // never attempt to fill in the stack trace of preallocated errors that do not have
 605   // backtrace. These errors are kept alive forever and may be "re-used" when all
 606   // preallocated errors with backtrace have been consumed. Also need to avoid
 607   // a potential loop which could happen if an out of memory occurs when attempting
 608   // to allocate the backtrace.
 609   return ((throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap) &&
 610           (throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace)  &&
 611           (throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace)  &&
 612           (throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size) &&
 613           (throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit) &&
 614           (throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects));
 615 }
 616 
 617 
 618 oop Universe::gen_out_of_memory_error(oop default_err) {
 619   // generate an out of memory error:
 620   // - if there is a preallocated error and stack traces are available
 621   //   (j.l.Throwable is initialized), then return the preallocated
 622   //   error with a filled in stack trace, and with the message
 623   //   provided by the default error.
 624   // - otherwise, return the default error, without a stack trace.
 625   int next;
 626   if ((_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count > 0) &&
 627       SystemDictionary::Throwable_klass()->is_initialized()) {
 628     next = (int)Atomic::add(-1, &_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count);
 629     assert(next < (int)PreallocatedOutOfMemoryErrorCount, "avail count is corrupt");
 630   } else {
 631     next = -1;
 632   }
 633   if (next < 0) {
 634     // all preallocated errors have been used.
 635     // return default
 636     return default_err;
 637   } else {
 638     Thread* THREAD = Thread::current();
 639     Handle default_err_h(THREAD, default_err);
 640     // get the error object at the slot and set set it to NULL so that the
 641     // array isn't keeping it alive anymore.
 642     Handle exc(THREAD, preallocated_out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at(next));
 643     assert(exc() != NULL, "slot has been used already");
 644     preallocated_out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at_put(next, NULL);
 645 
 646     // use the message from the default error
 647     oop msg = java_lang_Throwable::message(default_err_h());
 648     assert(msg != NULL, "no message");
 649     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(exc(), msg);
 650 
 651     // populate the stack trace and return it.
 652     java_lang_Throwable::fill_in_stack_trace_of_preallocated_backtrace(exc);
 653     return exc();
 654   }
 655 }
 656 
 657 intptr_t Universe::_non_oop_bits = 0;
 658 
 659 void* Universe::non_oop_word() {
 660   // Neither the high bits nor the low bits of this value is allowed
 661   // to look like (respectively) the high or low bits of a real oop.
 662   //
 663   // High and low are CPU-specific notions, but low always includes
 664   // the low-order bit.  Since oops are always aligned at least mod 4,
 665   // setting the low-order bit will ensure that the low half of the
 666   // word will never look like that of a real oop.
 667   //
 668   // Using the OS-supplied non-memory-address word (usually 0 or -1)
 669   // will take care of the high bits, however many there are.
 670 
 671   if (_non_oop_bits == 0) {
 672     _non_oop_bits = (intptr_t)os::non_memory_address_word() | 1;
 673   }
 674 
 675   return (void*)_non_oop_bits;
 676 }
 677 
 678 jint universe_init() {
 679   assert(!Universe::_fully_initialized, "called after initialize_vtables");
 680   guarantee(1 << LogHeapWordSize == sizeof(HeapWord),
 681          "LogHeapWordSize is incorrect.");
 682   guarantee(sizeof(oop) >= sizeof(HeapWord), "HeapWord larger than oop?");
 683   guarantee(sizeof(oop) % sizeof(HeapWord) == 0,
 684             "oop size is not not a multiple of HeapWord size");
 685 
 686   TraceTime timer("Genesis", TRACETIME_LOG(Info, startuptime));
 687 
 688   JavaClasses::compute_hard_coded_offsets();
 689 
 690   jint status = Universe::initialize_heap();
 691   if (status != JNI_OK) {
 692     return status;
 693   }
 694 
 695   Metaspace::global_initialize();
 696 
 697   AOTLoader::universe_init();
 698 
 699   // Checks 'AfterMemoryInit' constraints.
 700   if (!CommandLineFlagConstraintList::check_constraints(CommandLineFlagConstraint::AfterMemoryInit)) {
 701     return JNI_EINVAL;
 702   }
 703 
 704   // Create memory for metadata.  Must be after initializing heap for
 705   // DumpSharedSpaces.
 706   ClassLoaderData::init_null_class_loader_data();
 707 
 708   // We have a heap so create the Method* caches before
 709   // Metaspace::initialize_shared_spaces() tries to populate them.
 710   Universe::_finalizer_register_cache = new LatestMethodCache();
 711   Universe::_loader_addClass_cache    = new LatestMethodCache();
 712   Universe::_pd_implies_cache         = new LatestMethodCache();
 713   Universe::_throw_illegal_access_error_cache = new LatestMethodCache();
 714   Universe::_do_stack_walk_cache = new LatestMethodCache();
 715 
 716 #if INCLUDE_CDS
 717   if (UseSharedSpaces) {
 718     // Read the data structures supporting the shared spaces (shared
 719     // system dictionary, symbol table, etc.).  After that, access to
 720     // the file (other than the mapped regions) is no longer needed, and
 721     // the file is closed. Closing the file does not affect the
 722     // currently mapped regions.
 723     MetaspaceShared::initialize_shared_spaces();
 724     StringTable::create_table();
 725   } else
 726 #endif
 727   {
 728     SymbolTable::create_table();
 729     StringTable::create_table();
 730 
 731 #if INCLUDE_CDS
 732     if (DumpSharedSpaces) {
 733       MetaspaceShared::prepare_for_dumping();
 734     }
 735 #endif
 736   }
 737   if (strlen(VerifySubSet) > 0) {
 738     Universe::initialize_verify_flags();
 739   }
 740 
 741   ResolvedMethodTable::create_table();
 742 
 743   return JNI_OK;
 744 }
 745 
 746 CollectedHeap* Universe::create_heap() {
 747   assert(_collectedHeap == NULL, "Heap already created");
 748 #if !INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
 749   if (UseParallelGC) {
 750     fatal("UseParallelGC not supported in this VM.");
 751   } else if (UseG1GC) {
 752     fatal("UseG1GC not supported in this VM.");
 753   } else if (UseConcMarkSweepGC) {
 754     fatal("UseConcMarkSweepGC not supported in this VM.");
 755 #else
 756   if (UseParallelGC) {
 757     return Universe::create_heap_with_policy<ParallelScavengeHeap, GenerationSizer>();
 758   } else if (UseG1GC) {
 759     return Universe::create_heap_with_policy<G1CollectedHeap, G1CollectorPolicy>();
 760   } else if (UseConcMarkSweepGC) {
 761     return Universe::create_heap_with_policy<GenCollectedHeap, ConcurrentMarkSweepPolicy>();
 762 #endif
 763   } else if (UseSerialGC) {
 764     return Universe::create_heap_with_policy<GenCollectedHeap, MarkSweepPolicy>();
 765   }
 766 
 767   ShouldNotReachHere();
 768   return NULL;
 769 }
 770 
 771 // Choose the heap base address and oop encoding mode
 772 // when compressed oops are used:
 773 // Unscaled  - Use 32-bits oops without encoding when
 774 //     NarrowOopHeapBaseMin + heap_size < 4Gb
 775 // ZeroBased - Use zero based compressed oops with encoding when
 776 //     NarrowOopHeapBaseMin + heap_size < 32Gb
 777 // HeapBased - Use compressed oops with heap base + encoding.
 778 
 779 jint Universe::initialize_heap() {
 780   jint status = JNI_ERR;
 781 
 782   _collectedHeap = create_heap_ext();
 783   if (_collectedHeap == NULL) {
 784     _collectedHeap = create_heap();
 785   }
 786 
 787   status = _collectedHeap->initialize();
 788   if (status != JNI_OK) {
 789     return status;
 790   }
 791   log_info(gc)("Using %s", _collectedHeap->name());
 792 
 793   ThreadLocalAllocBuffer::set_max_size(Universe::heap()->max_tlab_size());
 794 
 795 #ifdef _LP64
 796   if (UseCompressedOops) {
 797     // Subtract a page because something can get allocated at heap base.
 798     // This also makes implicit null checking work, because the
 799     // memory+1 page below heap_base needs to cause a signal.
 800     // See needs_explicit_null_check.
 801     // Only set the heap base for compressed oops because it indicates
 802     // compressed oops for pstack code.
 803     if ((uint64_t)Universe::heap()->reserved_region().end() > UnscaledOopHeapMax) {
 804       // Didn't reserve heap below 4Gb.  Must shift.
 805       Universe::set_narrow_oop_shift(LogMinObjAlignmentInBytes);
 806     }
 807     if ((uint64_t)Universe::heap()->reserved_region().end() <= OopEncodingHeapMax) {
 808       // Did reserve heap below 32Gb. Can use base == 0;
 809       Universe::set_narrow_oop_base(0);
 810     }
 811 
 812     Universe::set_narrow_ptrs_base(Universe::narrow_oop_base());
 813 
 814     LogTarget(Info, gc, heap, coops) lt;
 815     if (lt.is_enabled()) {
 816       ResourceMark rm;
 817       LogStream ls(lt);
 818       Universe::print_compressed_oops_mode(&ls);
 819     }
 820 
 821     // Tell tests in which mode we run.
 822     Arguments::PropertyList_add(new SystemProperty("java.vm.compressedOopsMode",
 823                                                    narrow_oop_mode_to_string(narrow_oop_mode()),
 824                                                    false));
 825   }
 826   // Universe::narrow_oop_base() is one page below the heap.
 827   assert((intptr_t)Universe::narrow_oop_base() <= (intptr_t)(Universe::heap()->base() -
 828          os::vm_page_size()) ||
 829          Universe::narrow_oop_base() == NULL, "invalid value");
 830   assert(Universe::narrow_oop_shift() == LogMinObjAlignmentInBytes ||
 831          Universe::narrow_oop_shift() == 0, "invalid value");
 832 #endif
 833 
 834   // We will never reach the CATCH below since Exceptions::_throw will cause
 835   // the VM to exit if an exception is thrown during initialization
 836 
 837   if (UseTLAB) {
 838     assert(Universe::heap()->supports_tlab_allocation(),
 839            "Should support thread-local allocation buffers");
 840     ThreadLocalAllocBuffer::startup_initialization();
 841   }
 842   return JNI_OK;
 843 }
 844 
 845 void Universe::print_compressed_oops_mode(outputStream* st) {
 846   st->print("Heap address: " PTR_FORMAT ", size: " SIZE_FORMAT " MB",
 847             p2i(Universe::heap()->base()), Universe::heap()->reserved_region().byte_size()/M);
 848 
 849   st->print(", Compressed Oops mode: %s", narrow_oop_mode_to_string(narrow_oop_mode()));
 850 
 851   if (Universe::narrow_oop_base() != 0) {
 852     st->print(": " PTR_FORMAT, p2i(Universe::narrow_oop_base()));
 853   }
 854 
 855   if (Universe::narrow_oop_shift() != 0) {
 856     st->print(", Oop shift amount: %d", Universe::narrow_oop_shift());
 857   }
 858 
 859   if (!Universe::narrow_oop_use_implicit_null_checks()) {
 860     st->print(", no protected page in front of the heap");
 861   }
 862   st->cr();
 863 }
 864 
 865 ReservedSpace Universe::reserve_heap(size_t heap_size, size_t alignment) {
 866 
 867   assert(alignment <= Arguments::conservative_max_heap_alignment(),
 868          "actual alignment " SIZE_FORMAT " must be within maximum heap alignment " SIZE_FORMAT,
 869          alignment, Arguments::conservative_max_heap_alignment());
 870 
 871   size_t total_reserved = align_up(heap_size, alignment);
 872   assert(!UseCompressedOops || (total_reserved <= (OopEncodingHeapMax - os::vm_page_size())),
 873       "heap size is too big for compressed oops");
 874 
 875   bool use_large_pages = UseLargePages && is_aligned(alignment, os::large_page_size());
 876   assert(!UseLargePages
 877       || UseParallelGC
 878       || use_large_pages, "Wrong alignment to use large pages");
 879 
 880   // Now create the space.
 881   ReservedHeapSpace total_rs(total_reserved, alignment, use_large_pages);
 882 
 883   if (total_rs.is_reserved()) {
 884     assert((total_reserved == total_rs.size()) && ((uintptr_t)total_rs.base() % alignment == 0),
 885            "must be exactly of required size and alignment");
 886     // We are good.
 887 
 888     if (UseCompressedOops) {
 889       // Universe::initialize_heap() will reset this to NULL if unscaled
 890       // or zero-based narrow oops are actually used.
 891       // Else heap start and base MUST differ, so that NULL can be encoded nonambigous.
 892       Universe::set_narrow_oop_base((address)total_rs.compressed_oop_base());
 893     }
 894 
 895     return total_rs;
 896   }
 897 
 898   vm_exit_during_initialization(
 899     err_msg("Could not reserve enough space for " SIZE_FORMAT "KB object heap",
 900             total_reserved/K));
 901 
 902   // satisfy compiler
 903   ShouldNotReachHere();
 904   return ReservedHeapSpace(0, 0, false);
 905 }
 906 
 907 
 908 // It's the caller's responsibility to ensure glitch-freedom
 909 // (if required).
 910 void Universe::update_heap_info_at_gc() {
 911   _heap_capacity_at_last_gc = heap()->capacity();
 912   _heap_used_at_last_gc     = heap()->used();
 913 }
 914 
 915 
 916 const char* Universe::narrow_oop_mode_to_string(Universe::NARROW_OOP_MODE mode) {
 917   switch (mode) {
 918     case UnscaledNarrowOop:
 919       return "32-bit";
 920     case ZeroBasedNarrowOop:
 921       return "Zero based";
 922     case DisjointBaseNarrowOop:
 923       return "Non-zero disjoint base";
 924     case HeapBasedNarrowOop:
 925       return "Non-zero based";
 926     default:
 927       ShouldNotReachHere();
 928       return "";
 929   }
 930 }
 931 
 932 
 933 Universe::NARROW_OOP_MODE Universe::narrow_oop_mode() {
 934   if (narrow_oop_base_disjoint()) {
 935     return DisjointBaseNarrowOop;
 936   }
 937 
 938   if (narrow_oop_base() != 0) {
 939     return HeapBasedNarrowOop;
 940   }
 941 
 942   if (narrow_oop_shift() != 0) {
 943     return ZeroBasedNarrowOop;
 944   }
 945 
 946   return UnscaledNarrowOop;
 947 }
 948 
 949 void initialize_known_method(LatestMethodCache* method_cache,
 950                              InstanceKlass* ik,
 951                              const char* method,
 952                              Symbol* signature,
 953                              bool is_static, TRAPS)
 954 {
 955   TempNewSymbol name = SymbolTable::new_symbol(method, CHECK);
 956   Method* m = NULL;
 957   // The klass must be linked before looking up the method.
 958   if (!ik->link_class_or_fail(THREAD) ||
 959       ((m = ik->find_method(name, signature)) == NULL) ||
 960       is_static != m->is_static()) {
 961     ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
 962     // NoSuchMethodException doesn't actually work because it tries to run the
 963     // <init> function before java_lang_Class is linked. Print error and exit.
 964     vm_exit_during_initialization(err_msg("Unable to link/verify %s.%s method",
 965                                  ik->name()->as_C_string(), method));
 966   }
 967   method_cache->init(ik, m);
 968 }
 969 
 970 void Universe::initialize_known_methods(TRAPS) {
 971   // Set up static method for registering finalizers
 972   initialize_known_method(_finalizer_register_cache,
 973                           SystemDictionary::Finalizer_klass(),
 974                           "register",
 975                           vmSymbols::object_void_signature(), true, CHECK);
 976 
 977   initialize_known_method(_throw_illegal_access_error_cache,
 978                           SystemDictionary::internal_Unsafe_klass(),
 979                           "throwIllegalAccessError",
 980                           vmSymbols::void_method_signature(), true, CHECK);
 981 
 982   // Set up method for registering loaded classes in class loader vector
 983   initialize_known_method(_loader_addClass_cache,
 984                           SystemDictionary::ClassLoader_klass(),
 985                           "addClass",
 986                           vmSymbols::class_void_signature(), false, CHECK);
 987 
 988   // Set up method for checking protection domain
 989   initialize_known_method(_pd_implies_cache,
 990                           SystemDictionary::ProtectionDomain_klass(),
 991                           "impliesCreateAccessControlContext",
 992                           vmSymbols::void_boolean_signature(), false, CHECK);
 993 
 994   // Set up method for stack walking
 995   initialize_known_method(_do_stack_walk_cache,
 996                           SystemDictionary::AbstractStackWalker_klass(),
 997                           "doStackWalk",
 998                           vmSymbols::doStackWalk_signature(), false, CHECK);
 999 }
1000 
1001 void universe2_init() {
1002   EXCEPTION_MARK;
1003   Universe::genesis(CATCH);
1004 }
1005 
1006 // Set after initialization of the module runtime, call_initModuleRuntime
1007 void universe_post_module_init() {
1008   Universe::_module_initialized = true;
1009 }
1010 
1011 bool universe_post_init() {
1012   assert(!is_init_completed(), "Error: initialization not yet completed!");
1013   Universe::_fully_initialized = true;
1014   EXCEPTION_MARK;
1015   { ResourceMark rm;
1016     Interpreter::initialize();      // needed for interpreter entry points
1017     if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
1018       HandleMark hm(THREAD);
1019       Klass* ok = SystemDictionary::Object_klass();
1020       Universe::reinitialize_vtable_of(ok, CHECK_false);
1021       Universe::reinitialize_itables(CHECK_false);
1022     }
1023   }
1024 
1025   HandleMark hm(THREAD);
1026   // Setup preallocated empty java.lang.Class array
1027   Universe::_the_empty_class_klass_array = oopFactory::new_objArray(SystemDictionary::Class_klass(), 0, CHECK_false);
1028 
1029   // Setup preallocated OutOfMemoryError errors
1030   Klass* k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(vmSymbols::java_lang_OutOfMemoryError(), true, CHECK_false);
1031   InstanceKlass* ik = InstanceKlass::cast(k);
1032   Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap = ik->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1033   Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace = ik->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1034   Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace = ik->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1035   Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size = ik->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1036   Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit =
1037     ik->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1038   Universe::_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects = ik->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1039 
1040   // Setup preallocated cause message for delayed StackOverflowError
1041   if (StackReservedPages > 0) {
1042     Universe::_delayed_stack_overflow_error_message =
1043       java_lang_String::create_oop_from_str("Delayed StackOverflowError due to ReservedStackAccess annotated method", CHECK_false);
1044   }
1045 
1046   // Setup preallocated NullPointerException
1047   // (this is currently used for a cheap & dirty solution in compiler exception handling)
1048   k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(vmSymbols::java_lang_NullPointerException(), true, CHECK_false);
1049   Universe::_null_ptr_exception_instance = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1050   // Setup preallocated ArithmeticException
1051   // (this is currently used for a cheap & dirty solution in compiler exception handling)
1052   k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(vmSymbols::java_lang_ArithmeticException(), true, CHECK_false);
1053   Universe::_arithmetic_exception_instance = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1054   // Virtual Machine Error for when we get into a situation we can't resolve
1055   k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(
1056     vmSymbols::java_lang_VirtualMachineError(), true, CHECK_false);
1057   bool linked = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->link_class_or_fail(CHECK_false);
1058   if (!linked) {
1059      tty->print_cr("Unable to link/verify VirtualMachineError class");
1060      return false; // initialization failed
1061   }
1062   Universe::_virtual_machine_error_instance =
1063     InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1064 
1065   Universe::_vm_exception = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1066 
1067   if (!DumpSharedSpaces) {
1068     // These are the only Java fields that are currently set during shared space dumping.
1069     // We prefer to not handle this generally, so we always reinitialize these detail messages.
1070     Handle msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Java heap space", CHECK_false);
1071     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap, msg());
1072 
1073     msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Metaspace", CHECK_false);
1074     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace, msg());
1075     msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Compressed class space", CHECK_false);
1076     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace, msg());
1077 
1078     msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Requested array size exceeds VM limit", CHECK_false);
1079     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size, msg());
1080 
1081     msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("GC overhead limit exceeded", CHECK_false);
1082     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit, msg());
1083 
1084     msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Java heap space: failed reallocation of scalar replaced objects", CHECK_false);
1085     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects, msg());
1086 
1087     msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("/ by zero", CHECK_false);
1088     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_arithmetic_exception_instance, msg());
1089 
1090     // Setup the array of errors that have preallocated backtrace
1091     k = Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap->klass();
1092     assert(k->name() == vmSymbols::java_lang_OutOfMemoryError(), "should be out of memory error");
1093     ik = InstanceKlass::cast(k);
1094 
1095     int len = (StackTraceInThrowable) ? (int)PreallocatedOutOfMemoryErrorCount : 0;
1096     Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_array = oopFactory::new_objArray(ik, len, CHECK_false);
1097     for (int i=0; i<len; i++) {
1098       oop err = ik->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1099       Handle err_h = Handle(THREAD, err);
1100       java_lang_Throwable::allocate_backtrace(err_h, CHECK_false);
1101       Universe::preallocated_out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at_put(i, err_h());
1102     }
1103     Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count = (jint)len;
1104   }
1105 
1106   Universe::initialize_known_methods(CHECK_false);
1107 
1108   // This needs to be done before the first scavenge/gc, since
1109   // it's an input to soft ref clearing policy.
1110   {
1111     MutexLocker x(Heap_lock);
1112     Universe::update_heap_info_at_gc();
1113   }
1114 
1115   // ("weak") refs processing infrastructure initialization
1116   Universe::heap()->post_initialize();
1117 
1118   // Initialize performance counters for metaspaces
1119   MetaspaceCounters::initialize_performance_counters();
1120   CompressedClassSpaceCounters::initialize_performance_counters();
1121 
1122   MemoryService::add_metaspace_memory_pools();
1123 
1124   MemoryService::set_universe_heap(Universe::heap());
1125 #if INCLUDE_CDS
1126   SharedClassUtil::initialize(CHECK_false);
1127 #endif
1128   return true;
1129 }
1130 
1131 
1132 void Universe::compute_base_vtable_size() {
1133   _base_vtable_size = ClassLoader::compute_Object_vtable();
1134 }
1135 
1136 void Universe::print_on(outputStream* st) {
1137   GCMutexLocker hl(Heap_lock); // Heap_lock might be locked by caller thread.
1138   st->print_cr("Heap");
1139   heap()->print_on(st);
1140 }
1141 
1142 void Universe::print_heap_at_SIGBREAK() {
1143   if (PrintHeapAtSIGBREAK) {
1144     print_on(tty);
1145     tty->cr();
1146     tty->flush();
1147   }
1148 }
1149 
1150 void Universe::print_heap_before_gc() {
1151   LogTarget(Debug, gc, heap) lt;
1152   if (lt.is_enabled()) {
1153     LogStream ls(lt);
1154     ls.print("Heap before GC invocations=%u (full %u):", heap()->total_collections(), heap()->total_full_collections());
1155     ResourceMark rm;
1156     heap()->print_on(&ls);
1157   }
1158 }
1159 
1160 void Universe::print_heap_after_gc() {
1161   LogTarget(Debug, gc, heap) lt;
1162   if (lt.is_enabled()) {
1163     LogStream ls(lt);
1164     ls.print("Heap after GC invocations=%u (full %u):", heap()->total_collections(), heap()->total_full_collections());
1165     ResourceMark rm;
1166     heap()->print_on(&ls);
1167   }
1168 }
1169 
1170 void Universe::initialize_verify_flags() {
1171   verify_flags = 0;
1172   const char delimiter[] = " ,";
1173 
1174   size_t length = strlen(VerifySubSet);
1175   char* subset_list = NEW_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, length + 1, mtInternal);
1176   strncpy(subset_list, VerifySubSet, length + 1);
1177 
1178   char* token = strtok(subset_list, delimiter);
1179   while (token != NULL) {
1180     if (strcmp(token, "threads") == 0) {
1181       verify_flags |= Verify_Threads;
1182     } else if (strcmp(token, "heap") == 0) {
1183       verify_flags |= Verify_Heap;
1184     } else if (strcmp(token, "symbol_table") == 0) {
1185       verify_flags |= Verify_SymbolTable;
1186     } else if (strcmp(token, "string_table") == 0) {
1187       verify_flags |= Verify_StringTable;
1188     } else if (strcmp(token, "codecache") == 0) {
1189       verify_flags |= Verify_CodeCache;
1190     } else if (strcmp(token, "dictionary") == 0) {
1191       verify_flags |= Verify_SystemDictionary;
1192     } else if (strcmp(token, "classloader_data_graph") == 0) {
1193       verify_flags |= Verify_ClassLoaderDataGraph;
1194     } else if (strcmp(token, "metaspace") == 0) {
1195       verify_flags |= Verify_MetaspaceAux;
1196     } else if (strcmp(token, "jni_handles") == 0) {
1197       verify_flags |= Verify_JNIHandles;
1198     } else if (strcmp(token, "codecache_oops") == 0) {
1199       verify_flags |= Verify_CodeCacheOops;
1200     } else {
1201       vm_exit_during_initialization(err_msg("VerifySubSet: \'%s\' memory sub-system is unknown, please correct it", token));
1202     }
1203     token = strtok(NULL, delimiter);
1204   }
1205   FREE_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, subset_list);
1206 }
1207 
1208 bool Universe::should_verify_subset(uint subset) {
1209   if (verify_flags & subset) {
1210     return true;
1211   }
1212   return false;
1213 }
1214 
1215 void Universe::verify(VerifyOption option, const char* prefix) {
1216   // The use of _verify_in_progress is a temporary work around for
1217   // 6320749.  Don't bother with a creating a class to set and clear
1218   // it since it is only used in this method and the control flow is
1219   // straight forward.
1220   _verify_in_progress = true;
1221 
1222   COMPILER2_PRESENT(
1223     assert(!DerivedPointerTable::is_active(),
1224          "DPT should not be active during verification "
1225          "(of thread stacks below)");
1226   )
1227 
1228   ResourceMark rm;
1229   HandleMark hm;  // Handles created during verification can be zapped
1230   _verify_count++;
1231 
1232   FormatBuffer<> title("Verifying %s", prefix);
1233   GCTraceTime(Info, gc, verify) tm(title.buffer());
1234   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_Threads)) {
1235     log_debug(gc, verify)("Threads");
1236     Threads::verify();
1237   }
1238   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_Heap)) {
1239     log_debug(gc, verify)("Heap");
1240     heap()->verify(option);
1241   }
1242   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_SymbolTable)) {
1243     log_debug(gc, verify)("SymbolTable");
1244     SymbolTable::verify();
1245   }
1246   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_StringTable)) {
1247     log_debug(gc, verify)("StringTable");
1248     StringTable::verify();
1249   }
1250   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_CodeCache)) {
1251   {
1252     MutexLockerEx mu(CodeCache_lock, Mutex::_no_safepoint_check_flag);
1253     log_debug(gc, verify)("CodeCache");
1254     CodeCache::verify();
1255   }
1256   }
1257   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_SystemDictionary)) {
1258     log_debug(gc, verify)("SystemDictionary");
1259     SystemDictionary::verify();
1260   }
1261 #ifndef PRODUCT
1262   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_ClassLoaderDataGraph)) {
1263     log_debug(gc, verify)("ClassLoaderDataGraph");
1264     ClassLoaderDataGraph::verify();
1265   }
1266 #endif
1267   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_MetaspaceAux)) {
1268     log_debug(gc, verify)("MetaspaceAux");
1269     MetaspaceAux::verify_free_chunks();
1270   }
1271   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_JNIHandles)) {
1272     log_debug(gc, verify)("JNIHandles");
1273     JNIHandles::verify();
1274   }
1275   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_CodeCacheOops)) {
1276     log_debug(gc, verify)("CodeCache Oops");
1277     CodeCache::verify_oops();
1278   }
1279 
1280   _verify_in_progress = false;
1281 }
1282 
1283 
1284 #ifndef PRODUCT
1285 void Universe::calculate_verify_data(HeapWord* low_boundary, HeapWord* high_boundary) {
1286   assert(low_boundary < high_boundary, "bad interval");
1287 
1288   // decide which low-order bits we require to be clear:
1289   size_t alignSize = MinObjAlignmentInBytes;
1290   size_t min_object_size = CollectedHeap::min_fill_size();
1291 
1292   // make an inclusive limit:
1293   uintptr_t max = (uintptr_t)high_boundary - min_object_size*wordSize;
1294   uintptr_t min = (uintptr_t)low_boundary;
1295   assert(min < max, "bad interval");
1296   uintptr_t diff = max ^ min;
1297 
1298   // throw away enough low-order bits to make the diff vanish
1299   uintptr_t mask = (uintptr_t)(-1);
1300   while ((mask & diff) != 0)
1301     mask <<= 1;
1302   uintptr_t bits = (min & mask);
1303   assert(bits == (max & mask), "correct mask");
1304   // check an intermediate value between min and max, just to make sure:
1305   assert(bits == ((min + (max-min)/2) & mask), "correct mask");
1306 
1307   // require address alignment, too:
1308   mask |= (alignSize - 1);
1309 
1310   if (!(_verify_oop_mask == 0 && _verify_oop_bits == (uintptr_t)-1)) {
1311     assert(_verify_oop_mask == mask && _verify_oop_bits == bits, "mask stability");
1312   }
1313   _verify_oop_mask = mask;
1314   _verify_oop_bits = bits;
1315 }
1316 
1317 // Oop verification (see MacroAssembler::verify_oop)
1318 
1319 uintptr_t Universe::verify_oop_mask() {
1320   MemRegion m = heap()->reserved_region();
1321   calculate_verify_data(m.start(), m.end());
1322   return _verify_oop_mask;
1323 }
1324 
1325 uintptr_t Universe::verify_oop_bits() {
1326   MemRegion m = heap()->reserved_region();
1327   calculate_verify_data(m.start(), m.end());
1328   return _verify_oop_bits;
1329 }
1330 
1331 uintptr_t Universe::verify_mark_mask() {
1332   return markOopDesc::lock_mask_in_place;
1333 }
1334 
1335 uintptr_t Universe::verify_mark_bits() {
1336   intptr_t mask = verify_mark_mask();
1337   intptr_t bits = (intptr_t)markOopDesc::prototype();
1338   assert((bits & ~mask) == 0, "no stray header bits");
1339   return bits;
1340 }
1341 #endif // PRODUCT
1342 
1343 
1344 void Universe::compute_verify_oop_data() {
1345   verify_oop_mask();
1346   verify_oop_bits();
1347   verify_mark_mask();
1348   verify_mark_bits();
1349 }
1350 
1351 
1352 void LatestMethodCache::init(Klass* k, Method* m) {
1353   if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
1354     _klass = k;
1355   }
1356 #ifndef PRODUCT
1357   else {
1358     // sharing initilization should have already set up _klass
1359     assert(_klass != NULL, "just checking");
1360   }
1361 #endif
1362 
1363   _method_idnum = m->method_idnum();
1364   assert(_method_idnum >= 0, "sanity check");
1365 }
1366 
1367 
1368 Method* LatestMethodCache::get_method() {
1369   if (klass() == NULL) return NULL;
1370   InstanceKlass* ik = InstanceKlass::cast(klass());
1371   Method* m = ik->method_with_idnum(method_idnum());
1372   assert(m != NULL, "sanity check");
1373   return m;
1374 }
1375 
1376 
1377 #ifdef ASSERT
1378 // Release dummy object(s) at bottom of heap
1379 bool Universe::release_fullgc_alot_dummy() {
1380   MutexLocker ml(FullGCALot_lock);
1381   if (_fullgc_alot_dummy_array != NULL) {
1382     if (_fullgc_alot_dummy_next >= _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->length()) {
1383       // No more dummies to release, release entire array instead
1384       _fullgc_alot_dummy_array = NULL;
1385       return false;
1386     }
1387     if (!UseConcMarkSweepGC) {
1388       // Release dummy at bottom of old generation
1389       _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->obj_at_put(_fullgc_alot_dummy_next++, NULL);
1390     }
1391     // Release dummy at bottom of permanent generation
1392     _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->obj_at_put(_fullgc_alot_dummy_next++, NULL);
1393   }
1394   return true;
1395 }
1396 
1397 #endif // ASSERT