1 /*
   2  * Copyright (c) 1997, 2017, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
   3  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
   4  *
   5  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   6  * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
   7  * published by the Free Software Foundation.
   8  *
   9  * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  10  * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  11  * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  12  * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  13  * accompanied this code).
  14  *
  15  * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  16  * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  17  * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  18  *
  19  * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  20  * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  21  * questions.
  22  *
  23  */
  24 
  25 #include "precompiled.hpp"
  26 #include "aot/aotLoader.hpp"
  27 #include "classfile/classLoader.hpp"
  28 #include "classfile/classLoaderData.hpp"
  29 #include "classfile/javaClasses.hpp"
  30 #include "classfile/stringTable.hpp"
  31 #include "classfile/systemDictionary.hpp"
  32 #include "classfile/vmSymbols.hpp"
  33 #include "code/codeCache.hpp"
  34 #include "code/dependencies.hpp"
  35 #include "gc/shared/cardTableModRefBS.hpp"
  36 #include "gc/shared/collectedHeap.inline.hpp"
  37 #include "gc/shared/gcArguments.hpp"
  38 #include "gc/shared/gcLocker.inline.hpp"
  39 #include "gc/shared/generation.hpp"
  40 #include "gc/shared/gcTraceTime.inline.hpp"
  41 #include "gc/shared/space.hpp"
  42 #include "interpreter/interpreter.hpp"
  43 #include "logging/log.hpp"
  44 #include "logging/logStream.hpp"
  45 #include "memory/filemap.hpp"
  46 #include "memory/metadataFactory.hpp"
  47 #include "memory/metaspaceClosure.hpp"
  48 #include "memory/metaspaceCounters.hpp"
  49 #include "memory/metaspaceShared.hpp"
  50 #include "memory/oopFactory.hpp"
  51 #include "memory/resourceArea.hpp"
  52 #include "memory/universe.hpp"
  53 #include "memory/universe.inline.hpp"
  54 #include "oops/constantPool.hpp"
  55 #include "oops/instanceClassLoaderKlass.hpp"
  56 #include "oops/instanceKlass.hpp"
  57 #include "oops/instanceMirrorKlass.hpp"
  58 #include "oops/instanceRefKlass.hpp"
  59 #include "oops/objArrayOop.inline.hpp"
  60 #include "oops/oop.inline.hpp"
  61 #include "oops/typeArrayKlass.hpp"
  62 #include "prims/resolvedMethodTable.hpp"
  63 #include "runtime/arguments.hpp"
  64 #include "runtime/atomic.hpp"
  65 #include "runtime/commandLineFlagConstraintList.hpp"
  66 #include "runtime/deoptimization.hpp"
  67 #include "runtime/handles.inline.hpp"
  68 #include "runtime/init.hpp"
  69 #include "runtime/java.hpp"
  70 #include "runtime/javaCalls.hpp"
  71 #include "runtime/sharedRuntime.hpp"
  72 #include "runtime/synchronizer.hpp"
  73 #include "runtime/thread.inline.hpp"
  74 #include "runtime/timerTrace.hpp"
  75 #include "runtime/vm_operations.hpp"
  76 #include "services/memoryService.hpp"
  77 #include "utilities/align.hpp"
  78 #include "utilities/copy.hpp"
  79 #include "utilities/debug.hpp"
  80 #include "utilities/events.hpp"
  81 #include "utilities/formatBuffer.hpp"
  82 #include "utilities/hashtable.inline.hpp"
  83 #include "utilities/macros.hpp"
  84 #include "utilities/ostream.hpp"
  85 #include "utilities/preserveException.hpp"
  86 #if INCLUDE_CDS
  87 #include "classfile/sharedClassUtil.hpp"
  88 #endif
  89 
  90 // Known objects
  91 Klass* Universe::_boolArrayKlassObj                 = NULL;
  92 Klass* Universe::_byteArrayKlassObj                 = NULL;
  93 Klass* Universe::_charArrayKlassObj                 = NULL;
  94 Klass* Universe::_intArrayKlassObj                  = NULL;
  95 Klass* Universe::_shortArrayKlassObj                = NULL;
  96 Klass* Universe::_longArrayKlassObj                 = NULL;
  97 Klass* Universe::_singleArrayKlassObj               = NULL;
  98 Klass* Universe::_doubleArrayKlassObj               = NULL;
  99 Klass* Universe::_typeArrayKlassObjs[T_VOID+1]      = { NULL /*, NULL...*/ };
 100 Klass* Universe::_objectArrayKlassObj               = NULL;
 101 oop Universe::_int_mirror                             = NULL;
 102 oop Universe::_float_mirror                           = NULL;
 103 oop Universe::_double_mirror                          = NULL;
 104 oop Universe::_byte_mirror                            = NULL;
 105 oop Universe::_bool_mirror                            = NULL;
 106 oop Universe::_char_mirror                            = NULL;
 107 oop Universe::_long_mirror                            = NULL;
 108 oop Universe::_short_mirror                           = NULL;
 109 oop Universe::_void_mirror                            = NULL;
 110 oop Universe::_mirrors[T_VOID+1]                      = { NULL /*, NULL...*/ };
 111 oop Universe::_main_thread_group                      = NULL;
 112 oop Universe::_system_thread_group                    = NULL;
 113 objArrayOop Universe::_the_empty_class_klass_array    = NULL;
 114 Array<Klass*>* Universe::_the_array_interfaces_array = NULL;
 115 oop Universe::_the_null_string                        = NULL;
 116 oop Universe::_the_min_jint_string                   = NULL;
 117 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_finalizer_register_cache = NULL;
 118 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_loader_addClass_cache    = NULL;
 119 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_pd_implies_cache         = NULL;
 120 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_throw_illegal_access_error_cache = NULL;
 121 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_do_stack_walk_cache     = NULL;
 122 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap          = NULL;
 123 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace          = NULL;
 124 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace    = NULL;
 125 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size         = NULL;
 126 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit  = NULL;
 127 oop Universe::_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects    = NULL;
 128 oop Universe::_delayed_stack_overflow_error_message   = NULL;
 129 objArrayOop Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_array = NULL;
 130 volatile jint Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count = 0;
 131 bool Universe::_verify_in_progress                    = false;
 132 long Universe::verify_flags                           = Universe::Verify_All;
 133 oop Universe::_null_ptr_exception_instance            = NULL;
 134 oop Universe::_arithmetic_exception_instance          = NULL;
 135 oop Universe::_virtual_machine_error_instance         = NULL;
 136 oop Universe::_vm_exception                           = NULL;
 137 oop Universe::_allocation_context_notification_obj    = NULL;
 138 oop Universe::_reference_pending_list                 = NULL;
 139 
 140 Array<int>* Universe::_the_empty_int_array            = NULL;
 141 Array<u2>* Universe::_the_empty_short_array           = NULL;
 142 Array<Klass*>* Universe::_the_empty_klass_array     = NULL;
 143 Array<Method*>* Universe::_the_empty_method_array   = NULL;
 144 
 145 // These variables are guarded by FullGCALot_lock.
 146 debug_only(objArrayOop Universe::_fullgc_alot_dummy_array = NULL;)
 147 debug_only(int Universe::_fullgc_alot_dummy_next      = 0;)
 148 
 149 // Heap
 150 int             Universe::_verify_count = 0;
 151 
 152 // Oop verification (see MacroAssembler::verify_oop)
 153 uintptr_t       Universe::_verify_oop_mask = 0;
 154 uintptr_t       Universe::_verify_oop_bits = (uintptr_t) -1;
 155 
 156 int             Universe::_base_vtable_size = 0;
 157 bool            Universe::_bootstrapping = false;
 158 bool            Universe::_module_initialized = false;
 159 bool            Universe::_fully_initialized = false;
 160 
 161 size_t          Universe::_heap_capacity_at_last_gc;
 162 size_t          Universe::_heap_used_at_last_gc = 0;
 163 
 164 CollectedHeap*  Universe::_collectedHeap = NULL;
 165 
 166 NarrowPtrStruct Universe::_narrow_oop = { NULL, 0, true };
 167 NarrowPtrStruct Universe::_narrow_klass = { NULL, 0, true };
 168 address Universe::_narrow_ptrs_base;
 169 
 170 void Universe::basic_type_classes_do(void f(Klass*)) {
 171   f(boolArrayKlassObj());
 172   f(byteArrayKlassObj());
 173   f(charArrayKlassObj());
 174   f(intArrayKlassObj());
 175   f(shortArrayKlassObj());
 176   f(longArrayKlassObj());
 177   f(singleArrayKlassObj());
 178   f(doubleArrayKlassObj());
 179 }
 180 
 181 void Universe::oops_do(OopClosure* f, bool do_all) {
 182 
 183   f->do_oop((oop*) &_int_mirror);
 184   f->do_oop((oop*) &_float_mirror);
 185   f->do_oop((oop*) &_double_mirror);
 186   f->do_oop((oop*) &_byte_mirror);
 187   f->do_oop((oop*) &_bool_mirror);
 188   f->do_oop((oop*) &_char_mirror);
 189   f->do_oop((oop*) &_long_mirror);
 190   f->do_oop((oop*) &_short_mirror);
 191   f->do_oop((oop*) &_void_mirror);
 192 
 193   for (int i = T_BOOLEAN; i < T_VOID+1; i++) {
 194     f->do_oop((oop*) &_mirrors[i]);
 195   }
 196   assert(_mirrors[0] == NULL && _mirrors[T_BOOLEAN - 1] == NULL, "checking");
 197 
 198   f->do_oop((oop*)&_the_empty_class_klass_array);
 199   f->do_oop((oop*)&_the_null_string);
 200   f->do_oop((oop*)&_the_min_jint_string);
 201   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_java_heap);
 202   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_metaspace);
 203   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace);
 204   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_array_size);
 205   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit);
 206   f->do_oop((oop*)&_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects);
 207   f->do_oop((oop*)&_delayed_stack_overflow_error_message);
 208   f->do_oop((oop*)&_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_array);
 209   f->do_oop((oop*)&_null_ptr_exception_instance);
 210   f->do_oop((oop*)&_arithmetic_exception_instance);
 211   f->do_oop((oop*)&_virtual_machine_error_instance);
 212   f->do_oop((oop*)&_main_thread_group);
 213   f->do_oop((oop*)&_system_thread_group);
 214   f->do_oop((oop*)&_vm_exception);
 215   f->do_oop((oop*)&_allocation_context_notification_obj);
 216   f->do_oop((oop*)&_reference_pending_list);
 217   debug_only(f->do_oop((oop*)&_fullgc_alot_dummy_array);)
 218 }
 219 
 220 void LatestMethodCache::metaspace_pointers_do(MetaspaceClosure* it) {
 221   it->push(&_klass);
 222 }
 223 
 224 void Universe::metaspace_pointers_do(MetaspaceClosure* it) {
 225   it->push(&_boolArrayKlassObj);
 226   it->push(&_byteArrayKlassObj);
 227   it->push(&_charArrayKlassObj);
 228   it->push(&_intArrayKlassObj);
 229   it->push(&_shortArrayKlassObj);
 230   it->push(&_longArrayKlassObj);
 231   it->push(&_singleArrayKlassObj);
 232   it->push(&_doubleArrayKlassObj);
 233   for (int i = 0; i < T_VOID+1; i++) {
 234     it->push(&_typeArrayKlassObjs[i]);
 235   }
 236   it->push(&_objectArrayKlassObj);
 237 
 238   it->push(&_the_empty_int_array);
 239   it->push(&_the_empty_short_array);
 240   it->push(&_the_empty_klass_array);
 241   it->push(&_the_empty_method_array);
 242   it->push(&_the_array_interfaces_array);
 243 
 244   _finalizer_register_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 245   _loader_addClass_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 246   _pd_implies_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 247   _throw_illegal_access_error_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 248   _do_stack_walk_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 249 }
 250 
 251 // Serialize metadata in and out of CDS archive, not oops.
 252 void Universe::serialize(SerializeClosure* f, bool do_all) {
 253 
 254   f->do_ptr((void**)&_boolArrayKlassObj);
 255   f->do_ptr((void**)&_byteArrayKlassObj);
 256   f->do_ptr((void**)&_charArrayKlassObj);
 257   f->do_ptr((void**)&_intArrayKlassObj);
 258   f->do_ptr((void**)&_shortArrayKlassObj);
 259   f->do_ptr((void**)&_longArrayKlassObj);
 260   f->do_ptr((void**)&_singleArrayKlassObj);
 261   f->do_ptr((void**)&_doubleArrayKlassObj);
 262   f->do_ptr((void**)&_objectArrayKlassObj);
 263 
 264   {
 265     for (int i = 0; i < T_VOID+1; i++) {
 266       if (_typeArrayKlassObjs[i] != NULL) {
 267         assert(i >= T_BOOLEAN, "checking");
 268         f->do_ptr((void**)&_typeArrayKlassObjs[i]);
 269       } else if (do_all) {
 270         f->do_ptr((void**)&_typeArrayKlassObjs[i]);
 271       }
 272     }
 273   }
 274 
 275   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_array_interfaces_array);
 276   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_int_array);
 277   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_short_array);
 278   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_method_array);
 279   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_klass_array);
 280   _finalizer_register_cache->serialize(f);
 281   _loader_addClass_cache->serialize(f);
 282   _pd_implies_cache->serialize(f);
 283   _throw_illegal_access_error_cache->serialize(f);
 284   _do_stack_walk_cache->serialize(f);
 285 }
 286 
 287 void Universe::check_alignment(uintx size, uintx alignment, const char* name) {
 288   if (size < alignment || size % alignment != 0) {
 289     vm_exit_during_initialization(
 290       err_msg("Size of %s (" UINTX_FORMAT " bytes) must be aligned to " UINTX_FORMAT " bytes", name, size, alignment));
 291   }
 292 }
 293 
 294 void initialize_basic_type_klass(Klass* k, TRAPS) {
 295   Klass* ok = SystemDictionary::Object_klass();
 296 #if INCLUDE_CDS
 297   if (UseSharedSpaces) {
 298     ClassLoaderData* loader_data = ClassLoaderData::the_null_class_loader_data();
 299     assert(k->super() == ok, "u3");
 300     k->restore_unshareable_info(loader_data, Handle(), CHECK);
 301   } else
 302 #endif
 303   {
 304     k->initialize_supers(ok, CHECK);
 305   }
 306   k->append_to_sibling_list();
 307 }
 308 
 309 void Universe::genesis(TRAPS) {
 310   ResourceMark rm;
 311 
 312   { FlagSetting fs(_bootstrapping, true);
 313 
 314     { MutexLocker mc(Compile_lock);
 315 
 316       java_lang_Class::allocate_fixup_lists();
 317 
 318       // determine base vtable size; without that we cannot create the array klasses
 319       compute_base_vtable_size();
 320 
 321       if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
 322         _boolArrayKlassObj      = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_BOOLEAN, sizeof(jboolean), CHECK);
 323         _charArrayKlassObj      = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_CHAR,    sizeof(jchar),    CHECK);
 324         _singleArrayKlassObj    = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_FLOAT,   sizeof(jfloat),   CHECK);
 325         _doubleArrayKlassObj    = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_DOUBLE,  sizeof(jdouble),  CHECK);
 326         _byteArrayKlassObj      = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_BYTE,    sizeof(jbyte),    CHECK);
 327         _shortArrayKlassObj     = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_SHORT,   sizeof(jshort),   CHECK);
 328         _intArrayKlassObj       = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_INT,     sizeof(jint),     CHECK);
 329         _longArrayKlassObj      = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_LONG,    sizeof(jlong),    CHECK);
 330 
 331         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_BOOLEAN] = _boolArrayKlassObj;
 332         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_CHAR]    = _charArrayKlassObj;
 333         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_FLOAT]   = _singleArrayKlassObj;
 334         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_DOUBLE]  = _doubleArrayKlassObj;
 335         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_BYTE]    = _byteArrayKlassObj;
 336         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_SHORT]   = _shortArrayKlassObj;
 337         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_INT]     = _intArrayKlassObj;
 338         _typeArrayKlassObjs[T_LONG]    = _longArrayKlassObj;
 339 
 340         ClassLoaderData* null_cld = ClassLoaderData::the_null_class_loader_data();
 341 
 342         _the_array_interfaces_array = MetadataFactory::new_array<Klass*>(null_cld, 2, NULL, CHECK);
 343         _the_empty_int_array        = MetadataFactory::new_array<int>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 344         _the_empty_short_array      = MetadataFactory::new_array<u2>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 345         _the_empty_method_array     = MetadataFactory::new_array<Method*>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 346         _the_empty_klass_array      = MetadataFactory::new_array<Klass*>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 347       }
 348     }
 349 
 350     vmSymbols::initialize(CHECK);
 351 
 352     SystemDictionary::initialize(CHECK);
 353 
 354     Klass* ok = SystemDictionary::Object_klass();
 355 
 356     _the_null_string            = StringTable::intern("null", CHECK);
 357     _the_min_jint_string       = StringTable::intern("-2147483648", CHECK);
 358 
 359 #if INCLUDE_CDS
 360     if (UseSharedSpaces) {
 361       // Verify shared interfaces array.
 362       assert(_the_array_interfaces_array->at(0) ==
 363              SystemDictionary::Cloneable_klass(), "u3");
 364       assert(_the_array_interfaces_array->at(1) ==
 365              SystemDictionary::Serializable_klass(), "u3");
 366       MetaspaceShared::fixup_mapped_heap_regions();
 367     } else
 368 #endif
 369     {
 370       // Set up shared interfaces array.  (Do this before supers are set up.)
 371       _the_array_interfaces_array->at_put(0, SystemDictionary::Cloneable_klass());
 372       _the_array_interfaces_array->at_put(1, SystemDictionary::Serializable_klass());
 373     }
 374 
 375     initialize_basic_type_klass(boolArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 376     initialize_basic_type_klass(charArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 377     initialize_basic_type_klass(singleArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 378     initialize_basic_type_klass(doubleArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 379     initialize_basic_type_klass(byteArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 380     initialize_basic_type_klass(shortArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 381     initialize_basic_type_klass(intArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 382     initialize_basic_type_klass(longArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 383   } // end of core bootstrapping
 384 
 385   // Maybe this could be lifted up now that object array can be initialized
 386   // during the bootstrapping.
 387 
 388   // OLD
 389   // Initialize _objectArrayKlass after core bootstraping to make
 390   // sure the super class is set up properly for _objectArrayKlass.
 391   // ---
 392   // NEW
 393   // Since some of the old system object arrays have been converted to
 394   // ordinary object arrays, _objectArrayKlass will be loaded when
 395   // SystemDictionary::initialize(CHECK); is run. See the extra check
 396   // for Object_klass_loaded in objArrayKlassKlass::allocate_objArray_klass_impl.
 397   _objectArrayKlassObj = InstanceKlass::
 398     cast(SystemDictionary::Object_klass())->array_klass(1, CHECK);
 399   // OLD
 400   // Add the class to the class hierarchy manually to make sure that
 401   // its vtable is initialized after core bootstrapping is completed.
 402   // ---
 403   // New
 404   // Have already been initialized.
 405   _objectArrayKlassObj->append_to_sibling_list();
 406 
 407   #ifdef ASSERT
 408   if (FullGCALot) {
 409     // Allocate an array of dummy objects.
 410     // We'd like these to be at the bottom of the old generation,
 411     // so that when we free one and then collect,
 412     // (almost) the whole heap moves
 413     // and we find out if we actually update all the oops correctly.
 414     // But we can't allocate directly in the old generation,
 415     // so we allocate wherever, and hope that the first collection
 416     // moves these objects to the bottom of the old generation.
 417     // We can allocate directly in the permanent generation, so we do.
 418     int size;
 419     if (UseConcMarkSweepGC) {
 420       log_warning(gc)("Using +FullGCALot with concurrent mark sweep gc will not force all objects to relocate");
 421       size = FullGCALotDummies;
 422     } else {
 423       size = FullGCALotDummies * 2;
 424     }
 425     objArrayOop    naked_array = oopFactory::new_objArray(SystemDictionary::Object_klass(), size, CHECK);
 426     objArrayHandle dummy_array(THREAD, naked_array);
 427     int i = 0;
 428     while (i < size) {
 429         // Allocate dummy in old generation
 430       oop dummy = SystemDictionary::Object_klass()->allocate_instance(CHECK);
 431       dummy_array->obj_at_put(i++, dummy);
 432     }
 433     {
 434       // Only modify the global variable inside the mutex.
 435       // If we had a race to here, the other dummy_array instances
 436       // and their elements just get dropped on the floor, which is fine.
 437       MutexLocker ml(FullGCALot_lock);
 438       if (_fullgc_alot_dummy_array == NULL) {
 439         _fullgc_alot_dummy_array = dummy_array();
 440       }
 441     }
 442     assert(i == _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->length(), "just checking");
 443   }
 444   #endif
 445 
 446   // Initialize dependency array for null class loader
 447   ClassLoaderData::the_null_class_loader_data()->init_dependencies(CHECK);
 448 
 449 }
 450 
 451 void Universe::initialize_basic_type_mirrors(TRAPS) {
 452     assert(_int_mirror==NULL, "basic type mirrors already initialized");
 453     _int_mirror     =
 454       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("int",    T_INT, CHECK);
 455     _float_mirror   =
 456       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("float",  T_FLOAT,   CHECK);
 457     _double_mirror  =
 458       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("double", T_DOUBLE,  CHECK);
 459     _byte_mirror    =
 460       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("byte",   T_BYTE, CHECK);
 461     _bool_mirror    =
 462       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("boolean",T_BOOLEAN, CHECK);
 463     _char_mirror    =
 464       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("char",   T_CHAR, CHECK);
 465     _long_mirror    =
 466       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("long",   T_LONG, CHECK);
 467     _short_mirror   =
 468       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("short",  T_SHORT,   CHECK);
 469     _void_mirror    =
 470       java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror("void",   T_VOID, CHECK);
 471 
 472     _mirrors[T_INT]     = _int_mirror;
 473     _mirrors[T_FLOAT]   = _float_mirror;
 474     _mirrors[T_DOUBLE]  = _double_mirror;
 475     _mirrors[T_BYTE]    = _byte_mirror;
 476     _mirrors[T_BOOLEAN] = _bool_mirror;
 477     _mirrors[T_CHAR]    = _char_mirror;
 478     _mirrors[T_LONG]    = _long_mirror;
 479     _mirrors[T_SHORT]   = _short_mirror;
 480     _mirrors[T_VOID]    = _void_mirror;
 481   //_mirrors[T_OBJECT]  = _object_klass->java_mirror();
 482   //_mirrors[T_ARRAY]   = _object_klass->java_mirror();
 483 }
 484 
 485 void Universe::fixup_mirrors(TRAPS) {
 486   // Bootstrap problem: all classes gets a mirror (java.lang.Class instance) assigned eagerly,
 487   // but we cannot do that for classes created before java.lang.Class is loaded. Here we simply
 488   // walk over permanent objects created so far (mostly classes) and fixup their mirrors. Note
 489   // that the number of objects allocated at this point is very small.
 490   assert(SystemDictionary::Class_klass_loaded(), "java.lang.Class should be loaded");
 491   HandleMark hm(THREAD);
 492   // Cache the start of the static fields
 493   InstanceMirrorKlass::init_offset_of_static_fields();
 494 
 495   GrowableArray <Klass*>* list = java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror_list();
 496   int list_length = list->length();
 497   for (int i = 0; i < list_length; i++) {
 498     Klass* k = list->at(i);
 499     assert(k->is_klass(), "List should only hold classes");
 500     EXCEPTION_MARK;
 501     java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror(k, CATCH);
 502   }
 503   delete java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror_list();
 504   java_lang_Class::set_fixup_mirror_list(NULL);
 505 }
 506 
 507 #define assert_pll_locked(test) \
 508   assert(Heap_lock->test(), "Reference pending list access requires lock")
 509 
 510 #define assert_pll_ownership() assert_pll_locked(owned_by_self)
 511 
 512 oop Universe::reference_pending_list() {
 513   if (Thread::current()->is_VM_thread()) {
 514     assert_pll_locked(is_locked);
 515   } else {
 516     assert_pll_ownership();
 517   }
 518   return _reference_pending_list;
 519 }
 520 
 521 void Universe::set_reference_pending_list(oop list) {
 522   assert_pll_ownership();
 523   _reference_pending_list = list;
 524 }
 525 
 526 bool Universe::has_reference_pending_list() {
 527   assert_pll_ownership();
 528   return _reference_pending_list != NULL;
 529 }
 530 
 531 oop Universe::swap_reference_pending_list(oop list) {
 532   assert_pll_locked(is_locked);
 533   return Atomic::xchg(list, &_reference_pending_list);
 534 }
 535 
 536 #undef assert_pll_locked
 537 #undef assert_pll_ownership
 538 
 539 
 540 static bool has_run_finalizers_on_exit = false;
 541 
 542 void Universe::run_finalizers_on_exit() {
 543   if (has_run_finalizers_on_exit) return;
 544   has_run_finalizers_on_exit = true;
 545 
 546   // Called on VM exit. This ought to be run in a separate thread.
 547   log_trace(ref)("Callback to run finalizers on exit");
 548   {
 549     PRESERVE_EXCEPTION_MARK;
 550     Klass* finalizer_klass = SystemDictionary::Finalizer_klass();
 551     JavaValue result(T_VOID);
 552     JavaCalls::call_static(
 553       &result,
 554       finalizer_klass,
 555       vmSymbols::run_finalizers_on_exit_name(),
 556       vmSymbols::void_method_signature(),
 557       THREAD
 558     );
 559     // Ignore any pending exceptions
 560     CLEAR_PENDING_EXCEPTION;
 561   }
 562 }
 563 
 564 
 565 // initialize_vtable could cause gc if
 566 // 1) we specified true to initialize_vtable and
 567 // 2) this ran after gc was enabled
 568 // In case those ever change we use handles for oops
 569 void Universe::reinitialize_vtable_of(Klass* ko, TRAPS) {
 570   // init vtable of k and all subclasses
 571   ko->vtable().initialize_vtable(false, CHECK);
 572   if (ko->is_instance_klass()) {
 573     for (Klass* sk = ko->subklass();
 574          sk != NULL;
 575          sk = sk->next_sibling()) {
 576       reinitialize_vtable_of(sk, CHECK);
 577     }
 578   }
 579 }
 580 
 581 
 582 void initialize_itable_for_klass(InstanceKlass* k, TRAPS) {
 583   k->itable().initialize_itable(false, CHECK);
 584 }
 585 
 586 
 587 void Universe::reinitialize_itables(TRAPS) {
 588   ClassLoaderDataGraph::dictionary_classes_do(initialize_itable_for_klass, CHECK);
 589 }
 590 
 591 
 592 bool Universe::on_page_boundary(void* addr) {
 593   return is_aligned(addr, os::vm_page_size());
 594 }
 595 
 596 
 597 bool Universe::should_fill_in_stack_trace(Handle throwable) {
 598   // never attempt to fill in the stack trace of preallocated errors that do not have
 599   // backtrace. These errors are kept alive forever and may be "re-used" when all
 600   // preallocated errors with backtrace have been consumed. Also need to avoid
 601   // a potential loop which could happen if an out of memory occurs when attempting
 602   // to allocate the backtrace.
 603   return ((throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap) &&
 604           (throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace)  &&
 605           (throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace)  &&
 606           (throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size) &&
 607           (throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit) &&
 608           (throwable() != Universe::_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects));
 609 }
 610 
 611 
 612 oop Universe::gen_out_of_memory_error(oop default_err) {
 613   // generate an out of memory error:
 614   // - if there is a preallocated error and stack traces are available
 615   //   (j.l.Throwable is initialized), then return the preallocated
 616   //   error with a filled in stack trace, and with the message
 617   //   provided by the default error.
 618   // - otherwise, return the default error, without a stack trace.
 619   int next;
 620   if ((_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count > 0) &&
 621       SystemDictionary::Throwable_klass()->is_initialized()) {
 622     next = (int)Atomic::add(-1, &_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count);
 623     assert(next < (int)PreallocatedOutOfMemoryErrorCount, "avail count is corrupt");
 624   } else {
 625     next = -1;
 626   }
 627   if (next < 0) {
 628     // all preallocated errors have been used.
 629     // return default
 630     return default_err;
 631   } else {
 632     Thread* THREAD = Thread::current();
 633     Handle default_err_h(THREAD, default_err);
 634     // get the error object at the slot and set set it to NULL so that the
 635     // array isn't keeping it alive anymore.
 636     Handle exc(THREAD, preallocated_out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at(next));
 637     assert(exc() != NULL, "slot has been used already");
 638     preallocated_out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at_put(next, NULL);
 639 
 640     // use the message from the default error
 641     oop msg = java_lang_Throwable::message(default_err_h());
 642     assert(msg != NULL, "no message");
 643     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(exc(), msg);
 644 
 645     // populate the stack trace and return it.
 646     java_lang_Throwable::fill_in_stack_trace_of_preallocated_backtrace(exc);
 647     return exc();
 648   }
 649 }
 650 
 651 intptr_t Universe::_non_oop_bits = 0;
 652 
 653 void* Universe::non_oop_word() {
 654   // Neither the high bits nor the low bits of this value is allowed
 655   // to look like (respectively) the high or low bits of a real oop.
 656   //
 657   // High and low are CPU-specific notions, but low always includes
 658   // the low-order bit.  Since oops are always aligned at least mod 4,
 659   // setting the low-order bit will ensure that the low half of the
 660   // word will never look like that of a real oop.
 661   //
 662   // Using the OS-supplied non-memory-address word (usually 0 or -1)
 663   // will take care of the high bits, however many there are.
 664 
 665   if (_non_oop_bits == 0) {
 666     _non_oop_bits = (intptr_t)os::non_memory_address_word() | 1;
 667   }
 668 
 669   return (void*)_non_oop_bits;
 670 }
 671 
 672 jint universe_init() {
 673   assert(!Universe::_fully_initialized, "called after initialize_vtables");
 674   guarantee(1 << LogHeapWordSize == sizeof(HeapWord),
 675          "LogHeapWordSize is incorrect.");
 676   guarantee(sizeof(oop) >= sizeof(HeapWord), "HeapWord larger than oop?");
 677   guarantee(sizeof(oop) % sizeof(HeapWord) == 0,
 678             "oop size is not not a multiple of HeapWord size");
 679 
 680   TraceTime timer("Genesis", TRACETIME_LOG(Info, startuptime));
 681 
 682   JavaClasses::compute_hard_coded_offsets();
 683 
 684   jint status = Universe::initialize_heap();
 685   if (status != JNI_OK) {
 686     return status;
 687   }
 688 
 689   Metaspace::global_initialize();
 690 
 691   // Initialize performance counters for metaspaces
 692   MetaspaceCounters::initialize_performance_counters();
 693   CompressedClassSpaceCounters::initialize_performance_counters();
 694 
 695   AOTLoader::universe_init();
 696 
 697   // Checks 'AfterMemoryInit' constraints.
 698   if (!CommandLineFlagConstraintList::check_constraints(CommandLineFlagConstraint::AfterMemoryInit)) {
 699     return JNI_EINVAL;
 700   }
 701 
 702   // Create memory for metadata.  Must be after initializing heap for
 703   // DumpSharedSpaces.
 704   ClassLoaderData::init_null_class_loader_data();
 705 
 706   // We have a heap so create the Method* caches before
 707   // Metaspace::initialize_shared_spaces() tries to populate them.
 708   Universe::_finalizer_register_cache = new LatestMethodCache();
 709   Universe::_loader_addClass_cache    = new LatestMethodCache();
 710   Universe::_pd_implies_cache         = new LatestMethodCache();
 711   Universe::_throw_illegal_access_error_cache = new LatestMethodCache();
 712   Universe::_do_stack_walk_cache = new LatestMethodCache();
 713 
 714 #if INCLUDE_CDS
 715   if (UseSharedSpaces) {
 716     // Read the data structures supporting the shared spaces (shared
 717     // system dictionary, symbol table, etc.).  After that, access to
 718     // the file (other than the mapped regions) is no longer needed, and
 719     // the file is closed. Closing the file does not affect the
 720     // currently mapped regions.
 721     MetaspaceShared::initialize_shared_spaces();
 722     StringTable::create_table();
 723   } else
 724 #endif
 725   {
 726     SymbolTable::create_table();
 727     StringTable::create_table();
 728 
 729 #if INCLUDE_CDS
 730     if (DumpSharedSpaces) {
 731       MetaspaceShared::prepare_for_dumping();
 732     }
 733 #endif
 734   }
 735   if (strlen(VerifySubSet) > 0) {
 736     Universe::initialize_verify_flags();
 737   }
 738 
 739   ResolvedMethodTable::create_table();
 740 
 741   return JNI_OK;
 742 }
 743 
 744 CollectedHeap* Universe::create_heap() {
 745   assert(_collectedHeap == NULL, "Heap already created");
 746   assert(GCArguments::is_initialized(), "GC must be initialized here");
 747   return GCArguments::arguments()->create_heap();
 748 }
 749 
 750 // Choose the heap base address and oop encoding mode
 751 // when compressed oops are used:
 752 // Unscaled  - Use 32-bits oops without encoding when
 753 //     NarrowOopHeapBaseMin + heap_size < 4Gb
 754 // ZeroBased - Use zero based compressed oops with encoding when
 755 //     NarrowOopHeapBaseMin + heap_size < 32Gb
 756 // HeapBased - Use compressed oops with heap base + encoding.
 757 
 758 jint Universe::initialize_heap() {
 759   jint status = JNI_ERR;
 760 
 761   _collectedHeap = create_heap_ext();
 762   if (_collectedHeap == NULL) {
 763     _collectedHeap = create_heap();
 764   }
 765 
 766   status = _collectedHeap->initialize();
 767   if (status != JNI_OK) {
 768     return status;
 769   }
 770   log_info(gc)("Using %s", _collectedHeap->name());
 771 
 772   GCArguments::arguments()->post_heap_initialize();
 773   ThreadLocalAllocBuffer::set_max_size(Universe::heap()->max_tlab_size());
 774 
 775 #ifdef _LP64
 776   if (UseCompressedOops) {
 777     // Subtract a page because something can get allocated at heap base.
 778     // This also makes implicit null checking work, because the
 779     // memory+1 page below heap_base needs to cause a signal.
 780     // See needs_explicit_null_check.
 781     // Only set the heap base for compressed oops because it indicates
 782     // compressed oops for pstack code.
 783     if ((uint64_t)Universe::heap()->reserved_region().end() > UnscaledOopHeapMax) {
 784       // Didn't reserve heap below 4Gb.  Must shift.
 785       Universe::set_narrow_oop_shift(LogMinObjAlignmentInBytes);
 786     }
 787     if ((uint64_t)Universe::heap()->reserved_region().end() <= OopEncodingHeapMax) {
 788       // Did reserve heap below 32Gb. Can use base == 0;
 789       Universe::set_narrow_oop_base(0);
 790     }
 791 
 792     Universe::set_narrow_ptrs_base(Universe::narrow_oop_base());
 793 
 794     LogTarget(Info, gc, heap, coops) lt;
 795     if (lt.is_enabled()) {
 796       ResourceMark rm;
 797       LogStream ls(lt);
 798       Universe::print_compressed_oops_mode(&ls);
 799     }
 800 
 801     // Tell tests in which mode we run.
 802     Arguments::PropertyList_add(new SystemProperty("java.vm.compressedOopsMode",
 803                                                    narrow_oop_mode_to_string(narrow_oop_mode()),
 804                                                    false));
 805   }
 806   // Universe::narrow_oop_base() is one page below the heap.
 807   assert((intptr_t)Universe::narrow_oop_base() <= (intptr_t)(Universe::heap()->base() -
 808          os::vm_page_size()) ||
 809          Universe::narrow_oop_base() == NULL, "invalid value");
 810   assert(Universe::narrow_oop_shift() == LogMinObjAlignmentInBytes ||
 811          Universe::narrow_oop_shift() == 0, "invalid value");
 812 #endif
 813 
 814   // We will never reach the CATCH below since Exceptions::_throw will cause
 815   // the VM to exit if an exception is thrown during initialization
 816 
 817   if (UseTLAB) {
 818     assert(Universe::heap()->supports_tlab_allocation(),
 819            "Should support thread-local allocation buffers");
 820     ThreadLocalAllocBuffer::startup_initialization();
 821   }
 822   return JNI_OK;
 823 }
 824 
 825 void Universe::print_compressed_oops_mode(outputStream* st) {
 826   st->print("Heap address: " PTR_FORMAT ", size: " SIZE_FORMAT " MB",
 827             p2i(Universe::heap()->base()), Universe::heap()->reserved_region().byte_size()/M);
 828 
 829   st->print(", Compressed Oops mode: %s", narrow_oop_mode_to_string(narrow_oop_mode()));
 830 
 831   if (Universe::narrow_oop_base() != 0) {
 832     st->print(": " PTR_FORMAT, p2i(Universe::narrow_oop_base()));
 833   }
 834 
 835   if (Universe::narrow_oop_shift() != 0) {
 836     st->print(", Oop shift amount: %d", Universe::narrow_oop_shift());
 837   }
 838 
 839   if (!Universe::narrow_oop_use_implicit_null_checks()) {
 840     st->print(", no protected page in front of the heap");
 841   }
 842   st->cr();
 843 }
 844 
 845 ReservedSpace Universe::reserve_heap(size_t heap_size, size_t alignment) {
 846 
 847   assert(alignment <= Arguments::conservative_max_heap_alignment(),
 848          "actual alignment " SIZE_FORMAT " must be within maximum heap alignment " SIZE_FORMAT,
 849          alignment, Arguments::conservative_max_heap_alignment());
 850 
 851   size_t total_reserved = align_up(heap_size, alignment);
 852   assert(!UseCompressedOops || (total_reserved <= (OopEncodingHeapMax - os::vm_page_size())),
 853       "heap size is too big for compressed oops");
 854 
 855   bool use_large_pages = UseLargePages && is_aligned(alignment, os::large_page_size());
 856   assert(!UseLargePages
 857       || UseParallelGC
 858       || use_large_pages, "Wrong alignment to use large pages");
 859 
 860   // Now create the space.
 861   ReservedHeapSpace total_rs(total_reserved, alignment, use_large_pages, AllocateHeapAt);
 862 
 863   if (total_rs.is_reserved()) {
 864     assert((total_reserved == total_rs.size()) && ((uintptr_t)total_rs.base() % alignment == 0),
 865            "must be exactly of required size and alignment");
 866     // We are good.
 867 
 868     if (UseCompressedOops) {
 869       // Universe::initialize_heap() will reset this to NULL if unscaled
 870       // or zero-based narrow oops are actually used.
 871       // Else heap start and base MUST differ, so that NULL can be encoded nonambigous.
 872       Universe::set_narrow_oop_base((address)total_rs.compressed_oop_base());
 873     }
 874 
 875     if (AllocateHeapAt != NULL) {
 876       log_info(gc,heap)("Successfully allocated Java heap at location %s", AllocateHeapAt);
 877     }
 878     return total_rs;
 879   }
 880 
 881   vm_exit_during_initialization(
 882     err_msg("Could not reserve enough space for " SIZE_FORMAT "KB object heap",
 883             total_reserved/K));
 884 
 885   // satisfy compiler
 886   ShouldNotReachHere();
 887   return ReservedHeapSpace(0, 0, false);
 888 }
 889 
 890 
 891 // It's the caller's responsibility to ensure glitch-freedom
 892 // (if required).
 893 void Universe::update_heap_info_at_gc() {
 894   _heap_capacity_at_last_gc = heap()->capacity();
 895   _heap_used_at_last_gc     = heap()->used();
 896 }
 897 
 898 
 899 const char* Universe::narrow_oop_mode_to_string(Universe::NARROW_OOP_MODE mode) {
 900   switch (mode) {
 901     case UnscaledNarrowOop:
 902       return "32-bit";
 903     case ZeroBasedNarrowOop:
 904       return "Zero based";
 905     case DisjointBaseNarrowOop:
 906       return "Non-zero disjoint base";
 907     case HeapBasedNarrowOop:
 908       return "Non-zero based";
 909     default:
 910       ShouldNotReachHere();
 911       return "";
 912   }
 913 }
 914 
 915 
 916 Universe::NARROW_OOP_MODE Universe::narrow_oop_mode() {
 917   if (narrow_oop_base_disjoint()) {
 918     return DisjointBaseNarrowOop;
 919   }
 920 
 921   if (narrow_oop_base() != 0) {
 922     return HeapBasedNarrowOop;
 923   }
 924 
 925   if (narrow_oop_shift() != 0) {
 926     return ZeroBasedNarrowOop;
 927   }
 928 
 929   return UnscaledNarrowOop;
 930 }
 931 
 932 void initialize_known_method(LatestMethodCache* method_cache,
 933                              InstanceKlass* ik,
 934                              const char* method,
 935                              Symbol* signature,
 936                              bool is_static, TRAPS)
 937 {
 938   TempNewSymbol name = SymbolTable::new_symbol(method, CHECK);
 939   Method* m = NULL;
 940   // The klass must be linked before looking up the method.
 941   if (!ik->link_class_or_fail(THREAD) ||
 942       ((m = ik->find_method(name, signature)) == NULL) ||
 943       is_static != m->is_static()) {
 944     ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
 945     // NoSuchMethodException doesn't actually work because it tries to run the
 946     // <init> function before java_lang_Class is linked. Print error and exit.
 947     vm_exit_during_initialization(err_msg("Unable to link/verify %s.%s method",
 948                                  ik->name()->as_C_string(), method));
 949   }
 950   method_cache->init(ik, m);
 951 }
 952 
 953 void Universe::initialize_known_methods(TRAPS) {
 954   // Set up static method for registering finalizers
 955   initialize_known_method(_finalizer_register_cache,
 956                           SystemDictionary::Finalizer_klass(),
 957                           "register",
 958                           vmSymbols::object_void_signature(), true, CHECK);
 959 
 960   initialize_known_method(_throw_illegal_access_error_cache,
 961                           SystemDictionary::internal_Unsafe_klass(),
 962                           "throwIllegalAccessError",
 963                           vmSymbols::void_method_signature(), true, CHECK);
 964 
 965   // Set up method for registering loaded classes in class loader vector
 966   initialize_known_method(_loader_addClass_cache,
 967                           SystemDictionary::ClassLoader_klass(),
 968                           "addClass",
 969                           vmSymbols::class_void_signature(), false, CHECK);
 970 
 971   // Set up method for checking protection domain
 972   initialize_known_method(_pd_implies_cache,
 973                           SystemDictionary::ProtectionDomain_klass(),
 974                           "impliesCreateAccessControlContext",
 975                           vmSymbols::void_boolean_signature(), false, CHECK);
 976 
 977   // Set up method for stack walking
 978   initialize_known_method(_do_stack_walk_cache,
 979                           SystemDictionary::AbstractStackWalker_klass(),
 980                           "doStackWalk",
 981                           vmSymbols::doStackWalk_signature(), false, CHECK);
 982 }
 983 
 984 void universe2_init() {
 985   EXCEPTION_MARK;
 986   Universe::genesis(CATCH);
 987 }
 988 
 989 // Set after initialization of the module runtime, call_initModuleRuntime
 990 void universe_post_module_init() {
 991   Universe::_module_initialized = true;
 992 }
 993 
 994 bool universe_post_init() {
 995   assert(!is_init_completed(), "Error: initialization not yet completed!");
 996   Universe::_fully_initialized = true;
 997   EXCEPTION_MARK;
 998   { ResourceMark rm;
 999     Interpreter::initialize();      // needed for interpreter entry points
1000     if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
1001       HandleMark hm(THREAD);
1002       Klass* ok = SystemDictionary::Object_klass();
1003       Universe::reinitialize_vtable_of(ok, CHECK_false);
1004       Universe::reinitialize_itables(CHECK_false);
1005     }
1006   }
1007 
1008   HandleMark hm(THREAD);
1009   // Setup preallocated empty java.lang.Class array
1010   Universe::_the_empty_class_klass_array = oopFactory::new_objArray(SystemDictionary::Class_klass(), 0, CHECK_false);
1011 
1012   // Setup preallocated OutOfMemoryError errors
1013   Klass* k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(vmSymbols::java_lang_OutOfMemoryError(), true, CHECK_false);
1014   InstanceKlass* ik = InstanceKlass::cast(k);
1015   Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap = ik->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1016   Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace = ik->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1017   Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace = ik->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1018   Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size = ik->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1019   Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit =
1020     ik->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1021   Universe::_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects = ik->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1022 
1023   // Setup preallocated cause message for delayed StackOverflowError
1024   if (StackReservedPages > 0) {
1025     Universe::_delayed_stack_overflow_error_message =
1026       java_lang_String::create_oop_from_str("Delayed StackOverflowError due to ReservedStackAccess annotated method", CHECK_false);
1027   }
1028 
1029   // Setup preallocated NullPointerException
1030   // (this is currently used for a cheap & dirty solution in compiler exception handling)
1031   k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(vmSymbols::java_lang_NullPointerException(), true, CHECK_false);
1032   Universe::_null_ptr_exception_instance = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1033   // Setup preallocated ArithmeticException
1034   // (this is currently used for a cheap & dirty solution in compiler exception handling)
1035   k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(vmSymbols::java_lang_ArithmeticException(), true, CHECK_false);
1036   Universe::_arithmetic_exception_instance = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1037   // Virtual Machine Error for when we get into a situation we can't resolve
1038   k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(
1039     vmSymbols::java_lang_VirtualMachineError(), true, CHECK_false);
1040   bool linked = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->link_class_or_fail(CHECK_false);
1041   if (!linked) {
1042      tty->print_cr("Unable to link/verify VirtualMachineError class");
1043      return false; // initialization failed
1044   }
1045   Universe::_virtual_machine_error_instance =
1046     InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1047 
1048   Universe::_vm_exception = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1049 
1050   Handle msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Java heap space", CHECK_false);
1051   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap, msg());
1052 
1053   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Metaspace", CHECK_false);
1054   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_metaspace, msg());
1055   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Compressed class space", CHECK_false);
1056   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace, msg());
1057 
1058   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Requested array size exceeds VM limit", CHECK_false);
1059   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_array_size, msg());
1060 
1061   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("GC overhead limit exceeded", CHECK_false);
1062   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit, msg());
1063 
1064   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Java heap space: failed reallocation of scalar replaced objects", CHECK_false);
1065   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects, msg());
1066 
1067   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("/ by zero", CHECK_false);
1068   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::_arithmetic_exception_instance, msg());
1069 
1070   // Setup the array of errors that have preallocated backtrace
1071   k = Universe::_out_of_memory_error_java_heap->klass();
1072   assert(k->name() == vmSymbols::java_lang_OutOfMemoryError(), "should be out of memory error");
1073   ik = InstanceKlass::cast(k);
1074 
1075   int len = (StackTraceInThrowable) ? (int)PreallocatedOutOfMemoryErrorCount : 0;
1076   Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_array = oopFactory::new_objArray(ik, len, CHECK_false);
1077   for (int i=0; i<len; i++) {
1078     oop err = ik->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1079     Handle err_h = Handle(THREAD, err);
1080     java_lang_Throwable::allocate_backtrace(err_h, CHECK_false);
1081     Universe::preallocated_out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at_put(i, err_h());
1082   }
1083   Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count = (jint)len;
1084 
1085   Universe::initialize_known_methods(CHECK_false);
1086 
1087   // This needs to be done before the first scavenge/gc, since
1088   // it's an input to soft ref clearing policy.
1089   {
1090     MutexLocker x(Heap_lock);
1091     Universe::update_heap_info_at_gc();
1092   }
1093 
1094   // ("weak") refs processing infrastructure initialization
1095   Universe::heap()->post_initialize();
1096 
1097   MemoryService::add_metaspace_memory_pools();
1098 
1099   MemoryService::set_universe_heap(Universe::heap());
1100 #if INCLUDE_CDS
1101   SharedClassUtil::initialize(CHECK_false);
1102 #endif
1103   return true;
1104 }
1105 
1106 
1107 void Universe::compute_base_vtable_size() {
1108   _base_vtable_size = ClassLoader::compute_Object_vtable();
1109 }
1110 
1111 void Universe::print_on(outputStream* st) {
1112   GCMutexLocker hl(Heap_lock); // Heap_lock might be locked by caller thread.
1113   st->print_cr("Heap");
1114   heap()->print_on(st);
1115 }
1116 
1117 void Universe::print_heap_at_SIGBREAK() {
1118   if (PrintHeapAtSIGBREAK) {
1119     print_on(tty);
1120     tty->cr();
1121     tty->flush();
1122   }
1123 }
1124 
1125 void Universe::print_heap_before_gc() {
1126   LogTarget(Debug, gc, heap) lt;
1127   if (lt.is_enabled()) {
1128     LogStream ls(lt);
1129     ls.print("Heap before GC invocations=%u (full %u):", heap()->total_collections(), heap()->total_full_collections());
1130     ResourceMark rm;
1131     heap()->print_on(&ls);
1132   }
1133 }
1134 
1135 void Universe::print_heap_after_gc() {
1136   LogTarget(Debug, gc, heap) lt;
1137   if (lt.is_enabled()) {
1138     LogStream ls(lt);
1139     ls.print("Heap after GC invocations=%u (full %u):", heap()->total_collections(), heap()->total_full_collections());
1140     ResourceMark rm;
1141     heap()->print_on(&ls);
1142   }
1143 }
1144 
1145 void Universe::initialize_verify_flags() {
1146   verify_flags = 0;
1147   const char delimiter[] = " ,";
1148 
1149   size_t length = strlen(VerifySubSet);
1150   char* subset_list = NEW_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, length + 1, mtInternal);
1151   strncpy(subset_list, VerifySubSet, length + 1);
1152 
1153   char* token = strtok(subset_list, delimiter);
1154   while (token != NULL) {
1155     if (strcmp(token, "threads") == 0) {
1156       verify_flags |= Verify_Threads;
1157     } else if (strcmp(token, "heap") == 0) {
1158       verify_flags |= Verify_Heap;
1159     } else if (strcmp(token, "symbol_table") == 0) {
1160       verify_flags |= Verify_SymbolTable;
1161     } else if (strcmp(token, "string_table") == 0) {
1162       verify_flags |= Verify_StringTable;
1163     } else if (strcmp(token, "codecache") == 0) {
1164       verify_flags |= Verify_CodeCache;
1165     } else if (strcmp(token, "dictionary") == 0) {
1166       verify_flags |= Verify_SystemDictionary;
1167     } else if (strcmp(token, "classloader_data_graph") == 0) {
1168       verify_flags |= Verify_ClassLoaderDataGraph;
1169     } else if (strcmp(token, "metaspace") == 0) {
1170       verify_flags |= Verify_MetaspaceAux;
1171     } else if (strcmp(token, "jni_handles") == 0) {
1172       verify_flags |= Verify_JNIHandles;
1173     } else if (strcmp(token, "codecache_oops") == 0) {
1174       verify_flags |= Verify_CodeCacheOops;
1175     } else {
1176       vm_exit_during_initialization(err_msg("VerifySubSet: \'%s\' memory sub-system is unknown, please correct it", token));
1177     }
1178     token = strtok(NULL, delimiter);
1179   }
1180   FREE_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, subset_list);
1181 }
1182 
1183 bool Universe::should_verify_subset(uint subset) {
1184   if (verify_flags & subset) {
1185     return true;
1186   }
1187   return false;
1188 }
1189 
1190 void Universe::verify(VerifyOption option, const char* prefix) {
1191   // The use of _verify_in_progress is a temporary work around for
1192   // 6320749.  Don't bother with a creating a class to set and clear
1193   // it since it is only used in this method and the control flow is
1194   // straight forward.
1195   _verify_in_progress = true;
1196 
1197   COMPILER2_PRESENT(
1198     assert(!DerivedPointerTable::is_active(),
1199          "DPT should not be active during verification "
1200          "(of thread stacks below)");
1201   )
1202 
1203   ResourceMark rm;
1204   HandleMark hm;  // Handles created during verification can be zapped
1205   _verify_count++;
1206 
1207   FormatBuffer<> title("Verifying %s", prefix);
1208   GCTraceTime(Info, gc, verify) tm(title.buffer());
1209   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_Threads)) {
1210     log_debug(gc, verify)("Threads");
1211     Threads::verify();
1212   }
1213   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_Heap)) {
1214     log_debug(gc, verify)("Heap");
1215     heap()->verify(option);
1216   }
1217   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_SymbolTable)) {
1218     log_debug(gc, verify)("SymbolTable");
1219     SymbolTable::verify();
1220   }
1221   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_StringTable)) {
1222     log_debug(gc, verify)("StringTable");
1223     StringTable::verify();
1224   }
1225   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_CodeCache)) {
1226   {
1227     MutexLockerEx mu(CodeCache_lock, Mutex::_no_safepoint_check_flag);
1228     log_debug(gc, verify)("CodeCache");
1229     CodeCache::verify();
1230   }
1231   }
1232   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_SystemDictionary)) {
1233     log_debug(gc, verify)("SystemDictionary");
1234     SystemDictionary::verify();
1235   }
1236 #ifndef PRODUCT
1237   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_ClassLoaderDataGraph)) {
1238     log_debug(gc, verify)("ClassLoaderDataGraph");
1239     ClassLoaderDataGraph::verify();
1240   }
1241 #endif
1242   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_MetaspaceAux)) {
1243     log_debug(gc, verify)("MetaspaceAux");
1244     MetaspaceAux::verify_free_chunks();
1245   }
1246   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_JNIHandles)) {
1247     log_debug(gc, verify)("JNIHandles");
1248     JNIHandles::verify();
1249   }
1250   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_CodeCacheOops)) {
1251     log_debug(gc, verify)("CodeCache Oops");
1252     CodeCache::verify_oops();
1253   }
1254 
1255   _verify_in_progress = false;
1256 }
1257 
1258 
1259 #ifndef PRODUCT
1260 void Universe::calculate_verify_data(HeapWord* low_boundary, HeapWord* high_boundary) {
1261   assert(low_boundary < high_boundary, "bad interval");
1262 
1263   // decide which low-order bits we require to be clear:
1264   size_t alignSize = MinObjAlignmentInBytes;
1265   size_t min_object_size = CollectedHeap::min_fill_size();
1266 
1267   // make an inclusive limit:
1268   uintptr_t max = (uintptr_t)high_boundary - min_object_size*wordSize;
1269   uintptr_t min = (uintptr_t)low_boundary;
1270   assert(min < max, "bad interval");
1271   uintptr_t diff = max ^ min;
1272 
1273   // throw away enough low-order bits to make the diff vanish
1274   uintptr_t mask = (uintptr_t)(-1);
1275   while ((mask & diff) != 0)
1276     mask <<= 1;
1277   uintptr_t bits = (min & mask);
1278   assert(bits == (max & mask), "correct mask");
1279   // check an intermediate value between min and max, just to make sure:
1280   assert(bits == ((min + (max-min)/2) & mask), "correct mask");
1281 
1282   // require address alignment, too:
1283   mask |= (alignSize - 1);
1284 
1285   if (!(_verify_oop_mask == 0 && _verify_oop_bits == (uintptr_t)-1)) {
1286     assert(_verify_oop_mask == mask && _verify_oop_bits == bits, "mask stability");
1287   }
1288   _verify_oop_mask = mask;
1289   _verify_oop_bits = bits;
1290 }
1291 
1292 // Oop verification (see MacroAssembler::verify_oop)
1293 
1294 uintptr_t Universe::verify_oop_mask() {
1295   MemRegion m = heap()->reserved_region();
1296   calculate_verify_data(m.start(), m.end());
1297   return _verify_oop_mask;
1298 }
1299 
1300 uintptr_t Universe::verify_oop_bits() {
1301   MemRegion m = heap()->reserved_region();
1302   calculate_verify_data(m.start(), m.end());
1303   return _verify_oop_bits;
1304 }
1305 
1306 uintptr_t Universe::verify_mark_mask() {
1307   return markOopDesc::lock_mask_in_place;
1308 }
1309 
1310 uintptr_t Universe::verify_mark_bits() {
1311   intptr_t mask = verify_mark_mask();
1312   intptr_t bits = (intptr_t)markOopDesc::prototype();
1313   assert((bits & ~mask) == 0, "no stray header bits");
1314   return bits;
1315 }
1316 #endif // PRODUCT
1317 
1318 
1319 void Universe::compute_verify_oop_data() {
1320   verify_oop_mask();
1321   verify_oop_bits();
1322   verify_mark_mask();
1323   verify_mark_bits();
1324 }
1325 
1326 
1327 void LatestMethodCache::init(Klass* k, Method* m) {
1328   if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
1329     _klass = k;
1330   }
1331 #ifndef PRODUCT
1332   else {
1333     // sharing initilization should have already set up _klass
1334     assert(_klass != NULL, "just checking");
1335   }
1336 #endif
1337 
1338   _method_idnum = m->method_idnum();
1339   assert(_method_idnum >= 0, "sanity check");
1340 }
1341 
1342 
1343 Method* LatestMethodCache::get_method() {
1344   if (klass() == NULL) return NULL;
1345   InstanceKlass* ik = InstanceKlass::cast(klass());
1346   Method* m = ik->method_with_idnum(method_idnum());
1347   assert(m != NULL, "sanity check");
1348   return m;
1349 }
1350 
1351 
1352 #ifdef ASSERT
1353 // Release dummy object(s) at bottom of heap
1354 bool Universe::release_fullgc_alot_dummy() {
1355   MutexLocker ml(FullGCALot_lock);
1356   if (_fullgc_alot_dummy_array != NULL) {
1357     if (_fullgc_alot_dummy_next >= _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->length()) {
1358       // No more dummies to release, release entire array instead
1359       _fullgc_alot_dummy_array = NULL;
1360       return false;
1361     }
1362     if (!UseConcMarkSweepGC) {
1363       // Release dummy at bottom of old generation
1364       _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->obj_at_put(_fullgc_alot_dummy_next++, NULL);
1365     }
1366     // Release dummy at bottom of permanent generation
1367     _fullgc_alot_dummy_array->obj_at_put(_fullgc_alot_dummy_next++, NULL);
1368   }
1369   return true;
1370 }
1371 
1372 #endif // ASSERT