1 /*
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   3  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
   4  *
   5  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
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   7  * published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
   8  * particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
   9  * by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
  10  *
  11  * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  12  * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  13  * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  14  * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  15  * accompanied this code).
  16  *
  17  * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
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  19  * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  20  *
  21  * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  22  * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  23  * questions.
  24  */
  25 
  26 package javax.xml.bind;
  27 
  28 import org.w3c.dom.Node;
  29 
  30 import java.util.Collections;
  31 import java.util.Map;
  32 import java.util.Properties;
  33 import java.io.IOException;
  34 import java.io.InputStream;
  35 
  36 /**
  37  * <p>
  38  * The <tt>JAXBContext</tt> class provides the client's entry point to the
  39  * JAXB API. It provides an abstraction for managing the XML/Java binding
  40  * information necessary to implement the JAXB binding framework operations:
  41  * unmarshal, marshal and validate.
  42  *
  43  * <p>A client application normally obtains new instances of this class using
  44  * one of these two styles for newInstance methods, although there are other
  45  * specialized forms of the method available:
  46  *
  47  * <ul>
  48  * <li>{@link #newInstance(String, ClassLoader) JAXBContext.newInstance( "com.acme.foo:com.acme.bar" )} <br>
  49  * The JAXBContext instance is initialized from a list of colon
  50  * separated Java package names. Each java package contains
  51  * JAXB mapped classes, schema-derived classes and/or user annotated
  52  * classes. Additionally, the java package may contain JAXB package annotations
  53  * that must be processed. (see JLS, Section 7.4.1 "Named Packages").
  54  * </li>
  55  * <li>{@link #newInstance(Class...) JAXBContext.newInstance( com.acme.foo.Foo.class )} <br>
  56  * The JAXBContext instance is initialized with class(es)
  57  * passed as parameter(s) and classes that are statically reachable from
  58  * these class(es). See {@link #newInstance(Class...)} for details.
  59  * </li>
  60  * </ul>
  61  *
  62  * <p><i>
  63  * The following JAXB 1.0 requirement is only required for schema to
  64  * java interface/implementation binding. It does not apply to JAXB annotated
  65  * classes. JAXB Providers must generate a <tt>jaxb.properties</tt> file in
  66  * each package containing schema derived classes.  The property file must
  67  * contain a property named <tt>javax.xml.bind.context.factory</tt> whose
  68  * value is the name of the class that implements the <tt>createContext</tt>
  69  * APIs.</i>
  70  *
  71  * <p><i>
  72  * The class supplied by the provider does not have to be assignable to
  73  * <tt>javax.xml.bind.JAXBContext</tt>, it simply has to provide a class that
  74  * implements the <tt>createContext</tt> APIs.</i>
  75  *
  76  * <p><i>
  77  * In addition, the provider must call the
  78  * {@link DatatypeConverter#setDatatypeConverter(DatatypeConverterInterface)
  79  * DatatypeConverter.setDatatypeConverter} api prior to any client
  80  * invocations of the marshal and unmarshal methods.  This is necessary to
  81  * configure the datatype converter that will be used during these operations.</i>
  82  *
  83  * <a name="Unmarshalling"></a>
  84  * <h3>Unmarshalling</h3>
  85  * <p>
  86  * The {@link Unmarshaller} class provides the client application the ability
  87  * to convert XML data into a tree of Java content objects.
  88  * The unmarshal method allows for
  89  * any global XML element declared in the schema to be unmarshalled as
  90  * the root of an instance document.
  91  * Additionally, the unmarshal method allows for an unrecognized root element that
  92  * has  an xsi:type attribute's value that references a type definition declared in
  93  * the schema  to be unmarshalled as the root of an instance document.
  94  * The <tt>JAXBContext</tt> object
  95  * allows the merging of global elements and type definitions across a set of schemas (listed
  96  * in the <tt>contextPath</tt>). Since each schema in the schema set can belong
  97  * to distinct namespaces, the unification of schemas to an unmarshalling
  98  * context should be namespace independent.  This means that a client
  99  * application is able to unmarshal XML documents that are instances of
 100  * any of the schemas listed in the <tt>contextPath</tt>.  For example:
 101  *
 102  * <pre>
 103  *      JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext.newInstance( "com.acme.foo:com.acme.bar" );
 104  *      Unmarshaller u = jc.createUnmarshaller();
 105  *      FooObject fooObj = (FooObject)u.unmarshal( new File( "foo.xml" ) ); // ok
 106  *      BarObject barObj = (BarObject)u.unmarshal( new File( "bar.xml" ) ); // ok
 107  *      BazObject bazObj = (BazObject)u.unmarshal( new File( "baz.xml" ) ); // error, "com.acme.baz" not in contextPath
 108  * </pre>
 109  *
 110  * <p>
 111  * The client application may also generate Java content trees explicitly rather
 112  * than unmarshalling existing XML data.  For all JAXB-annotated value classes,
 113  * an application can create content using constructors.
 114  * For schema-derived interface/implementation classes and for the
 115  * creation of elements that are not bound to a JAXB-annotated
 116  * class, an application needs to have access and knowledge about each of
 117  * the schema derived <tt> ObjectFactory</tt> classes that exist in each of
 118  * java packages contained in the <tt>contextPath</tt>.  For each schema
 119  * derived java class, there is a static factory method that produces objects
 120  * of that type.  For example,
 121  * assume that after compiling a schema, you have a package <tt>com.acme.foo</tt>
 122  * that contains a schema derived interface named <tt>PurchaseOrder</tt>.  In
 123  * order to create objects of that type, the client application would use the
 124  * factory method like this:
 125  *
 126  * <pre>
 127  *       com.acme.foo.PurchaseOrder po =
 128  *           com.acme.foo.ObjectFactory.createPurchaseOrder();
 129  * </pre>
 130  *
 131  * <p>
 132  * Once the client application has an instance of the the schema derived object,
 133  * it can use the mutator methods to set content on it.
 134  *
 135  * <p>
 136  * For more information on the generated <tt>ObjectFactory</tt> classes, see
 137  * Section 4.2 <i>Java Package</i> of the specification.
 138  *
 139  * <p>
 140  * <i>The provider must generate a class in each
 141  * package that contains all of the necessary object factory methods for that
 142  * package named ObjectFactory as well as the static
 143  * <tt>newInstance( javaContentInterface )</tt> method</i>
 144  *
 145  * <h3>Marshalling</h3>
 146  * <p>
 147  * The {@link Marshaller} class provides the client application the ability
 148  * to convert a Java content tree back into XML data.  There is no difference
 149  * between marshalling a content tree that is created manually using the factory
 150  * methods and marshalling a content tree that is the result an <tt>unmarshal
 151  * </tt> operation.  Clients can marshal a java content tree back to XML data
 152  * to a <tt>java.io.OutputStream</tt> or a <tt>java.io.Writer</tt>.  The
 153  * marshalling process can alternatively produce SAX2 event streams to a
 154  * registered <tt>ContentHandler</tt> or produce a DOM Node object.
 155  * Client applications have control over the output encoding as well as
 156  * whether or not to marshal the XML data as a complete document or
 157  * as a fragment.
 158  *
 159  * <p>
 160  * Here is a simple example that unmarshals an XML document and then marshals
 161  * it back out:
 162  *
 163  * <pre>
 164  *        JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext.newInstance( "com.acme.foo" );
 165  *
 166  *        // unmarshal from foo.xml
 167  *        Unmarshaller u = jc.createUnmarshaller();
 168  *        FooObject fooObj = (FooObject)u.unmarshal( new File( "foo.xml" ) );
 169  *
 170  *        // marshal to System.out
 171  *        Marshaller m = jc.createMarshaller();
 172  *        m.marshal( fooObj, System.out );
 173  * </pre>
 174  *
 175  *
 176  * <h3>Validation</h3>
 177  * <p>
 178  * Validation has been changed significantly since JAXB 1.0.  The {@link Validator}
 179  * class has been deprecated and made optional.  This means that you are advised
 180  * not to use this class and, in fact, it may not even be available depending on
 181  * your JAXB provider.  JAXB 1.0 client applications that rely on <tt>Validator</tt>
 182  * will still work properly when deployed with the JAXB 1.0 runtime system.
 183  *
 184  * In JAXB 2.0, the {@link Unmarshaller} has included convenince methods that expose
 185  * the JAXP 1.3 {@link javax.xml.validation} framework.  Please refer to the
 186  * {@link Unmarshaller#setSchema(javax.xml.validation.Schema)} API for more
 187  * information.
 188  *
 189  *
 190  * <h3>JAXB Runtime Binding Framework Compatibility</h3>
 191  * <p>
 192  * The following JAXB 1.0 restriction only applies to binding schema to
 193  * interfaces/implementation classes.
 194  * Since this binding does not require a common runtime system, a JAXB
 195  * client application must not attempt to mix runtime objects (<tt>JAXBContext,
 196  * Marshaller</tt>, etc. ) from different providers.  This does not
 197  * mean that the client application isn't portable, it simply means that a
 198  * client has to use a runtime system provided by the same provider that was
 199  * used to compile the schema.
 200  *
 201  *
 202  * <h3>Discovery of JAXB implementation</h3>
 203  * <p>
 204  * When one of the <tt>newInstance</tt> methods is called, a JAXB implementation is discovered
 205  * by the following steps.
 206  *
 207  * <ol>
 208  *
 209  * <li>
 210  * For each package/class explicitly passed in to the {@link #newInstance} method, in the order they are specified,
 211  * <tt>jaxb.properties</tt> file is looked up in its package, by using the associated classloader &mdash;
 212  * this is {@link Class#getClassLoader() the owner class loader} for a {@link Class} argument, and for a package
 213  * the specified {@link ClassLoader}.
 214  *
 215  * <p>
 216  * If such a file is discovered, it is {@link Properties#load(InputStream) loaded} as a property file, and
 217  * the value of the {@link #JAXB_CONTEXT_FACTORY} key will be assumed to be the provider factory class.
 218  * This class is then loaded by the associated class loader discussed above.
 219  *
 220  * <p>
 221  * This phase of the look up allows some packages to force the use of a certain JAXB implementation.
 222  * (For example, perhaps the schema compiler has generated some vendor extension in the code.)
 223  *
 224  * <li>
 225  * If the system property {@link #JAXB_CONTEXT_FACTORY} exists, then its value is assumed to be the provider
 226  * factory class. This phase of the look up enables per-JVM override of the JAXB implementation.
 227  *
 228  * <li>
 229  * Provider of {@link javax.xml.bind.JAXBContextFactory} is loaded using the service-provider loading
 230  * facilities, defined by the {@link java.util.ServiceLoader} class, to attempt
 231  * to locate and load an implementation of the service using the {@linkplain
 232  * java.util.ServiceLoader#load(java.lang.Class) default loading mechanism}: the service-provider loading facility
 233  * will use the {@linkplain java.lang.Thread#getContextClassLoader() current thread's context class loader}
 234  * to attempt to load the context factory. If the context class loader is null, the
 235  * {@linkplain ClassLoader#getSystemClassLoader() system class loader} will be used.
 236  * <br>
 237  * In case of {@link java.util.ServiceConfigurationError service
 238  * configuration error} a {@link javax.xml.bind.JAXBException} will be thrown.
 239  * </li>
 240  *
 241  * <li>
 242  * Look for resource {@code /META-INF/services/javax.xml.bind.JAXBContext} using provided class loader.
 243  * Methods without class loader parameter use {@code Thread.currentThread().getContextClassLoader()}.
 244  * If such a resource exists, its content is assumed to be the provider factory class and must supply
 245  * an implementation class containing the following method signatures:
 246  *
 247  * <pre>
 248  *
 249  * public static JAXBContext createContext(
 250  *                                      String contextPath,
 251  *                                      ClassLoader classLoader,
 252  *                                      Map&lt;String,Object&gt; properties throws JAXBException
 253  *
 254  * public static JAXBContext createContext(
 255  *                                      Class[] classes,
 256  *                                      Map&lt;String,Object&gt; properties ) throws JAXBException
 257  * </pre>
 258  * This configuration method is deprecated.
 259  *
 260  * <li>
 261  * Finally, if all the steps above fail, then the rest of the look up is unspecified. That said,
 262  * the recommended behavior is to simply look for some hard-coded platform default JAXB implementation.
 263  * This phase of the look up is so that JavaSE can have its own JAXB implementation as the last resort.
 264  * </ol>
 265  *
 266  * <p>
 267  * Once the provider factory class {@link javax.xml.bind.JAXBContextFactory} is discovered, one of its methods
 268  * {@link javax.xml.bind.JAXBContextFactory#createContext(String, ClassLoader, java.util.Map)} or
 269  * {@link javax.xml.bind.JAXBContextFactory#createContext(Class[], java.util.Map)} is invoked
 270  * to create a {@link JAXBContext}.
 271  *
 272  * @apiNote
 273  * <p>Service discovery method using file /META-INF/services/javax.xml.bind.JAXBContext (described in step 4)
 274  * and leveraging provider's static methods is supported only to allow backwards compatibility, but it is strongly
 275  * recommended to migrate to standard ServiceLoader mechanism (described in step 3).
 276  *
 277  * @implNote
 278  * Within the last step, if Glassfish AS environment detected, its specific service loader is used to find factory class.
 279  *
 280  * @author <ul><li>Ryan Shoemaker, Sun Microsystems, Inc.</li>
 281  *             <li>Kohsuke Kawaguchi, Sun Microsystems, Inc.</li>
 282  *             <li>Joe Fialli, Sun Microsystems, Inc.</li></ul>
 283  *
 284  * @see Marshaller
 285  * @see Unmarshaller
 286  * @see <a href="http://docs.oracle.com/javase/specs/jls/se7/html/jls-7.html#jls-7.4.1">S 7.4.1 "Named Packages"
 287  *      in Java Language Specification</a>
 288  *
 289  * @since 1.6, JAXB 1.0
 290  */
 291 public abstract class JAXBContext {
 292 
 293     /**
 294      * The name of the property that contains the name of the class capable
 295      * of creating new <tt>JAXBContext</tt> objects.
 296      */
 297     public static final String JAXB_CONTEXT_FACTORY = "javax.xml.bind.JAXBContextFactory";
 298 
 299     protected JAXBContext() {
 300     }
 301 
 302 
 303     /**
 304      * <p>
 305      * Create a new instance of a <tt>JAXBContext</tt> class.
 306      *
 307      * <p>
 308      * This is a convenience method to invoke the
 309      * {@link #newInstance(String,ClassLoader)} method with
 310      * the context class loader of the current thread.
 311      *
 312      * @throws JAXBException if an error was encountered while creating the
 313      *                       <tt>JAXBContext</tt> such as
 314      * <ol>
 315      *   <li>failure to locate either ObjectFactory.class or jaxb.index in the packages</li>
 316      *   <li>an ambiguity among global elements contained in the contextPath</li>
 317      *   <li>failure to locate a value for the context factory provider property</li>
 318      *   <li>mixing schema derived packages from different providers on the same contextPath</li>
 319      * </ol>
 320      */
 321     public static JAXBContext newInstance( String contextPath )
 322         throws JAXBException {
 323 
 324         //return newInstance( contextPath, JAXBContext.class.getClassLoader() );
 325         return newInstance( contextPath, getContextClassLoader());
 326     }
 327 
 328     /**
 329      * <p>
 330      * Create a new instance of a <tt>JAXBContext</tt> class.
 331      *
 332      * <p>
 333      * The client application must supply a context path which is a list of
 334      * colon (':', \u005Cu003A) separated java package names that contain
 335      * schema-derived classes and/or fully qualified JAXB-annotated classes.
 336      * Schema-derived
 337      * code is registered with the JAXBContext by the
 338      * ObjectFactory.class generated per package.
 339      * Alternatively than being listed in the context path, programmer
 340      * annotated JAXB mapped classes can be listed in a
 341      * <tt>jaxb.index</tt> resource file, format described below.
 342      * Note that a java package can contain both schema-derived classes and
 343      * user annotated JAXB classes. Additionally, the java package may
 344      * contain JAXB package annotations  that must be processed. (see JLS,
 345      * Section 7.4.1 "Named Packages").
 346      * </p>
 347      *
 348      * <p>
 349      * Every package listed on the contextPath must meet <b>one or both</b> of the
 350      * following conditions otherwise a <tt>JAXBException</tt> will be thrown:
 351      * </p>
 352      * <ol>
 353      *   <li>it must contain ObjectFactory.class</li>
 354      *   <li>it must contain jaxb.index</li>
 355      * </ol>
 356      *
 357      * <p>
 358      * <b>Format for jaxb.index</b>
 359      * <p>
 360      * The file contains a newline-separated list of class names.
 361      * Space and tab characters, as well as blank
 362      * lines, are ignored. The comment character
 363      * is '#' (0x23); on each line all characters following the first comment
 364      * character are ignored. The file must be encoded in UTF-8. Classes that
 365      * are reachable, as defined in {@link #newInstance(Class...)}, from the
 366      * listed classes are also registered with JAXBContext.
 367      * <p>
 368      * Constraints on class name occuring in a <tt>jaxb.index</tt> file are:
 369      * <ul>
 370      *   <li>Must not end with ".class".</li>
 371      *   <li>Class names are resolved relative to package containing
 372      *       <tt>jaxb.index</tt> file. Only classes occuring directly in package
 373      *       containing <tt>jaxb.index</tt> file are allowed.</li>
 374      *   <li>Fully qualified class names are not allowed.
 375      *       A qualified class name,relative to current package,
 376      *       is only allowed to specify a nested or inner class.</li>
 377      * </ul>
 378      *
 379      * <p>
 380      * To maintain compatibility with JAXB 1.0 schema to java
 381      * interface/implementation binding, enabled by schema customization
 382      * <tt>{@literal <jaxb:globalBindings valueClass="false">}</tt>,
 383      * the JAXB provider will ensure that each package on the context path
 384      * has a <tt>jaxb.properties</tt> file which contains a value for the
 385      * <tt>javax.xml.bind.context.factory</tt> property and that all values
 386      * resolve to the same provider.  This requirement does not apply to
 387      * JAXB annotated classes.
 388      *
 389      * <p>
 390      * If there are any global XML element name collisions across the various
 391      * packages listed on the <tt>contextPath</tt>, a <tt>JAXBException</tt>
 392      * will be thrown.
 393      *
 394      * <p>
 395      * Mixing generated interface/impl bindings from multiple JAXB Providers
 396      * in the same context path may result in a <tt>JAXBException</tt>
 397      * being thrown.
 398      *
 399      * <p>
 400      * The steps involved in discovering the JAXB implementation is discussed in the class javadoc.
 401      *
 402      * @param contextPath list of java package names that contain schema
 403      *                    derived class and/or java to schema (JAXB-annotated)
 404      *                    mapped classes
 405      * @param classLoader
 406      *      This class loader will be used to locate the implementation
 407      *      classes.
 408      *
 409      * @return a new instance of a <tt>JAXBContext</tt>
 410      * @throws JAXBException if an error was encountered while creating the
 411      *                       <tt>JAXBContext</tt> such as
 412      * <ol>
 413      *   <li>failure to locate either ObjectFactory.class or jaxb.index in the packages</li>
 414      *   <li>an ambiguity among global elements contained in the contextPath</li>
 415      *   <li>failure to locate a value for the context factory provider property</li>
 416      *   <li>mixing schema derived packages from different providers on the same contextPath</li>
 417      * </ol>
 418      */
 419     public static JAXBContext newInstance( String contextPath, ClassLoader classLoader ) throws JAXBException {
 420 
 421         return newInstance(contextPath,classLoader,Collections.<String,Object>emptyMap());
 422     }
 423 
 424     /**
 425      * <p>
 426      * Create a new instance of a <tt>JAXBContext</tt> class.
 427      *
 428      * <p>
 429      * This is mostly the same as {@link JAXBContext#newInstance(String, ClassLoader)},
 430      * but this version allows you to pass in provider-specific properties to configure
 431      * the instantiation of {@link JAXBContext}.
 432      *
 433      * <p>
 434      * The interpretation of properties is up to implementations. Implementations should
 435      * throw <tt>JAXBException</tt> if it finds properties that it doesn't understand.
 436      *
 437      * @param contextPath list of java package names that contain schema derived classes
 438      * @param classLoader
 439      *      This class loader will be used to locate the implementation classes.
 440      * @param properties
 441      *      provider-specific properties. Can be null, which means the same thing as passing
 442      *      in an empty map.
 443      *
 444      * @return a new instance of a <tt>JAXBContext</tt>
 445      * @throws JAXBException if an error was encountered while creating the
 446      *                       <tt>JAXBContext</tt> such as
 447      * <ol>
 448      *   <li>failure to locate either ObjectFactory.class or jaxb.index in the packages</li>
 449      *   <li>an ambiguity among global elements contained in the contextPath</li>
 450      *   <li>failure to locate a value for the context factory provider property</li>
 451      *   <li>mixing schema derived packages from different providers on the same contextPath</li>
 452      * </ol>
 453      * @since 1.6, JAXB 2.0
 454      */
 455     public static JAXBContext newInstance( String contextPath,
 456                                            ClassLoader classLoader,
 457                                            Map<String,?>  properties  ) throws JAXBException {
 458 
 459         return ContextFinder.find(
 460                         /* The default property name according to the JAXB spec */
 461                         JAXB_CONTEXT_FACTORY,
 462 
 463                         /* the context path supplied by the client app */
 464                         contextPath,
 465 
 466                         /* class loader to be used */
 467                         classLoader,
 468                         properties );
 469     }
 470 
 471 // TODO: resurrect this once we introduce external annotations
 472 //    /**
 473 //     * <p>
 474 //     * Create a new instance of a <tt>JAXBContext</tt> class.
 475 //     *
 476 //     * <p>
 477 //     * The client application must supply a list of classes that the new
 478 //     * context object needs to recognize.
 479 //     *
 480 //     * Not only the new context will recognize all the classes specified,
 481 //     * but it will also recognize any classes that are directly/indirectly
 482 //     * referenced statically from the specified classes.
 483 //     *
 484 //     * For example, in the following Java code, if you do
 485 //     * <tt>newInstance(Foo.class)</tt>, the newly created {@link JAXBContext}
 486 //     * will recognize both <tt>Foo</tt> and <tt>Bar</tt>, but not <tt>Zot</tt>:
 487 //     * <pre>
 488 //     * class Foo {
 489 //     *      Bar b;
 490 //     * }
 491 //     * class Bar { int x; }
 492 //     * class Zot extends Bar { int y; }
 493 //     * </pre>
 494 //     *
 495 //     * Therefore, a typical client application only needs to specify the
 496 //     * top-level classes, but it needs to be careful.
 497 //     *
 498 //     * TODO: if we are to define other mechanisms, refer to them.
 499 //     *
 500 //     * @param externalBindings
 501 //     *      list of external binding files. Can be null or empty if none is used.
 502 //     *      when specified, those files determine how the classes are bound.
 503 //     *
 504 //     * @param classesToBeBound
 505 //     *      list of java classes to be recognized by the new {@link JAXBContext}.
 506 //     *      Can be empty, in which case a {@link JAXBContext} that only knows about
 507 //     *      spec-defined classes will be returned.
 508 //     *
 509 //     * @return
 510 //     *      A new instance of a <tt>JAXBContext</tt>.
 511 //     *
 512 //     * @throws JAXBException
 513 //     *      if an error was encountered while creating the
 514 //     *      <tt>JAXBContext</tt>, such as (but not limited to):
 515 //     * <ol>
 516 //     *  <li>No JAXB implementation was discovered
 517 //     *  <li>Classes use JAXB annotations incorrectly
 518 //     *  <li>Classes have colliding annotations (i.e., two classes with the same type name)
 519 //     *  <li>Specified external bindings are incorrect
 520 //     *  <li>The JAXB implementation was unable to locate
 521 //     *      provider-specific out-of-band information (such as additional
 522 //     *      files generated at the development time.)
 523 //     * </ol>
 524 //     *
 525 //     * @throws IllegalArgumentException
 526 //     *      if the parameter contains {@code null} (i.e., {@code newInstance(null);})
 527 //     *
 528 //     * @since JAXB 2.0
 529 //     */
 530 //    public static JAXBContext newInstance( Source[] externalBindings, Class... classesToBeBound )
 531 //        throws JAXBException {
 532 //
 533 //        // empty class list is not an error, because the context will still include
 534 //        // spec-specified classes like String and Integer.
 535 //        // if(classesToBeBound.length==0)
 536 //        //    throw new IllegalArgumentException();
 537 //
 538 //        // but it is an error to have nulls in it.
 539 //        for( int i=classesToBeBound.length-1; i>=0; i-- )
 540 //            if(classesToBeBound[i]==null)
 541 //                throw new IllegalArgumentException();
 542 //
 543 //        return ContextFinder.find(externalBindings,classesToBeBound);
 544 //    }
 545 
 546     /**
 547      * <p>
 548      * Create a new instance of a <tt>JAXBContext</tt> class.
 549      *
 550      * <p>
 551      * The client application must supply a list of classes that the new
 552      * context object needs to recognize.
 553      *
 554      * Not only the new context will recognize all the classes specified,
 555      * but it will also recognize any classes that are directly/indirectly
 556      * referenced statically from the specified classes. Subclasses of
 557      * referenced classes nor <tt>@XmlTransient</tt> referenced classes
 558      * are not registered with JAXBContext.
 559      *
 560      * For example, in the following Java code, if you do
 561      * <tt>newInstance(Foo.class)</tt>, the newly created {@link JAXBContext}
 562      * will recognize both <tt>Foo</tt> and <tt>Bar</tt>, but not <tt>Zot</tt> or <tt>FooBar</tt>:
 563      * <pre>
 564      * class Foo {
 565      *      @XmlTransient FooBar c;
 566      *      Bar b;
 567      * }
 568      * class Bar { int x; }
 569      * class Zot extends Bar { int y; }
 570      * class FooBar { }
 571      * </pre>
 572      *
 573      * Therefore, a typical client application only needs to specify the
 574      * top-level classes, but it needs to be careful.
 575      *
 576      * <p>
 577      * Note that for each java package registered with JAXBContext,
 578      * when the optional package annotations exist, they must be processed.
 579      * (see JLS, Section 7.4.1 "Named Packages").
 580      *
 581      * <p>
 582      * The steps involved in discovering the JAXB implementation is discussed in the class javadoc.
 583      *
 584      * @param classesToBeBound
 585      *      list of java classes to be recognized by the new {@link JAXBContext}.
 586      *      Can be empty, in which case a {@link JAXBContext} that only knows about
 587      *      spec-defined classes will be returned.
 588      *
 589      * @return
 590      *      A new instance of a <tt>JAXBContext</tt>.
 591      *
 592      * @throws JAXBException
 593      *      if an error was encountered while creating the
 594      *      <tt>JAXBContext</tt>, such as (but not limited to):
 595      * <ol>
 596      *  <li>No JAXB implementation was discovered
 597      *  <li>Classes use JAXB annotations incorrectly
 598      *  <li>Classes have colliding annotations (i.e., two classes with the same type name)
 599      *  <li>The JAXB implementation was unable to locate
 600      *      provider-specific out-of-band information (such as additional
 601      *      files generated at the development time.)
 602      * </ol>
 603      *
 604      * @throws IllegalArgumentException
 605      *      if the parameter contains {@code null} (i.e., {@code newInstance(null);})
 606      *
 607      * @since 1.6, JAXB 2.0
 608      */
 609     public static JAXBContext newInstance( Class<?> ... classesToBeBound )
 610         throws JAXBException {
 611 
 612         return newInstance(classesToBeBound,Collections.<String,Object>emptyMap());
 613     }
 614 
 615     /**
 616      * <p>
 617      * Create a new instance of a <tt>JAXBContext</tt> class.
 618      *
 619      * <p>
 620      * An overloading of {@link JAXBContext#newInstance(Class...)}
 621      * to configure 'properties' for this instantiation of {@link JAXBContext}.
 622      *
 623      * <p>
 624      * The interpretation of properties is up to implementations. Implementations should
 625      * throw <tt>JAXBException</tt> if it finds properties that it doesn't understand.
 626      *
 627      * @param classesToBeBound
 628      *      list of java classes to be recognized by the new {@link JAXBContext}.
 629      *      Can be empty, in which case a {@link JAXBContext} that only knows about
 630      *      spec-defined classes will be returned.
 631      * @param properties
 632      *      provider-specific properties. Can be null, which means the same thing as passing
 633      *      in an empty map.
 634      *
 635      * @return
 636      *      A new instance of a <tt>JAXBContext</tt>.
 637      *
 638      * @throws JAXBException
 639      *      if an error was encountered while creating the
 640      *      <tt>JAXBContext</tt>, such as (but not limited to):
 641      * <ol>
 642      *  <li>No JAXB implementation was discovered
 643      *  <li>Classes use JAXB annotations incorrectly
 644      *  <li>Classes have colliding annotations (i.e., two classes with the same type name)
 645      *  <li>The JAXB implementation was unable to locate
 646      *      provider-specific out-of-band information (such as additional
 647      *      files generated at the development time.)
 648      * </ol>
 649      *
 650      * @throws IllegalArgumentException
 651      *      if the parameter contains {@code null} (i.e., {@code newInstance(null,someMap);})
 652      *
 653      * @since 1.6, JAXB 2.0
 654      */
 655     public static JAXBContext newInstance( Class<?>[] classesToBeBound, Map<String,?> properties )
 656         throws JAXBException {
 657 
 658         if (classesToBeBound == null) {
 659                 throw new IllegalArgumentException();
 660         }
 661 
 662         // but it is an error to have nulls in it.
 663         for (int i = classesToBeBound.length - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
 664             if (classesToBeBound[i] == null) {
 665                 throw new IllegalArgumentException();
 666             }
 667         }
 668 
 669         return ContextFinder.find(classesToBeBound,properties);
 670     }
 671 
 672     /**
 673      * Create an <tt>Unmarshaller</tt> object that can be used to convert XML
 674      * data into a java content tree.
 675      *
 676      * @return an <tt>Unmarshaller</tt> object
 677      *
 678      * @throws JAXBException if an error was encountered while creating the
 679      *                       <tt>Unmarshaller</tt> object
 680      */
 681     public abstract Unmarshaller createUnmarshaller() throws JAXBException;
 682 
 683 
 684     /**
 685      * Create a <tt>Marshaller</tt> object that can be used to convert a
 686      * java content tree into XML data.
 687      *
 688      * @return a <tt>Marshaller</tt> object
 689      *
 690      * @throws JAXBException if an error was encountered while creating the
 691      *                       <tt>Marshaller</tt> object
 692      */
 693     public abstract Marshaller createMarshaller() throws JAXBException;
 694 
 695 
 696     /**
 697      * {@link Validator} has been made optional and deprecated in JAXB 2.0.  Please
 698      * refer to the javadoc for {@link Validator} for more detail.
 699      * <p>
 700      * Create a <tt>Validator</tt> object that can be used to validate a
 701      * java content tree against its source schema.
 702      *
 703      * @return a <tt>Validator</tt> object
 704      *
 705      * @throws JAXBException if an error was encountered while creating the
 706      *                       <tt>Validator</tt> object
 707      * @deprecated since JAXB2.0
 708      */
 709     public abstract Validator createValidator() throws JAXBException;
 710 
 711     /**
 712      * Creates a <tt>Binder</tt> object that can be used for
 713      * associative/in-place unmarshalling/marshalling.
 714      *
 715      * @param domType select the DOM API to use by passing in its DOM Node class.
 716      *
 717      * @return always a new valid <tt>Binder</tt> object.
 718      *
 719      * @throws UnsupportedOperationException
 720      *      if DOM API corresponding to <tt>domType</tt> is not supported by
 721      *      the implementation.
 722      *
 723      * @since 1.6, JAXB 2.0
 724      */
 725     public <T> Binder<T> createBinder(Class<T> domType) {
 726         // to make JAXB 1.0 implementations work, this method must not be
 727         // abstract
 728         throw new UnsupportedOperationException();
 729     }
 730 
 731     /**
 732      * Creates a <tt>Binder</tt> for W3C DOM.
 733      *
 734      * @return always a new valid <tt>Binder</tt> object.
 735      *
 736      * @since 1.6, JAXB 2.0
 737      */
 738     public Binder<Node> createBinder() {
 739         return createBinder(Node.class);
 740     }
 741 
 742     /**
 743      * Creates a <tt>JAXBIntrospector</tt> object that can be used to
 744      * introspect JAXB objects.
 745      *
 746      * @return
 747      *      always return a non-null valid <tt>JAXBIntrospector</tt> object.
 748      *
 749      * @throws UnsupportedOperationException
 750      *      Calling this method on JAXB 1.0 implementations will throw
 751      *      an UnsupportedOperationException.
 752      *
 753      * @since 1.6, JAXB 2.0
 754      */
 755     public JAXBIntrospector createJAXBIntrospector() {
 756         // to make JAXB 1.0 implementations work, this method must not be
 757         // abstract
 758         throw new UnsupportedOperationException();
 759     }
 760 
 761     /**
 762      * Generates the schema documents for this context.
 763      *
 764      * @param outputResolver
 765      *      this object controls the output to which schemas
 766      *      will be sent.
 767      *
 768      * @throws IOException
 769      *      if {@link SchemaOutputResolver} throws an {@link IOException}.
 770      *
 771      * @throws UnsupportedOperationException
 772      *      Calling this method on JAXB 1.0 implementations will throw
 773      *      an UnsupportedOperationException.
 774      *
 775      * @since 1.6, JAXB 2.0
 776      */
 777     public void generateSchema(SchemaOutputResolver outputResolver) throws IOException  {
 778         // to make JAXB 1.0 implementations work, this method must not be
 779         // abstract
 780         throw new UnsupportedOperationException();
 781     }
 782 
 783     private static ClassLoader getContextClassLoader() {
 784         if (System.getSecurityManager() == null) {
 785             return Thread.currentThread().getContextClassLoader();
 786         } else {
 787             return java.security.AccessController.doPrivileged(
 788                     new java.security.PrivilegedAction<ClassLoader>() {
 789                         public ClassLoader run() {
 790                             return Thread.currentThread().getContextClassLoader();
 791                         }
 792                     });
 793         }
 794     }
 795 
 796 }