1 /*
   2  * Copyright (c) 2012, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
   3  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
   4  *
   5  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   6  * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
   7  * published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
   8  * particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
   9  * by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
  10  *
  11  * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  12  * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  13  * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  14  * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  15  * accompanied this code).
  16  *
  17  * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  18  * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  19  * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  20  *
  21  * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  22  * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  23  * questions.
  24  */
  25 
  26 /*
  27  * This file is available under and governed by the GNU General Public
  28  * License version 2 only, as published by the Free Software Foundation.
  29  * However, the following notice accompanied the original version of this
  30  * file:
  31  *
  32  * Copyright (c) 2008-2012, Stephen Colebourne & Michael Nascimento Santos
  33  *
  34  * All rights reserved.
  35  *
  36  * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
  37  * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
  38  *
  39  *  * Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice,
  40  *    this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
  41  *
  42  *  * Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice,
  43  *    this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation
  44  *    and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
  45  *
  46  *  * Neither the name of JSR-310 nor the names of its contributors
  47  *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
  48  *    without specific prior written permission.
  49  *
  50  * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
  51  * "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
  52  * LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR
  53  * A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR
  54  * CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL,
  55  * EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
  56  * PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR
  57  * PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF
  58  * LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING
  59  * NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS
  60  * SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
  61  */
  62 package java.time.format;
  63 
  64 import static java.time.temporal.ChronoField.DAY_OF_MONTH;
  65 import static java.time.temporal.ChronoField.HOUR_OF_DAY;
  66 import static java.time.temporal.ChronoField.INSTANT_SECONDS;
  67 import static java.time.temporal.ChronoField.MINUTE_OF_HOUR;
  68 import static java.time.temporal.ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR;
  69 import static java.time.temporal.ChronoField.NANO_OF_SECOND;
  70 import static java.time.temporal.ChronoField.OFFSET_SECONDS;
  71 import static java.time.temporal.ChronoField.SECOND_OF_MINUTE;
  72 import static java.time.temporal.ChronoField.YEAR;
  73 import static java.time.temporal.ChronoField.ERA;
  74 
  75 import java.lang.ref.SoftReference;
  76 import java.math.BigDecimal;
  77 import java.math.BigInteger;
  78 import java.math.RoundingMode;
  79 import java.text.ParsePosition;
  80 import java.time.DateTimeException;
  81 import java.time.Instant;
  82 import java.time.LocalDate;
  83 import java.time.LocalDateTime;
  84 import java.time.LocalTime;
  85 import java.time.ZoneId;
  86 import java.time.ZoneOffset;
  87 import java.time.chrono.ChronoLocalDate;
  88 import java.time.chrono.ChronoLocalDateTime;
  89 import java.time.chrono.Chronology;
  90 import java.time.chrono.Era;
  91 import java.time.chrono.IsoChronology;
  92 import java.time.format.DateTimeTextProvider.LocaleStore;
  93 import java.time.temporal.ChronoField;
  94 import java.time.temporal.IsoFields;
  95 import java.time.temporal.JulianFields;
  96 import java.time.temporal.TemporalAccessor;
  97 import java.time.temporal.TemporalField;
  98 import java.time.temporal.TemporalQueries;
  99 import java.time.temporal.TemporalQuery;
 100 import java.time.temporal.ValueRange;
 101 import java.time.temporal.WeekFields;
 102 import java.time.zone.ZoneRulesProvider;
 103 import java.util.AbstractMap.SimpleImmutableEntry;
 104 import java.util.ArrayList;
 105 import java.util.Arrays;
 106 import java.util.Collections;
 107 import java.util.Comparator;
 108 import java.util.HashMap;
 109 import java.util.HashSet;
 110 import java.util.Iterator;
 111 import java.util.LinkedHashMap;
 112 import java.util.List;
 113 import java.util.Locale;
 114 import java.util.Map;
 115 import java.util.Map.Entry;
 116 import java.util.Objects;
 117 import java.util.Set;
 118 import java.util.TimeZone;
 119 import java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentHashMap;
 120 import java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentMap;
 121 
 122 import sun.text.spi.JavaTimeDateTimePatternProvider;
 123 import sun.util.locale.provider.LocaleProviderAdapter;
 124 import sun.util.locale.provider.LocaleResources;
 125 import sun.util.locale.provider.TimeZoneNameUtility;
 126 
 127 /**
 128  * Builder to create date-time formatters.
 129  * <p>
 130  * This allows a {@code DateTimeFormatter} to be created.
 131  * All date-time formatters are created ultimately using this builder.
 132  * <p>
 133  * The basic elements of date-time can all be added:
 134  * <ul>
 135  * <li>Value - a numeric value</li>
 136  * <li>Fraction - a fractional value including the decimal place. Always use this when
 137  * outputting fractions to ensure that the fraction is parsed correctly</li>
 138  * <li>Text - the textual equivalent for the value</li>
 139  * <li>OffsetId/Offset - the {@linkplain ZoneOffset zone offset}</li>
 140  * <li>ZoneId - the {@linkplain ZoneId time-zone} id</li>
 141  * <li>ZoneText - the name of the time-zone</li>
 142  * <li>ChronologyId - the {@linkplain Chronology chronology} id</li>
 143  * <li>ChronologyText - the name of the chronology</li>
 144  * <li>Literal - a text literal</li>
 145  * <li>Nested and Optional - formats can be nested or made optional</li>
 146  * </ul>
 147  * In addition, any of the elements may be decorated by padding, either with spaces or any other character.
 148  * <p>
 149  * Finally, a shorthand pattern, mostly compatible with {@code java.text.SimpleDateFormat SimpleDateFormat}
 150  * can be used, see {@link #appendPattern(String)}.
 151  * In practice, this simply parses the pattern and calls other methods on the builder.
 152  *
 153  * @implSpec
 154  * This class is a mutable builder intended for use from a single thread.
 155  *
 156  * @since 1.8
 157  */
 158 public final class DateTimeFormatterBuilder {
 159 
 160     /**
 161      * Query for a time-zone that is region-only.
 162      */
 163     private static final TemporalQuery<ZoneId> QUERY_REGION_ONLY = (temporal) -> {
 164         ZoneId zone = temporal.query(TemporalQueries.zoneId());
 165         return (zone != null && zone instanceof ZoneOffset == false ? zone : null);
 166     };
 167 
 168     /**
 169      * The currently active builder, used by the outermost builder.
 170      */
 171     private DateTimeFormatterBuilder active = this;
 172     /**
 173      * The parent builder, null for the outermost builder.
 174      */
 175     private final DateTimeFormatterBuilder parent;
 176     /**
 177      * The list of printers that will be used.
 178      */
 179     private final List<DateTimePrinterParser> printerParsers = new ArrayList<>();
 180     /**
 181      * Whether this builder produces an optional formatter.
 182      */
 183     private final boolean optional;
 184     /**
 185      * The width to pad the next field to.
 186      */
 187     private int padNextWidth;
 188     /**
 189      * The character to pad the next field with.
 190      */
 191     private char padNextChar;
 192     /**
 193      * The index of the last variable width value parser.
 194      */
 195     private int valueParserIndex = -1;
 196 
 197     /**
 198      * Gets the formatting pattern for date and time styles for a locale and chronology.
 199      * The locale and chronology are used to lookup the locale specific format
 200      * for the requested dateStyle and/or timeStyle.
 201      *
 202      * @param dateStyle  the FormatStyle for the date, null for time-only pattern
 203      * @param timeStyle  the FormatStyle for the time, null for date-only pattern
 204      * @param chrono  the Chronology, non-null
 205      * @param locale  the locale, non-null
 206      * @return the locale and Chronology specific formatting pattern
 207      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if both dateStyle and timeStyle are null
 208      */
 209     public static String getLocalizedDateTimePattern(FormatStyle dateStyle, FormatStyle timeStyle,
 210             Chronology chrono, Locale locale) {
 211         Objects.requireNonNull(locale, "locale");
 212         Objects.requireNonNull(chrono, "chrono");
 213         if (dateStyle == null && timeStyle == null) {
 214             throw new IllegalArgumentException("Either dateStyle or timeStyle must be non-null");
 215         }
 216         LocaleProviderAdapter adapter = LocaleProviderAdapter.getAdapter(JavaTimeDateTimePatternProvider.class, locale);
 217         JavaTimeDateTimePatternProvider provider = adapter.getJavaTimeDateTimePatternProvider();
 218         String pattern = provider.getJavaTimeDateTimePattern(convertStyle(timeStyle),
 219                          convertStyle(dateStyle), chrono.getCalendarType(), locale);
 220         return pattern;
 221     }
 222 
 223     /**
 224      * Converts the given FormatStyle to the java.text.DateFormat style.
 225      *
 226      * @param style  the FormatStyle style
 227      * @return the int style, or -1 if style is null, indicating un-required
 228      */
 229     private static int convertStyle(FormatStyle style) {
 230         if (style == null) {
 231             return -1;
 232         }
 233         return style.ordinal();  // indices happen to align
 234     }
 235 
 236     /**
 237      * Constructs a new instance of the builder.
 238      */
 239     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder() {
 240         super();
 241         parent = null;
 242         optional = false;
 243     }
 244 
 245     /**
 246      * Constructs a new instance of the builder.
 247      *
 248      * @param parent  the parent builder, not null
 249      * @param optional  whether the formatter is optional, not null
 250      */
 251     private DateTimeFormatterBuilder(DateTimeFormatterBuilder parent, boolean optional) {
 252         super();
 253         this.parent = parent;
 254         this.optional = optional;
 255     }
 256 
 257     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 258     /**
 259      * Changes the parse style to be case sensitive for the remainder of the formatter.
 260      * <p>
 261      * Parsing can be case sensitive or insensitive - by default it is case sensitive.
 262      * This method allows the case sensitivity setting of parsing to be changed.
 263      * <p>
 264      * Calling this method changes the state of the builder such that all
 265      * subsequent builder method calls will parse text in case sensitive mode.
 266      * See {@link #parseCaseInsensitive} for the opposite setting.
 267      * The parse case sensitive/insensitive methods may be called at any point
 268      * in the builder, thus the parser can swap between case parsing modes
 269      * multiple times during the parse.
 270      * <p>
 271      * Since the default is case sensitive, this method should only be used after
 272      * a previous call to {@code #parseCaseInsensitive}.
 273      *
 274      * @return this, for chaining, not null
 275      */
 276     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder parseCaseSensitive() {
 277         appendInternal(SettingsParser.SENSITIVE);
 278         return this;
 279     }
 280 
 281     /**
 282      * Changes the parse style to be case insensitive for the remainder of the formatter.
 283      * <p>
 284      * Parsing can be case sensitive or insensitive - by default it is case sensitive.
 285      * This method allows the case sensitivity setting of parsing to be changed.
 286      * <p>
 287      * Calling this method changes the state of the builder such that all
 288      * subsequent builder method calls will parse text in case insensitive mode.
 289      * See {@link #parseCaseSensitive()} for the opposite setting.
 290      * The parse case sensitive/insensitive methods may be called at any point
 291      * in the builder, thus the parser can swap between case parsing modes
 292      * multiple times during the parse.
 293      *
 294      * @return this, for chaining, not null
 295      */
 296     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder parseCaseInsensitive() {
 297         appendInternal(SettingsParser.INSENSITIVE);
 298         return this;
 299     }
 300 
 301     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 302     /**
 303      * Changes the parse style to be strict for the remainder of the formatter.
 304      * <p>
 305      * Parsing can be strict or lenient - by default its strict.
 306      * This controls the degree of flexibility in matching the text and sign styles.
 307      * <p>
 308      * When used, this method changes the parsing to be strict from this point onwards.
 309      * As strict is the default, this is normally only needed after calling {@link #parseLenient()}.
 310      * The change will remain in force until the end of the formatter that is eventually
 311      * constructed or until {@code parseLenient} is called.
 312      *
 313      * @return this, for chaining, not null
 314      */
 315     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder parseStrict() {
 316         appendInternal(SettingsParser.STRICT);
 317         return this;
 318     }
 319 
 320     /**
 321      * Changes the parse style to be lenient for the remainder of the formatter.
 322      * Note that case sensitivity is set separately to this method.
 323      * <p>
 324      * Parsing can be strict or lenient - by default its strict.
 325      * This controls the degree of flexibility in matching the text and sign styles.
 326      * Applications calling this method should typically also call {@link #parseCaseInsensitive()}.
 327      * <p>
 328      * When used, this method changes the parsing to be lenient from this point onwards.
 329      * The change will remain in force until the end of the formatter that is eventually
 330      * constructed or until {@code parseStrict} is called.
 331      *
 332      * @return this, for chaining, not null
 333      */
 334     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder parseLenient() {
 335         appendInternal(SettingsParser.LENIENT);
 336         return this;
 337     }
 338 
 339     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 340     /**
 341      * Appends a default value for a field to the formatter for use in parsing.
 342      * <p>
 343      * This appends an instruction to the builder to inject a default value
 344      * into the parsed result. This is especially useful in conjunction with
 345      * optional parts of the formatter.
 346      * <p>
 347      * For example, consider a formatter that parses the year, followed by
 348      * an optional month, with a further optional day-of-month. Using such a
 349      * formatter would require the calling code to check whether a full date,
 350      * year-month or just a year had been parsed. This method can be used to
 351      * default the month and day-of-month to a sensible value, such as the
 352      * first of the month, allowing the calling code to always get a date.
 353      * <p>
 354      * During formatting, this method has no effect.
 355      * <p>
 356      * During parsing, the current state of the parse is inspected.
 357      * If the specified field has no associated value, because it has not been
 358      * parsed successfully at that point, then the specified value is injected
 359      * into the parse result. Injection is immediate, thus the field-value pair
 360      * will be visible to any subsequent elements in the formatter.
 361      * As such, this method is normally called at the end of the builder.
 362      *
 363      * @param field  the field to default the value of, not null
 364      * @param value  the value to default the field to
 365      * @return this, for chaining, not null
 366      */
 367     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder parseDefaulting(TemporalField field, long value) {
 368         Objects.requireNonNull(field, "field");
 369         appendInternal(new DefaultValueParser(field, value));
 370         return this;
 371     }
 372 
 373     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 374     /**
 375      * Appends the value of a date-time field to the formatter using a normal
 376      * output style.
 377      * <p>
 378      * The value of the field will be output during a format.
 379      * If the value cannot be obtained then an exception will be thrown.
 380      * <p>
 381      * The value will be printed as per the normal format of an integer value.
 382      * Only negative numbers will be signed. No padding will be added.
 383      * <p>
 384      * The parser for a variable width value such as this normally behaves greedily,
 385      * requiring one digit, but accepting as many digits as possible.
 386      * This behavior can be affected by 'adjacent value parsing'.
 387      * See {@link #appendValue(java.time.temporal.TemporalField, int)} for full details.
 388      *
 389      * @param field  the field to append, not null
 390      * @return this, for chaining, not null
 391      */
 392     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendValue(TemporalField field) {
 393         Objects.requireNonNull(field, "field");
 394         appendValue(new NumberPrinterParser(field, 1, 19, SignStyle.NORMAL));
 395         return this;
 396     }
 397 
 398     /**
 399      * Appends the value of a date-time field to the formatter using a fixed
 400      * width, zero-padded approach.
 401      * <p>
 402      * The value of the field will be output during a format.
 403      * If the value cannot be obtained then an exception will be thrown.
 404      * <p>
 405      * The value will be zero-padded on the left. If the size of the value
 406      * means that it cannot be printed within the width then an exception is thrown.
 407      * If the value of the field is negative then an exception is thrown during formatting.
 408      * <p>
 409      * This method supports a special technique of parsing known as 'adjacent value parsing'.
 410      * This technique solves the problem where a value, variable or fixed width, is followed by one or more
 411      * fixed length values. The standard parser is greedy, and thus it would normally
 412      * steal the digits that are needed by the fixed width value parsers that follow the
 413      * variable width one.
 414      * <p>
 415      * No action is required to initiate 'adjacent value parsing'.
 416      * When a call to {@code appendValue} is made, the builder
 417      * enters adjacent value parsing setup mode. If the immediately subsequent method
 418      * call or calls on the same builder are for a fixed width value, then the parser will reserve
 419      * space so that the fixed width values can be parsed.
 420      * <p>
 421      * For example, consider {@code builder.appendValue(YEAR).appendValue(MONTH_OF_YEAR, 2);}
 422      * The year is a variable width parse of between 1 and 19 digits.
 423      * The month is a fixed width parse of 2 digits.
 424      * Because these were appended to the same builder immediately after one another,
 425      * the year parser will reserve two digits for the month to parse.
 426      * Thus, the text '201106' will correctly parse to a year of 2011 and a month of 6.
 427      * Without adjacent value parsing, the year would greedily parse all six digits and leave
 428      * nothing for the month.
 429      * <p>
 430      * Adjacent value parsing applies to each set of fixed width not-negative values in the parser
 431      * that immediately follow any kind of value, variable or fixed width.
 432      * Calling any other append method will end the setup of adjacent value parsing.
 433      * Thus, in the unlikely event that you need to avoid adjacent value parsing behavior,
 434      * simply add the {@code appendValue} to another {@code DateTimeFormatterBuilder}
 435      * and add that to this builder.
 436      * <p>
 437      * If adjacent parsing is active, then parsing must match exactly the specified
 438      * number of digits in both strict and lenient modes.
 439      * In addition, no positive or negative sign is permitted.
 440      *
 441      * @param field  the field to append, not null
 442      * @param width  the width of the printed field, from 1 to 19
 443      * @return this, for chaining, not null
 444      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the width is invalid
 445      */
 446     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendValue(TemporalField field, int width) {
 447         Objects.requireNonNull(field, "field");
 448         if (width < 1 || width > 19) {
 449             throw new IllegalArgumentException("The width must be from 1 to 19 inclusive but was " + width);
 450         }
 451         NumberPrinterParser pp = new NumberPrinterParser(field, width, width, SignStyle.NOT_NEGATIVE);
 452         appendValue(pp);
 453         return this;
 454     }
 455 
 456     /**
 457      * Appends the value of a date-time field to the formatter providing full
 458      * control over formatting.
 459      * <p>
 460      * The value of the field will be output during a format.
 461      * If the value cannot be obtained then an exception will be thrown.
 462      * <p>
 463      * This method provides full control of the numeric formatting, including
 464      * zero-padding and the positive/negative sign.
 465      * <p>
 466      * The parser for a variable width value such as this normally behaves greedily,
 467      * accepting as many digits as possible.
 468      * This behavior can be affected by 'adjacent value parsing'.
 469      * See {@link #appendValue(java.time.temporal.TemporalField, int)} for full details.
 470      * <p>
 471      * In strict parsing mode, the minimum number of parsed digits is {@code minWidth}
 472      * and the maximum is {@code maxWidth}.
 473      * In lenient parsing mode, the minimum number of parsed digits is one
 474      * and the maximum is 19 (except as limited by adjacent value parsing).
 475      * <p>
 476      * If this method is invoked with equal minimum and maximum widths and a sign style of
 477      * {@code NOT_NEGATIVE} then it delegates to {@code appendValue(TemporalField,int)}.
 478      * In this scenario, the formatting and parsing behavior described there occur.
 479      *
 480      * @param field  the field to append, not null
 481      * @param minWidth  the minimum field width of the printed field, from 1 to 19
 482      * @param maxWidth  the maximum field width of the printed field, from 1 to 19
 483      * @param signStyle  the positive/negative output style, not null
 484      * @return this, for chaining, not null
 485      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the widths are invalid
 486      */
 487     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendValue(
 488             TemporalField field, int minWidth, int maxWidth, SignStyle signStyle) {
 489         if (minWidth == maxWidth && signStyle == SignStyle.NOT_NEGATIVE) {
 490             return appendValue(field, maxWidth);
 491         }
 492         Objects.requireNonNull(field, "field");
 493         Objects.requireNonNull(signStyle, "signStyle");
 494         if (minWidth < 1 || minWidth > 19) {
 495             throw new IllegalArgumentException("The minimum width must be from 1 to 19 inclusive but was " + minWidth);
 496         }
 497         if (maxWidth < 1 || maxWidth > 19) {
 498             throw new IllegalArgumentException("The maximum width must be from 1 to 19 inclusive but was " + maxWidth);
 499         }
 500         if (maxWidth < minWidth) {
 501             throw new IllegalArgumentException("The maximum width must exceed or equal the minimum width but " +
 502                     maxWidth + " < " + minWidth);
 503         }
 504         NumberPrinterParser pp = new NumberPrinterParser(field, minWidth, maxWidth, signStyle);
 505         appendValue(pp);
 506         return this;
 507     }
 508 
 509     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 510     /**
 511      * Appends the reduced value of a date-time field to the formatter.
 512      * <p>
 513      * Since fields such as year vary by chronology, it is recommended to use the
 514      * {@link #appendValueReduced(TemporalField, int, int, ChronoLocalDate)} date}
 515      * variant of this method in most cases. This variant is suitable for
 516      * simple fields or working with only the ISO chronology.
 517      * <p>
 518      * For formatting, the {@code width} and {@code maxWidth} are used to
 519      * determine the number of characters to format.
 520      * If they are equal then the format is fixed width.
 521      * If the value of the field is within the range of the {@code baseValue} using
 522      * {@code width} characters then the reduced value is formatted otherwise the value is
 523      * truncated to fit {@code maxWidth}.
 524      * The rightmost characters are output to match the width, left padding with zero.
 525      * <p>
 526      * For strict parsing, the number of characters allowed by {@code width} to {@code maxWidth} are parsed.
 527      * For lenient parsing, the number of characters must be at least 1 and less than 10.
 528      * If the number of digits parsed is equal to {@code width} and the value is positive,
 529      * the value of the field is computed to be the first number greater than
 530      * or equal to the {@code baseValue} with the same least significant characters,
 531      * otherwise the value parsed is the field value.
 532      * This allows a reduced value to be entered for values in range of the baseValue
 533      * and width and absolute values can be entered for values outside the range.
 534      * <p>
 535      * For example, a base value of {@code 1980} and a width of {@code 2} will have
 536      * valid values from {@code 1980} to {@code 2079}.
 537      * During parsing, the text {@code "12"} will result in the value {@code 2012} as that
 538      * is the value within the range where the last two characters are "12".
 539      * By contrast, parsing the text {@code "1915"} will result in the value {@code 1915}.
 540      *
 541      * @param field  the field to append, not null
 542      * @param width  the field width of the printed and parsed field, from 1 to 10
 543      * @param maxWidth  the maximum field width of the printed field, from 1 to 10
 544      * @param baseValue  the base value of the range of valid values
 545      * @return this, for chaining, not null
 546      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the width or base value is invalid
 547      */
 548     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendValueReduced(TemporalField field,
 549             int width, int maxWidth, int baseValue) {
 550         Objects.requireNonNull(field, "field");
 551         ReducedPrinterParser pp = new ReducedPrinterParser(field, width, maxWidth, baseValue, null);
 552         appendValue(pp);
 553         return this;
 554     }
 555 
 556     /**
 557      * Appends the reduced value of a date-time field to the formatter.
 558      * <p>
 559      * This is typically used for formatting and parsing a two digit year.
 560      * <p>
 561      * The base date is used to calculate the full value during parsing.
 562      * For example, if the base date is 1950-01-01 then parsed values for
 563      * a two digit year parse will be in the range 1950-01-01 to 2049-12-31.
 564      * Only the year would be extracted from the date, thus a base date of
 565      * 1950-08-25 would also parse to the range 1950-01-01 to 2049-12-31.
 566      * This behavior is necessary to support fields such as week-based-year
 567      * or other calendar systems where the parsed value does not align with
 568      * standard ISO years.
 569      * <p>
 570      * The exact behavior is as follows. Parse the full set of fields and
 571      * determine the effective chronology using the last chronology if
 572      * it appears more than once. Then convert the base date to the
 573      * effective chronology. Then extract the specified field from the
 574      * chronology-specific base date and use it to determine the
 575      * {@code baseValue} used below.
 576      * <p>
 577      * For formatting, the {@code width} and {@code maxWidth} are used to
 578      * determine the number of characters to format.
 579      * If they are equal then the format is fixed width.
 580      * If the value of the field is within the range of the {@code baseValue} using
 581      * {@code width} characters then the reduced value is formatted otherwise the value is
 582      * truncated to fit {@code maxWidth}.
 583      * The rightmost characters are output to match the width, left padding with zero.
 584      * <p>
 585      * For strict parsing, the number of characters allowed by {@code width} to {@code maxWidth} are parsed.
 586      * For lenient parsing, the number of characters must be at least 1 and less than 10.
 587      * If the number of digits parsed is equal to {@code width} and the value is positive,
 588      * the value of the field is computed to be the first number greater than
 589      * or equal to the {@code baseValue} with the same least significant characters,
 590      * otherwise the value parsed is the field value.
 591      * This allows a reduced value to be entered for values in range of the baseValue
 592      * and width and absolute values can be entered for values outside the range.
 593      * <p>
 594      * For example, a base value of {@code 1980} and a width of {@code 2} will have
 595      * valid values from {@code 1980} to {@code 2079}.
 596      * During parsing, the text {@code "12"} will result in the value {@code 2012} as that
 597      * is the value within the range where the last two characters are "12".
 598      * By contrast, parsing the text {@code "1915"} will result in the value {@code 1915}.
 599      *
 600      * @param field  the field to append, not null
 601      * @param width  the field width of the printed and parsed field, from 1 to 10
 602      * @param maxWidth  the maximum field width of the printed field, from 1 to 10
 603      * @param baseDate  the base date used to calculate the base value for the range
 604      *  of valid values in the parsed chronology, not null
 605      * @return this, for chaining, not null
 606      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the width or base value is invalid
 607      */
 608     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendValueReduced(
 609             TemporalField field, int width, int maxWidth, ChronoLocalDate baseDate) {
 610         Objects.requireNonNull(field, "field");
 611         Objects.requireNonNull(baseDate, "baseDate");
 612         ReducedPrinterParser pp = new ReducedPrinterParser(field, width, maxWidth, 0, baseDate);
 613         appendValue(pp);
 614         return this;
 615     }
 616 
 617     /**
 618      * Appends a fixed or variable width printer-parser handling adjacent value mode.
 619      * If a PrinterParser is not active then the new PrinterParser becomes
 620      * the active PrinterParser.
 621      * Otherwise, the active PrinterParser is modified depending on the new PrinterParser.
 622      * If the new PrinterParser is fixed width and has sign style {@code NOT_NEGATIVE}
 623      * then its width is added to the active PP and
 624      * the new PrinterParser is forced to be fixed width.
 625      * If the new PrinterParser is variable width, the active PrinterParser is changed
 626      * to be fixed width and the new PrinterParser becomes the active PP.
 627      *
 628      * @param pp  the printer-parser, not null
 629      * @return this, for chaining, not null
 630      */
 631     private DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendValue(NumberPrinterParser pp) {
 632         if (active.valueParserIndex >= 0) {
 633             final int activeValueParser = active.valueParserIndex;
 634 
 635             // adjacent parsing mode, update setting in previous parsers
 636             NumberPrinterParser basePP = (NumberPrinterParser) active.printerParsers.get(activeValueParser);
 637             if (pp.minWidth == pp.maxWidth && pp.signStyle == SignStyle.NOT_NEGATIVE) {
 638                 // Append the width to the subsequentWidth of the active parser
 639                 basePP = basePP.withSubsequentWidth(pp.maxWidth);
 640                 // Append the new parser as a fixed width
 641                 appendInternal(pp.withFixedWidth());
 642                 // Retain the previous active parser
 643                 active.valueParserIndex = activeValueParser;
 644             } else {
 645                 // Modify the active parser to be fixed width
 646                 basePP = basePP.withFixedWidth();
 647                 // The new parser becomes the mew active parser
 648                 active.valueParserIndex = appendInternal(pp);
 649             }
 650             // Replace the modified parser with the updated one
 651             active.printerParsers.set(activeValueParser, basePP);
 652         } else {
 653             // The new Parser becomes the active parser
 654             active.valueParserIndex = appendInternal(pp);
 655         }
 656         return this;
 657     }
 658 
 659     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 660     /**
 661      * Appends the fractional value of a date-time field to the formatter.
 662      * <p>
 663      * The fractional value of the field will be output including the
 664      * preceding decimal point. The preceding value is not output.
 665      * For example, the second-of-minute value of 15 would be output as {@code .25}.
 666      * <p>
 667      * The width of the printed fraction can be controlled. Setting the
 668      * minimum width to zero will cause no output to be generated.
 669      * The printed fraction will have the minimum width necessary between
 670      * the minimum and maximum widths - trailing zeroes are omitted.
 671      * No rounding occurs due to the maximum width - digits are simply dropped.
 672      * <p>
 673      * When parsing in strict mode, the number of parsed digits must be between
 674      * the minimum and maximum width. In strict mode, if the minimum and maximum widths
 675      * are equal and there is no decimal point then the parser will
 676      * participate in adjacent value parsing, see
 677      * {@link appendValue(java.time.temporal.TemporalField, int)}. When parsing in lenient mode,
 678      * the minimum width is considered to be zero and the maximum is nine.
 679      * <p>
 680      * If the value cannot be obtained then an exception will be thrown.
 681      * If the value is negative an exception will be thrown.
 682      * If the field does not have a fixed set of valid values then an
 683      * exception will be thrown.
 684      * If the field value in the date-time to be printed is invalid it
 685      * cannot be printed and an exception will be thrown.
 686      *
 687      * @param field  the field to append, not null
 688      * @param minWidth  the minimum width of the field excluding the decimal point, from 0 to 9
 689      * @param maxWidth  the maximum width of the field excluding the decimal point, from 1 to 9
 690      * @param decimalPoint  whether to output the localized decimal point symbol
 691      * @return this, for chaining, not null
 692      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the field has a variable set of valid values or
 693      *  either width is invalid
 694      */
 695     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendFraction(
 696             TemporalField field, int minWidth, int maxWidth, boolean decimalPoint) {
 697         if (minWidth == maxWidth && decimalPoint == false) {
 698             // adjacent parsing
 699             appendValue(new FractionPrinterParser(field, minWidth, maxWidth, decimalPoint));
 700         } else {
 701             appendInternal(new FractionPrinterParser(field, minWidth, maxWidth, decimalPoint));
 702         }
 703         return this;
 704     }
 705 
 706     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 707     /**
 708      * Appends the text of a date-time field to the formatter using the full
 709      * text style.
 710      * <p>
 711      * The text of the field will be output during a format.
 712      * The value must be within the valid range of the field.
 713      * If the value cannot be obtained then an exception will be thrown.
 714      * If the field has no textual representation, then the numeric value will be used.
 715      * <p>
 716      * The value will be printed as per the normal format of an integer value.
 717      * Only negative numbers will be signed. No padding will be added.
 718      *
 719      * @param field  the field to append, not null
 720      * @return this, for chaining, not null
 721      */
 722     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendText(TemporalField field) {
 723         return appendText(field, TextStyle.FULL);
 724     }
 725 
 726     /**
 727      * Appends the text of a date-time field to the formatter.
 728      * <p>
 729      * The text of the field will be output during a format.
 730      * The value must be within the valid range of the field.
 731      * If the value cannot be obtained then an exception will be thrown.
 732      * If the field has no textual representation, then the numeric value will be used.
 733      * <p>
 734      * The value will be printed as per the normal format of an integer value.
 735      * Only negative numbers will be signed. No padding will be added.
 736      *
 737      * @param field  the field to append, not null
 738      * @param textStyle  the text style to use, not null
 739      * @return this, for chaining, not null
 740      */
 741     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendText(TemporalField field, TextStyle textStyle) {
 742         Objects.requireNonNull(field, "field");
 743         Objects.requireNonNull(textStyle, "textStyle");
 744         appendInternal(new TextPrinterParser(field, textStyle, DateTimeTextProvider.getInstance()));
 745         return this;
 746     }
 747 
 748     /**
 749      * Appends the text of a date-time field to the formatter using the specified
 750      * map to supply the text.
 751      * <p>
 752      * The standard text outputting methods use the localized text in the JDK.
 753      * This method allows that text to be specified directly.
 754      * The supplied map is not validated by the builder to ensure that formatting or
 755      * parsing is possible, thus an invalid map may throw an error during later use.
 756      * <p>
 757      * Supplying the map of text provides considerable flexibility in formatting and parsing.
 758      * For example, a legacy application might require or supply the months of the
 759      * year as "JNY", "FBY", "MCH" etc. These do not match the standard set of text
 760      * for localized month names. Using this method, a map can be created which
 761      * defines the connection between each value and the text:
 762      * <pre>
 763      * Map&lt;Long, String&gt; map = new HashMap&lt;&gt;();
 764      * map.put(1L, "JNY");
 765      * map.put(2L, "FBY");
 766      * map.put(3L, "MCH");
 767      * ...
 768      * builder.appendText(MONTH_OF_YEAR, map);
 769      * </pre>
 770      * <p>
 771      * Other uses might be to output the value with a suffix, such as "1st", "2nd", "3rd",
 772      * or as Roman numerals "I", "II", "III", "IV".
 773      * <p>
 774      * During formatting, the value is obtained and checked that it is in the valid range.
 775      * If text is not available for the value then it is output as a number.
 776      * During parsing, the parser will match against the map of text and numeric values.
 777      *
 778      * @param field  the field to append, not null
 779      * @param textLookup  the map from the value to the text
 780      * @return this, for chaining, not null
 781      */
 782     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendText(TemporalField field, Map<Long, String> textLookup) {
 783         Objects.requireNonNull(field, "field");
 784         Objects.requireNonNull(textLookup, "textLookup");
 785         Map<Long, String> copy = new LinkedHashMap<>(textLookup);
 786         Map<TextStyle, Map<Long, String>> map = Collections.singletonMap(TextStyle.FULL, copy);
 787         final LocaleStore store = new LocaleStore(map);
 788         DateTimeTextProvider provider = new DateTimeTextProvider() {
 789             @Override
 790             public String getText(TemporalField field, long value, TextStyle style, Locale locale) {
 791                 return store.getText(value, style);
 792             }
 793             @Override
 794             public Iterator<Entry<String, Long>> getTextIterator(TemporalField field, TextStyle style, Locale locale) {
 795                 return store.getTextIterator(style);
 796             }
 797         };
 798         appendInternal(new TextPrinterParser(field, TextStyle.FULL, provider));
 799         return this;
 800     }
 801 
 802     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 803     /**
 804      * Appends an instant using ISO-8601 to the formatter, formatting fractional
 805      * digits in groups of three.
 806      * <p>
 807      * Instants have a fixed output format.
 808      * They are converted to a date-time with a zone-offset of UTC and formatted
 809      * using the standard ISO-8601 format.
 810      * With this method, formatting nano-of-second outputs zero, three, six
 811      * or nine digits as necessary.
 812      * The localized decimal style is not used.
 813      * <p>
 814      * The instant is obtained using {@link ChronoField#INSTANT_SECONDS INSTANT_SECONDS}
 815      * and optionally {@code NANO_OF_SECOND}. The value of {@code INSTANT_SECONDS}
 816      * may be outside the maximum range of {@code LocalDateTime}.
 817      * <p>
 818      * The {@linkplain ResolverStyle resolver style} has no effect on instant parsing.
 819      * The end-of-day time of '24:00' is handled as midnight at the start of the following day.
 820      * The leap-second time of '23:59:59' is handled to some degree, see
 821      * {@link DateTimeFormatter#parsedLeapSecond()} for full details.
 822      * <p>
 823      * An alternative to this method is to format/parse the instant as a single
 824      * epoch-seconds value. That is achieved using {@code appendValue(INSTANT_SECONDS)}.
 825      *
 826      * @return this, for chaining, not null
 827      */
 828     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendInstant() {
 829         appendInternal(new InstantPrinterParser(-2));
 830         return this;
 831     }
 832 
 833     /**
 834      * Appends an instant using ISO-8601 to the formatter with control over
 835      * the number of fractional digits.
 836      * <p>
 837      * Instants have a fixed output format, although this method provides some
 838      * control over the fractional digits. They are converted to a date-time
 839      * with a zone-offset of UTC and printed using the standard ISO-8601 format.
 840      * The localized decimal style is not used.
 841      * <p>
 842      * The {@code fractionalDigits} parameter allows the output of the fractional
 843      * second to be controlled. Specifying zero will cause no fractional digits
 844      * to be output. From 1 to 9 will output an increasing number of digits, using
 845      * zero right-padding if necessary. The special value -1 is used to output as
 846      * many digits as necessary to avoid any trailing zeroes.
 847      * <p>
 848      * When parsing in strict mode, the number of parsed digits must match the
 849      * fractional digits. When parsing in lenient mode, any number of fractional
 850      * digits from zero to nine are accepted.
 851      * <p>
 852      * The instant is obtained using {@link ChronoField#INSTANT_SECONDS INSTANT_SECONDS}
 853      * and optionally {@code NANO_OF_SECOND}. The value of {@code INSTANT_SECONDS}
 854      * may be outside the maximum range of {@code LocalDateTime}.
 855      * <p>
 856      * The {@linkplain ResolverStyle resolver style} has no effect on instant parsing.
 857      * The end-of-day time of '24:00' is handled as midnight at the start of the following day.
 858      * The leap-second time of '23:59:60' is handled to some degree, see
 859      * {@link DateTimeFormatter#parsedLeapSecond()} for full details.
 860      * <p>
 861      * An alternative to this method is to format/parse the instant as a single
 862      * epoch-seconds value. That is achieved using {@code appendValue(INSTANT_SECONDS)}.
 863      *
 864      * @param fractionalDigits  the number of fractional second digits to format with,
 865      *  from 0 to 9, or -1 to use as many digits as necessary
 866      * @return this, for chaining, not null
 867      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the number of fractional digits is invalid
 868      */
 869     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendInstant(int fractionalDigits) {
 870         if (fractionalDigits < -1 || fractionalDigits > 9) {
 871             throw new IllegalArgumentException("The fractional digits must be from -1 to 9 inclusive but was " + fractionalDigits);
 872         }
 873         appendInternal(new InstantPrinterParser(fractionalDigits));
 874         return this;
 875     }
 876 
 877     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 878     /**
 879      * Appends the zone offset, such as '+01:00', to the formatter.
 880      * <p>
 881      * This appends an instruction to format/parse the offset ID to the builder.
 882      * This is equivalent to calling {@code appendOffset("+HH:mm:ss", "Z")}.
 883      * See {@link #appendOffset(String, String)} for details on formatting
 884      * and parsing.
 885      *
 886      * @return this, for chaining, not null
 887      */
 888     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendOffsetId() {
 889         appendInternal(OffsetIdPrinterParser.INSTANCE_ID_Z);
 890         return this;
 891     }
 892 
 893     /**
 894      * Appends the zone offset, such as '+01:00', to the formatter.
 895      * <p>
 896      * This appends an instruction to format/parse the offset ID to the builder.
 897      * <p>
 898      * During formatting, the offset is obtained using a mechanism equivalent
 899      * to querying the temporal with {@link TemporalQueries#offset()}.
 900      * It will be printed using the format defined below.
 901      * If the offset cannot be obtained then an exception is thrown unless the
 902      * section of the formatter is optional.
 903      * <p>
 904      * When parsing in strict mode, the input must contain the mandatory
 905      * and optional elements are defined by the specified pattern.
 906      * If the offset cannot be parsed then an exception is thrown unless
 907      * the section of the formatter is optional.
 908      * <p>
 909      * When parsing in lenient mode, only the hours are mandatory - minutes
 910      * and seconds are optional. The colons are required if the specified
 911      * pattern contains a colon. If the specified pattern is "+HH", the
 912      * presence of colons is determined by whether the character after the
 913      * hour digits is a colon or not.
 914      * If the offset cannot be parsed then an exception is thrown unless
 915      * the section of the formatter is optional.
 916      * <p>
 917      * The format of the offset is controlled by a pattern which must be one
 918      * of the following:
 919      * <ul>
 920      * <li>{@code +HH} - hour only, ignoring minute and second
 921      * <li>{@code +HHmm} - hour, with minute if non-zero, ignoring second, no colon
 922      * <li>{@code +HH:mm} - hour, with minute if non-zero, ignoring second, with colon
 923      * <li>{@code +HHMM} - hour and minute, ignoring second, no colon
 924      * <li>{@code +HH:MM} - hour and minute, ignoring second, with colon
 925      * <li>{@code +HHMMss} - hour and minute, with second if non-zero, no colon
 926      * <li>{@code +HH:MM:ss} - hour and minute, with second if non-zero, with colon
 927      * <li>{@code +HHMMSS} - hour, minute and second, no colon
 928      * <li>{@code +HH:MM:SS} - hour, minute and second, with colon
 929      * <li>{@code +HHmmss} - hour, with minute if non-zero or with minute and
 930      * second if non-zero, no colon
 931      * <li>{@code +HH:mm:ss} - hour, with minute if non-zero or with minute and
 932      * second if non-zero, with colon
 933      * <li>{@code +H} - hour only, ignoring minute and second
 934      * <li>{@code +Hmm} - hour, with minute if non-zero, ignoring second, no colon
 935      * <li>{@code +H:mm} - hour, with minute if non-zero, ignoring second, with colon
 936      * <li>{@code +HMM} - hour and minute, ignoring second, no colon
 937      * <li>{@code +H:MM} - hour and minute, ignoring second, with colon
 938      * <li>{@code +HMMss} - hour and minute, with second if non-zero, no colon
 939      * <li>{@code +H:MM:ss} - hour and minute, with second if non-zero, with colon
 940      * <li>{@code +HMMSS} - hour, minute and second, no colon
 941      * <li>{@code +H:MM:SS} - hour, minute and second, with colon
 942      * <li>{@code +Hmmss} - hour, with minute if non-zero or with minute and
 943      * second if non-zero, no colon
 944      * <li>{@code +H:mm:ss} - hour, with minute if non-zero or with minute and
 945      * second if non-zero, with colon
 946      * </ul>
 947      * Patterns containing "HH" will format and parse a two digit hour,
 948      * zero-padded if necessary. Patterns containing "H" will format with no
 949      * zero-padding, and parse either one or two digits.
 950      * In lenient mode, the parser will be greedy and parse the maximum digits possible.
 951      * The "no offset" text controls what text is printed when the total amount of
 952      * the offset fields to be output is zero.
 953      * Example values would be 'Z', '+00:00', 'UTC' or 'GMT'.
 954      * Three formats are accepted for parsing UTC - the "no offset" text, and the
 955      * plus and minus versions of zero defined by the pattern.
 956      *
 957      * @param pattern  the pattern to use, not null
 958      * @param noOffsetText  the text to use when the offset is zero, not null
 959      * @return this, for chaining, not null
 960      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the pattern is invalid
 961      */
 962     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendOffset(String pattern, String noOffsetText) {
 963         appendInternal(new OffsetIdPrinterParser(pattern, noOffsetText));
 964         return this;
 965     }
 966 
 967     /**
 968      * Appends the localized zone offset, such as 'GMT+01:00', to the formatter.
 969      * <p>
 970      * This appends a localized zone offset to the builder, the format of the
 971      * localized offset is controlled by the specified {@link FormatStyle style}
 972      * to this method:
 973      * <ul>
 974      * <li>{@link TextStyle#FULL full} - formats with localized offset text, such
 975      * as 'GMT, 2-digit hour and minute field, optional second field if non-zero,
 976      * and colon.
 977      * <li>{@link TextStyle#SHORT short} - formats with localized offset text,
 978      * such as 'GMT, hour without leading zero, optional 2-digit minute and
 979      * second if non-zero, and colon.
 980      * </ul>
 981      * <p>
 982      * During formatting, the offset is obtained using a mechanism equivalent
 983      * to querying the temporal with {@link TemporalQueries#offset()}.
 984      * If the offset cannot be obtained then an exception is thrown unless the
 985      * section of the formatter is optional.
 986      * <p>
 987      * During parsing, the offset is parsed using the format defined above.
 988      * If the offset cannot be parsed then an exception is thrown unless the
 989      * section of the formatter is optional.
 990      *
 991      * @param style  the format style to use, not null
 992      * @return this, for chaining, not null
 993      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if style is neither {@link TextStyle#FULL
 994      * full} nor {@link TextStyle#SHORT short}
 995      */
 996     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendLocalizedOffset(TextStyle style) {
 997         Objects.requireNonNull(style, "style");
 998         if (style != TextStyle.FULL && style != TextStyle.SHORT) {
 999             throw new IllegalArgumentException("Style must be either full or short");
1000         }
1001         appendInternal(new LocalizedOffsetIdPrinterParser(style));
1002         return this;
1003     }
1004 
1005     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
1006     /**
1007      * Appends the time-zone ID, such as 'Europe/Paris' or '+02:00', to the formatter.
1008      * <p>
1009      * This appends an instruction to format/parse the zone ID to the builder.
1010      * The zone ID is obtained in a strict manner suitable for {@code ZonedDateTime}.
1011      * By contrast, {@code OffsetDateTime} does not have a zone ID suitable
1012      * for use with this method, see {@link #appendZoneOrOffsetId()}.
1013      * <p>
1014      * During formatting, the zone is obtained using a mechanism equivalent
1015      * to querying the temporal with {@link TemporalQueries#zoneId()}.
1016      * It will be printed using the result of {@link ZoneId#getId()}.
1017      * If the zone cannot be obtained then an exception is thrown unless the
1018      * section of the formatter is optional.
1019      * <p>
1020      * During parsing, the text must match a known zone or offset.
1021      * There are two types of zone ID, offset-based, such as '+01:30' and
1022      * region-based, such as 'Europe/London'. These are parsed differently.
1023      * If the parse starts with '+', '-', 'UT', 'UTC' or 'GMT', then the parser
1024      * expects an offset-based zone and will not match region-based zones.
1025      * The offset ID, such as '+02:30', may be at the start of the parse,
1026      * or prefixed by  'UT', 'UTC' or 'GMT'. The offset ID parsing is
1027      * equivalent to using {@link #appendOffset(String, String)} using the
1028      * arguments 'HH:MM:ss' and the no offset string '0'.
1029      * If the parse starts with 'UT', 'UTC' or 'GMT', and the parser cannot
1030      * match a following offset ID, then {@link ZoneOffset#UTC} is selected.
1031      * In all other cases, the list of known region-based zones is used to
1032      * find the longest available match. If no match is found, and the parse
1033      * starts with 'Z', then {@code ZoneOffset.UTC} is selected.
1034      * The parser uses the {@linkplain #parseCaseInsensitive() case sensitive} setting.
1035      * <p>
1036      * For example, the following will parse:
1037      * <pre>
1038      *   "Europe/London"           -- ZoneId.of("Europe/London")
1039      *   "Z"                       -- ZoneOffset.UTC
1040      *   "UT"                      -- ZoneId.of("UT")
1041      *   "UTC"                     -- ZoneId.of("UTC")
1042      *   "GMT"                     -- ZoneId.of("GMT")
1043      *   "+01:30"                  -- ZoneOffset.of("+01:30")
1044      *   "UT+01:30"                -- ZoneOffset.of("+01:30")
1045      *   "UTC+01:30"               -- ZoneOffset.of("+01:30")
1046      *   "GMT+01:30"               -- ZoneOffset.of("+01:30")
1047      * </pre>
1048      *
1049      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1050      * @see #appendZoneRegionId()
1051      */
1052     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendZoneId() {
1053         appendInternal(new ZoneIdPrinterParser(TemporalQueries.zoneId(), "ZoneId()"));
1054         return this;
1055     }
1056 
1057     /**
1058      * Appends the time-zone region ID, such as 'Europe/Paris', to the formatter,
1059      * rejecting the zone ID if it is a {@code ZoneOffset}.
1060      * <p>
1061      * This appends an instruction to format/parse the zone ID to the builder
1062      * only if it is a region-based ID.
1063      * <p>
1064      * During formatting, the zone is obtained using a mechanism equivalent
1065      * to querying the temporal with {@link TemporalQueries#zoneId()}.
1066      * If the zone is a {@code ZoneOffset} or it cannot be obtained then
1067      * an exception is thrown unless the section of the formatter is optional.
1068      * If the zone is not an offset, then the zone will be printed using
1069      * the zone ID from {@link ZoneId#getId()}.
1070      * <p>
1071      * During parsing, the text must match a known zone or offset.
1072      * There are two types of zone ID, offset-based, such as '+01:30' and
1073      * region-based, such as 'Europe/London'. These are parsed differently.
1074      * If the parse starts with '+', '-', 'UT', 'UTC' or 'GMT', then the parser
1075      * expects an offset-based zone and will not match region-based zones.
1076      * The offset ID, such as '+02:30', may be at the start of the parse,
1077      * or prefixed by  'UT', 'UTC' or 'GMT'. The offset ID parsing is
1078      * equivalent to using {@link #appendOffset(String, String)} using the
1079      * arguments 'HH:MM:ss' and the no offset string '0'.
1080      * If the parse starts with 'UT', 'UTC' or 'GMT', and the parser cannot
1081      * match a following offset ID, then {@link ZoneOffset#UTC} is selected.
1082      * In all other cases, the list of known region-based zones is used to
1083      * find the longest available match. If no match is found, and the parse
1084      * starts with 'Z', then {@code ZoneOffset.UTC} is selected.
1085      * The parser uses the {@linkplain #parseCaseInsensitive() case sensitive} setting.
1086      * <p>
1087      * For example, the following will parse:
1088      * <pre>
1089      *   "Europe/London"           -- ZoneId.of("Europe/London")
1090      *   "Z"                       -- ZoneOffset.UTC
1091      *   "UT"                      -- ZoneId.of("UT")
1092      *   "UTC"                     -- ZoneId.of("UTC")
1093      *   "GMT"                     -- ZoneId.of("GMT")
1094      *   "+01:30"                  -- ZoneOffset.of("+01:30")
1095      *   "UT+01:30"                -- ZoneOffset.of("+01:30")
1096      *   "UTC+01:30"               -- ZoneOffset.of("+01:30")
1097      *   "GMT+01:30"               -- ZoneOffset.of("+01:30")
1098      * </pre>
1099      * <p>
1100      * Note that this method is identical to {@code appendZoneId()} except
1101      * in the mechanism used to obtain the zone.
1102      * Note also that parsing accepts offsets, whereas formatting will never
1103      * produce one.
1104      *
1105      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1106      * @see #appendZoneId()
1107      */
1108     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendZoneRegionId() {
1109         appendInternal(new ZoneIdPrinterParser(QUERY_REGION_ONLY, "ZoneRegionId()"));
1110         return this;
1111     }
1112 
1113     /**
1114      * Appends the time-zone ID, such as 'Europe/Paris' or '+02:00', to
1115      * the formatter, using the best available zone ID.
1116      * <p>
1117      * This appends an instruction to format/parse the best available
1118      * zone or offset ID to the builder.
1119      * The zone ID is obtained in a lenient manner that first attempts to
1120      * find a true zone ID, such as that on {@code ZonedDateTime}, and
1121      * then attempts to find an offset, such as that on {@code OffsetDateTime}.
1122      * <p>
1123      * During formatting, the zone is obtained using a mechanism equivalent
1124      * to querying the temporal with {@link TemporalQueries#zone()}.
1125      * It will be printed using the result of {@link ZoneId#getId()}.
1126      * If the zone cannot be obtained then an exception is thrown unless the
1127      * section of the formatter is optional.
1128      * <p>
1129      * During parsing, the text must match a known zone or offset.
1130      * There are two types of zone ID, offset-based, such as '+01:30' and
1131      * region-based, such as 'Europe/London'. These are parsed differently.
1132      * If the parse starts with '+', '-', 'UT', 'UTC' or 'GMT', then the parser
1133      * expects an offset-based zone and will not match region-based zones.
1134      * The offset ID, such as '+02:30', may be at the start of the parse,
1135      * or prefixed by  'UT', 'UTC' or 'GMT'. The offset ID parsing is
1136      * equivalent to using {@link #appendOffset(String, String)} using the
1137      * arguments 'HH:MM:ss' and the no offset string '0'.
1138      * If the parse starts with 'UT', 'UTC' or 'GMT', and the parser cannot
1139      * match a following offset ID, then {@link ZoneOffset#UTC} is selected.
1140      * In all other cases, the list of known region-based zones is used to
1141      * find the longest available match. If no match is found, and the parse
1142      * starts with 'Z', then {@code ZoneOffset.UTC} is selected.
1143      * The parser uses the {@linkplain #parseCaseInsensitive() case sensitive} setting.
1144      * <p>
1145      * For example, the following will parse:
1146      * <pre>
1147      *   "Europe/London"           -- ZoneId.of("Europe/London")
1148      *   "Z"                       -- ZoneOffset.UTC
1149      *   "UT"                      -- ZoneId.of("UT")
1150      *   "UTC"                     -- ZoneId.of("UTC")
1151      *   "GMT"                     -- ZoneId.of("GMT")
1152      *   "+01:30"                  -- ZoneOffset.of("+01:30")
1153      *   "UT+01:30"                -- ZoneOffset.of("UT+01:30")
1154      *   "UTC+01:30"               -- ZoneOffset.of("UTC+01:30")
1155      *   "GMT+01:30"               -- ZoneOffset.of("GMT+01:30")
1156      * </pre>
1157      * <p>
1158      * Note that this method is identical to {@code appendZoneId()} except
1159      * in the mechanism used to obtain the zone.
1160      *
1161      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1162      * @see #appendZoneId()
1163      */
1164     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendZoneOrOffsetId() {
1165         appendInternal(new ZoneIdPrinterParser(TemporalQueries.zone(), "ZoneOrOffsetId()"));
1166         return this;
1167     }
1168 
1169     /**
1170      * Appends the time-zone name, such as 'British Summer Time', to the formatter.
1171      * <p>
1172      * This appends an instruction to format/parse the textual name of the zone to
1173      * the builder.
1174      * <p>
1175      * During formatting, the zone is obtained using a mechanism equivalent
1176      * to querying the temporal with {@link TemporalQueries#zoneId()}.
1177      * If the zone is a {@code ZoneOffset} it will be printed using the
1178      * result of {@link ZoneOffset#getId()}.
1179      * If the zone is not an offset, the textual name will be looked up
1180      * for the locale set in the {@link DateTimeFormatter}.
1181      * If the temporal object being printed represents an instant, or if it is a
1182      * local date-time that is not in a daylight saving gap or overlap then
1183      * the text will be the summer or winter time text as appropriate.
1184      * If the lookup for text does not find any suitable result, then the
1185      * {@link ZoneId#getId() ID} will be printed.
1186      * If the zone cannot be obtained then an exception is thrown unless the
1187      * section of the formatter is optional.
1188      * <p>
1189      * During parsing, either the textual zone name, the zone ID or the offset
1190      * is accepted. Many textual zone names are not unique, such as CST can be
1191      * for both "Central Standard Time" and "China Standard Time". In this
1192      * situation, the zone id will be determined by the region information from
1193      * formatter's  {@link DateTimeFormatter#getLocale() locale} and the standard
1194      * zone id for that area, for example, America/New_York for the America Eastern
1195      * zone. The {@link #appendZoneText(TextStyle, Set)} may be used
1196      * to specify a set of preferred {@link ZoneId} in this situation.
1197      *
1198      * @param textStyle  the text style to use, not null
1199      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1200      */
1201     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendZoneText(TextStyle textStyle) {
1202         appendInternal(new ZoneTextPrinterParser(textStyle, null, false));
1203         return this;
1204     }
1205 
1206     /**
1207      * Appends the time-zone name, such as 'British Summer Time', to the formatter.
1208      * <p>
1209      * This appends an instruction to format/parse the textual name of the zone to
1210      * the builder.
1211      * <p>
1212      * During formatting, the zone is obtained using a mechanism equivalent
1213      * to querying the temporal with {@link TemporalQueries#zoneId()}.
1214      * If the zone is a {@code ZoneOffset} it will be printed using the
1215      * result of {@link ZoneOffset#getId()}.
1216      * If the zone is not an offset, the textual name will be looked up
1217      * for the locale set in the {@link DateTimeFormatter}.
1218      * If the temporal object being printed represents an instant, or if it is a
1219      * local date-time that is not in a daylight saving gap or overlap, then the text
1220      * will be the summer or winter time text as appropriate.
1221      * If the lookup for text does not find any suitable result, then the
1222      * {@link ZoneId#getId() ID} will be printed.
1223      * If the zone cannot be obtained then an exception is thrown unless the
1224      * section of the formatter is optional.
1225      * <p>
1226      * During parsing, either the textual zone name, the zone ID or the offset
1227      * is accepted. Many textual zone names are not unique, such as CST can be
1228      * for both "Central Standard Time" and "China Standard Time". In this
1229      * situation, the zone id will be determined by the region information from
1230      * formatter's  {@link DateTimeFormatter#getLocale() locale} and the standard
1231      * zone id for that area, for example, America/New_York for the America Eastern
1232      * zone. This method also allows a set of preferred {@link ZoneId} to be
1233      * specified for parsing. The matched preferred zone id will be used if the
1234      * textural zone name being parsed is not unique.
1235      * <p>
1236      * If the zone cannot be parsed then an exception is thrown unless the
1237      * section of the formatter is optional.
1238      *
1239      * @param textStyle  the text style to use, not null
1240      * @param preferredZones  the set of preferred zone ids, not null
1241      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1242      */
1243     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendZoneText(TextStyle textStyle,
1244                                                    Set<ZoneId> preferredZones) {
1245         Objects.requireNonNull(preferredZones, "preferredZones");
1246         appendInternal(new ZoneTextPrinterParser(textStyle, preferredZones, false));
1247         return this;
1248     }
1249     //----------------------------------------------------------------------
1250     /**
1251      * Appends the generic time-zone name, such as 'Pacific Time', to the formatter.
1252      * <p>
1253      * This appends an instruction to format/parse the generic textual
1254      * name of the zone to the builder. The generic name is the same throughout the whole
1255      * year, ignoring any daylight saving changes. For example, 'Pacific Time' is the
1256      * generic name, whereas 'Pacific Standard Time' and 'Pacific Daylight Time' are the
1257      * specific names, see {@link #appendZoneText(TextStyle)}.
1258      * <p>
1259      * During formatting, the zone is obtained using a mechanism equivalent
1260      * to querying the temporal with {@link TemporalQueries#zoneId()}.
1261      * If the zone is a {@code ZoneOffset} it will be printed using the
1262      * result of {@link ZoneOffset#getId()}.
1263      * If the zone is not an offset, the textual name will be looked up
1264      * for the locale set in the {@link DateTimeFormatter}.
1265      * If the lookup for text does not find any suitable result, then the
1266      * {@link ZoneId#getId() ID} will be printed.
1267      * If the zone cannot be obtained then an exception is thrown unless the
1268      * section of the formatter is optional.
1269      * <p>
1270      * During parsing, either the textual zone name, the zone ID or the offset
1271      * is accepted. Many textual zone names are not unique, such as CST can be
1272      * for both "Central Standard Time" and "China Standard Time". In this
1273      * situation, the zone id will be determined by the region information from
1274      * formatter's  {@link DateTimeFormatter#getLocale() locale} and the standard
1275      * zone id for that area, for example, America/New_York for the America Eastern zone.
1276      * The {@link #appendGenericZoneText(TextStyle, Set)} may be used
1277      * to specify a set of preferred {@link ZoneId} in this situation.
1278      *
1279      * @param textStyle  the text style to use, not null
1280      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1281      * @since 9
1282      */
1283     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendGenericZoneText(TextStyle textStyle) {
1284         appendInternal(new ZoneTextPrinterParser(textStyle, null, true));
1285         return this;
1286     }
1287 
1288     /**
1289      * Appends the generic time-zone name, such as 'Pacific Time', to the formatter.
1290      * <p>
1291      * This appends an instruction to format/parse the generic textual
1292      * name of the zone to the builder. The generic name is the same throughout the whole
1293      * year, ignoring any daylight saving changes. For example, 'Pacific Time' is the
1294      * generic name, whereas 'Pacific Standard Time' and 'Pacific Daylight Time' are the
1295      * specific names, see {@link #appendZoneText(TextStyle)}.
1296      * <p>
1297      * This method also allows a set of preferred {@link ZoneId} to be
1298      * specified for parsing. The matched preferred zone id will be used if the
1299      * textural zone name being parsed is not unique.
1300      * <p>
1301      * See {@link #appendGenericZoneText(TextStyle)} for details about
1302      * formatting and parsing.
1303      *
1304      * @param textStyle  the text style to use, not null
1305      * @param preferredZones  the set of preferred zone ids, not null
1306      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1307      * @since 9
1308      */
1309     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendGenericZoneText(TextStyle textStyle,
1310                                                           Set<ZoneId> preferredZones) {
1311         appendInternal(new ZoneTextPrinterParser(textStyle, preferredZones, true));
1312         return this;
1313     }
1314 
1315     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
1316     /**
1317      * Appends the chronology ID, such as 'ISO' or 'ThaiBuddhist', to the formatter.
1318      * <p>
1319      * This appends an instruction to format/parse the chronology ID to the builder.
1320      * <p>
1321      * During formatting, the chronology is obtained using a mechanism equivalent
1322      * to querying the temporal with {@link TemporalQueries#chronology()}.
1323      * It will be printed using the result of {@link Chronology#getId()}.
1324      * If the chronology cannot be obtained then an exception is thrown unless the
1325      * section of the formatter is optional.
1326      * <p>
1327      * During parsing, the chronology is parsed and must match one of the chronologies
1328      * in {@link Chronology#getAvailableChronologies()}.
1329      * If the chronology cannot be parsed then an exception is thrown unless the
1330      * section of the formatter is optional.
1331      * The parser uses the {@linkplain #parseCaseInsensitive() case sensitive} setting.
1332      *
1333      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1334      */
1335     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendChronologyId() {
1336         appendInternal(new ChronoPrinterParser(null));
1337         return this;
1338     }
1339 
1340     /**
1341      * Appends the chronology name to the formatter.
1342      * <p>
1343      * The calendar system name will be output during a format.
1344      * If the chronology cannot be obtained then an exception will be thrown.
1345      *
1346      * @param textStyle  the text style to use, not null
1347      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1348      */
1349     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendChronologyText(TextStyle textStyle) {
1350         Objects.requireNonNull(textStyle, "textStyle");
1351         appendInternal(new ChronoPrinterParser(textStyle));
1352         return this;
1353     }
1354 
1355     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
1356     /**
1357      * Appends a localized date-time pattern to the formatter.
1358      * <p>
1359      * This appends a localized section to the builder, suitable for outputting
1360      * a date, time or date-time combination. The format of the localized
1361      * section is lazily looked up based on four items:
1362      * <ul>
1363      * <li>the {@code dateStyle} specified to this method
1364      * <li>the {@code timeStyle} specified to this method
1365      * <li>the {@code Locale} of the {@code DateTimeFormatter}
1366      * <li>the {@code Chronology}, selecting the best available
1367      * </ul>
1368      * During formatting, the chronology is obtained from the temporal object
1369      * being formatted, which may have been overridden by
1370      * {@link DateTimeFormatter#withChronology(Chronology)}.
1371      * The {@code FULL} and {@code LONG} styles typically require a time-zone.
1372      * When formatting using these styles, a {@code ZoneId} must be available,
1373      * either by using {@code ZonedDateTime} or {@link DateTimeFormatter#withZone}.
1374      * <p>
1375      * During parsing, if a chronology has already been parsed, then it is used.
1376      * Otherwise the default from {@code DateTimeFormatter.withChronology(Chronology)}
1377      * is used, with {@code IsoChronology} as the fallback.
1378      * <p>
1379      * Note that this method provides similar functionality to methods on
1380      * {@code DateFormat} such as {@link java.text.DateFormat#getDateTimeInstance(int, int)}.
1381      *
1382      * @param dateStyle  the date style to use, null means no date required
1383      * @param timeStyle  the time style to use, null means no time required
1384      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1385      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if both the date and time styles are null
1386      */
1387     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendLocalized(FormatStyle dateStyle, FormatStyle timeStyle) {
1388         if (dateStyle == null && timeStyle == null) {
1389             throw new IllegalArgumentException("Either the date or time style must be non-null");
1390         }
1391         appendInternal(new LocalizedPrinterParser(dateStyle, timeStyle));
1392         return this;
1393     }
1394 
1395     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
1396     /**
1397      * Appends a character literal to the formatter.
1398      * <p>
1399      * This character will be output during a format.
1400      *
1401      * @param literal  the literal to append, not null
1402      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1403      */
1404     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendLiteral(char literal) {
1405         appendInternal(new CharLiteralPrinterParser(literal));
1406         return this;
1407     }
1408 
1409     /**
1410      * Appends a string literal to the formatter.
1411      * <p>
1412      * This string will be output during a format.
1413      * <p>
1414      * If the literal is empty, nothing is added to the formatter.
1415      *
1416      * @param literal  the literal to append, not null
1417      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1418      */
1419     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendLiteral(String literal) {
1420         Objects.requireNonNull(literal, "literal");
1421         if (literal.length() > 0) {
1422             if (literal.length() == 1) {
1423                 appendInternal(new CharLiteralPrinterParser(literal.charAt(0)));
1424             } else {
1425                 appendInternal(new StringLiteralPrinterParser(literal));
1426             }
1427         }
1428         return this;
1429     }
1430 
1431     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
1432     /**
1433      * Appends all the elements of a formatter to the builder.
1434      * <p>
1435      * This method has the same effect as appending each of the constituent
1436      * parts of the formatter directly to this builder.
1437      *
1438      * @param formatter  the formatter to add, not null
1439      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1440      */
1441     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder append(DateTimeFormatter formatter) {
1442         Objects.requireNonNull(formatter, "formatter");
1443         appendInternal(formatter.toPrinterParser(false));
1444         return this;
1445     }
1446 
1447     /**
1448      * Appends a formatter to the builder which will optionally format/parse.
1449      * <p>
1450      * This method has the same effect as appending each of the constituent
1451      * parts directly to this builder surrounded by an {@link #optionalStart()} and
1452      * {@link #optionalEnd()}.
1453      * <p>
1454      * The formatter will format if data is available for all the fields contained within it.
1455      * The formatter will parse if the string matches, otherwise no error is returned.
1456      *
1457      * @param formatter  the formatter to add, not null
1458      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1459      */
1460     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendOptional(DateTimeFormatter formatter) {
1461         Objects.requireNonNull(formatter, "formatter");
1462         appendInternal(formatter.toPrinterParser(true));
1463         return this;
1464     }
1465 
1466     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
1467     /**
1468      * Appends the elements defined by the specified pattern to the builder.
1469      * <p>
1470      * All letters 'A' to 'Z' and 'a' to 'z' are reserved as pattern letters.
1471      * The characters '#', '{' and '}' are reserved for future use.
1472      * The characters '[' and ']' indicate optional patterns.
1473      * The following pattern letters are defined:
1474      * <pre>
1475      *  Symbol  Meaning                     Presentation      Examples
1476      *  ------  -------                     ------------      -------
1477      *   G       era                         text              AD; Anno Domini; A
1478      *   u       year                        year              2004; 04
1479      *   y       year-of-era                 year              2004; 04
1480      *   D       day-of-year                 number            189
1481      *   M/L     month-of-year               number/text       7; 07; Jul; July; J
1482      *   d       day-of-month                number            10
1483      *   g       modified-julian-day         number            2451334
1484      *
1485      *   Q/q     quarter-of-year             number/text       3; 03; Q3; 3rd quarter
1486      *   Y       week-based-year             year              1996; 96
1487      *   w       week-of-week-based-year     number            27
1488      *   W       week-of-month               number            4
1489      *   E       day-of-week                 text              Tue; Tuesday; T
1490      *   e/c     localized day-of-week       number/text       2; 02; Tue; Tuesday; T
1491      *   F       day-of-week-in-month        number            3
1492      *
1493      *   a       am-pm-of-day                text              PM
1494      *   h       clock-hour-of-am-pm (1-12)  number            12
1495      *   K       hour-of-am-pm (0-11)        number            0
1496      *   k       clock-hour-of-day (1-24)    number            24
1497      *
1498      *   H       hour-of-day (0-23)          number            0
1499      *   m       minute-of-hour              number            30
1500      *   s       second-of-minute            number            55
1501      *   S       fraction-of-second          fraction          978
1502      *   A       milli-of-day                number            1234
1503      *   n       nano-of-second              number            987654321
1504      *   N       nano-of-day                 number            1234000000
1505      *
1506      *   V       time-zone ID                zone-id           America/Los_Angeles; Z; -08:30
1507      *   v       generic time-zone name      zone-name         PT, Pacific Time
1508      *   z       time-zone name              zone-name         Pacific Standard Time; PST
1509      *   O       localized zone-offset       offset-O          GMT+8; GMT+08:00; UTC-08:00;
1510      *   X       zone-offset 'Z' for zero    offset-X          Z; -08; -0830; -08:30; -083015; -08:30:15
1511      *   x       zone-offset                 offset-x          +0000; -08; -0830; -08:30; -083015; -08:30:15
1512      *   Z       zone-offset                 offset-Z          +0000; -0800; -08:00
1513      *
1514      *   p       pad next                    pad modifier      1
1515      *
1516      *   '       escape for text             delimiter
1517      *   ''      single quote                literal           '
1518      *   [       optional section start
1519      *   ]       optional section end
1520      *   #       reserved for future use
1521      *   {       reserved for future use
1522      *   }       reserved for future use
1523      * </pre>
1524      * <p>
1525      * The count of pattern letters determine the format.
1526      * See <a href="DateTimeFormatter.html#patterns">DateTimeFormatter</a> for a user-focused description of the patterns.
1527      * The following tables define how the pattern letters map to the builder.
1528      * <p>
1529      * <b>Date fields</b>: Pattern letters to output a date.
1530      * <pre>
1531      *  Pattern  Count  Equivalent builder methods
1532      *  -------  -----  --------------------------
1533      *    G       1      appendText(ChronoField.ERA, TextStyle.SHORT)
1534      *    GG      2      appendText(ChronoField.ERA, TextStyle.SHORT)
1535      *    GGG     3      appendText(ChronoField.ERA, TextStyle.SHORT)
1536      *    GGGG    4      appendText(ChronoField.ERA, TextStyle.FULL)
1537      *    GGGGG   5      appendText(ChronoField.ERA, TextStyle.NARROW)
1538      *
1539      *    u       1      appendValue(ChronoField.YEAR, 1, 19, SignStyle.NORMAL)
1540      *    uu      2      appendValueReduced(ChronoField.YEAR, 2, 2000)
1541      *    uuu     3      appendValue(ChronoField.YEAR, 3, 19, SignStyle.NORMAL)
1542      *    u..u    4..n   appendValue(ChronoField.YEAR, n, 19, SignStyle.EXCEEDS_PAD)
1543      *    y       1      appendValue(ChronoField.YEAR_OF_ERA, 1, 19, SignStyle.NORMAL)
1544      *    yy      2      appendValueReduced(ChronoField.YEAR_OF_ERA, 2, 2000)
1545      *    yyy     3      appendValue(ChronoField.YEAR_OF_ERA, 3, 19, SignStyle.NORMAL)
1546      *    y..y    4..n   appendValue(ChronoField.YEAR_OF_ERA, n, 19, SignStyle.EXCEEDS_PAD)
1547      *    Y       1      append special localized WeekFields element for numeric week-based-year
1548      *    YY      2      append special localized WeekFields element for reduced numeric week-based-year 2 digits
1549      *    YYY     3      append special localized WeekFields element for numeric week-based-year (3, 19, SignStyle.NORMAL)
1550      *    Y..Y    4..n   append special localized WeekFields element for numeric week-based-year (n, 19, SignStyle.EXCEEDS_PAD)
1551      *
1552      *    Q       1      appendValue(IsoFields.QUARTER_OF_YEAR)
1553      *    QQ      2      appendValue(IsoFields.QUARTER_OF_YEAR, 2)
1554      *    QQQ     3      appendText(IsoFields.QUARTER_OF_YEAR, TextStyle.SHORT)
1555      *    QQQQ    4      appendText(IsoFields.QUARTER_OF_YEAR, TextStyle.FULL)
1556      *    QQQQQ   5      appendText(IsoFields.QUARTER_OF_YEAR, TextStyle.NARROW)
1557      *    q       1      appendValue(IsoFields.QUARTER_OF_YEAR)
1558      *    qq      2      appendValue(IsoFields.QUARTER_OF_YEAR, 2)
1559      *    qqq     3      appendText(IsoFields.QUARTER_OF_YEAR, TextStyle.SHORT_STANDALONE)
1560      *    qqqq    4      appendText(IsoFields.QUARTER_OF_YEAR, TextStyle.FULL_STANDALONE)
1561      *    qqqqq   5      appendText(IsoFields.QUARTER_OF_YEAR, TextStyle.NARROW_STANDALONE)
1562      *
1563      *    M       1      appendValue(ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR)
1564      *    MM      2      appendValue(ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR, 2)
1565      *    MMM     3      appendText(ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR, TextStyle.SHORT)
1566      *    MMMM    4      appendText(ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR, TextStyle.FULL)
1567      *    MMMMM   5      appendText(ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR, TextStyle.NARROW)
1568      *    L       1      appendValue(ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR)
1569      *    LL      2      appendValue(ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR, 2)
1570      *    LLL     3      appendText(ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR, TextStyle.SHORT_STANDALONE)
1571      *    LLLL    4      appendText(ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR, TextStyle.FULL_STANDALONE)
1572      *    LLLLL   5      appendText(ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR, TextStyle.NARROW_STANDALONE)
1573      *
1574      *    w       1      append special localized WeekFields element for numeric week-of-year
1575      *    ww      2      append special localized WeekFields element for numeric week-of-year, zero-padded
1576      *    W       1      append special localized WeekFields element for numeric week-of-month
1577      *    d       1      appendValue(ChronoField.DAY_OF_MONTH)
1578      *    dd      2      appendValue(ChronoField.DAY_OF_MONTH, 2)
1579      *    D       1      appendValue(ChronoField.DAY_OF_YEAR)
1580      *    DD      2      appendValue(ChronoField.DAY_OF_YEAR, 2, 3, SignStyle.NOT_NEGATIVE)
1581      *    DDD     3      appendValue(ChronoField.DAY_OF_YEAR, 3)
1582      *    F       1      appendValue(ChronoField.ALIGNED_DAY_OF_WEEK_IN_MONTH)
1583      *    g..g    1..n   appendValue(JulianFields.MODIFIED_JULIAN_DAY, n, 19, SignStyle.NORMAL)
1584      *    E       1      appendText(ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK, TextStyle.SHORT)
1585      *    EE      2      appendText(ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK, TextStyle.SHORT)
1586      *    EEE     3      appendText(ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK, TextStyle.SHORT)
1587      *    EEEE    4      appendText(ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK, TextStyle.FULL)
1588      *    EEEEE   5      appendText(ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK, TextStyle.NARROW)
1589      *    e       1      append special localized WeekFields element for numeric day-of-week
1590      *    ee      2      append special localized WeekFields element for numeric day-of-week, zero-padded
1591      *    eee     3      appendText(ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK, TextStyle.SHORT)
1592      *    eeee    4      appendText(ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK, TextStyle.FULL)
1593      *    eeeee   5      appendText(ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK, TextStyle.NARROW)
1594      *    c       1      append special localized WeekFields element for numeric day-of-week
1595      *    ccc     3      appendText(ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK, TextStyle.SHORT_STANDALONE)
1596      *    cccc    4      appendText(ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK, TextStyle.FULL_STANDALONE)
1597      *    ccccc   5      appendText(ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK, TextStyle.NARROW_STANDALONE)
1598      * </pre>
1599      * <p>
1600      * <b>Time fields</b>: Pattern letters to output a time.
1601      * <pre>
1602      *  Pattern  Count  Equivalent builder methods
1603      *  -------  -----  --------------------------
1604      *    a       1      appendText(ChronoField.AMPM_OF_DAY, TextStyle.SHORT)
1605      *    h       1      appendValue(ChronoField.CLOCK_HOUR_OF_AMPM)
1606      *    hh      2      appendValue(ChronoField.CLOCK_HOUR_OF_AMPM, 2)
1607      *    H       1      appendValue(ChronoField.HOUR_OF_DAY)
1608      *    HH      2      appendValue(ChronoField.HOUR_OF_DAY, 2)
1609      *    k       1      appendValue(ChronoField.CLOCK_HOUR_OF_DAY)
1610      *    kk      2      appendValue(ChronoField.CLOCK_HOUR_OF_DAY, 2)
1611      *    K       1      appendValue(ChronoField.HOUR_OF_AMPM)
1612      *    KK      2      appendValue(ChronoField.HOUR_OF_AMPM, 2)
1613      *    m       1      appendValue(ChronoField.MINUTE_OF_HOUR)
1614      *    mm      2      appendValue(ChronoField.MINUTE_OF_HOUR, 2)
1615      *    s       1      appendValue(ChronoField.SECOND_OF_MINUTE)
1616      *    ss      2      appendValue(ChronoField.SECOND_OF_MINUTE, 2)
1617      *
1618      *    S..S    1..n   appendFraction(ChronoField.NANO_OF_SECOND, n, n, false)
1619      *    A..A    1..n   appendValue(ChronoField.MILLI_OF_DAY, n, 19, SignStyle.NOT_NEGATIVE)
1620      *    n..n    1..n   appendValue(ChronoField.NANO_OF_SECOND, n, 19, SignStyle.NOT_NEGATIVE)
1621      *    N..N    1..n   appendValue(ChronoField.NANO_OF_DAY, n, 19, SignStyle.NOT_NEGATIVE)
1622      * </pre>
1623      * <p>
1624      * <b>Zone ID</b>: Pattern letters to output {@code ZoneId}.
1625      * <pre>
1626      *  Pattern  Count  Equivalent builder methods
1627      *  -------  -----  --------------------------
1628      *    VV      2      appendZoneId()
1629      *    v       1      appendGenericZoneText(TextStyle.SHORT)
1630      *    vvvv    4      appendGenericZoneText(TextStyle.FULL)
1631      *    z       1      appendZoneText(TextStyle.SHORT)
1632      *    zz      2      appendZoneText(TextStyle.SHORT)
1633      *    zzz     3      appendZoneText(TextStyle.SHORT)
1634      *    zzzz    4      appendZoneText(TextStyle.FULL)
1635      * </pre>
1636      * <p>
1637      * <b>Zone offset</b>: Pattern letters to output {@code ZoneOffset}.
1638      * <pre>
1639      *  Pattern  Count  Equivalent builder methods
1640      *  -------  -----  --------------------------
1641      *    O       1      appendLocalizedOffset(TextStyle.SHORT)
1642      *    OOOO    4      appendLocalizedOffset(TextStyle.FULL)
1643      *    X       1      appendOffset("+HHmm","Z")
1644      *    XX      2      appendOffset("+HHMM","Z")
1645      *    XXX     3      appendOffset("+HH:MM","Z")
1646      *    XXXX    4      appendOffset("+HHMMss","Z")
1647      *    XXXXX   5      appendOffset("+HH:MM:ss","Z")
1648      *    x       1      appendOffset("+HHmm","+00")
1649      *    xx      2      appendOffset("+HHMM","+0000")
1650      *    xxx     3      appendOffset("+HH:MM","+00:00")
1651      *    xxxx    4      appendOffset("+HHMMss","+0000")
1652      *    xxxxx   5      appendOffset("+HH:MM:ss","+00:00")
1653      *    Z       1      appendOffset("+HHMM","+0000")
1654      *    ZZ      2      appendOffset("+HHMM","+0000")
1655      *    ZZZ     3      appendOffset("+HHMM","+0000")
1656      *    ZZZZ    4      appendLocalizedOffset(TextStyle.FULL)
1657      *    ZZZZZ   5      appendOffset("+HH:MM:ss","Z")
1658      * </pre>
1659      * <p>
1660      * <b>Modifiers</b>: Pattern letters that modify the rest of the pattern:
1661      * <pre>
1662      *  Pattern  Count  Equivalent builder methods
1663      *  -------  -----  --------------------------
1664      *    [       1      optionalStart()
1665      *    ]       1      optionalEnd()
1666      *    p..p    1..n   padNext(n)
1667      * </pre>
1668      * <p>
1669      * Any sequence of letters not specified above, unrecognized letter or
1670      * reserved character will throw an exception.
1671      * Future versions may add to the set of patterns.
1672      * It is recommended to use single quotes around all characters that you want
1673      * to output directly to ensure that future changes do not break your application.
1674      * <p>
1675      * Note that the pattern string is similar, but not identical, to
1676      * {@link java.text.SimpleDateFormat SimpleDateFormat}.
1677      * The pattern string is also similar, but not identical, to that defined by the
1678      * Unicode Common Locale Data Repository (CLDR/LDML).
1679      * Pattern letters 'X' and 'u' are aligned with Unicode CLDR/LDML.
1680      * By contrast, {@code SimpleDateFormat} uses 'u' for the numeric day of week.
1681      * Pattern letters 'y' and 'Y' parse years of two digits and more than 4 digits differently.
1682      * Pattern letters 'n', 'A', 'N', and 'p' are added.
1683      * Number types will reject large numbers.
1684      *
1685      * @param pattern  the pattern to add, not null
1686      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1687      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the pattern is invalid
1688      */
1689     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendPattern(String pattern) {
1690         Objects.requireNonNull(pattern, "pattern");
1691         parsePattern(pattern);
1692         return this;
1693     }
1694 
1695     private void parsePattern(String pattern) {
1696         for (int pos = 0; pos < pattern.length(); pos++) {
1697             char cur = pattern.charAt(pos);
1698             if ((cur >= 'A' && cur <= 'Z') || (cur >= 'a' && cur <= 'z')) {
1699                 int start = pos++;
1700                 for ( ; pos < pattern.length() && pattern.charAt(pos) == cur; pos++);  // short loop
1701                 int count = pos - start;
1702                 // padding
1703                 if (cur == 'p') {
1704                     int pad = 0;
1705                     if (pos < pattern.length()) {
1706                         cur = pattern.charAt(pos);
1707                         if ((cur >= 'A' && cur <= 'Z') || (cur >= 'a' && cur <= 'z')) {
1708                             pad = count;
1709                             start = pos++;
1710                             for ( ; pos < pattern.length() && pattern.charAt(pos) == cur; pos++);  // short loop
1711                             count = pos - start;
1712                         }
1713                     }
1714                     if (pad == 0) {
1715                         throw new IllegalArgumentException(
1716                                 "Pad letter 'p' must be followed by valid pad pattern: " + pattern);
1717                     }
1718                     padNext(pad); // pad and continue parsing
1719                 }
1720                 // main rules
1721                 TemporalField field = FIELD_MAP.get(cur);
1722                 if (field != null) {
1723                     parseField(cur, count, field);
1724                 } else if (cur == 'z') {
1725                     if (count > 4) {
1726                         throw new IllegalArgumentException("Too many pattern letters: " + cur);
1727                     } else if (count == 4) {
1728                         appendZoneText(TextStyle.FULL);
1729                     } else {
1730                         appendZoneText(TextStyle.SHORT);
1731                     }
1732                 } else if (cur == 'V') {
1733                     if (count != 2) {
1734                         throw new IllegalArgumentException("Pattern letter count must be 2: " + cur);
1735                     }
1736                     appendZoneId();
1737                 } else if (cur == 'v') {
1738                     if (count == 1) {
1739                         appendGenericZoneText(TextStyle.SHORT);
1740                     } else if (count == 4) {
1741                         appendGenericZoneText(TextStyle.FULL);
1742                     } else {
1743                         throw new IllegalArgumentException("Wrong number of  pattern letters: " + cur);
1744                     }
1745                 } else if (cur == 'Z') {
1746                     if (count < 4) {
1747                         appendOffset("+HHMM", "+0000");
1748                     } else if (count == 4) {
1749                         appendLocalizedOffset(TextStyle.FULL);
1750                     } else if (count == 5) {
1751                         appendOffset("+HH:MM:ss","Z");
1752                     } else {
1753                         throw new IllegalArgumentException("Too many pattern letters: " + cur);
1754                     }
1755                 } else if (cur == 'O') {
1756                     if (count == 1) {
1757                         appendLocalizedOffset(TextStyle.SHORT);
1758                     } else if (count == 4) {
1759                         appendLocalizedOffset(TextStyle.FULL);
1760                     } else {
1761                         throw new IllegalArgumentException("Pattern letter count must be 1 or 4: " + cur);
1762                     }
1763                 } else if (cur == 'X') {
1764                     if (count > 5) {
1765                         throw new IllegalArgumentException("Too many pattern letters: " + cur);
1766                     }
1767                     appendOffset(OffsetIdPrinterParser.PATTERNS[count + (count == 1 ? 0 : 1)], "Z");
1768                 } else if (cur == 'x') {
1769                     if (count > 5) {
1770                         throw new IllegalArgumentException("Too many pattern letters: " + cur);
1771                     }
1772                     String zero = (count == 1 ? "+00" : (count % 2 == 0 ? "+0000" : "+00:00"));
1773                     appendOffset(OffsetIdPrinterParser.PATTERNS[count + (count == 1 ? 0 : 1)], zero);
1774                 } else if (cur == 'W') {
1775                     // Fields defined by Locale
1776                     if (count > 1) {
1777                         throw new IllegalArgumentException("Too many pattern letters: " + cur);
1778                     }
1779                     appendValue(new WeekBasedFieldPrinterParser(cur, count, count, count));
1780                 } else if (cur == 'w') {
1781                     // Fields defined by Locale
1782                     if (count > 2) {
1783                         throw new IllegalArgumentException("Too many pattern letters: " + cur);
1784                     }
1785                     appendValue(new WeekBasedFieldPrinterParser(cur, count, count, 2));
1786                 } else if (cur == 'Y') {
1787                     // Fields defined by Locale
1788                     if (count == 2) {
1789                         appendValue(new WeekBasedFieldPrinterParser(cur, count, count, 2));
1790                     } else {
1791                         appendValue(new WeekBasedFieldPrinterParser(cur, count, count, 19));
1792                     }
1793                 } else {
1794                     throw new IllegalArgumentException("Unknown pattern letter: " + cur);
1795                 }
1796                 pos--;
1797 
1798             } else if (cur == '\'') {
1799                 // parse literals
1800                 int start = pos++;
1801                 for ( ; pos < pattern.length(); pos++) {
1802                     if (pattern.charAt(pos) == '\'') {
1803                         if (pos + 1 < pattern.length() && pattern.charAt(pos + 1) == '\'') {
1804                             pos++;
1805                         } else {
1806                             break;  // end of literal
1807                         }
1808                     }
1809                 }
1810                 if (pos >= pattern.length()) {
1811                     throw new IllegalArgumentException("Pattern ends with an incomplete string literal: " + pattern);
1812                 }
1813                 String str = pattern.substring(start + 1, pos);
1814                 if (str.length() == 0) {
1815                     appendLiteral('\'');
1816                 } else {
1817                     appendLiteral(str.replace("''", "'"));
1818                 }
1819 
1820             } else if (cur == '[') {
1821                 optionalStart();
1822 
1823             } else if (cur == ']') {
1824                 if (active.parent == null) {
1825                     throw new IllegalArgumentException("Pattern invalid as it contains ] without previous [");
1826                 }
1827                 optionalEnd();
1828 
1829             } else if (cur == '{' || cur == '}' || cur == '#') {
1830                 throw new IllegalArgumentException("Pattern includes reserved character: '" + cur + "'");
1831             } else {
1832                 appendLiteral(cur);
1833             }
1834         }
1835     }
1836 
1837     @SuppressWarnings("fallthrough")
1838     private void parseField(char cur, int count, TemporalField field) {
1839         boolean standalone = false;
1840         switch (cur) {
1841             case 'u':
1842             case 'y':
1843                 if (count == 2) {
1844                     appendValueReduced(field, 2, 2, ReducedPrinterParser.BASE_DATE);
1845                 } else if (count < 4) {
1846                     appendValue(field, count, 19, SignStyle.NORMAL);
1847                 } else {
1848                     appendValue(field, count, 19, SignStyle.EXCEEDS_PAD);
1849                 }
1850                 break;
1851             case 'c':
1852                 if (count == 1) {
1853                     appendValue(new WeekBasedFieldPrinterParser(cur, count, count, count));
1854                     break;
1855                 } else if (count == 2) {
1856                     throw new IllegalArgumentException("Invalid pattern \"cc\"");
1857                 }
1858                 /*fallthrough*/
1859             case 'L':
1860             case 'q':
1861                 standalone = true;
1862                 /*fallthrough*/
1863             case 'M':
1864             case 'Q':
1865             case 'E':
1866             case 'e':
1867                 switch (count) {
1868                     case 1:
1869                     case 2:
1870                         if (cur == 'e') {
1871                             appendValue(new WeekBasedFieldPrinterParser(cur, count, count, count));
1872                         } else if (cur == 'E') {
1873                             appendText(field, TextStyle.SHORT);
1874                         } else {
1875                             if (count == 1) {
1876                                 appendValue(field);
1877                             } else {
1878                                 appendValue(field, 2);
1879                             }
1880                         }
1881                         break;
1882                     case 3:
1883                         appendText(field, standalone ? TextStyle.SHORT_STANDALONE : TextStyle.SHORT);
1884                         break;
1885                     case 4:
1886                         appendText(field, standalone ? TextStyle.FULL_STANDALONE : TextStyle.FULL);
1887                         break;
1888                     case 5:
1889                         appendText(field, standalone ? TextStyle.NARROW_STANDALONE : TextStyle.NARROW);
1890                         break;
1891                     default:
1892                         throw new IllegalArgumentException("Too many pattern letters: " + cur);
1893                 }
1894                 break;
1895             case 'a':
1896                 if (count == 1) {
1897                     appendText(field, TextStyle.SHORT);
1898                 } else {
1899                     throw new IllegalArgumentException("Too many pattern letters: " + cur);
1900                 }
1901                 break;
1902             case 'G':
1903                 switch (count) {
1904                     case 1:
1905                     case 2:
1906                     case 3:
1907                         appendText(field, TextStyle.SHORT);
1908                         break;
1909                     case 4:
1910                         appendText(field, TextStyle.FULL);
1911                         break;
1912                     case 5:
1913                         appendText(field, TextStyle.NARROW);
1914                         break;
1915                     default:
1916                         throw new IllegalArgumentException("Too many pattern letters: " + cur);
1917                 }
1918                 break;
1919             case 'S':
1920                 appendFraction(NANO_OF_SECOND, count, count, false);
1921                 break;
1922             case 'F':
1923                 if (count == 1) {
1924                     appendValue(field);
1925                 } else {
1926                     throw new IllegalArgumentException("Too many pattern letters: " + cur);
1927                 }
1928                 break;
1929             case 'd':
1930             case 'h':
1931             case 'H':
1932             case 'k':
1933             case 'K':
1934             case 'm':
1935             case 's':
1936                 if (count == 1) {
1937                     appendValue(field);
1938                 } else if (count == 2) {
1939                     appendValue(field, count);
1940                 } else {
1941                     throw new IllegalArgumentException("Too many pattern letters: " + cur);
1942                 }
1943                 break;
1944             case 'D':
1945                 if (count == 1) {
1946                     appendValue(field);
1947                 } else if (count == 2 || count == 3) {
1948                     appendValue(field, count, 3, SignStyle.NOT_NEGATIVE);
1949                 } else {
1950                     throw new IllegalArgumentException("Too many pattern letters: " + cur);
1951                 }
1952                 break;
1953             case 'g':
1954                 appendValue(field, count, 19, SignStyle.NORMAL);
1955                 break;
1956             case 'A':
1957             case 'n':
1958             case 'N':
1959                 appendValue(field, count, 19, SignStyle.NOT_NEGATIVE);
1960                 break;
1961             default:
1962                 if (count == 1) {
1963                     appendValue(field);
1964                 } else {
1965                     appendValue(field, count);
1966                 }
1967                 break;
1968         }
1969     }
1970 
1971     /** Map of letters to fields. */
1972     private static final Map<Character, TemporalField> FIELD_MAP = new HashMap<>();
1973     static {
1974         // SDF = SimpleDateFormat
1975         FIELD_MAP.put('G', ChronoField.ERA);                       // SDF, LDML (different to both for 1/2 chars)
1976         FIELD_MAP.put('y', ChronoField.YEAR_OF_ERA);               // SDF, LDML
1977         FIELD_MAP.put('u', ChronoField.YEAR);                      // LDML (different in SDF)
1978         FIELD_MAP.put('Q', IsoFields.QUARTER_OF_YEAR);             // LDML (removed quarter from 310)
1979         FIELD_MAP.put('q', IsoFields.QUARTER_OF_YEAR);             // LDML (stand-alone)
1980         FIELD_MAP.put('M', ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR);             // SDF, LDML
1981         FIELD_MAP.put('L', ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR);             // SDF, LDML (stand-alone)
1982         FIELD_MAP.put('D', ChronoField.DAY_OF_YEAR);               // SDF, LDML
1983         FIELD_MAP.put('d', ChronoField.DAY_OF_MONTH);              // SDF, LDML
1984         FIELD_MAP.put('F', ChronoField.ALIGNED_DAY_OF_WEEK_IN_MONTH);  // SDF, LDML
1985         FIELD_MAP.put('E', ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK);               // SDF, LDML (different to both for 1/2 chars)
1986         FIELD_MAP.put('c', ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK);               // LDML (stand-alone)
1987         FIELD_MAP.put('e', ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK);               // LDML (needs localized week number)
1988         FIELD_MAP.put('a', ChronoField.AMPM_OF_DAY);               // SDF, LDML
1989         FIELD_MAP.put('H', ChronoField.HOUR_OF_DAY);               // SDF, LDML
1990         FIELD_MAP.put('k', ChronoField.CLOCK_HOUR_OF_DAY);         // SDF, LDML
1991         FIELD_MAP.put('K', ChronoField.HOUR_OF_AMPM);              // SDF, LDML
1992         FIELD_MAP.put('h', ChronoField.CLOCK_HOUR_OF_AMPM);        // SDF, LDML
1993         FIELD_MAP.put('m', ChronoField.MINUTE_OF_HOUR);            // SDF, LDML
1994         FIELD_MAP.put('s', ChronoField.SECOND_OF_MINUTE);          // SDF, LDML
1995         FIELD_MAP.put('S', ChronoField.NANO_OF_SECOND);            // LDML (SDF uses milli-of-second number)
1996         FIELD_MAP.put('A', ChronoField.MILLI_OF_DAY);              // LDML
1997         FIELD_MAP.put('n', ChronoField.NANO_OF_SECOND);            // 310 (proposed for LDML)
1998         FIELD_MAP.put('N', ChronoField.NANO_OF_DAY);               // 310 (proposed for LDML)
1999         FIELD_MAP.put('g', JulianFields.MODIFIED_JULIAN_DAY);
2000         // 310 - z - time-zone names, matches LDML and SimpleDateFormat 1 to 4
2001         // 310 - Z - matches SimpleDateFormat and LDML
2002         // 310 - V - time-zone id, matches LDML
2003         // 310 - v - general timezone names, not matching exactly with LDML because LDML specify to fall back
2004         //           to 'VVVV' if general-nonlocation unavailable but here it's not falling back because of lack of data
2005         // 310 - p - prefix for padding
2006         // 310 - X - matches LDML, almost matches SDF for 1, exact match 2&3, extended 4&5
2007         // 310 - x - matches LDML
2008         // 310 - w, W, and Y are localized forms matching LDML
2009         // LDML - U - cycle year name, not supported by 310 yet
2010         // LDML - l - deprecated
2011         // LDML - j - not relevant
2012     }
2013 
2014     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2015     /**
2016      * Causes the next added printer/parser to pad to a fixed width using a space.
2017      * <p>
2018      * This padding will pad to a fixed width using spaces.
2019      * <p>
2020      * During formatting, the decorated element will be output and then padded
2021      * to the specified width. An exception will be thrown during formatting if
2022      * the pad width is exceeded.
2023      * <p>
2024      * During parsing, the padding and decorated element are parsed.
2025      * If parsing is lenient, then the pad width is treated as a maximum.
2026      * The padding is parsed greedily. Thus, if the decorated element starts with
2027      * the pad character, it will not be parsed.
2028      *
2029      * @param padWidth  the pad width, 1 or greater
2030      * @return this, for chaining, not null
2031      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if pad width is too small
2032      */
2033     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder padNext(int padWidth) {
2034         return padNext(padWidth, ' ');
2035     }
2036 
2037     /**
2038      * Causes the next added printer/parser to pad to a fixed width.
2039      * <p>
2040      * This padding is intended for padding other than zero-padding.
2041      * Zero-padding should be achieved using the appendValue methods.
2042      * <p>
2043      * During formatting, the decorated element will be output and then padded
2044      * to the specified width. An exception will be thrown during formatting if
2045      * the pad width is exceeded.
2046      * <p>
2047      * During parsing, the padding and decorated element are parsed.
2048      * If parsing is lenient, then the pad width is treated as a maximum.
2049      * If parsing is case insensitive, then the pad character is matched ignoring case.
2050      * The padding is parsed greedily. Thus, if the decorated element starts with
2051      * the pad character, it will not be parsed.
2052      *
2053      * @param padWidth  the pad width, 1 or greater
2054      * @param padChar  the pad character
2055      * @return this, for chaining, not null
2056      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if pad width is too small
2057      */
2058     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder padNext(int padWidth, char padChar) {
2059         if (padWidth < 1) {
2060             throw new IllegalArgumentException("The pad width must be at least one but was " + padWidth);
2061         }
2062         active.padNextWidth = padWidth;
2063         active.padNextChar = padChar;
2064         active.valueParserIndex = -1;
2065         return this;
2066     }
2067 
2068     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2069     /**
2070      * Mark the start of an optional section.
2071      * <p>
2072      * The output of formatting can include optional sections, which may be nested.
2073      * An optional section is started by calling this method and ended by calling
2074      * {@link #optionalEnd()} or by ending the build process.
2075      * <p>
2076      * All elements in the optional section are treated as optional.
2077      * During formatting, the section is only output if data is available in the
2078      * {@code TemporalAccessor} for all the elements in the section.
2079      * During parsing, the whole section may be missing from the parsed string.
2080      * <p>
2081      * For example, consider a builder setup as
2082      * {@code builder.appendValue(HOUR_OF_DAY,2).optionalStart().appendValue(MINUTE_OF_HOUR,2)}.
2083      * The optional section ends automatically at the end of the builder.
2084      * During formatting, the minute will only be output if its value can be obtained from the date-time.
2085      * During parsing, the input will be successfully parsed whether the minute is present or not.
2086      *
2087      * @return this, for chaining, not null
2088      */
2089     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder optionalStart() {
2090         active.valueParserIndex = -1;
2091         active = new DateTimeFormatterBuilder(active, true);
2092         return this;
2093     }
2094 
2095     /**
2096      * Ends an optional section.
2097      * <p>
2098      * The output of formatting can include optional sections, which may be nested.
2099      * An optional section is started by calling {@link #optionalStart()} and ended
2100      * using this method (or at the end of the builder).
2101      * <p>
2102      * Calling this method without having previously called {@code optionalStart}
2103      * will throw an exception.
2104      * Calling this method immediately after calling {@code optionalStart} has no effect
2105      * on the formatter other than ending the (empty) optional section.
2106      * <p>
2107      * All elements in the optional section are treated as optional.
2108      * During formatting, the section is only output if data is available in the
2109      * {@code TemporalAccessor} for all the elements in the section.
2110      * During parsing, the whole section may be missing from the parsed string.
2111      * <p>
2112      * For example, consider a builder setup as
2113      * {@code builder.appendValue(HOUR_OF_DAY,2).optionalStart().appendValue(MINUTE_OF_HOUR,2).optionalEnd()}.
2114      * During formatting, the minute will only be output if its value can be obtained from the date-time.
2115      * During parsing, the input will be successfully parsed whether the minute is present or not.
2116      *
2117      * @return this, for chaining, not null
2118      * @throws IllegalStateException if there was no previous call to {@code optionalStart}
2119      */
2120     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder optionalEnd() {
2121         if (active.parent == null) {
2122             throw new IllegalStateException("Cannot call optionalEnd() as there was no previous call to optionalStart()");
2123         }
2124         if (active.printerParsers.size() > 0) {
2125             CompositePrinterParser cpp = new CompositePrinterParser(active.printerParsers, active.optional);
2126             active = active.parent;
2127             appendInternal(cpp);
2128         } else {
2129             active = active.parent;
2130         }
2131         return this;
2132     }
2133 
2134     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2135     /**
2136      * Appends a printer and/or parser to the internal list handling padding.
2137      *
2138      * @param pp  the printer-parser to add, not null
2139      * @return the index into the active parsers list
2140      */
2141     private int appendInternal(DateTimePrinterParser pp) {
2142         Objects.requireNonNull(pp, "pp");
2143         if (active.padNextWidth > 0) {
2144             if (pp != null) {
2145                 pp = new PadPrinterParserDecorator(pp, active.padNextWidth, active.padNextChar);
2146             }
2147             active.padNextWidth = 0;
2148             active.padNextChar = 0;
2149         }
2150         active.printerParsers.add(pp);
2151         active.valueParserIndex = -1;
2152         return active.printerParsers.size() - 1;
2153     }
2154 
2155     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2156     /**
2157      * Completes this builder by creating the {@code DateTimeFormatter}
2158      * using the default locale.
2159      * <p>
2160      * This will create a formatter with the {@linkplain Locale#getDefault(Locale.Category) default FORMAT locale}.
2161      * Numbers will be printed and parsed using the standard DecimalStyle.
2162      * The resolver style will be {@link ResolverStyle#SMART SMART}.
2163      * <p>
2164      * Calling this method will end any open optional sections by repeatedly
2165      * calling {@link #optionalEnd()} before creating the formatter.
2166      * <p>
2167      * This builder can still be used after creating the formatter if desired,
2168      * although the state may have been changed by calls to {@code optionalEnd}.
2169      *
2170      * @return the created formatter, not null
2171      */
2172     public DateTimeFormatter toFormatter() {
2173         return toFormatter(Locale.getDefault(Locale.Category.FORMAT));
2174     }
2175 
2176     /**
2177      * Completes this builder by creating the {@code DateTimeFormatter}
2178      * using the specified locale.
2179      * <p>
2180      * This will create a formatter with the specified locale.
2181      * Numbers will be printed and parsed using the standard DecimalStyle.
2182      * The resolver style will be {@link ResolverStyle#SMART SMART}.
2183      * <p>
2184      * Calling this method will end any open optional sections by repeatedly
2185      * calling {@link #optionalEnd()} before creating the formatter.
2186      * <p>
2187      * This builder can still be used after creating the formatter if desired,
2188      * although the state may have been changed by calls to {@code optionalEnd}.
2189      *
2190      * @param locale  the locale to use for formatting, not null
2191      * @return the created formatter, not null
2192      */
2193     public DateTimeFormatter toFormatter(Locale locale) {
2194         return toFormatter(locale, ResolverStyle.SMART, null);
2195     }
2196 
2197     /**
2198      * Completes this builder by creating the formatter.
2199      * This uses the default locale.
2200      *
2201      * @param resolverStyle  the resolver style to use, not null
2202      * @return the created formatter, not null
2203      */
2204     DateTimeFormatter toFormatter(ResolverStyle resolverStyle, Chronology chrono) {
2205         return toFormatter(Locale.getDefault(Locale.Category.FORMAT), resolverStyle, chrono);
2206     }
2207 
2208     /**
2209      * Completes this builder by creating the formatter.
2210      *
2211      * @param locale  the locale to use for formatting, not null
2212      * @param chrono  the chronology to use, may be null
2213      * @return the created formatter, not null
2214      */
2215     private DateTimeFormatter toFormatter(Locale locale, ResolverStyle resolverStyle, Chronology chrono) {
2216         Objects.requireNonNull(locale, "locale");
2217         while (active.parent != null) {
2218             optionalEnd();
2219         }
2220         CompositePrinterParser pp = new CompositePrinterParser(printerParsers, false);
2221         return new DateTimeFormatter(pp, locale, DecimalStyle.STANDARD,
2222                 resolverStyle, null, chrono, null);
2223     }
2224 
2225     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2226     /**
2227      * Strategy for formatting/parsing date-time information.
2228      * <p>
2229      * The printer may format any part, or the whole, of the input date-time object.
2230      * Typically, a complete format is constructed from a number of smaller
2231      * units, each outputting a single field.
2232      * <p>
2233      * The parser may parse any piece of text from the input, storing the result
2234      * in the context. Typically, each individual parser will just parse one
2235      * field, such as the day-of-month, storing the value in the context.
2236      * Once the parse is complete, the caller will then resolve the parsed values
2237      * to create the desired object, such as a {@code LocalDate}.
2238      * <p>
2239      * The parse position will be updated during the parse. Parsing will start at
2240      * the specified index and the return value specifies the new parse position
2241      * for the next parser. If an error occurs, the returned index will be negative
2242      * and will have the error position encoded using the complement operator.
2243      *
2244      * @implSpec
2245      * This interface must be implemented with care to ensure other classes operate correctly.
2246      * All implementations that can be instantiated must be final, immutable and thread-safe.
2247      * <p>
2248      * The context is not a thread-safe object and a new instance will be created
2249      * for each format that occurs. The context must not be stored in an instance
2250      * variable or shared with any other threads.
2251      */
2252     interface DateTimePrinterParser {
2253 
2254         /**
2255          * Prints the date-time object to the buffer.
2256          * <p>
2257          * The context holds information to use during the format.
2258          * It also contains the date-time information to be printed.
2259          * <p>
2260          * The buffer must not be mutated beyond the content controlled by the implementation.
2261          *
2262          * @param context  the context to format using, not null
2263          * @param buf  the buffer to append to, not null
2264          * @return false if unable to query the value from the date-time, true otherwise
2265          * @throws DateTimeException if the date-time cannot be printed successfully
2266          */
2267         boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf);
2268 
2269         /**
2270          * Parses text into date-time information.
2271          * <p>
2272          * The context holds information to use during the parse.
2273          * It is also used to store the parsed date-time information.
2274          *
2275          * @param context  the context to use and parse into, not null
2276          * @param text  the input text to parse, not null
2277          * @param position  the position to start parsing at, from 0 to the text length
2278          * @return the new parse position, where negative means an error with the
2279          *  error position encoded using the complement ~ operator
2280          * @throws NullPointerException if the context or text is null
2281          * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException if the position is invalid
2282          */
2283         int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position);
2284     }
2285 
2286     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2287     /**
2288      * Composite printer and parser.
2289      */
2290     static final class CompositePrinterParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
2291         private final DateTimePrinterParser[] printerParsers;
2292         private final boolean optional;
2293 
2294         CompositePrinterParser(List<DateTimePrinterParser> printerParsers, boolean optional) {
2295             this(printerParsers.toArray(new DateTimePrinterParser[printerParsers.size()]), optional);
2296         }
2297 
2298         CompositePrinterParser(DateTimePrinterParser[] printerParsers, boolean optional) {
2299             this.printerParsers = printerParsers;
2300             this.optional = optional;
2301         }
2302 
2303         /**
2304          * Returns a copy of this printer-parser with the optional flag changed.
2305          *
2306          * @param optional  the optional flag to set in the copy
2307          * @return the new printer-parser, not null
2308          */
2309         public CompositePrinterParser withOptional(boolean optional) {
2310             if (optional == this.optional) {
2311                 return this;
2312             }
2313             return new CompositePrinterParser(printerParsers, optional);
2314         }
2315 
2316         @Override
2317         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
2318             int length = buf.length();
2319             if (optional) {
2320                 context.startOptional();
2321             }
2322             try {
2323                 for (DateTimePrinterParser pp : printerParsers) {
2324                     if (pp.format(context, buf) == false) {
2325                         buf.setLength(length);  // reset buffer
2326                         return true;
2327                     }
2328                 }
2329             } finally {
2330                 if (optional) {
2331                     context.endOptional();
2332                 }
2333             }
2334             return true;
2335         }
2336 
2337         @Override
2338         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
2339             if (optional) {
2340                 context.startOptional();
2341                 int pos = position;
2342                 for (DateTimePrinterParser pp : printerParsers) {
2343                     pos = pp.parse(context, text, pos);
2344                     if (pos < 0) {
2345                         context.endOptional(false);
2346                         return position;  // return original position
2347                     }
2348                 }
2349                 context.endOptional(true);
2350                 return pos;
2351             } else {
2352                 for (DateTimePrinterParser pp : printerParsers) {
2353                     position = pp.parse(context, text, position);
2354                     if (position < 0) {
2355                         break;
2356                     }
2357                 }
2358                 return position;
2359             }
2360         }
2361 
2362         @Override
2363         public String toString() {
2364             StringBuilder buf = new StringBuilder();
2365             if (printerParsers != null) {
2366                 buf.append(optional ? "[" : "(");
2367                 for (DateTimePrinterParser pp : printerParsers) {
2368                     buf.append(pp);
2369                 }
2370                 buf.append(optional ? "]" : ")");
2371             }
2372             return buf.toString();
2373         }
2374     }
2375 
2376     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2377     /**
2378      * Pads the output to a fixed width.
2379      */
2380     static final class PadPrinterParserDecorator implements DateTimePrinterParser {
2381         private final DateTimePrinterParser printerParser;
2382         private final int padWidth;
2383         private final char padChar;
2384 
2385         /**
2386          * Constructor.
2387          *
2388          * @param printerParser  the printer, not null
2389          * @param padWidth  the width to pad to, 1 or greater
2390          * @param padChar  the pad character
2391          */
2392         PadPrinterParserDecorator(DateTimePrinterParser printerParser, int padWidth, char padChar) {
2393             // input checked by DateTimeFormatterBuilder
2394             this.printerParser = printerParser;
2395             this.padWidth = padWidth;
2396             this.padChar = padChar;
2397         }
2398 
2399         @Override
2400         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
2401             int preLen = buf.length();
2402             if (printerParser.format(context, buf) == false) {
2403                 return false;
2404             }
2405             int len = buf.length() - preLen;
2406             if (len > padWidth) {
2407                 throw new DateTimeException(
2408                     "Cannot print as output of " + len + " characters exceeds pad width of " + padWidth);
2409             }
2410             for (int i = 0; i < padWidth - len; i++) {
2411                 buf.insert(preLen, padChar);
2412             }
2413             return true;
2414         }
2415 
2416         @Override
2417         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
2418             // cache context before changed by decorated parser
2419             final boolean strict = context.isStrict();
2420             // parse
2421             if (position > text.length()) {
2422                 throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException();
2423             }
2424             if (position == text.length()) {
2425                 return ~position;  // no more characters in the string
2426             }
2427             int endPos = position + padWidth;
2428             if (endPos > text.length()) {
2429                 if (strict) {
2430                     return ~position;  // not enough characters in the string to meet the parse width
2431                 }
2432                 endPos = text.length();
2433             }
2434             int pos = position;
2435             while (pos < endPos && context.charEquals(text.charAt(pos), padChar)) {
2436                 pos++;
2437             }
2438             text = text.subSequence(0, endPos);
2439             int resultPos = printerParser.parse(context, text, pos);
2440             if (resultPos != endPos && strict) {
2441                 return ~(position + pos);  // parse of decorated field didn't parse to the end
2442             }
2443             return resultPos;
2444         }
2445 
2446         @Override
2447         public String toString() {
2448             return "Pad(" + printerParser + "," + padWidth + (padChar == ' ' ? ")" : ",'" + padChar + "')");
2449         }
2450     }
2451 
2452     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2453     /**
2454      * Enumeration to apply simple parse settings.
2455      */
2456     static enum SettingsParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
2457         SENSITIVE,
2458         INSENSITIVE,
2459         STRICT,
2460         LENIENT;
2461 
2462         @Override
2463         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
2464             return true;  // nothing to do here
2465         }
2466 
2467         @Override
2468         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
2469             // using ordinals to avoid javac synthetic inner class
2470             switch (ordinal()) {
2471                 case 0: context.setCaseSensitive(true); break;
2472                 case 1: context.setCaseSensitive(false); break;
2473                 case 2: context.setStrict(true); break;
2474                 case 3: context.setStrict(false); break;
2475             }
2476             return position;
2477         }
2478 
2479         @Override
2480         public String toString() {
2481             // using ordinals to avoid javac synthetic inner class
2482             switch (ordinal()) {
2483                 case 0: return "ParseCaseSensitive(true)";
2484                 case 1: return "ParseCaseSensitive(false)";
2485                 case 2: return "ParseStrict(true)";
2486                 case 3: return "ParseStrict(false)";
2487             }
2488             throw new IllegalStateException("Unreachable");
2489         }
2490     }
2491 
2492     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2493     /**
2494      * Defaults a value into the parse if not currently present.
2495      */
2496     static class DefaultValueParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
2497         private final TemporalField field;
2498         private final long value;
2499 
2500         DefaultValueParser(TemporalField field, long value) {
2501             this.field = field;
2502             this.value = value;
2503         }
2504 
2505         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
2506             return true;
2507         }
2508 
2509         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
2510             if (context.getParsed(field) == null) {
2511                 context.setParsedField(field, value, position, position);
2512             }
2513             return position;
2514         }
2515     }
2516 
2517     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2518     /**
2519      * Prints or parses a character literal.
2520      */
2521     static final class CharLiteralPrinterParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
2522         private final char literal;
2523 
2524         CharLiteralPrinterParser(char literal) {
2525             this.literal = literal;
2526         }
2527 
2528         @Override
2529         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
2530             buf.append(literal);
2531             return true;
2532         }
2533 
2534         @Override
2535         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
2536             int length = text.length();
2537             if (position == length) {
2538                 return ~position;
2539             }
2540             char ch = text.charAt(position);
2541             if (ch != literal) {
2542                 if (context.isCaseSensitive() ||
2543                         (Character.toUpperCase(ch) != Character.toUpperCase(literal) &&
2544                          Character.toLowerCase(ch) != Character.toLowerCase(literal))) {
2545                     return ~position;
2546                 }
2547             }
2548             return position + 1;
2549         }
2550 
2551         @Override
2552         public String toString() {
2553             if (literal == '\'') {
2554                 return "''";
2555             }
2556             return "'" + literal + "'";
2557         }
2558     }
2559 
2560     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2561     /**
2562      * Prints or parses a string literal.
2563      */
2564     static final class StringLiteralPrinterParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
2565         private final String literal;
2566 
2567         StringLiteralPrinterParser(String literal) {
2568             this.literal = literal;  // validated by caller
2569         }
2570 
2571         @Override
2572         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
2573             buf.append(literal);
2574             return true;
2575         }
2576 
2577         @Override
2578         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
2579             int length = text.length();
2580             if (position > length || position < 0) {
2581                 throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException();
2582             }
2583             if (context.subSequenceEquals(text, position, literal, 0, literal.length()) == false) {
2584                 return ~position;
2585             }
2586             return position + literal.length();
2587         }
2588 
2589         @Override
2590         public String toString() {
2591             String converted = literal.replace("'", "''");
2592             return "'" + converted + "'";
2593         }
2594     }
2595 
2596     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2597     /**
2598      * Prints and parses a numeric date-time field with optional padding.
2599      */
2600     static class NumberPrinterParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
2601 
2602         /**
2603          * Array of 10 to the power of n.
2604          */
2605         static final long[] EXCEED_POINTS = new long[] {
2606             0L,
2607             10L,
2608             100L,
2609             1000L,
2610             10000L,
2611             100000L,
2612             1000000L,
2613             10000000L,
2614             100000000L,
2615             1000000000L,
2616             10000000000L,
2617         };
2618 
2619         final TemporalField field;
2620         final int minWidth;
2621         final int maxWidth;
2622         private final SignStyle signStyle;
2623         final int subsequentWidth;
2624 
2625         /**
2626          * Constructor.
2627          *
2628          * @param field  the field to format, not null
2629          * @param minWidth  the minimum field width, from 1 to 19
2630          * @param maxWidth  the maximum field width, from minWidth to 19
2631          * @param signStyle  the positive/negative sign style, not null
2632          */
2633         NumberPrinterParser(TemporalField field, int minWidth, int maxWidth, SignStyle signStyle) {
2634             // validated by caller
2635             this.field = field;
2636             this.minWidth = minWidth;
2637             this.maxWidth = maxWidth;
2638             this.signStyle = signStyle;
2639             this.subsequentWidth = 0;
2640         }
2641 
2642         /**
2643          * Constructor.
2644          *
2645          * @param field  the field to format, not null
2646          * @param minWidth  the minimum field width, from 1 to 19
2647          * @param maxWidth  the maximum field width, from minWidth to 19
2648          * @param signStyle  the positive/negative sign style, not null
2649          * @param subsequentWidth  the width of subsequent non-negative numbers, 0 or greater,
2650          *  -1 if fixed width due to active adjacent parsing
2651          */
2652         protected NumberPrinterParser(TemporalField field, int minWidth, int maxWidth, SignStyle signStyle, int subsequentWidth) {
2653             // validated by caller
2654             this.field = field;
2655             this.minWidth = minWidth;
2656             this.maxWidth = maxWidth;
2657             this.signStyle = signStyle;
2658             this.subsequentWidth = subsequentWidth;
2659         }
2660 
2661         /**
2662          * Returns a new instance with fixed width flag set.
2663          *
2664          * @return a new updated printer-parser, not null
2665          */
2666         NumberPrinterParser withFixedWidth() {
2667             if (subsequentWidth == -1) {
2668                 return this;
2669             }
2670             return new NumberPrinterParser(field, minWidth, maxWidth, signStyle, -1);
2671         }
2672 
2673         /**
2674          * Returns a new instance with an updated subsequent width.
2675          *
2676          * @param subsequentWidth  the width of subsequent non-negative numbers, 0 or greater
2677          * @return a new updated printer-parser, not null
2678          */
2679         NumberPrinterParser withSubsequentWidth(int subsequentWidth) {
2680             return new NumberPrinterParser(field, minWidth, maxWidth, signStyle, this.subsequentWidth + subsequentWidth);
2681         }
2682 
2683         @Override
2684         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
2685             Long valueLong = context.getValue(field);
2686             if (valueLong == null) {
2687                 return false;
2688             }
2689             long value = getValue(context, valueLong);
2690             DecimalStyle decimalStyle = context.getDecimalStyle();
2691             String str = (value == Long.MIN_VALUE ? "9223372036854775808" : Long.toString(Math.abs(value)));
2692             if (str.length() > maxWidth) {
2693                 throw new DateTimeException("Field " + field +
2694                     " cannot be printed as the value " + value +
2695                     " exceeds the maximum print width of " + maxWidth);
2696             }
2697             str = decimalStyle.convertNumberToI18N(str);
2698 
2699             if (value >= 0) {
2700                 switch (signStyle) {
2701                     case EXCEEDS_PAD:
2702                         if (minWidth < 19 && value >= EXCEED_POINTS[minWidth]) {
2703                             buf.append(decimalStyle.getPositiveSign());
2704                         }
2705                         break;
2706                     case ALWAYS:
2707                         buf.append(decimalStyle.getPositiveSign());
2708                         break;
2709                 }
2710             } else {
2711                 switch (signStyle) {
2712                     case NORMAL:
2713                     case EXCEEDS_PAD:
2714                     case ALWAYS:
2715                         buf.append(decimalStyle.getNegativeSign());
2716                         break;
2717                     case NOT_NEGATIVE:
2718                         throw new DateTimeException("Field " + field +
2719                             " cannot be printed as the value " + value +
2720                             " cannot be negative according to the SignStyle");
2721                 }
2722             }
2723             for (int i = 0; i < minWidth - str.length(); i++) {
2724                 buf.append(decimalStyle.getZeroDigit());
2725             }
2726             buf.append(str);
2727             return true;
2728         }
2729 
2730         /**
2731          * Gets the value to output.
2732          *
2733          * @param context  the context
2734          * @param value  the value of the field, not null
2735          * @return the value
2736          */
2737         long getValue(DateTimePrintContext context, long value) {
2738             return value;
2739         }
2740 
2741         /**
2742          * For NumberPrinterParser, the width is fixed depending on the
2743          * minWidth, maxWidth, signStyle and whether subsequent fields are fixed.
2744          * @param context the context
2745          * @return true if the field is fixed width
2746          * @see DateTimeFormatterBuilder#appendValue(java.time.temporal.TemporalField, int)
2747          */
2748         boolean isFixedWidth(DateTimeParseContext context) {
2749             return subsequentWidth == -1 ||
2750                 (subsequentWidth > 0 && minWidth == maxWidth && signStyle == SignStyle.NOT_NEGATIVE);
2751         }
2752 
2753         @Override
2754         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
2755             int length = text.length();
2756             if (position == length) {
2757                 return ~position;
2758             }
2759             char sign = text.charAt(position);  // IOOBE if invalid position
2760             boolean negative = false;
2761             boolean positive = false;
2762             if (sign == context.getDecimalStyle().getPositiveSign()) {
2763                 if (signStyle.parse(true, context.isStrict(), minWidth == maxWidth) == false) {
2764                     return ~position;
2765                 }
2766                 positive = true;
2767                 position++;
2768             } else if (sign == context.getDecimalStyle().getNegativeSign()) {
2769                 if (signStyle.parse(false, context.isStrict(), minWidth == maxWidth) == false) {
2770                     return ~position;
2771                 }
2772                 negative = true;
2773                 position++;
2774             } else {
2775                 if (signStyle == SignStyle.ALWAYS && context.isStrict()) {
2776                     return ~position;
2777                 }
2778             }
2779             int effMinWidth = (context.isStrict() || isFixedWidth(context) ? minWidth : 1);
2780             int minEndPos = position + effMinWidth;
2781             if (minEndPos > length) {
2782                 return ~position;
2783             }
2784             int effMaxWidth = (context.isStrict() || isFixedWidth(context) ? maxWidth : 9) + Math.max(subsequentWidth, 0);
2785             long total = 0;
2786             BigInteger totalBig = null;
2787             int pos = position;
2788             for (int pass = 0; pass < 2; pass++) {
2789                 int maxEndPos = Math.min(pos + effMaxWidth, length);
2790                 while (pos < maxEndPos) {
2791                     char ch = text.charAt(pos++);
2792                     int digit = context.getDecimalStyle().convertToDigit(ch);
2793                     if (digit < 0) {
2794                         pos--;
2795                         if (pos < minEndPos) {
2796                             return ~position;  // need at least min width digits
2797                         }
2798                         break;
2799                     }
2800                     if ((pos - position) > 18) {
2801                         if (totalBig == null) {
2802                             totalBig = BigInteger.valueOf(total);
2803                         }
2804                         totalBig = totalBig.multiply(BigInteger.TEN).add(BigInteger.valueOf(digit));
2805                     } else {
2806                         total = total * 10 + digit;
2807                     }
2808                 }
2809                 if (subsequentWidth > 0 && pass == 0) {
2810                     // re-parse now we know the correct width
2811                     int parseLen = pos - position;
2812                     effMaxWidth = Math.max(effMinWidth, parseLen - subsequentWidth);
2813                     pos = position;
2814                     total = 0;
2815                     totalBig = null;
2816                 } else {
2817                     break;
2818                 }
2819             }
2820             if (negative) {
2821                 if (totalBig != null) {
2822                     if (totalBig.equals(BigInteger.ZERO) && context.isStrict()) {
2823                         return ~(position - 1);  // minus zero not allowed
2824                     }
2825                     totalBig = totalBig.negate();
2826                 } else {
2827                     if (total == 0 && context.isStrict()) {
2828                         return ~(position - 1);  // minus zero not allowed
2829                     }
2830                     total = -total;
2831                 }
2832             } else if (signStyle == SignStyle.EXCEEDS_PAD && context.isStrict()) {
2833                 int parseLen = pos - position;
2834                 if (positive) {
2835                     if (parseLen <= minWidth) {
2836                         return ~(position - 1);  // '+' only parsed if minWidth exceeded
2837                     }
2838                 } else {
2839                     if (parseLen > minWidth) {
2840                         return ~position;  // '+' must be parsed if minWidth exceeded
2841                     }
2842                 }
2843             }
2844             if (totalBig != null) {
2845                 if (totalBig.bitLength() > 63) {
2846                     // overflow, parse 1 less digit
2847                     totalBig = totalBig.divide(BigInteger.TEN);
2848                     pos--;
2849                 }
2850                 return setValue(context, totalBig.longValue(), position, pos);
2851             }
2852             return setValue(context, total, position, pos);
2853         }
2854 
2855         /**
2856          * Stores the value.
2857          *
2858          * @param context  the context to store into, not null
2859          * @param value  the value
2860          * @param errorPos  the position of the field being parsed
2861          * @param successPos  the position after the field being parsed
2862          * @return the new position
2863          */
2864         int setValue(DateTimeParseContext context, long value, int errorPos, int successPos) {
2865             return context.setParsedField(field, value, errorPos, successPos);
2866         }
2867 
2868         @Override
2869         public String toString() {
2870             if (minWidth == 1 && maxWidth == 19 && signStyle == SignStyle.NORMAL) {
2871                 return "Value(" + field + ")";
2872             }
2873             if (minWidth == maxWidth && signStyle == SignStyle.NOT_NEGATIVE) {
2874                 return "Value(" + field + "," + minWidth + ")";
2875             }
2876             return "Value(" + field + "," + minWidth + "," + maxWidth + "," + signStyle + ")";
2877         }
2878     }
2879 
2880     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2881     /**
2882      * Prints and parses a reduced numeric date-time field.
2883      */
2884     static final class ReducedPrinterParser extends NumberPrinterParser {
2885         /**
2886          * The base date for reduced value parsing.
2887          */
2888         static final LocalDate BASE_DATE = LocalDate.of(2000, 1, 1);
2889 
2890         private final int baseValue;
2891         private final ChronoLocalDate baseDate;
2892 
2893         /**
2894          * Constructor.
2895          *
2896          * @param field  the field to format, validated not null
2897          * @param minWidth  the minimum field width, from 1 to 10
2898          * @param maxWidth  the maximum field width, from 1 to 10
2899          * @param baseValue  the base value
2900          * @param baseDate  the base date
2901          */
2902         ReducedPrinterParser(TemporalField field, int minWidth, int maxWidth,
2903                 int baseValue, ChronoLocalDate baseDate) {
2904             this(field, minWidth, maxWidth, baseValue, baseDate, 0);
2905             if (minWidth < 1 || minWidth > 10) {
2906                 throw new IllegalArgumentException("The minWidth must be from 1 to 10 inclusive but was " + minWidth);
2907             }
2908             if (maxWidth < 1 || maxWidth > 10) {
2909                 throw new IllegalArgumentException("The maxWidth must be from 1 to 10 inclusive but was " + minWidth);
2910             }
2911             if (maxWidth < minWidth) {
2912                 throw new IllegalArgumentException("Maximum width must exceed or equal the minimum width but " +
2913                         maxWidth + " < " + minWidth);
2914             }
2915             if (baseDate == null) {
2916                 if (field.range().isValidValue(baseValue) == false) {
2917                     throw new IllegalArgumentException("The base value must be within the range of the field");
2918                 }
2919                 if ((((long) baseValue) + EXCEED_POINTS[maxWidth]) > Integer.MAX_VALUE) {
2920                     throw new DateTimeException("Unable to add printer-parser as the range exceeds the capacity of an int");
2921                 }
2922             }
2923         }
2924 
2925         /**
2926          * Constructor.
2927          * The arguments have already been checked.
2928          *
2929          * @param field  the field to format, validated not null
2930          * @param minWidth  the minimum field width, from 1 to 10
2931          * @param maxWidth  the maximum field width, from 1 to 10
2932          * @param baseValue  the base value
2933          * @param baseDate  the base date
2934          * @param subsequentWidth the subsequentWidth for this instance
2935          */
2936         private ReducedPrinterParser(TemporalField field, int minWidth, int maxWidth,
2937                 int baseValue, ChronoLocalDate baseDate, int subsequentWidth) {
2938             super(field, minWidth, maxWidth, SignStyle.NOT_NEGATIVE, subsequentWidth);
2939             this.baseValue = baseValue;
2940             this.baseDate = baseDate;
2941         }
2942 
2943         @Override
2944         long getValue(DateTimePrintContext context, long value) {
2945             long absValue = Math.abs(value);
2946             int baseValue = this.baseValue;
2947             if (baseDate != null) {
2948                 Chronology chrono = Chronology.from(context.getTemporal());
2949                 baseValue = chrono.date(baseDate).get(field);
2950             }
2951             if (value >= baseValue && value < baseValue + EXCEED_POINTS[minWidth]) {
2952                 // Use the reduced value if it fits in minWidth
2953                 return absValue % EXCEED_POINTS[minWidth];
2954             }
2955             // Otherwise truncate to fit in maxWidth
2956             return absValue % EXCEED_POINTS[maxWidth];
2957         }
2958 
2959         @Override
2960         int setValue(DateTimeParseContext context, long value, int errorPos, int successPos) {
2961             int baseValue = this.baseValue;
2962             if (baseDate != null) {
2963                 Chronology chrono = context.getEffectiveChronology();
2964                 baseValue = chrono.date(baseDate).get(field);
2965 
2966                 // In case the Chronology is changed later, add a callback when/if it changes
2967                 final long initialValue = value;
2968                 context.addChronoChangedListener(
2969                         (_unused) ->  {
2970                             /* Repeat the set of the field using the current Chronology
2971                              * The success/error position is ignored because the value is
2972                              * intentionally being overwritten.
2973                              */
2974                             setValue(context, initialValue, errorPos, successPos);
2975                         });
2976             }
2977             int parseLen = successPos - errorPos;
2978             if (parseLen == minWidth && value >= 0) {
2979                 long range = EXCEED_POINTS[minWidth];
2980                 long lastPart = baseValue % range;
2981                 long basePart = baseValue - lastPart;
2982                 if (baseValue > 0) {
2983                     value = basePart + value;
2984                 } else {
2985                     value = basePart - value;
2986                 }
2987                 if (value < baseValue) {
2988                     value += range;
2989                 }
2990             }
2991             return context.setParsedField(field, value, errorPos, successPos);
2992         }
2993 
2994         /**
2995          * Returns a new instance with fixed width flag set.
2996          *
2997          * @return a new updated printer-parser, not null
2998          */
2999         @Override
3000         ReducedPrinterParser withFixedWidth() {
3001             if (subsequentWidth == -1) {
3002                 return this;
3003             }
3004             return new ReducedPrinterParser(field, minWidth, maxWidth, baseValue, baseDate, -1);
3005         }
3006 
3007         /**
3008          * Returns a new instance with an updated subsequent width.
3009          *
3010          * @param subsequentWidth  the width of subsequent non-negative numbers, 0 or greater
3011          * @return a new updated printer-parser, not null
3012          */
3013         @Override
3014         ReducedPrinterParser withSubsequentWidth(int subsequentWidth) {
3015             return new ReducedPrinterParser(field, minWidth, maxWidth, baseValue, baseDate,
3016                     this.subsequentWidth + subsequentWidth);
3017         }
3018 
3019         /**
3020          * For a ReducedPrinterParser, fixed width is false if the mode is strict,
3021          * otherwise it is set as for NumberPrinterParser.
3022          * @param context the context
3023          * @return if the field is fixed width
3024          * @see DateTimeFormatterBuilder#appendValueReduced(java.time.temporal.TemporalField, int, int, int)
3025          */
3026         @Override
3027         boolean isFixedWidth(DateTimeParseContext context) {
3028            if (context.isStrict() == false) {
3029                return false;
3030            }
3031            return super.isFixedWidth(context);
3032         }
3033 
3034         @Override
3035         public String toString() {
3036             return "ReducedValue(" + field + "," + minWidth + "," + maxWidth +
3037                     "," + Objects.requireNonNullElse(baseDate, baseValue) + ")";
3038         }
3039     }
3040 
3041     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
3042     /**
3043      * Prints and parses a numeric date-time field with optional padding.
3044      */
3045     static final class FractionPrinterParser extends NumberPrinterParser {
3046        private final boolean decimalPoint;
3047 
3048         /**
3049          * Constructor.
3050          *
3051          * @param field  the field to output, not null
3052          * @param minWidth  the minimum width to output, from 0 to 9
3053          * @param maxWidth  the maximum width to output, from 0 to 9
3054          * @param decimalPoint  whether to output the localized decimal point symbol
3055          */
3056         FractionPrinterParser(TemporalField field, int minWidth, int maxWidth, boolean decimalPoint) {
3057             this(field, minWidth, maxWidth, decimalPoint, 0);
3058             Objects.requireNonNull(field, "field");
3059             if (field.range().isFixed() == false) {
3060                 throw new IllegalArgumentException("Field must have a fixed set of values: " + field);
3061             }
3062             if (minWidth < 0 || minWidth > 9) {
3063                 throw new IllegalArgumentException("Minimum width must be from 0 to 9 inclusive but was " + minWidth);
3064             }
3065             if (maxWidth < 1 || maxWidth > 9) {
3066                 throw new IllegalArgumentException("Maximum width must be from 1 to 9 inclusive but was " + maxWidth);
3067             }
3068             if (maxWidth < minWidth) {
3069                 throw new IllegalArgumentException("Maximum width must exceed or equal the minimum width but " +
3070                         maxWidth + " < " + minWidth);
3071             }
3072         }
3073 
3074         /**
3075          * Constructor.
3076          *
3077          * @param field  the field to output, not null
3078          * @param minWidth  the minimum width to output, from 0 to 9
3079          * @param maxWidth  the maximum width to output, from 0 to 9
3080          * @param decimalPoint  whether to output the localized decimal point symbol
3081          * @param subsequentWidth the subsequentWidth for this instance
3082          */
3083         FractionPrinterParser(TemporalField field, int minWidth, int maxWidth, boolean decimalPoint, int subsequentWidth) {
3084             super(field, minWidth, maxWidth, SignStyle.NOT_NEGATIVE, subsequentWidth);
3085             this.decimalPoint = decimalPoint;
3086         }
3087 
3088         /**
3089          * Returns a new instance with fixed width flag set.
3090          *
3091          * @return a new updated printer-parser, not null
3092          */
3093         @Override
3094         FractionPrinterParser withFixedWidth() {
3095             if (subsequentWidth == -1) {
3096                 return this;
3097             }
3098             return new FractionPrinterParser(field, minWidth, maxWidth, decimalPoint, -1);
3099         }
3100 
3101         /**
3102          * Returns a new instance with an updated subsequent width.
3103          *
3104          * @param subsequentWidth  the width of subsequent non-negative numbers, 0 or greater
3105          * @return a new updated printer-parser, not null
3106          */
3107         @Override
3108         FractionPrinterParser withSubsequentWidth(int subsequentWidth) {
3109             return new FractionPrinterParser(field, minWidth, maxWidth, decimalPoint, this.subsequentWidth + subsequentWidth);
3110         }
3111 
3112         /**
3113          * For FractionPrinterPrinterParser, the width is fixed if context is sttrict,
3114          * minWidth equal to maxWidth and decimalpoint is absent.
3115          * @param context the context
3116          * @return if the field is fixed width
3117          * @see DateTimeFormatterBuilder#appendValueFraction(java.time.temporal.TemporalField, int, int, boolean)
3118          */
3119         @Override
3120         boolean isFixedWidth(DateTimeParseContext context) {
3121             if (context.isStrict() && minWidth == maxWidth && decimalPoint == false) {
3122                 return true;
3123             }
3124             return false;
3125         }
3126 
3127         @Override
3128         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
3129             Long value = context.getValue(field);
3130             if (value == null) {
3131                 return false;
3132             }
3133             DecimalStyle decimalStyle = context.getDecimalStyle();
3134             BigDecimal fraction = convertToFraction(value);
3135             if (fraction.scale() == 0) {  // scale is zero if value is zero
3136                 if (minWidth > 0) {
3137                     if (decimalPoint) {
3138                         buf.append(decimalStyle.getDecimalSeparator());
3139                     }
3140                     for (int i = 0; i < minWidth; i++) {
3141                         buf.append(decimalStyle.getZeroDigit());
3142                     }
3143                 }
3144             } else {
3145                 int outputScale = Math.min(Math.max(fraction.scale(), minWidth), maxWidth);
3146                 fraction = fraction.setScale(outputScale, RoundingMode.FLOOR);
3147                 String str = fraction.toPlainString().substring(2);
3148                 str = decimalStyle.convertNumberToI18N(str);
3149                 if (decimalPoint) {
3150                     buf.append(decimalStyle.getDecimalSeparator());
3151                 }
3152                 buf.append(str);
3153             }
3154             return true;
3155         }
3156 
3157         @Override
3158         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
3159             int effectiveMin = (context.isStrict() || isFixedWidth(context) ? minWidth : 0);
3160             int effectiveMax = (context.isStrict() || isFixedWidth(context) ? maxWidth : 9);
3161             int length = text.length();
3162             if (position == length) {
3163                 // valid if whole field is optional, invalid if minimum width
3164                 return (effectiveMin > 0 ? ~position : position);
3165             }
3166             if (decimalPoint) {
3167                 if (text.charAt(position) != context.getDecimalStyle().getDecimalSeparator()) {
3168                     // valid if whole field is optional, invalid if minimum width
3169                     return (effectiveMin > 0 ? ~position : position);
3170                 }
3171                 position++;
3172             }
3173             int minEndPos = position + effectiveMin;
3174             if (minEndPos > length) {
3175                 return ~position;  // need at least min width digits
3176             }
3177             int maxEndPos = Math.min(position + effectiveMax, length);
3178             int total = 0;  // can use int because we are only parsing up to 9 digits
3179             int pos = position;
3180             while (pos < maxEndPos) {
3181                 char ch = text.charAt(pos++);
3182                 int digit = context.getDecimalStyle().convertToDigit(ch);
3183                 if (digit < 0) {
3184                     if (pos < minEndPos) {
3185                         return ~position;  // need at least min width digits
3186                     }
3187                     pos--;
3188                     break;
3189                 }
3190                 total = total * 10 + digit;
3191             }
3192             BigDecimal fraction = new BigDecimal(total).movePointLeft(pos - position);
3193             long value = convertFromFraction(fraction);
3194             return context.setParsedField(field, value, position, pos);
3195         }
3196 
3197         /**
3198          * Converts a value for this field to a fraction between 0 and 1.
3199          * <p>
3200          * The fractional value is between 0 (inclusive) and 1 (exclusive).
3201          * It can only be returned if the {@link java.time.temporal.TemporalField#range() value range} is fixed.
3202          * The fraction is obtained by calculation from the field range using 9 decimal
3203          * places and a rounding mode of {@link RoundingMode#FLOOR FLOOR}.
3204          * The calculation is inaccurate if the values do not run continuously from smallest to largest.
3205          * <p>
3206          * For example, the second-of-minute value of 15 would be returned as 0.25,
3207          * assuming the standard definition of 60 seconds in a minute.
3208          *
3209          * @param value  the value to convert, must be valid for this rule
3210          * @return the value as a fraction within the range, from 0 to 1, not null
3211          * @throws DateTimeException if the value cannot be converted to a fraction
3212          */
3213         private BigDecimal convertToFraction(long value) {
3214             ValueRange range = field.range();
3215             range.checkValidValue(value, field);
3216             BigDecimal minBD = BigDecimal.valueOf(range.getMinimum());
3217             BigDecimal rangeBD = BigDecimal.valueOf(range.getMaximum()).subtract(minBD).add(BigDecimal.ONE);
3218             BigDecimal valueBD = BigDecimal.valueOf(value).subtract(minBD);
3219             BigDecimal fraction = valueBD.divide(rangeBD, 9, RoundingMode.FLOOR);
3220             // stripTrailingZeros bug
3221             return fraction.compareTo(BigDecimal.ZERO) == 0 ? BigDecimal.ZERO : fraction.stripTrailingZeros();
3222         }
3223 
3224         /**
3225          * Converts a fraction from 0 to 1 for this field to a value.
3226          * <p>
3227          * The fractional value must be between 0 (inclusive) and 1 (exclusive).
3228          * It can only be returned if the {@link java.time.temporal.TemporalField#range() value range} is fixed.
3229          * The value is obtained by calculation from the field range and a rounding
3230          * mode of {@link RoundingMode#FLOOR FLOOR}.
3231          * The calculation is inaccurate if the values do not run continuously from smallest to largest.
3232          * <p>
3233          * For example, the fractional second-of-minute of 0.25 would be converted to 15,
3234          * assuming the standard definition of 60 seconds in a minute.
3235          *
3236          * @param fraction  the fraction to convert, not null
3237          * @return the value of the field, valid for this rule
3238          * @throws DateTimeException if the value cannot be converted
3239          */
3240         private long convertFromFraction(BigDecimal fraction) {
3241             ValueRange range = field.range();
3242             BigDecimal minBD = BigDecimal.valueOf(range.getMinimum());
3243             BigDecimal rangeBD = BigDecimal.valueOf(range.getMaximum()).subtract(minBD).add(BigDecimal.ONE);
3244             BigDecimal valueBD = fraction.multiply(rangeBD).setScale(0, RoundingMode.FLOOR).add(minBD);
3245             return valueBD.longValueExact();
3246         }
3247 
3248         @Override
3249         public String toString() {
3250             String decimal = (decimalPoint ? ",DecimalPoint" : "");
3251             return "Fraction(" + field + "," + minWidth + "," + maxWidth + decimal + ")";
3252         }
3253     }
3254 
3255     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
3256     /**
3257      * Prints or parses field text.
3258      */
3259     static final class TextPrinterParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
3260         private final TemporalField field;
3261         private final TextStyle textStyle;
3262         private final DateTimeTextProvider provider;
3263         /**
3264          * The cached number printer parser.
3265          * Immutable and volatile, so no synchronization needed.
3266          */
3267         private volatile NumberPrinterParser numberPrinterParser;
3268 
3269         /**
3270          * Constructor.
3271          *
3272          * @param field  the field to output, not null
3273          * @param textStyle  the text style, not null
3274          * @param provider  the text provider, not null
3275          */
3276         TextPrinterParser(TemporalField field, TextStyle textStyle, DateTimeTextProvider provider) {
3277             // validated by caller
3278             this.field = field;
3279             this.textStyle = textStyle;
3280             this.provider = provider;
3281         }
3282 
3283         @Override
3284         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
3285             Long value = context.getValue(field);
3286             if (value == null) {
3287                 return false;
3288             }
3289             String text;
3290             Chronology chrono = context.getTemporal().query(TemporalQueries.chronology());
3291             if (chrono == null || chrono == IsoChronology.INSTANCE) {
3292                 text = provider.getText(field, value, textStyle, context.getLocale());
3293             } else {
3294                 text = provider.getText(chrono, field, value, textStyle, context.getLocale());
3295             }
3296             if (text == null) {
3297                 return numberPrinterParser().format(context, buf);
3298             }
3299             buf.append(text);
3300             return true;
3301         }
3302 
3303         @Override
3304         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence parseText, int position) {
3305             int length = parseText.length();
3306             if (position < 0 || position > length) {
3307                 throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException();
3308             }
3309             TextStyle style = (context.isStrict() ? textStyle : null);
3310             Chronology chrono = context.getEffectiveChronology();
3311             Iterator<Entry<String, Long>> it;
3312             if (chrono == null || chrono == IsoChronology.INSTANCE) {
3313                 it = provider.getTextIterator(field, style, context.getLocale());
3314             } else {
3315                 it = provider.getTextIterator(chrono, field, style, context.getLocale());
3316             }
3317             if (it != null) {
3318                 while (it.hasNext()) {
3319                     Entry<String, Long> entry = it.next();
3320                     String itText = entry.getKey();
3321                     if (context.subSequenceEquals(itText, 0, parseText, position, itText.length())) {
3322                         return context.setParsedField(field, entry.getValue(), position, position + itText.length());
3323                     }
3324                 }
3325                 if (field == ERA && !context.isStrict()) {
3326                     // parse the possible era name from era.toString()
3327                     List<Era> eras = chrono.eras();
3328                     for (Era era : eras) {
3329                         String name = era.toString();
3330                         if (context.subSequenceEquals(name, 0, parseText, position, name.length())) {
3331                             return context.setParsedField(field, era.getValue(), position, position + name.length());
3332                         }
3333                     }
3334                 }
3335                 if (context.isStrict()) {
3336                     return ~position;
3337                 }
3338             }
3339             return numberPrinterParser().parse(context, parseText, position);
3340         }
3341 
3342         /**
3343          * Create and cache a number printer parser.
3344          * @return the number printer parser for this field, not null
3345          */
3346         private NumberPrinterParser numberPrinterParser() {
3347             if (numberPrinterParser == null) {
3348                 numberPrinterParser = new NumberPrinterParser(field, 1, 19, SignStyle.NORMAL);
3349             }
3350             return numberPrinterParser;
3351         }
3352 
3353         @Override
3354         public String toString() {
3355             if (textStyle == TextStyle.FULL) {
3356                 return "Text(" + field + ")";
3357             }
3358             return "Text(" + field + "," + textStyle + ")";
3359         }
3360     }
3361 
3362     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
3363     /**
3364      * Prints or parses an ISO-8601 instant.
3365      */
3366     static final class InstantPrinterParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
3367         // days in a 400 year cycle = 146097
3368         // days in a 10,000 year cycle = 146097 * 25
3369         // seconds per day = 86400
3370         private static final long SECONDS_PER_10000_YEARS = 146097L * 25L * 86400L;
3371         private static final long SECONDS_0000_TO_1970 = ((146097L * 5L) - (30L * 365L + 7L)) * 86400L;
3372         private final int fractionalDigits;
3373 
3374         InstantPrinterParser(int fractionalDigits) {
3375             this.fractionalDigits = fractionalDigits;
3376         }
3377 
3378         @Override
3379         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
3380             // use INSTANT_SECONDS, thus this code is not bound by Instant.MAX
3381             Long inSecs = context.getValue(INSTANT_SECONDS);
3382             Long inNanos = null;
3383             if (context.getTemporal().isSupported(NANO_OF_SECOND)) {
3384                 inNanos = context.getTemporal().getLong(NANO_OF_SECOND);
3385             }
3386             if (inSecs == null) {
3387                 return false;
3388             }
3389             long inSec = inSecs;
3390             int inNano = NANO_OF_SECOND.checkValidIntValue(inNanos != null ? inNanos : 0);
3391             // format mostly using LocalDateTime.toString
3392             if (inSec >= -SECONDS_0000_TO_1970) {
3393                 // current era
3394                 long zeroSecs = inSec - SECONDS_PER_10000_YEARS + SECONDS_0000_TO_1970;
3395                 long hi = Math.floorDiv(zeroSecs, SECONDS_PER_10000_YEARS) + 1;
3396                 long lo = Math.floorMod(zeroSecs, SECONDS_PER_10000_YEARS);
3397                 LocalDateTime ldt = LocalDateTime.ofEpochSecond(lo - SECONDS_0000_TO_1970, 0, ZoneOffset.UTC);
3398                 if (hi > 0) {
3399                     buf.append('+').append(hi);
3400                 }
3401                 buf.append(ldt);
3402                 if (ldt.getSecond() == 0) {
3403                     buf.append(":00");
3404                 }
3405             } else {
3406                 // before current era
3407                 long zeroSecs = inSec + SECONDS_0000_TO_1970;
3408                 long hi = zeroSecs / SECONDS_PER_10000_YEARS;
3409                 long lo = zeroSecs % SECONDS_PER_10000_YEARS;
3410                 LocalDateTime ldt = LocalDateTime.ofEpochSecond(lo - SECONDS_0000_TO_1970, 0, ZoneOffset.UTC);
3411                 int pos = buf.length();
3412                 buf.append(ldt);
3413                 if (ldt.getSecond() == 0) {
3414                     buf.append(":00");
3415                 }
3416                 if (hi < 0) {
3417                     if (ldt.getYear() == -10_000) {
3418                         buf.replace(pos, pos + 2, Long.toString(hi - 1));
3419                     } else if (lo == 0) {
3420                         buf.insert(pos, hi);
3421                     } else {
3422                         buf.insert(pos + 1, Math.abs(hi));
3423                     }
3424                 }
3425             }
3426             // add fraction
3427             if ((fractionalDigits < 0 && inNano > 0) || fractionalDigits > 0) {
3428                 buf.append('.');
3429                 int div = 100_000_000;
3430                 for (int i = 0; ((fractionalDigits == -1 && inNano > 0) ||
3431                                     (fractionalDigits == -2 && (inNano > 0 || (i % 3) != 0)) ||
3432                                     i < fractionalDigits); i++) {
3433                     int digit = inNano / div;
3434                     buf.append((char) (digit + '0'));
3435                     inNano = inNano - (digit * div);
3436                     div = div / 10;
3437                 }
3438             }
3439             buf.append('Z');
3440             return true;
3441         }
3442 
3443         @Override
3444         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
3445             // new context to avoid overwriting fields like year/month/day
3446             int minDigits = (fractionalDigits < 0 ? 0 : fractionalDigits);
3447             int maxDigits = (fractionalDigits < 0 ? 9 : fractionalDigits);
3448             CompositePrinterParser parser = new DateTimeFormatterBuilder()
3449                     .append(DateTimeFormatter.ISO_LOCAL_DATE).appendLiteral('T')
3450                     .appendValue(HOUR_OF_DAY, 2).appendLiteral(':')
3451                     .appendValue(MINUTE_OF_HOUR, 2).appendLiteral(':')
3452                     .appendValue(SECOND_OF_MINUTE, 2)
3453                     .appendFraction(NANO_OF_SECOND, minDigits, maxDigits, true)
3454                     .appendLiteral('Z')
3455                     .toFormatter().toPrinterParser(false);
3456             DateTimeParseContext newContext = context.copy();
3457             int pos = parser.parse(newContext, text, position);
3458             if (pos < 0) {
3459                 return pos;
3460             }
3461             // parser restricts most fields to 2 digits, so definitely int
3462             // correctly parsed nano is also guaranteed to be valid
3463             long yearParsed = newContext.getParsed(YEAR);
3464             int month = newContext.getParsed(MONTH_OF_YEAR).intValue();
3465             int day = newContext.getParsed(DAY_OF_MONTH).intValue();
3466             int hour = newContext.getParsed(HOUR_OF_DAY).intValue();
3467             int min = newContext.getParsed(MINUTE_OF_HOUR).intValue();
3468             Long secVal = newContext.getParsed(SECOND_OF_MINUTE);
3469             Long nanoVal = newContext.getParsed(NANO_OF_SECOND);
3470             int sec = (secVal != null ? secVal.intValue() : 0);
3471             int nano = (nanoVal != null ? nanoVal.intValue() : 0);
3472             int days = 0;
3473             if (hour == 24 && min == 0 && sec == 0 && nano == 0) {
3474                 hour = 0;
3475                 days = 1;
3476             } else if (hour == 23 && min == 59 && sec == 60) {
3477                 context.setParsedLeapSecond();
3478                 sec = 59;
3479             }
3480             int year = (int) yearParsed % 10_000;
3481             long instantSecs;
3482             try {
3483                 LocalDateTime ldt = LocalDateTime.of(year, month, day, hour, min, sec, 0).plusDays(days);
3484                 instantSecs = ldt.toEpochSecond(ZoneOffset.UTC);
3485                 instantSecs += Math.multiplyExact(yearParsed / 10_000L, SECONDS_PER_10000_YEARS);
3486             } catch (RuntimeException ex) {
3487                 return ~position;
3488             }
3489             int successPos = pos;
3490             successPos = context.setParsedField(INSTANT_SECONDS, instantSecs, position, successPos);
3491             return context.setParsedField(NANO_OF_SECOND, nano, position, successPos);
3492         }
3493 
3494         @Override
3495         public String toString() {
3496             return "Instant()";
3497         }
3498     }
3499 
3500     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
3501     /**
3502      * Prints or parses an offset ID.
3503      */
3504     static final class OffsetIdPrinterParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
3505         static final String[] PATTERNS = new String[] {
3506                 "+HH", "+HHmm", "+HH:mm", "+HHMM", "+HH:MM", "+HHMMss", "+HH:MM:ss", "+HHMMSS", "+HH:MM:SS", "+HHmmss", "+HH:mm:ss",
3507                 "+H",  "+Hmm",  "+H:mm",  "+HMM",  "+H:MM",  "+HMMss",  "+H:MM:ss",  "+HMMSS",  "+H:MM:SS",  "+Hmmss",  "+H:mm:ss",
3508         };  // order used in pattern builder
3509         static final OffsetIdPrinterParser INSTANCE_ID_Z = new OffsetIdPrinterParser("+HH:MM:ss", "Z");
3510         static final OffsetIdPrinterParser INSTANCE_ID_ZERO = new OffsetIdPrinterParser("+HH:MM:ss", "0");
3511 
3512         private final String noOffsetText;
3513         private final int type;
3514         private final int style;
3515 
3516         /**
3517          * Constructor.
3518          *
3519          * @param pattern  the pattern
3520          * @param noOffsetText  the text to use for UTC, not null
3521          */
3522         OffsetIdPrinterParser(String pattern, String noOffsetText) {
3523             Objects.requireNonNull(pattern, "pattern");
3524             Objects.requireNonNull(noOffsetText, "noOffsetText");
3525             this.type = checkPattern(pattern);
3526             this.style = type % 11;
3527             this.noOffsetText = noOffsetText;
3528         }
3529 
3530         private int checkPattern(String pattern) {
3531             for (int i = 0; i < PATTERNS.length; i++) {
3532                 if (PATTERNS[i].equals(pattern)) {
3533                     return i;
3534                 }
3535             }
3536             throw new IllegalArgumentException("Invalid zone offset pattern: " + pattern);
3537         }
3538 
3539         private boolean isPaddedHour() {
3540             return type < 11;
3541         }
3542 
3543         private boolean isColon() {
3544             return style > 0 && (style % 2) == 0;
3545         }
3546 
3547         @Override
3548         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
3549             Long offsetSecs = context.getValue(OFFSET_SECONDS);
3550             if (offsetSecs == null) {
3551                 return false;
3552             }
3553             int totalSecs = Math.toIntExact(offsetSecs);
3554             if (totalSecs == 0) {
3555                 buf.append(noOffsetText);
3556             } else {
3557                 int absHours = Math.abs((totalSecs / 3600) % 100);  // anything larger than 99 silently dropped
3558                 int absMinutes = Math.abs((totalSecs / 60) % 60);
3559                 int absSeconds = Math.abs(totalSecs % 60);
3560                 int bufPos = buf.length();
3561                 int output = absHours;
3562                 buf.append(totalSecs < 0 ? "-" : "+");
3563                 if (isPaddedHour() || absHours >= 10) {
3564                     formatZeroPad(false, absHours, buf);
3565                 } else {
3566                     buf.append((char) (absHours + '0'));
3567                 }
3568                 if ((style >= 3 && style <= 8) || (style >= 9 && absSeconds > 0) || (style >= 1 && absMinutes > 0)) {
3569                     formatZeroPad(isColon(), absMinutes, buf);
3570                     output += absMinutes;
3571                     if (style == 7 || style == 8 || (style >= 5 && absSeconds > 0)) {
3572                         formatZeroPad(isColon(), absSeconds, buf);
3573                         output += absSeconds;
3574                     }
3575                 }
3576                 if (output == 0) {
3577                     buf.setLength(bufPos);
3578                     buf.append(noOffsetText);
3579                 }
3580             }
3581             return true;
3582         }
3583 
3584         private void formatZeroPad(boolean colon, int value, StringBuilder buf) {
3585             buf.append(colon ? ":" : "")
3586                     .append((char) (value / 10 + '0'))
3587                     .append((char) (value % 10 + '0'));
3588         }
3589 
3590         @Override
3591         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
3592             int length = text.length();
3593             int noOffsetLen = noOffsetText.length();
3594             if (noOffsetLen == 0) {
3595                 if (position == length) {
3596                     return context.setParsedField(OFFSET_SECONDS, 0, position, position);
3597                 }
3598             } else {
3599                 if (position == length) {
3600                     return ~position;
3601                 }
3602                 if (context.subSequenceEquals(text, position, noOffsetText, 0, noOffsetLen)) {
3603                     return context.setParsedField(OFFSET_SECONDS, 0, position, position + noOffsetLen);
3604                 }
3605             }
3606 
3607             // parse normal plus/minus offset
3608             char sign = text.charAt(position);  // IOOBE if invalid position
3609             if (sign == '+' || sign == '-') {
3610                 // starts
3611                 int negative = (sign == '-' ? -1 : 1);
3612                 boolean isColon = isColon();
3613                 boolean paddedHour = isPaddedHour();
3614                 int[] array = new int[4];
3615                 array[0] = position + 1;
3616                 int parseType = type;
3617                 // select parse type when lenient
3618                 if (!context.isStrict()) {
3619                     if (paddedHour) {
3620                         if (isColon || (parseType == 0 && length > position + 3 && text.charAt(position + 3) == ':')) {
3621                             isColon = true; // needed in cases like ("+HH", "+01:01")
3622                             parseType = 10;
3623                         } else {
3624                             parseType = 9;
3625                         }
3626                     } else {
3627                         if (isColon || (parseType == 11 && length > position + 3 && (text.charAt(position + 2) == ':' || text.charAt(position + 3) == ':'))) {
3628                             isColon = true;
3629                             parseType = 21;  // needed in cases like ("+H", "+1:01")
3630                         } else {
3631                             parseType = 20;
3632                         }
3633                     }
3634                 }
3635                 // parse according to the selected pattern
3636                 switch (parseType) {
3637                     case 0: // +HH
3638                     case 11: // +H
3639                         parseHour(text, paddedHour, array);
3640                         break;
3641                     case 1: // +HHmm
3642                     case 2: // +HH:mm
3643                     case 13: // +H:mm
3644                         parseHour(text, paddedHour, array);
3645                         parseMinute(text, isColon, false, array);
3646                         break;
3647                     case 3: // +HHMM
3648                     case 4: // +HH:MM
3649                     case 15: // +H:MM
3650                         parseHour(text, paddedHour, array);
3651                         parseMinute(text, isColon, true, array);
3652                         break;
3653                     case 5: // +HHMMss
3654                     case 6: // +HH:MM:ss
3655                     case 17: // +H:MM:ss
3656                         parseHour(text, paddedHour, array);
3657                         parseMinute(text, isColon, true, array);
3658                         parseSecond(text, isColon, false, array);
3659                         break;
3660                     case 7: // +HHMMSS
3661                     case 8: // +HH:MM:SS
3662                     case 19: // +H:MM:SS
3663                         parseHour(text, paddedHour, array);
3664                         parseMinute(text, isColon, true, array);
3665                         parseSecond(text, isColon, true, array);
3666                         break;
3667                     case 9: // +HHmmss
3668                     case 10: // +HH:mm:ss
3669                     case 21: // +H:mm:ss
3670                         parseHour(text, paddedHour, array);
3671                         parseOptionalMinuteSecond(text, isColon, array);
3672                         break;
3673                     case 12: // +Hmm
3674                         parseVariableWidthDigits(text, 1, 4, array);
3675                         break;
3676                     case 14: // +HMM
3677                         parseVariableWidthDigits(text, 3, 4, array);
3678                         break;
3679                     case 16: // +HMMss
3680                         parseVariableWidthDigits(text, 3, 6, array);
3681                         break;
3682                     case 18: // +HMMSS
3683                         parseVariableWidthDigits(text, 5, 6, array);
3684                         break;
3685                     case 20: // +Hmmss
3686                         parseVariableWidthDigits(text, 1, 6, array);
3687                         break;
3688                 }
3689                 if (array[0] > 0) {
3690                     if (array[1] > 23 || array[2] > 59 || array[3] > 59) {
3691                         throw new DateTimeException("Value out of range: Hour[0-23], Minute[0-59], Second[0-59]");
3692                     }
3693                     long offsetSecs = negative * (array[1] * 3600L + array[2] * 60L + array[3]);
3694                     return context.setParsedField(OFFSET_SECONDS, offsetSecs, position, array[0]);
3695                 }
3696             }
3697             // handle special case of empty no offset text
3698             if (noOffsetLen == 0) {
3699                 return context.setParsedField(OFFSET_SECONDS, 0, position, position);
3700             }
3701             return ~position;
3702         }
3703 
3704         private void parseHour(CharSequence parseText, boolean paddedHour, int[] array) {
3705             if (paddedHour) {
3706                 // parse two digits
3707                 if (!parseDigits(parseText, false, 1, array)) {
3708                     array[0] = ~array[0];
3709                 }
3710             } else {
3711                 // parse one or two digits
3712                 parseVariableWidthDigits(parseText, 1, 2, array);
3713             }
3714         }
3715 
3716         private void parseMinute(CharSequence parseText, boolean isColon, boolean mandatory, int[] array) {
3717             if (!parseDigits(parseText, isColon, 2, array)) {
3718                 if (mandatory) {
3719                     array[0] = ~array[0];
3720                 }
3721             }
3722         }
3723 
3724         private void parseSecond(CharSequence parseText, boolean isColon, boolean mandatory, int[] array) {
3725             if (!parseDigits(parseText, isColon, 3, array)) {
3726                 if (mandatory) {
3727                     array[0] = ~array[0];
3728                 }
3729             }
3730         }
3731 
3732         private void parseOptionalMinuteSecond(CharSequence parseText, boolean isColon, int[] array) {
3733             if (parseDigits(parseText, isColon, 2, array)) {
3734                 parseDigits(parseText, isColon, 3, array);
3735             }
3736         }
3737 
3738         private boolean parseDigits(CharSequence parseText, boolean isColon, int arrayIndex, int[] array) {
3739             int pos = array[0];
3740             if (pos < 0) {
3741                 return true;
3742             }
3743             if (isColon && arrayIndex != 1) { //  ':' will precede only in case of minute/second
3744                 if (pos + 1 > parseText.length() || parseText.charAt(pos) != ':') {
3745                     return false;
3746                 }
3747                 pos++;
3748             }
3749             if (pos + 2 > parseText.length()) {
3750                 return false;
3751             }
3752             char ch1 = parseText.charAt(pos++);
3753             char ch2 = parseText.charAt(pos++);
3754             if (ch1 < '0' || ch1 > '9' || ch2 < '0' || ch2 > '9') {
3755                 return false;
3756             }
3757             int value = (ch1 - 48) * 10 + (ch2 - 48);
3758             if (value < 0 || value > 59) {
3759                 return false;
3760             }
3761             array[arrayIndex] = value;
3762             array[0] = pos;
3763             return true;
3764         }
3765 
3766         private void parseVariableWidthDigits(CharSequence parseText, int minDigits, int maxDigits, int[] array) {
3767             // scan the text to find the available number of digits up to maxDigits
3768             // so long as the number available is minDigits or more, the input is valid
3769             // then parse the number of available digits
3770             int pos = array[0];
3771             int available = 0;
3772             char[] chars = new char[maxDigits];
3773             for (int i = 0; i < maxDigits; i++) {
3774                 if (pos + 1  > parseText.length()) {
3775                     break;
3776                 }
3777                 char ch = parseText.charAt(pos++);
3778                 if (ch < '0' || ch > '9') {
3779                     pos--;
3780                     break;
3781                 }
3782                 chars[i] = ch;
3783                 available++;
3784             }
3785             if (available < minDigits) {
3786                 array[0] = ~array[0];
3787                 return;
3788             }
3789             switch (available) {
3790                 case 1:
3791                     array[1] = (chars[0] - 48);
3792                     break;
3793                 case 2:
3794                     array[1] = ((chars[0] - 48) * 10 + (chars[1] - 48));
3795                     break;
3796                 case 3:
3797                     array[1] = (chars[0] - 48);
3798                     array[2] = ((chars[1] - 48) * 10 + (chars[2] - 48));
3799                     break;
3800                 case 4:
3801                     array[1] = ((chars[0] - 48) * 10 + (chars[1] - 48));
3802                     array[2] = ((chars[2] - 48) * 10 + (chars[3] - 48));
3803                     break;
3804                 case 5:
3805                     array[1] = (chars[0] - 48);
3806                     array[2] = ((chars[1] - 48) * 10 + (chars[2] - 48));
3807                     array[3] = ((chars[3] - 48) * 10 + (chars[4] - 48));
3808                     break;
3809                 case 6:
3810                     array[1] = ((chars[0] - 48) * 10 + (chars[1] - 48));
3811                     array[2] = ((chars[2] - 48) * 10 + (chars[3] - 48));
3812                     array[3] = ((chars[4] - 48) * 10 + (chars[5] - 48));
3813                     break;
3814             }
3815             array[0] = pos;
3816         }
3817 
3818         @Override
3819         public String toString() {
3820             String converted = noOffsetText.replace("'", "''");
3821             return "Offset(" + PATTERNS[type] + ",'" + converted + "')";
3822         }
3823     }
3824 
3825     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
3826     /**
3827      * Prints or parses an offset ID.
3828      */
3829     static final class LocalizedOffsetIdPrinterParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
3830         private final TextStyle style;
3831 
3832         /**
3833          * Constructor.
3834          *
3835          * @param style  the style, not null
3836          */
3837         LocalizedOffsetIdPrinterParser(TextStyle style) {
3838             this.style = style;
3839         }
3840 
3841         private static StringBuilder appendHMS(StringBuilder buf, int t) {
3842             return buf.append((char)(t / 10 + '0'))
3843                       .append((char)(t % 10 + '0'));
3844         }
3845 
3846         @Override
3847         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
3848             Long offsetSecs = context.getValue(OFFSET_SECONDS);
3849             if (offsetSecs == null) {
3850                 return false;
3851             }
3852             String gmtText = "GMT";  // TODO: get localized version of 'GMT'
3853             buf.append(gmtText);
3854             int totalSecs = Math.toIntExact(offsetSecs);
3855             if (totalSecs != 0) {
3856                 int absHours = Math.abs((totalSecs / 3600) % 100);  // anything larger than 99 silently dropped
3857                 int absMinutes = Math.abs((totalSecs / 60) % 60);
3858                 int absSeconds = Math.abs(totalSecs % 60);
3859                 buf.append(totalSecs < 0 ? "-" : "+");
3860                 if (style == TextStyle.FULL) {
3861                     appendHMS(buf, absHours);
3862                     buf.append(':');
3863                     appendHMS(buf, absMinutes);
3864                     if (absSeconds != 0) {
3865                        buf.append(':');
3866                        appendHMS(buf, absSeconds);
3867                     }
3868                 } else {
3869                     if (absHours >= 10) {
3870                         buf.append((char)(absHours / 10 + '0'));
3871                     }
3872                     buf.append((char)(absHours % 10 + '0'));
3873                     if (absMinutes != 0 || absSeconds != 0) {
3874                         buf.append(':');
3875                         appendHMS(buf, absMinutes);
3876                         if (absSeconds != 0) {
3877                             buf.append(':');
3878                             appendHMS(buf, absSeconds);
3879                         }
3880                     }
3881                 }
3882             }
3883             return true;
3884         }
3885 
3886         int getDigit(CharSequence text, int position) {
3887             char c = text.charAt(position);
3888             if (c < '0' || c > '9') {
3889                 return -1;
3890             }
3891             return c - '0';
3892         }
3893 
3894         @Override
3895         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
3896             int pos = position;
3897             int end = text.length();
3898             String gmtText = "GMT";  // TODO: get localized version of 'GMT'
3899             if (!context.subSequenceEquals(text, pos, gmtText, 0, gmtText.length())) {
3900                     return ~position;
3901                 }
3902             pos += gmtText.length();
3903             // parse normal plus/minus offset
3904             int negative = 0;
3905             if (pos == end) {
3906                 return context.setParsedField(OFFSET_SECONDS, 0, position, pos);
3907             }
3908             char sign = text.charAt(pos);  // IOOBE if invalid position
3909             if (sign == '+') {
3910                 negative = 1;
3911             } else if (sign == '-') {
3912                 negative = -1;
3913             } else {
3914                 return context.setParsedField(OFFSET_SECONDS, 0, position, pos);
3915             }
3916             pos++;
3917             int h = 0;
3918             int m = 0;
3919             int s = 0;
3920             if (style == TextStyle.FULL) {
3921                 int h1 = getDigit(text, pos++);
3922                 int h2 = getDigit(text, pos++);
3923                 if (h1 < 0 || h2 < 0 || text.charAt(pos++) != ':') {
3924                     return ~position;
3925                 }
3926                 h = h1 * 10 + h2;
3927                 int m1 = getDigit(text, pos++);
3928                 int m2 = getDigit(text, pos++);
3929                 if (m1 < 0 || m2 < 0) {
3930                     return ~position;
3931                 }
3932                 m = m1 * 10 + m2;
3933                 if (pos + 2 < end && text.charAt(pos) == ':') {
3934                     int s1 = getDigit(text, pos + 1);
3935                     int s2 = getDigit(text, pos + 2);
3936                     if (s1 >= 0 && s2 >= 0) {
3937                         s = s1 * 10 + s2;
3938                         pos += 3;
3939                     }
3940                 }
3941             } else {
3942                 h = getDigit(text, pos++);
3943                 if (h < 0) {
3944                     return ~position;
3945                 }
3946                 if (pos < end) {
3947                     int h2 = getDigit(text, pos);
3948                     if (h2 >=0) {
3949                         h = h * 10 + h2;
3950                         pos++;
3951                     }
3952                     if (pos + 2 < end && text.charAt(pos) == ':') {
3953                         if (pos + 2 < end && text.charAt(pos) == ':') {
3954                             int m1 = getDigit(text, pos + 1);
3955                             int m2 = getDigit(text, pos + 2);
3956                             if (m1 >= 0 && m2 >= 0) {
3957                                 m = m1 * 10 + m2;
3958                                 pos += 3;
3959                                 if (pos + 2 < end && text.charAt(pos) == ':') {
3960                                     int s1 = getDigit(text, pos + 1);
3961                                     int s2 = getDigit(text, pos + 2);
3962                                     if (s1 >= 0 && s2 >= 0) {
3963                                         s = s1 * 10 + s2;
3964                                         pos += 3;
3965                                    }
3966                                 }
3967                             }
3968                         }
3969                     }
3970                 }
3971             }
3972             long offsetSecs = negative * (h * 3600L + m * 60L + s);
3973             return context.setParsedField(OFFSET_SECONDS, offsetSecs, position, pos);
3974         }
3975 
3976         @Override
3977         public String toString() {
3978             return "LocalizedOffset(" + style + ")";
3979         }
3980     }
3981 
3982     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
3983     /**
3984      * Prints or parses a zone ID.
3985      */
3986     static final class ZoneTextPrinterParser extends ZoneIdPrinterParser {
3987 
3988         /** The text style to output. */
3989         private final TextStyle textStyle;
3990 
3991         /** The preferred zoneid map */
3992         private Set<String> preferredZones;
3993 
3994         /**  Display in generic time-zone format. True in case of pattern letter 'v' */
3995         private final boolean isGeneric;
3996         ZoneTextPrinterParser(TextStyle textStyle, Set<ZoneId> preferredZones, boolean isGeneric) {
3997             super(TemporalQueries.zone(), "ZoneText(" + textStyle + ")");
3998             this.textStyle = Objects.requireNonNull(textStyle, "textStyle");
3999             this.isGeneric = isGeneric;
4000             if (preferredZones != null && preferredZones.size() != 0) {
4001                 this.preferredZones = new HashSet<>();
4002                 for (ZoneId id : preferredZones) {
4003                     this.preferredZones.add(id.getId());
4004                 }
4005             }
4006         }
4007 
4008         private static final int STD = 0;
4009         private static final int DST = 1;
4010         private static final int GENERIC = 2;
4011         private static final Map<String, SoftReference<Map<Locale, String[]>>> cache =
4012             new ConcurrentHashMap<>();
4013 
4014         private String getDisplayName(String id, int type, Locale locale) {
4015             if (textStyle == TextStyle.NARROW) {
4016                 return null;
4017             }
4018             String[] names;
4019             SoftReference<Map<Locale, String[]>> ref = cache.get(id);
4020             Map<Locale, String[]> perLocale = null;
4021             if (ref == null || (perLocale = ref.get()) == null ||
4022                 (names = perLocale.get(locale)) == null) {
4023                 names = TimeZoneNameUtility.retrieveDisplayNames(id, locale);
4024                 if (names == null) {
4025                     return null;
4026                 }
4027                 names = Arrays.copyOfRange(names, 0, 7);
4028                 names[5] =
4029                     TimeZoneNameUtility.retrieveGenericDisplayName(id, TimeZone.LONG, locale);
4030                 if (names[5] == null) {
4031                     names[5] = names[0]; // use the id
4032                 }
4033                 names[6] =
4034                     TimeZoneNameUtility.retrieveGenericDisplayName(id, TimeZone.SHORT, locale);
4035                 if (names[6] == null) {
4036                     names[6] = names[0];
4037                 }
4038                 if (perLocale == null) {
4039                     perLocale = new ConcurrentHashMap<>();
4040                 }
4041                 perLocale.put(locale, names);
4042                 cache.put(id, new SoftReference<>(perLocale));
4043             }
4044             switch (type) {
4045             case STD:
4046                 return names[textStyle.zoneNameStyleIndex() + 1];
4047             case DST:
4048                 return names[textStyle.zoneNameStyleIndex() + 3];
4049             }
4050             return names[textStyle.zoneNameStyleIndex() + 5];
4051         }
4052 
4053         @Override
4054         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
4055             ZoneId zone = context.getValue(TemporalQueries.zoneId());
4056             if (zone == null) {
4057                 return false;
4058             }
4059             String zname = zone.getId();
4060             if (!(zone instanceof ZoneOffset)) {
4061                 TemporalAccessor dt = context.getTemporal();
4062                 int type = GENERIC;
4063                 if (!isGeneric) {
4064                     if (dt.isSupported(ChronoField.INSTANT_SECONDS)) {
4065                         type = zone.getRules().isDaylightSavings(Instant.from(dt)) ? DST : STD;
4066                     } else if (dt.isSupported(ChronoField.EPOCH_DAY) &&
4067                                dt.isSupported(ChronoField.NANO_OF_DAY)) {
4068                         LocalDate date = LocalDate.ofEpochDay(dt.getLong(ChronoField.EPOCH_DAY));
4069                         LocalTime time = LocalTime.ofNanoOfDay(dt.getLong(ChronoField.NANO_OF_DAY));
4070                         LocalDateTime ldt = date.atTime(time);
4071                         if (zone.getRules().getTransition(ldt) == null) {
4072                             type = zone.getRules().isDaylightSavings(ldt.atZone(zone).toInstant()) ? DST : STD;
4073                         }
4074                     }
4075                 }
4076                 String name = getDisplayName(zname, type, context.getLocale());
4077                 if (name != null) {
4078                     zname = name;
4079                 }
4080             }
4081             buf.append(zname);
4082             return true;
4083         }
4084 
4085         // cache per instance for now
4086         private final Map<Locale, Entry<Integer, SoftReference<PrefixTree>>>
4087             cachedTree = new HashMap<>();
4088         private final Map<Locale, Entry<Integer, SoftReference<PrefixTree>>>
4089             cachedTreeCI = new HashMap<>();
4090 
4091         @Override
4092         protected PrefixTree getTree(DateTimeParseContext context) {
4093             if (textStyle == TextStyle.NARROW) {
4094                 return super.getTree(context);
4095             }
4096             Locale locale = context.getLocale();
4097             boolean isCaseSensitive = context.isCaseSensitive();
4098             Set<String> regionIds = ZoneRulesProvider.getAvailableZoneIds();
4099             int regionIdsSize = regionIds.size();
4100 
4101             Map<Locale, Entry<Integer, SoftReference<PrefixTree>>> cached =
4102                 isCaseSensitive ? cachedTree : cachedTreeCI;
4103 
4104             Entry<Integer, SoftReference<PrefixTree>> entry = null;
4105             PrefixTree tree = null;
4106             String[][] zoneStrings = null;
4107             if ((entry = cached.get(locale)) == null ||
4108                 (entry.getKey() != regionIdsSize ||
4109                 (tree = entry.getValue().get()) == null)) {
4110                 tree = PrefixTree.newTree(context);
4111                 zoneStrings = TimeZoneNameUtility.getZoneStrings(locale);
4112                 for (String[] names : zoneStrings) {
4113                     String zid = names[0];
4114                     if (!regionIds.contains(zid)) {
4115                         continue;
4116                     }
4117                     tree.add(zid, zid);    // don't convert zid -> metazone
4118                     zid = ZoneName.toZid(zid, locale);
4119                     int i = textStyle == TextStyle.FULL ? 1 : 2;
4120                     for (; i < names.length; i += 2) {
4121                         tree.add(names[i], zid);
4122                     }
4123                 }
4124                 // if we have a set of preferred zones, need a copy and
4125                 // add the preferred zones again to overwrite
4126                 if (preferredZones != null) {
4127                     for (String[] names : zoneStrings) {
4128                         String zid = names[0];
4129                         if (!preferredZones.contains(zid) || !regionIds.contains(zid)) {
4130                             continue;
4131                         }
4132                         int i = textStyle == TextStyle.FULL ? 1 : 2;
4133                         for (; i < names.length; i += 2) {
4134                             tree.add(names[i], zid);
4135                        }
4136                     }
4137                 }
4138                 cached.put(locale, new SimpleImmutableEntry<>(regionIdsSize, new SoftReference<>(tree)));
4139             }
4140             return tree;
4141         }
4142     }
4143 
4144     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
4145     /**
4146      * Prints or parses a zone ID.
4147      */
4148     static class ZoneIdPrinterParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
4149         private final TemporalQuery<ZoneId> query;
4150         private final String description;
4151 
4152         ZoneIdPrinterParser(TemporalQuery<ZoneId> query, String description) {
4153             this.query = query;
4154             this.description = description;
4155         }
4156 
4157         @Override
4158         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
4159             ZoneId zone = context.getValue(query);
4160             if (zone == null) {
4161                 return false;
4162             }
4163             buf.append(zone.getId());
4164             return true;
4165         }
4166 
4167         /**
4168          * The cached tree to speed up parsing.
4169          */
4170         private static volatile Entry<Integer, PrefixTree> cachedPrefixTree;
4171         private static volatile Entry<Integer, PrefixTree> cachedPrefixTreeCI;
4172 
4173         protected PrefixTree getTree(DateTimeParseContext context) {
4174             // prepare parse tree
4175             Set<String> regionIds = ZoneRulesProvider.getAvailableZoneIds();
4176             final int regionIdsSize = regionIds.size();
4177             Entry<Integer, PrefixTree> cached = context.isCaseSensitive()
4178                                                 ? cachedPrefixTree : cachedPrefixTreeCI;
4179             if (cached == null || cached.getKey() != regionIdsSize) {
4180                 synchronized (this) {
4181                     cached = context.isCaseSensitive() ? cachedPrefixTree : cachedPrefixTreeCI;
4182                     if (cached == null || cached.getKey() != regionIdsSize) {
4183                         cached = new SimpleImmutableEntry<>(regionIdsSize, PrefixTree.newTree(regionIds, context));
4184                         if (context.isCaseSensitive()) {
4185                             cachedPrefixTree = cached;
4186                         } else {
4187                             cachedPrefixTreeCI = cached;
4188                         }
4189                     }
4190                 }
4191             }
4192             return cached.getValue();
4193         }
4194 
4195         /**
4196          * This implementation looks for the longest matching string.
4197          * For example, parsing Etc/GMT-2 will return Etc/GMC-2 rather than just
4198          * Etc/GMC although both are valid.
4199          */
4200         @Override
4201         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
4202             int length = text.length();
4203             if (position > length) {
4204                 throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException();
4205             }
4206             if (position == length) {
4207                 return ~position;
4208             }
4209 
4210             // handle fixed time-zone IDs
4211             char nextChar = text.charAt(position);
4212             if (nextChar == '+' || nextChar == '-') {
4213                 return parseOffsetBased(context, text, position, position, OffsetIdPrinterParser.INSTANCE_ID_Z);
4214             } else if (length >= position + 2) {
4215                 char nextNextChar = text.charAt(position + 1);
4216                 if (context.charEquals(nextChar, 'U') && context.charEquals(nextNextChar, 'T')) {
4217                     if (length >= position + 3 && context.charEquals(text.charAt(position + 2), 'C')) {
4218                         return parseOffsetBased(context, text, position, position + 3, OffsetIdPrinterParser.INSTANCE_ID_ZERO);
4219                     }
4220                     return parseOffsetBased(context, text, position, position + 2, OffsetIdPrinterParser.INSTANCE_ID_ZERO);
4221                 } else if (context.charEquals(nextChar, 'G') && length >= position + 3 &&
4222                         context.charEquals(nextNextChar, 'M') && context.charEquals(text.charAt(position + 2), 'T')) {
4223                     if (length >= position + 4 && context.charEquals(text.charAt(position + 3), '0')) {
4224                         context.setParsed(ZoneId.of("GMT0"));
4225                         return position + 4;
4226                     }
4227                     return parseOffsetBased(context, text, position, position + 3, OffsetIdPrinterParser.INSTANCE_ID_ZERO);
4228                 }
4229             }
4230 
4231             // parse
4232             PrefixTree tree = getTree(context);
4233             ParsePosition ppos = new ParsePosition(position);
4234             String parsedZoneId = tree.match(text, ppos);
4235             if (parsedZoneId == null) {
4236                 if (context.charEquals(nextChar, 'Z')) {
4237                     context.setParsed(ZoneOffset.UTC);
4238                     return position + 1;
4239                 }
4240                 return ~position;
4241             }
4242             context.setParsed(ZoneId.of(parsedZoneId));
4243             return ppos.getIndex();
4244         }
4245 
4246         /**
4247          * Parse an offset following a prefix and set the ZoneId if it is valid.
4248          * To matching the parsing of ZoneId.of the values are not normalized
4249          * to ZoneOffsets.
4250          *
4251          * @param context the parse context
4252          * @param text the input text
4253          * @param prefixPos start of the prefix
4254          * @param position start of text after the prefix
4255          * @param parser parser for the value after the prefix
4256          * @return the position after the parse
4257          */
4258         private int parseOffsetBased(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int prefixPos, int position, OffsetIdPrinterParser parser) {
4259             String prefix = text.toString().substring(prefixPos, position).toUpperCase();
4260             if (position >= text.length()) {
4261                 context.setParsed(ZoneId.of(prefix));
4262                 return position;
4263             }
4264 
4265             // '0' or 'Z' after prefix is not part of a valid ZoneId; use bare prefix
4266             if (text.charAt(position) == '0' ||
4267                 context.charEquals(text.charAt(position), 'Z')) {
4268                 context.setParsed(ZoneId.of(prefix));
4269                 return position;
4270             }
4271 
4272             DateTimeParseContext newContext = context.copy();
4273             int endPos = parser.parse(newContext, text, position);
4274             try {
4275                 if (endPos < 0) {
4276                     if (parser == OffsetIdPrinterParser.INSTANCE_ID_Z) {
4277                         return ~prefixPos;
4278                     }
4279                     context.setParsed(ZoneId.of(prefix));
4280                     return position;
4281                 }
4282                 int offset = (int) newContext.getParsed(OFFSET_SECONDS).longValue();
4283                 ZoneOffset zoneOffset = ZoneOffset.ofTotalSeconds(offset);
4284                 context.setParsed(ZoneId.ofOffset(prefix, zoneOffset));
4285                 return endPos;
4286             } catch (DateTimeException dte) {
4287                 return ~prefixPos;
4288             }
4289         }
4290 
4291         @Override
4292         public String toString() {
4293             return description;
4294         }
4295     }
4296 
4297     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
4298     /**
4299      * A String based prefix tree for parsing time-zone names.
4300      */
4301     static class PrefixTree {
4302         protected String key;
4303         protected String value;
4304         protected char c0;    // performance optimization to avoid the
4305                               // boundary check cost of key.charat(0)
4306         protected PrefixTree child;
4307         protected PrefixTree sibling;
4308 
4309         private PrefixTree(String k, String v, PrefixTree child) {
4310             this.key = k;
4311             this.value = v;
4312             this.child = child;
4313             if (k.length() == 0){
4314                 c0 = 0xffff;
4315             } else {
4316                 c0 = key.charAt(0);
4317             }
4318         }
4319 
4320         /**
4321          * Creates a new prefix parsing tree based on parse context.
4322          *
4323          * @param context  the parse context
4324          * @return the tree, not null
4325          */
4326         public static PrefixTree newTree(DateTimeParseContext context) {
4327             //if (!context.isStrict()) {
4328             //    return new LENIENT("", null, null);
4329             //}
4330             if (context.isCaseSensitive()) {
4331                 return new PrefixTree("", null, null);
4332             }
4333             return new CI("", null, null);
4334         }
4335 
4336         /**
4337          * Creates a new prefix parsing tree.
4338          *
4339          * @param keys  a set of strings to build the prefix parsing tree, not null
4340          * @param context  the parse context
4341          * @return the tree, not null
4342          */
4343         public static  PrefixTree newTree(Set<String> keys, DateTimeParseContext context) {
4344             PrefixTree tree = newTree(context);
4345             for (String k : keys) {
4346                 tree.add0(k, k);
4347             }
4348             return tree;
4349         }
4350 
4351         /**
4352          * Clone a copy of this tree
4353          */
4354         public PrefixTree copyTree() {
4355             PrefixTree copy = new PrefixTree(key, value, null);
4356             if (child != null) {
4357                 copy.child = child.copyTree();
4358             }
4359             if (sibling != null) {
4360                 copy.sibling = sibling.copyTree();
4361             }
4362             return copy;
4363         }
4364 
4365 
4366         /**
4367          * Adds a pair of {key, value} into the prefix tree.
4368          *
4369          * @param k  the key, not null
4370          * @param v  the value, not null
4371          * @return  true if the pair is added successfully
4372          */
4373         public boolean add(String k, String v) {
4374             return add0(k, v);
4375         }
4376 
4377         private boolean add0(String k, String v) {
4378             k = toKey(k);
4379             int prefixLen = prefixLength(k);
4380             if (prefixLen == key.length()) {
4381                 if (prefixLen < k.length()) {  // down the tree
4382                     String subKey = k.substring(prefixLen);
4383                     PrefixTree c = child;
4384                     while (c != null) {
4385                         if (isEqual(c.c0, subKey.charAt(0))) {
4386                             return c.add0(subKey, v);
4387                         }
4388                         c = c.sibling;
4389                     }
4390                     // add the node as the child of the current node
4391                     c = newNode(subKey, v, null);
4392                     c.sibling = child;
4393                     child = c;
4394                     return true;
4395                 }
4396                 // have an existing <key, value> already, overwrite it
4397                 // if (value != null) {
4398                 //    return false;
4399                 //}
4400                 value = v;
4401                 return true;
4402             }
4403             // split the existing node
4404             PrefixTree n1 = newNode(key.substring(prefixLen), value, child);
4405             key = k.substring(0, prefixLen);
4406             child = n1;
4407             if (prefixLen < k.length()) {
4408                 PrefixTree n2 = newNode(k.substring(prefixLen), v, null);
4409                 child.sibling = n2;
4410                 value = null;
4411             } else {
4412                 value = v;
4413             }
4414             return true;
4415         }
4416 
4417         /**
4418          * Match text with the prefix tree.
4419          *
4420          * @param text  the input text to parse, not null
4421          * @param off  the offset position to start parsing at
4422          * @param end  the end position to stop parsing
4423          * @return the resulting string, or null if no match found.
4424          */
4425         public String match(CharSequence text, int off, int end) {
4426             if (!prefixOf(text, off, end)){
4427                 return null;
4428             }
4429             if (child != null && (off += key.length()) != end) {
4430                 PrefixTree c = child;
4431                 do {
4432                     if (isEqual(c.c0, text.charAt(off))) {
4433                         String found = c.match(text, off, end);
4434                         if (found != null) {
4435                             return found;
4436                         }
4437                         return value;
4438                     }
4439                     c = c.sibling;
4440                 } while (c != null);
4441             }
4442             return value;
4443         }
4444 
4445         /**
4446          * Match text with the prefix tree.
4447          *
4448          * @param text  the input text to parse, not null
4449          * @param pos  the position to start parsing at, from 0 to the text
4450          *  length. Upon return, position will be updated to the new parse
4451          *  position, or unchanged, if no match found.
4452          * @return the resulting string, or null if no match found.
4453          */
4454         public String match(CharSequence text, ParsePosition pos) {
4455             int off = pos.getIndex();
4456             int end = text.length();
4457             if (!prefixOf(text, off, end)){
4458                 return null;
4459             }
4460             off += key.length();
4461             if (child != null && off != end) {
4462                 PrefixTree c = child;
4463                 do {
4464                     if (isEqual(c.c0, text.charAt(off))) {
4465                         pos.setIndex(off);
4466                         String found = c.match(text, pos);
4467                         if (found != null) {
4468                             return found;
4469                         }
4470                         break;
4471                     }
4472                     c = c.sibling;
4473                 } while (c != null);
4474             }
4475             pos.setIndex(off);
4476             return value;
4477         }
4478 
4479         protected String toKey(String k) {
4480             return k;
4481         }
4482 
4483         protected PrefixTree newNode(String k, String v, PrefixTree child) {
4484             return new PrefixTree(k, v, child);
4485         }
4486 
4487         protected boolean isEqual(char c1, char c2) {
4488             return c1 == c2;
4489         }
4490 
4491         protected boolean prefixOf(CharSequence text, int off, int end) {
4492             if (text instanceof String) {
4493                 return ((String)text).startsWith(key, off);
4494             }
4495             int len = key.length();
4496             if (len > end - off) {
4497                 return false;
4498             }
4499             int off0 = 0;
4500             while (len-- > 0) {
4501                 if (!isEqual(key.charAt(off0++), text.charAt(off++))) {
4502                     return false;
4503                 }
4504             }
4505             return true;
4506         }
4507 
4508         private int prefixLength(String k) {
4509             int off = 0;
4510             while (off < k.length() && off < key.length()) {
4511                 if (!isEqual(k.charAt(off), key.charAt(off))) {
4512                     return off;
4513                 }
4514                 off++;
4515             }
4516             return off;
4517         }
4518 
4519         /**
4520          * Case Insensitive prefix tree.
4521          */
4522         private static class CI extends PrefixTree {
4523 
4524             private CI(String k, String v, PrefixTree child) {
4525                 super(k, v, child);
4526             }
4527 
4528             @Override
4529             protected CI newNode(String k, String v, PrefixTree child) {
4530                 return new CI(k, v, child);
4531             }
4532 
4533             @Override
4534             protected boolean isEqual(char c1, char c2) {
4535                 return DateTimeParseContext.charEqualsIgnoreCase(c1, c2);
4536             }
4537 
4538             @Override
4539             protected boolean prefixOf(CharSequence text, int off, int end) {
4540                 int len = key.length();
4541                 if (len > end - off) {
4542                     return false;
4543                 }
4544                 int off0 = 0;
4545                 while (len-- > 0) {
4546                     if (!isEqual(key.charAt(off0++), text.charAt(off++))) {
4547                         return false;
4548                     }
4549                 }
4550                 return true;
4551             }
4552         }
4553 
4554         /**
4555          * Lenient prefix tree. Case insensitive and ignores characters
4556          * like space, underscore and slash.
4557          */
4558         private static class LENIENT extends CI {
4559 
4560             private LENIENT(String k, String v, PrefixTree child) {
4561                 super(k, v, child);
4562             }
4563 
4564             @Override
4565             protected CI newNode(String k, String v, PrefixTree child) {
4566                 return new LENIENT(k, v, child);
4567             }
4568 
4569             private boolean isLenientChar(char c) {
4570                 return c == ' ' || c == '_' || c == '/';
4571             }
4572 
4573             protected String toKey(String k) {
4574                 for (int i = 0; i < k.length(); i++) {
4575                     if (isLenientChar(k.charAt(i))) {
4576                         StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder(k.length());
4577                         sb.append(k, 0, i);
4578                         i++;
4579                         while (i < k.length()) {
4580                             if (!isLenientChar(k.charAt(i))) {
4581                                 sb.append(k.charAt(i));
4582                             }
4583                             i++;
4584                         }
4585                         return sb.toString();
4586                     }
4587                 }
4588                 return k;
4589             }
4590 
4591             @Override
4592             public String match(CharSequence text, ParsePosition pos) {
4593                 int off = pos.getIndex();
4594                 int end = text.length();
4595                 int len = key.length();
4596                 int koff = 0;
4597                 while (koff < len && off < end) {
4598                     if (isLenientChar(text.charAt(off))) {
4599                         off++;
4600                         continue;
4601                     }
4602                     if (!isEqual(key.charAt(koff++), text.charAt(off++))) {
4603                         return null;
4604                     }
4605                 }
4606                 if (koff != len) {
4607                     return null;
4608                 }
4609                 if (child != null && off != end) {
4610                     int off0 = off;
4611                     while (off0 < end && isLenientChar(text.charAt(off0))) {
4612                         off0++;
4613                     }
4614                     if (off0 < end) {
4615                         PrefixTree c = child;
4616                         do {
4617                             if (isEqual(c.c0, text.charAt(off0))) {
4618                                 pos.setIndex(off0);
4619                                 String found = c.match(text, pos);
4620                                 if (found != null) {
4621                                     return found;
4622                                 }
4623                                 break;
4624                             }
4625                             c = c.sibling;
4626                         } while (c != null);
4627                     }
4628                 }
4629                 pos.setIndex(off);
4630                 return value;
4631             }
4632         }
4633     }
4634 
4635     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
4636     /**
4637      * Prints or parses a chronology.
4638      */
4639     static final class ChronoPrinterParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
4640         /** The text style to output, null means the ID. */
4641         private final TextStyle textStyle;
4642 
4643         ChronoPrinterParser(TextStyle textStyle) {
4644             // validated by caller
4645             this.textStyle = textStyle;
4646         }
4647 
4648         @Override
4649         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
4650             Chronology chrono = context.getValue(TemporalQueries.chronology());
4651             if (chrono == null) {
4652                 return false;
4653             }
4654             if (textStyle == null) {
4655                 buf.append(chrono.getId());
4656             } else {
4657                 buf.append(getChronologyName(chrono, context.getLocale()));
4658             }
4659             return true;
4660         }
4661 
4662         @Override
4663         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
4664             // simple looping parser to find the chronology
4665             if (position < 0 || position > text.length()) {
4666                 throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException();
4667             }
4668             Set<Chronology> chronos = Chronology.getAvailableChronologies();
4669             Chronology bestMatch = null;
4670             int matchLen = -1;
4671             for (Chronology chrono : chronos) {
4672                 String name;
4673                 if (textStyle == null) {
4674                     name = chrono.getId();
4675                 } else {
4676                     name = getChronologyName(chrono, context.getLocale());
4677                 }
4678                 int nameLen = name.length();
4679                 if (nameLen > matchLen && context.subSequenceEquals(text, position, name, 0, nameLen)) {
4680                     bestMatch = chrono;
4681                     matchLen = nameLen;
4682                 }
4683             }
4684             if (bestMatch == null) {
4685                 return ~position;
4686             }
4687             context.setParsed(bestMatch);
4688             return position + matchLen;
4689         }
4690 
4691         /**
4692          * Returns the chronology name of the given chrono in the given locale
4693          * if available, or the chronology Id otherwise. The regular ResourceBundle
4694          * search path is used for looking up the chronology name.
4695          *
4696          * @param chrono  the chronology, not null
4697          * @param locale  the locale, not null
4698          * @return the chronology name of chrono in locale, or the id if no name is available
4699          * @throws NullPointerException if chrono or locale is null
4700          */
4701         private String getChronologyName(Chronology chrono, Locale locale) {
4702             String key = "calendarname." + chrono.getCalendarType();
4703             String name = DateTimeTextProvider.getLocalizedResource(key, locale);
4704             return Objects.requireNonNullElseGet(name, () -> chrono.getId());
4705         }
4706     }
4707 
4708     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
4709     /**
4710      * Prints or parses a localized pattern.
4711      */
4712     static final class LocalizedPrinterParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
4713         /** Cache of formatters. */
4714         private static final ConcurrentMap<String, DateTimeFormatter> FORMATTER_CACHE = new ConcurrentHashMap<>(16, 0.75f, 2);
4715 
4716         private final FormatStyle dateStyle;
4717         private final FormatStyle timeStyle;
4718 
4719         /**
4720          * Constructor.
4721          *
4722          * @param dateStyle  the date style to use, may be null
4723          * @param timeStyle  the time style to use, may be null
4724          */
4725         LocalizedPrinterParser(FormatStyle dateStyle, FormatStyle timeStyle) {
4726             // validated by caller
4727             this.dateStyle = dateStyle;
4728             this.timeStyle = timeStyle;
4729         }
4730 
4731         @Override
4732         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
4733             Chronology chrono = Chronology.from(context.getTemporal());
4734             return formatter(context.getLocale(), chrono).toPrinterParser(false).format(context, buf);
4735         }
4736 
4737         @Override
4738         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
4739             Chronology chrono = context.getEffectiveChronology();
4740             return formatter(context.getLocale(), chrono).toPrinterParser(false).parse(context, text, position);
4741         }
4742 
4743         /**
4744          * Gets the formatter to use.
4745          * <p>
4746          * The formatter will be the most appropriate to use for the date and time style in the locale.
4747          * For example, some locales will use the month name while others will use the number.
4748          *
4749          * @param locale  the locale to use, not null
4750          * @param chrono  the chronology to use, not null
4751          * @return the formatter, not null
4752          * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the formatter cannot be found
4753          */
4754         private DateTimeFormatter formatter(Locale locale, Chronology chrono) {
4755             String key = chrono.getId() + '|' + locale.toString() + '|' + dateStyle + timeStyle;
4756             DateTimeFormatter formatter = FORMATTER_CACHE.get(key);
4757             if (formatter == null) {
4758                 String pattern = getLocalizedDateTimePattern(dateStyle, timeStyle, chrono, locale);
4759                 formatter = new DateTimeFormatterBuilder().appendPattern(pattern).toFormatter(locale);
4760                 DateTimeFormatter old = FORMATTER_CACHE.putIfAbsent(key, formatter);
4761                 if (old != null) {
4762                     formatter = old;
4763                 }
4764             }
4765             return formatter;
4766         }
4767 
4768         @Override
4769         public String toString() {
4770             return "Localized(" + (dateStyle != null ? dateStyle : "") + "," +
4771                 (timeStyle != null ? timeStyle : "") + ")";
4772         }
4773     }
4774 
4775     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
4776     /**
4777      * Prints or parses a localized pattern from a localized field.
4778      * The specific formatter and parameters is not selected until the
4779      * the field is to be printed or parsed.
4780      * The locale is needed to select the proper WeekFields from which
4781      * the field for day-of-week, week-of-month, or week-of-year is selected.
4782      * Hence the inherited field NumberPrinterParser.field is unused.
4783      */
4784     static final class WeekBasedFieldPrinterParser extends NumberPrinterParser {
4785         private char chr;
4786         private int count;
4787 
4788         /**
4789          * Constructor.
4790          *
4791          * @param chr the pattern format letter that added this PrinterParser.
4792          * @param count the repeat count of the format letter
4793          * @param minWidth  the minimum field width, from 1 to 19
4794          * @param maxWidth  the maximum field width, from minWidth to 19
4795          */
4796         WeekBasedFieldPrinterParser(char chr, int count, int minWidth, int maxWidth) {
4797             this(chr, count, minWidth, maxWidth, 0);
4798         }
4799 
4800         /**
4801          * Constructor.
4802          *
4803          * @param chr the pattern format letter that added this PrinterParser.
4804          * @param count the repeat count of the format letter
4805          * @param minWidth  the minimum field width, from 1 to 19
4806          * @param maxWidth  the maximum field width, from minWidth to 19
4807          * @param subsequentWidth  the width of subsequent non-negative numbers, 0 or greater,
4808          * -1 if fixed width due to active adjacent parsing
4809          */
4810         WeekBasedFieldPrinterParser(char chr, int count, int minWidth, int maxWidth,
4811                 int subsequentWidth) {
4812             super(null, minWidth, maxWidth, SignStyle.NOT_NEGATIVE, subsequentWidth);
4813             this.chr = chr;
4814             this.count = count;
4815         }
4816 
4817         /**
4818          * Returns a new instance with fixed width flag set.
4819          *
4820          * @return a new updated printer-parser, not null
4821          */
4822         @Override
4823         WeekBasedFieldPrinterParser withFixedWidth() {
4824             if (subsequentWidth == -1) {
4825                 return this;
4826             }
4827             return new WeekBasedFieldPrinterParser(chr, count, minWidth, maxWidth, -1);
4828         }
4829 
4830         /**
4831          * Returns a new instance with an updated subsequent width.
4832          *
4833          * @param subsequentWidth  the width of subsequent non-negative numbers, 0 or greater
4834          * @return a new updated printer-parser, not null
4835          */
4836         @Override
4837         WeekBasedFieldPrinterParser withSubsequentWidth(int subsequentWidth) {
4838             return new WeekBasedFieldPrinterParser(chr, count, minWidth, maxWidth,
4839                     this.subsequentWidth + subsequentWidth);
4840         }
4841 
4842         @Override
4843         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
4844             return printerParser(context.getLocale()).format(context, buf);
4845         }
4846 
4847         @Override
4848         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
4849             return printerParser(context.getLocale()).parse(context, text, position);
4850         }
4851 
4852         /**
4853          * Gets the printerParser to use based on the field and the locale.
4854          *
4855          * @param locale  the locale to use, not null
4856          * @return the formatter, not null
4857          * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the formatter cannot be found
4858          */
4859         private DateTimePrinterParser printerParser(Locale locale) {
4860             WeekFields weekDef = WeekFields.of(locale);
4861             TemporalField field = null;
4862             switch (chr) {
4863                 case 'Y':
4864                     field = weekDef.weekBasedYear();
4865                     if (count == 2) {
4866                         return new ReducedPrinterParser(field, 2, 2, 0, ReducedPrinterParser.BASE_DATE,
4867                                 this.subsequentWidth);
4868                     } else {
4869                         return new NumberPrinterParser(field, count, 19,
4870                                 (count < 4) ? SignStyle.NORMAL : SignStyle.EXCEEDS_PAD,
4871                                 this.subsequentWidth);
4872                     }
4873                 case 'e':
4874                 case 'c':
4875                     field = weekDef.dayOfWeek();
4876                     break;
4877                 case 'w':
4878                     field = weekDef.weekOfWeekBasedYear();
4879                     break;
4880                 case 'W':
4881                     field = weekDef.weekOfMonth();
4882                     break;
4883                 default:
4884                     throw new IllegalStateException("unreachable");
4885             }
4886             return new NumberPrinterParser(field, minWidth, maxWidth, SignStyle.NOT_NEGATIVE,
4887                     this.subsequentWidth);
4888         }
4889 
4890         @Override
4891         public String toString() {
4892             StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder(30);
4893             sb.append("Localized(");
4894             if (chr == 'Y') {
4895                 if (count == 1) {
4896                     sb.append("WeekBasedYear");
4897                 } else if (count == 2) {
4898                     sb.append("ReducedValue(WeekBasedYear,2,2,2000-01-01)");
4899                 } else {
4900                     sb.append("WeekBasedYear,").append(count).append(",")
4901                             .append(19).append(",")
4902                             .append((count < 4) ? SignStyle.NORMAL : SignStyle.EXCEEDS_PAD);
4903                 }
4904             } else {
4905                 switch (chr) {
4906                     case 'c':
4907                     case 'e':
4908                         sb.append("DayOfWeek");
4909                         break;
4910                     case 'w':
4911                         sb.append("WeekOfWeekBasedYear");
4912                         break;
4913                     case 'W':
4914                         sb.append("WeekOfMonth");
4915                         break;
4916                     default:
4917                         break;
4918                 }
4919                 sb.append(",");
4920                 sb.append(count);
4921             }
4922             sb.append(")");
4923             return sb.toString();
4924         }
4925     }
4926 
4927     //-------------------------------------------------------------------------
4928     /**
4929      * Length comparator.
4930      */
4931     static final Comparator<String> LENGTH_SORT = new Comparator<String>() {
4932         @Override
4933         public int compare(String str1, String str2) {
4934             return str1.length() == str2.length() ? str1.compareTo(str2) : str1.length() - str2.length();
4935         }
4936     };
4937 }
--- EOF ---