1 #
   2 # DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
   3 #
   4 # This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   5 # under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
   6 # published by the Free Software Foundation.
   7 #
   8 # This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
   9 # ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  10 # FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  11 # version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  12 # accompanied this code).
  13 #
  14 # You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  15 # 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  16 # Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  17 #
  18 # Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  19 # or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  20 # questions.
  21 #
  22 # tzdb data for Europe and environs
  23 
  24 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
  25 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
  26 
  27 # This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
  28 # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
  29 # tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
  30 # the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
  31 
  32 # From Paul Eggert (2017-02-10):
  33 #
  34 # Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:
  35 # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
  36 # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
  37 # Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.
  38 #
  39 # Many years ago Gwillim Law wrote that a good source
  40 # for time zone data was the International Air Transport
  41 # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
  42 # published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
  43 # of the IATA's data after 1990.  Except where otherwise noted,
  44 # IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.
  45 #
  46 # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
  47 # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
  48 #
  49 # Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for
  50 # entries through 1991, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.
  51 #
  52 # Other sources occasionally used include:
  53 #
  54 #       Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
  55 #       Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated),
  56 #       which I found in the UCLA library.
  57 #
  58 #       William Willett, The Waste of Daylight, 19th edition
  59 #       <http://cs.ucla.edu/~eggert/The-Waste-of-Daylight-19th.pdf>
  60 #       [PDF] (1914-03)
  61 #
  62 #       Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94
  63 #       <https://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359>.  He writes:
  64 #       "It is requested that corrections and additions to these tables
  65 #       may be sent to Mr. John Milne, Royal Geographical Society,
  66 #       Savile Row, London."  Nowadays please email them to tz@iana.org.
  67 #
  68 #       Byalokoz EL. New Counting of Time in Russia since July 1, 1919.
  69 #       This Russian-language source was consulted by Vladimir Karpinsky; see
  70 #       https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2014-August/021320.html
  71 #       The full Russian citation is:
  72 #       Бялокоз, Евгений Людвигович. Новый счет времени в течении суток
  73 #       введенный декретом Совета народных комиссаров для всей России с 1-го
  74 #       июля 1919 г. / Изд. 2-е Междуведомственной комиссии. - Петроград:
  75 #       Десятая гос. тип., 1919.
  76 #       http://resolver.gpntb.ru/purl?docushare/dsweb/Get/Resource-2011/Byalokoz__E.L.__Novyy__schet__vremeni__v__techenie__sutok__izd__2(1).pdf
  77 #
  78 #       Brazil's Divisão Serviço da Hora (DSHO),
  79 #       History of Summer Time
  80 #       <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HISTHV.htm>
  81 #       (1998-09-21, in Portuguese)
  82 #
  83 # I invented the abbreviations marked '*' in the following table;
  84 # the rest are variants of the "xMT" pattern for a city's mean time,
  85 # or are from other sources.  Corrections are welcome!
  86 #                   std  dst  2dst
  87 #                   LMT             Local Mean Time
  88 #       -4:00       AST  ADT        Atlantic
  89 #        0:00       GMT  BST  BDST  Greenwich, British Summer
  90 #        0:00       GMT  IST        Greenwich, Irish Summer
  91 #        0:00       WET  WEST WEMT  Western Europe
  92 #        0:19:32.13 AMT* NST*       Amsterdam, Netherlands Summer (1835-1937)
  93 #        1:00       BST             British Standard (1968-1971)
  94 #        1:00       IST  GMT        Irish Standard (1968-) with winter DST
  95 #        1:00       CET  CEST CEMT  Central Europe
  96 #        1:00:14    SET             Swedish (1879-1899)
  97 #        1:36:34    RMT* LST*       Riga, Latvian Summer (1880-1926)*
  98 #        2:00       EET  EEST       Eastern Europe
  99 #        3:00       MSK  MSD  MDST* Moscow
 100 
 101 # From Peter Ilieve (1994-12-04), re EEC/EC/EU members:
 102 # The original six: Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy,
 103 # Luxembourg, the Netherlands.
 104 # Plus, from 1 Jan 73: Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom.
 105 # Plus, from 1 Jan 81: Greece.
 106 # Plus, from 1 Jan 86: Spain, Portugal.
 107 # Plus, from 1 Jan 95: Austria, Finland, Sweden. (Norway negotiated terms for
 108 # entry but in a referendum on 28 Nov 94 the people voted No by 52.2% to 47.8%
 109 # on a turnout of 88.6%. This was almost the same result as Norway's previous
 110 # referendum in 1972, they are the only country to have said No twice.
 111 # Referendums in the other three countries voted Yes.)
 112 # ...
 113 # Estonia ... uses EU dates but not at 01:00 GMT, they use midnight GMT.
 114 # I don't think they know yet what they will do from 1996 onwards.
 115 # ...
 116 # There shouldn't be any [current members who are not using EU rules].
 117 # A Directive has the force of law, member states are obliged to enact
 118 # national law to implement it. The only contentious issue was the
 119 # different end date for the UK and Ireland, and this was always allowed
 120 # in the Directive.
 121 
 122 
 123 ###############################################################################
 124 
 125 # Britain (United Kingdom) and Ireland (Eire)
 126 
 127 # From Peter Ilieve (1994-07-06):
 128 #
 129 # On 17 Jan 1994 the Independent, a UK quality newspaper, had a piece about
 130 # historical vistas along the Thames in west London. There was a photo
 131 # and a sketch map showing some of the sightlines involved. One paragraph
 132 # of the text said:
 133 #
 134 # 'An old stone obelisk marking a forgotten terrestrial meridian stands
 135 # beside the river at Kew. In the 18th century, before time and longitude
 136 # was standardised by the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, scholars observed
 137 # this stone and the movement of stars from Kew Observatory nearby. They
 138 # made their calculations and set the time for the Horse Guards and Parliament,
 139 # but now the stone is obscured by scrubwood and can only be seen by walking
 140 # along the towpath within a few yards of it.'
 141 #
 142 # I have a one inch to one mile map of London and my estimate of the stone's
 143 # position is 51° 28' 30" N, 0° 18' 45" W. The longitude should
 144 # be within about ±2". The Ordnance Survey grid reference is TQ172761.
 145 #
 146 # [This yields GMTOFF = -0:01:15 for London LMT in the 18th century.]
 147 
 148 # From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18):
 149 #
 150 # Howse writes that Britain was the first country to use standard time.
 151 # The railways cared most about the inconsistencies of local mean time,
 152 # and it was they who forced a uniform time on the country.
 153 # The original idea was credited to Dr. William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828)
 154 # and was popularized by Abraham Follett Osler (1808-1903).
 155 # The first railway to adopt London time was the Great Western Railway
 156 # in November 1840; other railways followed suit, and by 1847 most
 157 # (though not all) railways used London time.  On 1847-09-22 the
 158 # Railway Clearing House, an industry standards body, recommended that GMT be
 159 # adopted at all stations as soon as the General Post Office permitted it.
 160 # The transition occurred on 12-01 for the L&NW, the Caledonian,
 161 # and presumably other railways; the January 1848 Bradshaw's lists many
 162 # railways as using GMT.  By 1855 the vast majority of public
 163 # clocks in Britain were set to GMT (though some, like the great clock
 164 # on Tom Tower at Christ Church, Oxford, were fitted with two minute hands,
 165 # one for local time and one for GMT).  The last major holdout was the legal
 166 # system, which stubbornly stuck to local time for many years, leading
 167 # to oddities like polls opening at 08:13 and closing at 16:13.
 168 # The legal system finally switched to GMT when the Statutes (Definition
 169 # of Time) Act took effect; it received the Royal Assent on 1880-08-02.
 170 #
 171 # In the tables below, we condense this complicated story into a single
 172 # transition date for London, namely 1847-12-01.  We don't know as much
 173 # about Dublin, so we use 1880-08-02, the legal transition time.
 174 
 175 # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-19):
 176 # The ancients had no need for daylight saving, as they kept time
 177 # informally or via hours whose length depended on the time of year.
 178 # Daylight saving time in its modern sense was invented by the
 179 # New Zealand entomologist George Vernon Hudson (1867-1946),
 180 # whose day job as a postal clerk led him to value
 181 # after-hours daylight in which to pursue his research.
 182 # In 1895 he presented a paper to the Wellington Philosophical Society
 183 # that proposed a two-hour daylight-saving shift.  See:
 184 # Hudson GV. On seasonal time-adjustment in countries south of lat. 30°.
 185 # Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute. 1895;28:734
 186 # http://rsnz.natlib.govt.nz/volume/rsnz_28/rsnz_28_00_006110.html
 187 # Although some interest was expressed in New Zealand, his proposal
 188 # did not find its way into law and eventually it was almost forgotten.
 189 #
 190 # In England, DST was independently reinvented by William Willett (1857-1915),
 191 # a London builder and member of the Royal Astronomical Society
 192 # who circulated a pamphlet "The Waste of Daylight" (1907)
 193 # that proposed advancing clocks 20 minutes on each of four Sundays in April,
 194 # and retarding them by the same amount on four Sundays in September.
 195 # A bill was drafted in 1909 and introduced in Parliament several times,
 196 # but it met with ridicule and opposition, especially from farming interests.
 197 # Later editions of the pamphlet proposed one-hour summer time, and
 198 # it was eventually adopted as a wartime measure in 1916.
 199 # See: Summer Time Arrives Early, The Times (2000-05-18).
 200 # A monument to Willett was unveiled on 1927-05-21, in an open space in
 201 # a 45-acre wood near Chislehurst, Kent that was purchased by popular
 202 # subscription and open to the public.  On the south face of the monolith,
 203 # designed by G. W. Miller, is the William Willett Memorial Sundial,
 204 # which is permanently set to Summer Time.
 205 
 206 # From Winston Churchill (1934-04-28):
 207 # It is one of the paradoxes of history that we should owe the boon of
 208 # summer time, which gives every year to the people of this country
 209 # between 160 and 170 hours more daylight leisure, to a war which
 210 # plunged Europe into darkness for four years, and shook the
 211 # foundations of civilization throughout the world.
 212 #       -- "A Silent Toast to William Willett", Pictorial Weekly;
 213 #       republished in Finest Hour (Spring 2002) 1(114):26
 214 #       https://www.winstonchurchill.org/publications/finest-hour/finest-hour-114/a-silent-toast-to-william-willett-by-winston-s-churchill
 215 
 216 # From Paul Eggert (2015-08-08):
 217 # The OED Supplement says that the English originally said "Daylight Saving"
 218 # when they were debating the adoption of DST in 1908; but by 1916 this
 219 # term appears only in quotes taken from DST's opponents, whereas the
 220 # proponents (who eventually won the argument) are quoted as using "Summer".
 221 # The term "Summer Time" was introduced by Herbert Samuel, Home Secretary; see:
 222 # Viscount Samuel. Leisure in a Democracy. Cambridge University Press
 223 # ISBN 978-1-107-49471-8 (1949, reissued 2015), p 8.
 224 
 225 # From Arthur David Olson (1989-01-19):
 226 # A source at the British Information Office in New York avers that it's
 227 # known as "British" Summer Time in all parts of the United Kingdom.
 228 
 229 # Date: 4 Jan 89 08:57:25 GMT (Wed)
 230 # From: Jonathan Leffler
 231 # [British Summer Time] is fixed annually by Act of Parliament.
 232 # If you can predict what Parliament will do, you should be in
 233 # politics making a fortune, not computing.
 234 
 235 # From Chris Carrier (1996-06-14):
 236 # I remember reading in various wartime issues of the London Times the
 237 # acronym BDST for British Double Summer Time.  Look for the published
 238 # time of sunrise and sunset in The Times, when BDST was in effect, and
 239 # if you find a zone reference it will say, "All times B.D.S.T."
 240 
 241 # From Joseph S. Myers (1999-09-02):
 242 # ... some military cables (WO 219/4100 - this is a copy from the
 243 # main SHAEF archives held in the US National Archives, SHAEF/5252/8/516)
 244 # agree that the usage is BDST (this appears in a message dated 17 Feb 1945).
 245 
 246 # From Joseph S. Myers (2000-10-03):
 247 # On 18th April 1941, Sir Stephen Tallents of the BBC wrote to Sir
 248 # Alexander Maxwell of the Home Office asking whether there was any
 249 # official designation; the reply of the 21st was that there wasn't
 250 # but he couldn't think of anything better than the "Double British
 251 # Summer Time" that the BBC had been using informally.
 252 # https://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/bbc-19410418.png
 253 # https://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/ho-19410421.png
 254 
 255 # From Sir Alexander Maxwell in the above-mentioned letter (1941-04-21):
 256 # [N]o official designation has as far as I know been adopted for the time
 257 # which is to be introduced in May....
 258 # I cannot think of anything better than "Double British Summer Time"
 259 # which could not be said to run counter to any official description.
 260 
 261 # From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
 262 # Howse writes (p 157) 'DBST' too, but 'BDST' seems to have been common
 263 # and follows the more usual convention of putting the location name first,
 264 # so we use 'BDST'.
 265 
 266 # Peter Ilieve (1998-04-19) described at length
 267 # the history of summer time legislation in the United Kingdom.
 268 # Since 1998 Joseph S. Myers has been updating
 269 # and extending this list, which can be found in
 270 # https://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/
 271 
 272 # From Joseph S. Myers (1998-01-06):
 273 #
 274 # The legal time in the UK outside of summer time is definitely GMT, not UTC;
 275 # see Lord Tanlaw's speech
 276 # https://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld199798/ldhansrd/vo970611/text/70611-10.htm#70611-10_head0
 277 # (Lords Hansard 11 June 1997 columns 964 to 976).
 278 
 279 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
 280 #
 281 # For lack of other data, follow Shanks & Pottenger for Eire in 1940-1948.
 282 #
 283 # Given Ilieve and Myers's data, the following claims by Shanks & Pottenger
 284 # are incorrect:
 285 #     * Wales did not switch from GMT to daylight saving time until
 286 #       1921 Apr 3, when they began to conform with the rest of Great Britain.
 287 # Actually, Wales was identical after 1880.
 288 #     * Eire had two transitions on 1916 Oct 1.
 289 # It actually just had one transition.
 290 #     * Northern Ireland used single daylight saving time throughout WW II.
 291 # Actually, it conformed to Britain.
 292 #     * GB-Eire changed standard time to 1 hour ahead of GMT on 1968-02-18.
 293 # Actually, that date saw the usual switch to summer time.
 294 # Standard time was not changed until 1968-10-27 (the clocks didn't change).
 295 #
 296 # Here is another incorrect claim by Shanks & Pottenger:
 297 #     * Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man did not switch from GMT
 298 #       to daylight saving time until 1921 Apr 3, when they began to
 299 #       conform with Great Britain.
 300 # S.R.&O. 1916, No. 382 and HO 45/10811/312364 (quoted above) say otherwise.
 301 #
 302 # The following claim by Shanks & Pottenger is possible though doubtful;
 303 # we'll ignore it for now.
 304 #     * Dublin's 1971-10-31 switch was at 02:00, even though London's was 03:00.
 305 
 306 # From Paul Eggert (2017-12-04):
 307 #
 308 # Dunsink Observatory (8 km NW of Dublin's center) was to Dublin as
 309 # Greenwich was to London.  For example:
 310 #
 311 #   "Timeball on the ballast office is down.  Dunsink time."
 312 #   -- James Joyce, Ulysses
 313 #
 314 # The abbreviation DMT stood for "Dublin Mean Time" or "Dunsink Mean Time";
 315 # this being Ireland, opinions differed.
 316 #
 317 # Whitman says Dublin/Dunsink Mean Time was UT-00:25:21, which agrees
 318 # with measurements of recent visitors to the Meridian Room of Dunsink
 319 # Observatory; see Malone D. Dunsink and timekeeping. 2016-01-24.
 320 # <https://www.maths.tcd.ie/~dwmalone/time/dunsink.html>.  Malone
 321 # writes that the Nautical Almanac listed UT-00:25:22 until 1896, when
 322 # it moved to UT-00:25:21.1 (I confirmed that the 1893 edition used
 323 # the former and the 1896 edition used the latter).  Evidently the
 324 # news of this change propagated slowly, as Milne 1899 still lists
 325 # UT-00:25:22 and cites the International Telegraph Bureau.  As it is
 326 # not clear that there was any practical significance to the change
 327 # from UT-00:25:22 to UT-00:25:21.1 in civil timekeeping, omit this
 328 # transition for now and just use the latter value, omitting its
 329 # fraction since our format cannot represent fractions.
 330 
 331 # "Countess Markievicz ... claimed that the [1916] abolition of Dublin Mean Time
 332 # was among various actions undertaken by the 'English' government that
 333 # would 'put the whole country into the SF (Sinn Féin) camp'.  She claimed
 334 # Irish 'public feeling (was) outraged by forcing of English time on us'."
 335 # -- Parsons M. Dublin lost its time zone - and 25 minutes - after 1916 Rising.
 336 # Irish Times 2014-10-27.
 337 # https://www.irishtimes.com/news/politics/dublin-lost-its-time-zone-and-25-minutes-after-1916-rising-1.1977411
 338 
 339 # From Joseph S. Myers (2005-01-26):
 340 # Irish laws are available online at <http://www.irishstatutebook.ie>.
 341 # These include various relating to legal time, for example:
 342 #
 343 # ZZA13Y1923.html ZZA12Y1924.html ZZA8Y1925.html ZZSIV20PG1267.html
 344 #
 345 # ZZSI71Y1947.html ZZSI128Y1948.html ZZSI23Y1949.html ZZSI41Y1950.html
 346 # ZZSI27Y1951.html ZZSI73Y1952.html
 347 #
 348 # ZZSI11Y1961.html ZZSI232Y1961.html ZZSI182Y1962.html
 349 # ZZSI167Y1963.html ZZSI257Y1964.html ZZSI198Y1967.html
 350 # ZZA23Y1968.html ZZA17Y1971.html
 351 #
 352 # ZZSI67Y1981.html ZZSI212Y1982.html ZZSI45Y1986.html
 353 # ZZSI264Y1988.html ZZSI52Y1990.html ZZSI371Y1992.html
 354 # ZZSI395Y1994.html ZZSI484Y1997.html ZZSI506Y2001.html
 355 #
 356 # [These are all relative to the root, e.g., the first is
 357 # <http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/ZZA13Y1923.html>.]
 358 #
 359 # (These are those I found, but there could be more.  In any case these
 360 # should allow various updates to the comments in the europe file to cover
 361 # the laws applicable in Ireland.)
 362 #
 363 # (Note that the time in the Republic of Ireland since 1968 has been defined
 364 # in terms of standard time being GMT+1 with a period of winter time when it
 365 # is GMT, rather than standard time being GMT with a period of summer time
 366 # being GMT+1.)
 367 
 368 # From Paul Eggert (1999-03-28):
 369 # Clive Feather (<news:859845706.26043.0@office.demon.net>, 1997-03-31)
 370 # reports that Folkestone (Cheriton) Shuttle Terminal uses Concession Time
 371 # (CT), equivalent to French civil time.
 372 # Julian Hill (<news:36118128.5A14@virgin.net>, 1998-09-30) reports that
 373 # trains between Dollands Moor (the freight facility next door)
 374 # and Frethun run in CT.
 375 # My admittedly uninformed guess is that the terminal has two authorities,
 376 # the French concession operators and the British civil authorities,
 377 # and that the time depends on who you're talking to.
 378 # If, say, the British police were called to the station for some reason,
 379 # I would expect the official police report to use GMT/BST and not CET/CEST.
 380 # This is a borderline case, but for now let's stick to GMT/BST.
 381 
 382 # From an anonymous contributor (1996-06-02):
 383 # The law governing time in Ireland is under Statutory Instrument SI 395/94,
 384 # which gives force to European Union 7th Council Directive No. 94/21/EC.
 385 # Under this directive, the Minister for Justice in Ireland makes appropriate
 386 # regulations. I spoke this morning with the Secretary of the Department of
 387 # Justice (tel +353 1 678 9711) who confirmed to me that the correct name is
 388 # "Irish Summer Time", abbreviated to "IST".
 389 #
 390 # From Paul Eggert (2017-12-07):
 391 # The 1996 anonymous contributor's goal was to determine the correct
 392 # abbreviation for summer time in Dublin and so the contributor
 393 # focused on the "IST", not on the "Irish Summer Time".  Though the
 394 # "IST" was correct, the "Irish Summer Time" appears to have been an
 395 # error, as Ireland's Standard Time (Amendment) Act, 1971 states that
 396 # standard time in Ireland remains at UT +01 and is observed in
 397 # summer, and that Greenwich mean time is observed in winter.  (Thanks
 398 # to Derick Rethans for pointing out the error.)  That is, when
 399 # Ireland amended the 1968 act that established UT +01 as Irish
 400 # Standard Time, it left standard time unchanged and established GMT
 401 # as a negative daylight saving time in winter.  So, in this database
 402 # IST stands for Irish Summer Time for timestamps before 1968, and for
 403 # Irish Standard Time after that.  See:
 404 # http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1971/act/17/enacted/en/print
 405 
 406 # Michael Deckers (2017-06-01) gave the following URLs for Ireland's
 407 # Summer Time Act, 1925 and Summer Time Orders, 1926 and 1947:
 408 # http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1925/act/8/enacted/en/print
 409 # http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1926/sro/919/made/en/print
 410 # http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1947/sro/71/made/en/print
 411 
 412 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 413 # Summer Time Act, 1916
 414 Rule    GB-Eire 1916    only    -       May     21      2:00s   1:00    BST
 415 Rule    GB-Eire 1916    only    -       Oct      1      2:00s   0       GMT
 416 # S.R.&O. 1917, No. 358
 417 Rule    GB-Eire 1917    only    -       Apr      8      2:00s   1:00    BST
 418 Rule    GB-Eire 1917    only    -       Sep     17      2:00s   0       GMT
 419 # S.R.&O. 1918, No. 274
 420 Rule    GB-Eire 1918    only    -       Mar     24      2:00s   1:00    BST
 421 Rule    GB-Eire 1918    only    -       Sep     30      2:00s   0       GMT
 422 # S.R.&O. 1919, No. 297
 423 Rule    GB-Eire 1919    only    -       Mar     30      2:00s   1:00    BST
 424 Rule    GB-Eire 1919    only    -       Sep     29      2:00s   0       GMT
 425 # S.R.&O. 1920, No. 458
 426 Rule    GB-Eire 1920    only    -       Mar     28      2:00s   1:00    BST
 427 # S.R.&O. 1920, No. 1844
 428 Rule    GB-Eire 1920    only    -       Oct     25      2:00s   0       GMT
 429 # S.R.&O. 1921, No. 363
 430 Rule    GB-Eire 1921    only    -       Apr      3      2:00s   1:00    BST
 431 Rule    GB-Eire 1921    only    -       Oct      3      2:00s   0       GMT
 432 # S.R.&O. 1922, No. 264
 433 Rule    GB-Eire 1922    only    -       Mar     26      2:00s   1:00    BST
 434 Rule    GB-Eire 1922    only    -       Oct      8      2:00s   0       GMT
 435 # The Summer Time Act, 1922
 436 Rule    GB-Eire 1923    only    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 437 Rule    GB-Eire 1923    1924    -       Sep     Sun>=16      2:00s   0       GMT
 438 Rule    GB-Eire 1924    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 439 Rule    GB-Eire 1925    1926    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 440 # The Summer Time Act, 1925
 441 Rule    GB-Eire 1925    1938    -       Oct     Sun>=2       2:00s   0       GMT
 442 Rule    GB-Eire 1927    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 443 Rule    GB-Eire 1928    1929    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 444 Rule    GB-Eire 1930    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 445 Rule    GB-Eire 1931    1932    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 446 Rule    GB-Eire 1933    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 447 Rule    GB-Eire 1934    only    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 448 Rule    GB-Eire 1935    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 449 Rule    GB-Eire 1936    1937    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 450 Rule    GB-Eire 1938    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 451 Rule    GB-Eire 1939    only    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 452 # S.R.&O. 1939, No. 1379
 453 Rule    GB-Eire 1939    only    -       Nov     Sun>=16      2:00s   0       GMT
 454 # S.R.&O. 1940, No. 172 and No. 1883
 455 Rule    GB-Eire 1940    only    -       Feb     Sun>=23      2:00s   1:00    BST
 456 # S.R.&O. 1941, No. 476
 457 Rule    GB-Eire 1941    only    -       May     Sun>=2       1:00s   2:00    BDST
 458 Rule    GB-Eire 1941    1943    -       Aug     Sun>=9       1:00s   1:00    BST
 459 # S.R.&O. 1942, No. 506
 460 Rule    GB-Eire 1942    1944    -       Apr     Sun>=2       1:00s   2:00    BDST
 461 # S.R.&O. 1944, No. 932
 462 Rule    GB-Eire 1944    only    -       Sep     Sun>=16      1:00s   1:00    BST
 463 # S.R.&O. 1945, No. 312
 464 Rule    GB-Eire 1945    only    -       Apr     Mon>=2       1:00s   2:00    BDST
 465 Rule    GB-Eire 1945    only    -       Jul     Sun>=9       1:00s   1:00    BST
 466 # S.R.&O. 1945, No. 1208
 467 Rule    GB-Eire 1945    1946    -       Oct     Sun>=2       2:00s   0       GMT
 468 Rule    GB-Eire 1946    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 469 # The Summer Time Act, 1947
 470 Rule    GB-Eire 1947    only    -       Mar     16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 471 Rule    GB-Eire 1947    only    -       Apr     13      1:00s   2:00    BDST
 472 Rule    GB-Eire 1947    only    -       Aug     10      1:00s   1:00    BST
 473 Rule    GB-Eire 1947    only    -       Nov      2      2:00s   0       GMT
 474 # Summer Time Order, 1948 (S.I. 1948/495)
 475 Rule    GB-Eire 1948    only    -       Mar     14      2:00s   1:00    BST
 476 Rule    GB-Eire 1948    only    -       Oct     31      2:00s   0       GMT
 477 # Summer Time Order, 1949 (S.I. 1949/373)
 478 Rule    GB-Eire 1949    only    -       Apr      3      2:00s   1:00    BST
 479 Rule    GB-Eire 1949    only    -       Oct     30      2:00s   0       GMT
 480 # Summer Time Order, 1950 (S.I. 1950/518)
 481 # Summer Time Order, 1951 (S.I. 1951/430)
 482 # Summer Time Order, 1952 (S.I. 1952/451)
 483 Rule    GB-Eire 1950    1952    -       Apr     Sun>=14      2:00s   1:00    BST
 484 Rule    GB-Eire 1950    1952    -       Oct     Sun>=21      2:00s   0       GMT
 485 # revert to the rules of the Summer Time Act, 1925
 486 Rule    GB-Eire 1953    only    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 487 Rule    GB-Eire 1953    1960    -       Oct     Sun>=2       2:00s   0       GMT
 488 Rule    GB-Eire 1954    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 489 Rule    GB-Eire 1955    1956    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 490 Rule    GB-Eire 1957    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 491 Rule    GB-Eire 1958    1959    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 492 Rule    GB-Eire 1960    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 493 # Summer Time Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/71)
 494 # Summer Time (1962) Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/2465)
 495 # Summer Time Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/81)
 496 Rule    GB-Eire 1961    1963    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    BST
 497 Rule    GB-Eire 1961    1968    -       Oct     Sun>=23      2:00s   0       GMT
 498 # Summer Time (1964) Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/2101)
 499 # Summer Time Order, 1964 (S.I. 1964/1201)
 500 # Summer Time Order, 1967 (S.I. 1967/1148)
 501 Rule    GB-Eire 1964    1967    -       Mar     Sun>=19      2:00s   1:00    BST
 502 # Summer Time Order, 1968 (S.I. 1968/117)
 503 Rule    GB-Eire 1968    only    -       Feb     18      2:00s   1:00    BST
 504 # The British Standard Time Act, 1968
 505 #       (no summer time)
 506 # The Summer Time Act, 1972
 507 Rule    GB-Eire 1972    1980    -       Mar     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 508 Rule    GB-Eire 1972    1980    -       Oct     Sun>=23      2:00s   0       GMT
 509 # Summer Time Order, 1980 (S.I. 1980/1089)
 510 # Summer Time Order, 1982 (S.I. 1982/1673)
 511 # Summer Time Order, 1986 (S.I. 1986/223)
 512 # Summer Time Order, 1988 (S.I. 1988/931)
 513 Rule    GB-Eire 1981    1995    -       Mar     lastSun 1:00u   1:00    BST
 514 Rule    GB-Eire 1981    1989    -       Oct     Sun>=23      1:00u   0       GMT
 515 # Summer Time Order, 1989 (S.I. 1989/985)
 516 # Summer Time Order, 1992 (S.I. 1992/1729)
 517 # Summer Time Order 1994 (S.I. 1994/2798)
 518 Rule    GB-Eire 1990    1995    -       Oct     Sun>=22      1:00u   0       GMT
 519 # Summer Time Order 1997 (S.I. 1997/2982)
 520 # See EU for rules starting in 1996.
 521 #
 522 # Use Europe/London for Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man.
 523 
 524 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 525 Zone    Europe/London   -0:01:15 -      LMT     1847 Dec  1  0:00s
 526                          0:00   GB-Eire %s      1968 Oct 27
 527                          1:00   -       BST     1971 Oct 31  2:00u
 528                          0:00   GB-Eire %s      1996
 529                          0:00   EU      GMT/BST
 530 Link    Europe/London   Europe/Jersey
 531 Link    Europe/London   Europe/Guernsey
 532 Link    Europe/London   Europe/Isle_of_Man
 533 
 534 # From Paul Eggert (2018-02-15):
 535 # In January 2018 we discovered that the negative SAVE values in the
 536 # Eire rules cause problems with tests for ICU:
 537 # https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2018-January/025825.html
 538 # and with tests for OpenJDK:
 539 # https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2018-January/025822.html
 540 #
 541 # To work around this problem, the build procedure can translate the
 542 # following data into two forms, one with negative SAVE values and the
 543 # other form with a traditional approximation for Irish timestamps
 544 # after 1971-10-31 02:00 UTC; although this approximation has tm_isdst
 545 # flags that are reversed, its UTC offsets are correct and this often
 546 # suffices.  This source file currently uses only nonnegative SAVE
 547 # values, but this is intended to change and downstream code should
 548 # not rely on it.
 549 #
 550 # The following is like GB-Eire and EU, except with standard time in
 551 # summer and negative daylight saving time in winter.  It is for when
 552 # negative SAVE values are used.
 553 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 554 Rule    Eire    1971    only    -       Oct     31       2:00u  -1:00   -
 555 Rule    Eire    1972    1980    -       Mar     Sun>=16       2:00u  0       -
 556 Rule    Eire    1972    1980    -       Oct     Sun>=23       2:00u  -1:00   -
 557 Rule    Eire    1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
 558 Rule    Eire    1981    1989    -       Oct     Sun>=23       1:00u  -1:00   -
 559 Rule    Eire    1990    1995    -       Oct     Sun>=22       1:00u  -1:00   -
 560 Rule    Eire    1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  1:00u  -1:00   -
 561 
 562 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 563 Zone    Europe/Dublin   -0:25:00 -      LMT     1880 Aug  2
 564                         -0:25:21 -      DMT     1916 May 21  2:00s
 565                         -0:25:21 1:00   IST     1916 Oct  1  2:00s
 566                          0:00   GB-Eire %s      1921 Dec  6 # independence
 567                          0:00   GB-Eire GMT/IST 1940 Feb 25  2:00s
 568                          0:00   1:00    IST     1946 Oct  6  2:00s
 569                          0:00   -       GMT     1947 Mar 16  2:00s
 570                          0:00   1:00    IST     1947 Nov  2  2:00s
 571                          0:00   -       GMT     1948 Apr 18  2:00s
 572                          0:00   GB-Eire GMT/IST 1968 Oct 27
 573 # The next line is for when negative SAVE values are used.
 574                          1:00   Eire    IST/GMT
 575 # These three lines are for when SAVE values are always nonnegative.
 576 #                        1:00   -       IST     1971 Oct 31  2:00u
 577 #                        0:00   GB-Eire GMT/IST 1996
 578 #                        0:00   EU      GMT/IST
 579 
 580 
 581 ###############################################################################
 582 
 583 # Europe
 584 
 585 # The following rules are for the European Union and for its
 586 # predecessor organization, the European Communities.
 587 # For brevity they are called "EU rules" elsewhere in this file.
 588 
 589 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 590 Rule    EU      1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1        1:00u  1:00    S
 591 Rule    EU      1977    only    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
 592 Rule    EU      1978    only    -       Oct      1       1:00u  0       -
 593 Rule    EU      1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
 594 Rule    EU      1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  1:00u  1:00    S
 595 Rule    EU      1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
 596 # The most recent directive covers the years starting in 2002.  See:
 597 # Directive 2000/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
 598 # of 19 January 2001 on summer-time arrangements.
 599 # http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32000L0084:EN:NOT
 600 
 601 # W-Eur differs from EU only in that W-Eur uses standard time.
 602 Rule    W-Eur   1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1        1:00s  1:00    S
 603 Rule    W-Eur   1977    only    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00s  0       -
 604 Rule    W-Eur   1978    only    -       Oct      1       1:00s  0       -
 605 Rule    W-Eur   1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00s  0       -
 606 Rule    W-Eur   1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  1:00s  1:00    S
 607 Rule    W-Eur   1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  1:00s  0       -
 608 
 609 # Older C-Eur rules are for convenience in the tables.
 610 # From 1977 on, C-Eur differs from EU only in that C-Eur uses standard time.
 611 Rule    C-Eur   1916    only    -       Apr     30      23:00   1:00    S
 612 Rule    C-Eur   1916    only    -       Oct      1       1:00   0       -
 613 Rule    C-Eur   1917    1918    -       Apr     Mon>=15       2:00s  1:00    S
 614 Rule    C-Eur   1917    1918    -       Sep     Mon>=15       2:00s  0       -
 615 Rule    C-Eur   1940    only    -       Apr      1       2:00s  1:00    S
 616 Rule    C-Eur   1942    only    -       Nov      2       2:00s  0       -
 617 Rule    C-Eur   1943    only    -       Mar     29       2:00s  1:00    S
 618 Rule    C-Eur   1943    only    -       Oct      4       2:00s  0       -
 619 Rule    C-Eur   1944    1945    -       Apr     Mon>=1        2:00s  1:00    S
 620 # Whitman gives 1944 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
 621 Rule    C-Eur   1944    only    -       Oct      2       2:00s  0       -
 622 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2008-07-13):
 623 #
 624 # I found what is probably a typo of 2:00 which should perhaps be 2:00s
 625 # in the C-Eur rule from tz database version 2008d (this part was
 626 # corrected in version 2008d). The circumstantial evidence is simply the
 627 # tz database itself, as seen below:
 628 #
 629 # Zone Europe/Paris 0:09:21 - LMT 1891 Mar 15  0:01
 630 #    0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16  3:00
 631 #
 632 # Zone Europe/Monaco 0:29:32 - LMT 1891 Mar 15
 633 #    0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16  3:00
 634 #
 635 # Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884
 636 #    1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16  2:00s
 637 #
 638 # Rule France 1945 only - Sep 16  3:00 0 -
 639 # Rule Belgium 1945 only - Sep 16  2:00s 0 -
 640 # Rule Neth 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
 641 #
 642 # The rule line to be changed is:
 643 #
 644 # Rule C-Eur 1945 only - Sep 16  2:00 0 -
 645 #
 646 # It seems that Paris, Monaco, Rule France, Rule Belgium all agree on
 647 # 2:00 standard time, e.g. 3:00 local time.  However there are no
 648 # countries that use C-Eur rules in September 1945, so the only items
 649 # affected are apparently these fictitious zones that translate acronyms
 650 # CET and MET:
 651 #
 652 # Zone CET  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT
 653 # Zone MET  1:00 C-Eur ME%sT
 654 #
 655 # It this is right then the corrected version would look like:
 656 #
 657 # Rule C-Eur 1945 only - Sep 16  2:00s 0 -
 658 #
 659 # A small step for mankind though 8-)
 660 Rule    C-Eur   1945    only    -       Sep     16       2:00s  0       -
 661 Rule    C-Eur   1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1        2:00s  1:00    S
 662 Rule    C-Eur   1977    only    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 663 Rule    C-Eur   1978    only    -       Oct      1       2:00s  0       -
 664 Rule    C-Eur   1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 665 Rule    C-Eur   1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
 666 Rule    C-Eur   1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 667 
 668 # E-Eur differs from EU only in that E-Eur switches at midnight local time.
 669 Rule    E-Eur   1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1        0:00   1:00    S
 670 Rule    E-Eur   1977    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       -
 671 Rule    E-Eur   1978    only    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       -
 672 Rule    E-Eur   1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       -
 673 Rule    E-Eur   1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  0:00   1:00    S
 674 Rule    E-Eur   1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  0:00   0       -
 675 
 676 
 677 # Daylight saving time for Russia and the Soviet Union
 678 #
 679 # The 1917-1921 decree URLs are from Alexander Belopolsky (2016-08-23).
 680 
 681 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 682 Rule    Russia  1917    only    -       Jul      1      23:00   1:00    MST  # Moscow Summer Time
 683 #
 684 # Decree No. 142 (1917-12-22) http://istmat.info/node/28137
 685 Rule    Russia  1917    only    -       Dec     28       0:00   0       MMT  # Moscow Mean Time
 686 #
 687 # Decree No. 497 (1918-05-30) http://istmat.info/node/30001
 688 Rule    Russia  1918    only    -       May     31      22:00   2:00    MDST # Moscow Double Summer Time
 689 Rule    Russia  1918    only    -       Sep     16       1:00   1:00    MST
 690 #
 691 # Decree No. 258 (1919-05-29) http://istmat.info/node/37949
 692 Rule    Russia  1919    only    -       May     31      23:00   2:00    MDST
 693 #
 694 Rule    Russia  1919    only    -       Jul      1       0:00u  1:00    MSD
 695 Rule    Russia  1919    only    -       Aug     16       0:00   0       MSK
 696 #
 697 # Decree No. 63 (1921-02-03) http://istmat.info/node/45840
 698 Rule    Russia  1921    only    -       Feb     14      23:00   1:00    MSD
 699 #
 700 # Decree No. 121 (1921-03-07) http://istmat.info/node/45949
 701 Rule    Russia  1921    only    -       Mar     20      23:00   2:00    +05
 702 #
 703 Rule    Russia  1921    only    -       Sep      1       0:00   1:00    MSD
 704 Rule    Russia  1921    only    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       -
 705 # Act No. 925 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1980-10-24):
 706 Rule    Russia  1981    1984    -       Apr      1       0:00   1:00    S
 707 Rule    Russia  1981    1983    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       -
 708 # Act No. 967 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1984-09-13), repeated in
 709 # Act No. 227 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1989-03-14):
 710 Rule    Russia  1984    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 711 Rule    Russia  1985    2010    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
 712 #
 713 Rule    Russia  1996    2010    -       Oct     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 714 # As described below, Russia's 2014 change affects Zone data, not Rule data.
 715 
 716 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07):
 717 # Wikipedia and other sources refer to the Act of the Council of
 718 # Ministers of the USSR from 1988-01-04 No. 5 and the Act of the
 719 # Council of Ministers of the USSR from 1989-03-14 No. 227.
 720 #
 721 # I did not find full texts of these acts.  For the 1989 one we have
 722 # title at https://base.garant.ru/70754136/ :
 723 # "About change in calculation of time on the territories of
 724 # Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR and Estonian SSR, Astrakhan,
 725 # Kaliningrad, Kirov, Kuybyshev, Ulyanovsk and Uralsk oblasts".
 726 # And http://astrozet.net/files/Zones/DOC/RU/1980-925.txt appears to
 727 # contain quotes from both acts: Since last Sunday of March 1988 rules
 728 # of the second time belt are installed in Volgograd and Saratov
 729 # oblasts.  Since last Sunday of March 1989:
 730 # a) Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR, Estonian SSR, Kaliningrad oblast:
 731 # second time belt rules without extra hour (Moscow-1);
 732 # b) Astrakhan, Kirov, Kuybyshev, Ulyanovsk oblasts: second time belt
 733 # rules (Moscow time)
 734 # c) Uralsk oblast: third time belt rules (Moscow+1).
 735 
 736 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-27):
 737 # Unamended version of the act of the
 738 # Government of the Russian Federation No. 23 from 08.01.1992
 739 # http://pravo.gov.ru/proxy/ips/?docbody=&nd=102014034&rdk=0
 740 # says that every year clocks were to be moved forward on last Sunday
 741 # of March at 2 hours and moved backwards on last Sunday of September
 742 # at 3 hours.  It was amended in 1996 to replace September with October.
 743 
 744 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-06-14):
 745 # According to Kremlin press service, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev
 746 # signed a federal law "On calculation of time" on June 9, 2011.
 747 # According to the law Russia is abolishing daylight saving time.
 748 #
 749 # Medvedev signed a law "On the Calculation of Time" (in russian):
 750 # http://bmockbe.ru/events/?ID=7583
 751 #
 752 # Medvedev signed a law on the calculation of the time (in russian):
 753 # https://www.regnum.ru/news/polit/1413906.html
 754 
 755 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15):
 756 # Take "abolishing daylight saving time" to mean that time is now considered
 757 # to be standard.
 758 
 759 # These are for backward compatibility with older versions.
 760 
 761 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 762 Zone    WET             0:00    EU      WE%sT
 763 Zone    CET             1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT
 764 Zone    MET             1:00    C-Eur   ME%sT
 765 Zone    EET             2:00    EU      EE%sT
 766 
 767 # Previous editions of this database used abbreviations like MET DST
 768 # for Central European Summer Time, but this didn't agree with common usage.
 769 
 770 # From Markus Kuhn (1996-07-12):
 771 # The official German names ... are
 772 #
 773 #       Mitteleuropäische Zeit (MEZ)         = UTC+01:00
 774 #       Mitteleuropäische Sommerzeit (MESZ)  = UTC+02:00
 775 #
 776 # as defined in the German Time Act (Gesetz über die Zeitbestimmung (ZeitG),
 777 # 1978-07-25, Bundesgesetzblatt, Jahrgang 1978, Teil I, S. 1110-1111)....
 778 # I wrote ... to the German Federal Physical-Technical Institution
 779 #
 780 #       Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)
 781 #       Laboratorium 4.41 "Zeiteinheit"
 782 #       Postfach 3345
 783 #       D-38023 Braunschweig
 784 #       phone: +49 531 592-0
 785 #
 786 # ... I received today an answer letter from Dr. Peter Hetzel, head of the PTB
 787 # department for time and frequency transmission.  He explained that the
 788 # PTB translates MEZ and MESZ into English as
 789 #
 790 #       Central European Time (CET)         = UTC+01:00
 791 #       Central European Summer Time (CEST) = UTC+02:00
 792 
 793 
 794 # Albania
 795 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 796 Rule    Albania 1940    only    -       Jun     16      0:00    1:00    S
 797 Rule    Albania 1942    only    -       Nov      2      3:00    0       -
 798 Rule    Albania 1943    only    -       Mar     29      2:00    1:00    S
 799 Rule    Albania 1943    only    -       Apr     10      3:00    0       -
 800 Rule    Albania 1974    only    -       May      4      0:00    1:00    S
 801 Rule    Albania 1974    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       -
 802 Rule    Albania 1975    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S
 803 Rule    Albania 1975    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       -
 804 Rule    Albania 1976    only    -       May      2      0:00    1:00    S
 805 Rule    Albania 1976    only    -       Oct      3      0:00    0       -
 806 Rule    Albania 1977    only    -       May      8      0:00    1:00    S
 807 Rule    Albania 1977    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       -
 808 Rule    Albania 1978    only    -       May      6      0:00    1:00    S
 809 Rule    Albania 1978    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
 810 Rule    Albania 1979    only    -       May      5      0:00    1:00    S
 811 Rule    Albania 1979    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       -
 812 Rule    Albania 1980    only    -       May      3      0:00    1:00    S
 813 Rule    Albania 1980    only    -       Oct      4      0:00    0       -
 814 Rule    Albania 1981    only    -       Apr     26      0:00    1:00    S
 815 Rule    Albania 1981    only    -       Sep     27      0:00    0       -
 816 Rule    Albania 1982    only    -       May      2      0:00    1:00    S
 817 Rule    Albania 1982    only    -       Oct      3      0:00    0       -
 818 Rule    Albania 1983    only    -       Apr     18      0:00    1:00    S
 819 Rule    Albania 1983    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
 820 Rule    Albania 1984    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
 821 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 822 Zone    Europe/Tirane   1:19:20 -       LMT     1914
 823                         1:00    -       CET     1940 Jun 16
 824                         1:00    Albania CE%sT   1984 Jul
 825                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
 826 
 827 # Andorra
 828 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 829 Zone    Europe/Andorra  0:06:04 -       LMT     1901
 830                         0:00    -       WET     1946 Sep 30
 831                         1:00    -       CET     1985 Mar 31  2:00
 832                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
 833 
 834 # Austria
 835 
 836 # Milne says Vienna time was 1:05:21.
 837 
 838 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): Shanks & Pottenger give 1918-06-16 and
 839 # 1945-11-18, but the Austrian Federal Office of Metrology and
 840 # Surveying (BEV) gives 1918-09-16 and for Vienna gives the "alleged"
 841 # date of 1945-04-12 with no time.  For the 1980-04-06 transition
 842 # Shanks & Pottenger give 02:00, the BEV 00:00.  Go with the BEV,
 843 # and guess 02:00 for 1945-04-12.
 844 
 845 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 846 Rule    Austria 1920    only    -       Apr      5      2:00s   1:00    S
 847 Rule    Austria 1920    only    -       Sep     13      2:00s   0       -
 848 Rule    Austria 1946    only    -       Apr     14      2:00s   1:00    S
 849 Rule    Austria 1946    1948    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 850 Rule    Austria 1947    only    -       Apr      6      2:00s   1:00    S
 851 Rule    Austria 1948    only    -       Apr     18      2:00s   1:00    S
 852 Rule    Austria 1980    only    -       Apr      6      0:00    1:00    S
 853 Rule    Austria 1980    only    -       Sep     28      0:00    0       -
 854 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 855 Zone    Europe/Vienna   1:05:21 -       LMT     1893 Apr
 856                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1920
 857                         1:00    Austria CE%sT   1940 Apr  1  2:00s
 858                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00s
 859                         1:00    1:00    CEST    1945 Apr 12  2:00s
 860                         1:00    -       CET     1946
 861                         1:00    Austria CE%sT   1981
 862                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
 863 
 864 # Belarus
 865 #
 866 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-07-02):
 867 # http://www.lawbelarus.com/repub/sub30/texf9611.htm
 868 # (Act of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus from
 869 # 1992-03-25 No. 157) ... says clocks were to be moved forward at 2:00
 870 # on last Sunday of March and backward at 3:00 on last Sunday of September
 871 # (the same as previous USSR and contemporary Russian regulations).
 872 #
 873 # From Yauhen Kharuzhy (2011-09-16):
 874 # By latest Belarus government act Europe/Minsk timezone was changed to
 875 # GMT+3 without DST (was GMT+2 with DST).
 876 #
 877 # Sources (Russian language):
 878 # http://www.belta.by/ru/all_news/society/V-Belarusi-otmenjaetsja-perexod-na-sezonnoe-vremja_i_572952.html
 879 # http://naviny.by/rubrics/society/2011/09/16/ic_articles_116_175144/
 880 # https://news.tut.by/society/250578.html
 881 #
 882 # From Alexander Bokovoy (2014-10-09):
 883 # Belarussian government decided against changing to winter time....
 884 # http://eng.belta.by/all_news/society/Belarus-decides-against-adjusting-time-in-Russias-wake_i_76335.html
 885 #
 886 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 887 Zone    Europe/Minsk    1:50:16 -       LMT     1880
 888                         1:50    -       MMT     1924 May  2 # Minsk Mean Time
 889                         2:00    -       EET     1930 Jun 21
 890                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Jun 28
 891                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Jul  3
 892                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990
 893                         3:00    -       MSK     1991 Mar 31  2:00s
 894                         2:00    Russia  EE%sT   2011 Mar 27  2:00s
 895                         3:00    -       +03
 896 
 897 # Belgium
 898 #
 899 # From Paul Eggert (1997-07-02):
 900 # Entries from 1918 through 1991 are taken from:
 901 #       Annuaire de L'Observatoire Royal de Belgique,
 902 #       Avenue Circulaire, 3, B-1180 BRUXELLES, CLVIIe année, 1991
 903 #       (Imprimerie HAYEZ, s.p.r.l., Rue Fin, 4, 1080 BRUXELLES, MCMXC),
 904 #       pp 8-9.
 905 # LMT before 1892 was 0:17:30, according to the official journal of Belgium:
 906 #       Moniteur Belge, Samedi 30 Avril 1892, N.121.
 907 # Thanks to Pascal Delmoitie for these references.
 908 # The 1918 rules are listed for completeness; they apply to unoccupied Belgium.
 909 # Assume Brussels switched to WET in 1918 when the armistice took effect.
 910 #
 911 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 912 Rule    Belgium 1918    only    -       Mar      9       0:00s  1:00    S
 913 Rule    Belgium 1918    1919    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
 914 Rule    Belgium 1919    only    -       Mar      1      23:00s  1:00    S
 915 Rule    Belgium 1920    only    -       Feb     14      23:00s  1:00    S
 916 Rule    Belgium 1920    only    -       Oct     23      23:00s  0       -
 917 Rule    Belgium 1921    only    -       Mar     14      23:00s  1:00    S
 918 Rule    Belgium 1921    only    -       Oct     25      23:00s  0       -
 919 Rule    Belgium 1922    only    -       Mar     25      23:00s  1:00    S
 920 Rule    Belgium 1922    1927    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
 921 Rule    Belgium 1923    only    -       Apr     21      23:00s  1:00    S
 922 Rule    Belgium 1924    only    -       Mar     29      23:00s  1:00    S
 923 Rule    Belgium 1925    only    -       Apr      4      23:00s  1:00    S
 924 # DSH writes that a royal decree of 1926-02-22 specified the Sun following 3rd
 925 # Sat in Apr (except if it's Easter, in which case it's one Sunday earlier),
 926 # to Sun following 1st Sat in Oct, and that a royal decree of 1928-09-15
 927 # changed the transition times to 02:00 GMT.
 928 Rule    Belgium 1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00s  1:00    S
 929 Rule    Belgium 1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00s  1:00    S
 930 Rule    Belgium 1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00s  1:00    S
 931 Rule    Belgium 1928    1938    -       Oct     Sun>=2        2:00s  0       -
 932 Rule    Belgium 1929    only    -       Apr     21       2:00s  1:00    S
 933 Rule    Belgium 1930    only    -       Apr     13       2:00s  1:00    S
 934 Rule    Belgium 1931    only    -       Apr     19       2:00s  1:00    S
 935 Rule    Belgium 1932    only    -       Apr      3       2:00s  1:00    S
 936 Rule    Belgium 1933    only    -       Mar     26       2:00s  1:00    S
 937 Rule    Belgium 1934    only    -       Apr      8       2:00s  1:00    S
 938 Rule    Belgium 1935    only    -       Mar     31       2:00s  1:00    S
 939 Rule    Belgium 1936    only    -       Apr     19       2:00s  1:00    S
 940 Rule    Belgium 1937    only    -       Apr      4       2:00s  1:00    S
 941 Rule    Belgium 1938    only    -       Mar     27       2:00s  1:00    S
 942 Rule    Belgium 1939    only    -       Apr     16       2:00s  1:00    S
 943 Rule    Belgium 1939    only    -       Nov     19       2:00s  0       -
 944 Rule    Belgium 1940    only    -       Feb     25       2:00s  1:00    S
 945 Rule    Belgium 1944    only    -       Sep     17       2:00s  0       -
 946 Rule    Belgium 1945    only    -       Apr      2       2:00s  1:00    S
 947 Rule    Belgium 1945    only    -       Sep     16       2:00s  0       -
 948 Rule    Belgium 1946    only    -       May     19       2:00s  1:00    S
 949 Rule    Belgium 1946    only    -       Oct      7       2:00s  0       -
 950 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 951 Zone    Europe/Brussels 0:17:30 -       LMT     1880
 952                         0:17:30 -       BMT     1892 May  1 12:00  # Brussels MT
 953                         0:00    -       WET     1914 Nov  8
 954                         1:00    -       CET     1916 May  1  0:00
 955                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1918 Nov 11 11:00u
 956                         0:00    Belgium WE%sT   1940 May 20  2:00s
 957                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Sep  3
 958                         1:00    Belgium CE%sT   1977
 959                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
 960 
 961 # Bosnia and Herzegovina
 962 # See Europe/Belgrade.
 963 
 964 # Bulgaria
 965 #
 966 # From Plamen Simenov via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
 967 # A document of Government of Bulgaria (No. 94/1997) says:
 968 # EET -> EETDST is in 03:00 Local time in last Sunday of March ...
 969 # EETDST -> EET is in 04:00 Local time in last Sunday of October
 970 #
 971 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 972 Rule    Bulg    1979    only    -       Mar     31      23:00   1:00    S
 973 Rule    Bulg    1979    only    -       Oct      1       1:00   0       -
 974 Rule    Bulg    1980    1982    -       Apr     Sat>=1       23:00   1:00    S
 975 Rule    Bulg    1980    only    -       Sep     29       1:00   0       -
 976 Rule    Bulg    1981    only    -       Sep     27       2:00   0       -
 977 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 978 Zone    Europe/Sofia    1:33:16 -       LMT     1880
 979                         1:56:56 -       IMT     1894 Nov 30 # Istanbul MT?
 980                         2:00    -       EET     1942 Nov  2  3:00
 981                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945
 982                         1:00    -       CET     1945 Apr  2  3:00
 983                         2:00    -       EET     1979 Mar 31 23:00
 984                         2:00    Bulg    EE%sT   1982 Sep 26  3:00
 985                         2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1991
 986                         2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1997
 987                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
 988 
 989 # Croatia
 990 # See Europe/Belgrade.
 991 
 992 # Cyprus
 993 # Please see the 'asia' file for Asia/Nicosia.
 994 
 995 # Czech Republic / Czechia
 996 #
 997 # From Paul Eggert (2018-04-15):
 998 # The source for Czech data is: Kdy začíná a končí letní čas. 2018-04-15.
 999 # https://kalendar.beda.cz/kdy-zacina-a-konci-letni-cas
1000 # We know of no English-language name for historical Czech winter time;
1001 # abbreviate it as "GMT", as it happened to be GMT.
1002 #
1003 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1004 Rule    Czech   1945    only    -       Apr     Mon>=1       2:00s   1:00    S
1005 Rule    Czech   1945    only    -       Oct      1      2:00s   0       -
1006 Rule    Czech   1946    only    -       May      6      2:00s   1:00    S
1007 Rule    Czech   1946    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
1008 Rule    Czech   1947    1948    -       Apr     Sun>=15      2:00s   1:00    S
1009 Rule    Czech   1949    only    -       Apr      9      2:00s   1:00    S
1010 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1011 Zone    Europe/Prague   0:57:44 -       LMT     1850
1012                         0:57:44 -       PMT     1891 Oct    # Prague Mean Time
1013                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 May  9
1014                         1:00    Czech   CE%sT   1946 Dec  1  3:00
1015 # Vanguard section, for zic and other parsers that support negative DST.
1016                         1:00    -1:00   GMT     1947 Feb 23  2:00
1017 # Rearguard section, for parsers that do not support negative DST.
1018 #                       0:00    -       GMT     1947 Feb 23  2:00
1019 # End of rearguard section.
1020                         1:00    Czech   CE%sT   1979
1021                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1022 # Use Europe/Prague also for Slovakia.
1023 
1024 # Denmark, Faroe Islands, and Greenland
1025 
1026 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-04-26):
1027 # http://www.hum.aau.dk/~poe/tid/tine/DanskTid.htm says that the law
1028 # [introducing standard time] was in effect from 1894-01-01....
1029 # The page http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A18930008330-REGL
1030 # confirms this, and states that the law was put forth 1893-03-29.
1031 #
1032 # The EU [actually, EEC and Euratom] treaty with effect from 1973:
1033 # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19722110030-REGL
1034 #
1035 # This provoked a new law from 1974 to make possible summer time changes
1036 # in subsequent decrees with the law
1037 # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19740022330-REGL
1038 #
1039 # It seems however that no decree was set forward until 1980.  I have
1040 # not found any decree, but in another related law, the effecting DST
1041 # changes are stated explicitly to be from 1980-04-06 at 02:00 to
1042 # 1980-09-28 at 02:00.  If this is true, this differs slightly from
1043 # the EU rule in that DST runs to 02:00, not 03:00.  We don't know
1044 # when Denmark began using the EU rule correctly, but we have only
1045 # confirmation of the 1980-time, so I presume it was correct in 1981:
1046 # The law is about the management of the extra hour, concerning
1047 # working hours reported and effect on obligatory-rest rules (which
1048 # was suspended on that night):
1049 # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/C19801120554-REGL
1050 
1051 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-06-11):
1052 # The Herning Folkeblad (1980-09-26) reported that the night between
1053 # Saturday and Sunday the clock is set back from three to two.
1054 
1055 # From Paul Eggert (2005-06-11):
1056 # Hence the "02:00" of the 1980 law refers to standard time, not
1057 # wall-clock time, and so the EU rules were in effect in 1980.
1058 
1059 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1060 Rule    Denmark 1916    only    -       May     14      23:00   1:00    S
1061 Rule    Denmark 1916    only    -       Sep     30      23:00   0       -
1062 Rule    Denmark 1940    only    -       May     15       0:00   1:00    S
1063 Rule    Denmark 1945    only    -       Apr      2       2:00s  1:00    S
1064 Rule    Denmark 1945    only    -       Aug     15       2:00s  0       -
1065 Rule    Denmark 1946    only    -       May      1       2:00s  1:00    S
1066 Rule    Denmark 1946    only    -       Sep      1       2:00s  0       -
1067 Rule    Denmark 1947    only    -       May      4       2:00s  1:00    S
1068 Rule    Denmark 1947    only    -       Aug     10       2:00s  0       -
1069 Rule    Denmark 1948    only    -       May      9       2:00s  1:00    S
1070 Rule    Denmark 1948    only    -       Aug      8       2:00s  0       -
1071 #
1072 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1073 Zone Europe/Copenhagen   0:50:20 -      LMT     1890
1074                          0:50:20 -      CMT     1894 Jan  1 # Copenhagen MT
1075                          1:00   Denmark CE%sT   1942 Nov  2  2:00s
1076                          1:00   C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00
1077                          1:00   Denmark CE%sT   1980
1078                          1:00   EU      CE%sT
1079 Zone Atlantic/Faroe     -0:27:04 -      LMT     1908 Jan 11 # Tórshavn
1080                          0:00   -       WET     1981
1081                          0:00   EU      WE%sT
1082 #
1083 # From Paul Eggert (2004-10-31):
1084 # During World War II, Germany maintained secret manned weather stations in
1085 # East Greenland and Franz Josef Land, but we don't know their time zones.
1086 # My source for this is Wilhelm Dege's book mentioned under Svalbard.
1087 #
1088 # From Paul Eggert (2017-12-10):
1089 # Greenland joined the European Communities as part of Denmark,
1090 # obtained home rule on 1979-05-01, and left the European Communities
1091 # on 1985-02-01.  It therefore should have been using EU
1092 # rules at least through 1984.  Shanks & Pottenger say Scoresbysund and Godthåb
1093 # used C-Eur rules after 1980, but IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says they use EU
1094 # rules since at least 1991.  Assume EU rules since 1980.
1095 
1096 # From Gwillim Law (2001-06-06), citing
1097 # <http://www.statkart.no/efs/efshefter/2001/efs5-2001.pdf> (2001-03-15),
1098 # and with translations corrected by Steffen Thorsen:
1099 #
1100 # Greenland has four local times, and the relation to UTC
1101 # is according to the following time line:
1102 #
1103 # The military zone near Thule  UTC-4
1104 # Standard Greenland time       UTC-3
1105 # Scoresbysund                  UTC-1
1106 # Danmarkshavn                  UTC
1107 #
1108 # In the military area near Thule and in Danmarkshavn DST will not be
1109 # introduced.
1110 
1111 # From Rives McDow (2001-11-01):
1112 #
1113 # I correspond regularly with the Dansk Polarcenter, and wrote them at
1114 # the time to clarify the situation in Thule.  Unfortunately, I have
1115 # not heard back from them regarding my recent letter.  [But I have
1116 # info from earlier correspondence.]
1117 #
1118 # According to the center, a very small local time zone around Thule
1119 # Air Base keeps the time according to UTC-4, implementing daylight
1120 # savings using North America rules, changing the time at 02:00 local time....
1121 #
1122 # The east coast of Greenland north of the community of Scoresbysund
1123 # uses UTC in the same way as in Iceland, year round, with no dst.
1124 # There are just a few stations on this coast, including the
1125 # Danmarkshavn ICAO weather station mentioned in your September 29th
1126 # email.  The other stations are two sledge patrol stations in
1127 # Mestersvig and Daneborg, the air force base at Station Nord, and the
1128 # DPC research station at Zackenberg.
1129 #
1130 # Scoresbysund and two small villages nearby keep time UTC-1 and use
1131 # the same daylight savings time period as in West Greenland (Godthåb).
1132 #
1133 # The rest of Greenland, including Godthåb (this area, although it
1134 # includes central Greenland, is known as west Greenland), keeps time
1135 # UTC-3, with daylight savings methods according to European rules.
1136 #
1137 # It is common procedure to use UTC 0 in the wilderness of East and
1138 # North Greenland, because it is mainly Icelandic aircraft operators
1139 # maintaining traffic in these areas.  However, the official status of
1140 # this area is that it sticks with Godthåb time.  This area might be
1141 # considered a dual time zone in some respects because of this.
1142 
1143 # From Rives McDow (2001-11-19):
1144 # I heard back from someone stationed at Thule; the time change took place
1145 # there at 2:00 AM.
1146 
1147 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1148 # From 1997 on the CIA map shows Danmarkshavn on GMT;
1149 # the 1995 map as like Godthåb.
1150 # For lack of better info, assume they were like Godthåb before 1996.
1151 # startkart.no says Thule does not observe DST, but this is clearly an error,
1152 # so go with Shanks & Pottenger for Thule transitions until this year.
1153 # For 2007 on assume Thule will stay in sync with US DST rules.
1154 
1155 # From J William Piggott (2016-02-20):
1156 # "Greenland north of the community of Scoresbysund" is officially named
1157 # "National Park" by Executive Order:
1158 # http://naalakkersuisut.gl/~/media/Nanoq/Files/Attached%20Files/Engelske-tekster/Legislation/Executive%20Order%20National%20Park.rtf
1159 # It is their only National Park.
1160 #
1161 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1162 Rule    Thule   1991    1992    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1163 Rule    Thule   1991    1992    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1164 Rule    Thule   1993    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
1165 Rule    Thule   1993    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1166 Rule    Thule   2007    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
1167 Rule    Thule   2007    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
1168 #
1169 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1170 Zone America/Danmarkshavn -1:14:40 -    LMT     1916 Jul 28
1171                         -3:00   -       -03     1980 Apr  6  2:00
1172                         -3:00   EU      -03/-02 1996
1173                         0:00    -       GMT
1174 Zone America/Scoresbysund -1:27:52 -    LMT     1916 Jul 28 # Ittoqqortoormiit
1175                         -2:00   -       -02     1980 Apr  6  2:00
1176                         -2:00   C-Eur   -02/-01 1981 Mar 29
1177                         -1:00   EU      -01/+00
1178 Zone America/Godthab    -3:26:56 -      LMT     1916 Jul 28 # Nuuk
1179                         -3:00   -       -03     1980 Apr  6  2:00
1180                         -3:00   EU      -03/-02
1181 Zone America/Thule      -4:35:08 -      LMT     1916 Jul 28 # Pituffik air base
1182                         -4:00   Thule   A%sT
1183 
1184 # Estonia
1185 #
1186 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
1187 # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
1188 #
1189 # From Peter Ilieve (1994-10-15):
1190 # A relative in Tallinn confirms the accuracy of the data for 1989 onwards
1191 # [through 1994] and gives the legal authority for it,
1192 # a regulation of the Government of Estonia, No. 111 of 1989....
1193 #
1194 # From Peter Ilieve (1996-10-28):
1195 # [IATA SSIM (1992/1996) claims that the Baltic republics switch at 01:00s,
1196 # but a relative confirms that Estonia still switches at 02:00s, writing:]
1197 # "I do not [know] exactly but there are some little different
1198 # (confusing) rules for International Air and Railway Transport Schedules
1199 # conversion in Sunday connected with end of summer time in Estonia....
1200 # A discussion is running about the summer time efficiency and effect on
1201 # human physiology.  It seems that Estonia maybe will not change to
1202 # summer time next spring."
1203 
1204 # From Peter Ilieve (1998-11-04), heavily edited:
1205 # The 1998-09-22 Estonian time law
1206 # http://trip.rk.ee/cgi-bin/thw?${BASE}=akt&${OOHTML}=rtd&TA=1998&TO=1&AN=1390
1207 # refers to the Eighth Directive and cites the association agreement between
1208 # the EU and Estonia, ratified by the Estonian law (RT II 1995, 22-27, 120).
1209 #
1210 # I also asked [my relative] whether they use any standard abbreviation
1211 # for their standard and summer times. He says no, they use "suveaeg"
1212 # (summer time) and "talveaeg" (winter time).
1213 
1214 # From The Baltic Times <https://www.baltictimes.com/> (1999-09-09)
1215 # via Steffen Thorsen:
1216 # This year will mark the last time Estonia shifts to summer time,
1217 # a council of the ruling coalition announced Sept. 6....
1218 # But what this could mean for Estonia's chances of joining the European
1219 # Union are still unclear.  In 1994, the EU declared summer time compulsory
1220 # for all member states until 2001.  Brussels has yet to decide what to do
1221 # after that.
1222 
1223 # From Mart Oruaas (2000-01-29):
1224 # Regulation No. 301 (1999-10-12) obsoletes previous regulation
1225 # No. 206 (1998-09-22) and thus sticks Estonia to +02:00 GMT for all
1226 # the year round.  The regulation is effective 1999-11-01.
1227 
1228 # From Toomas Soome (2002-02-21):
1229 # The Estonian government has changed once again timezone politics.
1230 # Now we are using again EU rules.
1231 #
1232 # From Urmet Jänes (2002-03-28):
1233 # The legislative reference is Government decree No. 84 on 2002-02-21.
1234 
1235 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1236 Zone    Europe/Tallinn  1:39:00 -       LMT     1880
1237                         1:39:00 -       TMT     1918 Feb    # Tallinn Mean Time
1238                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1919 Jul
1239                         1:39:00 -       TMT     1921 May
1240                         2:00    -       EET     1940 Aug  6
1241                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Sep 15
1242                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Sep 22
1243                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1989 Mar 26  2:00s
1244                         2:00    1:00    EEST    1989 Sep 24  2:00s
1245                         2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1998 Sep 22
1246                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   1999 Oct 31  4:00
1247                         2:00    -       EET     2002 Feb 21
1248                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
1249 
1250 # Finland
1251 
1252 # From Hannu Strang (1994-09-25 06:03:37 UTC):
1253 # Well, here in Helsinki we're just changing from summer time to regular one,
1254 # and it's supposed to change at 4am...
1255 
1256 # From Janne Snabb (2010-07-15):
1257 #
1258 # I noticed that the Finland data is not accurate for years 1981 and 1982.
1259 # During these two first trial years the DST adjustment was made one hour
1260 # earlier than in forthcoming years. Starting 1983 the adjustment was made
1261 # according to the central European standards.
1262 #
1263 # This is documented in Heikki Oja: Aikakirja 2007, published by The Almanac
1264 # Office of University of Helsinki, ISBN 952-10-3221-9, available online (in
1265 # Finnish) at
1266 # https://almanakka.helsinki.fi/aikakirja/Aikakirja2007kokonaan.pdf
1267 #
1268 # Page 105 (56 in PDF version) has a handy table of all past daylight savings
1269 # transitions. It is easy enough to interpret without Finnish skills.
1270 #
1271 # This is also confirmed by Finnish Broadcasting Company's archive at:
1272 # http://www.yle.fi/elavaarkisto/?s=s&g=1&ag=5&t=&a=3401
1273 #
1274 # The news clip from 1981 says that "the time between 2 and 3 o'clock does not
1275 # exist tonight."
1276 
1277 # From Konstantin Hyppönen (2014-06-13):
1278 # [Heikki Oja's book Aikakirja 2013]
1279 # https://almanakka.helsinki.fi/images/aikakirja/Aikakirja2013kokonaan.pdf
1280 # pages 104-105, including a scan from a newspaper published on Apr 2 1942
1281 # say that ... [o]n Apr 2 1942, 24 o'clock (which means Apr 3 1942,
1282 # 00:00), clocks were moved one hour forward. The newspaper
1283 # mentions "on the night from Thursday to Friday"....
1284 # On Oct 4 1942, clocks were moved at 1:00 one hour backwards.
1285 #
1286 # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-14):
1287 # Go with Oja over Shanks.
1288 
1289 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1290 Rule    Finland 1942    only    -       Apr     2       24:00   1:00    S
1291 Rule    Finland 1942    only    -       Oct     4       1:00    0       -
1292 Rule    Finland 1981    1982    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    S
1293 Rule    Finland 1981    1982    -       Sep     lastSun 3:00    0       -
1294 
1295 # Milne says Helsinki (Helsingfors) time was 1:39:49.2 (official document);
1296 # round to nearest.
1297 
1298 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1299 Zone    Europe/Helsinki 1:39:49 -       LMT     1878 May 31
1300                         1:39:49 -       HMT     1921 May    # Helsinki Mean Time
1301                         2:00    Finland EE%sT   1983
1302                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
1303 
1304 # Åland Is
1305 Link    Europe/Helsinki Europe/Mariehamn
1306 
1307 
1308 # France
1309 
1310 # From Ciro Discepolo (2000-12-20):
1311 #
1312 # Henri Le Corre, Régimes horaires pour le monde entier, Éditions
1313 # Traditionnelles - Paris 2 books, 1993
1314 #
1315 # Gabriel, Traité de l'heure dans le monde, Guy Trédaniel,
1316 # Paris, 1991
1317 #
1318 # Françoise Gauquelin, Problèmes de l'heure résolus en astrologie,
1319 # Guy Trédaniel, Paris 1987
1320 
1321 
1322 #
1323 # Shank & Pottenger seem to use '24:00' ambiguously; resolve it with Whitman.
1324 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1325 Rule    France  1916    only    -       Jun     14      23:00s  1:00    S
1326 Rule    France  1916    1919    -       Oct     Sun>=1       23:00s  0       -
1327 Rule    France  1917    only    -       Mar     24      23:00s  1:00    S
1328 Rule    France  1918    only    -       Mar      9      23:00s  1:00    S
1329 Rule    France  1919    only    -       Mar      1      23:00s  1:00    S
1330 Rule    France  1920    only    -       Feb     14      23:00s  1:00    S
1331 Rule    France  1920    only    -       Oct     23      23:00s  0       -
1332 Rule    France  1921    only    -       Mar     14      23:00s  1:00    S
1333 Rule    France  1921    only    -       Oct     25      23:00s  0       -
1334 Rule    France  1922    only    -       Mar     25      23:00s  1:00    S
1335 # DSH writes that a law of 1923-05-24 specified 3rd Sat in Apr at 23:00 to 1st
1336 # Sat in Oct at 24:00; and that in 1930, because of Easter, the transitions
1337 # were Apr 12 and Oct 5.  Go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1338 Rule    France  1922    1938    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
1339 Rule    France  1923    only    -       May     26      23:00s  1:00    S
1340 Rule    France  1924    only    -       Mar     29      23:00s  1:00    S
1341 Rule    France  1925    only    -       Apr      4      23:00s  1:00    S
1342 Rule    France  1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00s  1:00    S
1343 Rule    France  1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00s  1:00    S
1344 Rule    France  1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00s  1:00    S
1345 Rule    France  1929    only    -       Apr     20      23:00s  1:00    S
1346 Rule    France  1930    only    -       Apr     12      23:00s  1:00    S
1347 Rule    France  1931    only    -       Apr     18      23:00s  1:00    S
1348 Rule    France  1932    only    -       Apr      2      23:00s  1:00    S
1349 Rule    France  1933    only    -       Mar     25      23:00s  1:00    S
1350 Rule    France  1934    only    -       Apr      7      23:00s  1:00    S
1351 Rule    France  1935    only    -       Mar     30      23:00s  1:00    S
1352 Rule    France  1936    only    -       Apr     18      23:00s  1:00    S
1353 Rule    France  1937    only    -       Apr      3      23:00s  1:00    S
1354 Rule    France  1938    only    -       Mar     26      23:00s  1:00    S
1355 Rule    France  1939    only    -       Apr     15      23:00s  1:00    S
1356 Rule    France  1939    only    -       Nov     18      23:00s  0       -
1357 Rule    France  1940    only    -       Feb     25       2:00   1:00    S
1358 # The French rules for 1941-1944 were not used in Paris, but Shanks & Pottenger
1359 # write that they were used in Monaco and in many French locations.
1360 # Le Corre writes that the upper limit of the free zone was Arnéguy, Orthez,
1361 # Mont-de-Marsan, Bazas, Langon, Lamothe-Montravel, Marœuil, La
1362 # Rochefoucauld, Champagne-Mouton, La Roche-Posay, La Haye-Descartes,
1363 # Loches, Montrichard, Vierzon, Bourges, Moulins, Digoin,
1364 # Paray-le-Monial, Montceau-les-Mines, Chalon-sur-Saône, Arbois,
1365 # Dole, Morez, St-Claude, and Collonges (Haute-Savoie).
1366 Rule    France  1941    only    -       May      5       0:00   2:00    M # Midsummer
1367 # Shanks & Pottenger say this transition occurred at Oct 6 1:00,
1368 # but go with Denis Excoffier (1997-12-12),
1369 # who quotes the Ephémérides astronomiques for 1998 from Bureau des Longitudes
1370 # as saying 5/10/41 22hUT.
1371 Rule    France  1941    only    -       Oct      6       0:00   1:00    S
1372 Rule    France  1942    only    -       Mar      9       0:00   2:00    M
1373 Rule    France  1942    only    -       Nov      2       3:00   1:00    S
1374 Rule    France  1943    only    -       Mar     29       2:00   2:00    M
1375 Rule    France  1943    only    -       Oct      4       3:00   1:00    S
1376 Rule    France  1944    only    -       Apr      3       2:00   2:00    M
1377 Rule    France  1944    only    -       Oct      8       1:00   1:00    S
1378 Rule    France  1945    only    -       Apr      2       2:00   2:00    M
1379 Rule    France  1945    only    -       Sep     16       3:00   0       -
1380 # Shanks & Pottenger give Mar 28 2:00 and Sep 26 3:00;
1381 # go with Excoffier's 28/3/76 0hUT and 25/9/76 23hUT.
1382 Rule    France  1976    only    -       Mar     28       1:00   1:00    S
1383 Rule    France  1976    only    -       Sep     26       1:00   0       -
1384 # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time, and Whitman 0:09:05,
1385 # but Howse quotes the actual French legislation as saying 0:09:21.
1386 # Go with Howse.  Howse writes that the time in France was officially based
1387 # on PMT-0:09:21 until 1978-08-09, when the time base finally switched to UTC.
1388 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1389 Zone    Europe/Paris    0:09:21 -       LMT     1891 Mar 15  0:01
1390                         0:09:21 -       PMT     1911 Mar 11  0:01 # Paris MT
1391 # Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Jun 14 0:00; go with Excoffier and Le Corre.
1392                         0:00    France  WE%sT   1940 Jun 14 23:00
1393 # Le Corre says Paris stuck with occupied-France time after the liberation;
1394 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1395                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Aug 25
1396                         0:00    France  WE%sT   1945 Sep 16  3:00
1397                         1:00    France  CE%sT   1977
1398                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1399 
1400 # Germany
1401 
1402 # From Markus Kuhn (1998-09-29):
1403 # The German time zone web site by the Physikalisch-Technische
1404 # Bundesanstalt contains DST information back to 1916.
1405 # [See tz-link.html for the URL.]
1406 
1407 # From Jörg Schilling (2002-10-23):
1408 # In 1945, Berlin was switched to Moscow Summer time (GMT+4) by
1409 # https://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/biografien/BersarinNikolai/
1410 # General [Nikolai] Bersarin.
1411 
1412 # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-08):
1413 # http://www.parlament-berlin.de/pds-fraktion.nsf/727459127c8b66ee8525662300459099/defc77cb784f180ac1256c2b0030274b/$FILE/bersarint.pdf
1414 # says that Bersarin issued an order to use Moscow time on May 20.
1415 # However, Moscow did not observe daylight saving in 1945, so
1416 # this was equivalent to UT +03, not +04.
1417 
1418 
1419 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1420 Rule    Germany 1946    only    -       Apr     14      2:00s   1:00    S
1421 Rule    Germany 1946    only    -       Oct      7      2:00s   0       -
1422 Rule    Germany 1947    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
1423 # http://www.ptb.de/de/org/4/44/441/salt.htm says the following transition
1424 # occurred at 3:00 MEZ, not the 2:00 MEZ given in Shanks & Pottenger.
1425 # Go with the PTB.
1426 Rule    Germany 1947    only    -       Apr      6      3:00s   1:00    S
1427 Rule    Germany 1947    only    -       May     11      2:00s   2:00    M
1428 Rule    Germany 1947    only    -       Jun     29      3:00    1:00    S
1429 Rule    Germany 1948    only    -       Apr     18      2:00s   1:00    S
1430 Rule    Germany 1949    only    -       Apr     10      2:00s   1:00    S
1431 
1432 Rule SovietZone 1945    only    -       May     24      2:00    2:00    M # Midsummer
1433 Rule SovietZone 1945    only    -       Sep     24      3:00    1:00    S
1434 Rule SovietZone 1945    only    -       Nov     18      2:00s   0       -
1435 
1436 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1437 Zone    Europe/Berlin   0:53:28 -       LMT     1893 Apr
1438                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 May 24  2:00
1439                         1:00 SovietZone CE%sT   1946
1440                         1:00    Germany CE%sT   1980
1441                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1442 
1443 # From Tobias Conradi (2011-09-12):
1444 # Büsingen <http://www.buesingen.de>, surrounded by the Swiss canton
1445 # Schaffhausen, did not start observing DST in 1980 as the rest of DE
1446 # (West Germany at that time) and DD (East Germany at that time) did.
1447 # DD merged into DE, the area is currently covered by code DE in ISO 3166-1,
1448 # which in turn is covered by the zone Europe/Berlin.
1449 #
1450 # Source for the time in Büsingen 1980:
1451 # http://www.srf.ch/player/video?id=c012c029-03b7-4c2b-9164-aa5902cd58d3
1452 
1453 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-03):
1454 # Büsingen and Zurich have shared clocks since 1970.
1455 
1456 Link    Europe/Zurich   Europe/Busingen
1457 
1458 # Georgia
1459 # Please see the "asia" file for Asia/Tbilisi.
1460 # Herodotus (Histories, IV.45) says Georgia north of the Phasis (now Rioni)
1461 # is in Europe.  Our reference location Tbilisi is in the Asian part.
1462 
1463 # Gibraltar
1464 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1465 Zone Europe/Gibraltar   -0:21:24 -      LMT     1880 Aug  2  0:00s
1466                         0:00    GB-Eire %s      1957 Apr 14  2:00
1467                         1:00    -       CET     1982
1468                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1469 
1470 # Greece
1471 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1472 # Whitman gives 1932 Jul 5 - Nov 1; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1473 Rule    Greece  1932    only    -       Jul      7      0:00    1:00    S
1474 Rule    Greece  1932    only    -       Sep      1      0:00    0       -
1475 # Whitman gives 1941 Apr 25 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1476 Rule    Greece  1941    only    -       Apr      7      0:00    1:00    S
1477 # Whitman gives 1942 Feb 2 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1478 Rule    Greece  1942    only    -       Nov      2      3:00    0       -
1479 Rule    Greece  1943    only    -       Mar     30      0:00    1:00    S
1480 Rule    Greece  1943    only    -       Oct      4      0:00    0       -
1481 # Whitman gives 1944 Oct 3 - Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1482 Rule    Greece  1952    only    -       Jul      1      0:00    1:00    S
1483 Rule    Greece  1952    only    -       Nov      2      0:00    0       -
1484 Rule    Greece  1975    only    -       Apr     12      0:00s   1:00    S
1485 Rule    Greece  1975    only    -       Nov     26      0:00s   0       -
1486 Rule    Greece  1976    only    -       Apr     11      2:00s   1:00    S
1487 Rule    Greece  1976    only    -       Oct     10      2:00s   0       -
1488 Rule    Greece  1977    1978    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    S
1489 Rule    Greece  1977    only    -       Sep     26      2:00s   0       -
1490 Rule    Greece  1978    only    -       Sep     24      4:00    0       -
1491 Rule    Greece  1979    only    -       Apr      1      9:00    1:00    S
1492 Rule    Greece  1979    only    -       Sep     29      2:00    0       -
1493 Rule    Greece  1980    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
1494 Rule    Greece  1980    only    -       Sep     28      0:00    0       -
1495 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1496 Zone    Europe/Athens   1:34:52 -       LMT     1895 Sep 14
1497                         1:34:52 -       AMT     1916 Jul 28  0:01 # Athens MT
1498                         2:00    Greece  EE%sT   1941 Apr 30
1499                         1:00    Greece  CE%sT   1944 Apr  4
1500                         2:00    Greece  EE%sT   1981
1501                         # Shanks & Pottenger say it switched to C-Eur in 1981;
1502                         # go with EU rules instead, since Greece joined Jan 1.
1503                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
1504 
1505 # Hungary
1506 # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-15):
1507 # Dates for 1916-1945 are taken from:
1508 # Oross A. Jelen a múlt jövője: a nyári időszámítás Magyarországon 1916-1945.
1509 # National Archives of Hungary (2012-10-29).
1510 # http://mnl.gov.hu/a_het_dokumentuma/a_nyari_idoszamitas_magyarorszagon_19161945.html
1511 # This source does not always give times, which are taken from Shanks
1512 # & Pottenger (which disagree about the dates).
1513 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1514 Rule    Hungary 1918    only    -       Apr      1       3:00   1:00    S
1515 Rule    Hungary 1918    only    -       Sep     16       3:00   0       -
1516 Rule    Hungary 1919    only    -       Apr     15       3:00   1:00    S
1517 Rule    Hungary 1919    only    -       Nov     24       3:00   0       -
1518 Rule    Hungary 1945    only    -       May      1      23:00   1:00    S
1519 Rule    Hungary 1945    only    -       Nov      1       0:00   0       -
1520 Rule    Hungary 1946    only    -       Mar     31       2:00s  1:00    S
1521 Rule    Hungary 1946    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1        2:00s  0       -
1522 Rule    Hungary 1947    1949    -       Apr     Sun>=4        2:00s  1:00    S
1523 Rule    Hungary 1950    only    -       Apr     17       2:00s  1:00    S
1524 Rule    Hungary 1950    only    -       Oct     23       2:00s  0       -
1525 Rule    Hungary 1954    1955    -       May     23       0:00   1:00    S
1526 Rule    Hungary 1954    1955    -       Oct      3       0:00   0       -
1527 Rule    Hungary 1956    only    -       Jun     Sun>=1        0:00   1:00    S
1528 Rule    Hungary 1956    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       -
1529 Rule    Hungary 1957    only    -       Jun     Sun>=1        1:00   1:00    S
1530 Rule    Hungary 1957    only    -       Sep     lastSun  3:00   0       -
1531 Rule    Hungary 1980    only    -       Apr      6       1:00   1:00    S
1532 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1533 Zone    Europe/Budapest 1:16:20 -       LMT     1890 Oct
1534                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1918
1535                         1:00    Hungary CE%sT   1941 Apr  8
1536                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945
1537                         1:00    Hungary CE%sT   1980 Sep 28  2:00s
1538                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1539 
1540 # Iceland
1541 #
1542 # From Adam David (1993-11-06):
1543 # The name of the timezone in Iceland for system / mail / news purposes is GMT.
1544 #
1545 # (1993-12-05):
1546 # This material is paraphrased from the 1988 edition of the University of
1547 # Iceland Almanak.
1548 #
1549 # From January 1st, 1908 the whole of Iceland was standardised at 1 hour
1550 # behind GMT. Previously, local mean solar time was used in different parts
1551 # of Iceland, the almanak had been based on Reykjavik mean solar time which
1552 # was 1 hour and 28 minutes behind GMT.
1553 #
1554 # "first day of winter" referred to [below] means the first day of the 26 weeks
1555 # of winter, according to the old icelandic calendar that dates back to the
1556 # time the norsemen first settled Iceland.  The first day of winter is always
1557 # Saturday, but is not dependent on the Julian or Gregorian calendars.
1558 #
1559 # (1993-12-10):
1560 # I have a reference from the Oxford Icelandic-English dictionary for the
1561 # beginning of winter, which ties it to the ecclesiastical calendar (and thus
1562 # to the julian/gregorian calendar) over the period in question.
1563 #       the winter begins on the Saturday next before St. Luke's day
1564 #       (old style), or on St. Luke's day, if a Saturday.
1565 # St. Luke's day ought to be traceable from ecclesiastical sources. "old style"
1566 # might be a reference to the Julian calendar as opposed to Gregorian, or it
1567 # might mean something else (???).
1568 #
1569 # From Paul Eggert (2014-11-22):
1570 # The information below is taken from the 1988 Almanak; see
1571 # http://www.almanak.hi.is/klukkan.html
1572 #
1573 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1574 Rule    Iceland 1917    1919    -       Feb     19      23:00   1:00    -
1575 Rule    Iceland 1917    only    -       Oct     21       1:00   0       -
1576 Rule    Iceland 1918    1919    -       Nov     16       1:00   0       -
1577 Rule    Iceland 1921    only    -       Mar     19      23:00   1:00    -
1578 Rule    Iceland 1921    only    -       Jun     23       1:00   0       -
1579 Rule    Iceland 1939    only    -       Apr     29      23:00   1:00    -
1580 Rule    Iceland 1939    only    -       Oct     29       2:00   0       -
1581 Rule    Iceland 1940    only    -       Feb     25       2:00   1:00    -
1582 Rule    Iceland 1940    1941    -       Nov     Sun>=2        1:00s  0       -
1583 Rule    Iceland 1941    1942    -       Mar     Sun>=2        1:00s  1:00    -
1584 # 1943-1946 - first Sunday in March until first Sunday in winter
1585 Rule    Iceland 1943    1946    -       Mar     Sun>=1        1:00s  1:00    -
1586 Rule    Iceland 1942    1948    -       Oct     Sun>=22       1:00s  0       -
1587 # 1947-1967 - first Sunday in April until first Sunday in winter
1588 Rule    Iceland 1947    1967    -       Apr     Sun>=1        1:00s  1:00    -
1589 # 1949 and 1967 Oct transitions delayed by 1 week
1590 Rule    Iceland 1949    only    -       Oct     30       1:00s  0       -
1591 Rule    Iceland 1950    1966    -       Oct     Sun>=22       1:00s  0       -
1592 Rule    Iceland 1967    only    -       Oct     29       1:00s  0       -
1593 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1594 Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik -1:28   -       LMT     1908
1595                         -1:00   Iceland -01/+00 1968 Apr  7  1:00s
1596                          0:00   -       GMT
1597 
1598 # Italy
1599 #
1600 # From Paul Eggert (2001-03-06):
1601 # Sicily and Sardinia each had their own time zones from 1866 to 1893,
1602 # called Palermo Time (+00:53:28) and Cagliari Time (+00:36:32).
1603 # During World War II, German-controlled Italy used German time.
1604 # But these events all occurred before the 1970 cutoff,
1605 # so record only the time in Rome.
1606 #
1607 # From Michael Deckers (2016-10-24):
1608 # http://www.ac-ilsestante.it/MERIDIANE/ora_legale quotes a law of 1893-08-10
1609 # ... [translated as] "The preceding dispositions will enter into
1610 # force at the instant at which, according to the time specified in
1611 # the 1st article, the 1st of November 1893 will begin...."
1612 #
1613 # From Pierpaolo Bernardi (2016-10-20):
1614 # The authoritative source for time in Italy is the national metrological
1615 # institute, which has a summary page of historical DST data at
1616 # http://www.inrim.it/res/tf/ora_legale_i.shtml
1617 # (2016-10-24):
1618 # http://www.renzobaldini.it/le-ore-legali-in-italia/
1619 # has still different data for 1944.  It divides Italy in two, as
1620 # there were effectively two governments at the time, north of Gothic
1621 # Line German controlled territory, official government RSI, and south
1622 # of the Gothic Line, controlled by allied armies.
1623 #
1624 # From Brian Inglis (2016-10-23):
1625 # Viceregal LEGISLATIVE DECREE. 14 September 1944, no. 219.
1626 # Restoration of Standard Time. (044U0219) (OJ 62 of 30.9.1944) ...
1627 # Given the R. law decreed on 1944-03-29, no. 92, by which standard time is
1628 # advanced to sixty minutes later starting at hour two on 1944-04-02; ...
1629 # Starting at hour three on the date 1944-09-17 standard time will be resumed.
1630 #
1631 # From Paul Eggert (2016-10-27):
1632 # Go with INRiM for DST rules, except as corrected by Inglis for 1944
1633 # for the Kingdom of Italy.  This is consistent with Renzo Baldini.
1634 # Model Rome's occupation by using C-Eur rules from 1943-09-10
1635 # to 1944-06-04; although Rome was an open city during this period, it
1636 # was effectively controlled by Germany.
1637 #
1638 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1639 Rule    Italy   1916    only    -       Jun      3      24:00   1:00    S
1640 Rule    Italy   1916    1917    -       Sep     30      24:00   0       -
1641 Rule    Italy   1917    only    -       Mar     31      24:00   1:00    S
1642 Rule    Italy   1918    only    -       Mar      9      24:00   1:00    S
1643 Rule    Italy   1918    only    -       Oct      6      24:00   0       -
1644 Rule    Italy   1919    only    -       Mar      1      24:00   1:00    S
1645 Rule    Italy   1919    only    -       Oct      4      24:00   0       -
1646 Rule    Italy   1920    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    S
1647 Rule    Italy   1920    only    -       Sep     18      24:00   0       -
1648 Rule    Italy   1940    only    -       Jun     14      24:00   1:00    S
1649 Rule    Italy   1942    only    -       Nov      2       2:00s  0       -
1650 Rule    Italy   1943    only    -       Mar     29       2:00s  1:00    S
1651 Rule    Italy   1943    only    -       Oct      4       2:00s  0       -
1652 Rule    Italy   1944    only    -       Apr      2       2:00s  1:00    S
1653 Rule    Italy   1944    only    -       Sep     17       2:00s  0       -
1654 Rule    Italy   1945    only    -       Apr      2       2:00   1:00    S
1655 Rule    Italy   1945    only    -       Sep     15       1:00   0       -
1656 Rule    Italy   1946    only    -       Mar     17       2:00s  1:00    S
1657 Rule    Italy   1946    only    -       Oct      6       2:00s  0       -
1658 Rule    Italy   1947    only    -       Mar     16       0:00s  1:00    S
1659 Rule    Italy   1947    only    -       Oct      5       0:00s  0       -
1660 Rule    Italy   1948    only    -       Feb     29       2:00s  1:00    S
1661 Rule    Italy   1948    only    -       Oct      3       2:00s  0       -
1662 Rule    Italy   1966    1968    -       May     Sun>=22       0:00s  1:00    S
1663 Rule    Italy   1966    only    -       Sep     24      24:00   0       -
1664 Rule    Italy   1967    1969    -       Sep     Sun>=22       0:00s  0       -
1665 Rule    Italy   1969    only    -       Jun      1       0:00s  1:00    S
1666 Rule    Italy   1970    only    -       May     31       0:00s  1:00    S
1667 Rule    Italy   1970    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       -
1668 Rule    Italy   1971    1972    -       May     Sun>=22       0:00s  1:00    S
1669 Rule    Italy   1971    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       -
1670 Rule    Italy   1972    only    -       Oct      1       0:00s  0       -
1671 Rule    Italy   1973    only    -       Jun      3       0:00s  1:00    S
1672 Rule    Italy   1973    1974    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       -
1673 Rule    Italy   1974    only    -       May     26       0:00s  1:00    S
1674 Rule    Italy   1975    only    -       Jun      1       0:00s  1:00    S
1675 Rule    Italy   1975    1977    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       -
1676 Rule    Italy   1976    only    -       May     30       0:00s  1:00    S
1677 Rule    Italy   1977    1979    -       May     Sun>=22       0:00s  1:00    S
1678 Rule    Italy   1978    only    -       Oct      1       0:00s  0       -
1679 Rule    Italy   1979    only    -       Sep     30       0:00s  0       -
1680 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1681 Zone    Europe/Rome     0:49:56 -       LMT     1866 Sep 22
1682                         0:49:56 -       RMT     1893 Oct 31 23:49:56 # Rome Mean
1683                         1:00    Italy   CE%sT   1943 Sep 10
1684                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Jun  4
1685                         1:00    Italy   CE%sT   1980
1686                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1687 
1688 Link    Europe/Rome     Europe/Vatican
1689 Link    Europe/Rome     Europe/San_Marino
1690 
1691 # Latvia
1692 
1693 # From Liene Kanepe (1998-09-17):
1694 
1695 # I asked about this matter Scientific Secretary of the Institute of Astronomy
1696 # of The University of Latvia Dr. paed Mr. Ilgonis Vilks. I also searched the
1697 # correct data in juridical acts and I found some juridical documents about
1698 # changes in the counting of time in Latvia from 1981....
1699 #
1700 # Act No. 35 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1981-01-22 ...
1701 # according to the Act No. 925 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1980-10-24
1702 # ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning
1703 # the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on 1 April at 00:00 (GMT 31 March 21:00)
1704 # and 1 hour backward on the 1 October at 00:00 (GMT 30 September 20:00).
1705 #
1706 # Act No. 592 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1984-09-24 ...
1707 # according to the Act No. 967 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1984-09-13
1708 # ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning
1709 # the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on the last Sunday of March at 02:00
1710 # (GMT 23:00 on the previous day) and 1 hour backward on the last Sunday of
1711 # September at 03:00 (GMT 23:00 on the previous day).
1712 #
1713 # Act No. 81 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1989-03-22 ...
1714 # according to the Act No. 227 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1989-03-14
1715 # ...: since the last Sunday of March 1989 in Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR,
1716 # Estonian SSR and Kaliningrad region of Russian Federation all year round the
1717 # time of 2nd time zone (Moscow time minus one hour). On the territory of Latvia
1718 # transition to summer time is performed on the last Sunday of March at 02:00
1719 # (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour forward.  The end of
1720 # daylight saving time is performed on the last Sunday of September at 03:00
1721 # (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour backward. Exception is
1722 # 1989-03-26, when we must not turn the hands of the clock....
1723 #
1724 # The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Latvia of
1725 # 1997-01-21 on transition to Summer time ... established the same order of
1726 # daylight savings time settings as in the States of the European Union.
1727 
1728 # From Andrei Ivanov (2000-03-06):
1729 # This year Latvia will not switch to Daylight Savings Time (as specified in
1730 # The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Rep. of Latvia of
1731 # 29-Feb-2000 (No. 79) <http://www.lv-laiks.lv/wwwraksti/2000/071072/vd4.htm>,
1732 # in Latvian for subscribers only).
1733 
1734 # From RFE/RL Newsline
1735 # http://www.rferl.org/newsline/2001/01/3-CEE/cee-030101.html
1736 # (2001-01-03), noted after a heads-up by Rives McDow:
1737 # The Latvian government on 2 January decided that the country will
1738 # institute daylight-saving time this spring, LETA reported.
1739 # Last February the three Baltic states decided not to turn back their
1740 # clocks one hour in the spring....
1741 # Minister of Economy Aigars Kalvītis noted that Latvia had too few
1742 # daylight hours and thus decided to comply with a draft European
1743 # Commission directive that provides for instituting daylight-saving
1744 # time in EU countries between 2002 and 2006. The Latvian government
1745 # urged Lithuania and Estonia to adopt a similar time policy, but it
1746 # appears that they will not do so....
1747 
1748 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1749 Rule    Latvia  1989    1996    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
1750 Rule    Latvia  1989    1996    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
1751 
1752 # Milne 1899 says Riga was 1:36:28 (Polytechnique House time).
1753 # Byalokoz 1919 says Latvia was 1:36:34.
1754 # Go with Byalokoz.
1755 
1756 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1757 Zone    Europe/Riga     1:36:34 -       LMT     1880
1758                         1:36:34 -       RMT     1918 Apr 15  2:00 # Riga MT
1759                         1:36:34 1:00    LST     1918 Sep 16  3:00 # Latvian ST
1760                         1:36:34 -       RMT     1919 Apr  1  2:00
1761                         1:36:34 1:00    LST     1919 May 22  3:00
1762                         1:36:34 -       RMT     1926 May 11
1763                         2:00    -       EET     1940 Aug  5
1764                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Jul
1765                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Oct 13
1766                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1989 Mar lastSun  2:00s
1767                         2:00    1:00    EEST    1989 Sep lastSun  2:00s
1768                         2:00    Latvia  EE%sT   1997 Jan 21
1769                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   2000 Feb 29
1770                         2:00    -       EET     2001 Jan  2
1771                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
1772 
1773 # Liechtenstein
1774 
1775 # From Paul Eggert (2013-09-09):
1776 # Shanks & Pottenger say Vaduz is like Zurich.
1777 
1778 # From Alois Treindl (2013-09-18):
1779 # http://www.eliechtensteinensia.li/LIJ/1978/1938-1978/1941.pdf
1780 # ... confirms on p. 6 that Liechtenstein followed Switzerland in 1941 and 1942.
1781 # I ... translate only the last two paragraphs:
1782 #    ... during second world war, in the years 1941 and 1942, Liechtenstein
1783 #    introduced daylight saving time, adapting to Switzerland.  From 1943 on
1784 #    central European time was in force throughout the year.
1785 #    From a report of the duke's government to the high council,
1786 #    regarding the introduction of a time law, of 31 May 1977.
1787 
1788 Link Europe/Zurich Europe/Vaduz
1789 
1790 
1791 # Lithuania
1792 
1793 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
1794 # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
1795 
1796 # From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
1797 # IATA SSIM (1992/1996) says Lithuania uses W-Eur rules, but since it is
1798 # known to be wrong about Estonia and Latvia, assume it's wrong here too.
1799 
1800 # From Marius Gedminas (1998-08-07):
1801 # I would like to inform that in this year Lithuanian time zone
1802 # (Europe/Vilnius) was changed.
1803 
1804 # From ELTA No. 972 (2582) (1999-09-29) <http://www.elta.lt/>,
1805 # via Steffen Thorsen:
1806 # Lithuania has shifted back to the second time zone (GMT plus two hours)
1807 # to be valid here starting from October 31,
1808 # as decided by the national government on Wednesday....
1809 # The Lithuanian government also announced plans to consider a
1810 # motion to give up shifting to summer time in spring, as it was
1811 # already done by Estonia.
1812 
1813 # From the Fact File, Lithuanian State Department of Tourism
1814 # <http://www.tourism.lt/informa/ff.htm> (2000-03-27):
1815 # Local time is GMT+2 hours ..., no daylight saving.
1816 
1817 # From a user via Klaus Marten (2003-02-07):
1818 # As a candidate for membership of the European Union, Lithuania will
1819 # observe Summer Time in 2003, changing its clocks at the times laid
1820 # down in EU Directive 2000/84 of 19.I.01 (i.e. at the same times as its
1821 # neighbour Latvia). The text of the Lithuanian government Order of
1822 # 7.XI.02 to this effect can be found at
1823 # http://www.lrvk.lt/nut/11/n1749.htm
1824 
1825 
1826 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1827 Zone    Europe/Vilnius  1:41:16 -       LMT     1880
1828                         1:24:00 -       WMT     1917        # Warsaw Mean Time
1829                         1:35:36 -       KMT     1919 Oct 10 # Kaunas Mean Time
1830                         1:00    -       CET     1920 Jul 12
1831                         2:00    -       EET     1920 Oct  9
1832                         1:00    -       CET     1940 Aug  3
1833                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Jun 24
1834                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Aug
1835                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1989 Mar 26  2:00s
1836                         2:00    Russia  EE%sT   1991 Sep 29  2:00s
1837                         2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1998
1838                         2:00    -       EET     1998 Mar 29  1:00u
1839                         1:00    EU      CE%sT   1999 Oct 31  1:00u
1840                         2:00    -       EET     2003 Jan  1
1841                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
1842 
1843 # Luxembourg
1844 # Whitman disagrees with most of these dates in minor ways;
1845 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1846 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1847 Rule    Lux     1916    only    -       May     14      23:00   1:00    S
1848 Rule    Lux     1916    only    -       Oct      1       1:00   0       -
1849 Rule    Lux     1917    only    -       Apr     28      23:00   1:00    S
1850 Rule    Lux     1917    only    -       Sep     17       1:00   0       -
1851 Rule    Lux     1918    only    -       Apr     Mon>=15       2:00s  1:00    S
1852 Rule    Lux     1918    only    -       Sep     Mon>=15       2:00s  0       -
1853 Rule    Lux     1919    only    -       Mar      1      23:00   1:00    S
1854 Rule    Lux     1919    only    -       Oct      5       3:00   0       -
1855 Rule    Lux     1920    only    -       Feb     14      23:00   1:00    S
1856 Rule    Lux     1920    only    -       Oct     24       2:00   0       -
1857 Rule    Lux     1921    only    -       Mar     14      23:00   1:00    S
1858 Rule    Lux     1921    only    -       Oct     26       2:00   0       -
1859 Rule    Lux     1922    only    -       Mar     25      23:00   1:00    S
1860 Rule    Lux     1922    only    -       Oct     Sun>=2        1:00   0       -
1861 Rule    Lux     1923    only    -       Apr     21      23:00   1:00    S
1862 Rule    Lux     1923    only    -       Oct     Sun>=2        2:00   0       -
1863 Rule    Lux     1924    only    -       Mar     29      23:00   1:00    S
1864 Rule    Lux     1924    1928    -       Oct     Sun>=2        1:00   0       -
1865 Rule    Lux     1925    only    -       Apr      5      23:00   1:00    S
1866 Rule    Lux     1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00   1:00    S
1867 Rule    Lux     1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00   1:00    S
1868 Rule    Lux     1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00   1:00    S
1869 Rule    Lux     1929    only    -       Apr     20      23:00   1:00    S
1870 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1871 Zone Europe/Luxembourg  0:24:36 -       LMT     1904 Jun
1872                         1:00    Lux     CE%sT   1918 Nov 25
1873                         0:00    Lux     WE%sT   1929 Oct  6  2:00s
1874                         0:00    Belgium WE%sT   1940 May 14  3:00
1875                         1:00    C-Eur   WE%sT   1944 Sep 18  3:00
1876                         1:00    Belgium CE%sT   1977
1877                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1878 
1879 # North Macedonia
1880 # See Europe/Belgrade.
1881 
1882 # Malta
1883 #
1884 # From Paul Eggert (2016-10-21):
1885 # Assume 1900-1972 was like Rome, overriding Shanks.
1886 #
1887 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1888 Rule    Malta   1973    only    -       Mar     31      0:00s   1:00    S
1889 Rule    Malta   1973    only    -       Sep     29      0:00s   0       -
1890 Rule    Malta   1974    only    -       Apr     21      0:00s   1:00    S
1891 Rule    Malta   1974    only    -       Sep     16      0:00s   0       -
1892 Rule    Malta   1975    1979    -       Apr     Sun>=15      2:00    1:00    S
1893 Rule    Malta   1975    1980    -       Sep     Sun>=15      2:00    0       -
1894 Rule    Malta   1980    only    -       Mar     31      2:00    1:00    S
1895 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1896 Zone    Europe/Malta    0:58:04 -       LMT     1893 Nov  2  0:00s # Valletta
1897                         1:00    Italy   CE%sT   1973 Mar 31
1898                         1:00    Malta   CE%sT   1981
1899                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1900 
1901 # Moldova
1902 
1903 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07):
1904 # the act of the government of the Republic of Moldova Nr. 132 from 1990-05-04
1905 # http://lex.justice.md/viewdoc.php?action=view&view=doc&id=298782&lang=2
1906 # ... says that since 1990-05-06 on the territory of the Moldavian SSR
1907 # time would be calculated as the standard time of the second time belt
1908 # plus one hour of the "summer" time. To implement that clocks would be
1909 # adjusted one hour backwards at 1990-05-06 2:00. After that "summer"
1910 # time would be cancelled last Sunday of September at 3:00 and
1911 # reintroduced last Sunday of March at 2:00.
1912 
1913 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1914 # A previous version of this database followed Shanks & Pottenger, who write
1915 # that Tiraspol switched to Moscow time on 1992-01-19 at 02:00.
1916 # However, this is most likely an error, as Moldova declared independence
1917 # on 1991-08-27 (the 1992-01-19 date is that of a Russian decree).
1918 # In early 1992 there was large-scale interethnic violence in the area
1919 # and it's possible that some Russophones continued to observe Moscow time.
1920 # But [two people] separately reported via
1921 # Jesper Nørgaard that as of 2001-01-24 Tiraspol was like Chisinau.
1922 # The Tiraspol entry has therefore been removed for now.
1923 #
1924 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-10-17):
1925 # Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR, also known as
1926 # "Pridnestrovie") has abolished seasonal clock change (no transition
1927 # to the Winter Time).
1928 #
1929 # News (in Russian):
1930 # http://www.kyivpost.ua/russia/news/pridnestrove-otkazalos-ot-perehoda-na-zimnee-vremya-30954.html
1931 # http://www.allmoldova.com/moldova-news/1249064116.html
1932 #
1933 # The substance of this change (reinstatement of the Tiraspol entry)
1934 # is from a patch from Petr Machata (2011-10-17)
1935 #
1936 # From Tim Parenti (2011-10-19)
1937 # In addition, being situated at +4651+2938 would give Tiraspol
1938 # a pre-1880 LMT offset of 1:58:32.
1939 #
1940 # (which agrees with the earlier entry that had been removed)
1941 #
1942 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-10-26)
1943 # NO need to divide Moldova into two timezones at this point.
1944 # As of today, Transnistria (Pridnestrovie)- Tiraspol reversed its own
1945 # decision to abolish DST this winter.
1946 # Following Moldova and neighboring Ukraine- Transnistria (Pridnestrovie)-
1947 # Tiraspol will go back to winter time on October 30, 2011.
1948 # News from Moldova (in russian):
1949 # https://ru.publika.md/link_317061.html
1950 
1951 # From Roman Tudos (2015-07-02):
1952 # http://lex.justice.md/index.php?action=view&view=doc&lang=1&id=355077
1953 # From Paul Eggert (2015-07-01):
1954 # The abovementioned official link to IGO1445-868/2014 states that
1955 # 2014-10-26's fallback transition occurred at 03:00 local time.  Also,
1956 # https://www.trm.md/en/social/la-30-martie-vom-trece-la-ora-de-vara
1957 # says the 2014-03-30 spring-forward transition was at 02:00 local time.
1958 # Guess that since 1997 Moldova has switched one hour before the EU.
1959 
1960 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1961 Rule    Moldova 1997    max     -       Mar     lastSun  2:00   1:00    S
1962 Rule    Moldova 1997    max     -       Oct     lastSun  3:00   0       -
1963 
1964 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1965 Zone    Europe/Chisinau 1:55:20 -       LMT     1880
1966                         1:55    -       CMT     1918 Feb 15 # Chisinau MT
1967                         1:44:24 -       BMT     1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT
1968                         2:00    Romania EE%sT   1940 Aug 15
1969                         2:00    1:00    EEST    1941 Jul 17
1970                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Aug 24
1971                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990 May  6  2:00
1972                         2:00    Russia  EE%sT   1992
1973                         2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1997
1974 # See Romania commentary for the guessed 1997 transition to EU rules.
1975                         2:00    Moldova EE%sT
1976 
1977 # Monaco
1978 # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's
1979 # more precise 0:09:21.
1980 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1981 Zone    Europe/Monaco   0:29:32 -       LMT     1891 Mar 15
1982                         0:09:21 -       PMT     1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time
1983                         0:00    France  WE%sT   1945 Sep 16  3:00
1984                         1:00    France  CE%sT   1977
1985                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1986 
1987 # Montenegro
1988 # See Europe/Belgrade.
1989 
1990 # Netherlands
1991 
1992 # Howse writes that the Netherlands' railways used GMT between 1892 and 1940,
1993 # but for other purposes the Netherlands used Amsterdam mean time.
1994 
1995 # However, Robert H. van Gent writes (2001-04-01):
1996 # Howse's statement is only correct up to 1909. From 1909-05-01 (00:00:00
1997 # Amsterdam mean time) onwards, the whole of the Netherlands (including
1998 # the Dutch railways) was required by law to observe Amsterdam mean time
1999 # (19 minutes 32.13 seconds ahead of GMT). This had already been the
2000 # common practice (except for the railways) for many decades but it was
2001 # not until 1909 when the Dutch government finally defined this by law.
2002 # On 1937-07-01 this was changed to 20 minutes (exactly) ahead of GMT and
2003 # was generally known as Dutch Time ("Nederlandse Tijd").
2004 #
2005 # (2001-04-08):
2006 # 1892-05-01 was the date when the Dutch railways were by law required to
2007 # observe GMT while the remainder of the Netherlands adhered to the common
2008 # practice of following Amsterdam mean time.
2009 #
2010 # (2001-04-09):
2011 # In 1835 the authorities of the province of North Holland requested the
2012 # municipal authorities of the towns and cities in the province to observe
2013 # Amsterdam mean time but I do not know in how many cases this request was
2014 # actually followed.
2015 #
2016 # From 1852 onwards the Dutch telegraph offices were by law required to
2017 # observe Amsterdam mean time. As the time signals from the observatory of
2018 # Leiden were also distributed by the telegraph system, I assume that most
2019 # places linked up with the telegraph (and railway) system automatically
2020 # adopted Amsterdam mean time.
2021 #
2022 # Although the early Dutch railway companies initially observed a variety
2023 # of times, most of them had adopted Amsterdam mean time by 1858 but it
2024 # was not until 1866 when they were all required by law to observe
2025 # Amsterdam mean time.
2026 
2027 # The data entries before 1945 are taken from
2028 # https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/wettijd/wettijd.htm
2029 
2030 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2031 Rule    Neth    1916    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    NST     # Netherlands Summer Time
2032 Rule    Neth    1916    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       AMT     # Amsterdam Mean Time
2033 Rule    Neth    1917    only    -       Apr     16      2:00s   1:00    NST
2034 Rule    Neth    1917    only    -       Sep     17      2:00s   0       AMT
2035 Rule    Neth    1918    1921    -       Apr     Mon>=1       2:00s   1:00    NST
2036 Rule    Neth    1918    1921    -       Sep     lastMon 2:00s   0       AMT
2037 Rule    Neth    1922    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    NST
2038 Rule    Neth    1922    1936    -       Oct     Sun>=2       2:00s   0       AMT
2039 Rule    Neth    1923    only    -       Jun     Fri>=1       2:00s   1:00    NST
2040 Rule    Neth    1924    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    NST
2041 Rule    Neth    1925    only    -       Jun     Fri>=1       2:00s   1:00    NST
2042 # From 1926 through 1939 DST began 05-15, except that it was delayed by a week
2043 # in years when 05-15 fell in the Pentecost weekend.
2044 Rule    Neth    1926    1931    -       May     15      2:00s   1:00    NST
2045 Rule    Neth    1932    only    -       May     22      2:00s   1:00    NST
2046 Rule    Neth    1933    1936    -       May     15      2:00s   1:00    NST
2047 Rule    Neth    1937    only    -       May     22      2:00s   1:00    NST
2048 Rule    Neth    1937    only    -       Jul      1      0:00    1:00    S
2049 Rule    Neth    1937    1939    -       Oct     Sun>=2       2:00s   0       -
2050 Rule    Neth    1938    1939    -       May     15      2:00s   1:00    S
2051 Rule    Neth    1945    only    -       Apr      2      2:00s   1:00    S
2052 Rule    Neth    1945    only    -       Sep     16      2:00s   0       -
2053 #
2054 # Amsterdam Mean Time was +00:19:32.13, but the .13 is omitted
2055 # below because the current format requires GMTOFF to be an integer.
2056 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2057 Zone Europe/Amsterdam   0:19:32 -       LMT     1835
2058                         0:19:32 Neth    %s      1937 Jul  1
2059                         0:20    Neth +0020/+0120 1940 May 16  0:00
2060                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00
2061                         1:00    Neth    CE%sT   1977
2062                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
2063 
2064 # Norway
2065 # http://met.no/met/met_lex/q_u/sommertid.html (2004-01) agrees with Shanks &
2066 # Pottenger.
2067 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2068 Rule    Norway  1916    only    -       May     22      1:00    1:00    S
2069 Rule    Norway  1916    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       -
2070 Rule    Norway  1945    only    -       Apr      2      2:00s   1:00    S
2071 Rule    Norway  1945    only    -       Oct      1      2:00s   0       -
2072 Rule    Norway  1959    1964    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   1:00    S
2073 Rule    Norway  1959    1965    -       Sep     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       -
2074 Rule    Norway  1965    only    -       Apr     25      2:00s   1:00    S
2075 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2076 Zone    Europe/Oslo     0:43:00 -       LMT     1895 Jan  1
2077                         1:00    Norway  CE%sT   1940 Aug 10 23:00
2078                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00
2079                         1:00    Norway  CE%sT   1980
2080                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
2081 
2082 # Svalbard & Jan Mayen
2083 
2084 # From Steffen Thorsen (2001-05-01):
2085 # Although I could not find it explicitly, it seems that Jan Mayen and
2086 # Svalbard have been using the same time as Norway at least since the
2087 # time they were declared as parts of Norway.  Svalbard was declared
2088 # as a part of Norway by law of 1925-07-17 no 11, section 4 and Jan
2089 # Mayen by law of 1930-02-27 no 2, section 2. (From
2090 # <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19250717-011.html> and
2091 # <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19300227-002.html>).  The law/regulation
2092 # for normal/standard time in Norway is from 1894-06-29 no 1 (came
2093 # into operation on 1895-01-01) and Svalbard/Jan Mayen seem to be a
2094 # part of this law since 1925/1930. (From
2095 # <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-18940629-001.html>) I have not been
2096 # able to find if Jan Mayen used a different time zone (e.g. -0100)
2097 # before 1930. Jan Mayen has only been "inhabited" since 1921 by
2098 # Norwegian meteorologists and maybe used the same time as Norway ever
2099 # since 1921.  Svalbard (Arctic/Longyearbyen) has been inhabited since
2100 # before 1895, and therefore probably changed the local time somewhere
2101 # between 1895 and 1925 (inclusive).
2102 
2103 # From Paul Eggert (2013-09-04):
2104 #
2105 # Actually, Jan Mayen was never occupied by Germany during World War II,
2106 # so it must have diverged from Oslo time during the war, as Oslo was
2107 # keeping Berlin time.
2108 #
2109 # <https://www.jan-mayen.no/history.htm> says that the meteorologists
2110 # burned down their station in 1940 and left the island, but returned in
2111 # 1941 with a small Norwegian garrison and continued operations despite
2112 # frequent air attacks from Germans.  In 1943 the Americans established a
2113 # radiolocating station on the island, called "Atlantic City".  Possibly
2114 # the UT offset changed during the war, but I think it unlikely that
2115 # Jan Mayen used German daylight-saving rules.
2116 #
2117 # Svalbard is more complicated, as it was raided in August 1941 by an
2118 # Allied party that evacuated the civilian population to England (says
2119 # <http://www.bartleby.com/65/sv/Svalbard.html>).  The Svalbard FAQ
2120 # <http://www.svalbard.com/SvalbardFAQ.html> says that the Germans were
2121 # expelled on 1942-05-14.  However, small parties of Germans did return,
2122 # and according to Wilhelm Dege's book "War North of 80" (1954)
2123 # http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/departments/UP/1-55238/1-55238-110-2.html
2124 # the German armed forces at the Svalbard weather station code-named
2125 # Haudegen did not surrender to the Allies until September 1945.
2126 #
2127 # All these events predate our cutoff date of 1970, so use Europe/Oslo
2128 # for these regions.
2129 Link    Europe/Oslo     Arctic/Longyearbyen
2130 
2131 # Poland
2132 
2133 # The 1919 dates and times can be found in Tygodnik Urzędowy nr 1 (1919-03-20),
2134 # <http://www.wbc.poznan.pl/publication/32156> pp 1-2.
2135 
2136 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2137 Rule    Poland  1918    1919    -       Sep     16      2:00s   0       -
2138 Rule    Poland  1919    only    -       Apr     15      2:00s   1:00    S
2139 Rule    Poland  1944    only    -       Apr      3      2:00s   1:00    S
2140 # Whitman gives 1944 Nov 30; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2141 Rule    Poland  1944    only    -       Oct      4      2:00    0       -
2142 # For 1944-1948 Whitman gives the previous day; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2143 Rule    Poland  1945    only    -       Apr     29      0:00    1:00    S
2144 Rule    Poland  1945    only    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       -
2145 # For 1946 on the source is Kazimierz Borkowski,
2146 # Toruń Center for Astronomy, Dept. of Radio Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus U.,
2147 # https://www.astro.uni.torun.pl/~kb/Artykuly/U-PA/Czas2.htm#tth_tAb1
2148 # Thanks to Przemysław Augustyniak (2005-05-28) for this reference.
2149 # He also gives these further references:
2150 # Mon Pol nr 13, poz 162 (1995) <http://www.abc.com.pl/serwis/mp/1995/0162.htm>
2151 # Druk nr 2180 (2003) <http://www.senat.gov.pl/k5/dok/sejm/053/2180.pdf>
2152 Rule    Poland  1946    only    -       Apr     14      0:00s   1:00    S
2153 Rule    Poland  1946    only    -       Oct      7      2:00s   0       -
2154 Rule    Poland  1947    only    -       May      4      2:00s   1:00    S
2155 Rule    Poland  1947    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
2156 Rule    Poland  1948    only    -       Apr     18      2:00s   1:00    S
2157 Rule    Poland  1949    only    -       Apr     10      2:00s   1:00    S
2158 Rule    Poland  1957    only    -       Jun      2      1:00s   1:00    S
2159 Rule    Poland  1957    1958    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00s   0       -
2160 Rule    Poland  1958    only    -       Mar     30      1:00s   1:00    S
2161 Rule    Poland  1959    only    -       May     31      1:00s   1:00    S
2162 Rule    Poland  1959    1961    -       Oct     Sun>=1       1:00s   0       -
2163 Rule    Poland  1960    only    -       Apr      3      1:00s   1:00    S
2164 Rule    Poland  1961    1964    -       May     lastSun 1:00s   1:00    S
2165 Rule    Poland  1962    1964    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00s   0       -
2166 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2167 Zone    Europe/Warsaw   1:24:00 -       LMT     1880
2168                         1:24:00 -       WMT     1915 Aug  5 # Warsaw Mean Time
2169                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1918 Sep 16  3:00
2170                         2:00    Poland  EE%sT   1922 Jun
2171                         1:00    Poland  CE%sT   1940 Jun 23  2:00
2172                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Oct
2173                         1:00    Poland  CE%sT   1977
2174                         1:00    W-Eur   CE%sT   1988
2175                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
2176 
2177 # Portugal
2178 
2179 # From Paul Eggert (2014-08-11), after a heads-up from Stephen Colebourne:
2180 # According to a Portuguese decree (1911-05-26)
2181 # https://dre.pt/application/dir/pdf1sdip/1911/05/12500/23132313.pdf
2182 # Lisbon was at -0:36:44.68, but switched to GMT on 1912-01-01 at 00:00.
2183 # Round the old offset to -0:36:45.  This agrees with Willett....
2184 #
2185 # From Michael Deckers (2018-02-15):
2186 # article 5 [of the 1911 decree; Deckers's translation] ...:
2187 # These dispositions shall enter into force at the instant at which,
2188 # according to the 2nd article, the civil day January 1, 1912 begins,
2189 # all clocks therefore having to be advanced or set back correspondingly ...
2190 
2191 # From Rui Pedro Salgueiro (1992-11-12):
2192 # Portugal has recently (September, 27) changed timezone
2193 # (from WET to MET or CET) to harmonize with EEC.
2194 #
2195 # Martin Bruckmann (1996-02-29) reports via Peter Ilieve
2196 # that Portugal is reverting to 0:00 by not moving its clocks this spring.
2197 # The new Prime Minister was fed up with getting up in the dark in the winter.
2198 #
2199 # From Paul Eggert (1996-11-12):
2200 # IATA SSIM (1991-09) reports several 1991-09 and 1992-09 transitions
2201 # at 02:00u, not 01:00u.  Assume that these are typos.
2202 # IATA SSIM (1991/1992) reports that the Azores were at -1:00.
2203 # IATA SSIM (1993-02) says +0:00; later issues (through 1996-09) say -1:00.
2204 # Guess that the Azores changed to EU rules in 1992 (since that's when Portugal
2205 # harmonized with EU rules), and that they stayed +0:00 that winter.
2206 #
2207 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2208 # DSH writes that despite Decree 1,469 (1915), the change to the clocks was not
2209 # done every year, depending on what Spain did, because of railroad schedules.
2210 # Go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2211 Rule    Port    1916    only    -       Jun     17      23:00   1:00    S
2212 # Whitman gives 1916 Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2213 Rule    Port    1916    only    -       Nov      1       1:00   0       -
2214 Rule    Port    1917    only    -       Feb     28      23:00s  1:00    S
2215 Rule    Port    1917    1921    -       Oct     14      23:00s  0       -
2216 Rule    Port    1918    only    -       Mar      1      23:00s  1:00    S
2217 Rule    Port    1919    only    -       Feb     28      23:00s  1:00    S
2218 Rule    Port    1920    only    -       Feb     29      23:00s  1:00    S
2219 Rule    Port    1921    only    -       Feb     28      23:00s  1:00    S
2220 Rule    Port    1924    only    -       Apr     16      23:00s  1:00    S
2221 Rule    Port    1924    only    -       Oct     14      23:00s  0       -
2222 Rule    Port    1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00s  1:00    S
2223 Rule    Port    1926    1929    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
2224 Rule    Port    1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00s  1:00    S
2225 Rule    Port    1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00s  1:00    S
2226 Rule    Port    1929    only    -       Apr     20      23:00s  1:00    S
2227 Rule    Port    1931    only    -       Apr     18      23:00s  1:00    S
2228 # Whitman gives 1931 Oct 8; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2229 Rule    Port    1931    1932    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
2230 Rule    Port    1932    only    -       Apr      2      23:00s  1:00    S
2231 Rule    Port    1934    only    -       Apr      7      23:00s  1:00    S
2232 # Whitman gives 1934 Oct 5; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2233 Rule    Port    1934    1938    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
2234 # Shanks & Pottenger give 1935 Apr 30; go with Whitman.
2235 Rule    Port    1935    only    -       Mar     30      23:00s  1:00    S
2236 Rule    Port    1936    only    -       Apr     18      23:00s  1:00    S
2237 # Whitman gives 1937 Apr 2; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2238 Rule    Port    1937    only    -       Apr      3      23:00s  1:00    S
2239 Rule    Port    1938    only    -       Mar     26      23:00s  1:00    S
2240 Rule    Port    1939    only    -       Apr     15      23:00s  1:00    S
2241 # Whitman gives 1939 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2242 Rule    Port    1939    only    -       Nov     18      23:00s  0       -
2243 Rule    Port    1940    only    -       Feb     24      23:00s  1:00    S
2244 # Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Oct 7; go with Whitman.
2245 Rule    Port    1940    1941    -       Oct      5      23:00s  0       -
2246 Rule    Port    1941    only    -       Apr      5      23:00s  1:00    S
2247 Rule    Port    1942    1945    -       Mar     Sat>=8       23:00s  1:00    S
2248 Rule    Port    1942    only    -       Apr     25      22:00s  2:00    M # Midsummer
2249 Rule    Port    1942    only    -       Aug     15      22:00s  1:00    S
2250 Rule    Port    1942    1945    -       Oct     Sat>=24      23:00s  0       -
2251 Rule    Port    1943    only    -       Apr     17      22:00s  2:00    M
2252 Rule    Port    1943    1945    -       Aug     Sat>=25      22:00s  1:00    S
2253 Rule    Port    1944    1945    -       Apr     Sat>=21      22:00s  2:00    M
2254 Rule    Port    1946    only    -       Apr     Sat>=1       23:00s  1:00    S
2255 Rule    Port    1946    only    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
2256 Rule    Port    1947    1949    -       Apr     Sun>=1        2:00s  1:00    S
2257 Rule    Port    1947    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1        2:00s  0       -
2258 # Shanks & Pottenger say DST was observed in 1950; go with Whitman.
2259 # Whitman gives Oct lastSun for 1952 on; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2260 Rule    Port    1951    1965    -       Apr     Sun>=1        2:00s  1:00    S
2261 Rule    Port    1951    1965    -       Oct     Sun>=1        2:00s  0       -
2262 Rule    Port    1977    only    -       Mar     27       0:00s  1:00    S
2263 Rule    Port    1977    only    -       Sep     25       0:00s  0       -
2264 Rule    Port    1978    1979    -       Apr     Sun>=1        0:00s  1:00    S
2265 Rule    Port    1978    only    -       Oct      1       0:00s  0       -
2266 Rule    Port    1979    1982    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00s  0       -
2267 Rule    Port    1980    only    -       Mar     lastSun  0:00s  1:00    S
2268 Rule    Port    1981    1982    -       Mar     lastSun  1:00s  1:00    S
2269 Rule    Port    1983    only    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
2270 #
2271 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2272 Zone    Europe/Lisbon   -0:36:45 -      LMT     1884
2273                         -0:36:45 -      LMT     1912 Jan  1  0:00u # Lisbon MT
2274                          0:00   Port    WE%sT   1966 Apr  3  2:00
2275                          1:00   -       CET     1976 Sep 26  1:00
2276                          0:00   Port    WE%sT   1983 Sep 25  1:00s
2277                          0:00   W-Eur   WE%sT   1992 Sep 27  1:00s
2278                          1:00   EU      CE%sT   1996 Mar 31  1:00u
2279                          0:00   EU      WE%sT
2280 # This Zone can be simplified once we assume zic %z.
2281 Zone Atlantic/Azores    -1:42:40 -      LMT     1884        # Ponta Delgada
2282                         -1:54:32 -      HMT     1912 Jan  1  2:00u # Horta MT
2283                         -2:00   Port    -02/-01 1942 Apr 25 22:00s
2284                         -2:00   Port    +00     1942 Aug 15 22:00s
2285                         -2:00   Port    -02/-01 1943 Apr 17 22:00s
2286                         -2:00   Port    +00     1943 Aug 28 22:00s
2287                         -2:00   Port    -02/-01 1944 Apr 22 22:00s
2288                         -2:00   Port    +00     1944 Aug 26 22:00s
2289                         -2:00   Port    -02/-01 1945 Apr 21 22:00s
2290                         -2:00   Port    +00     1945 Aug 25 22:00s
2291                         -2:00   Port    -02/-01 1966 Apr  3  2:00
2292                         -1:00   Port    -01/+00 1983 Sep 25  1:00s
2293                         -1:00   W-Eur   -01/+00 1992 Sep 27  1:00s
2294                          0:00   EU      WE%sT   1993 Mar 28  1:00u
2295                         -1:00   EU      -01/+00
2296 # This Zone can be simplified once we assume zic %z.
2297 Zone Atlantic/Madeira   -1:07:36 -      LMT     1884        # Funchal
2298                         -1:07:36 -      FMT     1912 Jan  1  1:00u # Funchal MT
2299                         -1:00   Port    -01/+00 1942 Apr 25 22:00s
2300                         -1:00   Port    +01     1942 Aug 15 22:00s
2301                         -1:00   Port    -01/+00 1943 Apr 17 22:00s
2302                         -1:00   Port    +01     1943 Aug 28 22:00s
2303                         -1:00   Port    -01/+00 1944 Apr 22 22:00s
2304                         -1:00   Port    +01     1944 Aug 26 22:00s
2305                         -1:00   Port    -01/+00 1945 Apr 21 22:00s
2306                         -1:00   Port    +01     1945 Aug 25 22:00s
2307                         -1:00   Port    -01/+00 1966 Apr  3  2:00
2308                          0:00   Port    WE%sT   1983 Sep 25  1:00s
2309                          0:00   EU      WE%sT
2310 
2311 # Romania
2312 #
2313 # From Paul Eggert (1999-10-07):
2314 # Nine O'clock <http://www.nineoclock.ro/POL/1778pol.html>
2315 # (1998-10-23) reports that the switch occurred at
2316 # 04:00 local time in fall 1998.  For lack of better info,
2317 # assume that Romania and Moldova switched to EU rules in 1997,
2318 # the same year as Bulgaria.
2319 #
2320 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2321 Rule    Romania 1932    only    -       May     21       0:00s  1:00    S
2322 Rule    Romania 1932    1939    -       Oct     Sun>=1        0:00s  0       -
2323 Rule    Romania 1933    1939    -       Apr     Sun>=2        0:00s  1:00    S
2324 Rule    Romania 1979    only    -       May     27       0:00   1:00    S
2325 Rule    Romania 1979    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       -
2326 Rule    Romania 1980    only    -       Apr      5      23:00   1:00    S
2327 Rule    Romania 1980    only    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00   0       -
2328 Rule    Romania 1991    1993    -       Mar     lastSun  0:00s  1:00    S
2329 Rule    Romania 1991    1993    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       -
2330 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2331 Zone Europe/Bucharest   1:44:24 -       LMT     1891 Oct
2332                         1:44:24 -       BMT     1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT
2333                         2:00    Romania EE%sT   1981 Mar 29  2:00s
2334                         2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1991
2335                         2:00    Romania EE%sT   1994
2336                         2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1997
2337                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
2338 
2339 
2340 # Russia
2341 
2342 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-09-15):
2343 # Based on last Russian Government Decree No. 725 on August 31, 2011
2344 # (Government document
2345 # http://www.government.ru/gov/results/16355/print/
2346 # in Russian)
2347 # there are few corrections have to be made for some Russian time zones...
2348 # All updated Russian Time Zones were placed in table and translated to English
2349 # by WorldTimeZone.com at the link below:
2350 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia36.htm
2351 
2352 # From Sanjeev Gupta (2011-09-27):
2353 # Scans of [Decree No. 23 of January 8, 1992] are available at:
2354 # http://government.consultant.ru/page.aspx?1223966
2355 # They are in Cyrillic letters (presumably Russian).
2356 
2357 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09):
2358 # Regarding the instant when clocks in time-zone-shifting parts of Russia
2359 # changed in September 2011:
2360 #
2361 # One source is
2362 # http://government.ru/gov/results/16355/
2363 # which, according to translate.google.com, begins "Decree of August 31,
2364 # 2011 No. 725" and contains no other dates or "effective date" information.
2365 #
2366 # Another source is
2367 # https://rg.ru/2011/09/06/chas-zona-dok.html
2368 # which, according to translate.google.com, begins "Resolution of the
2369 # Government of the Russian Federation on August 31, 2011 N 725" and also
2370 # contains "Date first official publication: September 6, 2011 Posted on:
2371 # in the 'RG' - Federal Issue No. 5573 September 6, 2011" but which
2372 # does not contain any "effective date" information.
2373 #
2374 # Another source is
2375 # https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oymyakonsky_District#cite_note-RuTime-7
2376 # which, in note 8, contains "Resolution No. 725 of August 31, 2011...
2377 # Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication"
2378 # but which does not contain any reference to September 6, 2011.
2379 #
2380 # The Wikipedia article refers to
2381 # http://base.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi?req=doc;base=LAW;n=118896
2382 # which seems to copy the text of the government.ru page.
2383 #
2384 # Tobias Conradi combines Wikipedia's
2385 # "as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication"
2386 # with www.rg.ru's "Date of first official publication: September 6, 2011" to
2387 # get September 13, 2011 as the cutover date (unusually, a Tuesday, as Tobias
2388 # Conradi notes).
2389 #
2390 # None of the sources indicates a time of day for changing clocks.
2391 #
2392 # Go with 2011-09-13 0:00s.
2393 
2394 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-01):
2395 # According to the Russian news (ITAR-TASS News Agency)
2396 # http://en.itar-tass.com/russia/738562
2397 # the State Duma has approved ... the draft bill on returning to
2398 # winter time standard and return Russia 11 time zones.  The new
2399 # regulations will come into effect on October 26, 2014 at 02:00 ...
2400 # http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/main.nsf/%28Spravka%29?OpenAgent&RN=431985-6&02
2401 # Here is a link where we put together table (based on approved Bill N
2402 # 431985-6) with proposed 11 Russian time zones and corresponding
2403 # areas/cities/administrative centers in the Russian Federation (in English):
2404 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia65.html
2405 #
2406 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-22):
2407 # Putin signed the Federal Law 431985-6 ... (in Russian)
2408 # http://itar-tass.com/obschestvo/1333711
2409 # http://www.pravo.gov.ru:8080/page.aspx?111660
2410 # http://www.kremlin.ru/acts/46279
2411 # From October 26, 2014 the new Russian time zone map will look like this:
2412 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia-map-2014-07.html
2413 
2414 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
2415 # Moscow time zone abbreviations after 1919-07-01, and Moscow rules after 1991,
2416 # are from Andrey A. Chernov.  The rest is from Shanks & Pottenger,
2417 # except we follow Chernov's report that 1992 DST transitions were Sat
2418 # 23:00, not Sun 02:00s.
2419 #
2420 # From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski (1994-06-29):
2421 # But now it is some months since Novosibirsk is 3 hours ahead of Moscow!
2422 # I do not know why they have decided to make this change;
2423 # as far as I remember it was done exactly during winter->summer switching
2424 # so we (Novosibirsk) simply did not switch.
2425 #
2426 # From Andrey A. Chernov (1996-10-04):
2427 # 'MSK' and 'MSD' were born and used initially on Moscow computers with
2428 # UNIX-like OSes by several developer groups (e.g. Demos group, Kiae group)....
2429 # The next step was the UUCP network, the Relcom predecessor
2430 # (used mainly for mail), and MSK/MSD was actively used there.
2431 #
2432 # From Chris Carrier (1996-10-30):
2433 # According to a friend of mine who rode the Trans-Siberian Railroad from
2434 # Moscow to Irkutsk in 1995, public air and rail transport in Russia ...
2435 # still follows Moscow time, no matter where in Russia it is located.
2436 #
2437 # For Grozny, Chechnya, we have the following story from
2438 # John Daniszewski, "Scavengers in the Rubble", Los Angeles Times (2001-02-07):
2439 # News - often false - is spread by word of mouth.  A rumor that it was
2440 # time to move the clocks back put this whole city out of sync with
2441 # the rest of Russia for two weeks - even soldiers stationed here began
2442 # enforcing curfew at the wrong time.
2443 #
2444 # From Gwillim Law (2001-06-05):
2445 # There's considerable evidence that Sakhalin Island used to be in
2446 # UTC+11, and has changed to UTC+10, in this decade.  I start with the
2447 # SSIM, which listed Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk in zone RU10 along with Magadan
2448 # until February 1997, and then in RU9 with Khabarovsk and Vladivostok
2449 # since September 1997....  Although the Kuril Islands are
2450 # administratively part of Sakhalin oblast', they appear to have
2451 # remained on UTC+11 along with Magadan.
2452 
2453 # From Marat Nigametzianov (2018-07-16):
2454 # this is link to order from 1956 about timezone in USSR
2455 # http://astro.uni-altai.ru/~orion/blog/2011/11/novyie-granitsyi-chasovyih-poyasov-v-sssr/
2456 #
2457 # From Paul Eggert (2018-07-16):
2458 # Perhaps someone could translate the above-mentioned link and use it
2459 # to correct our data for the ex-Soviet Union.  It cites the following:
2460 # «Поясное время и новые границы часовых поясов» / сост. П.Н. Долгов,
2461 # отв. ред. Г.Д. Бурдун - М: Комитет стандартов, мер и измерительных
2462 # приборов при Совете Министров СССР, Междуведомственная комиссия
2463 # единой службы времени, 1956 г.
2464 # This book looks like it would be a helpful resource for the Soviet
2465 # Union through 1956.  Although a copy was in the Scientific Library
2466 # of Tomsk State University, I have not been able to track down a copy nearby.
2467 #
2468 # From Stepan Golosunov (2018-07-21):
2469 # http://astro.uni-altai.ru/~orion/blog/2015/05/center-reforma-ischisleniya-vremeni-br-na-territorii-sssr-v-1957-godu-center/
2470 # says that the 1956 decision to change time belts' borders was not
2471 # implemented as planned in 1956 and the change happened in 1957.
2472 # There is also the problem that actual time zones were different from
2473 # the official time belts (and from many time belts' maps) as there were
2474 # numerous exceptions to application of time belt rules.  For example,
2475 # https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Московское_время#Перемещение_границы_применения_московского_времени_на_восток
2476 # says that by 1962 there were many regions in the 3rd time belt that
2477 # were on Moscow time, referring to a 1962 map.  By 1989 number of such
2478 # exceptions grew considerably.
2479 
2480 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
2481 # The comments detailing the coverage of each Russian zone are meant to assist
2482 # with maintenance only and represent our best guesses as to which regions
2483 # are covered by each zone.  They are not meant to be taken as an authoritative
2484 # listing.  The region codes listed come from
2485 # https://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Federal_subjects_of_Russia&oldid=611810498
2486 # and are used for convenience only; no guarantees are made regarding their
2487 # future stability.  ISO 3166-2:RU codes are also listed for first-level
2488 # divisions where available.
2489 
2490 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
2491 # Europe/Kaliningrad covers...
2492 # 39    RU-KGD  Kaliningrad Oblast
2493 
2494 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2495 # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
2496 
2497 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07):
2498 # http://www.rgo.ru/ru/kaliningradskoe-oblastnoe-otdelenie/ob-otdelenii/publikacii/kak-nam-zhilos-bez-letnego-vremeni
2499 # confirms that the 1989 change to Moscow-1 was implemented.
2500 # (The article, though, is misattributed to 1990 while saying that
2501 # summer->winter transition would be done on the 24 of September. But
2502 # 1990-09-24 was Monday, while 1989-09-24 was Sunday as expected.)
2503 # ...
2504 # http://www.kaliningradka.ru/site_pc/cherez/index.php?ELEMENT_ID=40091
2505 # says that Kaliningrad switched to Moscow-1 on 1989-03-26, avoided
2506 # at the last moment switch to Moscow-1 on 1991-03-31, switched to
2507 # Moscow on 1991-11-03, switched to Moscow-1 on 1992-01-19.
2508 
2509 Zone Europe/Kaliningrad  1:22:00 -      LMT     1893 Apr
2510                          1:00   C-Eur   CE%sT   1945
2511                          2:00   Poland  CE%sT   1946
2512                          3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 1989 Mar 26  2:00s
2513                          2:00   Russia  EE%sT   2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2514                          3:00   -       +03     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2515                          2:00   -       EET
2516 
2517 
2518 # From Paul Eggert (2016-02-21), per Tim Parenti (2014-07-03) and
2519 # Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
2520 # Europe/Moscow covers...
2521 # 01    RU-AD   Adygea, Republic of
2522 # 05    RU-DA   Dagestan, Republic of
2523 # 06    RU-IN   Ingushetia, Republic of
2524 # 07    RU-KB   Kabardino-Balkar Republic
2525 # 08    RU-KL   Kalmykia, Republic of
2526 # 09    RU-KC   Karachay-Cherkess Republic
2527 # 10    RU-KR   Karelia, Republic of
2528 # 11    RU-KO   Komi Republic
2529 # 12    RU-ME   Mari El Republic
2530 # 13    RU-MO   Mordovia, Republic of
2531 # 15    RU-SE   North Ossetia-Alania, Republic of
2532 # 16    RU-TA   Tatarstan, Republic of
2533 # 20    RU-CE   Chechen Republic
2534 # 21    RU-CU   Chuvash Republic
2535 # 23    RU-KDA  Krasnodar Krai
2536 # 26    RU-STA  Stavropol Krai
2537 # 29    RU-ARK  Arkhangelsk Oblast
2538 # 31    RU-BEL  Belgorod Oblast
2539 # 32    RU-BRY  Bryansk Oblast
2540 # 33    RU-VLA  Vladimir Oblast
2541 # 35    RU-VLG  Vologda Oblast
2542 # 36    RU-VOR  Voronezh Oblast
2543 # 37    RU-IVA  Ivanovo Oblast
2544 # 40    RU-KLU  Kaluga Oblast
2545 # 44    RU-KOS  Kostroma Oblast
2546 # 46    RU-KRS  Kursk Oblast
2547 # 47    RU-LEN  Leningrad Oblast
2548 # 48    RU-LIP  Lipetsk Oblast
2549 # 50    RU-MOS  Moscow Oblast
2550 # 51    RU-MUR  Murmansk Oblast
2551 # 52    RU-NIZ  Nizhny Novgorod Oblast
2552 # 53    RU-NGR  Novgorod Oblast
2553 # 57    RU-ORL  Oryol Oblast
2554 # 58    RU-PNZ  Penza Oblast
2555 # 60    RU-PSK  Pskov Oblast
2556 # 61    RU-ROS  Rostov Oblast
2557 # 62    RU-RYA  Ryazan Oblast
2558 # 67    RU-SMO  Smolensk Oblast
2559 # 68    RU-TAM  Tambov Oblast
2560 # 69    RU-TVE  Tver Oblast
2561 # 71    RU-TUL  Tula Oblast
2562 # 76    RU-YAR  Yaroslavl Oblast
2563 # 77    RU-MOW  Moscow
2564 # 78    RU-SPE  Saint Petersburg
2565 # 83    RU-NEN  Nenets Autonomous Okrug
2566 
2567 # From Paul Eggert (2016-08-23):
2568 # The Soviets switched to UT-based time in 1919.  Decree No. 59
2569 # (1919-02-08) http://istmat.info/node/35567 established UT-based time
2570 # zones, and Decree No. 147 (1919-03-29) http://istmat.info/node/35854
2571 # specified a transition date of 1919-07-01, apparently at 00:00 UT.
2572 # No doubt only the Soviet-controlled regions switched on that date;
2573 # later transitions to UT-based time in other parts of Russia are
2574 # taken from what appear to be guesses by Shanks.
2575 # (Thanks to Alexander Belopolsky for pointers to the decrees.)
2576 
2577 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07):
2578 # 11. Regions-violators, 1981-1982.
2579 # Wikipedia refers to
2580 # http://maps.monetonos.ru/maps/raznoe/Old_Maps/Old_Maps/Articles/022/3_1981.html
2581 # http://besp.narod.ru/nauka_1981_3.htm
2582 #
2583 # The second link provides two articles scanned from the Nauka i Zhizn
2584 # magazine No. 3, 1981 and a scan of the short article attributed to
2585 # the Trud newspaper from February 1982.  The first link provides the
2586 # same Nauka i Zhizn articles converted to the text form (but misses
2587 # time belt changes map).
2588 #
2589 # The second Nauka i Zhizn article says that in addition to
2590 # introduction of summer time on 1981-04-01 there are some time belt
2591 # border changes on 1981-10-01, mostly affecting Nenets Autonomous
2592 # Okrug, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Yakutia, Magadan Oblast and Chukotka
2593 # according to the provided map (colored one).  In addition to that
2594 # "time violators" (regions which were not using rules of the time
2595 # belts in which they were located) would not be moving off the DST on
2596 # 1981-10-01 to restore the decree time usage.  (Komi ASSR was
2597 # supposed to repeat that move in October 1982 to account for the 2
2598 # hour difference.)  Map depicting "time violators" before 1981-10-01
2599 # is also provided.
2600 #
2601 # The article from Trud says that 1981-10-01 changes caused problems
2602 # and some territories would be moved to pre-1981-10-01 time by not
2603 # moving to summer time on 1982-04-01.  Namely: Dagestan,
2604 # Kabardino-Balkar, Kalmyk, Komi, Mari, Mordovian, North Ossetian,
2605 # Tatar, Chechen-Ingush and Chuvash ASSR, Krasnodar and Stavropol
2606 # krais, Arkhangelsk, Vladimir, Vologda, Voronezh, Gorky, Ivanovo,
2607 # Kostroma, Lipetsk, Penza, Rostov, Ryazan, Tambov, Tyumen and
2608 # Yaroslavl oblasts, Nenets and Evenk autonomous okrugs, Khatangsky
2609 # district of Taymyr Autonomous Okrug.  As a result Evenk Autonomous
2610 # Okrug and Khatangsky district of Taymyr Autonomous Okrug would end
2611 # up on Moscow+4, Tyumen Oblast on Moscow+2 and the rest on Moscow
2612 # time.
2613 #
2614 # http://astrozet.net/files/Zones/DOC/RU/1980-925.txt
2615 # attributes the 1982 changes to the Act of the Council of Ministers
2616 # of the USSR No. 126 from 18.02.1982.  1980-925.txt also adds
2617 # Udmurtia to the list of affected territories and lists Khatangsky
2618 # district separately from Taymyr Autonomous Okrug.  Probably erroneously.
2619 #
2620 # The affected territories are currently listed under Europe/Moscow,
2621 # Asia/Yekaterinburg and Asia/Krasnoyarsk.
2622 #
2623 # 12. Udmurtia
2624 # The fact that Udmurtia is depicted as a violator in the Nauka i
2625 # Zhizn article hints at Izhevsk being on different time from
2626 # Kuybyshev before 1981-10-01. Udmurtia is not mentioned in the 1989 act.
2627 # http://astrozet.net/files/Zones/DOC/RU/1980-925.txt
2628 # implies Udmurtia was on Moscow time after 1982-04-01.
2629 # Wikipedia implies Udmurtia being on Moscow+1 until 1991.
2630 #
2631 # ...
2632 #
2633 # All Russian zones are supposed to have by default a -1 change at
2634 # 1991-03-31 2:00 (cancellation of the decree time in the USSR) and a +1
2635 # change at 1992-01-19 2:00 (restoration of the decree time in Russia).
2636 #
2637 # There were some exceptions, though.
2638 # Wikipedia says newspapers listed Astrakhan, Saratov, Kirov, Volgograd,
2639 # Izhevsk, Grozny, Kazan and Samara as such exceptions for the 1992
2640 # change. (Different newspapers providing different lists. And some
2641 # lists found in the internet are quite wild.)
2642 #
2643 # And apparently some exceptions were reverted in the last moment.
2644 # http://www.kaliningradka.ru/site_pc/cherez/index.php?ELEMENT_ID=40091
2645 # says that Kaliningrad decided not to be an exception 2 days before the
2646 # 1991-03-31 switch and one person at
2647 # https://izhevsk.ru/forum_light_message/50/682597-m8369040.html
2648 # says he remembers that Samara opted out of the 1992-01-19 exception
2649 # 2 days before the switch.
2650 #
2651 #
2652 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2653 # Given the above, we appear to be missing some Zone entries for the
2654 # chaotic early 1980s in Russia.  It's not clear what these entries
2655 # should be.  For now, sweep this under the rug and just document the
2656 # time in Moscow.
2657 
2658 # From Vladimir Karpinsky (2014-07-08):
2659 # LMT in Moscow (before Jul 3, 1916) is 2:30:17, that was defined by Moscow
2660 # Observatory (coordinates: 55° 45' 29.70", 37° 34' 05.30")....
2661 # LMT in Moscow since Jul 3, 1916 is 2:31:01 as a result of new standard.
2662 # (The info is from the book by Byalokoz ... p. 18.)
2663 # The time in St. Petersburg as capital of Russia was defined by
2664 # Pulkov observatory, near St. Petersburg.  In 1916 LMT Moscow
2665 # was synchronized with LMT St. Petersburg (+30 minutes), (Pulkov observatory
2666 # coordinates: 59° 46' 18.70", 30° 19' 40.70") so 30° 19' 40.70" >
2667 # 2h01m18.7s = 2:01:19.  LMT Moscow = LMT St.Petersburg + 30m 2:01:19 + 0:30 =
2668 # 2:31:19 ...
2669 #
2670 # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-08):
2671 # Milne does not list Moscow, but suggests that its time might be listed in
2672 # Résumés mensuels et annuels des observations météorologiques (1895).
2673 # Presumably this is OCLC 85825704, a journal published with parallel text in
2674 # Russian and French.  This source has not been located; go with Karpinsky.
2675 
2676 Zone Europe/Moscow       2:30:17 -      LMT     1880
2677                          2:30:17 -      MMT     1916 Jul  3 # Moscow Mean Time
2678                          2:31:19 Russia %s      1919 Jul  1  0:00u
2679                          3:00   Russia  %s      1921 Oct
2680                          3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 1922 Oct
2681                          2:00   -       EET     1930 Jun 21
2682                          3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2683                          2:00   Russia  EE%sT   1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2684                          3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2685                          4:00   -       MSK     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2686                          3:00   -       MSK
2687 
2688 
2689 # From Paul Eggert (2016-12-06):
2690 # Europe/Simferopol covers Crimea.
2691 
2692 Zone Europe/Simferopol   2:16:24 -      LMT     1880
2693                          2:16   -       SMT     1924 May  2 # Simferopol Mean T
2694                          2:00   -       EET     1930 Jun 21
2695                          3:00   -       MSK     1941 Nov
2696                          1:00   C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Apr 13
2697                          3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 1990
2698                          3:00   -       MSK     1990 Jul  1  2:00
2699                          2:00   -       EET     1992
2700 # Central Crimea used Moscow time 1994/1997.
2701 #
2702 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
2703 # The _Economist_ (1994-05-28, p 45) reports that central Crimea switched
2704 # from Kiev to Moscow time sometime after the January 1994 elections.
2705 # Shanks (1999) says "date of change uncertain", but implies that it happened
2706 # sometime between the 1994 DST switches.  Shanks & Pottenger simply say
2707 # 1994-09-25 03:00, but that can't be right.  For now, guess it
2708 # changed in May.
2709                          2:00   E-Eur   EE%sT   1994 May
2710 # From IATA SSIM (1994/1997), which also says that Kerch is still like Kiev.
2711                          3:00   E-Eur   MSK/MSD 1996 Mar 31  0:00s
2712                          3:00   1:00    MSD     1996 Oct 27  3:00s
2713 # IATA SSIM (1997-09) says Crimea switched to EET/EEST.
2714 # Assume it happened in March by not changing the clocks.
2715                          3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 1997
2716                          3:00   -       MSK     1997 Mar lastSun  1:00u
2717 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-03-17):
2718 # time change at 2:00 (2am) on March 30, 2014
2719 # https://vz.ru/news/2014/3/17/677464.html
2720 # From Paul Eggert (2014-03-30):
2721 # Simferopol and Sevastopol reportedly changed their central town clocks
2722 # late the previous day, but this appears to have been ceremonial
2723 # and the discrepancies are small enough to not worry about.
2724                          2:00   EU      EE%sT   2014 Mar 30  2:00
2725                          4:00   -       MSK     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2726                          3:00   -       MSK
2727 
2728 
2729 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2730 # Europe/Astrakhan covers:
2731 # 30    RU-AST  Astrakhan Oblast
2732 #
2733 # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
2734 
2735 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-01-12):
2736 # On February 10, 2016 Astrakhan Oblast got approval by the Federation
2737 # Council to change its time zone to UTC+4 (from current UTC+3 Moscow time)....
2738 # This Federal Law shall enter into force on 27 March 2016 at 02:00.
2739 # From Matt Johnson (2016-03-09):
2740 # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201602150056
2741 
2742 Zone Europe/Astrakhan    3:12:12 -      LMT     1924 May
2743                          3:00   -       +03     1930 Jun 21
2744                          4:00   Russia  +04/+05 1989 Mar 26  2:00s
2745                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2746                          4:00   -       +04     1992 Mar 29  2:00s
2747                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2748                          4:00   -       +04     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2749                          3:00   -       +03     2016 Mar 27  2:00s
2750                          4:00   -       +04
2751 
2752 # From Paul Eggert (2016-11-11):
2753 # Europe/Volgograd covers:
2754 # 34    RU-VGG  Volgograd Oblast
2755 # The 1988 transition is from USSR act No. 5 (1988-01-04).
2756 
2757 # From Alexander Fetisov (2018-09-20):
2758 # Volgograd region in southern Russia (Europe/Volgograd) change
2759 # timezone from UTC+3 to UTC+4 from 28oct2018.
2760 # http://sozd.parliament.gov.ru/bill/452878-7
2761 #
2762 # From Stepan Golosunov (2018-10-11):
2763 # The law has been published today on
2764 # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201810110037
2765 
2766 Zone Europe/Volgograd    2:57:40 -      LMT     1920 Jan  3
2767                          3:00   -       +03     1930 Jun 21
2768                          4:00   -       +04     1961 Nov 11
2769                          4:00   Russia  +04/+05 1988 Mar 27  2:00s
2770                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2771                          4:00   -       +04     1992 Mar 29  2:00s
2772                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2773                          4:00   -       +04     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2774                          3:00   -       +03     2018 Oct 28  2:00s
2775                          4:00   -       +04
2776 
2777 # From Paul Eggert (2016-11-11):
2778 # Europe/Saratov covers:
2779 # 64    RU-SAR  Saratov Oblast
2780 
2781 # From Yuri Konotopov (2016-11-11):
2782 # Dec 4, 2016 02:00 UTC+3....  Saratov Region's local time will be ... UTC+4.
2783 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-11-11):
2784 # ... Byalokoz listed Saratov on 03:04:18.
2785 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-11-22):
2786 # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201611220031
2787 
2788 Zone Europe/Saratov      3:04:18 -      LMT     1919 Jul  1  0:00u
2789                          3:00   -       +03     1930 Jun 21
2790                          4:00   Russia  +04/+05 1988 Mar 27  2:00s
2791                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2792                          4:00   -       +04     1992 Mar 29  2:00s
2793                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2794                          4:00   -       +04     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2795                          3:00   -       +03     2016 Dec  4  2:00s
2796                          4:00   -       +04
2797 
2798 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2799 # Europe/Kirov covers:
2800 # 43    RU-KIR  Kirov Oblast
2801 # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
2802 #
2803 Zone Europe/Kirov        3:18:48 -      LMT     1919 Jul  1  0:00u
2804                          3:00   -       +03     1930 Jun 21
2805                          4:00   Russia  +04/+05 1989 Mar 26  2:00s
2806                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2807                          4:00   -       +04     1992 Mar 29  2:00s
2808                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2809                          4:00   -       +04     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2810                          3:00   -       +03
2811 
2812 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
2813 # Europe/Samara covers...
2814 # 18    RU-UD   Udmurt Republic
2815 # 63    RU-SAM  Samara Oblast
2816 
2817 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2818 # Byalokoz 1919 says Samara was 3:20:20.
2819 # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
2820 
2821 Zone Europe/Samara       3:20:20 -      LMT     1919 Jul  1  0:00u
2822                          3:00   -       +03     1930 Jun 21
2823                          4:00   -       +04     1935 Jan 27
2824                          4:00   Russia  +04/+05 1989 Mar 26  2:00s
2825                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2826                          2:00   Russia  +02/+03 1991 Sep 29  2:00s
2827                          3:00   -       +03     1991 Oct 20  3:00
2828                          4:00   Russia  +04/+05 2010 Mar 28  2:00s
2829                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2830                          4:00   -       +04
2831 
2832 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2833 # Europe/Ulyanovsk covers:
2834 # 73    RU-ULY  Ulyanovsk Oblast
2835 
2836 # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
2837 
2838 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-02-17):
2839 # Ulyanovsk ... on their way to change time zones by March 27, 2016 at 2am.
2840 # Ulyanovsk Oblast ... from MSK to MSK+1 (UTC+3 to UTC+4) ...
2841 # 920582-6 ... 02/17/2016 The State Duma passed the bill in the first reading.
2842 # From Matt Johnson (2016-03-09):
2843 # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201603090051
2844 
2845 Zone Europe/Ulyanovsk    3:13:36 -      LMT     1919 Jul  1  0:00u
2846                          3:00   -       +03     1930 Jun 21
2847                          4:00   Russia  +04/+05 1989 Mar 26  2:00s
2848                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2849                          2:00   Russia  +02/+03 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2850                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2851                          4:00   -       +04     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2852                          3:00   -       +03     2016 Mar 27  2:00s
2853                          4:00   -       +04
2854 
2855 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
2856 # Asia/Yekaterinburg covers...
2857 # 02    RU-BA   Bashkortostan, Republic of
2858 # 90    RU-PER  Perm Krai
2859 # 45    RU-KGN  Kurgan Oblast
2860 # 56    RU-ORE  Orenburg Oblast
2861 # 66    RU-SVE  Sverdlovsk Oblast
2862 # 72    RU-TYU  Tyumen Oblast
2863 # 74    RU-CHE  Chelyabinsk Oblast
2864 # 86    RU-KHM  Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug - Yugra
2865 # 89    RU-YAN  Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug
2866 #
2867 # Note: Effective 2005-12-01, (59) Perm Oblast and (81) Komi-Permyak
2868 # Autonomous Okrug merged to form (90, RU-PER) Perm Krai.
2869 
2870 # Milne says Yekaterinburg was 4:02:32.9; round to nearest.
2871 # Byalokoz 1919 says its provincial time was based on Perm, at 3:45:05.
2872 # Assume it switched on 1916-07-03, the time of the new standard.
2873 # The 1919 and 1930 transitions are from Shanks.
2874 
2875 Zone Asia/Yekaterinburg  4:02:33 -      LMT     1916 Jul  3
2876                          3:45:05 -      PMT     1919 Jul 15  4:00
2877                          4:00   -       +04     1930 Jun 21
2878                          5:00   Russia  +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2879                          4:00   Russia  +04/+05 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2880                          5:00   Russia  +05/+06 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2881                          6:00   -       +06     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2882                          5:00   -       +05
2883 
2884 
2885 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
2886 # Asia/Omsk covers...
2887 # 55    RU-OMS  Omsk Oblast
2888 
2889 # Byalokoz 1919 says Omsk was 4:53:30.
2890 
2891 Zone Asia/Omsk           4:53:30 -      LMT     1919 Nov 14
2892                          5:00   -       +05     1930 Jun 21
2893                          6:00   Russia  +06/+07 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2894                          5:00   Russia  +05/+06 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2895                          6:00   Russia  +06/+07 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2896                          7:00   -       +07     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2897                          6:00   -       +06
2898 
2899 # From Paul Eggert (2016-02-22):
2900 # Asia/Barnaul covers:
2901 # 04    RU-AL   Altai Republic
2902 # 22    RU-ALT  Altai Krai
2903 
2904 # Data before 1991 are from Shanks & Pottenger.
2905 
2906 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07):
2907 # Letter of Bank of Russia from 1995-05-25
2908 # http://www.bestpravo.ru/rossijskoje/lj-akty/y3a.htm
2909 # suggests that Altai Republic transitioned to Moscow+3 on
2910 # 1995-05-28.
2911 #
2912 # https://regnum.ru/news/society/1957270.html
2913 # has some historical data for Altai Krai:
2914 # before 1957: west part on UT+6, east on UT+7
2915 # after 1957: UT+7
2916 # since 1995: UT+6
2917 # http://barnaul.rusplt.ru/index/pochemu_altajskij_kraj_okazalsja_v_neprivychnom_chasovom_pojase-17648.html
2918 # confirms that and provides more details including 1995-05-28 transition date.
2919 
2920 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-02-17):
2921 # Altai Krai and Altai Republic on their way to change time zones
2922 # by March 27, 2016 at 2am....
2923 # Altai Republic / Gorno-Altaysk MSK+3 to MSK+4 (UTC+6 to UTC+7) ...
2924 # Altai Krai / Barnaul MSK+3 to MSK+4 (UTC+6 to UTC+7)
2925 # From Matt Johnson (2016-03-09):
2926 # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201603090043
2927 # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201603090038
2928 
2929 Zone Asia/Barnaul        5:35:00 -      LMT     1919 Dec 10
2930                          6:00   -       +06     1930 Jun 21
2931                          7:00   Russia  +07/+08 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2932                          6:00   Russia  +06/+07 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2933                          7:00   Russia  +07/+08 1995 May 28
2934                          6:00   Russia  +06/+07 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2935                          7:00   -       +07     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2936                          6:00   -       +06     2016 Mar 27  2:00s
2937                          7:00   -       +07
2938 
2939 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2940 # Asia/Novosibirsk covers:
2941 # 54    RU-NVS  Novosibirsk Oblast
2942 
2943 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-05-30):
2944 # http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/main.nsf/(Spravka)?OpenAgent&RN=1085784-6
2945 # moves Novosibirsk oblast from UTC+6 to UTC+7.
2946 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-07-04):
2947 # The law was signed yesterday and published today on
2948 # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201607040064
2949 
2950 Zone Asia/Novosibirsk    5:31:40 -      LMT     1919 Dec 14  6:00
2951                          6:00   -       +06     1930 Jun 21
2952                          7:00   Russia  +07/+08 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2953                          6:00   Russia  +06/+07 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2954                          7:00   Russia  +07/+08 1993 May 23 # say Shanks & P.
2955                          6:00   Russia  +06/+07 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2956                          7:00   -       +07     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2957                          6:00   -       +06     2016 Jul 24  2:00s
2958                          7:00   -       +07
2959 
2960 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2961 # Asia/Tomsk covers:
2962 # 70    RU-TOM  Tomsk Oblast
2963 
2964 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-24):
2965 # Byalokoz listed Tomsk at 5:39:51.
2966 
2967 # From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski (1994-06-29):
2968 # Tomsk is still 4 hours ahead of Moscow.
2969 
2970 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-19):
2971 # http://pravo.gov.ru/proxy/ips/?docbody=&nd=102075743
2972 # (fifth time belt being UTC+5+1(decree time)
2973 # / UTC+5+1(decree time)+1(summer time)) ...
2974 # Note that time belts (numbered from 2 (Moscow) to 12 according to their
2975 # GMT/UTC offset and having too many exceptions like regions formally
2976 # belonging to one belt but using time from another) were replaced
2977 # with time zones in 2011 with different numbering (there was a
2978 # 2-hour gap between second and third zones in 2011-2014).
2979 
2980 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-04-12):
2981 # http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/main.nsf/(SpravkaNew)?OpenAgent&RN=1006865-6
2982 # This bill was approved in the first reading today.  It moves Tomsk oblast
2983 # from UTC+6 to UTC+7 and is supposed to come into effect on 2016-05-29 at
2984 # 2:00.  The bill needs to be approved in the second and the third readings by
2985 # the State Duma, approved by the Federation Council, signed by the President
2986 # and published to become a law.  Minor changes in the text are to be expected
2987 # before the second reading (references need to be updated to account for the
2988 # recent changes).
2989 #
2990 # Judging by the ultra-short one-day amendments period, recent similar laws,
2991 # the State Duma schedule and the Federation Council schedule
2992 # http://www.duma.gov.ru/legislative/planning/day-shedule/por_vesna_2016/
2993 # http://council.gov.ru/activity/meetings/schedule/63303
2994 # I speculate that the final text of the bill will be proposed tomorrow, the
2995 # bill will be approved in the second and the third readings on Friday,
2996 # approved by the Federation Council on 2016-04-20, signed by the President and
2997 # published as a law around 2016-04-26.
2998 
2999 # From Matt Johnson (2016-04-26):
3000 # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201604260048
3001 
3002 Zone    Asia/Tomsk       5:39:51 -      LMT     1919 Dec 22
3003                          6:00   -       +06     1930 Jun 21
3004                          7:00   Russia  +07/+08 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3005                          6:00   Russia  +06/+07 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3006                          7:00   Russia  +07/+08 2002 May  1  3:00
3007                          6:00   Russia  +06/+07 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3008                          7:00   -       +07     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3009                          6:00   -       +06     2016 May 29  2:00s
3010                          7:00   -       +07
3011 
3012 
3013 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
3014 # Asia/Novokuznetsk covers...
3015 # 42    RU-KEM  Kemerovo Oblast
3016 
3017 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-10-13):
3018 # Kemerovo oblast' (Kemerovo region) in Russia will change current time zone on
3019 # March 28, 2010:
3020 # from current Russia Zone 6 - Krasnoyarsk Time Zone (KRA) UTC +0700
3021 # to Russia Zone 5 - Novosibirsk Time Zone (NOV) UTC +0600
3022 #
3023 # This is according to Government of Russia decree No. 740, on September
3024 # 14, 2009 "Application in the territory of the Kemerovo region the Fifth
3025 # time zone." ("Russia Zone 5" or old "USSR Zone 5" is GMT +0600)
3026 #
3027 # Russian Government web site (Russian language)
3028 # http://www.government.ru/content/governmentactivity/rfgovernmentdecisions/archive/2009/09/14/991633.htm
3029 # or Russian-English translation by WorldTimeZone.com with reference
3030 # map to local region and new Russia Time Zone map after March 28, 2010
3031 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia03.html
3032 #
3033 # Thus, when Russia will switch to DST on the night of March 28, 2010
3034 # Kemerovo region (Kemerovo oblast') will not change the clock.
3035 
3036 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-02), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02):
3037 # The Kemerovo region will remain at UTC+7 through the 2014-10-26 change, thus
3038 # realigning itself with KRAT.
3039 
3040 Zone Asia/Novokuznetsk   5:48:48 -      LMT     1924 May  1
3041                          6:00   -       +06     1930 Jun 21
3042                          7:00   Russia  +07/+08 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3043                          6:00   Russia  +06/+07 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3044                          7:00   Russia  +07/+08 2010 Mar 28  2:00s
3045                          6:00   Russia  +06/+07 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3046                          7:00   -       +07
3047 
3048 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
3049 # Asia/Krasnoyarsk covers...
3050 # 17    RU-TY   Tuva Republic
3051 # 19    RU-KK   Khakassia, Republic of
3052 # 24    RU-KYA  Krasnoyarsk Krai
3053 #
3054 # Note: Effective 2007-01-01, (88) Evenk Autonomous Okrug and (84) Taymyr
3055 # Autonomous Okrug were merged into (24, RU-KYA) Krasnoyarsk Krai.
3056 
3057 # Byalokoz 1919 says Krasnoyarsk was 6:11:26.
3058 
3059 Zone Asia/Krasnoyarsk    6:11:26 -      LMT     1920 Jan  6
3060                          6:00   -       +06     1930 Jun 21
3061                          7:00   Russia  +07/+08 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3062                          6:00   Russia  +06/+07 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3063                          7:00   Russia  +07/+08 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3064                          8:00   -       +08     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3065                          7:00   -       +07
3066 
3067 
3068 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
3069 # Asia/Irkutsk covers...
3070 # 03    RU-BU   Buryatia, Republic of
3071 # 38    RU-IRK  Irkutsk Oblast
3072 #
3073 # Note: Effective 2008-01-01, (85) Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug was
3074 # merged into (38, RU-IRK) Irkutsk Oblast.
3075 
3076 # Milne 1899 says Irkutsk was 6:57:15.
3077 # Byalokoz 1919 says Irkutsk was 6:57:05.
3078 # Go with Byalokoz.
3079 
3080 Zone Asia/Irkutsk        6:57:05 -      LMT     1880
3081                          6:57:05 -      IMT     1920 Jan 25 # Irkutsk Mean Time
3082                          7:00   -       +07     1930 Jun 21
3083                          8:00   Russia  +08/+09 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3084                          7:00   Russia  +07/+08 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3085                          8:00   Russia  +08/+09 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3086                          9:00   -       +09     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3087                          8:00   -       +08
3088 
3089 
3090 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
3091 # Asia/Chita covers...
3092 # 92    RU-ZAB  Zabaykalsky Krai
3093 #
3094 # Note: Effective 2008-03-01, (75) Chita Oblast and (80) Agin-Buryat
3095 # Autonomous Okrug merged to form (92, RU-ZAB) Zabaykalsky Krai.
3096 
3097 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-01-02):
3098 # [The] time zone in the Trans-Baikal Territory (Zabaykalsky Krai) -
3099 # Asia/Chita [is changing] from UTC+8 to UTC+9.  Effective date will
3100 # be March 27, 2016 at 2:00am....
3101 # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201512300107
3102 
3103 Zone Asia/Chita  7:33:52 -      LMT     1919 Dec 15
3104                          8:00   -       +08     1930 Jun 21
3105                          9:00   Russia  +09/+10 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3106                          8:00   Russia  +08/+09 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3107                          9:00   Russia  +09/+10 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3108                         10:00   -       +10     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3109                          8:00   -       +08     2016 Mar 27  2:00
3110                          9:00   -       +09
3111 
3112 
3113 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
3114 # Asia/Yakutsk covers...
3115 # 28    RU-AMU  Amur Oblast
3116 #
3117 # ...and parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
3118 # 14-02 ****    Aldansky District
3119 # 14-04 ****    Amginsky District
3120 # 14-05 ****    Anabarsky District
3121 # 14-06 ****    Bulunsky District
3122 # 14-07 ****    Verkhnevilyuysky District
3123 # 14-10 ****    Vilyuysky District
3124 # 14-11 ****    Gorny District
3125 # 14-12 ****    Zhigansky District
3126 # 14-13 ****    Kobyaysky District
3127 # 14-14 ****    Lensky District
3128 # 14-15 ****    Megino-Kangalassky District
3129 # 14-16 ****    Mirninsky District
3130 # 14-18 ****    Namsky District
3131 # 14-19 ****    Neryungrinsky District
3132 # 14-21 ****    Nyurbinsky District
3133 # 14-23 ****    Olenyoksky District
3134 # 14-24 ****    Olyokminsky District
3135 # 14-26 ****    Suntarsky District
3136 # 14-27 ****    Tattinsky District
3137 # 14-29 ****    Ust-Aldansky District
3138 # 14-32 ****    Khangalassky District
3139 # 14-33 ****    Churapchinsky District
3140 # 14-34 ****    Eveno-Bytantaysky National District
3141 
3142 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
3143 # Our commentary seems to have lost mention of (14-19) Neryungrinsky District.
3144 # Since the surrounding districts of Sakha are all YAKT, assume this is, too.
3145 # Also assume its history has been the same as the rest of Asia/Yakutsk.
3146 
3147 # Byalokoz 1919 says Yakutsk was 8:38:58.
3148 
3149 Zone Asia/Yakutsk        8:38:58 -      LMT     1919 Dec 15
3150                          8:00   -       +08     1930 Jun 21
3151                          9:00   Russia  +09/+10 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3152                          8:00   Russia  +08/+09 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3153                          9:00   Russia  +09/+10 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3154                         10:00   -       +10     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3155                          9:00   -       +09
3156 
3157 
3158 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
3159 # Asia/Vladivostok covers...
3160 # 25    RU-PRI  Primorsky Krai
3161 # 27    RU-KHA  Khabarovsk Krai
3162 # 79    RU-YEV  Jewish Autonomous Oblast
3163 #
3164 # ...and parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
3165 # 14-09 ****    Verkhoyansky District
3166 # 14-31 ****    Ust-Yansky District
3167 
3168 # Milne 1899 says Vladivostok was 8:47:33.5.
3169 # Byalokoz 1919 says Vladivostok was 8:47:31.
3170 # Go with Byalokoz.
3171 
3172 Zone Asia/Vladivostok    8:47:31 -      LMT     1922 Nov 15
3173                          9:00   -       +09     1930 Jun 21
3174                         10:00   Russia  +10/+11 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3175                          9:00   Russia  +09/+10 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3176                         10:00   Russia  +10/+11 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3177                         11:00   -       +11     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3178                         10:00   -       +10
3179 
3180 
3181 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
3182 # Asia/Khandyga covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
3183 # 14-28 ****    Tomponsky District
3184 # 14-30 ****    Ust-Maysky District
3185 
3186 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09):
3187 # Tomponskij and Ust'-Majskij switched from Vladivostok time to Yakutsk time
3188 # in 2011.
3189 
3190 # From Paul Eggert (2012-11-25):
3191 # Shanks and Pottenger (2003) has Khandyga on Yakutsk time.
3192 # Make a wild guess that it switched to Vladivostok time in 2004.
3193 # This transition is no doubt wrong, but we have no better info.
3194 
3195 Zone Asia/Khandyga       9:02:13 -      LMT     1919 Dec 15
3196                          8:00   -       +08     1930 Jun 21
3197                          9:00   Russia  +09/+10 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3198                          8:00   Russia  +08/+09 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3199                          9:00   Russia  +09/+10 2004
3200                         10:00   Russia  +10/+11 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3201                         11:00   -       +11     2011 Sep 13  0:00s # Decree 725?
3202                         10:00   -       +10     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3203                          9:00   -       +09
3204 
3205 
3206 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
3207 # Asia/Sakhalin covers...
3208 # 65    RU-SAK  Sakhalin Oblast
3209 # ...with the exception of:
3210 # 65-11 ****    Severo-Kurilsky District (North Kuril Islands)
3211 
3212 # From Matt Johnson (2016-02-22):
3213 # Asia/Sakhalin is moving (in entirety) from UTC+10 to UTC+11 ...
3214 # (2016-03-09):
3215 # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201603090044
3216 
3217 # The Zone name should be Asia/Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, but that's too long.
3218 Zone Asia/Sakhalin       9:30:48 -      LMT     1905 Aug 23
3219                          9:00   -       +09     1945 Aug 25
3220                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 1991 Mar 31  2:00s # Sakhalin T
3221                         10:00   Russia  +10/+11 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3222                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 1997 Mar lastSun  2:00s
3223                         10:00   Russia  +10/+11 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3224                         11:00   -       +11     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3225                         10:00   -       +10     2016 Mar 27  2:00s
3226                         11:00   -       +11
3227 
3228 
3229 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
3230 # Asia/Magadan covers...
3231 # 49    RU-MAG  Magadan Oblast
3232 
3233 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02):
3234 # Magadan Oblast is moving from UTC+12 to UTC+10 on 2014-10-26; however,
3235 # several districts of Sakha Republic as well as Severo-Kurilsky District of
3236 # the Sakhalin Oblast (also known as the North Kuril Islands), represented
3237 # until now by Asia/Magadan, will instead move to UTC+11.  These regions will
3238 # need their own zone.
3239 
3240 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-03-27):
3241 # ... draft bill 948300-6 to change its time zone from UTC+10 to UTC+11 ...
3242 # will take ... effect ... on April 24, 2016 at 2 o'clock
3243 #
3244 # From Matt Johnson (2016-04-05):
3245 # ... signed by the President today ...
3246 # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201604050038
3247 
3248 Zone Asia/Magadan       10:03:12 -      LMT     1924 May  2
3249                         10:00   -       +10     1930 Jun 21 # Magadan Time
3250                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3251                         10:00   Russia  +10/+11 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3252                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3253                         12:00   -       +12     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3254                         10:00   -       +10     2016 Apr 24  2:00s
3255                         11:00   -       +11
3256 
3257 
3258 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
3259 # Asia/Srednekolymsk covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
3260 # 14-01 ****    Abyysky District
3261 # 14-03 ****    Allaikhovsky District
3262 # 14-08 ****    Verkhnekolymsky District
3263 # 14-17 ****    Momsky District
3264 # 14-20 ****    Nizhnekolymsky District
3265 # 14-25 ****    Srednekolymsky District
3266 #
3267 # ...and parts of (65, RU-SAK) Sakhalin Oblast:
3268 # 65-11 ****    Severo-Kurilsky District (North Kuril Islands)
3269 
3270 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-02):
3271 # Oymyakonsky District of Sakha Republic (represented by Ust-Nera), along with
3272 # most of Sakhalin Oblast (represented by Sakhalin) will be moving to UTC+10 on
3273 # 2014-10-26 to stay aligned with VLAT/SAKT; however, Severo-Kurilsky District
3274 # of the Sakhalin Oblast (also known as the North Kuril Islands, represented by
3275 # Severo-Kurilsk) will remain on UTC+11.
3276 
3277 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
3278 # Assume North Kuril Islands have history like Magadan before 2011-03-27.
3279 # There is a decent chance this is wrong, in which case a new zone
3280 # Asia/Severo-Kurilsk would become necessary.
3281 #
3282 # Srednekolymsk and Zyryanka are the most populous places amongst these
3283 # districts, but have very similar populations.  In fact, Wikipedia currently
3284 # lists them both as having 3528 people, exactly 1668 males and 1860 females
3285 # each!  (Yikes!)
3286 # https://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Srednekolymsky_District&oldid=603435276
3287 # https://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Verkhnekolymsky_District&oldid=594378493
3288 # Assume this is a mistake, albeit an amusing one.
3289 #
3290 # Looking at censuses, the populations of the two municipalities seem to have
3291 # fluctuated recently.  Zyryanka was more populous than Srednekolymsk in the
3292 # 1989 and 2002 censuses, but Srednekolymsk was more populous in the most
3293 # recent (2010) census, 3525 to 3170.  (See pages 195 and 197 of
3294 # http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/Documents/Vol1/pub-01-05.pdf
3295 # in Russian.)  In addition, Srednekolymsk appears to be a much older
3296 # settlement and the population of Zyryanka seems to be declining.
3297 # Go with Srednekolymsk.
3298 
3299 Zone Asia/Srednekolymsk 10:14:52 -      LMT     1924 May  2
3300                         10:00   -       +10     1930 Jun 21
3301                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3302                         10:00   Russia  +10/+11 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3303                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3304                         12:00   -       +12     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3305                         11:00   -       +11
3306 
3307 
3308 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
3309 # Asia/Ust-Nera covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
3310 # 14-22 ****    Oymyakonsky District
3311 
3312 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09):
3313 # Ojmyakonskij [and the Kuril Islands] switched from
3314 # Magadan time to Vladivostok time in 2011.
3315 #
3316 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02):
3317 # It's unlikely that any of the Kuril Islands were involved in such a switch,
3318 # as the South and Middle Kurils have been on UTC+11 (SAKT) with the rest of
3319 # Sakhalin Oblast since at least 2011-09, and the North Kurils have been on
3320 # UTC+12 since at least then, too.
3321 
3322 Zone Asia/Ust-Nera       9:32:54 -      LMT     1919 Dec 15
3323                          8:00   -       +08     1930 Jun 21
3324                          9:00   Russia  +09/+10 1981 Apr  1
3325                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3326                         10:00   Russia  +10/+11 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3327                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3328                         12:00   -       +12     2011 Sep 13  0:00s # Decree 725?
3329                         11:00   -       +11     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3330                         10:00   -       +10
3331 
3332 
3333 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
3334 # Asia/Kamchatka covers...
3335 # 91    RU-KAM  Kamchatka Krai
3336 #
3337 # Note: Effective 2007-07-01, (41) Kamchatka Oblast and (82) Koryak
3338 # Autonomous Okrug merged to form (91, RU-KAM) Kamchatka Krai.
3339 
3340 # The Zone name should be Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski or perhaps
3341 # Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, but these are too long.
3342 Zone Asia/Kamchatka     10:34:36 -      LMT     1922 Nov 10
3343                         11:00   -       +11     1930 Jun 21
3344                         12:00   Russia  +12/+13 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3345                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3346                         12:00   Russia  +12/+13 2010 Mar 28  2:00s
3347                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3348                         12:00   -       +12
3349 
3350 
3351 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
3352 # Asia/Anadyr covers...
3353 # 87    RU-CHU  Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
3354 
3355 Zone Asia/Anadyr        11:49:56 -      LMT     1924 May  2
3356                         12:00   -       +12     1930 Jun 21
3357                         13:00   Russia  +13/+14 1982 Apr  1  0:00s
3358                         12:00   Russia  +12/+13 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3359                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3360                         12:00   Russia  +12/+13 2010 Mar 28  2:00s
3361                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3362                         12:00   -       +12
3363 
3364 
3365 # San Marino
3366 # See Europe/Rome.
3367 
3368 # Serbia
3369 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3370 Zone    Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 -       LMT     1884
3371                         1:00    -       CET     1941 Apr 18 23:00
3372                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945
3373                         1:00    -       CET     1945 May  8  2:00s
3374                         1:00    1:00    CEST    1945 Sep 16  2:00s
3375 # Metod Koželj reports that the legal date of
3376 # transition to EU rules was 1982-11-27, for all of Yugoslavia at the time.
3377 # Shanks & Pottenger don't give as much detail, so go with Koželj.
3378                         1:00    -       CET     1982 Nov 27
3379                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
3380 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Ljubljana   # Slovenia
3381 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Podgorica   # Montenegro
3382 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Sarajevo    # Bosnia and Herzegovina
3383 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Skopje      # North Macedonia
3384 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Zagreb      # Croatia
3385 
3386 # Slovakia
3387 Link Europe/Prague Europe/Bratislava
3388 
3389 # Slovenia
3390 # See Europe/Belgrade.
3391 
3392 # Spain
3393 #
3394 # From Paul Eggert (2016-12-14):
3395 #
3396 # The source for Europe/Madrid before 2013 is:
3397 # Planesas P. La hora oficial en España y sus cambios.
3398 # Anuario del Observatorio Astronómico de Madrid (2013, in Spanish).
3399 # http://astronomia.ign.es/rknowsys-theme/images/webAstro/paginas/documentos/Anuario/lahoraoficialenespana.pdf
3400 # As this source says that historical time in the Canaries is obscure,
3401 # and it does not discuss Ceuta, stick with Shanks for now for that data.
3402 #
3403 # In the 1918 and 1919 fallback transitions in Spain, the clock for
3404 # the hour-longer day officially kept going after midnight, so that
3405 # the repeated instances of that day's 00:00 hour were 24 hours apart,
3406 # with a fallback transition from the second occurrence of 00:59... to
3407 # the next day's 00:00.  Our data format cannot represent this
3408 # directly, and instead repeats the first hour of the next day, with a
3409 # fallback transition from the next day's 00:59... to 00:00.
3410 
3411 # From Michael Deckers (2016-12-15):
3412 # The Royal Decree of 1900-06-26 quoted by Planesas, online at
3413 # https://www.boe.es/datos/pdfs/BOE//1900/209/A00383-00384.pdf
3414 # says in its article 5 (my translation):
3415 # These dispositions will enter into force beginning with the
3416 # instant at which, according to the time indicated in article 1,
3417 # the 1st day of January of 1901 will begin.
3418 
3419 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3420 Rule    Spain   1918    only    -       Apr     15      23:00   1:00    S
3421 Rule    Spain   1918    1919    -       Oct      6      24:00s  0       -
3422 Rule    Spain   1919    only    -       Apr      6      23:00   1:00    S
3423 Rule    Spain   1924    only    -       Apr     16      23:00   1:00    S
3424 Rule    Spain   1924    only    -       Oct      4      24:00s  0       -
3425 Rule    Spain   1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00   1:00    S
3426 Rule    Spain   1926    1929    -       Oct     Sat>=1       24:00s  0       -
3427 Rule    Spain   1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00   1:00    S
3428 Rule    Spain   1928    only    -       Apr     15       0:00   1:00    S
3429 Rule    Spain   1929    only    -       Apr     20      23:00   1:00    S
3430 # Republican Spain during the civil war; it controlled Madrid until 1939-03-28.
3431 Rule    Spain   1937    only    -       Jun     16      23:00   1:00    S
3432 Rule    Spain   1937    only    -       Oct      2      24:00s  0       -
3433 Rule    Spain   1938    only    -       Apr      2      23:00   1:00    S
3434 Rule    Spain   1938    only    -       Apr     30      23:00   2:00    M
3435 Rule    Spain   1938    only    -       Oct      2      24:00   1:00    S
3436 # The following rules are for unified Spain again.
3437 #
3438 # Planesas does not say what happened in Madrid between its fall on
3439 # 1939-03-28 and the Nationalist spring-forward transition on
3440 # 1939-04-15.  For lack of better info, assume Madrid's clocks did not
3441 # change during that period.
3442 #
3443 # The first rule is commented out, as it is redundant for Republican Spain.
3444 #Rule   Spain   1939    only    -       Apr     15      23:00   1:00    S
3445 Rule    Spain   1939    only    -       Oct      7      24:00s  0       -
3446 Rule    Spain   1942    only    -       May      2      23:00   1:00    S
3447 Rule    Spain   1942    only    -       Sep      1       1:00   0       -
3448 Rule    Spain   1943    1946    -       Apr     Sat>=13      23:00   1:00    S
3449 Rule    Spain   1943    1944    -       Oct     Sun>=1        1:00   0       -
3450 Rule    Spain   1945    1946    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00   0       -
3451 Rule    Spain   1949    only    -       Apr     30      23:00   1:00    S
3452 Rule    Spain   1949    only    -       Oct      2       1:00   0       -
3453 Rule    Spain   1974    1975    -       Apr     Sat>=12      23:00   1:00    S
3454 Rule    Spain   1974    1975    -       Oct     Sun>=1        1:00   0       -
3455 Rule    Spain   1976    only    -       Mar     27      23:00   1:00    S
3456 Rule    Spain   1976    1977    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00   0       -
3457 Rule    Spain   1977    only    -       Apr      2      23:00   1:00    S
3458 Rule    Spain   1978    only    -       Apr      2       2:00s  1:00    S
3459 Rule    Spain   1978    only    -       Oct      1       2:00s  0       -
3460 # Nationalist Spain during the civil war
3461 #Rule NatSpain  1937    only    -       May     22      23:00   1:00    S
3462 #Rule NatSpain  1937    1938    -       Oct     Sat>=1       24:00s  0       -
3463 #Rule NatSpain  1938    only    -       Mar     26      23:00   1:00    S
3464 # The following rules are copied from Morocco from 1967 through 1978,
3465 # except with "S" letters.
3466 Rule SpainAfrica 1967   only    -       Jun      3      12:00   1:00    S
3467 Rule SpainAfrica 1967   only    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       -
3468 Rule SpainAfrica 1974   only    -       Jun     24       0:00   1:00    S
3469 Rule SpainAfrica 1974   only    -       Sep      1       0:00   0       -
3470 Rule SpainAfrica 1976   1977    -       May      1       0:00   1:00    S
3471 Rule SpainAfrica 1976   only    -       Aug      1       0:00   0       -
3472 Rule SpainAfrica 1977   only    -       Sep     28       0:00   0       -
3473 Rule SpainAfrica 1978   only    -       Jun      1       0:00   1:00    S
3474 Rule SpainAfrica 1978   only    -       Aug      4       0:00   0       -
3475 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3476 Zone    Europe/Madrid   -0:14:44 -      LMT     1900 Dec 31 23:45:16
3477                          0:00   Spain   WE%sT   1940 Mar 16 23:00
3478                          1:00   Spain   CE%sT   1979
3479                          1:00   EU      CE%sT
3480 Zone    Africa/Ceuta    -0:21:16 -      LMT     1900 Dec 31 23:38:44
3481                          0:00   -       WET     1918 May  6 23:00
3482                          0:00   1:00    WEST    1918 Oct  7 23:00
3483                          0:00   -       WET     1924
3484                          0:00   Spain   WE%sT   1929
3485                          0:00   -       WET     1967 # Help zishrink.awk.
3486                          0:00 SpainAfrica WE%sT 1984 Mar 16
3487                          1:00   -       CET     1986
3488                          1:00   EU      CE%sT
3489 Zone    Atlantic/Canary -1:01:36 -      LMT     1922 Mar # Las Palmas de Gran C.
3490                         -1:00   -       -01     1946 Sep 30  1:00
3491                          0:00   -       WET     1980 Apr  6  0:00s
3492                          0:00   1:00    WEST    1980 Sep 28  1:00u
3493                          0:00   EU      WE%sT
3494 # IATA SSIM (1996-09) says the Canaries switch at 2:00u, not 1:00u.
3495 # Ignore this for now, as the Canaries are part of the EU.
3496 
3497 # Sweden
3498 
3499 # From Ivan Nilsson (2001-04-13), superseding Shanks & Pottenger:
3500 #
3501 # The law "Svensk författningssamling 1878, no 14" about standard time in 1879:
3502 # From the beginning of 1879 (that is 01-01 00:00) the time for all
3503 # places in the country is "the mean solar time for the meridian at
3504 # three degrees, or twelve minutes of time, to the west of the
3505 # meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm".  The law is dated 1878-05-31.
3506 #
3507 # The observatory at that time had the meridian 18° 03' 30"
3508 # eastern longitude = 01:12:14 in time.  Less 12 minutes gives the
3509 # national standard time as 01:00:14 ahead of GMT....
3510 #
3511 # About the beginning of CET in Sweden. The lawtext ("Svensk
3512 # författningssamling 1899, no 44") states, that "from the beginning
3513 # of 1900... ... the same as the mean solar time for the meridian at
3514 # the distance of one hour of time from the meridian of the English
3515 # observatory at Greenwich, or at 12 minutes 14 seconds to the west
3516 # from the meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm". The law is dated
3517 # 1899-06-16.  In short: At 1900-01-01 00:00:00 the new standard time
3518 # in Sweden is 01:00:00 ahead of GMT.
3519 #
3520 # 1916: The lawtext ("Svensk författningssamling 1916, no 124") states
3521 # that "1916-05-15 is considered to begin one hour earlier". It is
3522 # pretty obvious that at 05-14 23:00 the clocks are set to 05-15 00:00....
3523 # Further the law says, that "1916-09-30 is considered to end one hour later".
3524 #
3525 # The laws regulating [DST] are available on the site of the Swedish
3526 # Parliament beginning with 1985 - the laws regulating 1980/1984 are
3527 # not available on the site (to my knowledge they are only available
3528 # in Swedish): <http://www.riksdagen.se/english/work/sfst.asp> (type
3529 # "sommartid" without the quotes in the field "Fritext" and then click
3530 # the Sök-button).
3531 #
3532 # (2001-05-13):
3533 #
3534 # I have now found a newspaper stating that at 1916-10-01 01:00
3535 # summertime the church-clocks etc were set back one hour to show
3536 # 1916-10-01 00:00 standard time.  The article also reports that some
3537 # people thought the switch to standard time would take place already
3538 # at 1916-10-01 00:00 summer time, but they had to wait for another
3539 # hour before the event took place.
3540 #
3541 # Source: The newspaper "Dagens Nyheter", 1916-10-01, page 7 upper left.
3542 
3543 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3544 Zone Europe/Stockholm   1:12:12 -       LMT     1879 Jan  1
3545                         1:00:14 -       SET     1900 Jan  1 # Swedish Time
3546                         1:00    -       CET     1916 May 14 23:00
3547                         1:00    1:00    CEST    1916 Oct  1  1:00
3548                         1:00    -       CET     1980
3549                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
3550 
3551 # Switzerland
3552 # From Howse:
3553 # By the end of the 18th century clocks and watches became commonplace
3554 # and their performance improved enormously.  Communities began to keep
3555 # mean time in preference to apparent time - Geneva from 1780 ....
3556 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3557 # From Whitman (who writes "Midnight?"):
3558 # Rule  Swiss   1940    only    -       Nov      2      0:00    1:00    S
3559 # Rule  Swiss   1940    only    -       Dec     31      0:00    0       -
3560 # From Shanks & Pottenger:
3561 # Rule  Swiss   1941    1942    -       May     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    S
3562 # Rule  Swiss   1941    1942    -       Oct     Sun>=1       0:00    0       -
3563 
3564 # From Alois Treindl (2008-12-17):
3565 # I have researched the DST usage in Switzerland during the 1940ies.
3566 #
3567 # As I wrote in an earlier message, I suspected the current tzdata values
3568 # to be wrong. This is now verified.
3569 #
3570 # I have found copies of the original ruling by the Swiss Federal
3571 # government, in 'Eidgenössische Gesetzessammlung 1941 and 1942' (Swiss
3572 # federal law collection)...
3573 #
3574 # DST began on Monday 5 May 1941, 1:00 am by shifting the clocks to 2:00 am
3575 # DST ended on Monday 6 Oct 1941, 2:00 am by shifting the clocks to 1:00 am.
3576 #
3577 # DST began on Monday, 4 May 1942 at 01:00 am
3578 # DST ended on Monday, 5 Oct 1942 at 02:00 am
3579 #
3580 # There was no DST in 1940, I have checked the law collection carefully.
3581 # It is also indicated by the fact that the 1942 entry in the law
3582 # collection points back to 1941 as a reference, but no reference to any
3583 # other years are made.
3584 #
3585 # Newspaper articles I have read in the archives on 6 May 1941 reported
3586 # about the introduction of DST (Sommerzeit in German) during the previous
3587 # night as an absolute novelty, because this was the first time that such
3588 # a thing had happened in Switzerland.
3589 #
3590 # I have also checked 1916, because one book source (Gabriel, Traité de
3591 # l'heure dans le monde) claims that Switzerland had DST in 1916. This is
3592 # false, no official document could be found. Probably Gabriel got misled
3593 # by references to Germany, which introduced DST in 1916 for the first time.
3594 #
3595 # The tzdata rules for Switzerland must be changed to:
3596 # Rule  Swiss   1941    1942    -       May     Mon>=1  1:00    1:00    S
3597 # Rule  Swiss   1941    1942    -       Oct     Mon>=1  2:00    0       -
3598 #
3599 # The 1940 rules must be deleted.
3600 #
3601 # One further detail for Switzerland, which is probably out of scope for
3602 # most users of tzdata: The [Europe/Zurich zone] ...
3603 # describes all of Switzerland correctly, with the exception of
3604 # the Canton de Genève (Geneva, Genf). Between 1848 and 1894 Geneva did not
3605 # follow Bern Mean Time but kept its own local mean time.
3606 # To represent this, an extra zone would be needed.
3607 #
3608 # From Alois Treindl (2013-09-11):
3609 # The Federal regulations say
3610 # https://www.admin.ch/opc/de/classified-compilation/20071096/index.html
3611 # ... the meridian for Bern mean time ... is 7° 26' 22.50".
3612 # Expressed in time, it is 0h29m45.5s.
3613 
3614 # From Pierre-Yves Berger (2013-09-11):
3615 # the "Circulaire du conseil fédéral" (December 11 1893)
3616 # http://www.amtsdruckschriften.bar.admin.ch/viewOrigDoc.do?id=10071353
3617 # clearly states that the [1894-06-01] change should be done at midnight
3618 # but if no one is present after 11 at night, could be postponed until one
3619 # hour before the beginning of service.
3620 
3621 # From Paul Eggert (2013-09-11):
3622 # Round BMT to the nearest even second, 0:29:46.
3623 #
3624 # We can find no reliable source for Shanks's assertion that all of Switzerland
3625 # except Geneva switched to Bern Mean Time at 00:00 on 1848-09-12.  This book:
3626 #
3627 #       Jakob Messerli. Gleichmässig, pünktlich, schnell. Zeiteinteilung und
3628 #       Zeitgebrauch in der Schweiz im 19. Jahrhundert. Chronos, Zurich 1995,
3629 #       ISBN 3-905311-68-2, OCLC 717570797.
3630 #
3631 # suggests that the transition was more gradual, and that the Swiss did not
3632 # agree about civil time during the transition.  The timekeeping it gives the
3633 # most detail for is postal and telegraph time: here, federal legislation (the
3634 # "Bundesgesetz über die Erstellung von elektrischen Telegraphen") passed on
3635 # 1851-11-23, and an official implementation notice was published 1853-07-16
3636 # (Bundesblatt 1853, Bd. II, S. 859).  On p 72 Messerli writes that in
3637 # practice since July 1853 Bernese time was used in "all postal and telegraph
3638 # offices in Switzerland from Geneva to St. Gallen and Basel to Chiasso"
3639 # (Google translation).  For now, model this transition as occurring on
3640 # 1853-07-16, though it probably occurred at some other date in Zurich, and
3641 # legal civil time probably changed at still some other transition date.
3642 
3643 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3644 Rule    Swiss   1941    1942    -       May     Mon>=1       1:00    1:00    S
3645 Rule    Swiss   1941    1942    -       Oct     Mon>=1       2:00    0       -
3646 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3647 Zone    Europe/Zurich   0:34:08 -       LMT     1853 Jul 16 # See above comment.
3648                         0:29:46 -       BMT     1894 Jun    # Bern Mean Time
3649                         1:00    Swiss   CE%sT   1981
3650                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
3651 
3652 # Turkey
3653 
3654 # From Kıvanç Yazan (2016-09-25):
3655 # 1) For 1986-2006, DST started at 01:00 local and ended at 02:00 local, with
3656 #    no exceptions.
3657 # 2) 1994's lastSun was overridden with Mar 20 ...
3658 # Here are official papers:
3659 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/19032.pdf  - page 2 for 1986
3660 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/19400.pdf  - page 4 for 1987
3661 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/19752.pdf  - page 15 for 1988
3662 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/20102.pdf  - page 6 for 1989
3663 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/20464.pdf  - page 1 for 1990 - 1992
3664 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/21531.pdf  - page 15 for 1993 - 1995
3665 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/21879.pdf  - page 1 for overriding 1994
3666 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/22588.pdf  - page 1 for 1996, 1997
3667 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/23286.pdf  - page 10 for 1998 - 2000
3668 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2001/03/20010324.htm#2  - for 2001
3669 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2002/03/20020316.htm#2  - for 2002-2006
3670 # From Paul Eggert (2016-09-25):
3671 # Prefer the above sources to Shanks & Pottenger for timestamps after 1985.
3672 
3673 # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-03-09):
3674 # Starting 2007 though, it seems that they are adopting EU's 1:00 UTC
3675 # start/end time, according to the following page (2007-03-07):
3676 # http://www.ntvmsnbc.com/news/402029.asp
3677 # The official document is located here - it is in Turkish...:
3678 # http://rega.basbakanlik.gov.tr/eskiler/2007/03/20070307-7.htm
3679 # I was able to locate the following seemingly official document
3680 # (on a non-government server though) describing dates between 2002 and 2006:
3681 # http://www.alomaliye.com/bkk_2002_3769.htm
3682 
3683 # From Gökdeniz Karadağ (2011-03-10):
3684 # According to the articles linked below, Turkey will change into summer
3685 # time zone (GMT+3) on March 28, 2011 at 3:00 a.m. instead of March 27.
3686 # This change is due to a nationwide exam on 27th.
3687 # https://www.worldbulletin.net/?aType=haber&ArticleID=70872
3688 # Turkish:
3689 # https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/yaz-saati-uygulamasi-bir-gun-ileri-alindi-17230464
3690 
3691 # From Faruk Pasin (2014-02-14):
3692 # The DST for Turkey has been changed for this year because of the
3693 # Turkish Local election....
3694 # http://www.sabah.com.tr/Ekonomi/2014/02/12/yaz-saatinde-onemli-degisiklik
3695 # ... so Turkey will move clocks forward one hour on March 31 at 3:00 a.m.
3696 # From Randal L. Schwartz (2014-04-15):
3697 # Having landed on a flight from the states to Istanbul (via AMS) on March 31,
3698 # I can tell you that NOBODY (even the airlines) respected this timezone DST
3699 # change delay.  Maybe the word just didn't get out in time.
3700 # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-15):
3701 # The press reported massive confusion, as election officials obeyed the rule
3702 # change but cell phones (and airline baggage systems) did not.  See:
3703 # Kostidis M. Eventful elections in Turkey. Balkan News Agency
3704 # http://www.balkaneu.com/eventful-elections-turkey/ 2014-03-30.
3705 # I guess the best we can do is document the official time.
3706 
3707 # From Fatih (2015-09-29):
3708 # It's officially announced now by the Ministry of Energy.
3709 # Turkey delays winter time to 8th of November 04:00
3710 # http://www.aa.com.tr/tr/turkiye/yaz-saati-uygulamasi-8-kasimda-sona-erecek/362217
3711 #
3712 # From BBC News (2015-10-25):
3713 # Confused Turks are asking "what's the time?" after automatic clocks defied a
3714 # government decision ... "For the next two weeks #Turkey is on EEST... Erdogan
3715 # Engineered Standard Time," said Twitter user @aysekarahasan.
3716 # http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-34631326
3717 
3718 # From Burak AYDIN (2016-09-08):
3719 # Turkey will stay in Daylight Saving Time even in winter....
3720 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2016/09/20160908-2.pdf
3721 #
3722 # From Paul Eggert (2016-09-07):
3723 # The change is permanent, so this is the new standard time in Turkey.
3724 # It takes effect today, which is not much notice.
3725 
3726 # From Kıvanç Yazan (2017-10-28):
3727 # Turkey will go back to Daylight Saving Time starting 2018-10.
3728 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2017/10/20171028-5.pdf
3729 #
3730 # From Even Scharning (2017-11-08):
3731 # ... today it was announced that the DST will become "continuous":
3732 # http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/son-dakika-yaz-saati-uygulamasi-surekli-hale-geldi-40637482
3733 # From Paul Eggert (2017-11-08):
3734 # Although Google Translate misfires on that source, it looks like
3735 # Turkey reversed last month's decision, and so will stay at +03.
3736 
3737 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3738 Rule    Turkey  1916    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S
3739 Rule    Turkey  1916    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
3740 Rule    Turkey  1920    only    -       Mar     28      0:00    1:00    S
3741 Rule    Turkey  1920    only    -       Oct     25      0:00    0       -
3742 Rule    Turkey  1921    only    -       Apr      3      0:00    1:00    S
3743 Rule    Turkey  1921    only    -       Oct      3      0:00    0       -
3744 Rule    Turkey  1922    only    -       Mar     26      0:00    1:00    S
3745 Rule    Turkey  1922    only    -       Oct      8      0:00    0       -
3746 # Whitman gives 1923 Apr 28 - Sep 16 and no DST in 1924-1925;
3747 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
3748 Rule    Turkey  1924    only    -       May     13      0:00    1:00    S
3749 Rule    Turkey  1924    1925    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
3750 Rule    Turkey  1925    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S
3751 Rule    Turkey  1940    only    -       Jun     30      0:00    1:00    S
3752 Rule    Turkey  1940    only    -       Oct      5      0:00    0       -
3753 Rule    Turkey  1940    only    -       Dec      1      0:00    1:00    S
3754 Rule    Turkey  1941    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
3755 Rule    Turkey  1942    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
3756 # Whitman omits the next two transition and gives 1945 Oct 1;
3757 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
3758 Rule    Turkey  1942    only    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       -
3759 Rule    Turkey  1945    only    -       Apr      2      0:00    1:00    S
3760 Rule    Turkey  1945    only    -       Oct      8      0:00    0       -
3761 Rule    Turkey  1946    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    S
3762 Rule    Turkey  1946    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
3763 Rule    Turkey  1947    1948    -       Apr     Sun>=16      0:00    1:00    S
3764 Rule    Turkey  1947    1950    -       Oct     Sun>=2       0:00    0       -
3765 Rule    Turkey  1949    only    -       Apr     10      0:00    1:00    S
3766 Rule    Turkey  1950    only    -       Apr     19      0:00    1:00    S
3767 Rule    Turkey  1951    only    -       Apr     22      0:00    1:00    S
3768 Rule    Turkey  1951    only    -       Oct      8      0:00    0       -
3769 Rule    Turkey  1962    only    -       Jul     15      0:00    1:00    S
3770 Rule    Turkey  1962    only    -       Oct      8      0:00    0       -
3771 Rule    Turkey  1964    only    -       May     15      0:00    1:00    S
3772 Rule    Turkey  1964    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
3773 Rule    Turkey  1970    1972    -       May     Sun>=2       0:00    1:00    S
3774 Rule    Turkey  1970    1972    -       Oct     Sun>=2       0:00    0       -
3775 Rule    Turkey  1973    only    -       Jun      3      1:00    1:00    S
3776 Rule    Turkey  1973    only    -       Nov      4      3:00    0       -
3777 Rule    Turkey  1974    only    -       Mar     31      2:00    1:00    S
3778 Rule    Turkey  1974    only    -       Nov      3      5:00    0       -
3779 Rule    Turkey  1975    only    -       Mar     30      0:00    1:00    S
3780 Rule    Turkey  1975    1976    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       -
3781 Rule    Turkey  1976    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    S
3782 Rule    Turkey  1977    1978    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    S
3783 Rule    Turkey  1977    only    -       Oct     16      0:00    0       -
3784 Rule    Turkey  1979    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1       3:00    1:00    S
3785 Rule    Turkey  1979    1982    -       Oct     Mon>=11      0:00    0       -
3786 Rule    Turkey  1981    1982    -       Mar     lastSun 3:00    1:00    S
3787 Rule    Turkey  1983    only    -       Jul     31      0:00    1:00    S
3788 Rule    Turkey  1983    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       -
3789 Rule    Turkey  1985    only    -       Apr     20      0:00    1:00    S
3790 Rule    Turkey  1985    only    -       Sep     28      0:00    0       -
3791 Rule    Turkey  1986    1993    -       Mar     lastSun 1:00s   1:00    S
3792 Rule    Turkey  1986    1995    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00s   0       -
3793 Rule    Turkey  1994    only    -       Mar     20      1:00s   1:00    S
3794 Rule    Turkey  1995    2006    -       Mar     lastSun 1:00s   1:00    S
3795 Rule    Turkey  1996    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 1:00s   0       -
3796 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3797 Zone    Europe/Istanbul 1:55:52 -       LMT     1880
3798                         1:56:56 -       IMT     1910 Oct # Istanbul Mean Time?
3799                         2:00    Turkey  EE%sT   1978 Oct 15
3800                         3:00    Turkey  +03/+04 1985 Apr 20
3801                         2:00    Turkey  EE%sT   2007
3802                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   2011 Mar 27  1:00u
3803                         2:00    -       EET     2011 Mar 28  1:00u
3804                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   2014 Mar 30  1:00u
3805                         2:00    -       EET     2014 Mar 31  1:00u
3806                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   2015 Oct 25  1:00u
3807                         2:00    1:00    EEST    2015 Nov  8  1:00u
3808                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   2016 Sep  7
3809                         3:00    -       +03
3810 Link    Europe/Istanbul Asia/Istanbul   # Istanbul is in both continents.
3811 
3812 # Ukraine
3813 #
3814 # From Igor Karpov, who works for the Ukrainian Ministry of Justice,
3815 # via Garrett Wollman (2003-01-27):
3816 # BTW, I've found the official document on this matter. It's government
3817 # regulations No. 509, May 13, 1996. In my poor translation it says:
3818 # "Time in Ukraine is set to second timezone (Kiev time). Each last Sunday
3819 # of March at 3am the time is changing to 4am and each last Sunday of
3820 # October the time at 4am is changing to 3am"
3821 
3822 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-09-20):
3823 # On September 20, 2011 the deputies of the Verkhovna Rada agreed to
3824 # abolish the transfer clock to winter time.
3825 #
3826 # Bill No. 8330 of MP from the Party of Regions Oleg Nadoshi got
3827 # approval from 266 deputies.
3828 #
3829 # Ukraine abolishes transfer back to the winter time (in Russian)
3830 # http://news.mail.ru/politics/6861560/
3831 #
3832 # The Ukrainians will no longer change the clock (in Russian)
3833 # http://www.segodnya.ua/news/14290482.html
3834 #
3835 # Deputies cancelled the winter time (in Russian)
3836 # https://www.pravda.com.ua/rus/news/2011/09/20/6600616/
3837 #
3838 # From Philip Pizzey (2011-10-18):
3839 # Today my Ukrainian colleagues have informed me that the
3840 # Ukrainian parliament have decided that they will go to winter
3841 # time this year after all.
3842 #
3843 # From Udo Schwedt (2011-10-18):
3844 # As far as I understand, the recent change to the Ukrainian time zone
3845 # (Europe/Kiev) to introduce permanent daylight saving time (similar
3846 # to Russia) was reverted today:
3847 # http://portal.rada.gov.ua/rada/control/en/publish/article/info_left?art_id=287324&cat_id=105995
3848 #
3849 # Also reported by Alexander Bokovoy (2011-10-18) who also noted:
3850 # The law documents themselves are at
3851 # http://w1.c1.rada.gov.ua/pls/zweb_n/webproc4_1?id=&pf3511=41484
3852 
3853 # From Vladimir in Moscow via Alois Treindl re Kiev time 1991/2 (2014-02-28):
3854 # First in Ukraine they changed Time zone from UTC+3 to UTC+2 with DST:
3855 #       03 25 1990 02:00 -03.00 1       Time Zone 3 with DST
3856 #       07 01 1990 02:00 -02.00 1       Time Zone 2 with DST
3857 # * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 18.06.1990, No. 134.
3858 # http://search.ligazakon.ua/l_doc2.nsf/link1/T001500.html
3859 #
3860 # They did not end DST in September, 1990 (according to the law,
3861 # "summer time" was still in action):
3862 #       09 30 1990 03:00 -02.00 1       Time Zone 2 with DST
3863 # * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 21.09.1990, No. 272.
3864 # http://search.ligazakon.ua/l_doc2.nsf/link1/KP900272.html
3865 #
3866 # Again no change in March, 1991 ("summer time" in action):
3867 #       03 31 1991 02:00 -02.00 1       Time Zone 2 with DST
3868 #
3869 # DST ended in September 1991 ("summer time" ended):
3870 #       09 29 1991 03:00 -02.00 0       Time Zone 2, no DST
3871 # * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 25.09.1991, No. 225.
3872 # http://www.uazakon.com/documents/date_21/pg_iwgdoc.htm
3873 # This is an answer.
3874 #
3875 # Since 1992 they had normal DST procedure:
3876 #       03 29 1992 02:00 -02.00 1       DST started
3877 #       09 27 1992 03:00 -02.00 0       DST ended
3878 # * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 20.03.1992, No. 139.
3879 # http://www.uazakon.com/documents/date_8u/pg_grcasa.htm
3880 
3881 # From Paul Eggert (2018-10-03):
3882 # As is usual in tzdb, Ukrainian zones use the most common English spellings.
3883 # For example, tzdb uses Europe/Kiev, as "Kiev" is the most common spelling in
3884 # English for Ukraine's capital, even though it is certainly wrong as a
3885 # transliteration of the Ukrainian "Київ".  This is similar to tzdb's use of
3886 # Europe/Prague, which is certainly wrong as a transliteration of the Czech
3887 # "Praha".  ("Kiev" came from old Slavic via Russian to English, and "Prague"
3888 # came from old Slavic via French to English, so the two cases have something
3889 # in common.)  Admittedly English-language spelling of Ukrainian names is
3890 # controversial, and some day "Kyiv" may become substantially more popular in
3891 # English; in the meantime, stick with the traditional English "Kiev" as that
3892 # means less disruption for our users.
3893 #
3894 # Anyway, none of the common English-language spellings (Kiev, Kyiv, Kieff,
3895 # Kijeff, Kijev, Kiyef, Kiyeff) do justice to the common pronunciation in
3896 # Ukrainian, namely [ˈkɪjiu̯] (IPA).  This pronunciation has nothing like an
3897 # English "v" or "f", and instead trails off with what an English-speaker
3898 # would call a demure "oo" sound, and it would would be better anglicized as
3899 # "Kuiyu".  Here's a sound file, if you would like to do as the Kuiyuvians do:
3900 # https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Uk-Київ.ogg
3901 
3902 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3903 # This represents most of Ukraine.  See above for the spelling of "Kiev".
3904 Zone Europe/Kiev        2:02:04 -       LMT     1880
3905                         2:02:04 -       KMT     1924 May  2 # Kiev Mean Time
3906                         2:00    -       EET     1930 Jun 21
3907                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Sep 20
3908                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1943 Nov  6
3909                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990 Jul  1  2:00
3910                         2:00    1:00    EEST    1991 Sep 29  3:00
3911                         2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1995
3912                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
3913 # Ruthenia used CET 1990/1991.
3914 # "Uzhhorod" is the transliteration of the Rusyn/Ukrainian pronunciation, but
3915 # "Uzhgorod" is more common in English.
3916 Zone Europe/Uzhgorod    1:29:12 -       LMT     1890 Oct
3917                         1:00    -       CET     1940
3918                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Oct
3919                         1:00    1:00    CEST    1944 Oct 26
3920                         1:00    -       CET     1945 Jun 29
3921                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990
3922                         3:00    -       MSK     1990 Jul  1  2:00
3923                         1:00    -       CET     1991 Mar 31  3:00
3924                         2:00    -       EET     1992
3925                         2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1995
3926                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
3927 # Zaporozh'ye and eastern Lugansk oblasts observed DST 1990/1991.
3928 # "Zaporizhia" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but
3929 # "Zaporozh'ye" is more common in English.  Use the common English
3930 # spelling, except omit the apostrophe as it is not allowed in
3931 # portable Posix file names.
3932 Zone Europe/Zaporozhye  2:20:40 -       LMT     1880
3933                         2:20    -       +0220   1924 May  2
3934                         2:00    -       EET     1930 Jun 21
3935                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Aug 25
3936                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1943 Oct 25
3937                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31  2:00
3938                         2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1995
3939                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
3940 
3941 # Vatican City
3942 # See Europe/Rome.
3943 
3944 ###############################################################################
3945 
3946 # One source shows that Bulgaria, Cyprus, Finland, and Greece observe DST from
3947 # the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in September in 1986.
3948 # The source shows Romania changing a day later than everybody else.
3949 #
3950 # According to Bernard Sieloff's source, Poland is in the MET time zone but
3951 # uses the WE DST rules.  The Western USSR uses EET+1 and ME DST rules.
3952 # Bernard Sieloff's source claims Romania switches on the same day, but at
3953 # 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST).  It also claims that Turkey
3954 # switches on the same day, but switches on at 01:00 standard time
3955 # and off at 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST)
3956 
3957 # ...
3958 # Date: Wed, 28 Jan 87 16:56:27 -0100
3959 # From: Tom Hofmann
3960 # ...
3961 #
3962 # ...the European time rules are...standardized since 1981, when
3963 # most European countries started DST.  Before that year, only
3964 # a few countries (UK, France, Italy) had DST, each according
3965 # to own national rules.  In 1981, however, DST started on
3966 # 'Apr firstSun', and not on 'Mar lastSun' as in the following
3967 # years...
3968 # But also since 1981 there are some more national exceptions
3969 # than listed in 'europe': Switzerland, for example, joined DST
3970 # one year later, Denmark ended DST on 'Oct 1' instead of 'Sep
3971 # lastSun' in 1981 - I don't know how they handle now.
3972 #
3973 # Finally, DST ist always from 'Apr 1' to 'Oct 1' in the
3974 # Soviet Union (as far as I know).
3975 #
3976 # Tom Hofmann, Scientific Computer Center, CIBA-GEIGY AG,
3977 # 4002 Basle, Switzerland
3978 # ...
3979 
3980 # ...
3981 # Date: Wed, 4 Feb 87 22:35:22 +0100
3982 # From: Dik T. Winter
3983 # ...
3984 #
3985 # The information from Tom Hofmann is (as far as I know) not entirely correct.
3986 # After a request from chongo at amdahl I tried to retrieve all information
3987 # about DST in Europe.  I was able to find all from about 1969.
3988 #
3989 # ...standardization on DST in Europe started in about 1977 with switches on
3990 # first Sunday in April and last Sunday in September...
3991 # In 1981 UK joined Europe insofar that
3992 # the starting day for both shifted to last Sunday in March.  And from 1982
3993 # the whole of Europe used DST, with switch dates April 1 and October 1 in
3994 # the Sov[i]et Union.  In 1985 the SU reverted to standard Europe[a]n switch
3995 # dates...
3996 #
3997 # It should also be remembered that time-zones are not constants; e.g.
3998 # Portugal switched in 1976 from MET (or CET) to WET with DST...
3999 # Note also that though there were rules for switch dates not
4000 # all countries abided to these dates, and many individual deviations
4001 # occurred, though not since 1982 I believe.  Another note: it is always
4002 # assumed that DST is 1 hour ahead of normal time, this need not be the
4003 # case; at least in the Netherlands there have been times when DST was 2 hours
4004 # in advance of normal time.
4005 #
4006 # ...
4007 # dik t. winter, cwi, amsterdam, nederland
4008 # ...
4009 
4010 # From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
4011 # ...
4012 # Greece: Last Sunday in April to last Sunday in September (iffy on dates).
4013 # Since 1978.  Change at midnight.
4014 # ...
4015 # Monaco: has same DST as France.
4016 # ...