1 #
   2 # DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
   3 #
   4 # This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   5 # under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
   6 # published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
   7 # particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
   8 # by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
   9 #
  10 # This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  11 # ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  12 # FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  13 # version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  14 # accompanied this code).
  15 #
  16 # You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  17 # 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  18 # Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  19 #
  20 # Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  21 # or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  22 # questions.
  23 #
  24 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
  25 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
  26 
  27 # This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
  28 # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
  29 # tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
  30 # the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
  31 
  32 # From Paul Eggert (2015-08-08):
  33 #
  34 # Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:
  35 # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
  36 # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
  37 # Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.
  38 #
  39 # Gwillim Law writes that a good source
  40 # for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
  41 # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
  42 # published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
  43 # of the IATA's data after 1990.  Except where otherwise noted,
  44 # IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.
  45 #
  46 # Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
  47 # Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which
  48 # I found in the UCLA library.
  49 #
  50 # For data circa 1899, a common source is:
  51 # Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94.
  52 # http://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359
  53 #
  54 # For Russian data circa 1919, a source is:
  55 # Byalokoz EL. New Counting of Time in Russia since July 1, 1919.
  56 # (See the 'europe' file for a fuller citation.)
  57 #
  58 # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
  59 # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
  60 #
  61 # I invented the abbreviations marked '*' in the following table;
  62 # the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.
  63 # Corrections are welcome!
  64 #            std  dst
  65 #            LMT        Local Mean Time
  66 #       2:00 EET  EEST  Eastern European Time
  67 #       2:00 IST  IDT   Israel
  68 #       3:00 AST  ADT   Arabia*
  69 #       3:30 IRST IRDT  Iran*
  70 #       4:00 GST        Gulf*
  71 #       5:30 IST        India
  72 #       7:00 ICT        Indochina, most times and locations*
  73 #       7:00 WIB        west Indonesia (Waktu Indonesia Barat)
  74 #       8:00 WITA       central Indonesia (Waktu Indonesia Tengah)
  75 #       8:00 CST        China
  76 #       8:00 IDT        Indochina, 1943-45, 1947-55, 1960-75 (some locations)*
  77 #       8:00 JWST       Western Standard Time (Japan, 1896/1937)*
  78 #       8:30 KST  KDT   Korea when at +0830*
  79 #       9:00 JCST       Central Standard Time (Japan, 1896/1937)
  80 #       9:00 WIT        east Indonesia (Waktu Indonesia Timur)
  81 #       9:00 JST  JDT   Japan
  82 #       9:00 KST  KDT   Korea when at +09
  83 #       9:30 ACST       Australian Central Standard Time
  84 #
  85 # See the 'europe' file for Russia and Turkey in Asia.
  86 
  87 # From Guy Harris:
  88 # Incorporates data for Singapore from Robert Elz' asia 1.1, as well as
  89 # additional information from Tom Yap, Sun Microsystems Intercontinental
  90 # Technical Support (including a page from the Official Airline Guide -
  91 # Worldwide Edition).  The names for time zones are guesses.
  92 
  93 ###############################################################################
  94 
  95 # These rules are stolen from the 'europe' file.
  96 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
  97 Rule    EUAsia  1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  1:00u  1:00    S
  98 Rule    EUAsia  1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
  99 Rule    EUAsia  1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
 100 Rule E-EurAsia  1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  0:00   1:00    S
 101 Rule E-EurAsia  1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       -
 102 Rule E-EurAsia  1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  0:00   0       -
 103 Rule RussiaAsia 1981    1984    -       Apr     1        0:00   1:00    S
 104 Rule RussiaAsia 1981    1983    -       Oct     1        0:00   0       -
 105 Rule RussiaAsia 1984    1991    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 106 Rule RussiaAsia 1985    1991    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
 107 Rule RussiaAsia 1992    only    -       Mar     lastSat 23:00   1:00    S
 108 Rule RussiaAsia 1992    only    -       Sep     lastSat 23:00   0       -
 109 Rule RussiaAsia 1993    max     -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
 110 Rule RussiaAsia 1993    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 111 Rule RussiaAsia 1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 112 
 113 # Afghanistan
 114 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 115 Zone    Asia/Kabul      4:36:48 -       LMT     1890
 116                         4:00    -       AFT     1945
 117                         4:30    -       AFT
 118 
 119 # Armenia
 120 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
 121 # Shanks & Pottenger have Yerevan switching to 3:00 (with Russian DST)
 122 # in spring 1991, then to 4:00 with no DST in fall 1995, then
 123 # readopting Russian DST in 1997.  Go with Shanks & Pottenger, even
 124 # when they disagree with others.  Edgar Der-Danieliantz
 125 # reported (1996-05-04) that Yerevan probably wouldn't use DST
 126 # in 1996, though it did use DST in 1995.  IATA SSIM (1991/1998) reports that
 127 # Armenia switched from 3:00 to 4:00 in 1998 and observed DST after 1991,
 128 # but started switching at 3:00s in 1998.
 129 
 130 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15):
 131 # While Russia abandoned DST in 2011, Armenia may choose to
 132 # follow Russia's "old" rules.
 133 
 134 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2012-02-10):
 135 # According to News Armenia, on Feb 9, 2012,
 136 # http://newsarmenia.ru/society/20120209/42609695.html
 137 #
 138 # The Armenia National Assembly adopted final reading of Amendments to the
 139 # Law "On procedure of calculation time on the territory of the Republic of
 140 # Armenia" according to which Armenia [is] abolishing Daylight Saving Time.
 141 # or
 142 # (brief)
 143 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_armenia03.html
 144 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 145 Zone    Asia/Yerevan    2:58:00 -       LMT     1924 May  2
 146                         3:00    -       YERT    1957 Mar    # Yerevan Time
 147                         4:00 RussiaAsia YER%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
 148                         3:00    1:00    YERST   1991 Sep 23 # independence
 149                         3:00 RussiaAsia AM%sT   1995 Sep 24  2:00s
 150                         4:00    -       AMT     1997
 151                         4:00 RussiaAsia AM%sT   2012 Mar 25  2:00s
 152                         4:00    -       AMT
 153 
 154 # Azerbaijan

 155 # From Rustam Aliyev of the Azerbaijan Internet Forum (2005-10-23):
 156 # According to the resolution of Cabinet of Ministers, 1997
 157 # From Paul Eggert (2015-09-17): It was Resolution No. 21 (1997-03-17).
 158 # http://code.az/files/daylight_res.pdf








 159 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 160 Rule    Azer    1997    max     -       Mar     lastSun  4:00   1:00    S
 161 Rule    Azer    1997    max     -       Oct     lastSun  5:00   0       -
 162 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 163 Zone    Asia/Baku       3:19:24 -       LMT     1924 May  2
 164                         3:00    -       BAKT    1957 Mar    # Baku Time
 165                         4:00 RussiaAsia BAK%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
 166                         3:00    1:00    BAKST   1991 Aug 30 # independence
 167                         3:00 RussiaAsia AZ%sT   1992 Sep lastSat 23:00
 168                         4:00    -       AZT     1996     # Azerbaijan Time
 169                         4:00    EUAsia  AZ%sT   1997
 170                         4:00    Azer    AZ%sT
 171 
 172 # Bahrain
 173 # See Asia/Qatar.
 174 
 175 # Bangladesh
 176 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-05-13):
 177 # According to newspaper Asian Tribune (May 6, 2009) Bangladesh may introduce
 178 # Daylight Saving Time from June 16 to Sept 30
 179 #
 180 # Bangladesh to introduce daylight saving time likely from June 16
 181 # http://www.asiantribune.com/?q=node/17288
 182 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh02.html
 183 #
 184 # "... Bangladesh government has decided to switch daylight saving time from
 185 # June
 186 # 16 till September 30 in a bid to ensure maximum use of daylight to cope with
 187 # crippling power crisis. "
 188 #
 189 # The switch will remain in effect from June 16 to Sept 30 (2009) but if
 190 # implemented the next year, it will come in force from April 1, 2010
 191 
 192 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-06-02):
 193 # They have finally decided now, but changed the start date to midnight between
 194 # the 19th and 20th, and they have not set the end date yet.
 195 #
 196 # Some sources:
 197 # http://in.reuters.com/article/southAsiaNews/idINIndia-40017620090601
 198 # http://bdnews24.com/details.php?id=85889&cid=2
 199 #
 200 # Our wrap-up:
 201 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/bangladesh-daylight-saving-2009.html
 202 
 203 # From A. N. M. Kamrus Saadat (2009-06-15):
 204 # Finally we've got the official mail regarding DST start time where DST start
 205 # time is mentioned as Jun 19 2009, 23:00 from BTRC (Bangladesh
 206 # Telecommunication Regulatory Commission).
 207 #
 208 # No DST end date has been announced yet.
 209 
 210 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-09-25):
 211 # Bangladesh won't go back to Standard Time from October 1, 2009,
 212 # instead it will continue DST measure till the cabinet makes a fresh decision.
 213 #
 214 # Following report by same newspaper-"The Daily Star Friday":
 215 # "DST change awaits cabinet decision-Clock won't go back by 1-hr from Oct 1"
 216 # http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=107021
 217 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh04.html
 218 
 219 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-13):
 220 # IANS (Indo-Asian News Service) now reports:
 221 # Bangladesh has decided that the clock advanced by an hour to make
 222 # maximum use of daylight hours as an energy saving measure would
 223 # "continue for an indefinite period."
 224 #
 225 # One of many places where it is published:
 226 # http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/business/bangladesh-to-continue-indefinitely-with-advanced-time_100259987.html
 227 
 228 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-12-24):
 229 # According to Bangladesh newspaper "The Daily Star,"
 230 # Bangladesh will change its clock back to Standard Time on Dec 31, 2009.
 231 #
 232 # Clock goes back 1-hr on Dec 31 night.
 233 # http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=119228
 234 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh05.html
 235 #
 236 # "...The government yesterday decided to put the clock back by one hour
 237 # on December 31 midnight and the new time will continue until March 31,
 238 # 2010 midnight. The decision came at a cabinet meeting at the Prime
 239 # Minister's Office last night..."
 240 
 241 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-22):
 242 # According to Bangladesh newspaper "The Daily Star,"
 243 # Cabinet cancels Daylight Saving Time
 244 # http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/latest_news.php?nid=22817
 245 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh06.html
 246 
 247 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 248 Rule    Dhaka   2009    only    -       Jun     19      23:00   1:00    S
 249 Rule    Dhaka   2009    only    -       Dec     31      24:00   0       -
 250 
 251 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 252 Zone    Asia/Dhaka      6:01:40 -       LMT     1890
 253                         5:53:20 -       HMT     1941 Oct    # Howrah Mean Time?
 254                         6:30    -       BURT    1942 May 15 # Burma Time
 255                         5:30    -       IST     1942 Sep
 256                         6:30    -       BURT    1951 Sep 30
 257                         6:00    -       DACT    1971 Mar 26 # Dacca Time
 258                         6:00    -       BDT     2009
 259                         6:00    Dhaka   BD%sT
 260 
 261 # Bhutan
 262 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 263 Zone    Asia/Thimphu    5:58:36 -       LMT     1947 Aug 15 # or Thimbu
 264                         5:30    -       IST     1987 Oct
 265                         6:00    -       BTT     # Bhutan Time
 266 
 267 # British Indian Ocean Territory
 268 # Whitman and the 1995 CIA time zone map say 5:00, but the
 269 # 1997 and later maps say 6:00.  Assume the switch occurred in 1996.
 270 # We have no information as to when standard time was introduced;
 271 # assume it occurred in 1907, the same year as Mauritius (which
 272 # then contained the Chagos Archipelago).
 273 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 274 Zone    Indian/Chagos   4:49:40 -       LMT     1907
 275                         5:00    -       IOT     1996 # BIOT Time
 276                         6:00    -       IOT
 277 
 278 # Brunei
 279 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 280 Zone    Asia/Brunei     7:39:40 -       LMT     1926 Mar # Bandar Seri Begawan
 281                         7:30    -       BNT     1933
 282                         8:00    -       BNT
 283 
 284 # Burma / Myanmar
 285 
 286 # Milne says 6:24:40 was the meridian of the time ball observatory at Rangoon.
 287 
 288 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 289 Zone    Asia/Rangoon    6:24:40 -       LMT     1880        # or Yangon
 290                         6:24:40 -       RMT     1920        # Rangoon Mean Time?
 291                         6:30    -       BURT    1942 May    # Burma Time
 292                         9:00    -       JST     1945 May  3
 293                         6:30    -       MMT     # Myanmar Time
 294 
 295 # Cambodia
 296 # See Asia/Bangkok.
 297 
 298 
 299 # China
 300 
 301 # From Guy Harris:
 302 # People's Republic of China.  Yes, they really have only one time zone.
 303 
 304 # From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
 305 # No they don't.  See TIME mag, 1986-02-17 p.52.  Even though
 306 # China is across 4 physical time zones, before Feb 1, 1986 only the
 307 # Peking (Beijing) time zone was recognized.  Since that date, China
 308 # has two of 'em - Peking's and Ürümqi (named after the capital of
 309 # the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region).  I don't know about DST for it.
 310 #
 311 # . . .I just deleted the DST table and this editor makes it too
 312 # painful to suck in another copy.  So, here is what I have for
 313 # DST start/end dates for Peking's time zone (info from AP):
 314 #
 315 #     1986 May 4 - Sept 14
 316 #     1987 mid-April - ??
 317 
 318 # From U. S. Naval Observatory (1989-01-19):
 319 # CHINA               8 H  AHEAD OF UTC  ALL OF CHINA, INCL TAIWAN
 320 # CHINA               9 H  AHEAD OF UTC  APR 17 - SEP 10
 321 
 322 # From Paul Eggert (2008-02-11):
 323 # Jim Mann, "A clumsy embrace for another western custom: China on daylight
 324 # time - sort of", Los Angeles Times, 1986-05-05 ... [says] that China began
 325 # observing daylight saving time in 1986.
 326 
 327 # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):
 328 # Shanks & Pottenger have China switching to a single time zone in 1980, but
 329 # this doesn't seem to be correct.  They also write that China observed summer
 330 # DST from 1986 through 1991, which seems to match the above commentary, so
 331 # go with them for DST rules as follows:
 332 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 333 Rule    Shang   1940    only    -       Jun      3      0:00    1:00    D
 334 Rule    Shang   1940    1941    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       S
 335 Rule    Shang   1941    only    -       Mar     16      0:00    1:00    D
 336 Rule    PRC     1986    only    -       May      4      0:00    1:00    D
 337 Rule    PRC     1986    1991    -       Sep     Sun>=11      0:00    0       S
 338 Rule    PRC     1987    1991    -       Apr     Sun>=10      0:00    1:00    D
 339 
 340 # From Anthony Fok (2001-12-20):
 341 # BTW, I did some research on-line and found some info regarding these five
 342 # historic timezones from some Taiwan websites.  And yes, there are official
 343 # Chinese names for these locales (before 1949).
 344 #
 345 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-07-14):
 346 # I have investigated the timezones around 1970 on the
 347 # http://www.astro.com/atlas site [with provinces and county
 348 # boundaries summarized below]....  A few other exceptions were two
 349 # counties on the Sichuan side of the Xizang-Sichuan border,
 350 # counties Dege and Baiyu which lies on the Sichuan side and are
 351 # therefore supposed to be GMT+7, Xizang region being GMT+6, but Dege
 352 # county is GMT+8 according to astro.com while Baiyu county is GMT+6
 353 # (could be true), for the moment I am assuming that those two
 354 # counties are mistakes in the astro.com data.
 355 
 356 # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):
 357 # Alois Treindl kindly sent me translations of the following two sources:
 358 #
 359 # (1)
 360 # Guo Qingsheng (National Time-Service Center, CAS, Xi'an 710600, China)
 361 # Beijing Time at the Beginning of the PRC
 362 # China Historical Materials of Science and Technology
 363 # (Zhongguo ke ji shi liao, 中国科技史料), Vol. 24, No. 1 (2003)
 364 # It gives evidence that at the beginning of the PRC, Beijing time was
 365 # officially apparent solar time!  However, Guo also says that the
 366 # evidence is dubious, as the relevant institute of astronomy had not
 367 # been taken over by the PRC yet.  It's plausible that apparent solar
 368 # time was announced but never implemented, and that people continued
 369 # to use UT+8.  As the Shanghai radio station (and I presume the
 370 # observatory) was still under control of French missionaries, it
 371 # could well have ignored any such mandate.
 372 #
 373 # (2)
 374 # Guo Qing-sheng (Shaanxi Astronomical Observatory, CAS, Xi'an 710600, China)
 375 # A Study on the Standard Time Changes for the Past 100 Years in China
 376 # [undated and unknown publication location]
 377 # It says several things:
 378 #   * The Qing dynasty used local apparent solar time throughout China.
 379 #   * The Republic of China instituted Beijing mean solar time effective
 380 #     the official calendar book of 1914.
 381 #   * The French Concession in Shanghai set up signal stations in
 382 #     French docks in the 1890s, controlled by Xujiahui (Zikawei)
 383 #     Observatory and set to local mean time.
 384 #   * "From the end of the 19th century" it changed to UT+8.
 385 #   * Chinese Customs (by then reduced to a tool of foreign powers)
 386 #     eventually standardized on this time for all ports, and it
 387 #     became used by railways as well.
 388 #   * In 1918 the Central Observatory proposed dividing China into
 389 #     five time zones (see below for details).  This caught on
 390 #     at first only in coastal areas observing UT+8.
 391 #   * During WWII all of China was in theory was at UT+7.  In practice
 392 #     this was ignored in the west, and I presume was ignored in
 393 #     Japanese-occupied territory.
 394 #   * Japanese-occupied Manchuria was at UT+9, i.e., Japan time.
 395 #   * The five-zone plan was resurrected after WWII and officially put into
 396 #     place (with some modifications) in March 1948.  It's not clear
 397 #     how well it was observed in areas under Nationalist control.
 398 #   * The People's Liberation Army used UT+8 during the civil war.
 399 #
 400 # An AP article "Shanghai Internat'l Area Little Changed" in the
 401 # Lewiston (ME) Daily Sun (1939-05-29), p 17, said "Even the time is
 402 # different - the occupied districts going by Tokyo time, an hour
 403 # ahead of that prevailing in the rest of Shanghai."  Guess that the
 404 # Xujiahui Observatory was under French control and stuck with UT+8.
 405 #
 406 # In earlier versions of this file, China had many separate Zone entries, but
 407 # this was based on what were apparently incorrect data in Shanks & Pottenger.
 408 # This has now been simplified to the two entries Asia/Shanghai and
 409 # Asia/Urumqi, with the others being links for backward compatibility.
 410 # Proposed in 1918 and theoretically in effect until 1949 (although in practice
 411 # mainly observed in coastal areas), the five zones were:
 412 #
 413 # Changbai Time ("Long-white Time", Long-white = Heilongjiang area) UT+8.5
 414 # Asia/Harbin (currently a link to Asia/Shanghai)
 415 # Heilongjiang (except Mohe county), Jilin
 416 #
 417 # Zhongyuan Time ("Central plain Time") UT+8
 418 # Asia/Shanghai
 419 # most of China
 420 # This currently represents most other zones as well,
 421 # as apparently these regions have been the same since 1970.
 422 # Milne gives 8:05:43.2 for Xujiahui Observatory time; round to nearest.
 423 # Guo says Shanghai switched to UT+8 "from the end of the 19th century".
 424 #
 425 # Long-shu Time (probably due to Long and Shu being two names of that area) UT+7
 426 # Asia/Chongqing (currently a link to Asia/Shanghai)
 427 # Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Ningxia, Sichuan, Shaanxi, and Yunnan;
 428 # most of Gansu; west Inner Mongolia; west Qinghai; and the Guangdong
 429 # counties Deqing, Enping, Kaiping, Luoding, Taishan, Xinxing,
 430 # Yangchun, Yangjiang, Yu'nan, and Yunfu.
 431 #
 432 # Xin-zang Time ("Xinjiang-Tibet Time") UT+6
 433 # Asia/Urumqi
 434 # This currently represents Kunlun Time as well,
 435 # as apparently the two regions have been the same since 1970.
 436 # The Gansu counties Aksay, Anxi, Dunhuang, Subei; west Qinghai;
 437 # the Guangdong counties  Xuwen, Haikang, Suixi, Lianjiang,
 438 # Zhanjiang, Wuchuan, Huazhou, Gaozhou, Maoming, Dianbai, and Xinyi;
 439 # east Tibet, including Lhasa, Chamdo, Shigaise, Jimsar, Shawan and Hutubi;
 440 # east Xinjiang, including Ürümqi, Turpan, Karamay, Korla, Minfeng, Jinghe,
 441 # Wusu, Qiemo, Xinyan, Wulanwusu, Jinghe, Yumin, Tacheng, Tuoli, Emin,
 442 # Shihezi, Changji, Yanqi, Heshuo, Tuokexun, Tulufan, Shanshan, Hami,
 443 # Fukang, Kuitun, Kumukuli, Miquan, Qitai, and Turfan.
 444 #
 445 # Kunlun Time UT+5.5
 446 # Asia/Kashgar (currently a link to Asia/Urumqi)
 447 # West Tibet, including Pulan, Aheqi, Shufu, Shule;
 448 # West Xinjiang, including Aksu, Atushi, Yining, Hetian, Cele, Luopu, Nileke,
 449 # Zhaosu, Tekesi, Gongliu, Chabuchaer, Huocheng, Bole, Pishan, Suiding,
 450 # and Yarkand.
 451 
 452 # From Luther Ma (2009-10-17):
 453 # Almost all (>99.9%) ethnic Chinese (properly ethnic Han) living in
 454 # Xinjiang use Chinese Standard Time. Some are aware of Xinjiang time,
 455 # but have no need of it. All planes, trains, and schools function on
 456 # what is called "Beijing time." When Han make an appointment in Chinese
 457 # they implicitly use Beijing time.
 458 #
 459 # On the other hand, ethnic Uyghurs, who make up about half the
 460 # population of Xinjiang, typically use "Xinjiang time" which is two
 461 # hours behind Beijing time, or UTC +0600. The government of the Xinjiang
 462 # Uyghur Autonomous Region, (XAUR, or just Xinjiang for short) as well as
 463 # local governments such as the Ürümqi city government use both times in
 464 # publications, referring to what is popularly called Xinjiang time as
 465 # "Ürümqi time." When Uyghurs make an appointment in the Uyghur language
 466 # they almost invariably use Xinjiang time.
 467 #
 468 # (Their ethnic Han compatriots would typically have no clue of its
 469 # widespread use, however, because so extremely few of them are fluent in
 470 # Uyghur, comparable to the number of Anglo-Americans fluent in Navajo.)
 471 #
 472 # (...As with the rest of China there was a brief interval ending in 1990
 473 # or 1991 when summer time was in use.  The confusion was severe, with
 474 # the province not having dual times but four times in use at the same
 475 # time. Some areas remained on standard Xinjiang time or Beijing time and
 476 # others moving their clocks ahead.)
 477 
 478 # From Luther Ma (2009-11-19):
 479 # With the risk of being redundant to previous answers these are the most common
 480 # English "transliterations" (w/o using non-English symbols):
 481 #
 482 # 1. Wulumuqi...
 483 # 2. Kashi...
 484 # 3. Urumqi...
 485 # 4. Kashgar...
 486 # ...
 487 # 5. It seems that Uyghurs in Ürümqi has been using Xinjiang since at least the
 488 # 1960's. I know of one Han, now over 50, who grew up in the surrounding
 489 # countryside and used Xinjiang time as a child.
 490 #
 491 # 6. Likewise for Kashgar and the rest of south Xinjiang I don't know of any
 492 # start date for Xinjiang time.
 493 #
 494 # Without having access to local historical records, nor the ability to legally
 495 # publish them, I would go with October 1, 1949, when Xinjiang became the Uyghur
 496 # Autonomous Region under the PRC. (Before that Uyghurs, of course, would also
 497 # not be using Beijing time, but some local time.)
 498 
 499 # From David Cochrane (2014-03-26):
 500 # Just a confirmation that Ürümqi time was implemented in Ürümqi on 1 Feb 1986:
 501 # http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,960684,00.html
 502 
 503 # From Luther Ma (2014-04-22):
 504 # I have interviewed numerous people of various nationalities and from
 505 # different localities in Xinjiang and can confirm the information in Guo's
 506 # report regarding Xinjiang, as well as the Time article reference by David
 507 # Cochrane.  Whether officially recognized or not (and both are officially
 508 # recognized), two separate times have been in use in Xinjiang since at least
 509 # the Cultural Revolution: Xinjiang Time (XJT), aka Ürümqi Time or local time;
 510 # and Beijing Time.  There is no confusion in Xinjiang as to which name refers
 511 # to which time. Both are widely used in the province, although in some
 512 # population groups might be use one to the exclusion of the other.  The only
 513 # problem is that computers and smart phones list Ürümqi (or Kashgar) as
 514 # having the same time as Beijing.
 515 
 516 # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):
 517 # In the early days of the PRC, Tibet was given its own time zone (UT+6) but
 518 # this was withdrawn in 1959 and never reinstated; see Tubten Khétsun,
 519 # Memories of life in Lhasa under Chinese Rule, Columbia U Press, ISBN
 520 # 978-0231142861 (2008), translator's introduction by Matthew Akester, p x.
 521 # As this is before our 1970 cutoff, Tibet doesn't need a separate zone.
 522 #
 523 # Xinjiang Time is well-documented as being officially recognized.  E.g., see
 524 # "The Working-Calendar for The Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Government"
 525 # <http://www.sinkiang.gov.cn/service/ourworking/> (2014-04-22).
 526 # Unfortunately, we have no good records of time in Xinjiang before 1986.
 527 # During the 20th century parts of Xinjiang were ruled by the Qing dynasty,
 528 # the Republic of China, various warlords, the First and Second East Turkestan
 529 # Republics, the Soviet Union, the Kuomintang, and the People's Republic of
 530 # China, and tracking down all these organizations' timekeeping rules would be
 531 # quite a trick.  Approximate this lost history by a transition from LMT to
 532 # XJT at the start of 1928, the year of accession of the warlord Jin Shuren,
 533 # which happens to be the date given by Shanks & Pottenger (no doubt as a
 534 # guess) as the transition from LMT.  Ignore the usage of UT+8 before
 535 # 1986-02-01 under the theory that the transition date to UT+8 is unknown and
 536 # that the sort of users who prefer Asia/Urumqi now typically ignored the
 537 # UT+8 mandate back then.
 538 
 539 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 540 # Beijing time, used throughout China; represented by Shanghai.
 541 Zone    Asia/Shanghai   8:05:43 -       LMT     1901
 542                         8:00    Shang   C%sT    1949
 543                         8:00    PRC     C%sT
 544 # Xinjiang time, used by many in western China; represented by Ürümqi / Ürümchi
 545 # / Wulumuqi.  (Please use Asia/Shanghai if you prefer Beijing time.)
 546 Zone    Asia/Urumqi     5:50:20 -       LMT     1928
 547                         6:00    -       XJT
 548 
 549 
 550 # Hong Kong (Xianggang)
 551 
 552 # Milne gives 7:36:41.7; round this.
 553 
 554 # From Lee Yiu Chung (2009-10-24):
 555 # I found there are some mistakes for the...DST rule for Hong
 556 # Kong. [According] to the DST record from Hong Kong Observatory (actually,
 557 # it is not [an] observatory, but the official meteorological agency of HK,
 558 # and also serves as the official timing agency), there are some missing
 559 # and incorrect rules. Although the exact switch over time is missing, I
 560 # think 3:30 is correct. The official DST record for Hong Kong can be
 561 # obtained from
 562 # http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm
 563 
 564 # From Arthur David Olson (2009-10-28):
 565 # Here are the dates given at
 566 # http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm
 567 # as of 2009-10-28:
 568 # Year        Period
 569 # 1941        1 Apr to 30 Sep
 570 # 1942        Whole year
 571 # 1943        Whole year
 572 # 1944        Whole year
 573 # 1945        Whole year
 574 # 1946        20 Apr to 1 Dec
 575 # 1947        13 Apr to 30 Dec
 576 # 1948        2 May to 31 Oct
 577 # 1949        3 Apr to 30 Oct
 578 # 1950        2 Apr to 29 Oct
 579 # 1951        1 Apr to 28 Oct
 580 # 1952        6 Apr to 25 Oct
 581 # 1953        5 Apr to 1 Nov
 582 # 1954        21 Mar to 31 Oct
 583 # 1955        20 Mar to 6 Nov
 584 # 1956        18 Mar to 4 Nov
 585 # 1957        24 Mar to 3 Nov
 586 # 1958        23 Mar to 2 Nov
 587 # 1959        22 Mar to 1 Nov
 588 # 1960        20 Mar to 6 Nov
 589 # 1961        19 Mar to 5 Nov
 590 # 1962        18 Mar to 4 Nov
 591 # 1963        24 Mar to 3 Nov
 592 # 1964        22 Mar to 1 Nov
 593 # 1965        18 Apr to 17 Oct
 594 # 1966        17 Apr to 16 Oct
 595 # 1967        16 Apr to 22 Oct
 596 # 1968        21 Apr to 20 Oct
 597 # 1969        20 Apr to 19 Oct
 598 # 1970        19 Apr to 18 Oct
 599 # 1971        18 Apr to 17 Oct
 600 # 1972        16 Apr to 22 Oct
 601 # 1973        22 Apr to 21 Oct
 602 # 1973/74     30 Dec 73 to 20 Oct 74
 603 # 1975        20 Apr to 19 Oct
 604 # 1976        18 Apr to 17 Oct
 605 # 1977        Nil
 606 # 1978        Nil
 607 # 1979        13 May to 21 Oct
 608 # 1980 to Now Nil
 609 # The page does not give start or end times of day.
 610 # The page does not give a start date for 1942.
 611 # The page does not givw an end date for 1945.
 612 # The Japanese occupation of Hong Kong began on 1941-12-25.
 613 # The Japanese surrender of Hong Kong was signed 1945-09-15.
 614 # For lack of anything better, use start of those days as the transition times.
 615 
 616 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 617 Rule    HK      1941    only    -       Apr     1       3:30    1:00    S
 618 Rule    HK      1941    only    -       Sep     30      3:30    0       -
 619 Rule    HK      1946    only    -       Apr     20      3:30    1:00    S
 620 Rule    HK      1946    only    -       Dec     1       3:30    0       -
 621 Rule    HK      1947    only    -       Apr     13      3:30    1:00    S
 622 Rule    HK      1947    only    -       Dec     30      3:30    0       -
 623 Rule    HK      1948    only    -       May     2       3:30    1:00    S
 624 Rule    HK      1948    1951    -       Oct     lastSun 3:30    0       -
 625 Rule    HK      1952    only    -       Oct     25      3:30    0       -
 626 Rule    HK      1949    1953    -       Apr     Sun>=1       3:30    1:00    S
 627 Rule    HK      1953    only    -       Nov     1       3:30    0       -
 628 Rule    HK      1954    1964    -       Mar     Sun>=18      3:30    1:00    S
 629 Rule    HK      1954    only    -       Oct     31      3:30    0       -
 630 Rule    HK      1955    1964    -       Nov     Sun>=1       3:30    0       -
 631 Rule    HK      1965    1976    -       Apr     Sun>=16      3:30    1:00    S
 632 Rule    HK      1965    1976    -       Oct     Sun>=16      3:30    0       -
 633 Rule    HK      1973    only    -       Dec     30      3:30    1:00    S
 634 Rule    HK      1979    only    -       May     Sun>=8       3:30    1:00    S
 635 Rule    HK      1979    only    -       Oct     Sun>=16      3:30    0       -
 636 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 637 Zone    Asia/Hong_Kong  7:36:42 -       LMT     1904 Oct 30
 638                         8:00    HK      HK%sT   1941 Dec 25
 639                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 15
 640                         8:00    HK      HK%sT
 641 
 642 ###############################################################################
 643 
 644 # Taiwan
 645 
 646 # From smallufo (2010-04-03):
 647 # According to Taiwan's CWB [Central Weather Bureau],
 648 # http://www.cwb.gov.tw/V6/astronomy/cdata/summert.htm
 649 # Taipei has DST in 1979 between July 1st and Sep 30.
 650 
 651 # From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2013-07-12):
 652 # On Dec 28, 1895, the Meiji Emperor announced Ordinance No. 167 of
 653 # Meiji Year 28 "The clause about standard time", mentioned that
 654 # Taiwan and Penghu Islands, as well as Yaeyama and Miyako Islands
 655 # (both in Okinawa) adopt the Western Standard Time which is based on
 656 # 120E. The adoption began from Jan 1, 1896. The original text can be
 657 # found on Wikisource:
 658 # http://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/標準時ニ關スル件_(公布時)
 659 # ... This could be the first adoption of time zone in Taiwan, because
 660 # during the Qing Dynasty, it seems that there was no time zone
 661 # declared officially.
 662 #
 663 # Later, in the beginning of World War II, on Sep 25, 1937, the Showa
 664 # Emperor announced Ordinance No. 529 of Showa Year 12 "The clause of
 665 # revision in the ordinance No. 167 of Meiji year 28 about standard
 666 # time", in which abolished the adoption of Western Standard Time in
 667 # western islands (listed above), which means the whole Japan
 668 # territory, including later occupations, adopt Japan Central Time
 669 # (UTC+9). The adoption began on Oct 1, 1937. The original text can
 670 # be found on Wikisource:
 671 # http://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/明治二十八年勅令第百六十七號標準時ニ關スル件中改正ノ件
 672 #
 673 # That is, the time zone of Taipei switched to UTC+9 on Oct 1, 1937.
 674 
 675 # From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2014-07-02):
 676 # I've found more evidence about when the time zone was switched from UTC+9
 677 # back to UTC+8 after WW2.  I believe it was on Sep 21, 1945.  In a document
 678 # during Japanese era [1] in which the officer told the staff to change time
 679 # zone back to Western Standard Time (UTC+8) on Sep 21.  And in another
 680 # history page of National Cheng Kung University [2], on Sep 21 there is a
 681 # note "from today, switch back to Western Standard Time".  From these two
 682 # materials, I believe that the time zone change happened on Sep 21.  And
 683 # today I have found another monthly journal called "The Astronomical Herald"
 684 # from The Astronomical Society of Japan [3] in which it mentioned the fact
 685 # that:
 686 #
 687 # 1. Standard Time of the Country (Japan) was adopted on Jan 1, 1888, using
 688 # the time at 135E (GMT+9)
 689 #
 690 # 2. Standard Time of the Country was renamed to Central Standard Time, on Jan
 691 # 1, 1898, and on the same day, the new territories Taiwan and Penghu islands,
 692 # as well as Yaeyama and Miyako islands, adopted a new time zone called
 693 # Western Standard Time, which is in GMT+8.
 694 #
 695 # 3. Western Standard Time was deprecated on Sep 30, 1937. From then all the
 696 # territories of Japan adopted the same time zone, which is Central Standard
 697 # Time.
 698 #
 699 # [1] Academica Historica, Taiwan:
 700 # http://163.29.208.22:8080/govsaleShowImage/connect_img.php?s=00101738900090036&e=00101738900090037
 701 # [2] Nat'l Cheng Kung University 70th Anniversary Special Site:
 702 # http://www.ncku.edu.tw/~ncku70/menu/001/01_01.htm
 703 # [3] Yukio Niimi, The Standard Time in Japan (1997), p.475:
 704 # http://www.asj.or.jp/geppou/archive_open/1997/pdf/19971001c.pdf
 705 
 706 # Yu-Cheng Chuang (2014-07-03):
 707 # I finally have found the real official gazette about changing back to
 708 # Western Standard Time on Sep 21 in Taiwan.  It's Taiwan Governor-General
 709 # Bulletin No. 386 in Showa 20 years (1945), published on Sep 19, 1945. [1] ...
 710 # [It] abolishes Bulletin No. 207 in Showa 12 years (1937), which is a local
 711 # bulletin in Taiwan for that Ordinance No. 529. It also mentioned that 1am on
 712 # Sep 21, 1945 will be 12am on Sep 21.  I think this bulletin is much more
 713 # official than the one I mentioned in my first mail, because it's from the
 714 # top-level government in Taiwan. If you're going to quote any resource, this
 715 # would be a good one.
 716 # [1] Taiwan Governor-General Gazette, No. 1018, Sep 19, 1945:
 717 # http://db2.th.gov.tw/db2/view/viewImg.php?imgcode=0072031018a&num=19&bgn=019&end=019&otherImg=&type=gener
 718 
 719 # From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2014-07-02):
 720 # In 1946, DST in Taiwan was from May 15 and ended on Sep 30. The info from
 721 # Central Weather Bureau website was not correct.
 722 #
 723 # Original Bulletin:
 724 # http://subtpg.tpg.gov.tw/og/image2.asp?f=03502F0AKM1AF
 725 # http://subtpg.tpg.gov.tw/og/image2.asp?f=0350300AKM1B0 (cont.)
 726 #
 727 # In 1947, DST in Taiwan was expanded to Oct 31. There is a backup of that
 728 # telegram announcement from Taiwan Province Government:
 729 #
 730 # http://subtpg.tpg.gov.tw/og/image2.asp?f=0360310AKZ431
 731 #
 732 # Here is a brief translation:
 733 #
 734 #   The Summer Time this year is adopted from midnight Apr 15 until Sep 20
 735 #   midnight. To save (energy?) consumption, we're expanding Summer Time
 736 #   adoption till Oct 31 midnight.
 737 #
 738 # The Central Weather Bureau website didn't mention that, however it can
 739 # be found from historical government announcement database.
 740 
 741 # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-03):
 742 # As per Yu-Cheng Chuang, say that Taiwan was at UT+9 from 1937-10-01
 743 # until 1945-09-21 at 01:00, overriding Shanks & Pottenger.
 744 # Likewise, use Yu-Cheng Chuang's data for DST in Taiwan.
 745 
 746 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 747 Rule    Taiwan  1946    only    -       May     15      0:00    1:00    D
 748 Rule    Taiwan  1946    only    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S
 749 Rule    Taiwan  1947    only    -       Apr     15      0:00    1:00    D
 750 Rule    Taiwan  1947    only    -       Nov     1       0:00    0       S
 751 Rule    Taiwan  1948    1951    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    D
 752 Rule    Taiwan  1948    1951    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S
 753 Rule    Taiwan  1952    only    -       Mar     1       0:00    1:00    D
 754 Rule    Taiwan  1952    1954    -       Nov     1       0:00    0       S
 755 Rule    Taiwan  1953    1959    -       Apr     1       0:00    1:00    D
 756 Rule    Taiwan  1955    1961    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S
 757 Rule    Taiwan  1960    1961    -       Jun     1       0:00    1:00    D
 758 Rule    Taiwan  1974    1975    -       Apr     1       0:00    1:00    D
 759 Rule    Taiwan  1974    1975    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S
 760 Rule    Taiwan  1979    only    -       Jul     1       0:00    1:00    D
 761 Rule    Taiwan  1979    only    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S
 762 
 763 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 764 # Taipei or Taibei or T'ai-pei
 765 Zone    Asia/Taipei     8:06:00 -       LMT     1896 Jan  1
 766                         8:00    -       JWST    1937 Oct  1
 767                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 21  1:00
 768                         8:00    Taiwan  C%sT
 769 
 770 # Macau (Macao, Aomen)
 771 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 772 Rule    Macau   1961    1962    -       Mar     Sun>=16      3:30    1:00    S
 773 Rule    Macau   1961    1964    -       Nov     Sun>=1       3:30    0       -
 774 Rule    Macau   1963    only    -       Mar     Sun>=16      0:00    1:00    S
 775 Rule    Macau   1964    only    -       Mar     Sun>=16      3:30    1:00    S
 776 Rule    Macau   1965    only    -       Mar     Sun>=16      0:00    1:00    S
 777 Rule    Macau   1965    only    -       Oct     31      0:00    0       -
 778 Rule    Macau   1966    1971    -       Apr     Sun>=16      3:30    1:00    S
 779 Rule    Macau   1966    1971    -       Oct     Sun>=16      3:30    0       -
 780 Rule    Macau   1972    1974    -       Apr     Sun>=15      0:00    1:00    S
 781 Rule    Macau   1972    1973    -       Oct     Sun>=15      0:00    0       -
 782 Rule    Macau   1974    1977    -       Oct     Sun>=15      3:30    0       -
 783 Rule    Macau   1975    1977    -       Apr     Sun>=15      3:30    1:00    S
 784 Rule    Macau   1978    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=15      0:00    1:00    S
 785 Rule    Macau   1978    1980    -       Oct     Sun>=15      0:00    0       -
 786 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 787 Zone    Asia/Macau      7:34:20 -       LMT     1912 Jan  1
 788                         8:00    Macau   MO%sT   1999 Dec 20 # return to China
 789                         8:00    PRC     C%sT
 790 
 791 
 792 ###############################################################################
 793 
 794 # Cyprus
 795 #
 796 # Milne says the Eastern Telegraph Company used 2:14:00.  Stick with LMT.
 797 #
 798 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 799 Rule    Cyprus  1975    only    -       Apr     13      0:00    1:00    S
 800 Rule    Cyprus  1975    only    -       Oct     12      0:00    0       -
 801 Rule    Cyprus  1976    only    -       May     15      0:00    1:00    S
 802 Rule    Cyprus  1976    only    -       Oct     11      0:00    0       -
 803 Rule    Cyprus  1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    S
 804 Rule    Cyprus  1977    only    -       Sep     25      0:00    0       -
 805 Rule    Cyprus  1978    only    -       Oct     2       0:00    0       -
 806 Rule    Cyprus  1979    1997    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       -
 807 Rule    Cyprus  1981    1998    -       Mar     lastSun 0:00    1:00    S
 808 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 809 Zone    Asia/Nicosia    2:13:28 -       LMT     1921 Nov 14
 810                         2:00    Cyprus  EE%sT   1998 Sep
 811                         2:00    EUAsia  EE%sT
 812 # IATA SSIM (1998-09) has Cyprus using EU rules for the first time.
 813 
 814 # Classically, Cyprus belongs to Asia; e.g. see Herodotus, Histories, I.72.
 815 # However, for various reasons many users expect to find it under Europe.
 816 Link    Asia/Nicosia    Europe/Nicosia
 817 
 818 # Georgia
 819 # From Paul Eggert (1994-11-19):
 820 # Today's _Economist_ (p 60) reports that Georgia moved its clocks forward
 821 # an hour recently, due to a law proposed by Zurab Murvanidze,
 822 # an MP who went on a hunger strike for 11 days to force discussion about it!
 823 # We have no details, but we'll guess they didn't move the clocks back in fall.
 824 #
 825 # From Mathew Englander, quoting AP (1996-10-23 13:05-04):
 826 # Instead of putting back clocks at the end of October, Georgia
 827 # will stay on daylight savings time this winter to save energy,
 828 # President Eduard Shevardnadze decreed Wednesday.
 829 #
 830 # From the BBC via Joseph S. Myers (2004-06-27):
 831 #
 832 # Georgia moved closer to Western Europe on Sunday...  The former Soviet
 833 # republic has changed its time zone back to that of Moscow.  As a result it
 834 # is now just four hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time, rather than five hours
 835 # ahead.  The switch was decreed by the pro-Western president of Georgia,
 836 # Mikheil Saakashvili, who said the change was partly prompted by the process
 837 # of integration into Europe.
 838 
 839 # From Teimuraz Abashidze (2005-11-07):
 840 # Government of Georgia ... decided to NOT CHANGE daylight savings time on
 841 # [Oct.] 30, as it was done before during last more than 10 years.
 842 # Currently, we are in fact GMT +4:00, as before 30 October it was GMT
 843 # +3:00.... The problem is, there is NO FORMAL LAW or governmental document
 844 # about it.  As far as I can find, I was told, that there is no document,
 845 # because we just DIDN'T ISSUE document about switching to winter time....
 846 # I don't know what can be done, especially knowing that some years ago our
 847 # DST rules where changed THREE TIMES during one month.
 848 
 849 # Milne 1899 says Tbilisi (Tiflis) time was 2:59:05.7.
 850 # Byalokoz 1919 says Georgia was 2:59:11.
 851 # Go with Byalokoz.
 852 
 853 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 854 Zone    Asia/Tbilisi    2:59:11 -       LMT     1880
 855                         2:59:11 -       TBMT    1924 May  2 # Tbilisi Mean Time
 856                         3:00    -       TBIT    1957 Mar    # Tbilisi Time
 857                         4:00 RussiaAsia TBI%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
 858                         3:00    1:00    TBIST   1991 Apr  9 # independence
 859                         3:00 RussiaAsia GE%sT   1992        # Georgia Time
 860                         3:00 E-EurAsia  GE%sT   1994 Sep lastSun
 861                         4:00 E-EurAsia  GE%sT   1996 Oct lastSun
 862                         4:00    1:00    GEST    1997 Mar lastSun
 863                         4:00 E-EurAsia  GE%sT   2004 Jun 27
 864                         3:00 RussiaAsia GE%sT   2005 Mar lastSun  2:00
 865                         4:00    -       GET
 866 
 867 # East Timor
 868 
 869 # See Indonesia for the 1945 transition.
 870 
 871 # From João Carrascalão, brother of the former governor of East Timor, in
 872 # East Timor may be late for its millennium
 873 # <http://etan.org/et99c/december/26-31/30ETMAY.htm> (1999-12-26/31):
 874 # Portugal tried to change the time forward in 1974 because the sun
 875 # rises too early but the suggestion raised a lot of problems with the
 876 # Timorese and I still don't think it would work today because it
 877 # conflicts with their way of life.
 878 
 879 # From Paul Eggert (2000-12-04):
 880 # We don't have any record of the above attempt.
 881 # Most likely our records are incomplete, but we have no better data.
 882 
 883 # From Manoel de Almeida e Silva, Deputy Spokesman for the UN Secretary-General
 884 # http://www.hri.org/news/world/undh/2000/00-08-16.undh.html
 885 # (2000-08-16):
 886 # The Cabinet of the East Timor Transition Administration decided
 887 # today to advance East Timor's time by one hour.  The time change,
 888 # which will be permanent, with no seasonal adjustment, will happen at
 889 # midnight on Saturday, September 16.
 890 
 891 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 892 Zone    Asia/Dili       8:22:20 -       LMT     1912 Jan  1
 893                         8:00    -       TLT     1942 Feb 21 23:00 # E Timor Time
 894                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 23
 895                         9:00    -       TLT     1976 May  3
 896                         8:00    -       WITA    2000 Sep 17  0:00
 897                         9:00    -       TLT
 898 
 899 # India
 900 
 901 # From Ian P. Beacock, in "A brief history of (modern) time", The Atlantic
 902 # http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2015/12/the-creation-of-modern-time/421419/
 903 # (2015-12-22):
 904 # In January 1906, several thousand cotton-mill workers rioted on the
 905 # outskirts of Bombay....  They were protesting the proposed abolition of
 906 # local time in favor of Indian Standard Time....  Journalists called this
 907 # dispute the "Battle of the Clocks."  It lasted nearly half a century.
 908 
 909 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 910 Zone    Asia/Kolkata    5:53:28 -       LMT     1880        # Kolkata
 911                         5:53:20 -       HMT     1941 Oct    # Howrah Mean Time?
 912                         6:30    -       BURT    1942 May 15 # Burma Time
 913                         5:30    -       IST     1942 Sep
 914                         5:30    1:00    IST     1945 Oct 15
 915                         5:30    -       IST
 916 # The following are like Asia/Kolkata:
 917 #       Andaman Is
 918 #       Lakshadweep (Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi Is)
 919 #       Nicobar Is
 920 
 921 # Indonesia
 922 #
 923 # From Paul Eggert (2014-09-06):
 924 # The 1876 Report of the Secretary of the [US] Navy, p 306 says that Batavia
 925 # civil time was 7:07:12.5; round to even for Jakarta.
 926 #
 927 # From Gwillim Law (2001-05-28), overriding Shanks & Pottenger:
 928 # http://www.sumatera-inc.com/go_to_invest/about_indonesia.asp#standtime
 929 # says that Indonesia's time zones changed on 1988-01-01.  Looking at some
 930 # time zone maps, I think that must refer to Western Borneo (Kalimantan Barat
 931 # and Kalimantan Tengah) switching from UTC+8 to UTC+7.
 932 #
 933 # From Paul Eggert (2007-03-10):
 934 # Here is another correction to Shanks & Pottenger.
 935 # JohnTWB writes that Japanese forces did not surrender control in
 936 # Indonesia until 1945-09-01 00:00 at the earliest (in Jakarta) and
 937 # other formal surrender ceremonies were September 9, 11, and 13, plus
 938 # September 12 for the regional surrender to Mountbatten in Singapore.
 939 # These would be the earliest possible times for a change.
 940 # Régimes horaires pour le monde entier, by Henri Le Corre, (Éditions
 941 # Traditionnelles, 1987, Paris) says that Java and Madura switched
 942 # from JST to UTC+07:30 on 1945-09-23, and gives 1944-09-01 for Jayapura
 943 # (Hollandia).  For now, assume all Indonesian locations other than Jayapura
 944 # switched on 1945-09-23.
 945 #
 946 # From Paul Eggert (2013-08-11):
 947 # Normally the tz database uses English-language abbreviations, but in
 948 # Indonesia it's typical to use Indonesian-language abbreviations even
 949 # when writing in English.  For example, see the English-language
 950 # summary published by the Time and Frequency Laboratory of the
 951 # Research Center for Calibration, Instrumentation and Metrology,
 952 # Indonesia, <http://time.kim.lipi.go.id/time-eng.php> (2006-09-29).
 953 # The abbreviations are:
 954 #
 955 # WIB  - UTC+7 - Waktu Indonesia Barat (Indonesia western time)
 956 # WITA - UTC+8 - Waktu Indonesia Tengah (Indonesia central time)
 957 # WIT  - UTC+9 - Waktu Indonesia Timur (Indonesia eastern time)
 958 #
 959 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 960 # Java, Sumatra
 961 Zone Asia/Jakarta       7:07:12 -       LMT     1867 Aug 10
 962 # Shanks & Pottenger say the next transition was at 1924 Jan 1 0:13,
 963 # but this must be a typo.
 964                         7:07:12 -       BMT     1923 Dec 31 23:47:12 # Batavia
 965                         7:20    -       JAVT    1932 Nov    # Java Time
 966                         7:30    -       WIB     1942 Mar 23
 967                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 23
 968                         7:30    -       WIB     1948 May
 969                         8:00    -       WIB     1950 May
 970                         7:30    -       WIB     1964
 971                         7:00    -       WIB
 972 # west and central Borneo
 973 Zone Asia/Pontianak     7:17:20 -       LMT     1908 May
 974                         7:17:20 -       PMT     1932 Nov    # Pontianak MT
 975                         7:30    -       WIB     1942 Jan 29
 976                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 23
 977                         7:30    -       WIB     1948 May
 978                         8:00    -       WIB     1950 May
 979                         7:30    -       WIB     1964
 980                         8:00    -       WITA    1988 Jan  1
 981                         7:00    -       WIB
 982 # Sulawesi, Lesser Sundas, east and south Borneo
 983 Zone Asia/Makassar      7:57:36 -       LMT     1920
 984                         7:57:36 -       MMT     1932 Nov    # Macassar MT
 985                         8:00    -       WITA    1942 Feb  9
 986                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 23
 987                         8:00    -       WITA
 988 # Maluku Islands, West Papua, Papua
 989 Zone Asia/Jayapura      9:22:48 -       LMT     1932 Nov
 990                         9:00    -       WIT     1944 Sep  1
 991                         9:30    -       ACST    1964
 992                         9:00    -       WIT
 993 
 994 # Iran
 995 
 996 # From Roozbeh Pournader (2003-03-15):
 997 # This is an English translation of what I just found (originally in Persian).
 998 # The Gregorian dates in brackets are mine:
 999 #
1000 #       Official Newspaper No. 13548-1370/6/25 [1991-09-16]
1001 #       No. 16760/T233 H                                1370/6/10 [1991-09-01]
1002 #
1003 #       The Rule About Change of the Official Time of the Country
1004 #
1005 #       The Board of Ministers, in the meeting dated 1370/5/23 [1991-08-14],
1006 #       based on the suggestion number 2221/D dated 1370/4/22 [1991-07-13]
1007 #       of the Country's Organization for Official and Employment Affairs,
1008 #       and referring to the law for equating the working hours of workers
1009 #       and officers in the whole country dated 1359/4/23 [1980-07-14], and
1010 #       for synchronizing the official times of the country, agreed that:
1011 #
1012 #       The official time of the country will should move forward one hour
1013 #       at the 24[:00] hours of the first day of Farvardin and should return
1014 #       to its previous state at the 24[:00] hours of the 30th day of
1015 #       Shahrivar.
1016 #
1017 #       First Deputy to the President - Hassan Habibi
1018 #
1019 # From personal experience, that agrees with what has been followed
1020 # for at least the last 5 years.  Before that, for a few years, the
1021 # date used was the first Thursday night of Farvardin and the last
1022 # Thursday night of Shahrivar, but I can't give exact dates....
1023 # I have also changed the abbreviations to what is considered correct
1024 # here in Iran, IRST for regular time and IRDT for daylight saving time.
1025 #
1026 # From Roozbeh Pournader (2005-04-05):
1027 # The text of the Iranian law, in effect since 1925, clearly mentions
1028 # that the true solar year is the measure, and there is no arithmetic
1029 # leap year calculation involved.  There has never been any serious
1030 # plan to change that law....
1031 #
1032 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1033 # Go with Shanks & Pottenger before Sept. 1991, and with Pournader thereafter.
1034 # I used Ed Reingold's cal-persia in GNU Emacs 21.2 to check Persian dates,
1035 # stopping after 2037 when 32-bit time_t's overflow.
1036 # That cal-persia used Birashk's approximation, which disagrees with the solar
1037 # calendar predictions for the year 2025, so I corrected those dates by hand.
1038 #
1039 # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-03-30), writing about future
1040 # discrepancies between cal-persia and the Iranian calendar:
1041 # For 2091 solar-longitude-after yields 2091-03-20 08:40:07.7 UT for
1042 # the vernal equinox and that gets so close to 12:00 some local
1043 # Iranian time that the definition of the correct location needs to be
1044 # known exactly, amongst other factors.  2157 is even closer:
1045 # 2157-03-20 08:37:15.5 UT.  But the Gregorian year 2025 should give
1046 # no interpretation problem whatsoever.  By the way, another instant
1047 # in the near future where there will be a discrepancy between
1048 # arithmetical and astronomical Iranian calendars will be in 2058:
1049 # vernal equinox on 2058-03-20 09:03:05.9 UT.  The Java version of
1050 # Reingold's/Dershowitz' calculator gives correctly the Gregorian date
1051 # 2058-03-21 for 1 Farvardin 1437 (astronomical).
1052 #
1053 # From Steffen Thorsen (2006-03-22):
1054 # Several of my users have reported that Iran will not observe DST anymore:
1055 # http://www.irna.ir/en/news/view/line-17/0603193812164948.htm
1056 #
1057 # From Reuters (2007-09-16), with a heads-up from Jesper Nørgaard Welen:
1058 # ... the Guardian Council ... approved a law on Sunday to re-introduce
1059 # daylight saving time ...
1060 # http://uk.reuters.com/article/oilRpt/idUKBLA65048420070916
1061 #
1062 # From Roozbeh Pournader (2007-11-05):
1063 # This is quoted from Official Gazette of the Islamic Republic of
1064 # Iran, Volume 63, No. 18242, dated Tuesday 1386/6/24
1065 # [2007-10-16]. I am doing the best translation I can:...
1066 # The official time of the country will be moved forward for one hour
1067 # on the 24 hours of the first day of the month of Farvardin and will
1068 # be changed back to its previous state on the 24 hours of the
1069 # thirtieth day of Shahrivar.
1070 #
1071 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1072 Rule    Iran    1978    1980    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
1073 Rule    Iran    1978    only    -       Oct     21      0:00    0       S
1074 Rule    Iran    1979    only    -       Sep     19      0:00    0       S
1075 Rule    Iran    1980    only    -       Sep     23      0:00    0       S
1076 Rule    Iran    1991    only    -       May      3      0:00    1:00    D
1077 Rule    Iran    1992    1995    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    D
1078 Rule    Iran    1991    1995    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
1079 Rule    Iran    1996    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
1080 Rule    Iran    1996    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       S
1081 Rule    Iran    1997    1999    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    D
1082 Rule    Iran    1997    1999    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
1083 Rule    Iran    2000    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
1084 Rule    Iran    2000    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       S
1085 Rule    Iran    2001    2003    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    D
1086 Rule    Iran    2001    2003    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
1087 Rule    Iran    2004    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
1088 Rule    Iran    2004    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       S
1089 Rule    Iran    2005    only    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    D
1090 Rule    Iran    2005    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
1091 Rule    Iran    2008    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
1092 Rule    Iran    2008    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       S
1093 Rule    Iran    2009    2011    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    D
1094 Rule    Iran    2009    2011    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
1095 Rule    Iran    2012    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
1096 Rule    Iran    2012    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       S
1097 Rule    Iran    2013    2015    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    D
1098 Rule    Iran    2013    2015    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
1099 Rule    Iran    2016    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
1100 Rule    Iran    2016    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       S
1101 Rule    Iran    2017    2019    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    D
1102 Rule    Iran    2017    2019    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
1103 Rule    Iran    2020    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
1104 Rule    Iran    2020    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       S
1105 Rule    Iran    2021    2023    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    D
1106 Rule    Iran    2021    2023    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
1107 Rule    Iran    2024    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
1108 Rule    Iran    2024    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       S
1109 Rule    Iran    2025    2027    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    D
1110 Rule    Iran    2025    2027    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
1111 Rule    Iran    2028    2029    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
1112 Rule    Iran    2028    2029    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       S
1113 Rule    Iran    2030    2031    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    D
1114 Rule    Iran    2030    2031    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
1115 Rule    Iran    2032    2033    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
1116 Rule    Iran    2032    2033    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       S
1117 Rule    Iran    2034    2035    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    D
1118 Rule    Iran    2034    2035    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
1119 #
1120 # The following rules are approximations starting in the year 2038.
1121 # These are the best post-2037 approximations available, given the
1122 # restrictions of a single rule using a Gregorian-based data format.
1123 # At some point this table will need to be extended, though quite
1124 # possibly Iran will change the rules first.
1125 Rule    Iran    2036    max     -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
1126 Rule    Iran    2036    max     -       Sep     21      0:00    0       S
1127 
1128 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1129 Zone    Asia/Tehran     3:25:44 -       LMT     1916
1130                         3:25:44 -       TMT     1946     # Tehran Mean Time
1131                         3:30    -       IRST    1977 Nov
1132                         4:00    Iran    IR%sT   1979
1133                         3:30    Iran    IR%sT
1134 
1135 
1136 # Iraq
1137 #
1138 # From Jonathan Lennox (2000-06-12):
1139 # An article in this week's Economist ("Inside the Saddam-free zone", p. 50 in
1140 # the U.S. edition) on the Iraqi Kurds contains a paragraph:
1141 # "The three northern provinces ... switched their clocks this spring and
1142 # are an hour ahead of Baghdad."
1143 #
1144 # But Rives McDow (2000-06-18) quotes a contact in Iraqi-Kurdistan as follows:
1145 # In the past, some Kurdish nationalists, as a protest to the Iraqi
1146 # Government, did not adhere to daylight saving time.  They referred
1147 # to daylight saving as Saddam time.  But, as of today, the time zone
1148 # in Iraqi-Kurdistan is on standard time with Baghdad, Iraq.
1149 #
1150 # So we'll ignore the Economist's claim.
1151 
1152 # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-03-10):
1153 # The cabinet in Iraq abolished DST last week, according to the following
1154 # news sources (in Arabic):
1155 # http://www.aljeeran.net/wesima_articles/news-20080305-98602.html
1156 # http://www.aswataliraq.info/look/article.tpl?id=2047&IdLanguage=17&IdPublication=4&NrArticle=71743&NrIssue=1&NrSection=10
1157 #
1158 # We have published a short article in English about the change:
1159 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/iraq-dumps-daylight-saving.html
1160 
1161 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1162 Rule    Iraq    1982    only    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    D
1163 Rule    Iraq    1982    1984    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S
1164 Rule    Iraq    1983    only    -       Mar     31      0:00    1:00    D
1165 Rule    Iraq    1984    1985    -       Apr     1       0:00    1:00    D
1166 Rule    Iraq    1985    1990    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00s   0       S
1167 Rule    Iraq    1986    1990    -       Mar     lastSun 1:00s   1:00    D
1168 # IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says Apr 1 12:01am UTC; guess the ':01' is a typo.
1169 # Shanks & Pottenger say Iraq did not observe DST 1992/1997; ignore this.
1170 #
1171 Rule    Iraq    1991    2007    -       Apr      1      3:00s   1:00    D
1172 Rule    Iraq    1991    2007    -       Oct      1      3:00s   0       S
1173 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1174 Zone    Asia/Baghdad    2:57:40 -       LMT     1890
1175                         2:57:36 -       BMT     1918     # Baghdad Mean Time?
1176                         3:00    -       AST     1982 May
1177                         3:00    Iraq    A%sT
1178 
1179 
1180 ###############################################################################
1181 
1182 # Israel
1183 
1184 # From Ephraim Silverberg (2001-01-11):
1185 #
1186 # I coined "IST/IDT" circa 1988.  Until then there were three
1187 # different abbreviations in use:
1188 #
1189 # JST  Jerusalem Standard Time [Danny Braniss, Hebrew University]
1190 # IZT  Israel Zonal (sic) Time [Prof. Haim Papo, Technion]
1191 # EEST Eastern Europe Standard Time [used by almost everyone else]
1192 #
1193 # Since timezones should be called by country and not capital cities,
1194 # I ruled out JST.  As Israel is in Asia Minor and not Eastern Europe,
1195 # EEST was equally unacceptable.  Since "zonal" was not compatible with
1196 # any other timezone abbreviation, I felt that 'IST' was the way to go
1197 # and, indeed, it has received almost universal acceptance in timezone
1198 # settings in Israeli computers.
1199 #
1200 # In any case, I am happy to share timezone abbreviations with India,
1201 # high on my favorite-country list (and not only because my wife's
1202 # family is from India).
1203 
1204 # From Shanks & Pottenger:
1205 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1206 Rule    Zion    1940    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    D
1207 Rule    Zion    1942    1944    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       S
1208 Rule    Zion    1943    only    -       Apr      1      2:00    1:00    D
1209 Rule    Zion    1944    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    D
1210 Rule    Zion    1945    only    -       Apr     16      0:00    1:00    D
1211 Rule    Zion    1945    only    -       Nov      1      2:00    0       S
1212 Rule    Zion    1946    only    -       Apr     16      2:00    1:00    D
1213 Rule    Zion    1946    only    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       S
1214 Rule    Zion    1948    only    -       May     23      0:00    2:00    DD
1215 Rule    Zion    1948    only    -       Sep      1      0:00    1:00    D
1216 Rule    Zion    1948    1949    -       Nov      1      2:00    0       S
1217 Rule    Zion    1949    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D
1218 Rule    Zion    1950    only    -       Apr     16      0:00    1:00    D
1219 Rule    Zion    1950    only    -       Sep     15      3:00    0       S
1220 Rule    Zion    1951    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    D
1221 Rule    Zion    1951    only    -       Nov     11      3:00    0       S
1222 Rule    Zion    1952    only    -       Apr     20      2:00    1:00    D
1223 Rule    Zion    1952    only    -       Oct     19      3:00    0       S
1224 Rule    Zion    1953    only    -       Apr     12      2:00    1:00    D
1225 Rule    Zion    1953    only    -       Sep     13      3:00    0       S
1226 Rule    Zion    1954    only    -       Jun     13      0:00    1:00    D
1227 Rule    Zion    1954    only    -       Sep     12      0:00    0       S
1228 Rule    Zion    1955    only    -       Jun     11      2:00    1:00    D
1229 Rule    Zion    1955    only    -       Sep     11      0:00    0       S
1230 Rule    Zion    1956    only    -       Jun      3      0:00    1:00    D
1231 Rule    Zion    1956    only    -       Sep     30      3:00    0       S
1232 Rule    Zion    1957    only    -       Apr     29      2:00    1:00    D
1233 Rule    Zion    1957    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
1234 Rule    Zion    1974    only    -       Jul      7      0:00    1:00    D
1235 Rule    Zion    1974    only    -       Oct     13      0:00    0       S
1236 Rule    Zion    1975    only    -       Apr     20      0:00    1:00    D
1237 Rule    Zion    1975    only    -       Aug     31      0:00    0       S
1238 Rule    Zion    1985    only    -       Apr     14      0:00    1:00    D
1239 Rule    Zion    1985    only    -       Sep     15      0:00    0       S
1240 Rule    Zion    1986    only    -       May     18      0:00    1:00    D
1241 Rule    Zion    1986    only    -       Sep      7      0:00    0       S
1242 Rule    Zion    1987    only    -       Apr     15      0:00    1:00    D
1243 Rule    Zion    1987    only    -       Sep     13      0:00    0       S
1244 
1245 # From Avigdor Finkelstein (2014-03-05):
1246 # I check the Parliament (Knesset) records and there it's stated that the
1247 # [1988] transition should take place on Saturday night, when the Sabbath
1248 # ends and changes to Sunday.
1249 Rule    Zion    1988    only    -       Apr     10      0:00    1:00    D
1250 Rule    Zion    1988    only    -       Sep      4      0:00    0       S
1251 
1252 # From Ephraim Silverberg
1253 # (1997-03-04, 1998-03-16, 1998-12-28, 2000-01-17, 2000-07-25, 2004-12-22,
1254 # and 2005-02-17):
1255 
1256 # According to the Office of the Secretary General of the Ministry of
1257 # Interior, there is NO set rule for Daylight-Savings/Standard time changes.
1258 # One thing is entrenched in law, however: that there must be at least 150
1259 # days of daylight savings time annually.  From 1993-1998, the change to
1260 # daylight savings time was on a Friday morning from midnight IST to
1261 # 1 a.m IDT; up until 1998, the change back to standard time was on a
1262 # Saturday night from midnight daylight savings time to 11 p.m. standard
1263 # time.  1996 is an exception to this rule where the change back to standard
1264 # time took place on Sunday night instead of Saturday night to avoid
1265 # conflicts with the Jewish New Year.  In 1999, the change to
1266 # daylight savings time was still on a Friday morning but from
1267 # 2 a.m. IST to 3 a.m. IDT; furthermore, the change back to standard time
1268 # was also on a Friday morning from 2 a.m. IDT to 1 a.m. IST for
1269 # 1999 only.  In the year 2000, the change to daylight savings time was
1270 # similar to 1999, but although the change back will be on a Friday, it
1271 # will take place from 1 a.m. IDT to midnight IST.  Starting in 2001, all
1272 # changes to/from will take place at 1 a.m. old time, but now there is no
1273 # rule as to what day of the week it will take place in as the start date
1274 # (except in 2003) is the night after the Passover Seder (i.e. the eve
1275 # of the 16th of Nisan in the lunar Hebrew calendar) and the end date
1276 # (except in 2002) is three nights before Yom Kippur [Day of Atonement]
1277 # (the eve of the 7th of Tishrei in the lunar Hebrew calendar).
1278 
1279 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1280 Rule    Zion    1989    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    D
1281 Rule    Zion    1989    only    -       Sep      3      0:00    0       S
1282 Rule    Zion    1990    only    -       Mar     25      0:00    1:00    D
1283 Rule    Zion    1990    only    -       Aug     26      0:00    0       S
1284 Rule    Zion    1991    only    -       Mar     24      0:00    1:00    D
1285 Rule    Zion    1991    only    -       Sep      1      0:00    0       S
1286 Rule    Zion    1992    only    -       Mar     29      0:00    1:00    D
1287 Rule    Zion    1992    only    -       Sep      6      0:00    0       S
1288 Rule    Zion    1993    only    -       Apr      2      0:00    1:00    D
1289 Rule    Zion    1993    only    -       Sep      5      0:00    0       S
1290 
1291 # The dates for 1994-1995 were obtained from Office of the Spokeswoman for the
1292 # Ministry of Interior, Jerusalem, Israel.  The spokeswoman can be reached by
1293 # calling the office directly at 972-2-6701447 or 972-2-6701448.
1294 
1295 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1296 Rule    Zion    1994    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    D
1297 Rule    Zion    1994    only    -       Aug     28      0:00    0       S
1298 Rule    Zion    1995    only    -       Mar     31      0:00    1:00    D
1299 Rule    Zion    1995    only    -       Sep      3      0:00    0       S
1300 
1301 # The dates for 1996 were determined by the Minister of Interior of the
1302 # time, Haim Ramon.  The official announcement regarding 1996-1998
1303 # (with the dates for 1997-1998 no longer being relevant) can be viewed at:
1304 #
1305 #   ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/1996-1998.ramon.ps.gz
1306 #
1307 # The dates for 1997-1998 were altered by his successor, Rabbi Eli Suissa.
1308 #
1309 # The official announcements for the years 1997-1999 can be viewed at:
1310 #
1311 #   ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/YYYY.ps.gz
1312 #
1313 #       where YYYY is the relevant year.
1314 
1315 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1316 Rule    Zion    1996    only    -       Mar     15      0:00    1:00    D
1317 Rule    Zion    1996    only    -       Sep     16      0:00    0       S
1318 Rule    Zion    1997    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
1319 Rule    Zion    1997    only    -       Sep     14      0:00    0       S
1320 Rule    Zion    1998    only    -       Mar     20      0:00    1:00    D
1321 Rule    Zion    1998    only    -       Sep      6      0:00    0       S
1322 Rule    Zion    1999    only    -       Apr      2      2:00    1:00    D
1323 Rule    Zion    1999    only    -       Sep      3      2:00    0       S
1324 
1325 # The Knesset Interior Committee has changed the dates for 2000 for
1326 # the third time in just over a year and have set new dates for the
1327 # years 2001-2004 as well.
1328 #
1329 # The official announcement for the start date of 2000 can be viewed at:
1330 #
1331 #       ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/2000-start.ps.gz
1332 #
1333 # The official announcement for the end date of 2000 and the dates
1334 # for the years 2001-2004 can be viewed at:
1335 #
1336 #       ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/2000-2004.ps.gz
1337 
1338 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1339 Rule    Zion    2000    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D
1340 Rule    Zion    2000    only    -       Oct      6      1:00    0       S
1341 Rule    Zion    2001    only    -       Apr      9      1:00    1:00    D
1342 Rule    Zion    2001    only    -       Sep     24      1:00    0       S
1343 Rule    Zion    2002    only    -       Mar     29      1:00    1:00    D
1344 Rule    Zion    2002    only    -       Oct      7      1:00    0       S
1345 Rule    Zion    2003    only    -       Mar     28      1:00    1:00    D
1346 Rule    Zion    2003    only    -       Oct      3      1:00    0       S
1347 Rule    Zion    2004    only    -       Apr      7      1:00    1:00    D
1348 Rule    Zion    2004    only    -       Sep     22      1:00    0       S
1349 
1350 # The proposed law agreed upon by the Knesset Interior Committee on
1351 # 2005-02-14 is that, for 2005 and beyond, DST starts at 02:00 the
1352 # last Friday before April 2nd (i.e. the last Friday in March or April
1353 # 1st itself if it falls on a Friday) and ends at 02:00 on the Saturday
1354 # night _before_ the fast of Yom Kippur.
1355 #
1356 # Those who can read Hebrew can view the announcement at:
1357 #
1358 #       ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/2005+beyond.ps
1359 
1360 # From Paul Eggert (2012-10-26):
1361 # I used Ephraim Silverberg's dst-israel.el program
1362 # <ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/software/dst-israel.el> (2005-02-20)
1363 # along with Ed Reingold's cal-hebrew in GNU Emacs 21.4,
1364 # to generate the transitions from 2005 through 2012.
1365 # (I replaced "lastFri" with "Fri>=26" by hand.)
1366 # The spring transitions all correspond to the following Rule:
1367 #
1368 # Rule  Zion    2005    2012    -       Mar     Fri>=26      2:00    1:00    D
1369 #
1370 # but older zic implementations (e.g., Solaris 8) do not support
1371 # "Fri>=26" to mean April 1 in years like 2005, so for now we list the
1372 # springtime transitions explicitly.
1373 
1374 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1375 Rule    Zion    2005    only    -       Apr      1      2:00    1:00    D
1376 Rule    Zion    2005    only    -       Oct      9      2:00    0       S
1377 Rule    Zion    2006    2010    -       Mar     Fri>=26      2:00    1:00    D
1378 Rule    Zion    2006    only    -       Oct      1      2:00    0       S
1379 Rule    Zion    2007    only    -       Sep     16      2:00    0       S
1380 Rule    Zion    2008    only    -       Oct      5      2:00    0       S
1381 Rule    Zion    2009    only    -       Sep     27      2:00    0       S
1382 Rule    Zion    2010    only    -       Sep     12      2:00    0       S
1383 Rule    Zion    2011    only    -       Apr      1      2:00    1:00    D
1384 Rule    Zion    2011    only    -       Oct      2      2:00    0       S
1385 Rule    Zion    2012    only    -       Mar     Fri>=26      2:00    1:00    D
1386 Rule    Zion    2012    only    -       Sep     23      2:00    0       S
1387 
1388 # From Ephraim Silverberg (2013-06-27):
1389 # On June 23, 2013, the Israeli government approved changes to the
1390 # Time Decree Law.  The next day, the changes passed the First Reading
1391 # in the Knesset.  The law is expected to pass the Second and Third
1392 # (final) Readings by the beginning of September 2013.
1393 #
1394 # As of 2013, DST starts at 02:00 on the Friday before the last Sunday
1395 # in March.  DST ends at 02:00 on the last Sunday of October.
1396 
1397 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1398 Rule    Zion    2013    max     -       Mar     Fri>=23      2:00    1:00    D
1399 Rule    Zion    2013    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1400 
1401 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1402 Zone    Asia/Jerusalem  2:20:54 -       LMT     1880
1403                         2:20:40 -       JMT     1918 # Jerusalem Mean Time?
1404                         2:00    Zion    I%sT
1405 
1406 
1407 
1408 ###############################################################################
1409 
1410 # Japan
1411 
1412 # '9:00' and 'JST' is from Guy Harris.
1413 
1414 # From Paul Eggert (1995-03-06):
1415 # Today's _Asahi Evening News_ (page 4) reports that Japan had
1416 # daylight saving between 1948 and 1951, but "the system was discontinued
1417 # because the public believed it would lead to longer working hours."
1418 
1419 # From Mayumi Negishi in the 2005-08-10 Japan Times:
1420 # http://www.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/getarticle.pl5?nn20050810f2.htm
1421 # Occupation authorities imposed daylight-saving time on Japan on
1422 # [1948-05-01]....  But lack of prior debate and the execution of
1423 # daylight-saving time just three days after the bill was passed generated
1424 # deep hatred of the concept....  The Diet unceremoniously passed a bill to
1425 # dump the unpopular system in October 1951, less than a month after the San
1426 # Francisco Peace Treaty was signed.  (A government poll in 1951 showed 53%
1427 # of the Japanese wanted to scrap daylight-saving time, as opposed to 30% who
1428 # wanted to keep it.)
1429 
1430 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1431 # Shanks & Pottenger write that DST in Japan during those years was as follows:
1432 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1433 Rule    Japan   1948    only    -       May     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
1434 Rule    Japan   1948    1951    -       Sep     Sat>=8       2:00    0       S
1435 Rule    Japan   1949    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
1436 Rule    Japan   1950    1951    -       May     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
1437 # but the only locations using it (for birth certificates, presumably, since
1438 # their audience is astrologers) were US military bases.  For now, assume
1439 # that for most purposes daylight-saving time was observed; otherwise, what
1440 # would have been the point of the 1951 poll?
1441 
1442 # From Hideyuki Suzuki (1998-11-09):
1443 # 'Tokyo' usually stands for the former location of Tokyo Astronomical
1444 # Observatory: 139 degrees 44' 40.90" E (9h 18m 58.727s),
1445 # 35 degrees 39' 16.0" N.
1446 # This data is from 'Rika Nenpyou (Chronological Scientific Tables) 1996'
1447 # edited by National Astronomical Observatory of Japan....
1448 # JST (Japan Standard Time) has been used since 1888-01-01 00:00 (JST).
1449 # The law is enacted on 1886-07-07.
1450 
1451 # From Hideyuki Suzuki (1998-11-16):
1452 # The ordinance No. 51 (1886) established "standard time" in Japan,
1453 # which stands for the time on 135 degrees E.
1454 # In the ordinance No. 167 (1895), "standard time" was renamed to "central
1455 # standard time".  And the same ordinance also established "western standard
1456 # time", which stands for the time on 120 degrees E....  But "western standard
1457 # time" was abolished in the ordinance No. 529 (1937).  In the ordinance No.
1458 # 167, there is no mention regarding for what place western standard time is
1459 # standard....
1460 #
1461 # I wrote "ordinance" above, but I don't know how to translate.
1462 # In Japanese it's "chokurei", which means ordinance from emperor.
1463 
1464 # From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2013-07-12):
1465 # ...the Meiji Emperor announced Ordinance No. 167 of Meiji Year 28 "The clause
1466 # about standard time" ... The adoption began from Jan 1, 1896.
1467 # http://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/標準時ニ關スル件_(公布時)
1468 #
1469 # ...the Showa Emperor announced Ordinance No. 529 of Showa Year 12 ... which
1470 # means the whole Japan territory, including later occupations, adopt Japan
1471 # Central Time (UTC+9). The adoption began on Oct 1, 1937.
1472 # http://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/明治二十八年勅令第百六十七號標準時ニ關スル件中改正ノ件
1473 
1474 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1475 Zone    Asia/Tokyo      9:18:59 -       LMT     1887 Dec 31 15:00u
1476                         9:00    -       JST     1896 Jan  1
1477                         9:00    -       JCST    1937 Oct  1
1478                         9:00    Japan   J%sT
1479 # Since 1938, all Japanese possessions have been like Asia/Tokyo.
1480 
1481 # Jordan
1482 #
1483 # From <http://star.arabia.com/990701/JO9.html>
1484 # Jordan Week (1999-07-01) via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
1485 # Clocks in Jordan were forwarded one hour on Wednesday at midnight,
1486 # in accordance with the government's decision to implement summer time
1487 # all year round.
1488 #
1489 # From <http://star.arabia.com/990930/JO9.html>
1490 # Jordan Week (1999-09-30) via Steffen Thorsen (1999-11-09):
1491 # Winter time starts today Thursday, 30 September. Clocks will be turned back
1492 # by one hour.  This is the latest government decision and it's final!
1493 # The decision was taken because of the increase in working hours in
1494 # government's departments from six to seven hours.
1495 #
1496 # From Paul Eggert (2005-11-22):
1497 # Starting 2003 transitions are from Steffen Thorsen's web site timeanddate.com.
1498 #
1499 # From Steffen Thorsen (2005-11-23):
1500 # For Jordan I have received multiple independent user reports every year
1501 # about DST end dates, as the end-rule is different every year.
1502 #
1503 # From Steffen Thorsen (2006-10-01), after a heads-up from Hilal Malawi:
1504 # http://www.petranews.gov.jo/nepras/2006/Sep/05/4000.htm
1505 # "Jordan will switch to winter time on Friday, October 27".
1506 #
1507 
1508 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-04-02):
1509 # This single one might be good enough, (2009-03-24, Arabic):
1510 # http://petra.gov.jo/Artical.aspx?Lng=2&Section=8&Artical=95279
1511 #
1512 # Google's translation:
1513 #
1514 # > The Council of Ministers decided in 2002 to adopt the principle of timely
1515 # > submission of the summer at 60 minutes as of midnight on the last Thursday
1516 # > of the month of March of each year.
1517 #
1518 # So - this means the midnight between Thursday and Friday since 2002.
1519 
1520 # From Arthur David Olson (2009-04-06):
1521 # We still have Jordan switching to DST on Thursdays in 2000 and 2001.
1522 
1523 # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-10-25):
1524 # Yesterday the government in Jordan announced that they will not
1525 # switch back to standard time this winter, so the will stay on DST
1526 # until about the same time next year (at least).
1527 # http://www.petra.gov.jo/Public_News/Nws_NewsDetails.aspx?NewsID=88950
1528 
1529 # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-12-11):
1530 # Jordan Times and other sources say that Jordan is going back to
1531 # UTC+2 on 2013-12-19 at midnight:
1532 # http://jordantimes.com/govt-decides-to-switch-back-to-wintertime
1533 # Official, in Arabic:
1534 # http://www.petra.gov.jo/public_news/Nws_NewsDetails.aspx?Menu_ID=&Site_Id=2&lang=1&NewsID=133230&CatID=14
1535 # ... Our background/permalink about it
1536 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/jordan-reverses-dst-decision.html
1537 # ...
1538 # http://www.petra.gov.jo/Public_News/Nws_NewsDetails.aspx?lang=2&site_id=1&NewsID=133313&Type=P
1539 # ... says midnight for the coming one and 1:00 for the ones in the future
1540 # (and they will use DST again next year, using the normal schedule).
1541 
1542 # From Paul Eggert (2013-12-11):
1543 # As Steffen suggested, consider the past 21-month experiment to be DST.
1544 
1545 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1546 Rule    Jordan  1973    only    -       Jun     6       0:00    1:00    S
1547 Rule    Jordan  1973    1975    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       -
1548 Rule    Jordan  1974    1977    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    S
1549 Rule    Jordan  1976    only    -       Nov     1       0:00    0       -
1550 Rule    Jordan  1977    only    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       -
1551 Rule    Jordan  1978    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    S
1552 Rule    Jordan  1978    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       -
1553 Rule    Jordan  1985    only    -       Apr     1       0:00    1:00    S
1554 Rule    Jordan  1985    only    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       -
1555 Rule    Jordan  1986    1988    -       Apr     Fri>=1       0:00    1:00    S
1556 Rule    Jordan  1986    1990    -       Oct     Fri>=1       0:00    0       -
1557 Rule    Jordan  1989    only    -       May     8       0:00    1:00    S
1558 Rule    Jordan  1990    only    -       Apr     27      0:00    1:00    S
1559 Rule    Jordan  1991    only    -       Apr     17      0:00    1:00    S
1560 Rule    Jordan  1991    only    -       Sep     27      0:00    0       -
1561 Rule    Jordan  1992    only    -       Apr     10      0:00    1:00    S
1562 Rule    Jordan  1992    1993    -       Oct     Fri>=1       0:00    0       -
1563 Rule    Jordan  1993    1998    -       Apr     Fri>=1       0:00    1:00    S
1564 Rule    Jordan  1994    only    -       Sep     Fri>=15      0:00    0       -
1565 Rule    Jordan  1995    1998    -       Sep     Fri>=15      0:00s   0       -
1566 Rule    Jordan  1999    only    -       Jul      1      0:00s   1:00    S
1567 Rule    Jordan  1999    2002    -       Sep     lastFri 0:00s   0       -
1568 Rule    Jordan  2000    2001    -       Mar     lastThu 0:00s   1:00    S
1569 Rule    Jordan  2002    2012    -       Mar     lastThu 24:00   1:00    S
1570 Rule    Jordan  2003    only    -       Oct     24      0:00s   0       -
1571 Rule    Jordan  2004    only    -       Oct     15      0:00s   0       -
1572 Rule    Jordan  2005    only    -       Sep     lastFri 0:00s   0       -
1573 Rule    Jordan  2006    2011    -       Oct     lastFri 0:00s   0       -
1574 Rule    Jordan  2013    only    -       Dec     20      0:00    0       -
1575 Rule    Jordan  2014    max     -       Mar     lastThu 24:00   1:00    S
1576 Rule    Jordan  2014    max     -       Oct     lastFri 0:00s   0       -
1577 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1578 Zone    Asia/Amman      2:23:44 -       LMT     1931
1579                         2:00    Jordan  EE%sT
1580 
1581 
1582 # Kazakhstan
1583 
1584 # From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
1585 # Andrew Evtichov (1996-04-13) writes that Kazakhstan
1586 # stayed in sync with Moscow after 1990, and that Aqtobe (formerly Aktyubinsk)
1587 # and Aqtau (formerly Shevchenko) are the largest cities in their zones.
1588 # Guess that Aqtau and Aqtobe diverged in 1995, since that's the first time
1589 # IATA SSIM mentions a third time zone in Kazakhstan.
1590 
1591 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1592 # German Iofis, ELSI, Almaty (2001-10-09) reports that Kazakhstan uses
1593 # RussiaAsia rules, instead of switching at 00:00 as the IATA has it.
1594 # Go with Shanks & Pottenger, who have them always using RussiaAsia rules.
1595 # Also go with the following claims of Shanks & Pottenger:
1596 #
1597 # - Kazakhstan did not observe DST in 1991.
1598 # - Qyzylorda switched from +5:00 to +6:00 on 1992-01-19 02:00.
1599 # - Oral switched from +5:00 to +4:00 in spring 1989.
1600 
1601 # From Kazakhstan Embassy's News Bulletin No. 11
1602 # <http://www.kazsociety.org.uk/news/2005/03/30.htm> (2005-03-21):
1603 # The Government of Kazakhstan passed a resolution March 15 abolishing
1604 # daylight saving time citing lack of economic benefits and health
1605 # complications coupled with a decrease in productivity.
1606 #
1607 # From Branislav Kojic (in Astana) via Gwillim Law (2005-06-28):
1608 # ... what happened was that the former Kazakhstan Eastern time zone
1609 # was "blended" with the Central zone.  Therefore, Kazakhstan now has
1610 # two time zones, and difference between them is one hour.  The zone
1611 # closer to UTC is the former Western zone (probably still called the
1612 # same), encompassing four provinces in the west: Aqtobe, Atyrau,
1613 # Mangghystau, and West Kazakhstan.  The other zone encompasses
1614 # everything else....  I guess that would make Kazakhstan time zones
1615 # de jure UTC+5 and UTC+6 respectively.
1616 



































































































































































1617 #
1618 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1619 #
1620 # Almaty (formerly Alma-Ata), representing most locations in Kazakhstan


1621 Zone    Asia/Almaty     5:07:48 -       LMT     1924 May  2 # or Alma-Ata
1622                         5:00    -       ALMT    1930 Jun 21 # Alma-Ata Time
1623                         6:00 RussiaAsia ALM%sT  1991
1624                         6:00    -       ALMT    1992
1625                         6:00 RussiaAsia ALM%sT  2005 Mar 15
1626                         6:00    -       ALMT
1627 # Qyzylorda (aka Kyzylorda, Kizilorda, Kzyl-Orda, etc.)
1628 Zone    Asia/Qyzylorda  4:21:52 -       LMT     1924 May  2
1629                         4:00    -       KIZT    1930 Jun 21 # Kizilorda Time
1630                         5:00    -       KIZT    1981 Apr  1
1631                         5:00    1:00    KIZST   1981 Oct  1
1632                         6:00    -       KIZT    1982 Apr  1
1633                         5:00 RussiaAsia KIZ%sT  1991
1634                         5:00    -       KIZT    1991 Dec 16 # independence
1635                         5:00    -       QYZT    1992 Jan 19  2:00
1636                         6:00 RussiaAsia QYZ%sT  2005 Mar 15
1637                         6:00    -       QYZT
1638 # Aqtobe (aka Aktobe, formerly Aktyubinsk)

1639 Zone    Asia/Aqtobe     3:48:40 -       LMT     1924 May  2
1640                         4:00    -       AKTT    1930 Jun 21 # Aktyubinsk Time
1641                         5:00    -       AKTT    1981 Apr  1
1642                         5:00    1:00    AKTST   1981 Oct  1
1643                         6:00    -       AKTT    1982 Apr  1
1644                         5:00 RussiaAsia AKT%sT  1991
1645                         5:00    -       AKTT    1991 Dec 16 # independence
1646                         5:00 RussiaAsia AQT%sT  2005 Mar 15 # Aqtobe Time
1647                         5:00    -       AQTT
1648 # Mangghystau


1649 # Aqtau was not founded until 1963, but it represents an inhabited region,
1650 # so include time stamps before 1963.
1651 Zone    Asia/Aqtau      3:21:04 -       LMT     1924 May  2
1652                         4:00    -       FORT    1930 Jun 21 # Fort Shevchenko T
1653                         5:00    -       FORT    1963
1654                         5:00    -       SHET    1981 Oct  1 # Shevchenko Time
1655                         6:00    -       SHET    1982 Apr  1
1656                         5:00 RussiaAsia SHE%sT  1991
1657                         5:00    -       SHET    1991 Dec 16 # independence
1658                         5:00 RussiaAsia AQT%sT  1995 Mar lastSun  2:00 # Aqtau Time
1659                         4:00 RussiaAsia AQT%sT  2005 Mar 15
1660                         5:00    -       AQTT
1661 # West Kazakhstan



1662 Zone    Asia/Oral       3:25:24 -       LMT     1924 May  2 # or Ural'sk
1663                         4:00    -       URAT    1930 Jun 21 # Ural'sk time
1664                         5:00    -       URAT    1981 Apr  1
1665                         5:00    1:00    URAST   1981 Oct  1
1666                         6:00    -       URAT    1982 Apr  1
1667                         5:00 RussiaAsia URA%sT  1989 Mar 26  2:00
1668                         4:00 RussiaAsia URA%sT  1991
1669                         4:00    -       URAT    1991 Dec 16 # independence
1670                         4:00 RussiaAsia ORA%sT  2005 Mar 15 # Oral Time
1671                         5:00    -       ORAT
1672 
1673 # Kyrgyzstan (Kirgizstan)
1674 # Transitions through 1991 are from Shanks & Pottenger.
1675 
1676 # From Paul Eggert (2005-08-15):
1677 # According to an article dated today in the Kyrgyzstan Development Gateway
1678 # http://eng.gateway.kg/cgi-bin/page.pl?id=1&story_name=doc9979.shtml
1679 # Kyrgyzstan is canceling the daylight saving time system.  I take the article
1680 # to mean that they will leave their clocks at 6 hours ahead of UTC.
1681 # From Malik Abdugaliev (2005-09-21):
1682 # Our government cancels daylight saving time 6th of August 2005.
1683 # From 2005-08-12 our GMT-offset is +6, w/o any daylight saving.
1684 
1685 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1686 Rule    Kyrgyz  1992    1996    -       Apr     Sun>=7       0:00s   1:00    S
1687 Rule    Kyrgyz  1992    1996    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       -
1688 Rule    Kyrgyz  1997    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:30    1:00    S
1689 Rule    Kyrgyz  1997    2004    -       Oct     lastSun 2:30    0       -
1690 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1691 Zone    Asia/Bishkek    4:58:24 -       LMT     1924 May  2
1692                         5:00    -       FRUT    1930 Jun 21 # Frunze Time
1693                         6:00 RussiaAsia FRU%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
1694                         5:00    1:00    FRUST   1991 Aug 31  2:00 # independence
1695                         5:00    Kyrgyz  KG%sT   2005 Aug 12 # Kyrgyzstan Time
1696                         6:00    -       KGT
1697 
1698 ###############################################################################
1699 
1700 # Korea (North and South)
1701 
1702 # From Annie I. Bang (2006-07-10):
1703 # http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=200607100012
1704 # Korea ran a daylight saving program from 1949-61 but stopped it
1705 # during the 1950-53 Korean War.  The system was temporarily enforced
1706 # between 1987 and 1988 ...
1707 
1708 # From Sanghyuk Jung (2014-10-29):
1709 # http://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2014-October/021830.html
1710 # According to the Korean Wikipedia
1711 # http://ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/한국_표준시
1712 # [oldid=12896437 2014-09-04 08:03 UTC]
1713 # DST in Republic of Korea was as follows....  And I checked old
1714 # newspapers in Korean, all articles correspond with data in Wikipedia.
1715 # For example, the article in 1948 (Korean Language) proved that DST
1716 # started at June 1 in that year.  For another example, the article in
1717 # 1988 said that DST started at 2:00 AM in that year.
1718 
1719 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1720 Rule    ROK     1948    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    D
1721 Rule    ROK     1948    only    -       Sep     13      0:00    0       S
1722 Rule    ROK     1949    only    -       Apr      3      0:00    1:00    D
1723 Rule    ROK     1949    1951    -       Sep     Sun>=8       0:00    0       S
1724 Rule    ROK     1950    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    D
1725 Rule    ROK     1951    only    -       May      6      0:00    1:00    D
1726 Rule    ROK     1955    only    -       May      5      0:00    1:00    D
1727 Rule    ROK     1955    only    -       Sep      9      0:00    0       S
1728 Rule    ROK     1956    only    -       May     20      0:00    1:00    D
1729 Rule    ROK     1956    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       S
1730 Rule    ROK     1957    1960    -       May     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
1731 Rule    ROK     1957    1960    -       Sep     Sun>=18      0:00    0       S
1732 Rule    ROK     1987    1988    -       May     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
1733 Rule    ROK     1987    1988    -       Oct     Sun>=8       3:00    0       S
1734 
1735 # From Paul Eggert (2014-10-30):
1736 # The Korean Wikipedia entry gives the following sources for UT offsets:
1737 #
1738 # 1908: Official Journal Article No. 3994 (Edict No. 5)
1739 # 1912: Governor-General of Korea Official Gazette Issue No. 367
1740 #       (Announcement No. 338)
1741 # 1954: Presidential Decree No. 876 (1954-03-17)
1742 # 1961: Law No. 676 (1961-08-07)
1743 # 1987: Law No. 3919 (1986-12-31)
1744 #
1745 # The Wikipedia entry also has confusing information about a change
1746 # to UT+9 in April 1910, but then what would be the point of the later change
1747 # to UT+9 on 1912-01-01?  Omit the 1910 change for now.
1748 #
1749 # I guessed that time zone abbreviations through 1945 followed the same
1750 # rules as discussed under Taiwan, with nominal switches from JST to KST
1751 # when the respective cities were taken over by the Allies after WWII.
1752 #
1753 # For Pyongyang we have no information; guess no changes since World War II.
1754 
1755 # From Steffen Thorsen (2015-08-07):
1756 # According to many news sources, North Korea is going to change to
1757 # the 8:30 time zone on August 15, one example:
1758 # http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-33815049
1759 #
1760 # From Paul Eggert (2015-08-15):
1761 # Bells rang out midnight (00:00) Friday as part of the celebrations.  See:
1762 # Talmadge E. North Korea celebrates new time zone, 'Pyongyang Time'
1763 # http://news.yahoo.com/north-korea-celebrates-time-zone-pyongyang-time-164038128.html
1764 # There is no common English-language abbreviation for this time zone.
1765 # Use KST, as that's what we already use for 1954-1961 in ROK.
1766 
1767 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1768 Zone    Asia/Seoul      8:27:52 -       LMT     1908 Apr  1
1769                         8:30    -       KST     1912 Jan  1
1770                         9:00    -       JCST    1937 Oct  1
1771                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep  8
1772                         9:00    -       KST     1954 Mar 21
1773                         8:30    ROK     K%sT    1961 Aug 10
1774                         9:00    ROK     K%sT
1775 Zone    Asia/Pyongyang  8:23:00 -       LMT     1908 Apr  1
1776                         8:30    -       KST     1912 Jan  1
1777                         9:00    -       JCST    1937 Oct  1
1778                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Aug 24
1779                         9:00    -       KST     2015 Aug 15 00:00
1780                         8:30    -       KST
1781 
1782 ###############################################################################
1783 
1784 # Kuwait
1785 # See Asia/Riyadh.
1786 
1787 # Laos
1788 # See Asia/Bangkok.
1789 
1790 
1791 # Lebanon
1792 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1793 Rule    Lebanon 1920    only    -       Mar     28      0:00    1:00    S
1794 Rule    Lebanon 1920    only    -       Oct     25      0:00    0       -
1795 Rule    Lebanon 1921    only    -       Apr     3       0:00    1:00    S
1796 Rule    Lebanon 1921    only    -       Oct     3       0:00    0       -
1797 Rule    Lebanon 1922    only    -       Mar     26      0:00    1:00    S
1798 Rule    Lebanon 1922    only    -       Oct     8       0:00    0       -
1799 Rule    Lebanon 1923    only    -       Apr     22      0:00    1:00    S
1800 Rule    Lebanon 1923    only    -       Sep     16      0:00    0       -
1801 Rule    Lebanon 1957    1961    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    S
1802 Rule    Lebanon 1957    1961    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       -
1803 Rule    Lebanon 1972    only    -       Jun     22      0:00    1:00    S
1804 Rule    Lebanon 1972    1977    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       -
1805 Rule    Lebanon 1973    1977    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    S
1806 Rule    Lebanon 1978    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    S
1807 Rule    Lebanon 1978    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       -
1808 Rule    Lebanon 1984    1987    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    S
1809 Rule    Lebanon 1984    1991    -       Oct     16      0:00    0       -
1810 Rule    Lebanon 1988    only    -       Jun     1       0:00    1:00    S
1811 Rule    Lebanon 1989    only    -       May     10      0:00    1:00    S
1812 Rule    Lebanon 1990    1992    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    S
1813 Rule    Lebanon 1992    only    -       Oct     4       0:00    0       -
1814 Rule    Lebanon 1993    max     -       Mar     lastSun 0:00    1:00    S
1815 Rule    Lebanon 1993    1998    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       -
1816 Rule    Lebanon 1999    max     -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       -
1817 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1818 Zone    Asia/Beirut     2:22:00 -       LMT     1880
1819                         2:00    Lebanon EE%sT
1820 
1821 # Malaysia
1822 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1823 Rule    NBorneo 1935    1941    -       Sep     14      0:00    0:20    TS # one-Third Summer
1824 Rule    NBorneo 1935    1941    -       Dec     14      0:00    0       -
1825 #
1826 # peninsular Malaysia
1827 # taken from Mok Ly Yng (2003-10-30)
1828 # http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/teaching/timezone.html
1829 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1830 Zone Asia/Kuala_Lumpur  6:46:46 -       LMT     1901 Jan  1
1831                         6:55:25 -       SMT     1905 Jun  1 # Singapore M.T.
1832                         7:00    -       MALT    1933 Jan  1 # Malaya Time
1833                         7:00    0:20    MALST   1936 Jan  1
1834                         7:20    -       MALT    1941 Sep  1
1835                         7:30    -       MALT    1942 Feb 16
1836                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 12
1837                         7:30    -       MALT    1982 Jan  1
1838                         8:00    -       MYT     # Malaysia Time
1839 # Sabah & Sarawak
1840 # From Paul Eggert (2014-08-12):
1841 # The data entries here are mostly from Shanks & Pottenger, but the 1942, 1945
1842 # and 1982 transition dates are from Mok Ly Yng.
1843 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1844 Zone Asia/Kuching       7:21:20 -       LMT     1926 Mar
1845                         7:30    -       BORT    1933        # Borneo Time
1846                         8:00    NBorneo BOR%sT  1942 Feb 16
1847                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 12
1848                         8:00    -       BORT    1982 Jan  1
1849                         8:00    -       MYT
1850 
1851 # Maldives
1852 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1853 Zone    Indian/Maldives 4:54:00 -       LMT     1880 # Male
1854                         4:54:00 -       MMT     1960 # Male Mean Time
1855                         5:00    -       MVT     # Maldives Time
1856 
1857 # Mongolia
1858 
1859 # Shanks & Pottenger say that Mongolia has three time zones, but
1860 # The USNO (1995-12-21) and the CIA map Standard Time Zones of the World
1861 # (2005-03) both say that it has just one.
1862 
1863 # From Oscar van Vlijmen (1999-12-11):
1864 # General Information Mongolia
1865 # <http://www.mongoliatourism.gov.mn/general.htm> (1999-09)
1866 # "Time: Mongolia has two time zones. Three westernmost provinces of
1867 # Bayan-Ölgii, Uvs, and Hovd are one hour earlier than the capital city, and
1868 # the rest of the country follows the Ulaanbaatar time, which is UTC/GMT plus
1869 # eight hours."
1870 
1871 # From Rives McDow (1999-12-13):
1872 # Mongolia discontinued the use of daylight savings time in 1999; 1998
1873 # being the last year it was implemented.  The dates of implementation I am
1874 # unsure of, but most probably it was similar to Russia, except for the time
1875 # of implementation may have been different....
1876 # Some maps in the past have indicated that there was an additional time
1877 # zone in the eastern part of Mongolia, including the provinces of Dornod,
1878 # Sükhbaatar, and possibly Khentii.
1879 
1880 # From Paul Eggert (1999-12-15):
1881 # Naming and spelling is tricky in Mongolia.
1882 # We'll use Hovd (also spelled Chovd and Khovd) to represent the west zone;
1883 # the capital of the Hovd province is sometimes called Hovd, sometimes Dund-Us,
1884 # and sometimes Jirgalanta (with variant spellings), but the name Hovd
1885 # is good enough for our purposes.
1886 
1887 # From Rives McDow (2001-05-13):
1888 # In addition to Mongolia starting daylight savings as reported earlier
1889 # (adopted DST on 2001-04-27 02:00 local time, ending 2001-09-28),
1890 # there are three time zones.
1891 #
1892 # Provinces [at 7:00]: Bayan-Ölgii, Uvs, Khovd, Zavkhan, Govi-Altai
1893 # Provinces [at 8:00]: Khövsgöl, Bulgan, Arkhangai, Khentii, Töv,
1894 #       Bayankhongor, Övörkhangai, Dundgovi, Dornogovi, Ömnögovi
1895 # Provinces [at 9:00]: Dornod, Sükhbaatar
1896 #
1897 # [The province of Selenge is omitted from the above lists.]
1898 
1899 # From Ganbold Ts., Ulaanbaatar (2004-04-17):
1900 # Daylight saving occurs at 02:00 local time last Saturday of March.
1901 # It will change back to normal at 02:00 local time last Saturday of
1902 # September.... As I remember this rule was changed in 2001.
1903 #
1904 # From Paul Eggert (2004-04-17):
1905 # For now, assume Rives McDow's informant got confused about Friday vs
1906 # Saturday, and that his 2001 dates should have 1 added to them.
1907 
1908 # From Paul Eggert (2005-07-26):
1909 # We have wildly conflicting information about Mongolia's time zones.
1910 # Bill Bonnet (2005-05-19) reports that the US Embassy in Ulaanbaatar says
1911 # there is only one time zone and that DST is observed, citing Microsoft
1912 # Windows XP as the source.  Risto Nykänen (2005-05-16) reports that
1913 # travelmongolia.org says there are two time zones (UTC+7, UTC+8) with no DST.
1914 # Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-05-20) reports that the Mongolian Embassy in
1915 # Washington, DC says there are two time zones, with DST observed.
1916 # He also found
1917 # http://ubpost.mongolnews.mn/index.php?subaction=showcomments&id=1111634894&archive=&start_from=&ucat=1&
1918 # which also says that there is DST, and which has a comment by "Toddius"
1919 # (2005-03-31 06:05 +0700) saying "Mongolia actually has 3.5 time zones.
1920 # The West (OLGII) is +7 GMT, most of the country is ULAT is +8 GMT
1921 # and some Eastern provinces are +9 GMT but Sükhbaatar Aimag is SUHK +8.5 GMT.
1922 # The SUKH timezone is new this year, it is one of the few things the
1923 # parliament passed during the tumultuous winter session."
1924 # For now, let's ignore this information, until we have more confirmation.
1925 
1926 # From Ganbold Ts. (2007-02-26):
1927 # Parliament of Mongolia has just changed the daylight-saving rule in February.
1928 # They decided not to adopt daylight-saving time....
1929 # http://www.mongolnews.mn/index.php?module=unuudur&sec=view&id=15742
1930 
1931 # From Deborah Goldsmith (2008-03-30):
1932 # We received a bug report claiming that the tz database UTC offset for
1933 # Asia/Choibalsan (GMT+09:00) is incorrect, and that it should be GMT
1934 # +08:00 instead. Different sources appear to disagree with the tz
1935 # database on this, e.g.:
1936 #
1937 # http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/city.html?n=1026
1938 # http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_MN.aspx
1939 #
1940 # both say GMT+08:00.
1941 
1942 # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-03-31):
1943 # eznis airways, which operates several domestic flights, has a flight
1944 # schedule here:
1945 # http://www.eznis.com/Container.jsp?id=112
1946 # (click the English flag for English)
1947 #
1948 # There it appears that flights between Choibalsan and Ulaanbaatar arrive
1949 # about 1:35 - 1:50 hours later in local clock time, no matter the
1950 # direction, while Ulaanbaatar-Khovd takes 2 hours in the Eastern
1951 # direction and 3:35 back, which indicates that Ulaanbaatar and Khovd are
1952 # in different time zones (like we know about), while Choibalsan and
1953 # Ulaanbaatar are in the same time zone (correction needed).
1954 
1955 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-05-19):
1956 # Assume that Choibalsan is indeed offset by 8:00.
1957 # XXX--in the absence of better information, assume that transition
1958 # was at the start of 2008-03-31 (the day of Steffen Thorsen's report);
1959 # this is almost surely wrong.
1960 
1961 # From Ganbold Tsagaankhuu (2015-03-10):
1962 # It seems like yesterday Mongolian Government meeting has concluded to use
1963 # daylight saving time in Mongolia....  Starting at 2:00AM of last Saturday of
1964 # March 2015, daylight saving time starts.  And 00:00AM of last Saturday of
1965 # September daylight saving time ends.  Source:
1966 # http://zasag.mn/news/view/8969
1967 
1968 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1969 Rule    Mongol  1983    1984    -       Apr     1       0:00    1:00    S
1970 Rule    Mongol  1983    only    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       -
1971 # Shanks & Pottenger and IATA SSIM say 1990s switches occurred at 00:00,
1972 # but McDow says the 2001 switches occurred at 02:00.  Also, IATA SSIM
1973 # (1996-09) says 1996-10-25.  Go with Shanks & Pottenger through 1998.
1974 #
1975 # Shanks & Pottenger say that the Sept. 1984 through Sept. 1990 switches
1976 # in Choibalsan (more precisely, in Dornod and Sükhbaatar) took place
1977 # at 02:00 standard time, not at 00:00 local time as in the rest of
1978 # the country.  That would be odd, and possibly is a result of their
1979 # correction of 02:00 (in the previous edition) not being done correctly
1980 # in the latest edition; so ignore it for now.
1981 
1982 Rule    Mongol  1985    1998    -       Mar     lastSun 0:00    1:00    S
1983 Rule    Mongol  1984    1998    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       -
1984 # IATA SSIM (1999-09) says Mongolia no longer observes DST.
1985 Rule    Mongol  2001    only    -       Apr     lastSat 2:00    1:00    S
1986 Rule    Mongol  2001    2006    -       Sep     lastSat 2:00    0       -
1987 Rule    Mongol  2002    2006    -       Mar     lastSat 2:00    1:00    S
1988 Rule    Mongol  2015    max     -       Mar     lastSat 2:00    1:00    S
1989 Rule    Mongol  2015    max     -       Sep     lastSat 0:00    0       -
1990 
1991 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1992 # Hovd, a.k.a. Chovd, Dund-Us, Dzhargalant, Khovd, Jirgalanta
1993 Zone    Asia/Hovd       6:06:36 -       LMT     1905 Aug
1994                         6:00    -       HOVT    1978     # Hovd Time
1995                         7:00    Mongol  HOV%sT
1996 # Ulaanbaatar, a.k.a. Ulan Bataar, Ulan Bator, Urga
1997 Zone    Asia/Ulaanbaatar 7:07:32 -      LMT     1905 Aug
1998                         7:00    -       ULAT    1978     # Ulaanbaatar Time
1999                         8:00    Mongol  ULA%sT
2000 # Choibalsan, a.k.a. Bajan Tümen, Bajan Tumen, Chojbalsan,
2001 # Choybalsan, Sanbejse, Tchoibalsan
2002 Zone    Asia/Choibalsan 7:38:00 -       LMT     1905 Aug
2003                         7:00    -       ULAT    1978
2004                         8:00    -       ULAT    1983 Apr
2005                         9:00    Mongol  CHO%sT  2008 Mar 31 # Choibalsan Time
2006                         8:00    Mongol  CHO%sT
2007 
2008 # Nepal
2009 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2010 Zone    Asia/Kathmandu  5:41:16 -       LMT     1920
2011                         5:30    -       IST     1986
2012                         5:45    -       NPT     # Nepal Time
2013 
2014 # Oman
2015 # See Asia/Dubai.
2016 
2017 # Pakistan
2018 
2019 # From Rives McDow (2002-03-13):
2020 # I have been advised that Pakistan has decided to adopt dst on a
2021 # TRIAL basis for one year, starting 00:01 local time on April 7, 2002
2022 # and ending at 00:01 local time October 6, 2002.  This is what I was
2023 # told, but I believe that the actual time of change may be 00:00; the
2024 # 00:01 was to make it clear which day it was on.
2025 
2026 # From Paul Eggert (2002-03-15):
2027 # Jesper Nørgaard found this URL:
2028 # http://www.pak.gov.pk/public/news/app/app06_dec.htm
2029 # (dated 2001-12-06) which says that the Cabinet adopted a scheme "to
2030 # advance the clocks by one hour on the night between the first
2031 # Saturday and Sunday of April and revert to the original position on
2032 # 15th October each year".  This agrees with McDow's 04-07 at 00:00,
2033 # but disagrees about the October transition, and makes it sound like
2034 # it's not on a trial basis.  Also, the "between the first Saturday
2035 # and Sunday of April" phrase, if taken literally, means that the
2036 # transition takes place at 00:00 on the first Sunday on or after 04-02.
2037 
2038 # From Paul Eggert (2003-02-09):
2039 # DAWN <http://www.dawn.com/2002/10/06/top13.htm> reported on 2002-10-05
2040 # that 2002 DST ended that day at midnight.  Go with McDow for now.
2041 
2042 # From Steffen Thorsen (2003-03-14):
2043 # According to http://www.dawn.com/2003/03/07/top15.htm
2044 # there will be no DST in Pakistan this year:
2045 #
2046 # ISLAMABAD, March 6: Information and Media Development Minister Sheikh
2047 # Rashid Ahmed on Thursday said the cabinet had reversed a previous
2048 # decision to advance clocks by one hour in summer and put them back by
2049 # one hour in winter with the aim of saving light hours and energy.
2050 #
2051 # The minister told a news conference that the experiment had rather
2052 # shown 8 per cent higher consumption of electricity.
2053 
2054 # From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-05-15):
2055 #
2056 # Here is an article that Pakistan plan to introduce Daylight Saving Time
2057 # on June 1, 2008 for 3 months.
2058 #
2059 # "... The federal cabinet on Wednesday announced a new conservation plan to
2060 # help reduce load shedding by approving the closure of commercial centres at
2061 # 9pm and moving clocks forward by one hour for the next three months. ...."
2062 #
2063 # http://www.worldtimezone.net/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan01.html
2064 # http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2008%5C05%5C15%5Cstory_15-5-2008_pg1_4
2065 
2066 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-05-19):
2067 # XXX--midnight transitions is a guess; 2008 only is a guess.
2068 
2069 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2008-08-28):
2070 # Pakistan government has decided to keep the watches one-hour advanced
2071 # for another 2 months - plan to return to Standard Time on October 31
2072 # instead of August 31.
2073 #
2074 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan02.html
2075 # http://dailymailnews.com/200808/28/news/dmbrn03.html
2076 
2077 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-04-08):
2078 # Based on previous media reports that "... proposed plan to
2079 # advance clocks by one hour from May 1 will cause disturbance
2080 # to the working schedules rather than bringing discipline in
2081 # official working."
2082 # http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=171280
2083 #
2084 # recent news that instead of May 2009 - Pakistan plan to
2085 # introduce DST from April 15, 2009
2086 #
2087 # FYI: Associated Press Of Pakistan
2088 # April 08, 2009
2089 # Cabinet okays proposal to advance clocks by one hour from April 15
2090 # http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=73043&Itemid=1
2091 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan05.html
2092 #
2093 # ....
2094 # The Federal Cabinet on Wednesday approved the proposal to
2095 # advance clocks in the country by one hour from April 15 to
2096 # conserve energy"
2097 
2098 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-09-17):
2099 # "The News International," Pakistan reports that: "The Federal
2100 # Government has decided to restore the previous time by moving the
2101 # clocks backward by one hour from October 1. A formal announcement to
2102 # this effect will be made after the Prime Minister grants approval in
2103 # this regard."
2104 # http://www.thenews.com.pk/updates.asp?id=87168
2105 
2106 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-09-28):
2107 # According to Associated Press Of Pakistan, it is confirmed that
2108 # Pakistan clocks across the country would be turned back by an hour from
2109 # October 1, 2009.
2110 #
2111 # "Clocks to go back one hour from 1 Oct"
2112 # http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=86715&Itemid=2
2113 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan07.htm
2114 #
2115 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-09-29):
2116 # Now they seem to have changed their mind, November 1 is the new date:
2117 # http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=24742
2118 # "The country's clocks will be reversed by one hour on November 1.
2119 # Officials of Federal Ministry for Interior told this to Geo News on
2120 # Monday."
2121 #
2122 # And more importantly, it seems that these dates will be kept every year:
2123 # "It has now been decided that clocks will be wound forward by one hour
2124 # on April 15 and reversed by an hour on November 1 every year without
2125 # obtaining prior approval, the officials added."
2126 #
2127 # We have confirmed this year's end date with both with the Ministry of
2128 # Water and Power and the Pakistan Electric Power Company:
2129 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/pakistan-ends-dst09.html
2130 
2131 # From Christoph Göhre (2009-10-01):
2132 # [T]he German Consulate General in Karachi reported me today that Pakistan
2133 # will go back to standard time on 1st of November.
2134 
2135 # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-26):
2136 # Steffen Thorsen wrote:
2137 # > On Thursday (2010-03-25) it was announced that DST would start in
2138 # > Pakistan on 2010-04-01.
2139 # >
2140 # > Then today, the president said that they might have to revert the
2141 # > decision if it is not supported by the parliament. So at the time
2142 # > being, it seems unclear if DST will be actually observed or not - but
2143 # > April 1 could be a more likely date than April 15.
2144 # Now, it seems that the decision to not observe DST in final:
2145 #
2146 # "Govt Withdraws Plan To Advance Clocks"
2147 # http://www.apakistannews.com/govt-withdraws-plan-to-advance-clocks-172041
2148 #
2149 # "People laud PM's announcement to end DST"
2150 # http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=99374&Itemid=2
2151 
2152 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2153 Rule Pakistan   2002    only    -       Apr     Sun>=2       0:00    1:00    S
2154 Rule Pakistan   2002    only    -       Oct     Sun>=2       0:00    0       -
2155 Rule Pakistan   2008    only    -       Jun     1       0:00    1:00    S
2156 Rule Pakistan   2008    2009    -       Nov     1       0:00    0       -
2157 Rule Pakistan   2009    only    -       Apr     15      0:00    1:00    S
2158 
2159 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2160 Zone    Asia/Karachi    4:28:12 -       LMT     1907
2161                         5:30    -       IST     1942 Sep
2162                         5:30    1:00    IST     1945 Oct 15
2163                         5:30    -       IST     1951 Sep 30
2164                         5:00    -       KART    1971 Mar 26 # Karachi Time
2165                         5:00 Pakistan   PK%sT   # Pakistan Time
2166 
2167 # Palestine
2168 
2169 # From Amos Shapir (1998-02-15):
2170 #
2171 # From 1917 until 1948-05-15, all of Palestine, including the parts now
2172 # known as the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, was under British rule.
2173 # Therefore the rules given for Israel for that period, apply there too...
2174 #
2175 # The Gaza Strip was under Egyptian rule between 1948-05-15 until 1967-06-05
2176 # (except a short occupation by Israel from 1956-11 till 1957-03, but no
2177 # time zone was affected then).  It was never formally annexed to Egypt,
2178 # though.
2179 #
2180 # The rest of Palestine was under Jordanian rule at that time, formally
2181 # annexed in 1950 as the West Bank (and the word "Trans" was dropped from
2182 # the country's previous name of "the Hashemite Kingdom of the
2183 # Trans-Jordan").  So the rules for Jordan for that time apply.  Major
2184 # towns in that area are Nablus (Shchem), El-Halil (Hebron), Ramallah, and
2185 # East Jerusalem.
2186 #
2187 # Both areas were occupied by Israel in June 1967, but not annexed (except
2188 # for East Jerusalem).  They were on Israel time since then; there might
2189 # have been a Military Governor's order about time zones, but I'm not aware
2190 # of any (such orders may have been issued semi-annually whenever summer
2191 # time was in effect, but maybe the legal aspect of time was just neglected).
2192 #
2193 # The Palestinian Authority was established in 1993, and got hold of most
2194 # towns in the West Bank and Gaza by 1995.  I know that in order to
2195 # demonstrate...independence, they have been switching to
2196 # summer time and back on a different schedule than Israel's, but I don't
2197 # know when this was started, or what algorithm is used (most likely the
2198 # Jordanian one).
2199 #
2200 # To summarize, the table should probably look something like that:
2201 #
2202 # Area \ when | 1918-1947 | 1948-1967 | 1967-1995 | 1996-
2203 # ------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------
2204 # Israel      | Zion      | Zion      | Zion      | Zion
2205 # West bank   | Zion      | Jordan    | Zion      | Jordan
2206 # Gaza        | Zion      | Egypt     | Zion      | Jordan
2207 #
2208 # I guess more info may be available from the PA's web page (if/when they
2209 # have one).
2210 
2211 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
2212 # Shanks & Pottenger write that Gaza did not observe DST until 1957, but go
2213 # with Shapir and assume that it observed DST from 1940 through 1947,
2214 # and that it used Jordanian rules starting in 1996.
2215 # We don't yet need a separate entry for the West Bank, since
2216 # the only differences between it and Gaza that we know about
2217 # occurred before our cutoff date of 1970.
2218 # However, as we get more information, we may need to add entries
2219 # for parts of the West Bank as they transitioned from Israel's rules
2220 # to Palestine's rules.
2221 
2222 # From IINS News Service - Israel - 1998-03-23 10:38:07 Israel time,
2223 # forwarded by Ephraim Silverberg:
2224 #
2225 # Despite the fact that Israel changed over to daylight savings time
2226 # last week, the PLO Authority (PA) has decided not to turn its clocks
2227 # one-hour forward at this time.  As a sign of independence from Israeli rule,
2228 # the PA has decided to implement DST in April.
2229 
2230 # From Paul Eggert (1999-09-20):
2231 # Daoud Kuttab writes in Holiday havoc
2232 # http://www.jpost.com/com/Archive/22.Apr.1999/Opinion/Article-2.html
2233 # (Jerusalem Post, 1999-04-22) that
2234 # the Palestinian National Authority changed to DST on 1999-04-15.
2235 # I vaguely recall that they switch back in October (sorry, forgot the source).
2236 # For now, let's assume that the spring switch was at 24:00,
2237 # and that they switch at 0:00 on the 3rd Fridays of April and October.
2238 
2239 # From Paul Eggert (2005-11-22):
2240 # Starting 2004 transitions are from Steffen Thorsen's web site timeanddate.com.
2241 
2242 # From Steffen Thorsen (2005-11-23):
2243 # A user from Gaza reported that Gaza made the change early because of
2244 # the Ramadan.  Next year Ramadan will be even earlier, so I think
2245 # there is a good chance next year's end date will be around two weeks
2246 # earlier - the same goes for Jordan.
2247 
2248 # From Steffen Thorsen (2006-08-17):
2249 # I was informed by a user in Bethlehem that in Bethlehem it started the
2250 # same day as Israel, and after checking with other users in the area, I
2251 # was informed that they started DST one day after Israel.  I was not
2252 # able to find any authoritative sources at the time, nor details if
2253 # Gaza changed as well, but presumed Gaza to follow the same rules as
2254 # the West Bank.
2255 
2256 # From Steffen Thorsen (2006-09-26):
2257 # according to the Palestine News Network (2006-09-19):
2258 # http://english.pnn.ps/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=596&Itemid=5
2259 # > The Council of Ministers announced that this year its winter schedule
2260 # > will begin early, as of midnight Thursday.  It is also time to turn
2261 # > back the clocks for winter.  Friday will begin an hour late this week.
2262 # I guess it is likely that next year's date will be moved as well,
2263 # because of the Ramadan.
2264 
2265 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2007-09-18):
2266 # According to Steffen Thorsen's web site the Gaza Strip and the rest of the
2267 # Palestinian territories left DST early on 13.th. of September at 2:00.
2268 
2269 # From Paul Eggert (2007-09-20):
2270 # My understanding is that Gaza and the West Bank disagree even over when
2271 # the weekend is (Thursday+Friday versus Friday+Saturday), so I'd be a bit
2272 # surprised if they agreed about DST.  But for now, assume they agree.
2273 # For lack of better information, predict that future changes will be
2274 # the 2nd Thursday of September at 02:00.
2275 
2276 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2008-08-28):
2277 # Here is an article, that Mideast running on different clocks at Ramadan.
2278 #
2279 # Gaza Strip (as Egypt) ended DST at midnight Thursday (Aug 28, 2008), while
2280 # the West Bank will end Daylight Saving Time at midnight Sunday (Aug 31, 2008).
2281 #
2282 # http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/feedarticle/7759001
2283 # http://www.abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory?id=5676087
2284 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip01.html
2285 
2286 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-26):
2287 # According to the Palestine News Network (arabic.pnn.ps), Palestinian
2288 # government decided to start Daylight Time on Thursday night March
2289 # 26 and continue until the night of 27 September 2009.
2290 #
2291 # (in Arabic)
2292 # http://arabic.pnn.ps/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=50850
2293 #
2294 # (English translation)
2295 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank01.html
2296 
2297 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-08-31):
2298 # Palestine's Council of Ministers announced that they will revert back to
2299 # winter time on Friday, 2009-09-04.
2300 #
2301 # One news source:
2302 # http://www.safa.ps/ara/?action=showdetail&seid=4158
2303 # (Palestinian press agency, Arabic),
2304 # Google translate: "Decided that the Palestinian government in Ramallah
2305 # headed by Salam Fayyad, the start of work in time for the winter of
2306 # 2009, starting on Friday approved the fourth delay Sept. clock sixty
2307 # minutes per hour as of Friday morning."
2308 #
2309 # We are not sure if Gaza will do the same, last year they had a different
2310 # end date, we will keep this page updated:
2311 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-dst-2009.html
2312 
2313 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-09-02):
2314 # Seems that Gaza Strip will go back to Winter Time same date as West Bank.
2315 #
2316 # According to Palestinian Ministry Of Interior, West Bank and Gaza Strip plan
2317 # to change time back to Standard time on September 4, 2009.
2318 #
2319 # "Winter time unite the West Bank and Gaza"
2320 # (from Palestinian National Authority):
2321 # http://www.moi.gov.ps/en/?page=633167343250594025&nid=11505
2322 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip02.html
2323 
2324 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-19):
2325 # According to Voice of Palestine DST will last for 191 days, from March
2326 # 26, 2010 till "the last Sunday before the tenth day of Tishri
2327 # (October), each year" (October 03, 2010?)
2328 #
2329 # http://palvoice.org/forums/showthread.php?t=245697
2330 # (in Arabic)
2331 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank03.html
2332 
2333 # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-24):
2334 # ...Ma'an News Agency reports that Hamas cabinet has decided it will
2335 # start one day later, at 12:01am. Not sure if they really mean 12:01am or
2336 # noon though:
2337 #
2338 # http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=271178
2339 # (Ma'an News Agency)
2340 # "At 12:01am Friday, clocks in Israel and the West Bank will change to
2341 # 1:01am, while Gaza clocks will change at 12:01am Saturday morning."
2342 
2343 # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-08-11):
2344 # According to several sources, including
2345 # http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=306795
2346 # the clocks were set back one hour at 2010-08-11 00:00:00 local time in
2347 # Gaza and the West Bank.
2348 # Some more background info:
2349 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-end-dst-2010.html
2350 
2351 # From Steffen Thorsen (2011-08-26):
2352 # Gaza and the West Bank did go back to standard time in the beginning of
2353 # August, and will now enter daylight saving time again on 2011-08-30
2354 # 00:00 (so two periods of DST in 2011). The pause was because of
2355 # Ramadan.
2356 #
2357 # http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=416217
2358 # Additional info:
2359 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/palestine-dst-2011.html
2360 
2361 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-08-27):
2362 # According to the article in The Jerusalem Post:
2363 # "...Earlier this month, the Palestinian government in the West Bank decided to
2364 # move to standard time for 30 days, during Ramadan. The Palestinians in the
2365 # Gaza Strip accepted the change and also moved their clocks one hour back.
2366 # The Hamas government said on Saturday that it won't observe summertime after
2367 # the Muslim feast of Id al-Fitr, which begins on Tuesday..."
2368 # ...
2369 # http://www.jpost.com/MiddleEast/Article.aspx?id=235650
2370 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip05.html
2371 # The rules for Egypt are stolen from the 'africa' file.
2372 
2373 # From Steffen Thorsen (2011-09-30):
2374 # West Bank did end Daylight Saving Time this morning/midnight (2011-09-30
2375 # 00:00).
2376 # So West Bank and Gaza now have the same time again.
2377 #
2378 # Many sources, including:
2379 # http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=424808
2380 
2381 # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-26):
2382 # Palestinian news sources tell that both Gaza and West Bank will start DST
2383 # on Friday (Thursday midnight, 2012-03-29 24:00).
2384 # Some of many sources in Arabic:
2385 # http://www.samanews.com/index.php?act=Show&id=122638
2386 #
2387 # http://safa.ps/details/news/74352/%D8%A8%D8%AF%D8%A1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D9%88%D9%82%D9%8A%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D9%8A%D9%81%D9%8A-%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B6%D9%81%D8%A9-%D9%88%D8%BA%D8%B2%D8%A9-%D9%84%D9%8A%D9%84%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AC%D9%85%D8%B9%D8%A9.html
2388 #
2389 # Our brief summary:
2390 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/gaza-west-bank-dst-2012.html
2391 
2392 # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-03-26):
2393 # The following news sources tells that Palestine will "start daylight saving
2394 # time from midnight on Friday, March 29, 2013" (translated).
2395 # [These are in Arabic and are for Gaza and for Ramallah, respectively.]
2396 # http://www.samanews.com/index.php?act=Show&id=154120
2397 # http://safa.ps/details/news/99844/%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%85-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%84%D9%87-%D8%A8%D8%AF%D8%A1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D9%88%D9%82%D9%8A%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D9%8A%D9%81%D9%8A-29-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AC%D8%A7%D8%B1%D9%8A.html
2398 
2399 # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-09-24):
2400 # The Gaza and West Bank are ending DST Thursday at midnight
2401 # (2013-09-27 00:00:00) (one hour earlier than last year...).
2402 # This source in English, says "that winter time will go into effect
2403 # at midnight on Thursday in the West Bank and Gaza Strip":
2404 # http://english.wafa.ps/index.php?action=detail&id=23246
2405 # official source...:
2406 # http://www.palestinecabinet.gov.ps/ar/Views/ViewDetails.aspx?pid=1252
2407 
2408 # From Steffen Thorsen (2015-03-03):
2409 # Sources such as http://www.alquds.com/news/article/view/id/548257
2410 # and http://www.raya.ps/ar/news/890705.html say Palestine areas will
2411 # start DST on 2015-03-28 00:00 which is one day later than expected.
2412 #
2413 # From Paul Eggert (2015-03-03):
2414 # http://www.timeanddate.com/time/change/west-bank/ramallah?year=2014
2415 # says that the fall 2014 transition was Oct 23 at 24:00.
2416 # For future dates, guess the last Friday in March at 24:00 through
2417 # the first Friday on or after October 21 at 00:00.  This is consistent with
2418 # the predictions in today's editions of the following URLs:
2419 # http://www.timeanddate.com/time/change/gaza-strip/gaza
2420 # http://www.timeanddate.com/time/change/west-bank/hebron
2421 










2422 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2423 Rule EgyptAsia  1957    only    -       May     10      0:00    1:00    S
2424 Rule EgyptAsia  1957    1958    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
2425 Rule EgyptAsia  1958    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S
2426 Rule EgyptAsia  1959    1967    -       May      1      1:00    1:00    S
2427 Rule EgyptAsia  1959    1965    -       Sep     30      3:00    0       -
2428 Rule EgyptAsia  1966    only    -       Oct      1      3:00    0       -
2429 
2430 Rule Palestine  1999    2005    -       Apr     Fri>=15      0:00    1:00    S
2431 Rule Palestine  1999    2003    -       Oct     Fri>=15      0:00    0       -
2432 Rule Palestine  2004    only    -       Oct      1      1:00    0       -
2433 Rule Palestine  2005    only    -       Oct      4      2:00    0       -
2434 Rule Palestine  2006    2007    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
2435 Rule Palestine  2006    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
2436 Rule Palestine  2007    only    -       Sep     Thu>=8       2:00    0       -
2437 Rule Palestine  2008    2009    -       Mar     lastFri 0:00    1:00    S
2438 Rule Palestine  2008    only    -       Sep      1      0:00    0       -
2439 Rule Palestine  2009    only    -       Sep     Fri>=1       1:00    0       -
2440 Rule Palestine  2010    only    -       Mar     26      0:00    1:00    S
2441 Rule Palestine  2010    only    -       Aug     11      0:00    0       -
2442 Rule Palestine  2011    only    -       Apr      1      0:01    1:00    S
2443 Rule Palestine  2011    only    -       Aug      1      0:00    0       -
2444 Rule Palestine  2011    only    -       Aug     30      0:00    1:00    S
2445 Rule Palestine  2011    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       -
2446 Rule Palestine  2012    2014    -       Mar     lastThu 24:00   1:00    S
2447 Rule Palestine  2012    only    -       Sep     21      1:00    0       -
2448 Rule Palestine  2013    only    -       Sep     Fri>=21      0:00    0       -
2449 Rule Palestine  2014    max     -       Oct     Fri>=21      0:00    0       -
2450 Rule Palestine  2015    max     -       Mar     lastFri 24:00   1:00    S

2451 
2452 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2453 Zone    Asia/Gaza       2:17:52 -       LMT     1900 Oct
2454                         2:00    Zion    EET     1948 May 15
2455                         2:00 EgyptAsia  EE%sT   1967 Jun  5
2456                         2:00    Zion    I%sT    1996
2457                         2:00    Jordan  EE%sT   1999
2458                         2:00 Palestine  EE%sT   2008 Aug 29  0:00
2459                         2:00    -       EET     2008 Sep
2460                         2:00 Palestine  EE%sT   2010
2461                         2:00    -       EET     2010 Mar 27  0:01
2462                         2:00 Palestine  EE%sT   2011 Aug  1
2463                         2:00    -       EET     2012
2464                         2:00 Palestine  EE%sT
2465 
2466 Zone    Asia/Hebron     2:20:23 -       LMT     1900 Oct
2467                         2:00    Zion    EET     1948 May 15
2468                         2:00 EgyptAsia  EE%sT   1967 Jun  5
2469                         2:00    Zion    I%sT    1996
2470                         2:00    Jordan  EE%sT   1999
2471                         2:00 Palestine  EE%sT
2472 
2473 # Paracel Is
2474 # no information
2475 
2476 # Philippines
2477 # On 1844-08-16, Narciso Clavería, governor-general of the
2478 # Philippines, issued a proclamation announcing that 1844-12-30 was to
2479 # be immediately followed by 1845-01-01; see R.H. van Gent's
2480 # History of the International Date Line
2481 # http://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/idl/idl_philippines.htm
2482 # The rest of the data entries are from Shanks & Pottenger.
2483 
2484 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-04-26):
2485 # ... claims that Philippines had DST last time in 1990:
2486 # http://story.philippinetimes.com/p.x/ct/9/id/145be20cc6b121c0/cid/3e5bbccc730d258c/
2487 # [a story dated 2006-04-25 by Cris Larano of Dow Jones Newswires,
2488 # but no details]
2489 
2490 # From Paul Eggert (2014-08-14):
2491 # The following source says DST may be instituted November-January and again
2492 # March-June, but this is not definite.  It also says DST was last proclaimed
2493 # during the Ramos administration (1992-1998); but again, no details.
2494 # Carcamo D. PNoy urged to declare use of daylight saving time.
2495 # Philippine Star 2014-08-05
2496 # http://www.philstar.com/headlines/2014/08/05/1354152/pnoy-urged-declare-use-daylight-saving-time
2497 
2498 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2499 Rule    Phil    1936    only    -       Nov     1       0:00    1:00    S
2500 Rule    Phil    1937    only    -       Feb     1       0:00    0       -
2501 Rule    Phil    1954    only    -       Apr     12      0:00    1:00    S
2502 Rule    Phil    1954    only    -       Jul     1       0:00    0       -
2503 Rule    Phil    1978    only    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    S
2504 Rule    Phil    1978    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
2505 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2506 Zone    Asia/Manila     -15:56:00 -     LMT     1844 Dec 31
2507                         8:04:00 -       LMT     1899 May 11
2508                         8:00    Phil    PH%sT   1942 May
2509                         9:00    -       JST     1944 Nov
2510                         8:00    Phil    PH%sT
2511 
2512 # Qatar
2513 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2514 Zone    Asia/Qatar      3:26:08 -       LMT     1920     # Al Dawhah / Doha
2515                         4:00    -       GST     1972 Jun
2516                         3:00    -       AST
2517 Link Asia/Qatar Asia/Bahrain
2518 
2519 # Saudi Arabia
2520 #
2521 # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-15):
2522 # Time in Saudi Arabia and other countries in the Arabian peninsula was not
2523 # standardized until relatively recently; we don't know when, and possibly it
2524 # has never been made official.  Richard P Hunt, in "Islam city yielding to
2525 # modern times", New York Times (1961-04-09), p 20, wrote that only airlines
2526 # observed standard time, and that people in Jeddah mostly observed quasi-solar
2527 # time, doing so by setting their watches at sunrise to 6 o'clock (or to 12
2528 # o'clock for "Arab" time).
2529 #
2530 # The TZ database cannot represent quasi-solar time; airline time is the best
2531 # we can do.  The 1946 foreign air news digest of the U.S. Civil Aeronautics
2532 # Board (OCLC 42299995) reported that the "... Arabian Government, inaugurated
2533 # a weekly Dhahran-Cairo service, via the Saudi Arabian cities of Riyadh and
2534 # Jidda, on March 14, 1947".  Shanks & Pottenger guessed 1950; go with the
2535 # earlier date.
2536 #
2537 # Shanks & Pottenger also state that until 1968-05-01 Saudi Arabia had two
2538 # time zones; the other zone, at UTC+4, was in the far eastern part of
2539 # the country.  Ignore this, as it's before our 1970 cutoff.
2540 #
2541 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2542 Zone    Asia/Riyadh     3:06:52 -       LMT     1947 Mar 14
2543                         3:00    -       AST
2544 Link Asia/Riyadh Asia/Aden      # Yemen
2545 Link Asia/Riyadh Asia/Kuwait
2546 
2547 # Singapore
2548 # taken from Mok Ly Yng (2003-10-30)
2549 # http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/teaching/timezone.html
2550 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2551 Zone    Asia/Singapore  6:55:25 -       LMT     1901 Jan  1
2552                         6:55:25 -       SMT     1905 Jun  1 # Singapore M.T.
2553                         7:00    -       MALT    1933 Jan  1 # Malaya Time
2554                         7:00    0:20    MALST   1936 Jan  1
2555                         7:20    -       MALT    1941 Sep  1
2556                         7:30    -       MALT    1942 Feb 16
2557                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 12
2558                         7:30    -       MALT    1965 Aug  9 # independence
2559                         7:30    -       SGT     1982 Jan  1 # Singapore Time
2560                         8:00    -       SGT
2561 
2562 # Spratly Is
2563 # no information
2564 
2565 # Sri Lanka
2566 
2567 # From Paul Eggert (2013-02-21):
2568 # Milne says "Madras mean time use from May 1, 1898.  Prior to this Colombo
2569 # mean time, 5h. 4m. 21.9s. F., was used."  But 5:04:21.9 differs considerably
2570 # from Colombo's meridian 5:19:24, so for now ignore Milne and stick with
2571 # Shanks and Pottenger.
2572 
2573 # From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03):
2574 # "Sri Lanka advances clock by an hour to avoid blackout"
2575 # (<http://www.virtual-pc.com/lankaweb/news/items/240596-2.html>, 1996-05-24,
2576 # no longer available as of 1999-08-17)
2577 # reported "the country's standard time will be put forward by one hour at
2578 # midnight Friday (1830 GMT) 'in the light of the present power crisis'."
2579 #
2580 # From Dharmasiri Senanayake, Sri Lanka Media Minister (1996-10-24), as quoted
2581 # by Shamindra in Daily News - Hot News Section
2582 # <news:54rka5$m5h@mtinsc01-mgt.ops.worldnet.att.net> (1996-10-26):
2583 # With effect from 12.30 a.m. on 26th October 1996
2584 # Sri Lanka will be six (06) hours ahead of GMT.
2585 
2586 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-04-14), quoting Sri Lanka News Online
2587 # <http://news.sinhalaya.com/wmview.php?ArtID=11002> (2006-04-13):
2588 # 0030 hrs on April 15, 2006 (midnight of April 14, 2006 +30 minutes)
2589 # at present, become 2400 hours of April 14, 2006 (midnight of April 14, 2006).
2590 
2591 # From Peter Apps and Ranga Sirila of Reuters (2006-04-12) in:
2592 # http://today.reuters.co.uk/news/newsArticle.aspx?type=scienceNews&storyID=2006-04-12T172228Z_01_COL295762_RTRIDST_0_SCIENCE-SRILANKA-TIME-DC.XML
2593 # [The Tamil Tigers] never accepted the original 1996 time change and simply
2594 # kept their clocks set five and a half hours ahead of Greenwich Mean
2595 # Time (GMT), in line with neighbor India.
2596 # From Paul Eggert (2006-04-18):
2597 # People who live in regions under Tamil control can use [TZ='Asia/Kolkata'],
2598 # as that zone has agreed with the Tamil areas since our cutoff date of 1970.
2599 
2600 # From K Sethu (2006-04-25):
2601 # I think the abbreviation LKT originated from the world of computers at
2602 # the time of or subsequent to the time zone changes by SL Government
2603 # twice in 1996 and probably SL Government or its standardization
2604 # agencies never declared an abbreviation as a national standard.
2605 #
2606 # I recollect before the recent change the government announcements
2607 # mentioning it as simply changing Sri Lanka Standard Time or Sri Lanka
2608 # Time and no mention was made about the abbreviation.
2609 #
2610 # If we look at Sri Lanka Department of Government's "Official News
2611 # Website of Sri Lanka" ... http://www.news.lk/ we can see that they
2612 # use SLT as abbreviation in time stamp at the beginning of each news
2613 # item....
2614 #
2615 # Within Sri Lanka I think LKT is well known among computer users and
2616 # administrators.  In my opinion SLT may not be a good choice because the
2617 # nation's largest telcom / internet operator Sri Lanka Telcom is well
2618 # known by that abbreviation - simply as SLT (there IP domains are
2619 # slt.lk and sltnet.lk).
2620 #
2621 # But if indeed our government has adopted SLT as standard abbreviation
2622 # (that we have not known so far) then  it is better that it be used for
2623 # all computers.
2624 
2625 # From Paul Eggert (2006-04-25):
2626 # One possibility is that we wait for a bit for the dust to settle down
2627 # and then see what people actually say in practice.
2628 
2629 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2630 Zone    Asia/Colombo    5:19:24 -       LMT     1880
2631                         5:19:32 -       MMT     1906        # Moratuwa Mean Time
2632                         5:30    -       IST     1942 Jan  5
2633                         5:30    0:30    IHST    1942 Sep
2634                         5:30    1:00    IST     1945 Oct 16  2:00
2635                         5:30    -       IST     1996 May 25  0:00
2636                         6:30    -       LKT     1996 Oct 26  0:30
2637                         6:00    -       LKT     2006 Apr 15  0:30
2638                         5:30    -       IST
2639 
2640 # Syria
2641 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2642 Rule    Syria   1920    1923    -       Apr     Sun>=15      2:00    1:00    S
2643 Rule    Syria   1920    1923    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00    0       -
2644 Rule    Syria   1962    only    -       Apr     29      2:00    1:00    S
2645 Rule    Syria   1962    only    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       -
2646 Rule    Syria   1963    1965    -       May     1       2:00    1:00    S
2647 Rule    Syria   1963    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       -
2648 Rule    Syria   1964    only    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       -
2649 Rule    Syria   1965    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       -
2650 Rule    Syria   1966    only    -       Apr     24      2:00    1:00    S
2651 Rule    Syria   1966    1976    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       -
2652 Rule    Syria   1967    1978    -       May     1       2:00    1:00    S
2653 Rule    Syria   1977    1978    -       Sep     1       2:00    0       -
2654 Rule    Syria   1983    1984    -       Apr     9       2:00    1:00    S
2655 Rule    Syria   1983    1984    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       -
2656 Rule    Syria   1986    only    -       Feb     16      2:00    1:00    S
2657 Rule    Syria   1986    only    -       Oct     9       2:00    0       -
2658 Rule    Syria   1987    only    -       Mar     1       2:00    1:00    S
2659 Rule    Syria   1987    1988    -       Oct     31      2:00    0       -
2660 Rule    Syria   1988    only    -       Mar     15      2:00    1:00    S
2661 Rule    Syria   1989    only    -       Mar     31      2:00    1:00    S
2662 Rule    Syria   1989    only    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       -
2663 Rule    Syria   1990    only    -       Apr     1       2:00    1:00    S
2664 Rule    Syria   1990    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       -
2665 Rule    Syria   1991    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
2666 Rule    Syria   1991    1992    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
2667 Rule    Syria   1992    only    -       Apr      8      0:00    1:00    S
2668 Rule    Syria   1993    only    -       Mar     26      0:00    1:00    S
2669 Rule    Syria   1993    only    -       Sep     25      0:00    0       -
2670 # IATA SSIM (1998-02) says 1998-04-02;
2671 # (1998-09) says 1999-03-29 and 1999-09-29; (1999-02) says 1999-04-02,
2672 # 2000-04-02, and 2001-04-02; (1999-09) says 2000-03-31 and 2001-03-31;
2673 # (2006) says 2006-03-31 and 2006-09-22;
2674 # for now ignore all these claims and go with Shanks & Pottenger,
2675 # except for the 2006-09-22 claim (which seems right for Ramadan).
2676 Rule    Syria   1994    1996    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
2677 Rule    Syria   1994    2005    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
2678 Rule    Syria   1997    1998    -       Mar     lastMon 0:00    1:00    S
2679 Rule    Syria   1999    2006    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
2680 # From Stephen Colebourne (2006-09-18):
2681 # According to IATA data, Syria will change DST on 21st September [21:00 UTC]
2682 # this year [only]....  This is probably related to Ramadan, like Egypt.
2683 Rule    Syria   2006    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
2684 # From Paul Eggert (2007-03-29):
2685 # Today the AP reported "Syria will switch to summertime at midnight Thursday."
2686 # http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/03/29/africa/ME-GEN-Syria-Time-Change.php
2687 Rule    Syria   2007    only    -       Mar     lastFri 0:00    1:00    S
2688 # From Jesper Nørgaard (2007-10-27):
2689 # The sister center ICARDA of my work CIMMYT is confirming that Syria DST will
2690 # not take place 1st November at 0:00 o'clock but 1st November at 24:00 or
2691 # rather Midnight between Thursday and Friday. This does make more sense than
2692 # having it between Wednesday and Thursday (two workdays in Syria) since the
2693 # weekend in Syria is not Saturday and Sunday, but Friday and Saturday. So now
2694 # it is implemented at midnight of the last workday before weekend...
2695 #
2696 # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-10-27):
2697 # Jesper Nørgaard Welen wrote:
2698 #
2699 # > "Winter local time in Syria will be observed at midnight of Thursday 1
2700 # > November 2007, and the clock will be put back 1 hour."
2701 #
2702 # I found confirmation on this in this gov.sy-article (Arabic):
2703 # http://wehda.alwehda.gov.sy/_print_veiw.asp?FileName=12521710520070926111247
2704 #
2705 # which using Google's translate tools says:
2706 # Council of Ministers also approved the commencement of work on
2707 # identifying the winter time as of Friday, 2/11/2007 where the 60th
2708 # minute delay at midnight Thursday 1/11/2007.
2709 Rule    Syria   2007    only    -       Nov      Fri>=1      0:00    0       -
2710 
2711 # From Stephen Colebourne (2008-03-17):
2712 # For everyone's info, I saw an IATA time zone change for [Syria] for
2713 # this month (March 2008) in the last day or so....
2714 # Country     Time Standard   --- DST Start ---   --- DST End ---  DST
2715 # Name        Zone Variation   Time    Date        Time    Date
2716 # Variation
2717 # Syrian Arab
2718 # Republic    SY    +0200      2200  03APR08       2100  30SEP08   +0300
2719 #                              2200  02APR09       2100  30SEP09   +0300
2720 #                              2200  01APR10       2100  30SEP10   +0300
2721 
2722 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-17):
2723 # Here's a link to English-language coverage by the Syrian Arab News
2724 # Agency (SANA)...
2725 # http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2008/03/11/165173.htm
2726 # ...which reads (in part) "The Cabinet approved the suggestion of the
2727 # Ministry of Electricity to begin daylight savings time on Friday April
2728 # 4th, advancing clocks one hour ahead on midnight of Thursday April 3rd."
2729 # Since Syria is two hours east of UTC, the 2200 and 2100 transition times
2730 # shown above match up with midnight in Syria.
2731 
2732 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-18):
2733 # My best guess at a Syrian rule is "the Friday nearest April 1";
2734 # coding that involves either using a "Mar Fri>=29" construct that old time zone
2735 # compilers can't handle  or having multiple Rules (a la Israel).
2736 # For now, use "Apr Fri>=1", and go with IATA on a uniform Sep 30 end.
2737 
2738 # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-10-07):
2739 # Syria has now officially decided to end DST on 2008-11-01 this year,
2740 # according to the following article in the Syrian Arab News Agency (SANA).
2741 #
2742 # The article is in Arabic, and seems to tell that they will go back to
2743 # winter time on 2008-11-01 at 00:00 local daylight time (delaying/setting
2744 # clocks back 60 minutes).
2745 #
2746 # http://sana.sy/ara/2/2008/10/07/195459.htm
2747 
2748 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-03-19):
2749 # Syria will start DST on 2009-03-27 00:00 this year according to many sources,
2750 # two examples:
2751 #
2752 # http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2009/03/17/217563.htm
2753 # (English, Syrian Arab News # Agency)
2754 # http://thawra.alwehda.gov.sy/_View_news2.asp?FileName=94459258720090318012209
2755 # (Arabic, gov-site)
2756 #
2757 # We have not found any sources saying anything about when DST ends this year.
2758 #
2759 # Our summary
2760 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-starts-march-27-2009.html
2761 
2762 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-27):
2763 # The Syrian Arab News Network on 2009-09-29 reported that Syria will
2764 # revert back to winter (standard) time on midnight between Thursday
2765 # 2009-10-29 and Friday 2009-10-30:
2766 # http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2009/09/29/247012.htm (Arabic)
2767 
2768 # From Arthur David Olson (2009-10-28):
2769 # We'll see if future DST switching times turn out to be end of the last
2770 # Thursday of the month or the start of the last Friday of the month or
2771 # something else. For now, use the start of the last Friday.
2772 
2773 # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-17):
2774 # The "Syrian News Station" reported on 2010-03-16 that the Council of
2775 # Ministers has decided that Syria will start DST on midnight Thursday
2776 # 2010-04-01: (midnight between Thursday and Friday):
2777 # http://sns.sy/sns/?path=news/read/11421 (Arabic)
2778 
2779 # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-26):
2780 # Today, Syria's government announced that they will start DST early on Friday
2781 # (00:00). This is a bit earlier than the past two years.
2782 #
2783 # From Syrian Arab News Agency, in Arabic:
2784 # http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2012/03/26/408215.htm
2785 #
2786 # Our brief summary:
2787 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-2012.html
2788 
2789 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-27):
2790 # Assume last Friday in March going forward XXX.
2791 
2792 Rule    Syria   2008    only    -       Apr     Fri>=1       0:00    1:00    S
2793 Rule    Syria   2008    only    -       Nov     1       0:00    0       -
2794 Rule    Syria   2009    only    -       Mar     lastFri 0:00    1:00    S
2795 Rule    Syria   2010    2011    -       Apr     Fri>=1       0:00    1:00    S
2796 Rule    Syria   2012    max     -       Mar     lastFri 0:00    1:00    S
2797 Rule    Syria   2009    max     -       Oct     lastFri 0:00    0       -
2798 
2799 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2800 Zone    Asia/Damascus   2:25:12 -       LMT     1920 # Dimashq
2801                         2:00    Syria   EE%sT
2802 
2803 # Tajikistan
2804 # From Shanks & Pottenger.
2805 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2806 Zone    Asia/Dushanbe   4:35:12 -       LMT     1924 May  2
2807                         5:00    -       DUST    1930 Jun 21 # Dushanbe Time
2808                         6:00 RussiaAsia DUS%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2809                         5:00    1:00    DUSST   1991 Sep  9  2:00s
2810                         5:00    -       TJT     # Tajikistan Time
2811 
2812 # Thailand
2813 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2814 Zone    Asia/Bangkok    6:42:04 -       LMT     1880
2815                         6:42:04 -       BMT     1920 Apr # Bangkok Mean Time
2816                         7:00    -       ICT
2817 Link Asia/Bangkok Asia/Phnom_Penh       # Cambodia
2818 Link Asia/Bangkok Asia/Vientiane        # Laos
2819 
2820 # Turkmenistan
2821 # From Shanks & Pottenger.
2822 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2823 Zone    Asia/Ashgabat   3:53:32 -       LMT     1924 May  2 # or Ashkhabad
2824                         4:00    -       ASHT    1930 Jun 21 # Ashkhabad Time
2825                         5:00 RussiaAsia ASH%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00
2826                         4:00 RussiaAsia ASH%sT  1991 Oct 27 # independence
2827                         4:00 RussiaAsia TM%sT   1992 Jan 19  2:00
2828                         5:00    -       TMT
2829 
2830 # United Arab Emirates
2831 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2832 Zone    Asia/Dubai      3:41:12 -       LMT     1920
2833                         4:00    -       GST
2834 Link Asia/Dubai Asia/Muscat     # Oman
2835 
2836 # Uzbekistan
2837 # Byalokoz 1919 says Uzbekistan was 4:27:53.
2838 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2839 Zone    Asia/Samarkand  4:27:53 -       LMT     1924 May  2
2840                         4:00    -       SAMT    1930 Jun 21 # Samarkand Time
2841                         5:00    -       SAMT    1981 Apr  1
2842                         5:00    1:00    SAMST   1981 Oct  1
2843                         6:00    -       TAST    1982 Apr  1 # Tashkent Time
2844                         5:00 RussiaAsia SAM%sT  1991 Sep  1 # independence
2845                         5:00 RussiaAsia UZ%sT   1992
2846                         5:00    -       UZT
2847 # Milne says Tashkent was 4:37:10.8; round to nearest.
2848 Zone    Asia/Tashkent   4:37:11 -       LMT     1924 May  2
2849                         5:00    -       TAST    1930 Jun 21 # Tashkent Time
2850                         6:00 RussiaAsia TAS%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00
2851                         5:00 RussiaAsia TAS%sT  1991 Sep  1 # independence
2852                         5:00 RussiaAsia UZ%sT   1992
2853                         5:00    -       UZT
2854 
2855 # Vietnam
2856 
2857 # From Paul Eggert (2014-10-04):
2858 # Milne gives 7:16:56 for the meridian of Saigon in 1899, as being
2859 # used in Lower Laos, Cambodia, and Annam.  But this is quite a ways
2860 # from Saigon's location.  For now, ignore this and stick with Shanks
2861 # and Pottenger for LMT before 1906.
2862 
2863 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-18):
2864 # The English-language name of Vietnam's most populous city is "Ho Chi Minh
2865 # City"; use Ho_Chi_Minh below to avoid a name of more than 14 characters.
2866 
2867 # From Paul Eggert (2014-10-21) after a heads-up from Trần Ngọc Quân:
2868 # Trần Tiến Bình's authoritative book "Lịch Việt Nam: thế kỷ XX-XXI (1901-2100)"
2869 # (Nhà xuất bản Văn Hoá - Thông Tin, Hanoi, 2005), pp 49-50,
2870 # is quoted verbatim in:
2871 # http://www.thoigian.com.vn/?mPage=P80D01
2872 # is translated by Brian Inglis in:
2873 # http://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2014-October/021654.html
2874 # and is the basis for the information below.
2875 #
2876 # The 1906 transition was effective July 1 and standardized Indochina to
2877 # Phù Liễn Observatory, legally 104 deg. 17'17" east of Paris.
2878 # It's unclear whether this meant legal Paris Mean Time (00:09:21) or
2879 # the Paris Meridian (2 deg. 20'14.03" E); the former yields 07:06:30.1333...
2880 # and the latter 07:06:29.333... so either way it rounds to 07:06:30,
2881 # which is used below even though the modern-day Phù Liễn Observatory
2882 # is closer to 07:06:31.  Abbreviate Phù Liễn Mean Time as PLMT.
2883 #
2884 # The following transitions occurred in Indochina in general (before 1954)
2885 # and in South Vietnam in particular (after 1954):
2886 # To 07:00 on 1911-05-01.
2887 # To 08:00 on 1942-12-31 at 23:00.
2888 # To 09:00 in 1945-03-14 at 23:00.
2889 # To 07:00 on 1945-09-02 in Vietnam.
2890 # To 08:00 on 1947-04-01 in French-controlled Indochina.
2891 # To 07:00 on 1955-07-01 in South Vietnam.
2892 # To 08:00 on 1959-12-31 at 23:00 in South Vietnam.
2893 # To 07:00 on 1975-06-13 in South Vietnam.
2894 #
2895 # Trần cites the following sources; it's unclear which supplied the info above.
2896 #
2897 # Hoàng Xuân Hãn: "Lịch và lịch Việt Nam". Tập san Khoa học Xã hội,
2898 # No. 9, Paris, February 1982.
2899 #
2900 # Lê Thành Lân: "Lịch và niên biểu lịch sử hai mươi thế kỷ (0001-2010)",
2901 # NXB Thống kê, Hanoi, 2000.
2902 #
2903 # Lê Thành Lân: "Lịch hai thế kỷ (1802-2010) và các lịch vĩnh cửu",
2904 # NXB Thuận Hoá, Huế, 1995.
2905 
2906 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2907 Zone Asia/Ho_Chi_Minh   7:06:40 -       LMT     1906 Jul  1
2908                         7:06:30 -       PLMT    1911 May  1
2909                         7:00    -       ICT     1942 Dec 31 23:00
2910                         8:00    -       IDT     1945 Mar 14 23:00
2911                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep  2
2912                         7:00    -       ICT     1947 Apr  1
2913                         8:00    -       IDT     1955 Jul  1
2914                         7:00    -       ICT     1959 Dec 31 23:00
2915                         8:00    -       IDT     1975 Jun 13
2916                         7:00    -       ICT
2917 
2918 # Yemen
2919 # See Asia/Riyadh.
--- EOF ---