1 #
   2 # DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
   3 #
   4 # This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   5 # under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
   6 # published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
   7 # particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
   8 # by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
   9 #
  10 # This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  11 # ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  12 # FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  13 # version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  14 # accompanied this code).
  15 #
  16 # You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  17 # 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  18 # Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  19 #
  20 # Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  21 # or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  22 # questions.
  23 #
  24 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
  25 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
  26 
  27 # This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
  28 # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
  29 # tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
  30 # the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
  31 
  32 # From Paul Eggert (2015-08-08):
  33 #
  34 # Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:
  35 # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
  36 # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
  37 # Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.
  38 #
  39 # Gwillim Law writes that a good source
  40 # for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
  41 # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
  42 # published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
  43 # of the IATA's data after 1990.  Except where otherwise noted,
  44 # IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.
  45 #
  46 # Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
  47 # Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which
  48 # I found in the UCLA library.
  49 #
  50 # For data circa 1899, a common source is:
  51 # Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94.
  52 # http://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359
  53 #
  54 # For Russian data circa 1919, a source is:
  55 # Byalokoz EL. New Counting of Time in Russia since July 1, 1919.
  56 # (See the 'europe' file for a fuller citation.)
  57 #
  58 # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
  59 # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
  60 #
  61 # I invented the abbreviations marked '*' in the following table;
  62 # the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.
  63 # Corrections are welcome!
  64 #            std  dst
  65 #            LMT        Local Mean Time
  66 #       2:00 EET  EEST  Eastern European Time
  67 #       2:00 IST  IDT   Israel
  68 #       3:00 AST  ADT   Arabia*
  69 #       3:30 IRST IRDT  Iran*
  70 #       4:00 GST        Gulf*
  71 #       5:30 IST        India
  72 #       7:00 ICT        Indochina, most times and locations*
  73 #       7:00 WIB        west Indonesia (Waktu Indonesia Barat)
  74 #       8:00 WITA       central Indonesia (Waktu Indonesia Tengah)
  75 #       8:00 CST        China
  76 #       8:00 IDT        Indochina, 1943-45, 1947-55, 1960-75 (some locations)*
  77 #       8:00 JWST       Western Standard Time (Japan, 1896/1937)*
  78 #       8:30 KST  KDT   Korea when at +0830*
  79 #       9:00 JCST       Central Standard Time (Japan, 1896/1937)
  80 #       9:00 WIT        east Indonesia (Waktu Indonesia Timur)
  81 #       9:00 JST  JDT   Japan
  82 #       9:00 KST  KDT   Korea when at +09
  83 #       9:30 ACST       Australian Central Standard Time
  84 #
  85 # See the 'europe' file for Russia and Turkey in Asia.
  86 
  87 # From Guy Harris:
  88 # Incorporates data for Singapore from Robert Elz' asia 1.1, as well as
  89 # additional information from Tom Yap, Sun Microsystems Intercontinental
  90 # Technical Support (including a page from the Official Airline Guide -
  91 # Worldwide Edition).  The names for time zones are guesses.
  92 
  93 ###############################################################################
  94 
  95 # These rules are stolen from the 'europe' file.
  96 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
  97 Rule    EUAsia  1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  1:00u  1:00    S
  98 Rule    EUAsia  1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
  99 Rule    EUAsia  1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
 100 Rule E-EurAsia  1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  0:00   1:00    S
 101 Rule E-EurAsia  1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       -
 102 Rule E-EurAsia  1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  0:00   0       -
 103 Rule RussiaAsia 1981    1984    -       Apr     1        0:00   1:00    S
 104 Rule RussiaAsia 1981    1983    -       Oct     1        0:00   0       -
 105 Rule RussiaAsia 1984    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 106 Rule RussiaAsia 1985    2011    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
 107 Rule RussiaAsia 1996    2011    -       Oct     lastSun  2:00s  0       -




 108 
 109 # Afghanistan
 110 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 111 Zone    Asia/Kabul      4:36:48 -       LMT     1890
 112                         4:00    -       AFT     1945
 113                         4:30    -       AFT
 114 
 115 # Armenia
 116 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
 117 # Shanks & Pottenger have Yerevan switching to 3:00 (with Russian DST)
 118 # in spring 1991, then to 4:00 with no DST in fall 1995, then
 119 # readopting Russian DST in 1997.  Go with Shanks & Pottenger, even
 120 # when they disagree with others.  Edgar Der-Danieliantz
 121 # reported (1996-05-04) that Yerevan probably wouldn't use DST
 122 # in 1996, though it did use DST in 1995.  IATA SSIM (1991/1998) reports that
 123 # Armenia switched from 3:00 to 4:00 in 1998 and observed DST after 1991,
 124 # but started switching at 3:00s in 1998.
 125 
 126 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15):
 127 # While Russia abandoned DST in 2011, Armenia may choose to
 128 # follow Russia's "old" rules.
 129 
 130 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2012-02-10):
 131 # According to News Armenia, on Feb 9, 2012,
 132 # http://newsarmenia.ru/society/20120209/42609695.html
 133 #
 134 # The Armenia National Assembly adopted final reading of Amendments to the
 135 # Law "On procedure of calculation time on the territory of the Republic of
 136 # Armenia" according to which Armenia [is] abolishing Daylight Saving Time.
 137 # or
 138 # (brief)
 139 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_armenia03.html
 140 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 141 Zone    Asia/Yerevan    2:58:00 -       LMT     1924 May  2
 142                         3:00    -       YERT    1957 Mar    # Yerevan Time
 143                         4:00 RussiaAsia YER%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
 144                         3:00    1:00    YERST   1991 Sep 23 # independence
 145                         3:00 RussiaAsia AM%sT   1995 Sep 24  2:00s
 146                         4:00    -       AMT     1997
 147                         4:00 RussiaAsia AM%sT   2012 Feb  9
 148                         4:00    -       AMT
 149 
 150 # Azerbaijan
 151 
 152 # From Rustam Aliyev of the Azerbaijan Internet Forum (2005-10-23):
 153 # According to the resolution of Cabinet of Ministers, 1997
 154 # From Paul Eggert (2015-09-17): It was Resolution No. 21 (1997-03-17).
 155 # http://code.az/files/daylight_res.pdf
 156 
 157 # From Steffen Thorsen (2016-03-17):
 158 # ... the Azerbaijani Cabinet of Ministers has cancelled switching to
 159 # daylight saving time....
 160 # http://www.azernews.az/azerbaijan/94137.html
 161 # http://vestnikkavkaza.net/news/Azerbaijani-Cabinet-of-Ministers-cancels-daylight-saving-time.html
 162 # http://en.apa.az/xeber_azerbaijan_abolishes_daylight_savings_ti_240862.html
 163 
 164 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 165 Rule    Azer    1997    2015    -       Mar     lastSun  4:00   1:00    S
 166 Rule    Azer    1997    2015    -       Oct     lastSun  5:00   0       -
 167 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 168 Zone    Asia/Baku       3:19:24 -       LMT     1924 May  2
 169                         3:00    -       BAKT    1957 Mar    # Baku Time
 170                         4:00 RussiaAsia BAK%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
 171                         3:00    1:00    BAKST   1991 Aug 30 # independence
 172                         3:00 RussiaAsia AZ%sT   1992 Sep lastSat 23:00
 173                         4:00    -       AZT     1996     # Azerbaijan Time
 174                         4:00    EUAsia  AZ%sT   1997
 175                         4:00    Azer    AZ%sT
 176 
 177 # Bahrain
 178 # See Asia/Qatar.
 179 
 180 # Bangladesh
 181 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-05-13):
 182 # According to newspaper Asian Tribune (May 6, 2009) Bangladesh may introduce
 183 # Daylight Saving Time from June 16 to Sept 30
 184 #
 185 # Bangladesh to introduce daylight saving time likely from June 16
 186 # http://www.asiantribune.com/?q=node/17288
 187 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh02.html
 188 #
 189 # "... Bangladesh government has decided to switch daylight saving time from
 190 # June
 191 # 16 till September 30 in a bid to ensure maximum use of daylight to cope with
 192 # crippling power crisis. "
 193 #
 194 # The switch will remain in effect from June 16 to Sept 30 (2009) but if
 195 # implemented the next year, it will come in force from April 1, 2010
 196 
 197 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-06-02):
 198 # They have finally decided now, but changed the start date to midnight between
 199 # the 19th and 20th, and they have not set the end date yet.
 200 #
 201 # Some sources:
 202 # http://in.reuters.com/article/southAsiaNews/idINIndia-40017620090601
 203 # http://bdnews24.com/details.php?id=85889&cid=2
 204 #
 205 # Our wrap-up:
 206 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/bangladesh-daylight-saving-2009.html
 207 
 208 # From A. N. M. Kamrus Saadat (2009-06-15):
 209 # Finally we've got the official mail regarding DST start time where DST start
 210 # time is mentioned as Jun 19 2009, 23:00 from BTRC (Bangladesh
 211 # Telecommunication Regulatory Commission).
 212 #
 213 # No DST end date has been announced yet.
 214 
 215 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-09-25):
 216 # Bangladesh won't go back to Standard Time from October 1, 2009,
 217 # instead it will continue DST measure till the cabinet makes a fresh decision.
 218 #
 219 # Following report by same newspaper-"The Daily Star Friday":
 220 # "DST change awaits cabinet decision-Clock won't go back by 1-hr from Oct 1"
 221 # http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=107021
 222 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh04.html
 223 
 224 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-13):
 225 # IANS (Indo-Asian News Service) now reports:
 226 # Bangladesh has decided that the clock advanced by an hour to make
 227 # maximum use of daylight hours as an energy saving measure would
 228 # "continue for an indefinite period."
 229 #
 230 # One of many places where it is published:
 231 # http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/business/bangladesh-to-continue-indefinitely-with-advanced-time_100259987.html
 232 
 233 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-12-24):
 234 # According to Bangladesh newspaper "The Daily Star,"
 235 # Bangladesh will change its clock back to Standard Time on Dec 31, 2009.
 236 #
 237 # Clock goes back 1-hr on Dec 31 night.
 238 # http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=119228
 239 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh05.html
 240 #
 241 # "...The government yesterday decided to put the clock back by one hour
 242 # on December 31 midnight and the new time will continue until March 31,
 243 # 2010 midnight. The decision came at a cabinet meeting at the Prime
 244 # Minister's Office last night..."
 245 
 246 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-22):
 247 # According to Bangladesh newspaper "The Daily Star,"
 248 # Cabinet cancels Daylight Saving Time
 249 # http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/latest_news.php?nid=22817
 250 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh06.html
 251 
 252 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 253 Rule    Dhaka   2009    only    -       Jun     19      23:00   1:00    S
 254 Rule    Dhaka   2009    only    -       Dec     31      24:00   0       -
 255 
 256 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 257 Zone    Asia/Dhaka      6:01:40 -       LMT     1890
 258                         5:53:20 -       HMT     1941 Oct    # Howrah Mean Time?
 259                         6:30    -       BURT    1942 May 15 # Burma Time
 260                         5:30    -       IST     1942 Sep
 261                         6:30    -       BURT    1951 Sep 30
 262                         6:00    -       DACT    1971 Mar 26 # Dacca Time
 263                         6:00    -       BDT     2009
 264                         6:00    Dhaka   BD%sT
 265 
 266 # Bhutan
 267 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 268 Zone    Asia/Thimphu    5:58:36 -       LMT     1947 Aug 15 # or Thimbu
 269                         5:30    -       IST     1987 Oct
 270                         6:00    -       BTT     # Bhutan Time
 271 
 272 # British Indian Ocean Territory
 273 # Whitman and the 1995 CIA time zone map say 5:00, but the
 274 # 1997 and later maps say 6:00.  Assume the switch occurred in 1996.
 275 # We have no information as to when standard time was introduced;
 276 # assume it occurred in 1907, the same year as Mauritius (which
 277 # then contained the Chagos Archipelago).
 278 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 279 Zone    Indian/Chagos   4:49:40 -       LMT     1907
 280                         5:00    -       IOT     1996 # BIOT Time
 281                         6:00    -       IOT
 282 
 283 # Brunei
 284 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 285 Zone    Asia/Brunei     7:39:40 -       LMT     1926 Mar # Bandar Seri Begawan
 286                         7:30    -       BNT     1933
 287                         8:00    -       BNT
 288 
 289 # Burma / Myanmar
 290 
 291 # Milne says 6:24:40 was the meridian of the time ball observatory at Rangoon.
 292 
 293 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 294 Zone    Asia/Rangoon    6:24:40 -       LMT     1880        # or Yangon
 295                         6:24:40 -       RMT     1920        # Rangoon Mean Time?
 296                         6:30    -       BURT    1942 May    # Burma Time
 297                         9:00    -       JST     1945 May  3
 298                         6:30    -       MMT     # Myanmar Time
 299 
 300 # Cambodia
 301 # See Asia/Bangkok.
 302 
 303 
 304 # China
 305 
 306 # From Guy Harris:
 307 # People's Republic of China.  Yes, they really have only one time zone.
 308 
 309 # From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
 310 # No they don't.  See TIME mag, 1986-02-17 p.52.  Even though
 311 # China is across 4 physical time zones, before Feb 1, 1986 only the
 312 # Peking (Beijing) time zone was recognized.  Since that date, China
 313 # has two of 'em - Peking's and Ürümqi (named after the capital of
 314 # the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region).  I don't know about DST for it.
 315 #
 316 # . . .I just deleted the DST table and this editor makes it too
 317 # painful to suck in another copy.  So, here is what I have for
 318 # DST start/end dates for Peking's time zone (info from AP):
 319 #
 320 #     1986 May 4 - Sept 14
 321 #     1987 mid-April - ??
 322 
 323 # From U. S. Naval Observatory (1989-01-19):
 324 # CHINA               8 H  AHEAD OF UTC  ALL OF CHINA, INCL TAIWAN
 325 # CHINA               9 H  AHEAD OF UTC  APR 17 - SEP 10
 326 
 327 # From Paul Eggert (2008-02-11):
 328 # Jim Mann, "A clumsy embrace for another western custom: China on daylight
 329 # time - sort of", Los Angeles Times, 1986-05-05 ... [says] that China began
 330 # observing daylight saving time in 1986.
 331 
 332 # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):
 333 # Shanks & Pottenger have China switching to a single time zone in 1980, but
 334 # this doesn't seem to be correct.  They also write that China observed summer
 335 # DST from 1986 through 1991, which seems to match the above commentary, so
 336 # go with them for DST rules as follows:
 337 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 338 Rule    Shang   1940    only    -       Jun      3      0:00    1:00    D
 339 Rule    Shang   1940    1941    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       S
 340 Rule    Shang   1941    only    -       Mar     16      0:00    1:00    D
 341 Rule    PRC     1986    only    -       May      4      0:00    1:00    D
 342 Rule    PRC     1986    1991    -       Sep     Sun>=11      0:00    0       S
 343 Rule    PRC     1987    1991    -       Apr     Sun>=10      0:00    1:00    D
 344 
 345 # From Anthony Fok (2001-12-20):
 346 # BTW, I did some research on-line and found some info regarding these five
 347 # historic timezones from some Taiwan websites.  And yes, there are official
 348 # Chinese names for these locales (before 1949).
 349 #
 350 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-07-14):
 351 # I have investigated the timezones around 1970 on the
 352 # http://www.astro.com/atlas site [with provinces and county
 353 # boundaries summarized below]....  A few other exceptions were two
 354 # counties on the Sichuan side of the Xizang-Sichuan border,
 355 # counties Dege and Baiyu which lies on the Sichuan side and are
 356 # therefore supposed to be GMT+7, Xizang region being GMT+6, but Dege
 357 # county is GMT+8 according to astro.com while Baiyu county is GMT+6
 358 # (could be true), for the moment I am assuming that those two
 359 # counties are mistakes in the astro.com data.
 360 
 361 # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):
 362 # Alois Treindl kindly sent me translations of the following two sources:
 363 #
 364 # (1)
 365 # Guo Qingsheng (National Time-Service Center, CAS, Xi'an 710600, China)
 366 # Beijing Time at the Beginning of the PRC
 367 # China Historical Materials of Science and Technology
 368 # (Zhongguo ke ji shi liao, 中国科技史料), Vol. 24, No. 1 (2003)
 369 # It gives evidence that at the beginning of the PRC, Beijing time was
 370 # officially apparent solar time!  However, Guo also says that the
 371 # evidence is dubious, as the relevant institute of astronomy had not
 372 # been taken over by the PRC yet.  It's plausible that apparent solar
 373 # time was announced but never implemented, and that people continued
 374 # to use UT+8.  As the Shanghai radio station (and I presume the
 375 # observatory) was still under control of French missionaries, it
 376 # could well have ignored any such mandate.
 377 #
 378 # (2)
 379 # Guo Qing-sheng (Shaanxi Astronomical Observatory, CAS, Xi'an 710600, China)
 380 # A Study on the Standard Time Changes for the Past 100 Years in China
 381 # [undated and unknown publication location]
 382 # It says several things:
 383 #   * The Qing dynasty used local apparent solar time throughout China.
 384 #   * The Republic of China instituted Beijing mean solar time effective
 385 #     the official calendar book of 1914.
 386 #   * The French Concession in Shanghai set up signal stations in
 387 #     French docks in the 1890s, controlled by Xujiahui (Zikawei)
 388 #     Observatory and set to local mean time.
 389 #   * "From the end of the 19th century" it changed to UT+8.
 390 #   * Chinese Customs (by then reduced to a tool of foreign powers)
 391 #     eventually standardized on this time for all ports, and it
 392 #     became used by railways as well.
 393 #   * In 1918 the Central Observatory proposed dividing China into
 394 #     five time zones (see below for details).  This caught on
 395 #     at first only in coastal areas observing UT+8.
 396 #   * During WWII all of China was in theory was at UT+7.  In practice
 397 #     this was ignored in the west, and I presume was ignored in
 398 #     Japanese-occupied territory.
 399 #   * Japanese-occupied Manchuria was at UT+9, i.e., Japan time.
 400 #   * The five-zone plan was resurrected after WWII and officially put into
 401 #     place (with some modifications) in March 1948.  It's not clear
 402 #     how well it was observed in areas under Nationalist control.
 403 #   * The People's Liberation Army used UT+8 during the civil war.
 404 #
 405 # An AP article "Shanghai Internat'l Area Little Changed" in the
 406 # Lewiston (ME) Daily Sun (1939-05-29), p 17, said "Even the time is
 407 # different - the occupied districts going by Tokyo time, an hour
 408 # ahead of that prevailing in the rest of Shanghai."  Guess that the
 409 # Xujiahui Observatory was under French control and stuck with UT+8.
 410 #
 411 # In earlier versions of this file, China had many separate Zone entries, but
 412 # this was based on what were apparently incorrect data in Shanks & Pottenger.
 413 # This has now been simplified to the two entries Asia/Shanghai and
 414 # Asia/Urumqi, with the others being links for backward compatibility.
 415 # Proposed in 1918 and theoretically in effect until 1949 (although in practice
 416 # mainly observed in coastal areas), the five zones were:
 417 #
 418 # Changbai Time ("Long-white Time", Long-white = Heilongjiang area) UT+8.5
 419 # Asia/Harbin (currently a link to Asia/Shanghai)
 420 # Heilongjiang (except Mohe county), Jilin
 421 #
 422 # Zhongyuan Time ("Central plain Time") UT+8
 423 # Asia/Shanghai
 424 # most of China
 425 # This currently represents most other zones as well,
 426 # as apparently these regions have been the same since 1970.
 427 # Milne gives 8:05:43.2 for Xujiahui Observatory time; round to nearest.
 428 # Guo says Shanghai switched to UT+8 "from the end of the 19th century".
 429 #
 430 # Long-shu Time (probably due to Long and Shu being two names of that area) UT+7
 431 # Asia/Chongqing (currently a link to Asia/Shanghai)
 432 # Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Ningxia, Sichuan, Shaanxi, and Yunnan;
 433 # most of Gansu; west Inner Mongolia; west Qinghai; and the Guangdong
 434 # counties Deqing, Enping, Kaiping, Luoding, Taishan, Xinxing,
 435 # Yangchun, Yangjiang, Yu'nan, and Yunfu.
 436 #
 437 # Xin-zang Time ("Xinjiang-Tibet Time") UT+6
 438 # Asia/Urumqi
 439 # This currently represents Kunlun Time as well,
 440 # as apparently the two regions have been the same since 1970.
 441 # The Gansu counties Aksay, Anxi, Dunhuang, Subei; west Qinghai;
 442 # the Guangdong counties  Xuwen, Haikang, Suixi, Lianjiang,
 443 # Zhanjiang, Wuchuan, Huazhou, Gaozhou, Maoming, Dianbai, and Xinyi;
 444 # east Tibet, including Lhasa, Chamdo, Shigaise, Jimsar, Shawan and Hutubi;
 445 # east Xinjiang, including Ürümqi, Turpan, Karamay, Korla, Minfeng, Jinghe,
 446 # Wusu, Qiemo, Xinyan, Wulanwusu, Jinghe, Yumin, Tacheng, Tuoli, Emin,
 447 # Shihezi, Changji, Yanqi, Heshuo, Tuokexun, Tulufan, Shanshan, Hami,
 448 # Fukang, Kuitun, Kumukuli, Miquan, Qitai, and Turfan.
 449 #
 450 # Kunlun Time UT+5.5
 451 # Asia/Kashgar (currently a link to Asia/Urumqi)
 452 # West Tibet, including Pulan, Aheqi, Shufu, Shule;
 453 # West Xinjiang, including Aksu, Atushi, Yining, Hetian, Cele, Luopu, Nileke,
 454 # Zhaosu, Tekesi, Gongliu, Chabuchaer, Huocheng, Bole, Pishan, Suiding,
 455 # and Yarkand.
 456 
 457 # From Luther Ma (2009-10-17):
 458 # Almost all (>99.9%) ethnic Chinese (properly ethnic Han) living in
 459 # Xinjiang use Chinese Standard Time. Some are aware of Xinjiang time,
 460 # but have no need of it. All planes, trains, and schools function on
 461 # what is called "Beijing time." When Han make an appointment in Chinese
 462 # they implicitly use Beijing time.
 463 #
 464 # On the other hand, ethnic Uyghurs, who make up about half the
 465 # population of Xinjiang, typically use "Xinjiang time" which is two
 466 # hours behind Beijing time, or UTC +0600. The government of the Xinjiang
 467 # Uyghur Autonomous Region, (XAUR, or just Xinjiang for short) as well as
 468 # local governments such as the Ürümqi city government use both times in
 469 # publications, referring to what is popularly called Xinjiang time as
 470 # "Ürümqi time." When Uyghurs make an appointment in the Uyghur language
 471 # they almost invariably use Xinjiang time.
 472 #
 473 # (Their ethnic Han compatriots would typically have no clue of its
 474 # widespread use, however, because so extremely few of them are fluent in
 475 # Uyghur, comparable to the number of Anglo-Americans fluent in Navajo.)
 476 #
 477 # (...As with the rest of China there was a brief interval ending in 1990
 478 # or 1991 when summer time was in use.  The confusion was severe, with
 479 # the province not having dual times but four times in use at the same
 480 # time. Some areas remained on standard Xinjiang time or Beijing time and
 481 # others moving their clocks ahead.)
 482 
 483 # From Luther Ma (2009-11-19):
 484 # With the risk of being redundant to previous answers these are the most common
 485 # English "transliterations" (w/o using non-English symbols):
 486 #
 487 # 1. Wulumuqi...
 488 # 2. Kashi...
 489 # 3. Urumqi...
 490 # 4. Kashgar...
 491 # ...
 492 # 5. It seems that Uyghurs in Ürümqi has been using Xinjiang since at least the
 493 # 1960's. I know of one Han, now over 50, who grew up in the surrounding
 494 # countryside and used Xinjiang time as a child.
 495 #
 496 # 6. Likewise for Kashgar and the rest of south Xinjiang I don't know of any
 497 # start date for Xinjiang time.
 498 #
 499 # Without having access to local historical records, nor the ability to legally
 500 # publish them, I would go with October 1, 1949, when Xinjiang became the Uyghur
 501 # Autonomous Region under the PRC. (Before that Uyghurs, of course, would also
 502 # not be using Beijing time, but some local time.)
 503 
 504 # From David Cochrane (2014-03-26):
 505 # Just a confirmation that Ürümqi time was implemented in Ürümqi on 1 Feb 1986:
 506 # http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,960684,00.html
 507 
 508 # From Luther Ma (2014-04-22):
 509 # I have interviewed numerous people of various nationalities and from
 510 # different localities in Xinjiang and can confirm the information in Guo's
 511 # report regarding Xinjiang, as well as the Time article reference by David
 512 # Cochrane.  Whether officially recognized or not (and both are officially
 513 # recognized), two separate times have been in use in Xinjiang since at least
 514 # the Cultural Revolution: Xinjiang Time (XJT), aka Ürümqi Time or local time;
 515 # and Beijing Time.  There is no confusion in Xinjiang as to which name refers
 516 # to which time. Both are widely used in the province, although in some
 517 # population groups might be use one to the exclusion of the other.  The only
 518 # problem is that computers and smart phones list Ürümqi (or Kashgar) as
 519 # having the same time as Beijing.
 520 
 521 # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):
 522 # In the early days of the PRC, Tibet was given its own time zone (UT+6) but
 523 # this was withdrawn in 1959 and never reinstated; see Tubten Khétsun,
 524 # Memories of life in Lhasa under Chinese Rule, Columbia U Press, ISBN
 525 # 978-0231142861 (2008), translator's introduction by Matthew Akester, p x.
 526 # As this is before our 1970 cutoff, Tibet doesn't need a separate zone.
 527 #
 528 # Xinjiang Time is well-documented as being officially recognized.  E.g., see
 529 # "The Working-Calendar for The Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Government"
 530 # <http://www.sinkiang.gov.cn/service/ourworking/> (2014-04-22).
 531 # Unfortunately, we have no good records of time in Xinjiang before 1986.
 532 # During the 20th century parts of Xinjiang were ruled by the Qing dynasty,
 533 # the Republic of China, various warlords, the First and Second East Turkestan
 534 # Republics, the Soviet Union, the Kuomintang, and the People's Republic of
 535 # China, and tracking down all these organizations' timekeeping rules would be
 536 # quite a trick.  Approximate this lost history by a transition from LMT to
 537 # XJT at the start of 1928, the year of accession of the warlord Jin Shuren,
 538 # which happens to be the date given by Shanks & Pottenger (no doubt as a
 539 # guess) as the transition from LMT.  Ignore the usage of UT+8 before
 540 # 1986-02-01 under the theory that the transition date to UT+8 is unknown and
 541 # that the sort of users who prefer Asia/Urumqi now typically ignored the
 542 # UT+8 mandate back then.
 543 
 544 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 545 # Beijing time, used throughout China; represented by Shanghai.
 546 Zone    Asia/Shanghai   8:05:43 -       LMT     1901
 547                         8:00    Shang   C%sT    1949
 548                         8:00    PRC     C%sT
 549 # Xinjiang time, used by many in western China; represented by Ürümqi / Ürümchi
 550 # / Wulumuqi.  (Please use Asia/Shanghai if you prefer Beijing time.)
 551 Zone    Asia/Urumqi     5:50:20 -       LMT     1928
 552                         6:00    -       XJT
 553 
 554 
 555 # Hong Kong (Xianggang)
 556 
 557 # Milne gives 7:36:41.7; round this.
 558 
 559 # From Lee Yiu Chung (2009-10-24):
 560 # I found there are some mistakes for the...DST rule for Hong
 561 # Kong. [According] to the DST record from Hong Kong Observatory (actually,
 562 # it is not [an] observatory, but the official meteorological agency of HK,
 563 # and also serves as the official timing agency), there are some missing
 564 # and incorrect rules. Although the exact switch over time is missing, I
 565 # think 3:30 is correct. The official DST record for Hong Kong can be
 566 # obtained from
 567 # http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm
 568 
 569 # From Arthur David Olson (2009-10-28):
 570 # Here are the dates given at
 571 # http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm
 572 # as of 2009-10-28:
 573 # Year        Period
 574 # 1941        1 Apr to 30 Sep
 575 # 1942        Whole year
 576 # 1943        Whole year
 577 # 1944        Whole year
 578 # 1945        Whole year
 579 # 1946        20 Apr to 1 Dec
 580 # 1947        13 Apr to 30 Dec
 581 # 1948        2 May to 31 Oct
 582 # 1949        3 Apr to 30 Oct
 583 # 1950        2 Apr to 29 Oct
 584 # 1951        1 Apr to 28 Oct
 585 # 1952        6 Apr to 25 Oct
 586 # 1953        5 Apr to 1 Nov
 587 # 1954        21 Mar to 31 Oct
 588 # 1955        20 Mar to 6 Nov
 589 # 1956        18 Mar to 4 Nov
 590 # 1957        24 Mar to 3 Nov
 591 # 1958        23 Mar to 2 Nov
 592 # 1959        22 Mar to 1 Nov
 593 # 1960        20 Mar to 6 Nov
 594 # 1961        19 Mar to 5 Nov
 595 # 1962        18 Mar to 4 Nov
 596 # 1963        24 Mar to 3 Nov
 597 # 1964        22 Mar to 1 Nov
 598 # 1965        18 Apr to 17 Oct
 599 # 1966        17 Apr to 16 Oct
 600 # 1967        16 Apr to 22 Oct
 601 # 1968        21 Apr to 20 Oct
 602 # 1969        20 Apr to 19 Oct
 603 # 1970        19 Apr to 18 Oct
 604 # 1971        18 Apr to 17 Oct
 605 # 1972        16 Apr to 22 Oct
 606 # 1973        22 Apr to 21 Oct
 607 # 1973/74     30 Dec 73 to 20 Oct 74
 608 # 1975        20 Apr to 19 Oct
 609 # 1976        18 Apr to 17 Oct
 610 # 1977        Nil
 611 # 1978        Nil
 612 # 1979        13 May to 21 Oct
 613 # 1980 to Now Nil
 614 # The page does not give start or end times of day.
 615 # The page does not give a start date for 1942.
 616 # The page does not givw an end date for 1945.
 617 # The Japanese occupation of Hong Kong began on 1941-12-25.
 618 # The Japanese surrender of Hong Kong was signed 1945-09-15.
 619 # For lack of anything better, use start of those days as the transition times.
 620 
 621 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 622 Rule    HK      1941    only    -       Apr     1       3:30    1:00    S
 623 Rule    HK      1941    only    -       Sep     30      3:30    0       -
 624 Rule    HK      1946    only    -       Apr     20      3:30    1:00    S
 625 Rule    HK      1946    only    -       Dec     1       3:30    0       -
 626 Rule    HK      1947    only    -       Apr     13      3:30    1:00    S
 627 Rule    HK      1947    only    -       Dec     30      3:30    0       -
 628 Rule    HK      1948    only    -       May     2       3:30    1:00    S
 629 Rule    HK      1948    1951    -       Oct     lastSun 3:30    0       -
 630 Rule    HK      1952    only    -       Oct     25      3:30    0       -
 631 Rule    HK      1949    1953    -       Apr     Sun>=1       3:30    1:00    S
 632 Rule    HK      1953    only    -       Nov     1       3:30    0       -
 633 Rule    HK      1954    1964    -       Mar     Sun>=18      3:30    1:00    S
 634 Rule    HK      1954    only    -       Oct     31      3:30    0       -
 635 Rule    HK      1955    1964    -       Nov     Sun>=1       3:30    0       -
 636 Rule    HK      1965    1976    -       Apr     Sun>=16      3:30    1:00    S
 637 Rule    HK      1965    1976    -       Oct     Sun>=16      3:30    0       -
 638 Rule    HK      1973    only    -       Dec     30      3:30    1:00    S
 639 Rule    HK      1979    only    -       May     Sun>=8       3:30    1:00    S
 640 Rule    HK      1979    only    -       Oct     Sun>=16      3:30    0       -
 641 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 642 Zone    Asia/Hong_Kong  7:36:42 -       LMT     1904 Oct 30
 643                         8:00    HK      HK%sT   1941 Dec 25
 644                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 15
 645                         8:00    HK      HK%sT
 646 
 647 ###############################################################################
 648 
 649 # Taiwan
 650 
 651 # From smallufo (2010-04-03):
 652 # According to Taiwan's CWB [Central Weather Bureau],
 653 # http://www.cwb.gov.tw/V6/astronomy/cdata/summert.htm
 654 # Taipei has DST in 1979 between July 1st and Sep 30.
 655 
 656 # From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2013-07-12):
 657 # On Dec 28, 1895, the Meiji Emperor announced Ordinance No. 167 of
 658 # Meiji Year 28 "The clause about standard time", mentioned that
 659 # Taiwan and Penghu Islands, as well as Yaeyama and Miyako Islands
 660 # (both in Okinawa) adopt the Western Standard Time which is based on
 661 # 120E. The adoption began from Jan 1, 1896. The original text can be
 662 # found on Wikisource:
 663 # http://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/標準時ニ關スル件_(公布時)
 664 # ... This could be the first adoption of time zone in Taiwan, because
 665 # during the Qing Dynasty, it seems that there was no time zone
 666 # declared officially.
 667 #
 668 # Later, in the beginning of World War II, on Sep 25, 1937, the Showa
 669 # Emperor announced Ordinance No. 529 of Showa Year 12 "The clause of
 670 # revision in the ordinance No. 167 of Meiji year 28 about standard
 671 # time", in which abolished the adoption of Western Standard Time in
 672 # western islands (listed above), which means the whole Japan
 673 # territory, including later occupations, adopt Japan Central Time
 674 # (UTC+9). The adoption began on Oct 1, 1937. The original text can
 675 # be found on Wikisource:
 676 # http://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/明治二十八年勅令第百六十七號標準時ニ關スル件中改正ノ件
 677 #
 678 # That is, the time zone of Taipei switched to UTC+9 on Oct 1, 1937.
 679 
 680 # From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2014-07-02):
 681 # I've found more evidence about when the time zone was switched from UTC+9
 682 # back to UTC+8 after WW2.  I believe it was on Sep 21, 1945.  In a document
 683 # during Japanese era [1] in which the officer told the staff to change time
 684 # zone back to Western Standard Time (UTC+8) on Sep 21.  And in another
 685 # history page of National Cheng Kung University [2], on Sep 21 there is a
 686 # note "from today, switch back to Western Standard Time".  From these two
 687 # materials, I believe that the time zone change happened on Sep 21.  And
 688 # today I have found another monthly journal called "The Astronomical Herald"
 689 # from The Astronomical Society of Japan [3] in which it mentioned the fact
 690 # that:
 691 #
 692 # 1. Standard Time of the Country (Japan) was adopted on Jan 1, 1888, using
 693 # the time at 135E (GMT+9)
 694 #
 695 # 2. Standard Time of the Country was renamed to Central Standard Time, on Jan
 696 # 1, 1898, and on the same day, the new territories Taiwan and Penghu islands,
 697 # as well as Yaeyama and Miyako islands, adopted a new time zone called
 698 # Western Standard Time, which is in GMT+8.
 699 #
 700 # 3. Western Standard Time was deprecated on Sep 30, 1937. From then all the
 701 # territories of Japan adopted the same time zone, which is Central Standard
 702 # Time.
 703 #
 704 # [1] Academica Historica, Taiwan:
 705 # http://163.29.208.22:8080/govsaleShowImage/connect_img.php?s=00101738900090036&e=00101738900090037
 706 # [2] Nat'l Cheng Kung University 70th Anniversary Special Site:
 707 # http://www.ncku.edu.tw/~ncku70/menu/001/01_01.htm
 708 # [3] Yukio Niimi, The Standard Time in Japan (1997), p.475:
 709 # http://www.asj.or.jp/geppou/archive_open/1997/pdf/19971001c.pdf
 710 
 711 # Yu-Cheng Chuang (2014-07-03):
 712 # I finally have found the real official gazette about changing back to
 713 # Western Standard Time on Sep 21 in Taiwan.  It's Taiwan Governor-General
 714 # Bulletin No. 386 in Showa 20 years (1945), published on Sep 19, 1945. [1] ...
 715 # [It] abolishes Bulletin No. 207 in Showa 12 years (1937), which is a local
 716 # bulletin in Taiwan for that Ordinance No. 529. It also mentioned that 1am on
 717 # Sep 21, 1945 will be 12am on Sep 21.  I think this bulletin is much more
 718 # official than the one I mentioned in my first mail, because it's from the
 719 # top-level government in Taiwan. If you're going to quote any resource, this
 720 # would be a good one.
 721 # [1] Taiwan Governor-General Gazette, No. 1018, Sep 19, 1945:
 722 # http://db2.th.gov.tw/db2/view/viewImg.php?imgcode=0072031018a&num=19&bgn=019&end=019&otherImg=&type=gener
 723 
 724 # From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2014-07-02):
 725 # In 1946, DST in Taiwan was from May 15 and ended on Sep 30. The info from
 726 # Central Weather Bureau website was not correct.
 727 #
 728 # Original Bulletin:
 729 # http://subtpg.tpg.gov.tw/og/image2.asp?f=03502F0AKM1AF
 730 # http://subtpg.tpg.gov.tw/og/image2.asp?f=0350300AKM1B0 (cont.)
 731 #
 732 # In 1947, DST in Taiwan was expanded to Oct 31. There is a backup of that
 733 # telegram announcement from Taiwan Province Government:
 734 #
 735 # http://subtpg.tpg.gov.tw/og/image2.asp?f=0360310AKZ431
 736 #
 737 # Here is a brief translation:
 738 #
 739 #   The Summer Time this year is adopted from midnight Apr 15 until Sep 20
 740 #   midnight. To save (energy?) consumption, we're expanding Summer Time
 741 #   adoption till Oct 31 midnight.
 742 #
 743 # The Central Weather Bureau website didn't mention that, however it can
 744 # be found from historical government announcement database.
 745 
 746 # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-03):
 747 # As per Yu-Cheng Chuang, say that Taiwan was at UT+9 from 1937-10-01
 748 # until 1945-09-21 at 01:00, overriding Shanks & Pottenger.
 749 # Likewise, use Yu-Cheng Chuang's data for DST in Taiwan.
 750 
 751 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 752 Rule    Taiwan  1946    only    -       May     15      0:00    1:00    D
 753 Rule    Taiwan  1946    only    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S
 754 Rule    Taiwan  1947    only    -       Apr     15      0:00    1:00    D
 755 Rule    Taiwan  1947    only    -       Nov     1       0:00    0       S
 756 Rule    Taiwan  1948    1951    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    D
 757 Rule    Taiwan  1948    1951    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S
 758 Rule    Taiwan  1952    only    -       Mar     1       0:00    1:00    D
 759 Rule    Taiwan  1952    1954    -       Nov     1       0:00    0       S
 760 Rule    Taiwan  1953    1959    -       Apr     1       0:00    1:00    D
 761 Rule    Taiwan  1955    1961    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S
 762 Rule    Taiwan  1960    1961    -       Jun     1       0:00    1:00    D
 763 Rule    Taiwan  1974    1975    -       Apr     1       0:00    1:00    D
 764 Rule    Taiwan  1974    1975    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S
 765 Rule    Taiwan  1979    only    -       Jul     1       0:00    1:00    D
 766 Rule    Taiwan  1979    only    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S
 767 
 768 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 769 # Taipei or Taibei or T'ai-pei
 770 Zone    Asia/Taipei     8:06:00 -       LMT     1896 Jan  1
 771                         8:00    -       JWST    1937 Oct  1
 772                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 21  1:00
 773                         8:00    Taiwan  C%sT
 774 
 775 # Macau (Macao, Aomen)
 776 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 777 Rule    Macau   1961    1962    -       Mar     Sun>=16      3:30    1:00    S
 778 Rule    Macau   1961    1964    -       Nov     Sun>=1       3:30    0       -
 779 Rule    Macau   1963    only    -       Mar     Sun>=16      0:00    1:00    S
 780 Rule    Macau   1964    only    -       Mar     Sun>=16      3:30    1:00    S
 781 Rule    Macau   1965    only    -       Mar     Sun>=16      0:00    1:00    S
 782 Rule    Macau   1965    only    -       Oct     31      0:00    0       -
 783 Rule    Macau   1966    1971    -       Apr     Sun>=16      3:30    1:00    S
 784 Rule    Macau   1966    1971    -       Oct     Sun>=16      3:30    0       -
 785 Rule    Macau   1972    1974    -       Apr     Sun>=15      0:00    1:00    S
 786 Rule    Macau   1972    1973    -       Oct     Sun>=15      0:00    0       -
 787 Rule    Macau   1974    1977    -       Oct     Sun>=15      3:30    0       -
 788 Rule    Macau   1975    1977    -       Apr     Sun>=15      3:30    1:00    S
 789 Rule    Macau   1978    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=15      0:00    1:00    S
 790 Rule    Macau   1978    1980    -       Oct     Sun>=15      0:00    0       -
 791 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 792 Zone    Asia/Macau      7:34:20 -       LMT     1912 Jan  1
 793                         8:00    Macau   MO%sT   1999 Dec 20 # return to China
 794                         8:00    PRC     C%sT
 795 
 796 
 797 ###############################################################################
 798 
 799 # Cyprus
 800 #
 801 # Milne says the Eastern Telegraph Company used 2:14:00.  Stick with LMT.
 802 #
 803 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 804 Rule    Cyprus  1975    only    -       Apr     13      0:00    1:00    S
 805 Rule    Cyprus  1975    only    -       Oct     12      0:00    0       -
 806 Rule    Cyprus  1976    only    -       May     15      0:00    1:00    S
 807 Rule    Cyprus  1976    only    -       Oct     11      0:00    0       -
 808 Rule    Cyprus  1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    S
 809 Rule    Cyprus  1977    only    -       Sep     25      0:00    0       -
 810 Rule    Cyprus  1978    only    -       Oct     2       0:00    0       -
 811 Rule    Cyprus  1979    1997    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       -
 812 Rule    Cyprus  1981    1998    -       Mar     lastSun 0:00    1:00    S
 813 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 814 Zone    Asia/Nicosia    2:13:28 -       LMT     1921 Nov 14
 815                         2:00    Cyprus  EE%sT   1998 Sep
 816                         2:00    EUAsia  EE%sT
 817 # IATA SSIM (1998-09) has Cyprus using EU rules for the first time.
 818 
 819 # Classically, Cyprus belongs to Asia; e.g. see Herodotus, Histories, I.72.
 820 # However, for various reasons many users expect to find it under Europe.
 821 Link    Asia/Nicosia    Europe/Nicosia
 822 
 823 # Georgia
 824 # From Paul Eggert (1994-11-19):
 825 # Today's _Economist_ (p 60) reports that Georgia moved its clocks forward
 826 # an hour recently, due to a law proposed by Zurab Murvanidze,
 827 # an MP who went on a hunger strike for 11 days to force discussion about it!
 828 # We have no details, but we'll guess they didn't move the clocks back in fall.
 829 #
 830 # From Mathew Englander, quoting AP (1996-10-23 13:05-04):
 831 # Instead of putting back clocks at the end of October, Georgia
 832 # will stay on daylight savings time this winter to save energy,
 833 # President Eduard Shevardnadze decreed Wednesday.
 834 #
 835 # From the BBC via Joseph S. Myers (2004-06-27):
 836 #
 837 # Georgia moved closer to Western Europe on Sunday...  The former Soviet
 838 # republic has changed its time zone back to that of Moscow.  As a result it
 839 # is now just four hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time, rather than five hours
 840 # ahead.  The switch was decreed by the pro-Western president of Georgia,
 841 # Mikheil Saakashvili, who said the change was partly prompted by the process
 842 # of integration into Europe.
 843 
 844 # From Teimuraz Abashidze (2005-11-07):
 845 # Government of Georgia ... decided to NOT CHANGE daylight savings time on
 846 # [Oct.] 30, as it was done before during last more than 10 years.
 847 # Currently, we are in fact GMT +4:00, as before 30 October it was GMT
 848 # +3:00.... The problem is, there is NO FORMAL LAW or governmental document
 849 # about it.  As far as I can find, I was told, that there is no document,
 850 # because we just DIDN'T ISSUE document about switching to winter time....
 851 # I don't know what can be done, especially knowing that some years ago our
 852 # DST rules where changed THREE TIMES during one month.
 853 
 854 # Milne 1899 says Tbilisi (Tiflis) time was 2:59:05.7.
 855 # Byalokoz 1919 says Georgia was 2:59:11.
 856 # Go with Byalokoz.
 857 
 858 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 859 Zone    Asia/Tbilisi    2:59:11 -       LMT     1880
 860                         2:59:11 -       TBMT    1924 May  2 # Tbilisi Mean Time
 861                         3:00    -       TBIT    1957 Mar    # Tbilisi Time
 862                         4:00 RussiaAsia TBI%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
 863                         3:00    1:00    TBIST   1991 Apr  9 # independence
 864                         3:00 RussiaAsia GE%sT   1992        # Georgia Time
 865                         3:00 E-EurAsia  GE%sT   1994 Sep lastSun
 866                         4:00 E-EurAsia  GE%sT   1996 Oct lastSun
 867                         4:00    1:00    GEST    1997 Mar lastSun
 868                         4:00 E-EurAsia  GE%sT   2004 Jun 27
 869                         3:00 RussiaAsia GE%sT   2005 Mar lastSun  2:00
 870                         4:00    -       GET
 871 
 872 # East Timor
 873 
 874 # See Indonesia for the 1945 transition.
 875 
 876 # From João Carrascalão, brother of the former governor of East Timor, in
 877 # East Timor may be late for its millennium
 878 # <http://etan.org/et99c/december/26-31/30ETMAY.htm> (1999-12-26/31):
 879 # Portugal tried to change the time forward in 1974 because the sun
 880 # rises too early but the suggestion raised a lot of problems with the
 881 # Timorese and I still don't think it would work today because it
 882 # conflicts with their way of life.
 883 
 884 # From Paul Eggert (2000-12-04):
 885 # We don't have any record of the above attempt.
 886 # Most likely our records are incomplete, but we have no better data.
 887 
 888 # From Manoel de Almeida e Silva, Deputy Spokesman for the UN Secretary-General
 889 # http://www.hri.org/news/world/undh/2000/00-08-16.undh.html
 890 # (2000-08-16):
 891 # The Cabinet of the East Timor Transition Administration decided
 892 # today to advance East Timor's time by one hour.  The time change,
 893 # which will be permanent, with no seasonal adjustment, will happen at
 894 # midnight on Saturday, September 16.
 895 
 896 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 897 Zone    Asia/Dili       8:22:20 -       LMT     1912 Jan  1
 898                         8:00    -       TLT     1942 Feb 21 23:00 # E Timor Time
 899                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 23
 900                         9:00    -       TLT     1976 May  3
 901                         8:00    -       WITA    2000 Sep 17  0:00
 902                         9:00    -       TLT
 903 
 904 # India
 905 
 906 # From Ian P. Beacock, in "A brief history of (modern) time", The Atlantic
 907 # http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2015/12/the-creation-of-modern-time/421419/
 908 # (2015-12-22):
 909 # In January 1906, several thousand cotton-mill workers rioted on the
 910 # outskirts of Bombay....  They were protesting the proposed abolition of
 911 # local time in favor of Indian Standard Time....  Journalists called this
 912 # dispute the "Battle of the Clocks."  It lasted nearly half a century.
 913 
 914 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 915 Zone    Asia/Kolkata    5:53:28 -       LMT     1880        # Kolkata
 916                         5:53:20 -       HMT     1941 Oct    # Howrah Mean Time?
 917                         6:30    -       BURT    1942 May 15 # Burma Time
 918                         5:30    -       IST     1942 Sep
 919                         5:30    1:00    IST     1945 Oct 15
 920                         5:30    -       IST
 921 # The following are like Asia/Kolkata:
 922 #       Andaman Is
 923 #       Lakshadweep (Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi Is)
 924 #       Nicobar Is
 925 
 926 # Indonesia
 927 #
 928 # From Paul Eggert (2014-09-06):
 929 # The 1876 Report of the Secretary of the [US] Navy, p 306 says that Batavia
 930 # civil time was 7:07:12.5; round to even for Jakarta.
 931 #
 932 # From Gwillim Law (2001-05-28), overriding Shanks & Pottenger:
 933 # http://www.sumatera-inc.com/go_to_invest/about_indonesia.asp#standtime
 934 # says that Indonesia's time zones changed on 1988-01-01.  Looking at some
 935 # time zone maps, I think that must refer to Western Borneo (Kalimantan Barat
 936 # and Kalimantan Tengah) switching from UTC+8 to UTC+7.
 937 #
 938 # From Paul Eggert (2007-03-10):
 939 # Here is another correction to Shanks & Pottenger.
 940 # JohnTWB writes that Japanese forces did not surrender control in
 941 # Indonesia until 1945-09-01 00:00 at the earliest (in Jakarta) and
 942 # other formal surrender ceremonies were September 9, 11, and 13, plus
 943 # September 12 for the regional surrender to Mountbatten in Singapore.
 944 # These would be the earliest possible times for a change.
 945 # Régimes horaires pour le monde entier, by Henri Le Corre, (Éditions
 946 # Traditionnelles, 1987, Paris) says that Java and Madura switched
 947 # from JST to UTC+07:30 on 1945-09-23, and gives 1944-09-01 for Jayapura
 948 # (Hollandia).  For now, assume all Indonesian locations other than Jayapura
 949 # switched on 1945-09-23.
 950 #
 951 # From Paul Eggert (2013-08-11):
 952 # Normally the tz database uses English-language abbreviations, but in
 953 # Indonesia it's typical to use Indonesian-language abbreviations even
 954 # when writing in English.  For example, see the English-language
 955 # summary published by the Time and Frequency Laboratory of the
 956 # Research Center for Calibration, Instrumentation and Metrology,
 957 # Indonesia, <http://time.kim.lipi.go.id/time-eng.php> (2006-09-29).
 958 # The abbreviations are:
 959 #
 960 # WIB  - UTC+7 - Waktu Indonesia Barat (Indonesia western time)
 961 # WITA - UTC+8 - Waktu Indonesia Tengah (Indonesia central time)
 962 # WIT  - UTC+9 - Waktu Indonesia Timur (Indonesia eastern time)
 963 #
 964 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 965 # Java, Sumatra
 966 Zone Asia/Jakarta       7:07:12 -       LMT     1867 Aug 10
 967 # Shanks & Pottenger say the next transition was at 1924 Jan 1 0:13,
 968 # but this must be a typo.
 969                         7:07:12 -       BMT     1923 Dec 31 23:47:12 # Batavia
 970                         7:20    -       JAVT    1932 Nov    # Java Time
 971                         7:30    -       WIB     1942 Mar 23
 972                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 23
 973                         7:30    -       WIB     1948 May
 974                         8:00    -       WIB     1950 May
 975                         7:30    -       WIB     1964
 976                         7:00    -       WIB
 977 # west and central Borneo
 978 Zone Asia/Pontianak     7:17:20 -       LMT     1908 May
 979                         7:17:20 -       PMT     1932 Nov    # Pontianak MT
 980                         7:30    -       WIB     1942 Jan 29
 981                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 23
 982                         7:30    -       WIB     1948 May
 983                         8:00    -       WIB     1950 May
 984                         7:30    -       WIB     1964
 985                         8:00    -       WITA    1988 Jan  1
 986                         7:00    -       WIB
 987 # Sulawesi, Lesser Sundas, east and south Borneo
 988 Zone Asia/Makassar      7:57:36 -       LMT     1920
 989                         7:57:36 -       MMT     1932 Nov    # Macassar MT
 990                         8:00    -       WITA    1942 Feb  9
 991                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 23
 992                         8:00    -       WITA
 993 # Maluku Islands, West Papua, Papua
 994 Zone Asia/Jayapura      9:22:48 -       LMT     1932 Nov
 995                         9:00    -       WIT     1944 Sep  1
 996                         9:30    -       ACST    1964
 997                         9:00    -       WIT
 998 
 999 # Iran
1000 
1001 # From Roozbeh Pournader (2003-03-15):
1002 # This is an English translation of what I just found (originally in Persian).
1003 # The Gregorian dates in brackets are mine:
1004 #
1005 #       Official Newspaper No. 13548-1370/6/25 [1991-09-16]
1006 #       No. 16760/T233 H                                1370/6/10 [1991-09-01]
1007 #
1008 #       The Rule About Change of the Official Time of the Country
1009 #
1010 #       The Board of Ministers, in the meeting dated 1370/5/23 [1991-08-14],
1011 #       based on the suggestion number 2221/D dated 1370/4/22 [1991-07-13]
1012 #       of the Country's Organization for Official and Employment Affairs,
1013 #       and referring to the law for equating the working hours of workers
1014 #       and officers in the whole country dated 1359/4/23 [1980-07-14], and
1015 #       for synchronizing the official times of the country, agreed that:
1016 #
1017 #       The official time of the country will should move forward one hour
1018 #       at the 24[:00] hours of the first day of Farvardin and should return
1019 #       to its previous state at the 24[:00] hours of the 30th day of
1020 #       Shahrivar.
1021 #
1022 #       First Deputy to the President - Hassan Habibi
1023 #
1024 # From personal experience, that agrees with what has been followed
1025 # for at least the last 5 years.  Before that, for a few years, the
1026 # date used was the first Thursday night of Farvardin and the last
1027 # Thursday night of Shahrivar, but I can't give exact dates....
1028 # I have also changed the abbreviations to what is considered correct
1029 # here in Iran, IRST for regular time and IRDT for daylight saving time.
1030 #
1031 # From Roozbeh Pournader (2005-04-05):
1032 # The text of the Iranian law, in effect since 1925, clearly mentions
1033 # that the true solar year is the measure, and there is no arithmetic
1034 # leap year calculation involved.  There has never been any serious
1035 # plan to change that law....
1036 #
1037 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1038 # Go with Shanks & Pottenger before Sept. 1991, and with Pournader thereafter.
1039 # I used Ed Reingold's cal-persia in GNU Emacs 21.2 to check Persian dates,
1040 # stopping after 2037 when 32-bit time_t's overflow.
1041 # That cal-persia used Birashk's approximation, which disagrees with the solar
1042 # calendar predictions for the year 2025, so I corrected those dates by hand.
1043 #
1044 # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-03-30), writing about future
1045 # discrepancies between cal-persia and the Iranian calendar:
1046 # For 2091 solar-longitude-after yields 2091-03-20 08:40:07.7 UT for
1047 # the vernal equinox and that gets so close to 12:00 some local
1048 # Iranian time that the definition of the correct location needs to be
1049 # known exactly, amongst other factors.  2157 is even closer:
1050 # 2157-03-20 08:37:15.5 UT.  But the Gregorian year 2025 should give
1051 # no interpretation problem whatsoever.  By the way, another instant
1052 # in the near future where there will be a discrepancy between
1053 # arithmetical and astronomical Iranian calendars will be in 2058:
1054 # vernal equinox on 2058-03-20 09:03:05.9 UT.  The Java version of
1055 # Reingold's/Dershowitz' calculator gives correctly the Gregorian date
1056 # 2058-03-21 for 1 Farvardin 1437 (astronomical).
1057 #
1058 # From Steffen Thorsen (2006-03-22):
1059 # Several of my users have reported that Iran will not observe DST anymore:
1060 # http://www.irna.ir/en/news/view/line-17/0603193812164948.htm
1061 #
1062 # From Reuters (2007-09-16), with a heads-up from Jesper Nørgaard Welen:
1063 # ... the Guardian Council ... approved a law on Sunday to re-introduce
1064 # daylight saving time ...
1065 # http://uk.reuters.com/article/oilRpt/idUKBLA65048420070916
1066 #
1067 # From Roozbeh Pournader (2007-11-05):
1068 # This is quoted from Official Gazette of the Islamic Republic of
1069 # Iran, Volume 63, No. 18242, dated Tuesday 1386/6/24
1070 # [2007-10-16]. I am doing the best translation I can:...
1071 # The official time of the country will be moved forward for one hour
1072 # on the 24 hours of the first day of the month of Farvardin and will
1073 # be changed back to its previous state on the 24 hours of the
1074 # thirtieth day of Shahrivar.
1075 #
1076 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1077 Rule    Iran    1978    1980    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
1078 Rule    Iran    1978    only    -       Oct     21      0:00    0       S
1079 Rule    Iran    1979    only    -       Sep     19      0:00    0       S
1080 Rule    Iran    1980    only    -       Sep     23      0:00    0       S
1081 Rule    Iran    1991    only    -       May      3      0:00    1:00    D
1082 Rule    Iran    1992    1995    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    D
1083 Rule    Iran    1991    1995    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
1084 Rule    Iran    1996    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
1085 Rule    Iran    1996    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       S
1086 Rule    Iran    1997    1999    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    D
1087 Rule    Iran    1997    1999    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
1088 Rule    Iran    2000    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
1089 Rule    Iran    2000    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       S
1090 Rule    Iran    2001    2003    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    D
1091 Rule    Iran    2001    2003    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
1092 Rule    Iran    2004    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
1093 Rule    Iran    2004    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       S
1094 Rule    Iran    2005    only    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    D
1095 Rule    Iran    2005    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
1096 Rule    Iran    2008    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
1097 Rule    Iran    2008    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       S
1098 Rule    Iran    2009    2011    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    D
1099 Rule    Iran    2009    2011    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
1100 Rule    Iran    2012    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
1101 Rule    Iran    2012    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       S
1102 Rule    Iran    2013    2015    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    D
1103 Rule    Iran    2013    2015    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
1104 Rule    Iran    2016    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
1105 Rule    Iran    2016    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       S
1106 Rule    Iran    2017    2019    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    D
1107 Rule    Iran    2017    2019    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
1108 Rule    Iran    2020    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
1109 Rule    Iran    2020    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       S
1110 Rule    Iran    2021    2023    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    D
1111 Rule    Iran    2021    2023    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
1112 Rule    Iran    2024    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
1113 Rule    Iran    2024    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       S
1114 Rule    Iran    2025    2027    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    D
1115 Rule    Iran    2025    2027    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
1116 Rule    Iran    2028    2029    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
1117 Rule    Iran    2028    2029    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       S
1118 Rule    Iran    2030    2031    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    D
1119 Rule    Iran    2030    2031    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
1120 Rule    Iran    2032    2033    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
1121 Rule    Iran    2032    2033    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       S
1122 Rule    Iran    2034    2035    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    D
1123 Rule    Iran    2034    2035    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
1124 #
1125 # The following rules are approximations starting in the year 2038.
1126 # These are the best post-2037 approximations available, given the
1127 # restrictions of a single rule using a Gregorian-based data format.
1128 # At some point this table will need to be extended, though quite
1129 # possibly Iran will change the rules first.
1130 Rule    Iran    2036    max     -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
1131 Rule    Iran    2036    max     -       Sep     21      0:00    0       S
1132 
1133 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1134 Zone    Asia/Tehran     3:25:44 -       LMT     1916
1135                         3:25:44 -       TMT     1946     # Tehran Mean Time
1136                         3:30    -       IRST    1977 Nov
1137                         4:00    Iran    IR%sT   1979
1138                         3:30    Iran    IR%sT
1139 
1140 
1141 # Iraq
1142 #
1143 # From Jonathan Lennox (2000-06-12):
1144 # An article in this week's Economist ("Inside the Saddam-free zone", p. 50 in
1145 # the U.S. edition) on the Iraqi Kurds contains a paragraph:
1146 # "The three northern provinces ... switched their clocks this spring and
1147 # are an hour ahead of Baghdad."
1148 #
1149 # But Rives McDow (2000-06-18) quotes a contact in Iraqi-Kurdistan as follows:
1150 # In the past, some Kurdish nationalists, as a protest to the Iraqi
1151 # Government, did not adhere to daylight saving time.  They referred
1152 # to daylight saving as Saddam time.  But, as of today, the time zone
1153 # in Iraqi-Kurdistan is on standard time with Baghdad, Iraq.
1154 #
1155 # So we'll ignore the Economist's claim.
1156 
1157 # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-03-10):
1158 # The cabinet in Iraq abolished DST last week, according to the following
1159 # news sources (in Arabic):
1160 # http://www.aljeeran.net/wesima_articles/news-20080305-98602.html
1161 # http://www.aswataliraq.info/look/article.tpl?id=2047&IdLanguage=17&IdPublication=4&NrArticle=71743&NrIssue=1&NrSection=10
1162 #
1163 # We have published a short article in English about the change:
1164 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/iraq-dumps-daylight-saving.html
1165 
1166 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1167 Rule    Iraq    1982    only    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    D
1168 Rule    Iraq    1982    1984    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S
1169 Rule    Iraq    1983    only    -       Mar     31      0:00    1:00    D
1170 Rule    Iraq    1984    1985    -       Apr     1       0:00    1:00    D
1171 Rule    Iraq    1985    1990    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00s   0       S
1172 Rule    Iraq    1986    1990    -       Mar     lastSun 1:00s   1:00    D
1173 # IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says Apr 1 12:01am UTC; guess the ':01' is a typo.
1174 # Shanks & Pottenger say Iraq did not observe DST 1992/1997; ignore this.
1175 #
1176 Rule    Iraq    1991    2007    -       Apr      1      3:00s   1:00    D
1177 Rule    Iraq    1991    2007    -       Oct      1      3:00s   0       S
1178 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1179 Zone    Asia/Baghdad    2:57:40 -       LMT     1890
1180                         2:57:36 -       BMT     1918     # Baghdad Mean Time?
1181                         3:00    -       AST     1982 May
1182                         3:00    Iraq    A%sT
1183 
1184 
1185 ###############################################################################
1186 
1187 # Israel
1188 
1189 # From Ephraim Silverberg (2001-01-11):
1190 #
1191 # I coined "IST/IDT" circa 1988.  Until then there were three
1192 # different abbreviations in use:
1193 #
1194 # JST  Jerusalem Standard Time [Danny Braniss, Hebrew University]
1195 # IZT  Israel Zonal (sic) Time [Prof. Haim Papo, Technion]
1196 # EEST Eastern Europe Standard Time [used by almost everyone else]
1197 #
1198 # Since timezones should be called by country and not capital cities,
1199 # I ruled out JST.  As Israel is in Asia Minor and not Eastern Europe,
1200 # EEST was equally unacceptable.  Since "zonal" was not compatible with
1201 # any other timezone abbreviation, I felt that 'IST' was the way to go
1202 # and, indeed, it has received almost universal acceptance in timezone
1203 # settings in Israeli computers.
1204 #
1205 # In any case, I am happy to share timezone abbreviations with India,
1206 # high on my favorite-country list (and not only because my wife's
1207 # family is from India).
1208 
1209 # From Shanks & Pottenger:
1210 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1211 Rule    Zion    1940    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    D
1212 Rule    Zion    1942    1944    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       S
1213 Rule    Zion    1943    only    -       Apr      1      2:00    1:00    D
1214 Rule    Zion    1944    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    D
1215 Rule    Zion    1945    only    -       Apr     16      0:00    1:00    D
1216 Rule    Zion    1945    only    -       Nov      1      2:00    0       S
1217 Rule    Zion    1946    only    -       Apr     16      2:00    1:00    D
1218 Rule    Zion    1946    only    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       S
1219 Rule    Zion    1948    only    -       May     23      0:00    2:00    DD
1220 Rule    Zion    1948    only    -       Sep      1      0:00    1:00    D
1221 Rule    Zion    1948    1949    -       Nov      1      2:00    0       S
1222 Rule    Zion    1949    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D
1223 Rule    Zion    1950    only    -       Apr     16      0:00    1:00    D
1224 Rule    Zion    1950    only    -       Sep     15      3:00    0       S
1225 Rule    Zion    1951    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    D
1226 Rule    Zion    1951    only    -       Nov     11      3:00    0       S
1227 Rule    Zion    1952    only    -       Apr     20      2:00    1:00    D
1228 Rule    Zion    1952    only    -       Oct     19      3:00    0       S
1229 Rule    Zion    1953    only    -       Apr     12      2:00    1:00    D
1230 Rule    Zion    1953    only    -       Sep     13      3:00    0       S
1231 Rule    Zion    1954    only    -       Jun     13      0:00    1:00    D
1232 Rule    Zion    1954    only    -       Sep     12      0:00    0       S
1233 Rule    Zion    1955    only    -       Jun     11      2:00    1:00    D
1234 Rule    Zion    1955    only    -       Sep     11      0:00    0       S
1235 Rule    Zion    1956    only    -       Jun      3      0:00    1:00    D
1236 Rule    Zion    1956    only    -       Sep     30      3:00    0       S
1237 Rule    Zion    1957    only    -       Apr     29      2:00    1:00    D
1238 Rule    Zion    1957    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
1239 Rule    Zion    1974    only    -       Jul      7      0:00    1:00    D
1240 Rule    Zion    1974    only    -       Oct     13      0:00    0       S
1241 Rule    Zion    1975    only    -       Apr     20      0:00    1:00    D
1242 Rule    Zion    1975    only    -       Aug     31      0:00    0       S
1243 Rule    Zion    1985    only    -       Apr     14      0:00    1:00    D
1244 Rule    Zion    1985    only    -       Sep     15      0:00    0       S
1245 Rule    Zion    1986    only    -       May     18      0:00    1:00    D
1246 Rule    Zion    1986    only    -       Sep      7      0:00    0       S
1247 Rule    Zion    1987    only    -       Apr     15      0:00    1:00    D
1248 Rule    Zion    1987    only    -       Sep     13      0:00    0       S
1249 
1250 # From Avigdor Finkelstein (2014-03-05):
1251 # I check the Parliament (Knesset) records and there it's stated that the
1252 # [1988] transition should take place on Saturday night, when the Sabbath
1253 # ends and changes to Sunday.
1254 Rule    Zion    1988    only    -       Apr     10      0:00    1:00    D
1255 Rule    Zion    1988    only    -       Sep      4      0:00    0       S
1256 
1257 # From Ephraim Silverberg
1258 # (1997-03-04, 1998-03-16, 1998-12-28, 2000-01-17, 2000-07-25, 2004-12-22,
1259 # and 2005-02-17):
1260 
1261 # According to the Office of the Secretary General of the Ministry of
1262 # Interior, there is NO set rule for Daylight-Savings/Standard time changes.
1263 # One thing is entrenched in law, however: that there must be at least 150
1264 # days of daylight savings time annually.  From 1993-1998, the change to
1265 # daylight savings time was on a Friday morning from midnight IST to
1266 # 1 a.m IDT; up until 1998, the change back to standard time was on a
1267 # Saturday night from midnight daylight savings time to 11 p.m. standard
1268 # time.  1996 is an exception to this rule where the change back to standard
1269 # time took place on Sunday night instead of Saturday night to avoid
1270 # conflicts with the Jewish New Year.  In 1999, the change to
1271 # daylight savings time was still on a Friday morning but from
1272 # 2 a.m. IST to 3 a.m. IDT; furthermore, the change back to standard time
1273 # was also on a Friday morning from 2 a.m. IDT to 1 a.m. IST for
1274 # 1999 only.  In the year 2000, the change to daylight savings time was
1275 # similar to 1999, but although the change back will be on a Friday, it
1276 # will take place from 1 a.m. IDT to midnight IST.  Starting in 2001, all
1277 # changes to/from will take place at 1 a.m. old time, but now there is no
1278 # rule as to what day of the week it will take place in as the start date
1279 # (except in 2003) is the night after the Passover Seder (i.e. the eve
1280 # of the 16th of Nisan in the lunar Hebrew calendar) and the end date
1281 # (except in 2002) is three nights before Yom Kippur [Day of Atonement]
1282 # (the eve of the 7th of Tishrei in the lunar Hebrew calendar).
1283 
1284 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1285 Rule    Zion    1989    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    D
1286 Rule    Zion    1989    only    -       Sep      3      0:00    0       S
1287 Rule    Zion    1990    only    -       Mar     25      0:00    1:00    D
1288 Rule    Zion    1990    only    -       Aug     26      0:00    0       S
1289 Rule    Zion    1991    only    -       Mar     24      0:00    1:00    D
1290 Rule    Zion    1991    only    -       Sep      1      0:00    0       S
1291 Rule    Zion    1992    only    -       Mar     29      0:00    1:00    D
1292 Rule    Zion    1992    only    -       Sep      6      0:00    0       S
1293 Rule    Zion    1993    only    -       Apr      2      0:00    1:00    D
1294 Rule    Zion    1993    only    -       Sep      5      0:00    0       S
1295 
1296 # The dates for 1994-1995 were obtained from Office of the Spokeswoman for the
1297 # Ministry of Interior, Jerusalem, Israel.  The spokeswoman can be reached by
1298 # calling the office directly at 972-2-6701447 or 972-2-6701448.
1299 
1300 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1301 Rule    Zion    1994    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    D
1302 Rule    Zion    1994    only    -       Aug     28      0:00    0       S
1303 Rule    Zion    1995    only    -       Mar     31      0:00    1:00    D
1304 Rule    Zion    1995    only    -       Sep      3      0:00    0       S
1305 
1306 # The dates for 1996 were determined by the Minister of Interior of the
1307 # time, Haim Ramon.  The official announcement regarding 1996-1998
1308 # (with the dates for 1997-1998 no longer being relevant) can be viewed at:
1309 #
1310 #   ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/1996-1998.ramon.ps.gz
1311 #
1312 # The dates for 1997-1998 were altered by his successor, Rabbi Eli Suissa.
1313 #
1314 # The official announcements for the years 1997-1999 can be viewed at:
1315 #
1316 #   ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/YYYY.ps.gz
1317 #
1318 #       where YYYY is the relevant year.
1319 
1320 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1321 Rule    Zion    1996    only    -       Mar     15      0:00    1:00    D
1322 Rule    Zion    1996    only    -       Sep     16      0:00    0       S
1323 Rule    Zion    1997    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
1324 Rule    Zion    1997    only    -       Sep     14      0:00    0       S
1325 Rule    Zion    1998    only    -       Mar     20      0:00    1:00    D
1326 Rule    Zion    1998    only    -       Sep      6      0:00    0       S
1327 Rule    Zion    1999    only    -       Apr      2      2:00    1:00    D
1328 Rule    Zion    1999    only    -       Sep      3      2:00    0       S
1329 
1330 # The Knesset Interior Committee has changed the dates for 2000 for
1331 # the third time in just over a year and have set new dates for the
1332 # years 2001-2004 as well.
1333 #
1334 # The official announcement for the start date of 2000 can be viewed at:
1335 #
1336 #       ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/2000-start.ps.gz
1337 #
1338 # The official announcement for the end date of 2000 and the dates
1339 # for the years 2001-2004 can be viewed at:
1340 #
1341 #       ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/2000-2004.ps.gz
1342 
1343 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1344 Rule    Zion    2000    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D
1345 Rule    Zion    2000    only    -       Oct      6      1:00    0       S
1346 Rule    Zion    2001    only    -       Apr      9      1:00    1:00    D
1347 Rule    Zion    2001    only    -       Sep     24      1:00    0       S
1348 Rule    Zion    2002    only    -       Mar     29      1:00    1:00    D
1349 Rule    Zion    2002    only    -       Oct      7      1:00    0       S
1350 Rule    Zion    2003    only    -       Mar     28      1:00    1:00    D
1351 Rule    Zion    2003    only    -       Oct      3      1:00    0       S
1352 Rule    Zion    2004    only    -       Apr      7      1:00    1:00    D
1353 Rule    Zion    2004    only    -       Sep     22      1:00    0       S
1354 
1355 # The proposed law agreed upon by the Knesset Interior Committee on
1356 # 2005-02-14 is that, for 2005 and beyond, DST starts at 02:00 the
1357 # last Friday before April 2nd (i.e. the last Friday in March or April
1358 # 1st itself if it falls on a Friday) and ends at 02:00 on the Saturday
1359 # night _before_ the fast of Yom Kippur.
1360 #
1361 # Those who can read Hebrew can view the announcement at:
1362 #
1363 #       ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/2005+beyond.ps
1364 
1365 # From Paul Eggert (2012-10-26):
1366 # I used Ephraim Silverberg's dst-israel.el program
1367 # <ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/software/dst-israel.el> (2005-02-20)
1368 # along with Ed Reingold's cal-hebrew in GNU Emacs 21.4,
1369 # to generate the transitions from 2005 through 2012.
1370 # (I replaced "lastFri" with "Fri>=26" by hand.)
1371 # The spring transitions all correspond to the following Rule:
1372 #
1373 # Rule  Zion    2005    2012    -       Mar     Fri>=26      2:00    1:00    D
1374 #
1375 # but older zic implementations (e.g., Solaris 8) do not support
1376 # "Fri>=26" to mean April 1 in years like 2005, so for now we list the
1377 # springtime transitions explicitly.
1378 
1379 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1380 Rule    Zion    2005    only    -       Apr      1      2:00    1:00    D
1381 Rule    Zion    2005    only    -       Oct      9      2:00    0       S
1382 Rule    Zion    2006    2010    -       Mar     Fri>=26      2:00    1:00    D
1383 Rule    Zion    2006    only    -       Oct      1      2:00    0       S
1384 Rule    Zion    2007    only    -       Sep     16      2:00    0       S
1385 Rule    Zion    2008    only    -       Oct      5      2:00    0       S
1386 Rule    Zion    2009    only    -       Sep     27      2:00    0       S
1387 Rule    Zion    2010    only    -       Sep     12      2:00    0       S
1388 Rule    Zion    2011    only    -       Apr      1      2:00    1:00    D
1389 Rule    Zion    2011    only    -       Oct      2      2:00    0       S
1390 Rule    Zion    2012    only    -       Mar     Fri>=26      2:00    1:00    D
1391 Rule    Zion    2012    only    -       Sep     23      2:00    0       S
1392 
1393 # From Ephraim Silverberg (2013-06-27):
1394 # On June 23, 2013, the Israeli government approved changes to the
1395 # Time Decree Law.  The next day, the changes passed the First Reading
1396 # in the Knesset.  The law is expected to pass the Second and Third
1397 # (final) Readings by the beginning of September 2013.
1398 #
1399 # As of 2013, DST starts at 02:00 on the Friday before the last Sunday
1400 # in March.  DST ends at 02:00 on the last Sunday of October.
1401 
1402 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1403 Rule    Zion    2013    max     -       Mar     Fri>=23      2:00    1:00    D
1404 Rule    Zion    2013    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1405 
1406 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1407 Zone    Asia/Jerusalem  2:20:54 -       LMT     1880
1408                         2:20:40 -       JMT     1918 # Jerusalem Mean Time?
1409                         2:00    Zion    I%sT
1410 
1411 
1412 
1413 ###############################################################################
1414 
1415 # Japan
1416 
1417 # '9:00' and 'JST' is from Guy Harris.
1418 
1419 # From Paul Eggert (1995-03-06):
1420 # Today's _Asahi Evening News_ (page 4) reports that Japan had
1421 # daylight saving between 1948 and 1951, but "the system was discontinued
1422 # because the public believed it would lead to longer working hours."
1423 
1424 # From Mayumi Negishi in the 2005-08-10 Japan Times:
1425 # http://www.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/getarticle.pl5?nn20050810f2.htm
1426 # Occupation authorities imposed daylight-saving time on Japan on
1427 # [1948-05-01]....  But lack of prior debate and the execution of
1428 # daylight-saving time just three days after the bill was passed generated
1429 # deep hatred of the concept....  The Diet unceremoniously passed a bill to
1430 # dump the unpopular system in October 1951, less than a month after the San
1431 # Francisco Peace Treaty was signed.  (A government poll in 1951 showed 53%
1432 # of the Japanese wanted to scrap daylight-saving time, as opposed to 30% who
1433 # wanted to keep it.)
1434 
1435 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1436 # Shanks & Pottenger write that DST in Japan during those years was as follows:
1437 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1438 Rule    Japan   1948    only    -       May     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
1439 Rule    Japan   1948    1951    -       Sep     Sat>=8       2:00    0       S
1440 Rule    Japan   1949    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
1441 Rule    Japan   1950    1951    -       May     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
1442 # but the only locations using it (for birth certificates, presumably, since
1443 # their audience is astrologers) were US military bases.  For now, assume
1444 # that for most purposes daylight-saving time was observed; otherwise, what
1445 # would have been the point of the 1951 poll?
1446 
1447 # From Hideyuki Suzuki (1998-11-09):
1448 # 'Tokyo' usually stands for the former location of Tokyo Astronomical
1449 # Observatory: 139 degrees 44' 40.90" E (9h 18m 58.727s),
1450 # 35 degrees 39' 16.0" N.
1451 # This data is from 'Rika Nenpyou (Chronological Scientific Tables) 1996'
1452 # edited by National Astronomical Observatory of Japan....
1453 # JST (Japan Standard Time) has been used since 1888-01-01 00:00 (JST).
1454 # The law is enacted on 1886-07-07.
1455 
1456 # From Hideyuki Suzuki (1998-11-16):
1457 # The ordinance No. 51 (1886) established "standard time" in Japan,
1458 # which stands for the time on 135 degrees E.
1459 # In the ordinance No. 167 (1895), "standard time" was renamed to "central
1460 # standard time".  And the same ordinance also established "western standard
1461 # time", which stands for the time on 120 degrees E....  But "western standard
1462 # time" was abolished in the ordinance No. 529 (1937).  In the ordinance No.
1463 # 167, there is no mention regarding for what place western standard time is
1464 # standard....
1465 #
1466 # I wrote "ordinance" above, but I don't know how to translate.
1467 # In Japanese it's "chokurei", which means ordinance from emperor.
1468 
1469 # From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2013-07-12):
1470 # ...the Meiji Emperor announced Ordinance No. 167 of Meiji Year 28 "The clause
1471 # about standard time" ... The adoption began from Jan 1, 1896.
1472 # http://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/標準時ニ關スル件_(公布時)
1473 #
1474 # ...the Showa Emperor announced Ordinance No. 529 of Showa Year 12 ... which
1475 # means the whole Japan territory, including later occupations, adopt Japan
1476 # Central Time (UTC+9). The adoption began on Oct 1, 1937.
1477 # http://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/明治二十八年勅令第百六十七號標準時ニ關スル件中改正ノ件
1478 
1479 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1480 Zone    Asia/Tokyo      9:18:59 -       LMT     1887 Dec 31 15:00u
1481                         9:00    -       JST     1896 Jan  1
1482                         9:00    -       JCST    1937 Oct  1
1483                         9:00    Japan   J%sT
1484 # Since 1938, all Japanese possessions have been like Asia/Tokyo.
1485 
1486 # Jordan
1487 #
1488 # From <http://star.arabia.com/990701/JO9.html>
1489 # Jordan Week (1999-07-01) via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
1490 # Clocks in Jordan were forwarded one hour on Wednesday at midnight,
1491 # in accordance with the government's decision to implement summer time
1492 # all year round.
1493 #
1494 # From <http://star.arabia.com/990930/JO9.html>
1495 # Jordan Week (1999-09-30) via Steffen Thorsen (1999-11-09):
1496 # Winter time starts today Thursday, 30 September. Clocks will be turned back
1497 # by one hour.  This is the latest government decision and it's final!
1498 # The decision was taken because of the increase in working hours in
1499 # government's departments from six to seven hours.
1500 #
1501 # From Paul Eggert (2005-11-22):
1502 # Starting 2003 transitions are from Steffen Thorsen's web site timeanddate.com.
1503 #
1504 # From Steffen Thorsen (2005-11-23):
1505 # For Jordan I have received multiple independent user reports every year
1506 # about DST end dates, as the end-rule is different every year.
1507 #
1508 # From Steffen Thorsen (2006-10-01), after a heads-up from Hilal Malawi:
1509 # http://www.petranews.gov.jo/nepras/2006/Sep/05/4000.htm
1510 # "Jordan will switch to winter time on Friday, October 27".
1511 #
1512 
1513 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-04-02):
1514 # This single one might be good enough, (2009-03-24, Arabic):
1515 # http://petra.gov.jo/Artical.aspx?Lng=2&Section=8&Artical=95279
1516 #
1517 # Google's translation:
1518 #
1519 # > The Council of Ministers decided in 2002 to adopt the principle of timely
1520 # > submission of the summer at 60 minutes as of midnight on the last Thursday
1521 # > of the month of March of each year.
1522 #
1523 # So - this means the midnight between Thursday and Friday since 2002.
1524 
1525 # From Arthur David Olson (2009-04-06):
1526 # We still have Jordan switching to DST on Thursdays in 2000 and 2001.
1527 
1528 # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-10-25):
1529 # Yesterday the government in Jordan announced that they will not
1530 # switch back to standard time this winter, so the will stay on DST
1531 # until about the same time next year (at least).
1532 # http://www.petra.gov.jo/Public_News/Nws_NewsDetails.aspx?NewsID=88950
1533 
1534 # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-12-11):
1535 # Jordan Times and other sources say that Jordan is going back to
1536 # UTC+2 on 2013-12-19 at midnight:
1537 # http://jordantimes.com/govt-decides-to-switch-back-to-wintertime
1538 # Official, in Arabic:
1539 # http://www.petra.gov.jo/public_news/Nws_NewsDetails.aspx?Menu_ID=&Site_Id=2&lang=1&NewsID=133230&CatID=14
1540 # ... Our background/permalink about it
1541 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/jordan-reverses-dst-decision.html
1542 # ...
1543 # http://www.petra.gov.jo/Public_News/Nws_NewsDetails.aspx?lang=2&site_id=1&NewsID=133313&Type=P
1544 # ... says midnight for the coming one and 1:00 for the ones in the future
1545 # (and they will use DST again next year, using the normal schedule).
1546 
1547 # From Paul Eggert (2013-12-11):
1548 # As Steffen suggested, consider the past 21-month experiment to be DST.
1549 
1550 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1551 Rule    Jordan  1973    only    -       Jun     6       0:00    1:00    S
1552 Rule    Jordan  1973    1975    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       -
1553 Rule    Jordan  1974    1977    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    S
1554 Rule    Jordan  1976    only    -       Nov     1       0:00    0       -
1555 Rule    Jordan  1977    only    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       -
1556 Rule    Jordan  1978    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    S
1557 Rule    Jordan  1978    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       -
1558 Rule    Jordan  1985    only    -       Apr     1       0:00    1:00    S
1559 Rule    Jordan  1985    only    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       -
1560 Rule    Jordan  1986    1988    -       Apr     Fri>=1       0:00    1:00    S
1561 Rule    Jordan  1986    1990    -       Oct     Fri>=1       0:00    0       -
1562 Rule    Jordan  1989    only    -       May     8       0:00    1:00    S
1563 Rule    Jordan  1990    only    -       Apr     27      0:00    1:00    S
1564 Rule    Jordan  1991    only    -       Apr     17      0:00    1:00    S
1565 Rule    Jordan  1991    only    -       Sep     27      0:00    0       -
1566 Rule    Jordan  1992    only    -       Apr     10      0:00    1:00    S
1567 Rule    Jordan  1992    1993    -       Oct     Fri>=1       0:00    0       -
1568 Rule    Jordan  1993    1998    -       Apr     Fri>=1       0:00    1:00    S
1569 Rule    Jordan  1994    only    -       Sep     Fri>=15      0:00    0       -
1570 Rule    Jordan  1995    1998    -       Sep     Fri>=15      0:00s   0       -
1571 Rule    Jordan  1999    only    -       Jul      1      0:00s   1:00    S
1572 Rule    Jordan  1999    2002    -       Sep     lastFri 0:00s   0       -
1573 Rule    Jordan  2000    2001    -       Mar     lastThu 0:00s   1:00    S
1574 Rule    Jordan  2002    2012    -       Mar     lastThu 24:00   1:00    S
1575 Rule    Jordan  2003    only    -       Oct     24      0:00s   0       -
1576 Rule    Jordan  2004    only    -       Oct     15      0:00s   0       -
1577 Rule    Jordan  2005    only    -       Sep     lastFri 0:00s   0       -
1578 Rule    Jordan  2006    2011    -       Oct     lastFri 0:00s   0       -
1579 Rule    Jordan  2013    only    -       Dec     20      0:00    0       -
1580 Rule    Jordan  2014    max     -       Mar     lastThu 24:00   1:00    S
1581 Rule    Jordan  2014    max     -       Oct     lastFri 0:00s   0       -
1582 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1583 Zone    Asia/Amman      2:23:44 -       LMT     1931
1584                         2:00    Jordan  EE%sT
1585 
1586 
1587 # Kazakhstan
1588 

















1589 # From Kazakhstan Embassy's News Bulletin No. 11
1590 # <http://www.kazsociety.org.uk/news/2005/03/30.htm> (2005-03-21):
1591 # The Government of Kazakhstan passed a resolution March 15 abolishing
1592 # daylight saving time citing lack of economic benefits and health
1593 # complications coupled with a decrease in productivity.
1594 #
1595 # From Branislav Kojic (in Astana) via Gwillim Law (2005-06-28):
1596 # ... what happened was that the former Kazakhstan Eastern time zone
1597 # was "blended" with the Central zone.  Therefore, Kazakhstan now has
1598 # two time zones, and difference between them is one hour.  The zone
1599 # closer to UTC is the former Western zone (probably still called the
1600 # same), encompassing four provinces in the west: Aqtobe, Atyrau,
1601 # Mangghystau, and West Kazakhstan.  The other zone encompasses
1602 # everything else....  I guess that would make Kazakhstan time zones
1603 # de jure UTC+5 and UTC+6 respectively.
1604 
1605 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-27) ([*] means see later comments below):
1606 # Review of the linked documents from http://adilet.zan.kz/
1607 # produced the following data for post-1991 Kazakhstan:
1608 #
1609 # 0. Act of the Cabinet of Ministers of the USSR
1610 # from 1991-02-04 No. 20
1611 # http://pravo.gov.ru/proxy/ips/?docbody=&nd=102010545
1612 # removed the extra hour ("decree time") on the territory of the USSR
1613 # starting with the last Sunday of March 1991.
1614 # It also allowed (but not mandated) Kazakh SSR, Kirghiz SSR, Tajik SSR,
1615 # Turkmen SSR and Uzbek SSR to not have "summer" time.
1616 #
1617 # The 1992-01-13 act also refers to the act of the Cabinet of Ministers
1618 # of the Kazakh SSR from 1991-03-20 No. 170 "About the act of the Cabinet
1619 # of Ministers of the USSR from 1991-02-04 No. 20" but I didn't found its
1620 # text.
1621 #
1622 # According to Izvestia newspaper No. 68 (23334) from 1991-03-20
1623 # (page 6; available at http://libinfo.org/newsr/newsr2574.djvu via
1624 # http://libinfo.org/index.php?id=58564) on 1991-03-31 at 2:00 during
1625 # transition to "summer" time:
1626 # Republic of Georgia, Latvian SSR, Lithuanian SSR, SSR Moldova,
1627 # Estonian SSR; Komi ASSR; Kaliningrad oblast; Nenets autonomous okrug
1628 # were to move clocks 1 hour forward.
1629 # Kazakh SSR (excluding Uralsk oblast); Republic of Kyrgyzstan, Tajik
1630 # SSR; Andijan, Jizzakh, Namangan, Sirdarya, Tashkent, Fergana oblasts
1631 # of the Uzbek SSR were to move clocks 1 hour backwards.
1632 # Other territories were to not move clocks.
1633 # When the "summer" time would end on 1991-09-29, clocks were to be
1634 # moved 1 hour backwards on the territory of the USSR excluding
1635 # Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, Uzbekistan, Turkmenia, Tajikistan.
1636 #
1637 # Apparently there were last minute changes. Apparently Kazakh act No. 170
1638 # was one of such changes.
1639 #
1640 # https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Декретное время
1641 # claims that Sovetskaya Rossiya newspaper on 1991-03-29 published that
1642 # Nenets autonomous okrug, Komi and Kazakhstan (excluding Uralsk oblast)
1643 # were to not move clocks and Uralsk oblast was to move clocks
1644 # forward; on 1991-09-29 Kazakhstan was to move clocks backwards.
1645 # (Probably there were changes even after that publication. There is an
1646 # article claiming that Kaliningrad oblast decided on 1991-03-29 to not
1647 # move clocks.)
1648 #
1649 # This implies that on 1991-03-31 Asia/Oral remained on +04/+05 while
1650 # the rest of Kazakhstan switched from +06/+07 to +05/06 or from +05/06
1651 # to +04/+05. It's unclear how Kzyl-Orda oblast moved into the fifth
1652 # time belt. (By switching from +04/+05 to +05/+06 on 1991-09-29?) ...
1653 #
1654 # 1. Act of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Kazakhstan
1655 # from 1992-01-13 No. 28
1656 # http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P920000028_
1657 # (text includes modification from the 1996 act)
1658 # introduced new rules for calculation of time, mirroring Russian
1659 # 1992-01-08 act.  It specified that time would be calculated
1660 # according to time belts plus extra hour ("decree time"), moved clocks
1661 # on the whole territory of Kazakhstan 1 hour forward on 1992-01-19 at
1662 # 2:00, specified DST rules.  It acknowledged that Kazakhstan was
1663 # located in the fourth and the fifth time belts and specified the
1664 # border between them to be located east of Kustanay and Aktyubinsk
1665 # oblasts (notably including Turgai and Kzyl-Orda oblasts into the fifth
1666 # time belt).
1667 #
1668 # This means switch on 1992-01-19 at 2:00 from +04/+05 to +05/+06 for
1669 # Asia/Aqtau, Asia/Aqtobe, Asia/Oral, Atyrau and Kustanay oblasts; from
1670 # +05/+06 to +06/+07 for Asia/Almaty and Asia/Qyzylorda (and Arkalyk) [*]....
1671 #
1672 # 2. Act of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Kazakhstan
1673 # from 1992-03-27 No. 284
1674 # http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P920000284_
1675 # cancels extra hour ("decree time") for Uralsk and Kzyl-Orda oblasts
1676 # since the last Sunday of March 1992, while keeping them in the fourth
1677 # and the fifth time belts respectively.
1678 #
1679 # 3. Order of the Prime Minister of the Republic of Kazakhstan
1680 # from 1994-09-23 No. 384
1681 # http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/R940000384_
1682 # cancels the extra hour ("decree time") on the territory of Mangystau
1683 # oblast since the last Sunday of September 1994 (saying that time on
1684 # the territory would correspond to the third time belt as a
1685 # result)....
1686 #
1687 # 4. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan
1688 # from 1996-05-08 No. 575
1689 # http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P960000575_
1690 # amends the 1992-01-13 act to end summer time in October instead
1691 # of September, mirroring identical Russian change from 1996-04-23 act.
1692 #
1693 # 5. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan
1694 # from 1999-03-26 No. 305
1695 # http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P990000305_
1696 # cancels the extra hour ("decree time") for Atyrau oblast since the
1697 # last Sunday of March 1999 while retaining the oblast in the fourth
1698 # time belt.
1699 #
1700 # This means change from +05/+06 to +04/+05.
1701 #
1702 # There is no zone for Atyrau currently (listed under Asia/Aqtau in
1703 # zone1970.tab).[*]
1704 #
1705 # 6. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan
1706 # from 2000-11-23 No. 1749
1707 # http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/archive/docs/P000001749_/23.11.2000
1708 # replaces the previous five documents.
1709 #
1710 # The only changes I noticed are in definition of the border between the
1711 # fourth and the fifth time belts.  They account for changes in spelling
1712 # and administrative division (splitting of Turgai oblast in 1997
1713 # probably changed time in territories incorporated into Kostanay oblast
1714 # (including Arkalyk) from +06/+07 to +05/+06) and move Kyzylorda oblast
1715 # from being in the fifth time belt and not using decree time into the
1716 # fourth time belt (no change in practice).[*]
1717 #
1718 # 7. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan
1719 # from 2003-12-29 No. 1342
1720 # http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P030001342_
1721 # modified the 2000-11-23 act.  No relevant changes, apparently.
1722 #
1723 # 8. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan
1724 # from 2004-07-20 No. 775
1725 # http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/archive/docs/P040000775_/20.07.2004
1726 # modified the 2000-11-23 act to move Kostanay and Kyzylorda oblasts into
1727 # the fifth time belt and add Aktobe oblast to the list of regions not
1728 # using extra hour ("decree time"), leaving Kazakhstan with only 2 time
1729 # zones (+04/+05 and +06/+07).  The changes were to be implemented
1730 # during DST transitions in 2004 and 2005 but the acts got radically
1731 # amended before implementation happened.
1732 #
1733 # 9. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan
1734 # from 2004-09-15 No. 1059
1735 # http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P040001059_
1736 # modified the 2000-11-23 act to remove exceptions from the "decree time"
1737 # (leaving Kazakhstan in +05/+06 and +06/+07 zones), amended the
1738 # 2004-07-20 act to implement changes for Atyrau, West Kazakhstan,
1739 # Kostanay, Kyzylorda and Mangystau oblasts by not moving clocks
1740 # during the 2014 transition to "winter" time.
1741 #
1742 # This means transition from +04/+05 to +05/+06 for Atyrau oblast (no
1743 # zone currently), Asia/Oral, Asia/Aqtau and transition from +05/+06 to
1744 # +06/+07 for Kostanay oblast (Kostanay and Arkalyk, no zones currently)
1745 # and Asia/Qyzylorda on 2004-10-31 at 3:00....[*]
1746 #
1747 # 10. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan
1748 # from 2005-03-15 No. 231
1749 # http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P050000231_
1750 # removes DST provisions from the 2000-11-23 act, removes most of the
1751 # (already implemented) provisions from the 2004-07-20 and 2004-09-15
1752 # acts, comes into effect 10 days after official publication.
1753 # The only practical effect seems to be the abolition of the summer
1754 # time.
1755 #
1756 # Unamended version of the act of the Government of the Russian Federation
1757 # No. 23 from 1992-01-08 [See 'europe' file for details].
1758 # Kazakh 1992-01-13 act appears to provide the same rules and 1992-03-27
1759 # act was to be enacted on the last Sunday of March 1992.
1760 
1761 # From Paul Eggert (2016-04-15):
1762 # The tables below should reflect Stepan Golosunov's remarks above,
1763 # except for the items marked "[*]" which I haven't gotten to yet.
1764 # It looks like we will need new zones Asia/Atyrau and Asia/Qostanay
1765 # to handle changes from 1992 through 2004 that we did not previously
1766 # know about.
1767 
1768 #
1769 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1770 #
1771 # Almaty (formerly Alma-Ata), representing most locations in Kazakhstan
1772 # This includes KZ-AKM, KZ-ALA, KZ-ALM, KZ-AST, KZ-BAY, KZ-VOS, KZ-ZHA,
1773 # KZ-KAR, KZ-SEV, KZ-PAV, and KZ-YUZ.
1774 Zone    Asia/Almaty     5:07:48 -       LMT     1924 May  2 # or Alma-Ata
1775                         5:00    -       +05     1930 Jun 21
1776                         6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
1777                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
1778                         6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 2004 Oct 31  2:00s
1779                         6:00    -       +06
1780 # Qyzylorda (aka Kyzylorda, Kizilorda, Kzyl-Orda, etc.) (KZ-KZY)
1781 Zone    Asia/Qyzylorda  4:21:52 -       LMT     1924 May  2
1782                         4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
1783                         5:00    -       +05     1981 Apr  1
1784                         5:00    1:00    +06     1981 Oct  1
1785                         6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1
1786                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
1787                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1991 Sep 29  2:00s
1788                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
1789                         6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 1992 Mar 29  2:00s
1790                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 2004 Oct 31  2:00s
1791                         6:00    -       +06
1792 # Aqtobe (aka Aktobe, formerly Aktyubinsk) (KZ-AKT)
1793 Zone    Asia/Aqtobe     3:48:40 -       LMT     1924 May  2
1794                         4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
1795                         5:00    -       +05     1981 Apr  1
1796                         5:00    1:00    +06     1981 Oct  1
1797                         6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1
1798                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
1799                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
1800                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 2004 Oct 31  2:00s
1801                         5:00    -       +05
1802 # Qostanay (KZ-KUS)
1803 
1804 # Mangghystau (KZ-MAN)
1805 # Aqtau was not founded until 1963, but it represents an inhabited region,
1806 # so include time stamps before 1963.
1807 Zone    Asia/Aqtau      3:21:04 -       LMT     1924 May  2
1808                         4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
1809                         5:00    -       +05     1963
1810                         5:00    -       +05     1981 Oct  1
1811                         6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1
1812                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
1813                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
1814                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1994 Sep 25  2:00s
1815                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 2004 Oct 31  2:00s
1816                         5:00    -       +05
1817 
1818 # West Kazakhstan (KZ-ZAP)
1819 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
1820 # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
1821 Zone    Asia/Oral       3:25:24 -       LMT     1924 May  2 # or Ural'sk
1822                         4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
1823                         5:00    -       +05     1981 Apr  1
1824                         5:00    1:00    +06     1981 Oct  1
1825                         6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1
1826                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1989 Mar 26  2:00s
1827                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
1828                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1992 Mar 29  2:00s
1829                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 2004 Oct 31  2:00s
1830                         5:00    -       +05
1831 
1832 # Kyrgyzstan (Kirgizstan)
1833 # Transitions through 1991 are from Shanks & Pottenger.
1834 
1835 # From Paul Eggert (2005-08-15):
1836 # According to an article dated today in the Kyrgyzstan Development Gateway
1837 # http://eng.gateway.kg/cgi-bin/page.pl?id=1&story_name=doc9979.shtml
1838 # Kyrgyzstan is canceling the daylight saving time system.  I take the article
1839 # to mean that they will leave their clocks at 6 hours ahead of UTC.
1840 # From Malik Abdugaliev (2005-09-21):
1841 # Our government cancels daylight saving time 6th of August 2005.
1842 # From 2005-08-12 our GMT-offset is +6, w/o any daylight saving.
1843 
1844 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1845 Rule    Kyrgyz  1992    1996    -       Apr     Sun>=7       0:00s   1:00    S
1846 Rule    Kyrgyz  1992    1996    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       -
1847 Rule    Kyrgyz  1997    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:30    1:00    S
1848 Rule    Kyrgyz  1997    2004    -       Oct     lastSun 2:30    0       -
1849 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1850 Zone    Asia/Bishkek    4:58:24 -       LMT     1924 May  2
1851                         5:00    -       FRUT    1930 Jun 21 # Frunze Time
1852                         6:00 RussiaAsia FRU%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
1853                         5:00    1:00    FRUST   1991 Aug 31  2:00 # independence
1854                         5:00    Kyrgyz  KG%sT   2005 Aug 12 # Kyrgyzstan Time
1855                         6:00    -       KGT
1856 
1857 ###############################################################################
1858 
1859 # Korea (North and South)
1860 
1861 # From Annie I. Bang (2006-07-10):
1862 # http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=200607100012
1863 # Korea ran a daylight saving program from 1949-61 but stopped it
1864 # during the 1950-53 Korean War.  The system was temporarily enforced
1865 # between 1987 and 1988 ...
1866 
1867 # From Sanghyuk Jung (2014-10-29):
1868 # http://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2014-October/021830.html
1869 # According to the Korean Wikipedia
1870 # http://ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/한국_표준시
1871 # [oldid=12896437 2014-09-04 08:03 UTC]
1872 # DST in Republic of Korea was as follows....  And I checked old
1873 # newspapers in Korean, all articles correspond with data in Wikipedia.
1874 # For example, the article in 1948 (Korean Language) proved that DST
1875 # started at June 1 in that year.  For another example, the article in
1876 # 1988 said that DST started at 2:00 AM in that year.
1877 
1878 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1879 Rule    ROK     1948    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    D
1880 Rule    ROK     1948    only    -       Sep     13      0:00    0       S
1881 Rule    ROK     1949    only    -       Apr      3      0:00    1:00    D
1882 Rule    ROK     1949    1951    -       Sep     Sun>=8       0:00    0       S
1883 Rule    ROK     1950    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    D
1884 Rule    ROK     1951    only    -       May      6      0:00    1:00    D
1885 Rule    ROK     1955    only    -       May      5      0:00    1:00    D
1886 Rule    ROK     1955    only    -       Sep      9      0:00    0       S
1887 Rule    ROK     1956    only    -       May     20      0:00    1:00    D
1888 Rule    ROK     1956    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       S
1889 Rule    ROK     1957    1960    -       May     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
1890 Rule    ROK     1957    1960    -       Sep     Sun>=18      0:00    0       S
1891 Rule    ROK     1987    1988    -       May     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
1892 Rule    ROK     1987    1988    -       Oct     Sun>=8       3:00    0       S
1893 
1894 # From Paul Eggert (2014-10-30):
1895 # The Korean Wikipedia entry gives the following sources for UT offsets:
1896 #
1897 # 1908: Official Journal Article No. 3994 (Edict No. 5)
1898 # 1912: Governor-General of Korea Official Gazette Issue No. 367
1899 #       (Announcement No. 338)
1900 # 1954: Presidential Decree No. 876 (1954-03-17)
1901 # 1961: Law No. 676 (1961-08-07)
1902 # 1987: Law No. 3919 (1986-12-31)
1903 #
1904 # The Wikipedia entry also has confusing information about a change
1905 # to UT+9 in April 1910, but then what would be the point of the later change
1906 # to UT+9 on 1912-01-01?  Omit the 1910 change for now.
1907 #
1908 # I guessed that time zone abbreviations through 1945 followed the same
1909 # rules as discussed under Taiwan, with nominal switches from JST to KST
1910 # when the respective cities were taken over by the Allies after WWII.
1911 #
1912 # For Pyongyang we have no information; guess no changes since World War II.
1913 
1914 # From Steffen Thorsen (2015-08-07):
1915 # According to many news sources, North Korea is going to change to
1916 # the 8:30 time zone on August 15, one example:
1917 # http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-33815049
1918 #
1919 # From Paul Eggert (2015-08-15):
1920 # Bells rang out midnight (00:00) Friday as part of the celebrations.  See:
1921 # Talmadge E. North Korea celebrates new time zone, 'Pyongyang Time'
1922 # http://news.yahoo.com/north-korea-celebrates-time-zone-pyongyang-time-164038128.html
1923 # There is no common English-language abbreviation for this time zone.
1924 # Use KST, as that's what we already use for 1954-1961 in ROK.
1925 
1926 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1927 Zone    Asia/Seoul      8:27:52 -       LMT     1908 Apr  1
1928                         8:30    -       KST     1912 Jan  1
1929                         9:00    -       JCST    1937 Oct  1
1930                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep  8
1931                         9:00    -       KST     1954 Mar 21
1932                         8:30    ROK     K%sT    1961 Aug 10
1933                         9:00    ROK     K%sT
1934 Zone    Asia/Pyongyang  8:23:00 -       LMT     1908 Apr  1
1935                         8:30    -       KST     1912 Jan  1
1936                         9:00    -       JCST    1937 Oct  1
1937                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Aug 24
1938                         9:00    -       KST     2015 Aug 15 00:00
1939                         8:30    -       KST
1940 
1941 ###############################################################################
1942 
1943 # Kuwait
1944 # See Asia/Riyadh.
1945 
1946 # Laos
1947 # See Asia/Bangkok.
1948 
1949 
1950 # Lebanon
1951 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1952 Rule    Lebanon 1920    only    -       Mar     28      0:00    1:00    S
1953 Rule    Lebanon 1920    only    -       Oct     25      0:00    0       -
1954 Rule    Lebanon 1921    only    -       Apr     3       0:00    1:00    S
1955 Rule    Lebanon 1921    only    -       Oct     3       0:00    0       -
1956 Rule    Lebanon 1922    only    -       Mar     26      0:00    1:00    S
1957 Rule    Lebanon 1922    only    -       Oct     8       0:00    0       -
1958 Rule    Lebanon 1923    only    -       Apr     22      0:00    1:00    S
1959 Rule    Lebanon 1923    only    -       Sep     16      0:00    0       -
1960 Rule    Lebanon 1957    1961    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    S
1961 Rule    Lebanon 1957    1961    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       -
1962 Rule    Lebanon 1972    only    -       Jun     22      0:00    1:00    S
1963 Rule    Lebanon 1972    1977    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       -
1964 Rule    Lebanon 1973    1977    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    S
1965 Rule    Lebanon 1978    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    S
1966 Rule    Lebanon 1978    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       -
1967 Rule    Lebanon 1984    1987    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    S
1968 Rule    Lebanon 1984    1991    -       Oct     16      0:00    0       -
1969 Rule    Lebanon 1988    only    -       Jun     1       0:00    1:00    S
1970 Rule    Lebanon 1989    only    -       May     10      0:00    1:00    S
1971 Rule    Lebanon 1990    1992    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    S
1972 Rule    Lebanon 1992    only    -       Oct     4       0:00    0       -
1973 Rule    Lebanon 1993    max     -       Mar     lastSun 0:00    1:00    S
1974 Rule    Lebanon 1993    1998    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       -
1975 Rule    Lebanon 1999    max     -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       -
1976 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1977 Zone    Asia/Beirut     2:22:00 -       LMT     1880
1978                         2:00    Lebanon EE%sT
1979 
1980 # Malaysia
1981 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1982 Rule    NBorneo 1935    1941    -       Sep     14      0:00    0:20    TS # one-Third Summer
1983 Rule    NBorneo 1935    1941    -       Dec     14      0:00    0       -
1984 #
1985 # peninsular Malaysia
1986 # taken from Mok Ly Yng (2003-10-30)
1987 # http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/teaching/timezone.html
1988 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1989 Zone Asia/Kuala_Lumpur  6:46:46 -       LMT     1901 Jan  1
1990                         6:55:25 -       SMT     1905 Jun  1 # Singapore M.T.
1991                         7:00    -       MALT    1933 Jan  1 # Malaya Time
1992                         7:00    0:20    MALST   1936 Jan  1
1993                         7:20    -       MALT    1941 Sep  1
1994                         7:30    -       MALT    1942 Feb 16
1995                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 12
1996                         7:30    -       MALT    1982 Jan  1
1997                         8:00    -       MYT     # Malaysia Time
1998 # Sabah & Sarawak
1999 # From Paul Eggert (2014-08-12):
2000 # The data entries here are mostly from Shanks & Pottenger, but the 1942, 1945
2001 # and 1982 transition dates are from Mok Ly Yng.
2002 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2003 Zone Asia/Kuching       7:21:20 -       LMT     1926 Mar
2004                         7:30    -       BORT    1933        # Borneo Time
2005                         8:00    NBorneo BOR%sT  1942 Feb 16
2006                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 12
2007                         8:00    -       BORT    1982 Jan  1
2008                         8:00    -       MYT
2009 
2010 # Maldives
2011 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2012 Zone    Indian/Maldives 4:54:00 -       LMT     1880 # Male
2013                         4:54:00 -       MMT     1960 # Male Mean Time
2014                         5:00    -       MVT     # Maldives Time
2015 
2016 # Mongolia
2017 
2018 # Shanks & Pottenger say that Mongolia has three time zones, but
2019 # The USNO (1995-12-21) and the CIA map Standard Time Zones of the World
2020 # (2005-03) both say that it has just one.
2021 
2022 # From Oscar van Vlijmen (1999-12-11):
2023 # General Information Mongolia
2024 # <http://www.mongoliatourism.gov.mn/general.htm> (1999-09)
2025 # "Time: Mongolia has two time zones. Three westernmost provinces of
2026 # Bayan-Ölgii, Uvs, and Hovd are one hour earlier than the capital city, and
2027 # the rest of the country follows the Ulaanbaatar time, which is UTC/GMT plus
2028 # eight hours."
2029 
2030 # From Rives McDow (1999-12-13):
2031 # Mongolia discontinued the use of daylight savings time in 1999; 1998
2032 # being the last year it was implemented.  The dates of implementation I am
2033 # unsure of, but most probably it was similar to Russia, except for the time
2034 # of implementation may have been different....
2035 # Some maps in the past have indicated that there was an additional time
2036 # zone in the eastern part of Mongolia, including the provinces of Dornod,
2037 # Sükhbaatar, and possibly Khentii.
2038 
2039 # From Paul Eggert (1999-12-15):
2040 # Naming and spelling is tricky in Mongolia.
2041 # We'll use Hovd (also spelled Chovd and Khovd) to represent the west zone;
2042 # the capital of the Hovd province is sometimes called Hovd, sometimes Dund-Us,
2043 # and sometimes Jirgalanta (with variant spellings), but the name Hovd
2044 # is good enough for our purposes.
2045 
2046 # From Rives McDow (2001-05-13):
2047 # In addition to Mongolia starting daylight savings as reported earlier
2048 # (adopted DST on 2001-04-27 02:00 local time, ending 2001-09-28),
2049 # there are three time zones.
2050 #
2051 # Provinces [at 7:00]: Bayan-Ölgii, Uvs, Khovd, Zavkhan, Govi-Altai
2052 # Provinces [at 8:00]: Khövsgöl, Bulgan, Arkhangai, Khentii, Töv,
2053 #       Bayankhongor, Övörkhangai, Dundgovi, Dornogovi, Ömnögovi
2054 # Provinces [at 9:00]: Dornod, Sükhbaatar
2055 #
2056 # [The province of Selenge is omitted from the above lists.]
2057 
2058 # From Ganbold Ts., Ulaanbaatar (2004-04-17):
2059 # Daylight saving occurs at 02:00 local time last Saturday of March.
2060 # It will change back to normal at 02:00 local time last Saturday of
2061 # September.... As I remember this rule was changed in 2001.
2062 #
2063 # From Paul Eggert (2004-04-17):
2064 # For now, assume Rives McDow's informant got confused about Friday vs
2065 # Saturday, and that his 2001 dates should have 1 added to them.
2066 
2067 # From Paul Eggert (2005-07-26):
2068 # We have wildly conflicting information about Mongolia's time zones.
2069 # Bill Bonnet (2005-05-19) reports that the US Embassy in Ulaanbaatar says
2070 # there is only one time zone and that DST is observed, citing Microsoft
2071 # Windows XP as the source.  Risto Nykänen (2005-05-16) reports that
2072 # travelmongolia.org says there are two time zones (UTC+7, UTC+8) with no DST.
2073 # Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-05-20) reports that the Mongolian Embassy in
2074 # Washington, DC says there are two time zones, with DST observed.
2075 # He also found
2076 # http://ubpost.mongolnews.mn/index.php?subaction=showcomments&id=1111634894&archive=&start_from=&ucat=1&
2077 # which also says that there is DST, and which has a comment by "Toddius"
2078 # (2005-03-31 06:05 +0700) saying "Mongolia actually has 3.5 time zones.
2079 # The West (OLGII) is +7 GMT, most of the country is ULAT is +8 GMT
2080 # and some Eastern provinces are +9 GMT but Sükhbaatar Aimag is SUHK +8.5 GMT.
2081 # The SUKH timezone is new this year, it is one of the few things the
2082 # parliament passed during the tumultuous winter session."
2083 # For now, let's ignore this information, until we have more confirmation.
2084 
2085 # From Ganbold Ts. (2007-02-26):
2086 # Parliament of Mongolia has just changed the daylight-saving rule in February.
2087 # They decided not to adopt daylight-saving time....
2088 # http://www.mongolnews.mn/index.php?module=unuudur&sec=view&id=15742
2089 
2090 # From Deborah Goldsmith (2008-03-30):
2091 # We received a bug report claiming that the tz database UTC offset for
2092 # Asia/Choibalsan (GMT+09:00) is incorrect, and that it should be GMT
2093 # +08:00 instead. Different sources appear to disagree with the tz
2094 # database on this, e.g.:
2095 #
2096 # http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/city.html?n=1026
2097 # http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_MN.aspx
2098 #
2099 # both say GMT+08:00.
2100 
2101 # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-03-31):
2102 # eznis airways, which operates several domestic flights, has a flight
2103 # schedule here:
2104 # http://www.eznis.com/Container.jsp?id=112
2105 # (click the English flag for English)
2106 #
2107 # There it appears that flights between Choibalsan and Ulaanbaatar arrive
2108 # about 1:35 - 1:50 hours later in local clock time, no matter the
2109 # direction, while Ulaanbaatar-Khovd takes 2 hours in the Eastern
2110 # direction and 3:35 back, which indicates that Ulaanbaatar and Khovd are
2111 # in different time zones (like we know about), while Choibalsan and
2112 # Ulaanbaatar are in the same time zone (correction needed).
2113 
2114 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-05-19):
2115 # Assume that Choibalsan is indeed offset by 8:00.
2116 # XXX--in the absence of better information, assume that transition
2117 # was at the start of 2008-03-31 (the day of Steffen Thorsen's report);
2118 # this is almost surely wrong.
2119 
2120 # From Ganbold Tsagaankhuu (2015-03-10):
2121 # It seems like yesterday Mongolian Government meeting has concluded to use
2122 # daylight saving time in Mongolia....  Starting at 2:00AM of last Saturday of
2123 # March 2015, daylight saving time starts.  And 00:00AM of last Saturday of
2124 # September daylight saving time ends.  Source:
2125 # http://zasag.mn/news/view/8969
2126 
2127 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2128 Rule    Mongol  1983    1984    -       Apr     1       0:00    1:00    S
2129 Rule    Mongol  1983    only    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       -
2130 # Shanks & Pottenger and IATA SSIM say 1990s switches occurred at 00:00,
2131 # but McDow says the 2001 switches occurred at 02:00.  Also, IATA SSIM
2132 # (1996-09) says 1996-10-25.  Go with Shanks & Pottenger through 1998.
2133 #
2134 # Shanks & Pottenger say that the Sept. 1984 through Sept. 1990 switches
2135 # in Choibalsan (more precisely, in Dornod and Sükhbaatar) took place
2136 # at 02:00 standard time, not at 00:00 local time as in the rest of
2137 # the country.  That would be odd, and possibly is a result of their
2138 # correction of 02:00 (in the previous edition) not being done correctly
2139 # in the latest edition; so ignore it for now.
2140 
2141 Rule    Mongol  1985    1998    -       Mar     lastSun 0:00    1:00    S
2142 Rule    Mongol  1984    1998    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       -
2143 # IATA SSIM (1999-09) says Mongolia no longer observes DST.
2144 Rule    Mongol  2001    only    -       Apr     lastSat 2:00    1:00    S
2145 Rule    Mongol  2001    2006    -       Sep     lastSat 2:00    0       -
2146 Rule    Mongol  2002    2006    -       Mar     lastSat 2:00    1:00    S
2147 Rule    Mongol  2015    max     -       Mar     lastSat 2:00    1:00    S
2148 Rule    Mongol  2015    max     -       Sep     lastSat 0:00    0       -
2149 
2150 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2151 # Hovd, a.k.a. Chovd, Dund-Us, Dzhargalant, Khovd, Jirgalanta
2152 Zone    Asia/Hovd       6:06:36 -       LMT     1905 Aug
2153                         6:00    -       HOVT    1978     # Hovd Time
2154                         7:00    Mongol  HOV%sT
2155 # Ulaanbaatar, a.k.a. Ulan Bataar, Ulan Bator, Urga
2156 Zone    Asia/Ulaanbaatar 7:07:32 -      LMT     1905 Aug
2157                         7:00    -       ULAT    1978     # Ulaanbaatar Time
2158                         8:00    Mongol  ULA%sT
2159 # Choibalsan, a.k.a. Bajan Tümen, Bajan Tumen, Chojbalsan,
2160 # Choybalsan, Sanbejse, Tchoibalsan
2161 Zone    Asia/Choibalsan 7:38:00 -       LMT     1905 Aug
2162                         7:00    -       ULAT    1978
2163                         8:00    -       ULAT    1983 Apr
2164                         9:00    Mongol  CHO%sT  2008 Mar 31 # Choibalsan Time
2165                         8:00    Mongol  CHO%sT
2166 
2167 # Nepal
2168 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2169 Zone    Asia/Kathmandu  5:41:16 -       LMT     1920
2170                         5:30    -       IST     1986
2171                         5:45    -       NPT     # Nepal Time
2172 
2173 # Oman
2174 # See Asia/Dubai.
2175 
2176 # Pakistan
2177 
2178 # From Rives McDow (2002-03-13):
2179 # I have been advised that Pakistan has decided to adopt dst on a
2180 # TRIAL basis for one year, starting 00:01 local time on April 7, 2002
2181 # and ending at 00:01 local time October 6, 2002.  This is what I was
2182 # told, but I believe that the actual time of change may be 00:00; the
2183 # 00:01 was to make it clear which day it was on.
2184 
2185 # From Paul Eggert (2002-03-15):
2186 # Jesper Nørgaard found this URL:
2187 # http://www.pak.gov.pk/public/news/app/app06_dec.htm
2188 # (dated 2001-12-06) which says that the Cabinet adopted a scheme "to
2189 # advance the clocks by one hour on the night between the first
2190 # Saturday and Sunday of April and revert to the original position on
2191 # 15th October each year".  This agrees with McDow's 04-07 at 00:00,
2192 # but disagrees about the October transition, and makes it sound like
2193 # it's not on a trial basis.  Also, the "between the first Saturday
2194 # and Sunday of April" phrase, if taken literally, means that the
2195 # transition takes place at 00:00 on the first Sunday on or after 04-02.
2196 
2197 # From Paul Eggert (2003-02-09):
2198 # DAWN <http://www.dawn.com/2002/10/06/top13.htm> reported on 2002-10-05
2199 # that 2002 DST ended that day at midnight.  Go with McDow for now.
2200 
2201 # From Steffen Thorsen (2003-03-14):
2202 # According to http://www.dawn.com/2003/03/07/top15.htm
2203 # there will be no DST in Pakistan this year:
2204 #
2205 # ISLAMABAD, March 6: Information and Media Development Minister Sheikh
2206 # Rashid Ahmed on Thursday said the cabinet had reversed a previous
2207 # decision to advance clocks by one hour in summer and put them back by
2208 # one hour in winter with the aim of saving light hours and energy.
2209 #
2210 # The minister told a news conference that the experiment had rather
2211 # shown 8 per cent higher consumption of electricity.
2212 
2213 # From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-05-15):
2214 #
2215 # Here is an article that Pakistan plan to introduce Daylight Saving Time
2216 # on June 1, 2008 for 3 months.
2217 #
2218 # "... The federal cabinet on Wednesday announced a new conservation plan to
2219 # help reduce load shedding by approving the closure of commercial centres at
2220 # 9pm and moving clocks forward by one hour for the next three months. ...."
2221 #
2222 # http://www.worldtimezone.net/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan01.html
2223 # http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2008%5C05%5C15%5Cstory_15-5-2008_pg1_4
2224 
2225 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-05-19):
2226 # XXX--midnight transitions is a guess; 2008 only is a guess.
2227 
2228 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2008-08-28):
2229 # Pakistan government has decided to keep the watches one-hour advanced
2230 # for another 2 months - plan to return to Standard Time on October 31
2231 # instead of August 31.
2232 #
2233 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan02.html
2234 # http://dailymailnews.com/200808/28/news/dmbrn03.html
2235 
2236 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-04-08):
2237 # Based on previous media reports that "... proposed plan to
2238 # advance clocks by one hour from May 1 will cause disturbance
2239 # to the working schedules rather than bringing discipline in
2240 # official working."
2241 # http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=171280
2242 #
2243 # recent news that instead of May 2009 - Pakistan plan to
2244 # introduce DST from April 15, 2009
2245 #
2246 # FYI: Associated Press Of Pakistan
2247 # April 08, 2009
2248 # Cabinet okays proposal to advance clocks by one hour from April 15
2249 # http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=73043&Itemid=1
2250 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan05.html
2251 #
2252 # ....
2253 # The Federal Cabinet on Wednesday approved the proposal to
2254 # advance clocks in the country by one hour from April 15 to
2255 # conserve energy"
2256 
2257 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-09-17):
2258 # "The News International," Pakistan reports that: "The Federal
2259 # Government has decided to restore the previous time by moving the
2260 # clocks backward by one hour from October 1. A formal announcement to
2261 # this effect will be made after the Prime Minister grants approval in
2262 # this regard."
2263 # http://www.thenews.com.pk/updates.asp?id=87168
2264 
2265 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-09-28):
2266 # According to Associated Press Of Pakistan, it is confirmed that
2267 # Pakistan clocks across the country would be turned back by an hour from
2268 # October 1, 2009.
2269 #
2270 # "Clocks to go back one hour from 1 Oct"
2271 # http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=86715&Itemid=2
2272 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan07.htm
2273 #
2274 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-09-29):
2275 # Now they seem to have changed their mind, November 1 is the new date:
2276 # http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=24742
2277 # "The country's clocks will be reversed by one hour on November 1.
2278 # Officials of Federal Ministry for Interior told this to Geo News on
2279 # Monday."
2280 #
2281 # And more importantly, it seems that these dates will be kept every year:
2282 # "It has now been decided that clocks will be wound forward by one hour
2283 # on April 15 and reversed by an hour on November 1 every year without
2284 # obtaining prior approval, the officials added."
2285 #
2286 # We have confirmed this year's end date with both with the Ministry of
2287 # Water and Power and the Pakistan Electric Power Company:
2288 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/pakistan-ends-dst09.html
2289 
2290 # From Christoph Göhre (2009-10-01):
2291 # [T]he German Consulate General in Karachi reported me today that Pakistan
2292 # will go back to standard time on 1st of November.
2293 
2294 # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-26):
2295 # Steffen Thorsen wrote:
2296 # > On Thursday (2010-03-25) it was announced that DST would start in
2297 # > Pakistan on 2010-04-01.
2298 # >
2299 # > Then today, the president said that they might have to revert the
2300 # > decision if it is not supported by the parliament. So at the time
2301 # > being, it seems unclear if DST will be actually observed or not - but
2302 # > April 1 could be a more likely date than April 15.
2303 # Now, it seems that the decision to not observe DST in final:
2304 #
2305 # "Govt Withdraws Plan To Advance Clocks"
2306 # http://www.apakistannews.com/govt-withdraws-plan-to-advance-clocks-172041
2307 #
2308 # "People laud PM's announcement to end DST"
2309 # http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=99374&Itemid=2
2310 
2311 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2312 Rule Pakistan   2002    only    -       Apr     Sun>=2       0:00    1:00    S
2313 Rule Pakistan   2002    only    -       Oct     Sun>=2       0:00    0       -
2314 Rule Pakistan   2008    only    -       Jun     1       0:00    1:00    S
2315 Rule Pakistan   2008    2009    -       Nov     1       0:00    0       -
2316 Rule Pakistan   2009    only    -       Apr     15      0:00    1:00    S
2317 
2318 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2319 Zone    Asia/Karachi    4:28:12 -       LMT     1907
2320                         5:30    -       IST     1942 Sep
2321                         5:30    1:00    IST     1945 Oct 15
2322                         5:30    -       IST     1951 Sep 30
2323                         5:00    -       KART    1971 Mar 26 # Karachi Time
2324                         5:00 Pakistan   PK%sT   # Pakistan Time
2325 
2326 # Palestine
2327 
2328 # From Amos Shapir (1998-02-15):
2329 #
2330 # From 1917 until 1948-05-15, all of Palestine, including the parts now
2331 # known as the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, was under British rule.
2332 # Therefore the rules given for Israel for that period, apply there too...
2333 #
2334 # The Gaza Strip was under Egyptian rule between 1948-05-15 until 1967-06-05
2335 # (except a short occupation by Israel from 1956-11 till 1957-03, but no
2336 # time zone was affected then).  It was never formally annexed to Egypt,
2337 # though.
2338 #
2339 # The rest of Palestine was under Jordanian rule at that time, formally
2340 # annexed in 1950 as the West Bank (and the word "Trans" was dropped from
2341 # the country's previous name of "the Hashemite Kingdom of the
2342 # Trans-Jordan").  So the rules for Jordan for that time apply.  Major
2343 # towns in that area are Nablus (Shchem), El-Halil (Hebron), Ramallah, and
2344 # East Jerusalem.
2345 #
2346 # Both areas were occupied by Israel in June 1967, but not annexed (except
2347 # for East Jerusalem).  They were on Israel time since then; there might
2348 # have been a Military Governor's order about time zones, but I'm not aware
2349 # of any (such orders may have been issued semi-annually whenever summer
2350 # time was in effect, but maybe the legal aspect of time was just neglected).
2351 #
2352 # The Palestinian Authority was established in 1993, and got hold of most
2353 # towns in the West Bank and Gaza by 1995.  I know that in order to
2354 # demonstrate...independence, they have been switching to
2355 # summer time and back on a different schedule than Israel's, but I don't
2356 # know when this was started, or what algorithm is used (most likely the
2357 # Jordanian one).
2358 #
2359 # To summarize, the table should probably look something like that:
2360 #
2361 # Area \ when | 1918-1947 | 1948-1967 | 1967-1995 | 1996-
2362 # ------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------
2363 # Israel      | Zion      | Zion      | Zion      | Zion
2364 # West bank   | Zion      | Jordan    | Zion      | Jordan
2365 # Gaza        | Zion      | Egypt     | Zion      | Jordan
2366 #
2367 # I guess more info may be available from the PA's web page (if/when they
2368 # have one).
2369 
2370 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
2371 # Shanks & Pottenger write that Gaza did not observe DST until 1957, but go
2372 # with Shapir and assume that it observed DST from 1940 through 1947,
2373 # and that it used Jordanian rules starting in 1996.
2374 # We don't yet need a separate entry for the West Bank, since
2375 # the only differences between it and Gaza that we know about
2376 # occurred before our cutoff date of 1970.
2377 # However, as we get more information, we may need to add entries
2378 # for parts of the West Bank as they transitioned from Israel's rules
2379 # to Palestine's rules.
2380 
2381 # From IINS News Service - Israel - 1998-03-23 10:38:07 Israel time,
2382 # forwarded by Ephraim Silverberg:
2383 #
2384 # Despite the fact that Israel changed over to daylight savings time
2385 # last week, the PLO Authority (PA) has decided not to turn its clocks
2386 # one-hour forward at this time.  As a sign of independence from Israeli rule,
2387 # the PA has decided to implement DST in April.
2388 
2389 # From Paul Eggert (1999-09-20):
2390 # Daoud Kuttab writes in Holiday havoc
2391 # http://www.jpost.com/com/Archive/22.Apr.1999/Opinion/Article-2.html
2392 # (Jerusalem Post, 1999-04-22) that
2393 # the Palestinian National Authority changed to DST on 1999-04-15.
2394 # I vaguely recall that they switch back in October (sorry, forgot the source).
2395 # For now, let's assume that the spring switch was at 24:00,
2396 # and that they switch at 0:00 on the 3rd Fridays of April and October.
2397 
2398 # From Paul Eggert (2005-11-22):
2399 # Starting 2004 transitions are from Steffen Thorsen's web site timeanddate.com.
2400 
2401 # From Steffen Thorsen (2005-11-23):
2402 # A user from Gaza reported that Gaza made the change early because of
2403 # the Ramadan.  Next year Ramadan will be even earlier, so I think
2404 # there is a good chance next year's end date will be around two weeks
2405 # earlier - the same goes for Jordan.
2406 
2407 # From Steffen Thorsen (2006-08-17):
2408 # I was informed by a user in Bethlehem that in Bethlehem it started the
2409 # same day as Israel, and after checking with other users in the area, I
2410 # was informed that they started DST one day after Israel.  I was not
2411 # able to find any authoritative sources at the time, nor details if
2412 # Gaza changed as well, but presumed Gaza to follow the same rules as
2413 # the West Bank.
2414 
2415 # From Steffen Thorsen (2006-09-26):
2416 # according to the Palestine News Network (2006-09-19):
2417 # http://english.pnn.ps/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=596&Itemid=5
2418 # > The Council of Ministers announced that this year its winter schedule
2419 # > will begin early, as of midnight Thursday.  It is also time to turn
2420 # > back the clocks for winter.  Friday will begin an hour late this week.
2421 # I guess it is likely that next year's date will be moved as well,
2422 # because of the Ramadan.
2423 
2424 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2007-09-18):
2425 # According to Steffen Thorsen's web site the Gaza Strip and the rest of the
2426 # Palestinian territories left DST early on 13.th. of September at 2:00.
2427 
2428 # From Paul Eggert (2007-09-20):
2429 # My understanding is that Gaza and the West Bank disagree even over when
2430 # the weekend is (Thursday+Friday versus Friday+Saturday), so I'd be a bit
2431 # surprised if they agreed about DST.  But for now, assume they agree.
2432 # For lack of better information, predict that future changes will be
2433 # the 2nd Thursday of September at 02:00.
2434 
2435 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2008-08-28):
2436 # Here is an article, that Mideast running on different clocks at Ramadan.
2437 #
2438 # Gaza Strip (as Egypt) ended DST at midnight Thursday (Aug 28, 2008), while
2439 # the West Bank will end Daylight Saving Time at midnight Sunday (Aug 31, 2008).
2440 #
2441 # http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/feedarticle/7759001
2442 # http://www.abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory?id=5676087
2443 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip01.html
2444 
2445 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-26):
2446 # According to the Palestine News Network (arabic.pnn.ps), Palestinian
2447 # government decided to start Daylight Time on Thursday night March
2448 # 26 and continue until the night of 27 September 2009.
2449 #
2450 # (in Arabic)
2451 # http://arabic.pnn.ps/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=50850
2452 #
2453 # (English translation)
2454 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank01.html
2455 
2456 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-08-31):
2457 # Palestine's Council of Ministers announced that they will revert back to
2458 # winter time on Friday, 2009-09-04.
2459 #
2460 # One news source:
2461 # http://www.safa.ps/ara/?action=showdetail&seid=4158
2462 # (Palestinian press agency, Arabic),
2463 # Google translate: "Decided that the Palestinian government in Ramallah
2464 # headed by Salam Fayyad, the start of work in time for the winter of
2465 # 2009, starting on Friday approved the fourth delay Sept. clock sixty
2466 # minutes per hour as of Friday morning."
2467 #
2468 # We are not sure if Gaza will do the same, last year they had a different
2469 # end date, we will keep this page updated:
2470 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-dst-2009.html
2471 
2472 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-09-02):
2473 # Seems that Gaza Strip will go back to Winter Time same date as West Bank.
2474 #
2475 # According to Palestinian Ministry Of Interior, West Bank and Gaza Strip plan
2476 # to change time back to Standard time on September 4, 2009.
2477 #
2478 # "Winter time unite the West Bank and Gaza"
2479 # (from Palestinian National Authority):
2480 # http://www.moi.gov.ps/en/?page=633167343250594025&nid=11505
2481 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip02.html
2482 
2483 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-19):
2484 # According to Voice of Palestine DST will last for 191 days, from March
2485 # 26, 2010 till "the last Sunday before the tenth day of Tishri
2486 # (October), each year" (October 03, 2010?)
2487 #
2488 # http://palvoice.org/forums/showthread.php?t=245697
2489 # (in Arabic)
2490 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank03.html
2491 
2492 # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-24):
2493 # ...Ma'an News Agency reports that Hamas cabinet has decided it will
2494 # start one day later, at 12:01am. Not sure if they really mean 12:01am or
2495 # noon though:
2496 #
2497 # http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=271178
2498 # (Ma'an News Agency)
2499 # "At 12:01am Friday, clocks in Israel and the West Bank will change to
2500 # 1:01am, while Gaza clocks will change at 12:01am Saturday morning."
2501 
2502 # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-08-11):
2503 # According to several sources, including
2504 # http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=306795
2505 # the clocks were set back one hour at 2010-08-11 00:00:00 local time in
2506 # Gaza and the West Bank.
2507 # Some more background info:
2508 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-end-dst-2010.html
2509 
2510 # From Steffen Thorsen (2011-08-26):
2511 # Gaza and the West Bank did go back to standard time in the beginning of
2512 # August, and will now enter daylight saving time again on 2011-08-30
2513 # 00:00 (so two periods of DST in 2011). The pause was because of
2514 # Ramadan.
2515 #
2516 # http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=416217
2517 # Additional info:
2518 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/palestine-dst-2011.html
2519 
2520 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-08-27):
2521 # According to the article in The Jerusalem Post:
2522 # "...Earlier this month, the Palestinian government in the West Bank decided to
2523 # move to standard time for 30 days, during Ramadan. The Palestinians in the
2524 # Gaza Strip accepted the change and also moved their clocks one hour back.
2525 # The Hamas government said on Saturday that it won't observe summertime after
2526 # the Muslim feast of Id al-Fitr, which begins on Tuesday..."
2527 # ...
2528 # http://www.jpost.com/MiddleEast/Article.aspx?id=235650
2529 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip05.html
2530 # The rules for Egypt are stolen from the 'africa' file.
2531 
2532 # From Steffen Thorsen (2011-09-30):
2533 # West Bank did end Daylight Saving Time this morning/midnight (2011-09-30
2534 # 00:00).
2535 # So West Bank and Gaza now have the same time again.
2536 #
2537 # Many sources, including:
2538 # http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=424808
2539 
2540 # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-26):
2541 # Palestinian news sources tell that both Gaza and West Bank will start DST
2542 # on Friday (Thursday midnight, 2012-03-29 24:00).
2543 # Some of many sources in Arabic:
2544 # http://www.samanews.com/index.php?act=Show&id=122638
2545 #
2546 # http://safa.ps/details/news/74352/%D8%A8%D8%AF%D8%A1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D9%88%D9%82%D9%8A%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D9%8A%D9%81%D9%8A-%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B6%D9%81%D8%A9-%D9%88%D8%BA%D8%B2%D8%A9-%D9%84%D9%8A%D9%84%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AC%D9%85%D8%B9%D8%A9.html
2547 #
2548 # Our brief summary:
2549 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/gaza-west-bank-dst-2012.html
2550 
2551 # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-03-26):
2552 # The following news sources tells that Palestine will "start daylight saving
2553 # time from midnight on Friday, March 29, 2013" (translated).
2554 # [These are in Arabic and are for Gaza and for Ramallah, respectively.]
2555 # http://www.samanews.com/index.php?act=Show&id=154120
2556 # http://safa.ps/details/news/99844/%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%85-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%84%D9%87-%D8%A8%D8%AF%D8%A1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D9%88%D9%82%D9%8A%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D9%8A%D9%81%D9%8A-29-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AC%D8%A7%D8%B1%D9%8A.html
2557 
2558 # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-09-24):
2559 # The Gaza and West Bank are ending DST Thursday at midnight
2560 # (2013-09-27 00:00:00) (one hour earlier than last year...).
2561 # This source in English, says "that winter time will go into effect
2562 # at midnight on Thursday in the West Bank and Gaza Strip":
2563 # http://english.wafa.ps/index.php?action=detail&id=23246
2564 # official source...:
2565 # http://www.palestinecabinet.gov.ps/ar/Views/ViewDetails.aspx?pid=1252
2566 
2567 # From Steffen Thorsen (2015-03-03):
2568 # Sources such as http://www.alquds.com/news/article/view/id/548257
2569 # and http://www.raya.ps/ar/news/890705.html say Palestine areas will
2570 # start DST on 2015-03-28 00:00 which is one day later than expected.
2571 #
2572 # From Paul Eggert (2015-03-03):
2573 # http://www.timeanddate.com/time/change/west-bank/ramallah?year=2014
2574 # says that the fall 2014 transition was Oct 23 at 24:00.
2575 # For future dates, guess the last Friday in March at 24:00 through
2576 # the first Friday on or after October 21 at 00:00.  This is consistent with
2577 # the predictions in today's editions of the following URLs:
2578 # http://www.timeanddate.com/time/change/gaza-strip/gaza
2579 # http://www.timeanddate.com/time/change/west-bank/hebron
2580 
2581 # From Hannah Kreitem (2016-03-09):
2582 # http://www.palestinecabinet.gov.ps/WebSite/ar/ViewDetails?ID=31728
2583 # [Google translation]: "The Council also decided to start daylight
2584 # saving in Palestine as of one o'clock on Saturday morning,
2585 # 2016-03-26, to provide the clock 60 minutes ahead."
2586 #
2587 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-12):
2588 # Predict spring transitions on March's last Saturday at 01:00 from now on.
2589 # Leave fall predictions alone for now.
2590 
2591 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2592 Rule EgyptAsia  1957    only    -       May     10      0:00    1:00    S
2593 Rule EgyptAsia  1957    1958    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
2594 Rule EgyptAsia  1958    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S
2595 Rule EgyptAsia  1959    1967    -       May      1      1:00    1:00    S
2596 Rule EgyptAsia  1959    1965    -       Sep     30      3:00    0       -
2597 Rule EgyptAsia  1966    only    -       Oct      1      3:00    0       -
2598 
2599 Rule Palestine  1999    2005    -       Apr     Fri>=15      0:00    1:00    S
2600 Rule Palestine  1999    2003    -       Oct     Fri>=15      0:00    0       -
2601 Rule Palestine  2004    only    -       Oct      1      1:00    0       -
2602 Rule Palestine  2005    only    -       Oct      4      2:00    0       -
2603 Rule Palestine  2006    2007    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
2604 Rule Palestine  2006    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
2605 Rule Palestine  2007    only    -       Sep     Thu>=8       2:00    0       -
2606 Rule Palestine  2008    2009    -       Mar     lastFri 0:00    1:00    S
2607 Rule Palestine  2008    only    -       Sep      1      0:00    0       -
2608 Rule Palestine  2009    only    -       Sep     Fri>=1       1:00    0       -
2609 Rule Palestine  2010    only    -       Mar     26      0:00    1:00    S
2610 Rule Palestine  2010    only    -       Aug     11      0:00    0       -
2611 Rule Palestine  2011    only    -       Apr      1      0:01    1:00    S
2612 Rule Palestine  2011    only    -       Aug      1      0:00    0       -
2613 Rule Palestine  2011    only    -       Aug     30      0:00    1:00    S
2614 Rule Palestine  2011    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       -
2615 Rule Palestine  2012    2014    -       Mar     lastThu 24:00   1:00    S
2616 Rule Palestine  2012    only    -       Sep     21      1:00    0       -
2617 Rule Palestine  2013    only    -       Sep     Fri>=21      0:00    0       -
2618 Rule Palestine  2014    max     -       Oct     Fri>=21      0:00    0       -
2619 Rule Palestine  2015    only    -       Mar     lastFri 24:00   1:00    S
2620 Rule Palestine  2016    max     -       Mar     lastSat 1:00    1:00    S
2621 
2622 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2623 Zone    Asia/Gaza       2:17:52 -       LMT     1900 Oct
2624                         2:00    Zion    EET     1948 May 15
2625                         2:00 EgyptAsia  EE%sT   1967 Jun  5
2626                         2:00    Zion    I%sT    1996
2627                         2:00    Jordan  EE%sT   1999
2628                         2:00 Palestine  EE%sT   2008 Aug 29  0:00
2629                         2:00    -       EET     2008 Sep
2630                         2:00 Palestine  EE%sT   2010
2631                         2:00    -       EET     2010 Mar 27  0:01
2632                         2:00 Palestine  EE%sT   2011 Aug  1
2633                         2:00    -       EET     2012
2634                         2:00 Palestine  EE%sT
2635 
2636 Zone    Asia/Hebron     2:20:23 -       LMT     1900 Oct
2637                         2:00    Zion    EET     1948 May 15
2638                         2:00 EgyptAsia  EE%sT   1967 Jun  5
2639                         2:00    Zion    I%sT    1996
2640                         2:00    Jordan  EE%sT   1999
2641                         2:00 Palestine  EE%sT
2642 
2643 # Paracel Is
2644 # no information
2645 
2646 # Philippines
2647 # On 1844-08-16, Narciso Clavería, governor-general of the
2648 # Philippines, issued a proclamation announcing that 1844-12-30 was to
2649 # be immediately followed by 1845-01-01; see R.H. van Gent's
2650 # History of the International Date Line
2651 # http://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/idl/idl_philippines.htm
2652 # The rest of the data entries are from Shanks & Pottenger.
2653 
2654 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-04-26):
2655 # ... claims that Philippines had DST last time in 1990:
2656 # http://story.philippinetimes.com/p.x/ct/9/id/145be20cc6b121c0/cid/3e5bbccc730d258c/
2657 # [a story dated 2006-04-25 by Cris Larano of Dow Jones Newswires,
2658 # but no details]
2659 
2660 # From Paul Eggert (2014-08-14):
2661 # The following source says DST may be instituted November-January and again
2662 # March-June, but this is not definite.  It also says DST was last proclaimed
2663 # during the Ramos administration (1992-1998); but again, no details.
2664 # Carcamo D. PNoy urged to declare use of daylight saving time.
2665 # Philippine Star 2014-08-05
2666 # http://www.philstar.com/headlines/2014/08/05/1354152/pnoy-urged-declare-use-daylight-saving-time
2667 
2668 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2669 Rule    Phil    1936    only    -       Nov     1       0:00    1:00    S
2670 Rule    Phil    1937    only    -       Feb     1       0:00    0       -
2671 Rule    Phil    1954    only    -       Apr     12      0:00    1:00    S
2672 Rule    Phil    1954    only    -       Jul     1       0:00    0       -
2673 Rule    Phil    1978    only    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    S
2674 Rule    Phil    1978    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
2675 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2676 Zone    Asia/Manila     -15:56:00 -     LMT     1844 Dec 31
2677                         8:04:00 -       LMT     1899 May 11
2678                         8:00    Phil    PH%sT   1942 May
2679                         9:00    -       JST     1944 Nov
2680                         8:00    Phil    PH%sT
2681 
2682 # Qatar
2683 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2684 Zone    Asia/Qatar      3:26:08 -       LMT     1920     # Al Dawhah / Doha
2685                         4:00    -       GST     1972 Jun
2686                         3:00    -       AST
2687 Link Asia/Qatar Asia/Bahrain
2688 
2689 # Saudi Arabia
2690 #
2691 # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-15):
2692 # Time in Saudi Arabia and other countries in the Arabian peninsula was not
2693 # standardized until relatively recently; we don't know when, and possibly it
2694 # has never been made official.  Richard P Hunt, in "Islam city yielding to
2695 # modern times", New York Times (1961-04-09), p 20, wrote that only airlines
2696 # observed standard time, and that people in Jeddah mostly observed quasi-solar
2697 # time, doing so by setting their watches at sunrise to 6 o'clock (or to 12
2698 # o'clock for "Arab" time).
2699 #
2700 # The TZ database cannot represent quasi-solar time; airline time is the best
2701 # we can do.  The 1946 foreign air news digest of the U.S. Civil Aeronautics
2702 # Board (OCLC 42299995) reported that the "... Arabian Government, inaugurated
2703 # a weekly Dhahran-Cairo service, via the Saudi Arabian cities of Riyadh and
2704 # Jidda, on March 14, 1947".  Shanks & Pottenger guessed 1950; go with the
2705 # earlier date.
2706 #
2707 # Shanks & Pottenger also state that until 1968-05-01 Saudi Arabia had two
2708 # time zones; the other zone, at UTC+4, was in the far eastern part of
2709 # the country.  Ignore this, as it's before our 1970 cutoff.
2710 #
2711 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2712 Zone    Asia/Riyadh     3:06:52 -       LMT     1947 Mar 14
2713                         3:00    -       AST
2714 Link Asia/Riyadh Asia/Aden      # Yemen
2715 Link Asia/Riyadh Asia/Kuwait
2716 
2717 # Singapore
2718 # taken from Mok Ly Yng (2003-10-30)
2719 # http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/teaching/timezone.html
2720 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2721 Zone    Asia/Singapore  6:55:25 -       LMT     1901 Jan  1
2722                         6:55:25 -       SMT     1905 Jun  1 # Singapore M.T.
2723                         7:00    -       MALT    1933 Jan  1 # Malaya Time
2724                         7:00    0:20    MALST   1936 Jan  1
2725                         7:20    -       MALT    1941 Sep  1
2726                         7:30    -       MALT    1942 Feb 16
2727                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 12
2728                         7:30    -       MALT    1965 Aug  9 # independence
2729                         7:30    -       SGT     1982 Jan  1 # Singapore Time
2730                         8:00    -       SGT
2731 
2732 # Spratly Is
2733 # no information
2734 
2735 # Sri Lanka
2736 
2737 # From Paul Eggert (2013-02-21):
2738 # Milne says "Madras mean time use from May 1, 1898.  Prior to this Colombo
2739 # mean time, 5h. 4m. 21.9s. F., was used."  But 5:04:21.9 differs considerably
2740 # from Colombo's meridian 5:19:24, so for now ignore Milne and stick with
2741 # Shanks and Pottenger.
2742 
2743 # From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03):
2744 # "Sri Lanka advances clock by an hour to avoid blackout"
2745 # (<http://www.virtual-pc.com/lankaweb/news/items/240596-2.html>, 1996-05-24,
2746 # no longer available as of 1999-08-17)
2747 # reported "the country's standard time will be put forward by one hour at
2748 # midnight Friday (1830 GMT) 'in the light of the present power crisis'."
2749 #
2750 # From Dharmasiri Senanayake, Sri Lanka Media Minister (1996-10-24), as quoted
2751 # by Shamindra in Daily News - Hot News Section
2752 # <news:54rka5$m5h@mtinsc01-mgt.ops.worldnet.att.net> (1996-10-26):
2753 # With effect from 12.30 a.m. on 26th October 1996
2754 # Sri Lanka will be six (06) hours ahead of GMT.
2755 
2756 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-04-14), quoting Sri Lanka News Online
2757 # <http://news.sinhalaya.com/wmview.php?ArtID=11002> (2006-04-13):
2758 # 0030 hrs on April 15, 2006 (midnight of April 14, 2006 +30 minutes)
2759 # at present, become 2400 hours of April 14, 2006 (midnight of April 14, 2006).
2760 
2761 # From Peter Apps and Ranga Sirila of Reuters (2006-04-12) in:
2762 # http://today.reuters.co.uk/news/newsArticle.aspx?type=scienceNews&storyID=2006-04-12T172228Z_01_COL295762_RTRIDST_0_SCIENCE-SRILANKA-TIME-DC.XML
2763 # [The Tamil Tigers] never accepted the original 1996 time change and simply
2764 # kept their clocks set five and a half hours ahead of Greenwich Mean
2765 # Time (GMT), in line with neighbor India.
2766 # From Paul Eggert (2006-04-18):
2767 # People who live in regions under Tamil control can use [TZ='Asia/Kolkata'],
2768 # as that zone has agreed with the Tamil areas since our cutoff date of 1970.
2769 
2770 # From K Sethu (2006-04-25):
2771 # I think the abbreviation LKT originated from the world of computers at
2772 # the time of or subsequent to the time zone changes by SL Government
2773 # twice in 1996 and probably SL Government or its standardization
2774 # agencies never declared an abbreviation as a national standard.
2775 #
2776 # I recollect before the recent change the government announcements
2777 # mentioning it as simply changing Sri Lanka Standard Time or Sri Lanka
2778 # Time and no mention was made about the abbreviation.
2779 #
2780 # If we look at Sri Lanka Department of Government's "Official News
2781 # Website of Sri Lanka" ... http://www.news.lk/ we can see that they
2782 # use SLT as abbreviation in time stamp at the beginning of each news
2783 # item....
2784 #
2785 # Within Sri Lanka I think LKT is well known among computer users and
2786 # administrators.  In my opinion SLT may not be a good choice because the
2787 # nation's largest telcom / internet operator Sri Lanka Telcom is well
2788 # known by that abbreviation - simply as SLT (there IP domains are
2789 # slt.lk and sltnet.lk).
2790 #
2791 # But if indeed our government has adopted SLT as standard abbreviation
2792 # (that we have not known so far) then  it is better that it be used for
2793 # all computers.
2794 
2795 # From Paul Eggert (2006-04-25):
2796 # One possibility is that we wait for a bit for the dust to settle down
2797 # and then see what people actually say in practice.
2798 
2799 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2800 Zone    Asia/Colombo    5:19:24 -       LMT     1880
2801                         5:19:32 -       MMT     1906        # Moratuwa Mean Time
2802                         5:30    -       IST     1942 Jan  5
2803                         5:30    0:30    IHST    1942 Sep
2804                         5:30    1:00    IST     1945 Oct 16  2:00
2805                         5:30    -       IST     1996 May 25  0:00
2806                         6:30    -       LKT     1996 Oct 26  0:30
2807                         6:00    -       LKT     2006 Apr 15  0:30
2808                         5:30    -       IST
2809 
2810 # Syria
2811 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2812 Rule    Syria   1920    1923    -       Apr     Sun>=15      2:00    1:00    S
2813 Rule    Syria   1920    1923    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00    0       -
2814 Rule    Syria   1962    only    -       Apr     29      2:00    1:00    S
2815 Rule    Syria   1962    only    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       -
2816 Rule    Syria   1963    1965    -       May     1       2:00    1:00    S
2817 Rule    Syria   1963    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       -
2818 Rule    Syria   1964    only    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       -
2819 Rule    Syria   1965    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       -
2820 Rule    Syria   1966    only    -       Apr     24      2:00    1:00    S
2821 Rule    Syria   1966    1976    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       -
2822 Rule    Syria   1967    1978    -       May     1       2:00    1:00    S
2823 Rule    Syria   1977    1978    -       Sep     1       2:00    0       -
2824 Rule    Syria   1983    1984    -       Apr     9       2:00    1:00    S
2825 Rule    Syria   1983    1984    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       -
2826 Rule    Syria   1986    only    -       Feb     16      2:00    1:00    S
2827 Rule    Syria   1986    only    -       Oct     9       2:00    0       -
2828 Rule    Syria   1987    only    -       Mar     1       2:00    1:00    S
2829 Rule    Syria   1987    1988    -       Oct     31      2:00    0       -
2830 Rule    Syria   1988    only    -       Mar     15      2:00    1:00    S
2831 Rule    Syria   1989    only    -       Mar     31      2:00    1:00    S
2832 Rule    Syria   1989    only    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       -
2833 Rule    Syria   1990    only    -       Apr     1       2:00    1:00    S
2834 Rule    Syria   1990    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       -
2835 Rule    Syria   1991    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
2836 Rule    Syria   1991    1992    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
2837 Rule    Syria   1992    only    -       Apr      8      0:00    1:00    S
2838 Rule    Syria   1993    only    -       Mar     26      0:00    1:00    S
2839 Rule    Syria   1993    only    -       Sep     25      0:00    0       -
2840 # IATA SSIM (1998-02) says 1998-04-02;
2841 # (1998-09) says 1999-03-29 and 1999-09-29; (1999-02) says 1999-04-02,
2842 # 2000-04-02, and 2001-04-02; (1999-09) says 2000-03-31 and 2001-03-31;
2843 # (2006) says 2006-03-31 and 2006-09-22;
2844 # for now ignore all these claims and go with Shanks & Pottenger,
2845 # except for the 2006-09-22 claim (which seems right for Ramadan).
2846 Rule    Syria   1994    1996    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
2847 Rule    Syria   1994    2005    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
2848 Rule    Syria   1997    1998    -       Mar     lastMon 0:00    1:00    S
2849 Rule    Syria   1999    2006    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
2850 # From Stephen Colebourne (2006-09-18):
2851 # According to IATA data, Syria will change DST on 21st September [21:00 UTC]
2852 # this year [only]....  This is probably related to Ramadan, like Egypt.
2853 Rule    Syria   2006    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
2854 # From Paul Eggert (2007-03-29):
2855 # Today the AP reported "Syria will switch to summertime at midnight Thursday."
2856 # http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/03/29/africa/ME-GEN-Syria-Time-Change.php
2857 Rule    Syria   2007    only    -       Mar     lastFri 0:00    1:00    S
2858 # From Jesper Nørgaard (2007-10-27):
2859 # The sister center ICARDA of my work CIMMYT is confirming that Syria DST will
2860 # not take place 1st November at 0:00 o'clock but 1st November at 24:00 or
2861 # rather Midnight between Thursday and Friday. This does make more sense than
2862 # having it between Wednesday and Thursday (two workdays in Syria) since the
2863 # weekend in Syria is not Saturday and Sunday, but Friday and Saturday. So now
2864 # it is implemented at midnight of the last workday before weekend...
2865 #
2866 # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-10-27):
2867 # Jesper Nørgaard Welen wrote:
2868 #
2869 # > "Winter local time in Syria will be observed at midnight of Thursday 1
2870 # > November 2007, and the clock will be put back 1 hour."
2871 #
2872 # I found confirmation on this in this gov.sy-article (Arabic):
2873 # http://wehda.alwehda.gov.sy/_print_veiw.asp?FileName=12521710520070926111247
2874 #
2875 # which using Google's translate tools says:
2876 # Council of Ministers also approved the commencement of work on
2877 # identifying the winter time as of Friday, 2/11/2007 where the 60th
2878 # minute delay at midnight Thursday 1/11/2007.
2879 Rule    Syria   2007    only    -       Nov      Fri>=1      0:00    0       -
2880 
2881 # From Stephen Colebourne (2008-03-17):
2882 # For everyone's info, I saw an IATA time zone change for [Syria] for
2883 # this month (March 2008) in the last day or so....
2884 # Country     Time Standard   --- DST Start ---   --- DST End ---  DST
2885 # Name        Zone Variation   Time    Date        Time    Date
2886 # Variation
2887 # Syrian Arab
2888 # Republic    SY    +0200      2200  03APR08       2100  30SEP08   +0300
2889 #                              2200  02APR09       2100  30SEP09   +0300
2890 #                              2200  01APR10       2100  30SEP10   +0300
2891 
2892 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-17):
2893 # Here's a link to English-language coverage by the Syrian Arab News
2894 # Agency (SANA)...
2895 # http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2008/03/11/165173.htm
2896 # ...which reads (in part) "The Cabinet approved the suggestion of the
2897 # Ministry of Electricity to begin daylight savings time on Friday April
2898 # 4th, advancing clocks one hour ahead on midnight of Thursday April 3rd."
2899 # Since Syria is two hours east of UTC, the 2200 and 2100 transition times
2900 # shown above match up with midnight in Syria.
2901 
2902 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-18):
2903 # My best guess at a Syrian rule is "the Friday nearest April 1";
2904 # coding that involves either using a "Mar Fri>=29" construct that old time zone
2905 # compilers can't handle  or having multiple Rules (a la Israel).
2906 # For now, use "Apr Fri>=1", and go with IATA on a uniform Sep 30 end.
2907 
2908 # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-10-07):
2909 # Syria has now officially decided to end DST on 2008-11-01 this year,
2910 # according to the following article in the Syrian Arab News Agency (SANA).
2911 #
2912 # The article is in Arabic, and seems to tell that they will go back to
2913 # winter time on 2008-11-01 at 00:00 local daylight time (delaying/setting
2914 # clocks back 60 minutes).
2915 #
2916 # http://sana.sy/ara/2/2008/10/07/195459.htm
2917 
2918 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-03-19):
2919 # Syria will start DST on 2009-03-27 00:00 this year according to many sources,
2920 # two examples:
2921 #
2922 # http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2009/03/17/217563.htm
2923 # (English, Syrian Arab News # Agency)
2924 # http://thawra.alwehda.gov.sy/_View_news2.asp?FileName=94459258720090318012209
2925 # (Arabic, gov-site)
2926 #
2927 # We have not found any sources saying anything about when DST ends this year.
2928 #
2929 # Our summary
2930 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-starts-march-27-2009.html
2931 
2932 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-27):
2933 # The Syrian Arab News Network on 2009-09-29 reported that Syria will
2934 # revert back to winter (standard) time on midnight between Thursday
2935 # 2009-10-29 and Friday 2009-10-30:
2936 # http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2009/09/29/247012.htm (Arabic)
2937 
2938 # From Arthur David Olson (2009-10-28):
2939 # We'll see if future DST switching times turn out to be end of the last
2940 # Thursday of the month or the start of the last Friday of the month or
2941 # something else. For now, use the start of the last Friday.
2942 
2943 # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-17):
2944 # The "Syrian News Station" reported on 2010-03-16 that the Council of
2945 # Ministers has decided that Syria will start DST on midnight Thursday
2946 # 2010-04-01: (midnight between Thursday and Friday):
2947 # http://sns.sy/sns/?path=news/read/11421 (Arabic)
2948 
2949 # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-26):
2950 # Today, Syria's government announced that they will start DST early on Friday
2951 # (00:00). This is a bit earlier than the past two years.
2952 #
2953 # From Syrian Arab News Agency, in Arabic:
2954 # http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2012/03/26/408215.htm
2955 #
2956 # Our brief summary:
2957 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-2012.html
2958 
2959 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-27):
2960 # Assume last Friday in March going forward XXX.
2961 
2962 Rule    Syria   2008    only    -       Apr     Fri>=1       0:00    1:00    S
2963 Rule    Syria   2008    only    -       Nov     1       0:00    0       -
2964 Rule    Syria   2009    only    -       Mar     lastFri 0:00    1:00    S
2965 Rule    Syria   2010    2011    -       Apr     Fri>=1       0:00    1:00    S
2966 Rule    Syria   2012    max     -       Mar     lastFri 0:00    1:00    S
2967 Rule    Syria   2009    max     -       Oct     lastFri 0:00    0       -
2968 
2969 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2970 Zone    Asia/Damascus   2:25:12 -       LMT     1920 # Dimashq
2971                         2:00    Syria   EE%sT
2972 
2973 # Tajikistan
2974 # From Shanks & Pottenger.
2975 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2976 Zone    Asia/Dushanbe   4:35:12 -       LMT     1924 May  2
2977                         5:00    -       DUST    1930 Jun 21 # Dushanbe Time
2978                         6:00 RussiaAsia DUS%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2979                         5:00    1:00    DUSST   1991 Sep  9  2:00s
2980                         5:00    -       TJT     # Tajikistan Time
2981 
2982 # Thailand
2983 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2984 Zone    Asia/Bangkok    6:42:04 -       LMT     1880
2985                         6:42:04 -       BMT     1920 Apr # Bangkok Mean Time
2986                         7:00    -       ICT
2987 Link Asia/Bangkok Asia/Phnom_Penh       # Cambodia
2988 Link Asia/Bangkok Asia/Vientiane        # Laos
2989 
2990 # Turkmenistan
2991 # From Shanks & Pottenger.
2992 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2993 Zone    Asia/Ashgabat   3:53:32 -       LMT     1924 May  2 # or Ashkhabad
2994                         4:00    -       ASHT    1930 Jun 21 # Ashkhabad Time
2995                         5:00 RussiaAsia ASH%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00
2996                         4:00 RussiaAsia ASH%sT  1991 Oct 27 # independence
2997                         4:00 RussiaAsia TM%sT   1992 Jan 19  2:00
2998                         5:00    -       TMT
2999 
3000 # United Arab Emirates
3001 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3002 Zone    Asia/Dubai      3:41:12 -       LMT     1920
3003                         4:00    -       GST
3004 Link Asia/Dubai Asia/Muscat     # Oman
3005 
3006 # Uzbekistan
3007 # Byalokoz 1919 says Uzbekistan was 4:27:53.
3008 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3009 Zone    Asia/Samarkand  4:27:53 -       LMT     1924 May  2
3010                         4:00    -       SAMT    1930 Jun 21 # Samarkand Time
3011                         5:00    -       SAMT    1981 Apr  1
3012                         5:00    1:00    SAMST   1981 Oct  1
3013                         6:00    -       TAST    1982 Apr  1 # Tashkent Time
3014                         5:00 RussiaAsia SAM%sT  1991 Sep  1 # independence
3015                         5:00 RussiaAsia UZ%sT   1992
3016                         5:00    -       UZT
3017 # Milne says Tashkent was 4:37:10.8; round to nearest.
3018 Zone    Asia/Tashkent   4:37:11 -       LMT     1924 May  2
3019                         5:00    -       TAST    1930 Jun 21 # Tashkent Time
3020                         6:00 RussiaAsia TAS%sT  1991 Mar 31  2:00
3021                         5:00 RussiaAsia TAS%sT  1991 Sep  1 # independence
3022                         5:00 RussiaAsia UZ%sT   1992
3023                         5:00    -       UZT
3024 
3025 # Vietnam
3026 
3027 # From Paul Eggert (2014-10-04):
3028 # Milne gives 7:16:56 for the meridian of Saigon in 1899, as being
3029 # used in Lower Laos, Cambodia, and Annam.  But this is quite a ways
3030 # from Saigon's location.  For now, ignore this and stick with Shanks
3031 # and Pottenger for LMT before 1906.
3032 
3033 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-18):
3034 # The English-language name of Vietnam's most populous city is "Ho Chi Minh
3035 # City"; use Ho_Chi_Minh below to avoid a name of more than 14 characters.
3036 
3037 # From Paul Eggert (2014-10-21) after a heads-up from Trần Ngọc Quân:
3038 # Trần Tiến Bình's authoritative book "Lịch Việt Nam: thế kỷ XX-XXI (1901-2100)"
3039 # (Nhà xuất bản Văn Hoá - Thông Tin, Hanoi, 2005), pp 49-50,
3040 # is quoted verbatim in:
3041 # http://www.thoigian.com.vn/?mPage=P80D01
3042 # is translated by Brian Inglis in:
3043 # http://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2014-October/021654.html
3044 # and is the basis for the information below.
3045 #
3046 # The 1906 transition was effective July 1 and standardized Indochina to
3047 # Phù Liễn Observatory, legally 104 deg. 17'17" east of Paris.
3048 # It's unclear whether this meant legal Paris Mean Time (00:09:21) or
3049 # the Paris Meridian (2 deg. 20'14.03" E); the former yields 07:06:30.1333...
3050 # and the latter 07:06:29.333... so either way it rounds to 07:06:30,
3051 # which is used below even though the modern-day Phù Liễn Observatory
3052 # is closer to 07:06:31.  Abbreviate Phù Liễn Mean Time as PLMT.
3053 #
3054 # The following transitions occurred in Indochina in general (before 1954)
3055 # and in South Vietnam in particular (after 1954):
3056 # To 07:00 on 1911-05-01.
3057 # To 08:00 on 1942-12-31 at 23:00.
3058 # To 09:00 in 1945-03-14 at 23:00.
3059 # To 07:00 on 1945-09-02 in Vietnam.
3060 # To 08:00 on 1947-04-01 in French-controlled Indochina.
3061 # To 07:00 on 1955-07-01 in South Vietnam.
3062 # To 08:00 on 1959-12-31 at 23:00 in South Vietnam.
3063 # To 07:00 on 1975-06-13 in South Vietnam.
3064 #
3065 # Trần cites the following sources; it's unclear which supplied the info above.
3066 #
3067 # Hoàng Xuân Hãn: "Lịch và lịch Việt Nam". Tập san Khoa học Xã hội,
3068 # No. 9, Paris, February 1982.
3069 #
3070 # Lê Thành Lân: "Lịch và niên biểu lịch sử hai mươi thế kỷ (0001-2010)",
3071 # NXB Thống kê, Hanoi, 2000.
3072 #
3073 # Lê Thành Lân: "Lịch hai thế kỷ (1802-2010) và các lịch vĩnh cửu",
3074 # NXB Thuận Hoá, Huế, 1995.
3075 
3076 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3077 Zone Asia/Ho_Chi_Minh   7:06:40 -       LMT     1906 Jul  1
3078                         7:06:30 -       PLMT    1911 May  1
3079                         7:00    -       ICT     1942 Dec 31 23:00
3080                         8:00    -       IDT     1945 Mar 14 23:00
3081                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep  2
3082                         7:00    -       ICT     1947 Apr  1
3083                         8:00    -       IDT     1955 Jul  1
3084                         7:00    -       ICT     1959 Dec 31 23:00
3085                         8:00    -       IDT     1975 Jun 13
3086                         7:00    -       ICT
3087 
3088 # Yemen
3089 # See Asia/Riyadh.
--- EOF ---