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   3 #
   4 # This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
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   7 # particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
   8 # by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
   9 #
  10 # This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  11 # ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  12 # FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  13 # version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  14 # accompanied this code).
  15 #
  16 # You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  17 # 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  18 # Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  19 #
  20 # Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  21 # or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  22 # questions.
  23 #
  24 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
  25 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
  26 
  27 # This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
  28 # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
  29 # tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
  30 # the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
  31 
  32 # From Paul Eggert (2017-02-10):
  33 #
  34 # Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:
  35 # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
  36 # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
  37 # Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.
  38 #
  39 # Many years ago Gwillim Law wrote that a good source
  40 # for time zone data was the International Air Transport
  41 # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
  42 # published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
  43 # of the IATA's data after 1990.  Except where otherwise noted,
  44 # IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.
  45 #
  46 # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
  47 # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
  48 #
  49 # Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for
  50 # entries through 1991, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.
  51 #
  52 # Other sources occasionally used include:
  53 #
  54 #       Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
  55 #       Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated),
  56 #       which I found in the UCLA library.
  57 #
  58 #       William Willett, The Waste of Daylight, 19th edition
  59 #       <http://cs.ucla.edu/~eggert/The-Waste-of-Daylight-19th.pdf>
  60 #       [PDF] (1914-03)
  61 #
  62 #       Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94
  63 #       <https://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359>.  He writes:
  64 #       "It is requested that corrections and additions to these tables
  65 #       may be sent to Mr. John Milne, Royal Geographical Society,
  66 #       Savile Row, London."  Nowadays please email them to tz@iana.org.
  67 #
  68 #       Byalokoz EL. New Counting of Time in Russia since July 1, 1919.
  69 #       This Russian-language source was consulted by Vladimir Karpinsky; see
  70 #       https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2014-August/021320.html
  71 #       The full Russian citation is:
  72 #       Бялокоз, Евгений Людвигович. Новый счет времени в течении суток
  73 #       введенный декретом Совета народных комиссаров для всей России с 1-го
  74 #       июля 1919 г. / Изд. 2-е Междуведомственной комиссии. - Петроград:
  75 #       Десятая гос. тип., 1919.
  76 #       http://resolver.gpntb.ru/purl?docushare/dsweb/Get/Resource-2011/Byalokoz__E.L.__Novyy__schet__vremeni__v__techenie__sutok__izd__2(1).pdf
  77 #
  78 #       Brazil's Divisão Serviço da Hora (DSHO),
  79 #       History of Summer Time
  80 #       <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HISTHV.htm>
  81 #       (1998-09-21, in Portuguese)
  82 #
  83 # I invented the abbreviations marked '*' in the following table;
  84 # the rest are variants of the "xMT" pattern for a city's mean time,
  85 # or are from other sources.  Corrections are welcome!
  86 #                   std  dst  2dst
  87 #                   LMT             Local Mean Time
  88 #       -4:00       AST  ADT        Atlantic
  89 #        0:00       GMT  BST  BDST  Greenwich, British Summer
  90 #        0:00       GMT  IST        Greenwich, Irish Summer
  91 #        0:00       WET  WEST WEMT  Western Europe
  92 #        0:19:32.13 AMT* NST*       Amsterdam, Netherlands Summer (1835-1937)
  93 #        1:00       BST             British Standard (1968-1971)
  94 #        1:00       CET  CEST CEMT  Central Europe
  95 #        1:00:14    SET             Swedish (1879-1899)
  96 #        1:36:34    RMT* LST*       Riga, Latvian Summer (1880-1926)*
  97 #        2:00       EET  EEST       Eastern Europe
  98 #        3:00       MSK  MSD  MDST* Moscow
  99 
 100 # From Peter Ilieve (1994-12-04),
 101 # The original six [EU members]: Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy,
 102 # Luxembourg, the Netherlands.
 103 # Plus, from 1 Jan 73: Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom.
 104 # Plus, from 1 Jan 81: Greece.
 105 # Plus, from 1 Jan 86: Spain, Portugal.
 106 # Plus, from 1 Jan 95: Austria, Finland, Sweden. (Norway negotiated terms for
 107 # entry but in a referendum on 28 Nov 94 the people voted No by 52.2% to 47.8%
 108 # on a turnout of 88.6%. This was almost the same result as Norway's previous
 109 # referendum in 1972, they are the only country to have said No twice.
 110 # Referendums in the other three countries voted Yes.)
 111 # ...
 112 # Estonia ... uses EU dates but not at 01:00 GMT, they use midnight GMT.
 113 # I don't think they know yet what they will do from 1996 onwards.
 114 # ...
 115 # There shouldn't be any [current members who are not using EU rules].
 116 # A Directive has the force of law, member states are obliged to enact
 117 # national law to implement it. The only contentious issue was the
 118 # different end date for the UK and Ireland, and this was always allowed
 119 # in the Directive.
 120 
 121 
 122 ###############################################################################
 123 
 124 # Britain (United Kingdom) and Ireland (Eire)
 125 
 126 # From Peter Ilieve (1994-07-06):
 127 #
 128 # On 17 Jan 1994 the Independent, a UK quality newspaper, had a piece about
 129 # historical vistas along the Thames in west London. There was a photo
 130 # and a sketch map showing some of the sightlines involved. One paragraph
 131 # of the text said:
 132 #
 133 # 'An old stone obelisk marking a forgotten terrestrial meridian stands
 134 # beside the river at Kew. In the 18th century, before time and longitude
 135 # was standardised by the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, scholars observed
 136 # this stone and the movement of stars from Kew Observatory nearby. They
 137 # made their calculations and set the time for the Horse Guards and Parliament,
 138 # but now the stone is obscured by scrubwood and can only be seen by walking
 139 # along the towpath within a few yards of it.'
 140 #
 141 # I have a one inch to one mile map of London and my estimate of the stone's
 142 # position is 51 degrees 28' 30" N, 0 degrees 18' 45" W. The longitude should
 143 # be within about +-2". The Ordnance Survey grid reference is TQ172761.
 144 #
 145 # [This yields GMTOFF = -0:01:15 for London LMT in the 18th century.]
 146 
 147 # From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18):
 148 #
 149 # Howse writes that Britain was the first country to use standard time.
 150 # The railways cared most about the inconsistencies of local mean time,
 151 # and it was they who forced a uniform time on the country.
 152 # The original idea was credited to Dr. William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828)
 153 # and was popularized by Abraham Follett Osler (1808-1903).
 154 # The first railway to adopt London time was the Great Western Railway
 155 # in November 1840; other railways followed suit, and by 1847 most
 156 # (though not all) railways used London time.  On 1847-09-22 the
 157 # Railway Clearing House, an industry standards body, recommended that GMT be
 158 # adopted at all stations as soon as the General Post Office permitted it.
 159 # The transition occurred on 12-01 for the L&NW, the Caledonian,
 160 # and presumably other railways; the January 1848 Bradshaw's lists many
 161 # railways as using GMT.  By 1855 the vast majority of public
 162 # clocks in Britain were set to GMT (though some, like the great clock
 163 # on Tom Tower at Christ Church, Oxford, were fitted with two minute hands,
 164 # one for local time and one for GMT).  The last major holdout was the legal
 165 # system, which stubbornly stuck to local time for many years, leading
 166 # to oddities like polls opening at 08:13 and closing at 16:13.
 167 # The legal system finally switched to GMT when the Statutes (Definition
 168 # of Time) Act took effect; it received the Royal Assent on 1880-08-02.
 169 #
 170 # In the tables below, we condense this complicated story into a single
 171 # transition date for London, namely 1847-12-01.  We don't know as much
 172 # about Dublin, so we use 1880-08-02, the legal transition time.
 173 
 174 # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-19):
 175 # The ancients had no need for daylight saving, as they kept time
 176 # informally or via hours whose length depended on the time of year.
 177 # Daylight saving time in its modern sense was invented by the
 178 # New Zealand entomologist George Vernon Hudson (1867-1946),
 179 # whose day job as a postal clerk led him to value
 180 # after-hours daylight in which to pursue his research.
 181 # In 1895 he presented a paper to the Wellington Philosophical Society
 182 # that proposed a two-hour daylight-saving shift.  See:
 183 # Hudson GV. On seasonal time-adjustment in countries south of lat. 30 deg.
 184 # Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute. 1895;28:734
 185 # http://rsnz.natlib.govt.nz/volume/rsnz_28/rsnz_28_00_006110.html
 186 # Although some interest was expressed in New Zealand, his proposal
 187 # did not find its way into law and eventually it was almost forgotten.
 188 #
 189 # In England, DST was independently reinvented by William Willett (1857-1915),
 190 # a London builder and member of the Royal Astronomical Society
 191 # who circulated a pamphlet "The Waste of Daylight" (1907)
 192 # that proposed advancing clocks 20 minutes on each of four Sundays in April,
 193 # and retarding them by the same amount on four Sundays in September.
 194 # A bill was drafted in 1909 and introduced in Parliament several times,
 195 # but it met with ridicule and opposition, especially from farming interests.
 196 # Later editions of the pamphlet proposed one-hour summer time, and
 197 # it was eventually adopted as a wartime measure in 1916.
 198 # See: Summer Time Arrives Early, The Times (2000-05-18).
 199 # A monument to Willett was unveiled on 1927-05-21, in an open space in
 200 # a 45-acre wood near Chislehurst, Kent that was purchased by popular
 201 # subscription and open to the public.  On the south face of the monolith,
 202 # designed by G. W. Miller, is the William Willett Memorial Sundial,
 203 # which is permanently set to Summer Time.
 204 
 205 # From Winston Churchill (1934-04-28):
 206 # It is one of the paradoxes of history that we should owe the boon of
 207 # summer time, which gives every year to the people of this country
 208 # between 160 and 170 hours more daylight leisure, to a war which
 209 # plunged Europe into darkness for four years, and shook the
 210 # foundations of civilization throughout the world.
 211 #       -- "A Silent Toast to William Willett", Pictorial Weekly;
 212 #       republished in Finest Hour (Spring 2002) 1(114):26
 213 #       https://www.winstonchurchill.org/publications/finest-hour/finest-hour-114/a-silent-toast-to-william-willett-by-winston-s-churchill
 214 
 215 # From Paul Eggert (2015-08-08):
 216 # The OED Supplement says that the English originally said "Daylight Saving"
 217 # when they were debating the adoption of DST in 1908; but by 1916 this
 218 # term appears only in quotes taken from DST's opponents, whereas the
 219 # proponents (who eventually won the argument) are quoted as using "Summer".
 220 # The term "Summer Time" was introduced by Herbert Samuel, Home Secretary; see:
 221 # Viscount Samuel. Leisure in a Democracy. Cambridge University Press
 222 # ISBN 978-1-107-49471-8 (1949, reissued 2015), p 8.
 223 
 224 # From Arthur David Olson (1989-01-19):
 225 # A source at the British Information Office in New York avers that it's
 226 # known as "British" Summer Time in all parts of the United Kingdom.
 227 
 228 # Date: 4 Jan 89 08:57:25 GMT (Wed)
 229 # From: Jonathan Leffler
 230 # [British Summer Time] is fixed annually by Act of Parliament.
 231 # If you can predict what Parliament will do, you should be in
 232 # politics making a fortune, not computing.
 233 
 234 # From Chris Carrier (1996-06-14):
 235 # I remember reading in various wartime issues of the London Times the
 236 # acronym BDST for British Double Summer Time.  Look for the published
 237 # time of sunrise and sunset in The Times, when BDST was in effect, and
 238 # if you find a zone reference it will say, "All times B.D.S.T."
 239 
 240 # From Joseph S. Myers (1999-09-02):
 241 # ... some military cables (WO 219/4100 - this is a copy from the
 242 # main SHAEF archives held in the US National Archives, SHAEF/5252/8/516)
 243 # agree that the usage is BDST (this appears in a message dated 17 Feb 1945).
 244 
 245 # From Joseph S. Myers (2000-10-03):
 246 # On 18th April 1941, Sir Stephen Tallents of the BBC wrote to Sir
 247 # Alexander Maxwell of the Home Office asking whether there was any
 248 # official designation; the reply of the 21st was that there wasn't
 249 # but he couldn't think of anything better than the "Double British
 250 # Summer Time" that the BBC had been using informally.
 251 # https://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/bbc-19410418.png
 252 # https://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/ho-19410421.png
 253 
 254 # From Sir Alexander Maxwell in the above-mentioned letter (1941-04-21):
 255 # [N]o official designation has as far as I know been adopted for the time
 256 # which is to be introduced in May....
 257 # I cannot think of anything better than "Double British Summer Time"
 258 # which could not be said to run counter to any official description.
 259 
 260 # From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
 261 # Howse writes (p 157) 'DBST' too, but 'BDST' seems to have been common
 262 # and follows the more usual convention of putting the location name first,
 263 # so we use 'BDST'.
 264 
 265 # Peter Ilieve (1998-04-19) described at length
 266 # the history of summer time legislation in the United Kingdom.
 267 # Since 1998 Joseph S. Myers has been updating
 268 # and extending this list, which can be found in
 269 # https://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/
 270 
 271 # From Joseph S. Myers (1998-01-06):
 272 #
 273 # The legal time in the UK outside of summer time is definitely GMT, not UTC;
 274 # see Lord Tanlaw's speech
 275 # https://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld199798/ldhansrd/vo970611/text/70611-10.htm#70611-10_head0
 276 # (Lords Hansard 11 June 1997 columns 964 to 976).
 277 
 278 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
 279 #
 280 # For lack of other data, follow Shanks & Pottenger for Eire in 1940-1948.
 281 #
 282 # Given Ilieve and Myers's data, the following claims by Shanks & Pottenger
 283 # are incorrect:
 284 #     * Wales did not switch from GMT to daylight saving time until
 285 #       1921 Apr 3, when they began to conform with the rest of Great Britain.
 286 # Actually, Wales was identical after 1880.
 287 #     * Eire had two transitions on 1916 Oct 1.
 288 # It actually just had one transition.
 289 #     * Northern Ireland used single daylight saving time throughout WW II.
 290 # Actually, it conformed to Britain.
 291 #     * GB-Eire changed standard time to 1 hour ahead of GMT on 1968-02-18.
 292 # Actually, that date saw the usual switch to summer time.
 293 # Standard time was not changed until 1968-10-27 (the clocks didn't change).
 294 #
 295 # Here is another incorrect claim by Shanks & Pottenger:
 296 #     * Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man did not switch from GMT
 297 #       to daylight saving time until 1921 Apr 3, when they began to
 298 #       conform with Great Britain.
 299 # S.R.&O. 1916, No. 382 and HO 45/10811/312364 (quoted above) say otherwise.
 300 #
 301 # The following claim by Shanks & Pottenger is possible though doubtful;
 302 # we'll ignore it for now.
 303 #     * Dublin's 1971-10-31 switch was at 02:00, even though London's was 03:00.
 304 #
 305 #
 306 # Whitman says Dublin Mean Time was -0:25:21, which is more precise than
 307 # Shanks & Pottenger.
 308 # Perhaps this was Dunsink Observatory Time, as Dunsink Observatory
 309 # (8 km NW of Dublin's center) seemingly was to Dublin as Greenwich was
 310 # to London.  For example:
 311 #
 312 #   "Timeball on the ballast office is down.  Dunsink time."
 313 #   -- James Joyce, Ulysses
 314 
 315 # "Countess Markievicz ... claimed that the [1916] abolition of Dublin Mean Time
 316 # was among various actions undertaken by the 'English' government that
 317 # would 'put the whole country into the SF (Sinn Féin) camp'.  She claimed
 318 # Irish 'public feeling (was) outraged by forcing of English time on us'."
 319 # -- Parsons M. Dublin lost its time zone - and 25 minutes - after 1916 Rising.
 320 # Irish Times 2014-10-27.
 321 # https://www.irishtimes.com/news/politics/dublin-lost-its-time-zone-and-25-minutes-after-1916-rising-1.1977411
 322 
 323 # From Joseph S. Myers (2005-01-26):
 324 # Irish laws are available online at <http://www.irishstatutebook.ie>.
 325 # These include various relating to legal time, for example:
 326 #
 327 # ZZA13Y1923.html ZZA12Y1924.html ZZA8Y1925.html ZZSIV20PG1267.html
 328 #
 329 # ZZSI71Y1947.html ZZSI128Y1948.html ZZSI23Y1949.html ZZSI41Y1950.html
 330 # ZZSI27Y1951.html ZZSI73Y1952.html
 331 #
 332 # ZZSI11Y1961.html ZZSI232Y1961.html ZZSI182Y1962.html
 333 # ZZSI167Y1963.html ZZSI257Y1964.html ZZSI198Y1967.html
 334 # ZZA23Y1968.html ZZA17Y1971.html
 335 #
 336 # ZZSI67Y1981.html ZZSI212Y1982.html ZZSI45Y1986.html
 337 # ZZSI264Y1988.html ZZSI52Y1990.html ZZSI371Y1992.html
 338 # ZZSI395Y1994.html ZZSI484Y1997.html ZZSI506Y2001.html
 339 #
 340 # [These are all relative to the root, e.g., the first is
 341 # <http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/ZZA13Y1923.html>.]
 342 #
 343 # (These are those I found, but there could be more.  In any case these
 344 # should allow various updates to the comments in the europe file to cover
 345 # the laws applicable in Ireland.)
 346 #
 347 # (Note that the time in the Republic of Ireland since 1968 has been defined
 348 # in terms of standard time being GMT+1 with a period of winter time when it
 349 # is GMT, rather than standard time being GMT with a period of summer time
 350 # being GMT+1.)
 351 
 352 # From Paul Eggert (1999-03-28):
 353 # Clive Feather (<news:859845706.26043.0@office.demon.net>, 1997-03-31)
 354 # reports that Folkestone (Cheriton) Shuttle Terminal uses Concession Time
 355 # (CT), equivalent to French civil time.
 356 # Julian Hill (<news:36118128.5A14@virgin.net>, 1998-09-30) reports that
 357 # trains between Dollands Moor (the freight facility next door)
 358 # and Frethun run in CT.
 359 # My admittedly uninformed guess is that the terminal has two authorities,
 360 # the French concession operators and the British civil authorities,
 361 # and that the time depends on who you're talking to.
 362 # If, say, the British police were called to the station for some reason,
 363 # I would expect the official police report to use GMT/BST and not CET/CEST.
 364 # This is a borderline case, but for now let's stick to GMT/BST.
 365 
 366 # From an anonymous contributor (1996-06-02):
 367 # The law governing time in Ireland is under Statutory Instrument SI 395/94,
 368 # which gives force to European Union 7th Council Directive No. 94/21/EC.
 369 # Under this directive, the Minister for Justice in Ireland makes appropriate
 370 # regulations. I spoke this morning with the Secretary of the Department of
 371 # Justice (tel +353 1 678 9711) who confirmed to me that the correct name is
 372 # "Irish Summer Time", abbreviated to "IST".
 373 
 374 # Michael Deckers (2017-06-01) gave the following URLs for Ireland's
 375 # Summer Time Act, 1925 and Summer Time Orders, 1926 and 1947:
 376 # http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1925/act/8/enacted/en/print.html
 377 # http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1926/sro/919/made/en/print.html
 378 # http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1947/sro/71/made/en/print.html
 379 
 380 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 381 # Summer Time Act, 1916
 382 Rule    GB-Eire 1916    only    -       May     21      2:00s   1:00    BST
 383 Rule    GB-Eire 1916    only    -       Oct      1      2:00s   0       GMT
 384 # S.R.&O. 1917, No. 358
 385 Rule    GB-Eire 1917    only    -       Apr      8      2:00s   1:00    BST
 386 Rule    GB-Eire 1917    only    -       Sep     17      2:00s   0       GMT
 387 # S.R.&O. 1918, No. 274
 388 Rule    GB-Eire 1918    only    -       Mar     24      2:00s   1:00    BST
 389 Rule    GB-Eire 1918    only    -       Sep     30      2:00s   0       GMT
 390 # S.R.&O. 1919, No. 297
 391 Rule    GB-Eire 1919    only    -       Mar     30      2:00s   1:00    BST
 392 Rule    GB-Eire 1919    only    -       Sep     29      2:00s   0       GMT
 393 # S.R.&O. 1920, No. 458
 394 Rule    GB-Eire 1920    only    -       Mar     28      2:00s   1:00    BST
 395 # S.R.&O. 1920, No. 1844
 396 Rule    GB-Eire 1920    only    -       Oct     25      2:00s   0       GMT
 397 # S.R.&O. 1921, No. 363
 398 Rule    GB-Eire 1921    only    -       Apr      3      2:00s   1:00    BST
 399 Rule    GB-Eire 1921    only    -       Oct      3      2:00s   0       GMT
 400 # S.R.&O. 1922, No. 264
 401 Rule    GB-Eire 1922    only    -       Mar     26      2:00s   1:00    BST
 402 Rule    GB-Eire 1922    only    -       Oct      8      2:00s   0       GMT
 403 # The Summer Time Act, 1922
 404 Rule    GB-Eire 1923    only    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 405 Rule    GB-Eire 1923    1924    -       Sep     Sun>=16      2:00s   0       GMT
 406 Rule    GB-Eire 1924    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 407 Rule    GB-Eire 1925    1926    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 408 # The Summer Time Act, 1925
 409 Rule    GB-Eire 1925    1938    -       Oct     Sun>=2       2:00s   0       GMT
 410 Rule    GB-Eire 1927    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 411 Rule    GB-Eire 1928    1929    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 412 Rule    GB-Eire 1930    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 413 Rule    GB-Eire 1931    1932    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 414 Rule    GB-Eire 1933    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 415 Rule    GB-Eire 1934    only    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 416 Rule    GB-Eire 1935    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 417 Rule    GB-Eire 1936    1937    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 418 Rule    GB-Eire 1938    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 419 Rule    GB-Eire 1939    only    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 420 # S.R.&O. 1939, No. 1379
 421 Rule    GB-Eire 1939    only    -       Nov     Sun>=16      2:00s   0       GMT
 422 # S.R.&O. 1940, No. 172 and No. 1883
 423 Rule    GB-Eire 1940    only    -       Feb     Sun>=23      2:00s   1:00    BST
 424 # S.R.&O. 1941, No. 476
 425 Rule    GB-Eire 1941    only    -       May     Sun>=2       1:00s   2:00    BDST
 426 Rule    GB-Eire 1941    1943    -       Aug     Sun>=9       1:00s   1:00    BST
 427 # S.R.&O. 1942, No. 506
 428 Rule    GB-Eire 1942    1944    -       Apr     Sun>=2       1:00s   2:00    BDST
 429 # S.R.&O. 1944, No. 932
 430 Rule    GB-Eire 1944    only    -       Sep     Sun>=16      1:00s   1:00    BST
 431 # S.R.&O. 1945, No. 312
 432 Rule    GB-Eire 1945    only    -       Apr     Mon>=2       1:00s   2:00    BDST
 433 Rule    GB-Eire 1945    only    -       Jul     Sun>=9       1:00s   1:00    BST
 434 # S.R.&O. 1945, No. 1208
 435 Rule    GB-Eire 1945    1946    -       Oct     Sun>=2       2:00s   0       GMT
 436 Rule    GB-Eire 1946    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 437 # The Summer Time Act, 1947
 438 Rule    GB-Eire 1947    only    -       Mar     16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 439 Rule    GB-Eire 1947    only    -       Apr     13      1:00s   2:00    BDST
 440 Rule    GB-Eire 1947    only    -       Aug     10      1:00s   1:00    BST
 441 Rule    GB-Eire 1947    only    -       Nov      2      2:00s   0       GMT
 442 # Summer Time Order, 1948 (S.I. 1948/495)
 443 Rule    GB-Eire 1948    only    -       Mar     14      2:00s   1:00    BST
 444 Rule    GB-Eire 1948    only    -       Oct     31      2:00s   0       GMT
 445 # Summer Time Order, 1949 (S.I. 1949/373)
 446 Rule    GB-Eire 1949    only    -       Apr      3      2:00s   1:00    BST
 447 Rule    GB-Eire 1949    only    -       Oct     30      2:00s   0       GMT
 448 # Summer Time Order, 1950 (S.I. 1950/518)
 449 # Summer Time Order, 1951 (S.I. 1951/430)
 450 # Summer Time Order, 1952 (S.I. 1952/451)
 451 Rule    GB-Eire 1950    1952    -       Apr     Sun>=14      2:00s   1:00    BST
 452 Rule    GB-Eire 1950    1952    -       Oct     Sun>=21      2:00s   0       GMT
 453 # revert to the rules of the Summer Time Act, 1925
 454 Rule    GB-Eire 1953    only    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 455 Rule    GB-Eire 1953    1960    -       Oct     Sun>=2       2:00s   0       GMT
 456 Rule    GB-Eire 1954    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 457 Rule    GB-Eire 1955    1956    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 458 Rule    GB-Eire 1957    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 459 Rule    GB-Eire 1958    1959    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 460 Rule    GB-Eire 1960    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 461 # Summer Time Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/71)
 462 # Summer Time (1962) Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/2465)
 463 # Summer Time Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/81)
 464 Rule    GB-Eire 1961    1963    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    BST
 465 Rule    GB-Eire 1961    1968    -       Oct     Sun>=23      2:00s   0       GMT
 466 # Summer Time (1964) Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/2101)
 467 # Summer Time Order, 1964 (S.I. 1964/1201)
 468 # Summer Time Order, 1967 (S.I. 1967/1148)
 469 Rule    GB-Eire 1964    1967    -       Mar     Sun>=19      2:00s   1:00    BST
 470 # Summer Time Order, 1968 (S.I. 1968/117)
 471 Rule    GB-Eire 1968    only    -       Feb     18      2:00s   1:00    BST
 472 # The British Standard Time Act, 1968
 473 #       (no summer time)
 474 # The Summer Time Act, 1972
 475 Rule    GB-Eire 1972    1980    -       Mar     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 476 Rule    GB-Eire 1972    1980    -       Oct     Sun>=23      2:00s   0       GMT
 477 # Summer Time Order, 1980 (S.I. 1980/1089)
 478 # Summer Time Order, 1982 (S.I. 1982/1673)
 479 # Summer Time Order, 1986 (S.I. 1986/223)
 480 # Summer Time Order, 1988 (S.I. 1988/931)
 481 Rule    GB-Eire 1981    1995    -       Mar     lastSun 1:00u   1:00    BST
 482 Rule    GB-Eire 1981    1989    -       Oct     Sun>=23      1:00u   0       GMT
 483 # Summer Time Order, 1989 (S.I. 1989/985)
 484 # Summer Time Order, 1992 (S.I. 1992/1729)
 485 # Summer Time Order 1994 (S.I. 1994/2798)
 486 Rule    GB-Eire 1990    1995    -       Oct     Sun>=22      1:00u   0       GMT
 487 # Summer Time Order 1997 (S.I. 1997/2982)
 488 # See EU for rules starting in 1996.
 489 #
 490 # Use Europe/London for Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man.
 491 
 492 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 493 Zone    Europe/London   -0:01:15 -      LMT     1847 Dec  1  0:00s
 494                          0:00   GB-Eire %s      1968 Oct 27
 495                          1:00   -       BST     1971 Oct 31  2:00u
 496                          0:00   GB-Eire %s      1996
 497                          0:00   EU      GMT/BST
 498 Link    Europe/London   Europe/Jersey
 499 Link    Europe/London   Europe/Guernsey
 500 Link    Europe/London   Europe/Isle_of_Man
 501 
 502 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 503 Zone    Europe/Dublin   -0:25:00 -      LMT     1880 Aug  2
 504                         -0:25:21 -      DMT     1916 May 21  2:00s # Dublin MT
 505                         -0:25:21 1:00   IST     1916 Oct  1  2:00s
 506                          0:00   GB-Eire %s      1921 Dec  6 # independence
 507                          0:00   GB-Eire GMT/IST 1940 Feb 25  2:00s
 508                          0:00   1:00    IST     1946 Oct  6  2:00s
 509                          0:00   -       GMT     1947 Mar 16  2:00s
 510                          0:00   1:00    IST     1947 Nov  2  2:00s
 511                          0:00   -       GMT     1948 Apr 18  2:00s
 512                          0:00   GB-Eire GMT/IST 1968 Oct 27
 513                          1:00   -       IST     1971 Oct 31  2:00u
 514                          0:00   GB-Eire GMT/IST 1996
 515                          0:00   EU      GMT/IST
 516 
 517 ###############################################################################
 518 
 519 # Europe
 520 
 521 # EU rules are for the European Union, previously known as the EC, EEC,
 522 # Common Market, etc.
 523 
 524 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 525 Rule    EU      1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1        1:00u  1:00    S
 526 Rule    EU      1977    only    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
 527 Rule    EU      1978    only    -       Oct      1       1:00u  0       -
 528 Rule    EU      1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
 529 Rule    EU      1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  1:00u  1:00    S
 530 Rule    EU      1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
 531 # The most recent directive covers the years starting in 2002.  See:
 532 # Directive 2000/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
 533 # of 19 January 2001 on summer-time arrangements.
 534 # http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32000L0084:EN:NOT
 535 
 536 # W-Eur differs from EU only in that W-Eur uses standard time.
 537 Rule    W-Eur   1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1        1:00s  1:00    S
 538 Rule    W-Eur   1977    only    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00s  0       -
 539 Rule    W-Eur   1978    only    -       Oct      1       1:00s  0       -
 540 Rule    W-Eur   1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00s  0       -
 541 Rule    W-Eur   1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  1:00s  1:00    S
 542 Rule    W-Eur   1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  1:00s  0       -
 543 
 544 # Older C-Eur rules are for convenience in the tables.
 545 # From 1977 on, C-Eur differs from EU only in that C-Eur uses standard time.
 546 Rule    C-Eur   1916    only    -       Apr     30      23:00   1:00    S
 547 Rule    C-Eur   1916    only    -       Oct      1       1:00   0       -
 548 Rule    C-Eur   1917    1918    -       Apr     Mon>=15       2:00s  1:00    S
 549 Rule    C-Eur   1917    1918    -       Sep     Mon>=15       2:00s  0       -
 550 Rule    C-Eur   1940    only    -       Apr      1       2:00s  1:00    S
 551 Rule    C-Eur   1942    only    -       Nov      2       2:00s  0       -
 552 Rule    C-Eur   1943    only    -       Mar     29       2:00s  1:00    S
 553 Rule    C-Eur   1943    only    -       Oct      4       2:00s  0       -
 554 Rule    C-Eur   1944    1945    -       Apr     Mon>=1        2:00s  1:00    S
 555 # Whitman gives 1944 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
 556 Rule    C-Eur   1944    only    -       Oct      2       2:00s  0       -
 557 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2008-07-13):
 558 #
 559 # I found what is probably a typo of 2:00 which should perhaps be 2:00s
 560 # in the C-Eur rule from tz database version 2008d (this part was
 561 # corrected in version 2008d). The circumstantial evidence is simply the
 562 # tz database itself, as seen below:
 563 #
 564 # Zone Europe/Paris 0:09:21 - LMT 1891 Mar 15  0:01
 565 #    0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16  3:00
 566 #
 567 # Zone Europe/Monaco 0:29:32 - LMT 1891 Mar 15
 568 #    0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16  3:00
 569 #
 570 # Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884
 571 #    1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16  2:00s
 572 #
 573 # Rule France 1945 only - Sep 16  3:00 0 -
 574 # Rule Belgium 1945 only - Sep 16  2:00s 0 -
 575 # Rule Neth 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
 576 #
 577 # The rule line to be changed is:
 578 #
 579 # Rule C-Eur 1945 only - Sep 16  2:00 0 -
 580 #
 581 # It seems that Paris, Monaco, Rule France, Rule Belgium all agree on
 582 # 2:00 standard time, e.g. 3:00 local time.  However there are no
 583 # countries that use C-Eur rules in September 1945, so the only items
 584 # affected are apparently these fictitious zones that translate acronyms
 585 # CET and MET:
 586 #
 587 # Zone CET  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT
 588 # Zone MET  1:00 C-Eur ME%sT
 589 #
 590 # It this is right then the corrected version would look like:
 591 #
 592 # Rule C-Eur 1945 only - Sep 16  2:00s 0 -
 593 #
 594 # A small step for mankind though 8-)
 595 Rule    C-Eur   1945    only    -       Sep     16       2:00s  0       -
 596 Rule    C-Eur   1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1        2:00s  1:00    S
 597 Rule    C-Eur   1977    only    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 598 Rule    C-Eur   1978    only    -       Oct      1       2:00s  0       -
 599 Rule    C-Eur   1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 600 Rule    C-Eur   1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
 601 Rule    C-Eur   1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 602 
 603 # E-Eur differs from EU only in that E-Eur switches at midnight local time.
 604 Rule    E-Eur   1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1        0:00   1:00    S
 605 Rule    E-Eur   1977    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       -
 606 Rule    E-Eur   1978    only    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       -
 607 Rule    E-Eur   1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       -
 608 Rule    E-Eur   1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  0:00   1:00    S
 609 Rule    E-Eur   1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  0:00   0       -
 610 
 611 
 612 # Daylight saving time for Russia and the Soviet Union
 613 #
 614 # The 1917-1921 decree URLs are from Alexander Belopolsky (2016-08-23).
 615 
 616 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 617 Rule    Russia  1917    only    -       Jul      1      23:00   1:00    MST  # Moscow Summer Time
 618 #
 619 # Decree No. 142 (1917-12-22) http://istmat.info/node/28137
 620 Rule    Russia  1917    only    -       Dec     28       0:00   0       MMT  # Moscow Mean Time
 621 #
 622 # Decree No. 497 (1918-05-30) http://istmat.info/node/30001
 623 Rule    Russia  1918    only    -       May     31      22:00   2:00    MDST # Moscow Double Summer Time
 624 Rule    Russia  1918    only    -       Sep     16       1:00   1:00    MST
 625 #
 626 # Decree No. 258 (1919-05-29) http://istmat.info/node/37949
 627 Rule    Russia  1919    only    -       May     31      23:00   2:00    MDST
 628 #
 629 Rule    Russia  1919    only    -       Jul      1       0:00u  1:00    MSD
 630 Rule    Russia  1919    only    -       Aug     16       0:00   0       MSK
 631 #
 632 # Decree No. 63 (1921-02-03) http://istmat.info/node/45840
 633 Rule    Russia  1921    only    -       Feb     14      23:00   1:00    MSD
 634 #
 635 # Decree No. 121 (1921-03-07) http://istmat.info/node/45949
 636 Rule    Russia  1921    only    -       Mar     20      23:00   2:00    +05
 637 #
 638 Rule    Russia  1921    only    -       Sep      1       0:00   1:00    MSD
 639 Rule    Russia  1921    only    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       -
 640 # Act No. 925 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1980-10-24):
 641 Rule    Russia  1981    1984    -       Apr      1       0:00   1:00    S
 642 Rule    Russia  1981    1983    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       -
 643 # Act No. 967 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1984-09-13), repeated in
 644 # Act No. 227 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1989-03-14):
 645 Rule    Russia  1984    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 646 Rule    Russia  1985    2010    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
 647 #
 648 Rule    Russia  1996    2010    -       Oct     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 649 # As described below, Russia's 2014 change affects Zone data, not Rule data.
 650 
 651 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07):
 652 # Wikipedia and other sources refer to the Act of the Council of
 653 # Ministers of the USSR from 1988-01-04 No. 5 and the Act of the
 654 # Council of Ministers of the USSR from 1989-03-14 No. 227.
 655 #
 656 # I did not find full texts of these acts.  For the 1989 one we have
 657 # title at https://base.garant.ru/70754136/ :
 658 # "About change in calculation of time on the territories of
 659 # Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR and Estonian SSR, Astrakhan,
 660 # Kaliningrad, Kirov, Kuybyshev, Ulyanovsk and Uralsk oblasts".
 661 # And http://astrozet.net/files/Zones/DOC/RU/1980-925.txt appears to
 662 # contain quotes from both acts: Since last Sunday of March 1988 rules
 663 # of the second time belt are installed in Volgograd and Saratov
 664 # oblasts.  Since last Sunday of March 1989:
 665 # a) Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR, Estonian SSR, Kaliningrad oblast:
 666 # second time belt rules without extra hour (Moscow-1);
 667 # b) Astrakhan, Kirov, Kuybyshev, Ulyanovsk oblasts: second time belt
 668 # rules (Moscow time)
 669 # c) Uralsk oblast: third time belt rules (Moscow+1).
 670 
 671 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-27):
 672 # Unamended version of the act of the
 673 # Government of the Russian Federation No. 23 from 08.01.1992
 674 # http://pravo.gov.ru/proxy/ips/?docbody=&nd=102014034&rdk=0
 675 # says that every year clocks were to be moved forward on last Sunday
 676 # of March at 2 hours and moved backwards on last Sunday of September
 677 # at 3 hours.  It was amended in 1996 to replace September with October.
 678 
 679 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-06-14):
 680 # According to Kremlin press service, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev
 681 # signed a federal law "On calculation of time" on June 9, 2011.
 682 # According to the law Russia is abolishing daylight saving time.
 683 #
 684 # Medvedev signed a law "On the Calculation of Time" (in russian):
 685 # http://bmockbe.ru/events/?ID=7583
 686 #
 687 # Medvedev signed a law on the calculation of the time (in russian):
 688 # https://www.regnum.ru/news/polit/1413906.html
 689 
 690 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15):
 691 # Take "abolishing daylight saving time" to mean that time is now considered
 692 # to be standard.
 693 
 694 # These are for backward compatibility with older versions.
 695 
 696 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 697 Zone    WET             0:00    EU      WE%sT
 698 Zone    CET             1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT
 699 Zone    MET             1:00    C-Eur   ME%sT
 700 Zone    EET             2:00    EU      EE%sT
 701 
 702 # Previous editions of this database used abbreviations like MET DST
 703 # for Central European Summer Time, but this didn't agree with common usage.
 704 
 705 # From Markus Kuhn (1996-07-12):
 706 # The official German names ... are
 707 #
 708 #       Mitteleuropäische Zeit (MEZ)         = UTC+01:00
 709 #       Mitteleuropäische Sommerzeit (MESZ)  = UTC+02:00
 710 #
 711 # as defined in the German Time Act (Gesetz über die Zeitbestimmung (ZeitG),
 712 # 1978-07-25, Bundesgesetzblatt, Jahrgang 1978, Teil I, S. 1110-1111)....
 713 # I wrote ... to the German Federal Physical-Technical Institution
 714 #
 715 #       Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)
 716 #       Laboratorium 4.41 "Zeiteinheit"
 717 #       Postfach 3345
 718 #       D-38023 Braunschweig
 719 #       phone: +49 531 592-0
 720 #
 721 # ... I received today an answer letter from Dr. Peter Hetzel, head of the PTB
 722 # department for time and frequency transmission.  He explained that the
 723 # PTB translates MEZ and MESZ into English as
 724 #
 725 #       Central European Time (CET)         = UTC+01:00
 726 #       Central European Summer Time (CEST) = UTC+02:00
 727 
 728 
 729 # Albania
 730 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 731 Rule    Albania 1940    only    -       Jun     16      0:00    1:00    S
 732 Rule    Albania 1942    only    -       Nov      2      3:00    0       -
 733 Rule    Albania 1943    only    -       Mar     29      2:00    1:00    S
 734 Rule    Albania 1943    only    -       Apr     10      3:00    0       -
 735 Rule    Albania 1974    only    -       May      4      0:00    1:00    S
 736 Rule    Albania 1974    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       -
 737 Rule    Albania 1975    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S
 738 Rule    Albania 1975    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       -
 739 Rule    Albania 1976    only    -       May      2      0:00    1:00    S
 740 Rule    Albania 1976    only    -       Oct      3      0:00    0       -
 741 Rule    Albania 1977    only    -       May      8      0:00    1:00    S
 742 Rule    Albania 1977    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       -
 743 Rule    Albania 1978    only    -       May      6      0:00    1:00    S
 744 Rule    Albania 1978    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
 745 Rule    Albania 1979    only    -       May      5      0:00    1:00    S
 746 Rule    Albania 1979    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       -
 747 Rule    Albania 1980    only    -       May      3      0:00    1:00    S
 748 Rule    Albania 1980    only    -       Oct      4      0:00    0       -
 749 Rule    Albania 1981    only    -       Apr     26      0:00    1:00    S
 750 Rule    Albania 1981    only    -       Sep     27      0:00    0       -
 751 Rule    Albania 1982    only    -       May      2      0:00    1:00    S
 752 Rule    Albania 1982    only    -       Oct      3      0:00    0       -
 753 Rule    Albania 1983    only    -       Apr     18      0:00    1:00    S
 754 Rule    Albania 1983    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
 755 Rule    Albania 1984    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
 756 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 757 Zone    Europe/Tirane   1:19:20 -       LMT     1914
 758                         1:00    -       CET     1940 Jun 16
 759                         1:00    Albania CE%sT   1984 Jul
 760                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
 761 
 762 # Andorra
 763 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 764 Zone    Europe/Andorra  0:06:04 -       LMT     1901
 765                         0:00    -       WET     1946 Sep 30
 766                         1:00    -       CET     1985 Mar 31  2:00
 767                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
 768 
 769 # Austria
 770 
 771 # Milne says Vienna time was 1:05:21.
 772 
 773 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): Shanks & Pottenger give 1918-06-16 and
 774 # 1945-11-18, but the Austrian Federal Office of Metrology and
 775 # Surveying (BEV) gives 1918-09-16 and for Vienna gives the "alleged"
 776 # date of 1945-04-12 with no time.  For the 1980-04-06 transition
 777 # Shanks & Pottenger give 02:00, the BEV 00:00.  Go with the BEV,
 778 # and guess 02:00 for 1945-04-12.
 779 
 780 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 781 Rule    Austria 1920    only    -       Apr      5      2:00s   1:00    S
 782 Rule    Austria 1920    only    -       Sep     13      2:00s   0       -
 783 Rule    Austria 1946    only    -       Apr     14      2:00s   1:00    S
 784 Rule    Austria 1946    1948    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 785 Rule    Austria 1947    only    -       Apr      6      2:00s   1:00    S
 786 Rule    Austria 1948    only    -       Apr     18      2:00s   1:00    S
 787 Rule    Austria 1980    only    -       Apr      6      0:00    1:00    S
 788 Rule    Austria 1980    only    -       Sep     28      0:00    0       -
 789 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 790 Zone    Europe/Vienna   1:05:21 -       LMT     1893 Apr
 791                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1920
 792                         1:00    Austria CE%sT   1940 Apr  1  2:00s
 793                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00s
 794                         1:00    1:00    CEST    1945 Apr 12  2:00s
 795                         1:00    -       CET     1946
 796                         1:00    Austria CE%sT   1981
 797                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
 798 
 799 # Belarus
 800 #
 801 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-07-02):
 802 # http://www.lawbelarus.com/repub/sub30/texf9611.htm
 803 # (Act of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus from
 804 # 1992-03-25 No. 157) ... says clocks were to be moved forward at 2:00
 805 # on last Sunday of March and backward at 3:00 on last Sunday of September
 806 # (the same as previous USSR and contemporary Russian regulations).
 807 #
 808 # From Yauhen Kharuzhy (2011-09-16):
 809 # By latest Belarus government act Europe/Minsk timezone was changed to
 810 # GMT+3 without DST (was GMT+2 with DST).
 811 #
 812 # Sources (Russian language):
 813 # http://www.belta.by/ru/all_news/society/V-Belarusi-otmenjaetsja-perexod-na-sezonnoe-vremja_i_572952.html
 814 # http://naviny.by/rubrics/society/2011/09/16/ic_articles_116_175144/
 815 # https://news.tut.by/society/250578.html
 816 #
 817 # From Alexander Bokovoy (2014-10-09):
 818 # Belarussian government decided against changing to winter time....
 819 # http://eng.belta.by/all_news/society/Belarus-decides-against-adjusting-time-in-Russias-wake_i_76335.html
 820 #
 821 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 822 Zone    Europe/Minsk    1:50:16 -       LMT     1880
 823                         1:50    -       MMT     1924 May  2 # Minsk Mean Time
 824                         2:00    -       EET     1930 Jun 21
 825                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Jun 28
 826                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Jul  3
 827                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990
 828                         3:00    -       MSK     1991 Mar 31  2:00s
 829                         2:00    Russia  EE%sT   2011 Mar 27  2:00s
 830                         3:00    -       +03
 831 
 832 # Belgium
 833 #
 834 # From Paul Eggert (1997-07-02):
 835 # Entries from 1918 through 1991 are taken from:
 836 #       Annuaire de L'Observatoire Royal de Belgique,
 837 #       Avenue Circulaire, 3, B-1180 BRUXELLES, CLVIIe année, 1991
 838 #       (Imprimerie HAYEZ, s.p.r.l., Rue Fin, 4, 1080 BRUXELLES, MCMXC),
 839 #       pp 8-9.
 840 # LMT before 1892 was 0:17:30, according to the official journal of Belgium:
 841 #       Moniteur Belge, Samedi 30 Avril 1892, N.121.
 842 # Thanks to Pascal Delmoitie for these references.
 843 # The 1918 rules are listed for completeness; they apply to unoccupied Belgium.
 844 # Assume Brussels switched to WET in 1918 when the armistice took effect.
 845 #
 846 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 847 Rule    Belgium 1918    only    -       Mar      9       0:00s  1:00    S
 848 Rule    Belgium 1918    1919    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
 849 Rule    Belgium 1919    only    -       Mar      1      23:00s  1:00    S
 850 Rule    Belgium 1920    only    -       Feb     14      23:00s  1:00    S
 851 Rule    Belgium 1920    only    -       Oct     23      23:00s  0       -
 852 Rule    Belgium 1921    only    -       Mar     14      23:00s  1:00    S
 853 Rule    Belgium 1921    only    -       Oct     25      23:00s  0       -
 854 Rule    Belgium 1922    only    -       Mar     25      23:00s  1:00    S
 855 Rule    Belgium 1922    1927    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
 856 Rule    Belgium 1923    only    -       Apr     21      23:00s  1:00    S
 857 Rule    Belgium 1924    only    -       Mar     29      23:00s  1:00    S
 858 Rule    Belgium 1925    only    -       Apr      4      23:00s  1:00    S
 859 # DSH writes that a royal decree of 1926-02-22 specified the Sun following 3rd
 860 # Sat in Apr (except if it's Easter, in which case it's one Sunday earlier),
 861 # to Sun following 1st Sat in Oct, and that a royal decree of 1928-09-15
 862 # changed the transition times to 02:00 GMT.
 863 Rule    Belgium 1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00s  1:00    S
 864 Rule    Belgium 1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00s  1:00    S
 865 Rule    Belgium 1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00s  1:00    S
 866 Rule    Belgium 1928    1938    -       Oct     Sun>=2        2:00s  0       -
 867 Rule    Belgium 1929    only    -       Apr     21       2:00s  1:00    S
 868 Rule    Belgium 1930    only    -       Apr     13       2:00s  1:00    S
 869 Rule    Belgium 1931    only    -       Apr     19       2:00s  1:00    S
 870 Rule    Belgium 1932    only    -       Apr      3       2:00s  1:00    S
 871 Rule    Belgium 1933    only    -       Mar     26       2:00s  1:00    S
 872 Rule    Belgium 1934    only    -       Apr      8       2:00s  1:00    S
 873 Rule    Belgium 1935    only    -       Mar     31       2:00s  1:00    S
 874 Rule    Belgium 1936    only    -       Apr     19       2:00s  1:00    S
 875 Rule    Belgium 1937    only    -       Apr      4       2:00s  1:00    S
 876 Rule    Belgium 1938    only    -       Mar     27       2:00s  1:00    S
 877 Rule    Belgium 1939    only    -       Apr     16       2:00s  1:00    S
 878 Rule    Belgium 1939    only    -       Nov     19       2:00s  0       -
 879 Rule    Belgium 1940    only    -       Feb     25       2:00s  1:00    S
 880 Rule    Belgium 1944    only    -       Sep     17       2:00s  0       -
 881 Rule    Belgium 1945    only    -       Apr      2       2:00s  1:00    S
 882 Rule    Belgium 1945    only    -       Sep     16       2:00s  0       -
 883 Rule    Belgium 1946    only    -       May     19       2:00s  1:00    S
 884 Rule    Belgium 1946    only    -       Oct      7       2:00s  0       -
 885 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 886 Zone    Europe/Brussels 0:17:30 -       LMT     1880
 887                         0:17:30 -       BMT     1892 May  1 12:00  # Brussels MT
 888                         0:00    -       WET     1914 Nov  8
 889                         1:00    -       CET     1916 May  1  0:00
 890                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1918 Nov 11 11:00u
 891                         0:00    Belgium WE%sT   1940 May 20  2:00s
 892                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Sep  3
 893                         1:00    Belgium CE%sT   1977
 894                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
 895 
 896 # Bosnia and Herzegovina
 897 # See Europe/Belgrade.
 898 
 899 # Bulgaria
 900 #
 901 # From Plamen Simenov via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
 902 # A document of Government of Bulgaria (No. 94/1997) says:
 903 # EET -> EETDST is in 03:00 Local time in last Sunday of March ...
 904 # EETDST -> EET is in 04:00 Local time in last Sunday of October
 905 #
 906 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 907 Rule    Bulg    1979    only    -       Mar     31      23:00   1:00    S
 908 Rule    Bulg    1979    only    -       Oct      1       1:00   0       -
 909 Rule    Bulg    1980    1982    -       Apr     Sat>=1       23:00   1:00    S
 910 Rule    Bulg    1980    only    -       Sep     29       1:00   0       -
 911 Rule    Bulg    1981    only    -       Sep     27       2:00   0       -
 912 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 913 Zone    Europe/Sofia    1:33:16 -       LMT     1880
 914                         1:56:56 -       IMT     1894 Nov 30 # Istanbul MT?
 915                         2:00    -       EET     1942 Nov  2  3:00
 916                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945
 917                         1:00    -       CET     1945 Apr  2  3:00
 918                         2:00    -       EET     1979 Mar 31 23:00
 919                         2:00    Bulg    EE%sT   1982 Sep 26  3:00
 920                         2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1991
 921                         2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1997
 922                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
 923 
 924 # Croatia
 925 # See Europe/Belgrade.
 926 
 927 # Cyprus
 928 # Please see the 'asia' file for Asia/Nicosia.
 929 
 930 # Czech Republic / Czechia
 931 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 932 Rule    Czech   1945    only    -       Apr      8      2:00s   1:00    S
 933 Rule    Czech   1945    only    -       Nov     18      2:00s   0       -
 934 Rule    Czech   1946    only    -       May      6      2:00s   1:00    S
 935 Rule    Czech   1946    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 936 Rule    Czech   1947    only    -       Apr     20      2:00s   1:00    S
 937 Rule    Czech   1948    only    -       Apr     18      2:00s   1:00    S
 938 Rule    Czech   1949    only    -       Apr      9      2:00s   1:00    S
 939 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 940 Zone    Europe/Prague   0:57:44 -       LMT     1850
 941                         0:57:44 -       PMT     1891 Oct    # Prague Mean Time
 942                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Sep 17  2:00s
 943                         1:00    Czech   CE%sT   1979
 944                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
 945 # Use Europe/Prague also for Slovakia.
 946 
 947 # Denmark, Faroe Islands, and Greenland
 948 
 949 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-04-26):
 950 # http://www.hum.aau.dk/~poe/tid/tine/DanskTid.htm says that the law
 951 # [introducing standard time] was in effect from 1894-01-01....
 952 # The page http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A18930008330-REGL
 953 # confirms this, and states that the law was put forth 1893-03-29.
 954 #
 955 # The EU treaty with effect from 1973:
 956 # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19722110030-REGL
 957 #
 958 # This provoked a new law from 1974 to make possible summer time changes
 959 # in subsequent decrees with the law
 960 # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19740022330-REGL
 961 #
 962 # It seems however that no decree was set forward until 1980.  I have
 963 # not found any decree, but in another related law, the effecting DST
 964 # changes are stated explicitly to be from 1980-04-06 at 02:00 to
 965 # 1980-09-28 at 02:00.  If this is true, this differs slightly from
 966 # the EU rule in that DST runs to 02:00, not 03:00.  We don't know
 967 # when Denmark began using the EU rule correctly, but we have only
 968 # confirmation of the 1980-time, so I presume it was correct in 1981:
 969 # The law is about the management of the extra hour, concerning
 970 # working hours reported and effect on obligatory-rest rules (which
 971 # was suspended on that night):
 972 # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/C19801120554-REGL
 973 
 974 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-06-11):
 975 # The Herning Folkeblad (1980-09-26) reported that the night between
 976 # Saturday and Sunday the clock is set back from three to two.
 977 
 978 # From Paul Eggert (2005-06-11):
 979 # Hence the "02:00" of the 1980 law refers to standard time, not
 980 # wall-clock time, and so the EU rules were in effect in 1980.
 981 
 982 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 983 Rule    Denmark 1916    only    -       May     14      23:00   1:00    S
 984 Rule    Denmark 1916    only    -       Sep     30      23:00   0       -
 985 Rule    Denmark 1940    only    -       May     15       0:00   1:00    S
 986 Rule    Denmark 1945    only    -       Apr      2       2:00s  1:00    S
 987 Rule    Denmark 1945    only    -       Aug     15       2:00s  0       -
 988 Rule    Denmark 1946    only    -       May      1       2:00s  1:00    S
 989 Rule    Denmark 1946    only    -       Sep      1       2:00s  0       -
 990 Rule    Denmark 1947    only    -       May      4       2:00s  1:00    S
 991 Rule    Denmark 1947    only    -       Aug     10       2:00s  0       -
 992 Rule    Denmark 1948    only    -       May      9       2:00s  1:00    S
 993 Rule    Denmark 1948    only    -       Aug      8       2:00s  0       -
 994 #
 995 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 996 Zone Europe/Copenhagen   0:50:20 -      LMT     1890
 997                          0:50:20 -      CMT     1894 Jan  1 # Copenhagen MT
 998                          1:00   Denmark CE%sT   1942 Nov  2  2:00s
 999                          1:00   C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00
1000                          1:00   Denmark CE%sT   1980
1001                          1:00   EU      CE%sT
1002 Zone Atlantic/Faroe     -0:27:04 -      LMT     1908 Jan 11 # Tórshavn
1003                          0:00   -       WET     1981
1004                          0:00   EU      WE%sT
1005 #
1006 # From Paul Eggert (2004-10-31):
1007 # During World War II, Germany maintained secret manned weather stations in
1008 # East Greenland and Franz Josef Land, but we don't know their time zones.
1009 # My source for this is Wilhelm Dege's book mentioned under Svalbard.
1010 #
1011 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1012 # Greenland joined the EU as part of Denmark, obtained home rule on 1979-05-01,
1013 # and left the EU on 1985-02-01.  It therefore should have been using EU
1014 # rules at least through 1984.  Shanks & Pottenger say Scoresbysund and Godthåb
1015 # used C-Eur rules after 1980, but IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says they use EU
1016 # rules since at least 1991.  Assume EU rules since 1980.
1017 
1018 # From Gwillim Law (2001-06-06), citing
1019 # <http://www.statkart.no/efs/efshefter/2001/efs5-2001.pdf> (2001-03-15),
1020 # and with translations corrected by Steffen Thorsen:
1021 #
1022 # Greenland has four local times, and the relation to UTC
1023 # is according to the following time line:
1024 #
1025 # The military zone near Thule  UTC-4
1026 # Standard Greenland time       UTC-3
1027 # Scoresbysund                  UTC-1
1028 # Danmarkshavn                  UTC
1029 #
1030 # In the military area near Thule and in Danmarkshavn DST will not be
1031 # introduced.
1032 
1033 # From Rives McDow (2001-11-01):
1034 #
1035 # I correspond regularly with the Dansk Polarcenter, and wrote them at
1036 # the time to clarify the situation in Thule.  Unfortunately, I have
1037 # not heard back from them regarding my recent letter.  [But I have
1038 # info from earlier correspondence.]
1039 #
1040 # According to the center, a very small local time zone around Thule
1041 # Air Base keeps the time according to UTC-4, implementing daylight
1042 # savings using North America rules, changing the time at 02:00 local time....
1043 #
1044 # The east coast of Greenland north of the community of Scoresbysund
1045 # uses UTC in the same way as in Iceland, year round, with no dst.
1046 # There are just a few stations on this coast, including the
1047 # Danmarkshavn ICAO weather station mentioned in your September 29th
1048 # email.  The other stations are two sledge patrol stations in
1049 # Mestersvig and Daneborg, the air force base at Station Nord, and the
1050 # DPC research station at Zackenberg.
1051 #
1052 # Scoresbysund and two small villages nearby keep time UTC-1 and use
1053 # the same daylight savings time period as in West Greenland (Godthåb).
1054 #
1055 # The rest of Greenland, including Godthåb (this area, although it
1056 # includes central Greenland, is known as west Greenland), keeps time
1057 # UTC-3, with daylight savings methods according to European rules.
1058 #
1059 # It is common procedure to use UTC 0 in the wilderness of East and
1060 # North Greenland, because it is mainly Icelandic aircraft operators
1061 # maintaining traffic in these areas.  However, the official status of
1062 # this area is that it sticks with Godthåb time.  This area might be
1063 # considered a dual time zone in some respects because of this.
1064 
1065 # From Rives McDow (2001-11-19):
1066 # I heard back from someone stationed at Thule; the time change took place
1067 # there at 2:00 AM.
1068 
1069 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1070 # From 1997 on the CIA map shows Danmarkshavn on GMT;
1071 # the 1995 map as like Godthåb.
1072 # For lack of better info, assume they were like Godthåb before 1996.
1073 # startkart.no says Thule does not observe DST, but this is clearly an error,
1074 # so go with Shanks & Pottenger for Thule transitions until this year.
1075 # For 2007 on assume Thule will stay in sync with US DST rules.
1076 
1077 # From J William Piggott (2016-02-20):
1078 # "Greenland north of the community of Scoresbysund" is officially named
1079 # "National Park" by Executive Order:
1080 # http://naalakkersuisut.gl/~/media/Nanoq/Files/Attached%20Files/Engelske-tekster/Legislation/Executive%20Order%20National%20Park.rtf
1081 # It is their only National Park.
1082 #
1083 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1084 Rule    Thule   1991    1992    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1085 Rule    Thule   1991    1992    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1086 Rule    Thule   1993    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
1087 Rule    Thule   1993    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1088 Rule    Thule   2007    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
1089 Rule    Thule   2007    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
1090 #
1091 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1092 Zone America/Danmarkshavn -1:14:40 -    LMT     1916 Jul 28
1093                         -3:00   -       -03     1980 Apr  6  2:00
1094                         -3:00   EU      -03/-02 1996
1095                         0:00    -       GMT
1096 Zone America/Scoresbysund -1:27:52 -    LMT     1916 Jul 28 # Ittoqqortoormiit
1097                         -2:00   -       -02     1980 Apr  6  2:00
1098                         -2:00   C-Eur   -02/-01 1981 Mar 29
1099                         -1:00   EU      -01/+00
1100 Zone America/Godthab    -3:26:56 -      LMT     1916 Jul 28 # Nuuk
1101                         -3:00   -       -03     1980 Apr  6  2:00
1102                         -3:00   EU      -03/-02
1103 Zone America/Thule      -4:35:08 -      LMT     1916 Jul 28 # Pituffik air base
1104                         -4:00   Thule   A%sT
1105 
1106 # Estonia
1107 #
1108 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
1109 # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
1110 #
1111 # From Peter Ilieve (1994-10-15):
1112 # A relative in Tallinn confirms the accuracy of the data for 1989 onwards
1113 # [through 1994] and gives the legal authority for it,
1114 # a regulation of the Government of Estonia, No. 111 of 1989....
1115 #
1116 # From Peter Ilieve (1996-10-28):
1117 # [IATA SSIM (1992/1996) claims that the Baltic republics switch at 01:00s,
1118 # but a relative confirms that Estonia still switches at 02:00s, writing:]
1119 # "I do not [know] exactly but there are some little different
1120 # (confusing) rules for International Air and Railway Transport Schedules
1121 # conversion in Sunday connected with end of summer time in Estonia....
1122 # A discussion is running about the summer time efficiency and effect on
1123 # human physiology.  It seems that Estonia maybe will not change to
1124 # summer time next spring."
1125 
1126 # From Peter Ilieve (1998-11-04), heavily edited:
1127 # The 1998-09-22 Estonian time law
1128 # http://trip.rk.ee/cgi-bin/thw?${BASE}=akt&${OOHTML}=rtd&TA=1998&TO=1&AN=1390
1129 # refers to the Eighth Directive and cites the association agreement between
1130 # the EU and Estonia, ratified by the Estonian law (RT II 1995, 22-27, 120).
1131 #
1132 # I also asked [my relative] whether they use any standard abbreviation
1133 # for their standard and summer times. He says no, they use "suveaeg"
1134 # (summer time) and "talveaeg" (winter time).
1135 
1136 # From The Baltic Times <https://www.baltictimes.com/> (1999-09-09)
1137 # via Steffen Thorsen:
1138 # This year will mark the last time Estonia shifts to summer time,
1139 # a council of the ruling coalition announced Sept. 6....
1140 # But what this could mean for Estonia's chances of joining the European
1141 # Union are still unclear.  In 1994, the EU declared summer time compulsory
1142 # for all member states until 2001.  Brussels has yet to decide what to do
1143 # after that.
1144 
1145 # From Mart Oruaas (2000-01-29):
1146 # Regulation No. 301 (1999-10-12) obsoletes previous regulation
1147 # No. 206 (1998-09-22) and thus sticks Estonia to +02:00 GMT for all
1148 # the year round.  The regulation is effective 1999-11-01.
1149 
1150 # From Toomas Soome (2002-02-21):
1151 # The Estonian government has changed once again timezone politics.
1152 # Now we are using again EU rules.
1153 #
1154 # From Urmet Jänes (2002-03-28):
1155 # The legislative reference is Government decree No. 84 on 2002-02-21.
1156 
1157 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1158 Zone    Europe/Tallinn  1:39:00 -       LMT     1880
1159                         1:39:00 -       TMT     1918 Feb    # Tallinn Mean Time
1160                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1919 Jul
1161                         1:39:00 -       TMT     1921 May
1162                         2:00    -       EET     1940 Aug  6
1163                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Sep 15
1164                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Sep 22
1165                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1989 Mar 26  2:00s
1166                         2:00    1:00    EEST    1989 Sep 24  2:00s
1167                         2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1998 Sep 22
1168                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   1999 Oct 31  4:00
1169                         2:00    -       EET     2002 Feb 21
1170                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
1171 
1172 # Finland
1173 
1174 # From Hannu Strang (1994-09-25 06:03:37 UTC):
1175 # Well, here in Helsinki we're just changing from summer time to regular one,
1176 # and it's supposed to change at 4am...
1177 
1178 # From Janne Snabb (2010-07-15):
1179 #
1180 # I noticed that the Finland data is not accurate for years 1981 and 1982.
1181 # During these two first trial years the DST adjustment was made one hour
1182 # earlier than in forthcoming years. Starting 1983 the adjustment was made
1183 # according to the central European standards.
1184 #
1185 # This is documented in Heikki Oja: Aikakirja 2007, published by The Almanac
1186 # Office of University of Helsinki, ISBN 952-10-3221-9, available online (in
1187 # Finnish) at
1188 # https://almanakka.helsinki.fi/aikakirja/Aikakirja2007kokonaan.pdf
1189 #
1190 # Page 105 (56 in PDF version) has a handy table of all past daylight savings
1191 # transitions. It is easy enough to interpret without Finnish skills.
1192 #
1193 # This is also confirmed by Finnish Broadcasting Company's archive at:
1194 # http://www.yle.fi/elavaarkisto/?s=s&g=1&ag=5&t=&a=3401
1195 #
1196 # The news clip from 1981 says that "the time between 2 and 3 o'clock does not
1197 # exist tonight."
1198 
1199 # From Konstantin Hyppönen (2014-06-13):
1200 # [Heikki Oja's book Aikakirja 2013]
1201 # https://almanakka.helsinki.fi/images/aikakirja/Aikakirja2013kokonaan.pdf
1202 # pages 104-105, including a scan from a newspaper published on Apr 2 1942
1203 # say that ... [o]n Apr 2 1942, 24 o'clock (which means Apr 3 1942,
1204 # 00:00), clocks were moved one hour forward. The newspaper
1205 # mentions "on the night from Thursday to Friday"....
1206 # On Oct 4 1942, clocks were moved at 1:00 one hour backwards.
1207 #
1208 # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-14):
1209 # Go with Oja over Shanks.
1210 
1211 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1212 Rule    Finland 1942    only    -       Apr     2       24:00   1:00    S
1213 Rule    Finland 1942    only    -       Oct     4       1:00    0       -
1214 Rule    Finland 1981    1982    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    S
1215 Rule    Finland 1981    1982    -       Sep     lastSun 3:00    0       -
1216 
1217 # Milne says Helsinki (Helsingfors) time was 1:39:49.2 (official document);
1218 # round to nearest.
1219 
1220 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1221 Zone    Europe/Helsinki 1:39:49 -       LMT     1878 May 31
1222                         1:39:49 -       HMT     1921 May    # Helsinki Mean Time
1223                         2:00    Finland EE%sT   1983
1224                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
1225 
1226 # Åland Is
1227 Link    Europe/Helsinki Europe/Mariehamn
1228 
1229 
1230 # France
1231 
1232 # From Ciro Discepolo (2000-12-20):
1233 #
1234 # Henri Le Corre, Régimes horaires pour le monde entier, Éditions
1235 # Traditionnelles - Paris 2 books, 1993
1236 #
1237 # Gabriel, Traité de l'heure dans le monde, Guy Trédaniel,
1238 # Paris, 1991
1239 #
1240 # Françoise Gauquelin, Problèmes de l'heure résolus en astrologie,
1241 # Guy Trédaniel, Paris 1987
1242 
1243 
1244 #
1245 # Shank & Pottenger seem to use '24:00' ambiguously; resolve it with Whitman.
1246 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1247 Rule    France  1916    only    -       Jun     14      23:00s  1:00    S
1248 Rule    France  1916    1919    -       Oct     Sun>=1       23:00s  0       -
1249 Rule    France  1917    only    -       Mar     24      23:00s  1:00    S
1250 Rule    France  1918    only    -       Mar      9      23:00s  1:00    S
1251 Rule    France  1919    only    -       Mar      1      23:00s  1:00    S
1252 Rule    France  1920    only    -       Feb     14      23:00s  1:00    S
1253 Rule    France  1920    only    -       Oct     23      23:00s  0       -
1254 Rule    France  1921    only    -       Mar     14      23:00s  1:00    S
1255 Rule    France  1921    only    -       Oct     25      23:00s  0       -
1256 Rule    France  1922    only    -       Mar     25      23:00s  1:00    S
1257 # DSH writes that a law of 1923-05-24 specified 3rd Sat in Apr at 23:00 to 1st
1258 # Sat in Oct at 24:00; and that in 1930, because of Easter, the transitions
1259 # were Apr 12 and Oct 5.  Go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1260 Rule    France  1922    1938    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
1261 Rule    France  1923    only    -       May     26      23:00s  1:00    S
1262 Rule    France  1924    only    -       Mar     29      23:00s  1:00    S
1263 Rule    France  1925    only    -       Apr      4      23:00s  1:00    S
1264 Rule    France  1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00s  1:00    S
1265 Rule    France  1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00s  1:00    S
1266 Rule    France  1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00s  1:00    S
1267 Rule    France  1929    only    -       Apr     20      23:00s  1:00    S
1268 Rule    France  1930    only    -       Apr     12      23:00s  1:00    S
1269 Rule    France  1931    only    -       Apr     18      23:00s  1:00    S
1270 Rule    France  1932    only    -       Apr      2      23:00s  1:00    S
1271 Rule    France  1933    only    -       Mar     25      23:00s  1:00    S
1272 Rule    France  1934    only    -       Apr      7      23:00s  1:00    S
1273 Rule    France  1935    only    -       Mar     30      23:00s  1:00    S
1274 Rule    France  1936    only    -       Apr     18      23:00s  1:00    S
1275 Rule    France  1937    only    -       Apr      3      23:00s  1:00    S
1276 Rule    France  1938    only    -       Mar     26      23:00s  1:00    S
1277 Rule    France  1939    only    -       Apr     15      23:00s  1:00    S
1278 Rule    France  1939    only    -       Nov     18      23:00s  0       -
1279 Rule    France  1940    only    -       Feb     25       2:00   1:00    S
1280 # The French rules for 1941-1944 were not used in Paris, but Shanks & Pottenger
1281 # write that they were used in Monaco and in many French locations.
1282 # Le Corre writes that the upper limit of the free zone was Arnéguy, Orthez,
1283 # Mont-de-Marsan, Bazas, Langon, Lamothe-Montravel, Marœuil, La
1284 # Rochefoucauld, Champagne-Mouton, La Roche-Posay, La Haye-Descartes,
1285 # Loches, Montrichard, Vierzon, Bourges, Moulins, Digoin,
1286 # Paray-le-Monial, Montceau-les-Mines, Chalon-sur-Saône, Arbois,
1287 # Dole, Morez, St-Claude, and Collonges (Haute-Savoie).
1288 Rule    France  1941    only    -       May      5       0:00   2:00    M # Midsummer
1289 # Shanks & Pottenger say this transition occurred at Oct 6 1:00,
1290 # but go with Denis Excoffier (1997-12-12),
1291 # who quotes the Ephémérides astronomiques for 1998 from Bureau des Longitudes
1292 # as saying 5/10/41 22hUT.
1293 Rule    France  1941    only    -       Oct      6       0:00   1:00    S
1294 Rule    France  1942    only    -       Mar      9       0:00   2:00    M
1295 Rule    France  1942    only    -       Nov      2       3:00   1:00    S
1296 Rule    France  1943    only    -       Mar     29       2:00   2:00    M
1297 Rule    France  1943    only    -       Oct      4       3:00   1:00    S
1298 Rule    France  1944    only    -       Apr      3       2:00   2:00    M
1299 Rule    France  1944    only    -       Oct      8       1:00   1:00    S
1300 Rule    France  1945    only    -       Apr      2       2:00   2:00    M
1301 Rule    France  1945    only    -       Sep     16       3:00   0       -
1302 # Shanks & Pottenger give Mar 28 2:00 and Sep 26 3:00;
1303 # go with Excoffier's 28/3/76 0hUT and 25/9/76 23hUT.
1304 Rule    France  1976    only    -       Mar     28       1:00   1:00    S
1305 Rule    France  1976    only    -       Sep     26       1:00   0       -
1306 # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time, and Whitman 0:09:05,
1307 # but Howse quotes the actual French legislation as saying 0:09:21.
1308 # Go with Howse.  Howse writes that the time in France was officially based
1309 # on PMT-0:09:21 until 1978-08-09, when the time base finally switched to UTC.
1310 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1311 Zone    Europe/Paris    0:09:21 -       LMT     1891 Mar 15  0:01
1312                         0:09:21 -       PMT     1911 Mar 11  0:01 # Paris MT
1313 # Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Jun 14 0:00; go with Excoffier and Le Corre.
1314                         0:00    France  WE%sT   1940 Jun 14 23:00
1315 # Le Corre says Paris stuck with occupied-France time after the liberation;
1316 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1317                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Aug 25
1318                         0:00    France  WE%sT   1945 Sep 16  3:00
1319                         1:00    France  CE%sT   1977
1320                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1321 
1322 # Germany
1323 
1324 # From Markus Kuhn (1998-09-29):
1325 # The German time zone web site by the Physikalisch-Technische
1326 # Bundesanstalt contains DST information back to 1916.
1327 # [See tz-link.htm for the URL.]
1328 
1329 # From Jörg Schilling (2002-10-23):
1330 # In 1945, Berlin was switched to Moscow Summer time (GMT+4) by
1331 # https://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/biografien/BersarinNikolai/
1332 # General [Nikolai] Bersarin.
1333 
1334 # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-08):
1335 # http://www.parlament-berlin.de/pds-fraktion.nsf/727459127c8b66ee8525662300459099/defc77cb784f180ac1256c2b0030274b/$FILE/bersarint.pdf
1336 # says that Bersarin issued an order to use Moscow time on May 20.
1337 # However, Moscow did not observe daylight saving in 1945, so
1338 # this was equivalent to UT +03, not +04.
1339 
1340 
1341 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1342 Rule    Germany 1946    only    -       Apr     14      2:00s   1:00    S
1343 Rule    Germany 1946    only    -       Oct      7      2:00s   0       -
1344 Rule    Germany 1947    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
1345 # http://www.ptb.de/de/org/4/44/441/salt.htm says the following transition
1346 # occurred at 3:00 MEZ, not the 2:00 MEZ given in Shanks & Pottenger.
1347 # Go with the PTB.
1348 Rule    Germany 1947    only    -       Apr      6      3:00s   1:00    S
1349 Rule    Germany 1947    only    -       May     11      2:00s   2:00    M
1350 Rule    Germany 1947    only    -       Jun     29      3:00    1:00    S
1351 Rule    Germany 1948    only    -       Apr     18      2:00s   1:00    S
1352 Rule    Germany 1949    only    -       Apr     10      2:00s   1:00    S
1353 
1354 Rule SovietZone 1945    only    -       May     24      2:00    2:00    M # Midsummer
1355 Rule SovietZone 1945    only    -       Sep     24      3:00    1:00    S
1356 Rule SovietZone 1945    only    -       Nov     18      2:00s   0       -
1357 
1358 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1359 Zone    Europe/Berlin   0:53:28 -       LMT     1893 Apr
1360                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 May 24  2:00
1361                         1:00 SovietZone CE%sT   1946
1362                         1:00    Germany CE%sT   1980
1363                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1364 
1365 # From Tobias Conradi (2011-09-12):
1366 # Büsingen <http://www.buesingen.de>, surrounded by the Swiss canton
1367 # Schaffhausen, did not start observing DST in 1980 as the rest of DE
1368 # (West Germany at that time) and DD (East Germany at that time) did.
1369 # DD merged into DE, the area is currently covered by code DE in ISO 3166-1,
1370 # which in turn is covered by the zone Europe/Berlin.
1371 #
1372 # Source for the time in Büsingen 1980:
1373 # http://www.srf.ch/player/video?id=c012c029-03b7-4c2b-9164-aa5902cd58d3
1374 
1375 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-03):
1376 # Büsingen and Zurich have shared clocks since 1970.
1377 
1378 Link    Europe/Zurich   Europe/Busingen
1379 
1380 # Georgia
1381 # Please see the "asia" file for Asia/Tbilisi.
1382 # Herodotus (Histories, IV.45) says Georgia north of the Phasis (now Rioni)
1383 # is in Europe.  Our reference location Tbilisi is in the Asian part.
1384 
1385 # Gibraltar
1386 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1387 Zone Europe/Gibraltar   -0:21:24 -      LMT     1880 Aug  2  0:00s
1388                         0:00    GB-Eire %s      1957 Apr 14  2:00
1389                         1:00    -       CET     1982
1390                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1391 
1392 # Greece
1393 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1394 # Whitman gives 1932 Jul 5 - Nov 1; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1395 Rule    Greece  1932    only    -       Jul      7      0:00    1:00    S
1396 Rule    Greece  1932    only    -       Sep      1      0:00    0       -
1397 # Whitman gives 1941 Apr 25 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1398 Rule    Greece  1941    only    -       Apr      7      0:00    1:00    S
1399 # Whitman gives 1942 Feb 2 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1400 Rule    Greece  1942    only    -       Nov      2      3:00    0       -
1401 Rule    Greece  1943    only    -       Mar     30      0:00    1:00    S
1402 Rule    Greece  1943    only    -       Oct      4      0:00    0       -
1403 # Whitman gives 1944 Oct 3 - Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1404 Rule    Greece  1952    only    -       Jul      1      0:00    1:00    S
1405 Rule    Greece  1952    only    -       Nov      2      0:00    0       -
1406 Rule    Greece  1975    only    -       Apr     12      0:00s   1:00    S
1407 Rule    Greece  1975    only    -       Nov     26      0:00s   0       -
1408 Rule    Greece  1976    only    -       Apr     11      2:00s   1:00    S
1409 Rule    Greece  1976    only    -       Oct     10      2:00s   0       -
1410 Rule    Greece  1977    1978    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    S
1411 Rule    Greece  1977    only    -       Sep     26      2:00s   0       -
1412 Rule    Greece  1978    only    -       Sep     24      4:00    0       -
1413 Rule    Greece  1979    only    -       Apr      1      9:00    1:00    S
1414 Rule    Greece  1979    only    -       Sep     29      2:00    0       -
1415 Rule    Greece  1980    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
1416 Rule    Greece  1980    only    -       Sep     28      0:00    0       -
1417 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1418 Zone    Europe/Athens   1:34:52 -       LMT     1895 Sep 14
1419                         1:34:52 -       AMT     1916 Jul 28  0:01 # Athens MT
1420                         2:00    Greece  EE%sT   1941 Apr 30
1421                         1:00    Greece  CE%sT   1944 Apr  4
1422                         2:00    Greece  EE%sT   1981
1423                         # Shanks & Pottenger say it switched to C-Eur in 1981;
1424                         # go with EU instead, since Greece joined it on Jan 1.
1425                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
1426 
1427 # Hungary
1428 # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-15):
1429 # Dates for 1916-1945 are taken from:
1430 # Oross A. Jelen a múlt jövője: a nyári időszámítás Magyarországon 1916-1945.
1431 # National Archives of Hungary (2012-10-29).
1432 # http://mnl.gov.hu/a_het_dokumentuma/a_nyari_idoszamitas_magyarorszagon_19161945.html
1433 # This source does not always give times, which are taken from Shanks
1434 # & Pottenger (which disagree about the dates).
1435 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1436 Rule    Hungary 1918    only    -       Apr      1       3:00   1:00    S
1437 Rule    Hungary 1918    only    -       Sep     16       3:00   0       -
1438 Rule    Hungary 1919    only    -       Apr     15       3:00   1:00    S
1439 Rule    Hungary 1919    only    -       Nov     24       3:00   0       -
1440 Rule    Hungary 1945    only    -       May      1      23:00   1:00    S
1441 Rule    Hungary 1945    only    -       Nov      1       0:00   0       -
1442 Rule    Hungary 1946    only    -       Mar     31       2:00s  1:00    S
1443 Rule    Hungary 1946    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1        2:00s  0       -
1444 Rule    Hungary 1947    1949    -       Apr     Sun>=4        2:00s  1:00    S
1445 Rule    Hungary 1950    only    -       Apr     17       2:00s  1:00    S
1446 Rule    Hungary 1950    only    -       Oct     23       2:00s  0       -
1447 Rule    Hungary 1954    1955    -       May     23       0:00   1:00    S
1448 Rule    Hungary 1954    1955    -       Oct      3       0:00   0       -
1449 Rule    Hungary 1956    only    -       Jun     Sun>=1        0:00   1:00    S
1450 Rule    Hungary 1956    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       -
1451 Rule    Hungary 1957    only    -       Jun     Sun>=1        1:00   1:00    S
1452 Rule    Hungary 1957    only    -       Sep     lastSun  3:00   0       -
1453 Rule    Hungary 1980    only    -       Apr      6       1:00   1:00    S
1454 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1455 Zone    Europe/Budapest 1:16:20 -       LMT     1890 Oct
1456                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1918
1457                         1:00    Hungary CE%sT   1941 Apr  8
1458                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945
1459                         1:00    Hungary CE%sT   1980 Sep 28  2:00s
1460                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1461 
1462 # Iceland
1463 #
1464 # From Adam David (1993-11-06):
1465 # The name of the timezone in Iceland for system / mail / news purposes is GMT.
1466 #
1467 # (1993-12-05):
1468 # This material is paraphrased from the 1988 edition of the University of
1469 # Iceland Almanak.
1470 #
1471 # From January 1st, 1908 the whole of Iceland was standardised at 1 hour
1472 # behind GMT. Previously, local mean solar time was used in different parts
1473 # of Iceland, the almanak had been based on Reykjavik mean solar time which
1474 # was 1 hour and 28 minutes behind GMT.
1475 #
1476 # "first day of winter" referred to [below] means the first day of the 26 weeks
1477 # of winter, according to the old icelandic calendar that dates back to the
1478 # time the norsemen first settled Iceland.  The first day of winter is always
1479 # Saturday, but is not dependent on the Julian or Gregorian calendars.
1480 #
1481 # (1993-12-10):
1482 # I have a reference from the Oxford Icelandic-English dictionary for the
1483 # beginning of winter, which ties it to the ecclesiastical calendar (and thus
1484 # to the julian/gregorian calendar) over the period in question.
1485 #       the winter begins on the Saturday next before St. Luke's day
1486 #       (old style), or on St. Luke's day, if a Saturday.
1487 # St. Luke's day ought to be traceable from ecclesiastical sources. "old style"
1488 # might be a reference to the Julian calendar as opposed to Gregorian, or it
1489 # might mean something else (???).
1490 #
1491 # From Paul Eggert (2014-11-22):
1492 # The information below is taken from the 1988 Almanak; see
1493 # http://www.almanak.hi.is/klukkan.html
1494 #
1495 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1496 Rule    Iceland 1917    1919    -       Feb     19      23:00   1:00    S
1497 Rule    Iceland 1917    only    -       Oct     21       1:00   0       -
1498 Rule    Iceland 1918    1919    -       Nov     16       1:00   0       -
1499 Rule    Iceland 1921    only    -       Mar     19      23:00   1:00    S
1500 Rule    Iceland 1921    only    -       Jun     23       1:00   0       -
1501 Rule    Iceland 1939    only    -       Apr     29      23:00   1:00    S
1502 Rule    Iceland 1939    only    -       Oct     29       2:00   0       -
1503 Rule    Iceland 1940    only    -       Feb     25       2:00   1:00    S
1504 Rule    Iceland 1940    1941    -       Nov     Sun>=2        1:00s  0       -
1505 Rule    Iceland 1941    1942    -       Mar     Sun>=2        1:00s  1:00    S
1506 # 1943-1946 - first Sunday in March until first Sunday in winter
1507 Rule    Iceland 1943    1946    -       Mar     Sun>=1        1:00s  1:00    S
1508 Rule    Iceland 1942    1948    -       Oct     Sun>=22       1:00s  0       -
1509 # 1947-1967 - first Sunday in April until first Sunday in winter
1510 Rule    Iceland 1947    1967    -       Apr     Sun>=1        1:00s  1:00    S
1511 # 1949 and 1967 Oct transitions delayed by 1 week
1512 Rule    Iceland 1949    only    -       Oct     30       1:00s  0       -
1513 Rule    Iceland 1950    1966    -       Oct     Sun>=22       1:00s  0       -
1514 Rule    Iceland 1967    only    -       Oct     29       1:00s  0       -
1515 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1516 Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik -1:28   -       LMT     1908
1517                         -1:00   Iceland -01/+00 1968 Apr  7  1:00s
1518                          0:00   -       GMT
1519 
1520 # Italy
1521 #
1522 # From Paul Eggert (2001-03-06):
1523 # Sicily and Sardinia each had their own time zones from 1866 to 1893,
1524 # called Palermo Time (+00:53:28) and Cagliari Time (+00:36:32).
1525 # During World War II, German-controlled Italy used German time.
1526 # But these events all occurred before the 1970 cutoff,
1527 # so record only the time in Rome.
1528 #
1529 # From Michael Deckers (2016-10-24):
1530 # http://www.ac-ilsestante.it/MERIDIANE/ora_legale quotes a law of 1893-08-10
1531 # ... [translated as] "The preceding dispositions will enter into
1532 # force at the instant at which, according to the time specified in
1533 # the 1st article, the 1st of November 1893 will begin...."
1534 #
1535 # From Pierpaolo Bernardi (2016-10-20):
1536 # The authoritative source for time in Italy is the national metrological
1537 # institute, which has a summary page of historical DST data at
1538 # http://www.inrim.it/res/tf/ora_legale_i.shtml
1539 # (2016-10-24):
1540 # http://www.renzobaldini.it/le-ore-legali-in-italia/
1541 # has still different data for 1944.  It divides Italy in two, as
1542 # there were effectively two governments at the time, north of Gothic
1543 # Line German controlled territory, official government RSI, and south
1544 # of the Gothic Line, controlled by allied armies.
1545 #
1546 # From Brian Inglis (2016-10-23):
1547 # Viceregal LEGISLATIVE DECREE. 14 September 1944, no. 219.
1548 # Restoration of Standard Time. (044U0219) (OJ 62 of 30.9.1944) ...
1549 # Given the R. law decreed on 1944-03-29, no. 92, by which standard time is
1550 # advanced to sixty minutes later starting at hour two on 1944-04-02; ...
1551 # Starting at hour three on the date 1944-09-17 standard time will be resumed.
1552 #
1553 # From Paul Eggert (2016-10-27):
1554 # Go with INRiM for DST rules, except as corrected by Inglis for 1944
1555 # for the Kingdom of Italy.  This is consistent with Renzo Baldini.
1556 # Model Rome's occupation by using C-Eur rules from 1943-09-10
1557 # to 1944-06-04; although Rome was an open city during this period, it
1558 # was effectively controlled by Germany.
1559 #
1560 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1561 Rule    Italy   1916    only    -       Jun      3      24:00   1:00    S
1562 Rule    Italy   1916    1917    -       Sep     30      24:00   0       -
1563 Rule    Italy   1917    only    -       Mar     31      24:00   1:00    S
1564 Rule    Italy   1918    only    -       Mar      9      24:00   1:00    S
1565 Rule    Italy   1918    only    -       Oct      6      24:00   0       -
1566 Rule    Italy   1919    only    -       Mar      1      24:00   1:00    S
1567 Rule    Italy   1919    only    -       Oct      4      24:00   0       -
1568 Rule    Italy   1920    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    S
1569 Rule    Italy   1920    only    -       Sep     18      24:00   0       -
1570 Rule    Italy   1940    only    -       Jun     14      24:00   1:00    S
1571 Rule    Italy   1942    only    -       Nov      2       2:00s  0       -
1572 Rule    Italy   1943    only    -       Mar     29       2:00s  1:00    S
1573 Rule    Italy   1943    only    -       Oct      4       2:00s  0       -
1574 Rule    Italy   1944    only    -       Apr      2       2:00s  1:00    S
1575 Rule    Italy   1944    only    -       Sep     17       2:00s  0       -
1576 Rule    Italy   1945    only    -       Apr      2       2:00   1:00    S
1577 Rule    Italy   1945    only    -       Sep     15       1:00   0       -
1578 Rule    Italy   1946    only    -       Mar     17       2:00s  1:00    S
1579 Rule    Italy   1946    only    -       Oct      6       2:00s  0       -
1580 Rule    Italy   1947    only    -       Mar     16       0:00s  1:00    S
1581 Rule    Italy   1947    only    -       Oct      5       0:00s  0       -
1582 Rule    Italy   1948    only    -       Feb     29       2:00s  1:00    S
1583 Rule    Italy   1948    only    -       Oct      3       2:00s  0       -
1584 Rule    Italy   1966    1968    -       May     Sun>=22       0:00s  1:00    S
1585 Rule    Italy   1966    only    -       Sep     24      24:00   0       -
1586 Rule    Italy   1967    1969    -       Sep     Sun>=22       0:00s  0       -
1587 Rule    Italy   1969    only    -       Jun      1       0:00s  1:00    S
1588 Rule    Italy   1970    only    -       May     31       0:00s  1:00    S
1589 Rule    Italy   1970    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       -
1590 Rule    Italy   1971    1972    -       May     Sun>=22       0:00s  1:00    S
1591 Rule    Italy   1971    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       -
1592 Rule    Italy   1972    only    -       Oct      1       0:00s  0       -
1593 Rule    Italy   1973    only    -       Jun      3       0:00s  1:00    S
1594 Rule    Italy   1973    1974    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       -
1595 Rule    Italy   1974    only    -       May     26       0:00s  1:00    S
1596 Rule    Italy   1975    only    -       Jun      1       0:00s  1:00    S
1597 Rule    Italy   1975    1977    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       -
1598 Rule    Italy   1976    only    -       May     30       0:00s  1:00    S
1599 Rule    Italy   1977    1979    -       May     Sun>=22       0:00s  1:00    S
1600 Rule    Italy   1978    only    -       Oct      1       0:00s  0       -
1601 Rule    Italy   1979    only    -       Sep     30       0:00s  0       -
1602 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1603 Zone    Europe/Rome     0:49:56 -       LMT     1866 Sep 22
1604                         0:49:56 -       RMT     1893 Oct 31 23:49:56 # Rome Mean
1605                         1:00    Italy   CE%sT   1943 Sep 10
1606                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Jun  4
1607                         1:00    Italy   CE%sT   1980
1608                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1609 
1610 Link    Europe/Rome     Europe/Vatican
1611 Link    Europe/Rome     Europe/San_Marino
1612 
1613 # Latvia
1614 
1615 # From Liene Kanepe (1998-09-17):
1616 
1617 # I asked about this matter Scientific Secretary of the Institute of Astronomy
1618 # of The University of Latvia Dr. paed Mr. Ilgonis Vilks. I also searched the
1619 # correct data in juridical acts and I found some juridical documents about
1620 # changes in the counting of time in Latvia from 1981....
1621 #
1622 # Act No. 35 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1981-01-22 ...
1623 # according to the Act No. 925 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1980-10-24
1624 # ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning
1625 # the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on 1 April at 00:00 (GMT 31 March 21:00)
1626 # and 1 hour backward on the 1 October at 00:00 (GMT 30 September 20:00).
1627 #
1628 # Act No. 592 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1984-09-24 ...
1629 # according to the Act No. 967 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1984-09-13
1630 # ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning
1631 # the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on the last Sunday of March at 02:00
1632 # (GMT 23:00 on the previous day) and 1 hour backward on the last Sunday of
1633 # September at 03:00 (GMT 23:00 on the previous day).
1634 #
1635 # Act No. 81 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1989-03-22 ...
1636 # according to the Act No. 227 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1989-03-14
1637 # ...: since the last Sunday of March 1989 in Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR,
1638 # Estonian SSR and Kaliningrad region of Russian Federation all year round the
1639 # time of 2nd time zone (Moscow time minus one hour). On the territory of Latvia
1640 # transition to summer time is performed on the last Sunday of March at 02:00
1641 # (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour forward.  The end of
1642 # daylight saving time is performed on the last Sunday of September at 03:00
1643 # (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour backward. Exception is
1644 # 1989-03-26, when we must not turn the hands of the clock....
1645 #
1646 # The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Latvia of
1647 # 1997-01-21 on transition to Summer time ... established the same order of
1648 # daylight savings time settings as in the States of the European Union.
1649 
1650 # From Andrei Ivanov (2000-03-06):
1651 # This year Latvia will not switch to Daylight Savings Time (as specified in
1652 # The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Rep. of Latvia of
1653 # 29-Feb-2000 (No. 79) <http://www.lv-laiks.lv/wwwraksti/2000/071072/vd4.htm>,
1654 # in Latvian for subscribers only).
1655 
1656 # From RFE/RL Newsline
1657 # http://www.rferl.org/newsline/2001/01/3-CEE/cee-030101.html
1658 # (2001-01-03), noted after a heads-up by Rives McDow:
1659 # The Latvian government on 2 January decided that the country will
1660 # institute daylight-saving time this spring, LETA reported.
1661 # Last February the three Baltic states decided not to turn back their
1662 # clocks one hour in the spring....
1663 # Minister of Economy Aigars Kalvītis noted that Latvia had too few
1664 # daylight hours and thus decided to comply with a draft European
1665 # Commission directive that provides for instituting daylight-saving
1666 # time in EU countries between 2002 and 2006. The Latvian government
1667 # urged Lithuania and Estonia to adopt a similar time policy, but it
1668 # appears that they will not do so....
1669 
1670 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1671 Rule    Latvia  1989    1996    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
1672 Rule    Latvia  1989    1996    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
1673 
1674 # Milne 1899 says Riga was 1:36:28 (Polytechnique House time).
1675 # Byalokoz 1919 says Latvia was 1:36:34.
1676 # Go with Byalokoz.
1677 
1678 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1679 Zone    Europe/Riga     1:36:34 -       LMT     1880
1680                         1:36:34 -       RMT     1918 Apr 15  2:00 # Riga MT
1681                         1:36:34 1:00    LST     1918 Sep 16  3:00 # Latvian ST
1682                         1:36:34 -       RMT     1919 Apr  1  2:00
1683                         1:36:34 1:00    LST     1919 May 22  3:00
1684                         1:36:34 -       RMT     1926 May 11
1685                         2:00    -       EET     1940 Aug  5
1686                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Jul
1687                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Oct 13
1688                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1989 Mar lastSun  2:00s
1689                         2:00    1:00    EEST    1989 Sep lastSun  2:00s
1690                         2:00    Latvia  EE%sT   1997 Jan 21
1691                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   2000 Feb 29
1692                         2:00    -       EET     2001 Jan  2
1693                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
1694 
1695 # Liechtenstein
1696 
1697 # From Paul Eggert (2013-09-09):
1698 # Shanks & Pottenger say Vaduz is like Zurich.
1699 
1700 # From Alois Treindl (2013-09-18):
1701 # http://www.eliechtensteinensia.li/LIJ/1978/1938-1978/1941.pdf
1702 # ... confirms on p. 6 that Liechtenstein followed Switzerland in 1941 and 1942.
1703 # I ... translate only the last two paragraphs:
1704 #    ... during second world war, in the years 1941 and 1942, Liechtenstein
1705 #    introduced daylight saving time, adapting to Switzerland.  From 1943 on
1706 #    central European time was in force throughout the year.
1707 #    From a report of the duke's government to the high council,
1708 #    regarding the introduction of a time law, of 31 May 1977.
1709 
1710 Link Europe/Zurich Europe/Vaduz
1711 
1712 
1713 # Lithuania
1714 
1715 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
1716 # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
1717 
1718 # From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
1719 # IATA SSIM (1992/1996) says Lithuania uses W-Eur rules, but since it is
1720 # known to be wrong about Estonia and Latvia, assume it's wrong here too.
1721 
1722 # From Marius Gedminas (1998-08-07):
1723 # I would like to inform that in this year Lithuanian time zone
1724 # (Europe/Vilnius) was changed.
1725 
1726 # From ELTA No. 972 (2582) (1999-09-29) <http://www.elta.lt/>,
1727 # via Steffen Thorsen:
1728 # Lithuania has shifted back to the second time zone (GMT plus two hours)
1729 # to be valid here starting from October 31,
1730 # as decided by the national government on Wednesday....
1731 # The Lithuanian government also announced plans to consider a
1732 # motion to give up shifting to summer time in spring, as it was
1733 # already done by Estonia.
1734 
1735 # From the Fact File, Lithuanian State Department of Tourism
1736 # <http://www.tourism.lt/informa/ff.htm> (2000-03-27):
1737 # Local time is GMT+2 hours ..., no daylight saving.
1738 
1739 # From a user via Klaus Marten (2003-02-07):
1740 # As a candidate for membership of the European Union, Lithuania will
1741 # observe Summer Time in 2003, changing its clocks at the times laid
1742 # down in EU Directive 2000/84 of 19.I.01 (i.e. at the same times as its
1743 # neighbour Latvia). The text of the Lithuanian government Order of
1744 # 7.XI.02 to this effect can be found at
1745 # http://www.lrvk.lt/nut/11/n1749.htm
1746 
1747 
1748 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1749 Zone    Europe/Vilnius  1:41:16 -       LMT     1880
1750                         1:24:00 -       WMT     1917        # Warsaw Mean Time
1751                         1:35:36 -       KMT     1919 Oct 10 # Kaunas Mean Time
1752                         1:00    -       CET     1920 Jul 12
1753                         2:00    -       EET     1920 Oct  9
1754                         1:00    -       CET     1940 Aug  3
1755                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Jun 24
1756                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Aug
1757                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1989 Mar 26  2:00s
1758                         2:00    Russia  EE%sT   1991 Sep 29  2:00s
1759                         2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1998
1760                         2:00    -       EET     1998 Mar 29  1:00u
1761                         1:00    EU      CE%sT   1999 Oct 31  1:00u
1762                         2:00    -       EET     2003 Jan  1
1763                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
1764 
1765 # Luxembourg
1766 # Whitman disagrees with most of these dates in minor ways;
1767 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1768 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1769 Rule    Lux     1916    only    -       May     14      23:00   1:00    S
1770 Rule    Lux     1916    only    -       Oct      1       1:00   0       -
1771 Rule    Lux     1917    only    -       Apr     28      23:00   1:00    S
1772 Rule    Lux     1917    only    -       Sep     17       1:00   0       -
1773 Rule    Lux     1918    only    -       Apr     Mon>=15       2:00s  1:00    S
1774 Rule    Lux     1918    only    -       Sep     Mon>=15       2:00s  0       -
1775 Rule    Lux     1919    only    -       Mar      1      23:00   1:00    S
1776 Rule    Lux     1919    only    -       Oct      5       3:00   0       -
1777 Rule    Lux     1920    only    -       Feb     14      23:00   1:00    S
1778 Rule    Lux     1920    only    -       Oct     24       2:00   0       -
1779 Rule    Lux     1921    only    -       Mar     14      23:00   1:00    S
1780 Rule    Lux     1921    only    -       Oct     26       2:00   0       -
1781 Rule    Lux     1922    only    -       Mar     25      23:00   1:00    S
1782 Rule    Lux     1922    only    -       Oct     Sun>=2        1:00   0       -
1783 Rule    Lux     1923    only    -       Apr     21      23:00   1:00    S
1784 Rule    Lux     1923    only    -       Oct     Sun>=2        2:00   0       -
1785 Rule    Lux     1924    only    -       Mar     29      23:00   1:00    S
1786 Rule    Lux     1924    1928    -       Oct     Sun>=2        1:00   0       -
1787 Rule    Lux     1925    only    -       Apr      5      23:00   1:00    S
1788 Rule    Lux     1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00   1:00    S
1789 Rule    Lux     1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00   1:00    S
1790 Rule    Lux     1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00   1:00    S
1791 Rule    Lux     1929    only    -       Apr     20      23:00   1:00    S
1792 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1793 Zone Europe/Luxembourg  0:24:36 -       LMT     1904 Jun
1794                         1:00    Lux     CE%sT   1918 Nov 25
1795                         0:00    Lux     WE%sT   1929 Oct  6  2:00s
1796                         0:00    Belgium WE%sT   1940 May 14  3:00
1797                         1:00    C-Eur   WE%sT   1944 Sep 18  3:00
1798                         1:00    Belgium CE%sT   1977
1799                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1800 
1801 # Macedonia
1802 # See Europe/Belgrade.
1803 
1804 # Malta
1805 #
1806 # From Paul Eggert (2016-10-21):
1807 # Assume 1900-1972 was like Rome, overriding Shanks.
1808 #
1809 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1810 Rule    Malta   1973    only    -       Mar     31      0:00s   1:00    S
1811 Rule    Malta   1973    only    -       Sep     29      0:00s   0       -
1812 Rule    Malta   1974    only    -       Apr     21      0:00s   1:00    S
1813 Rule    Malta   1974    only    -       Sep     16      0:00s   0       -
1814 Rule    Malta   1975    1979    -       Apr     Sun>=15      2:00    1:00    S
1815 Rule    Malta   1975    1980    -       Sep     Sun>=15      2:00    0       -
1816 Rule    Malta   1980    only    -       Mar     31      2:00    1:00    S
1817 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1818 Zone    Europe/Malta    0:58:04 -       LMT     1893 Nov  2  0:00s # Valletta
1819                         1:00    Italy   CE%sT   1973 Mar 31
1820                         1:00    Malta   CE%sT   1981
1821                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1822 
1823 # Moldova
1824 
1825 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07):
1826 # the act of the government of the Republic of Moldova Nr. 132 from 1990-05-04
1827 # http://lex.justice.md/viewdoc.php?action=view&view=doc&id=298782&lang=2
1828 # ... says that since 1990-05-06 on the territory of the Moldavian SSR
1829 # time would be calculated as the standard time of the second time belt
1830 # plus one hour of the "summer" time. To implement that clocks would be
1831 # adjusted one hour backwards at 1990-05-06 2:00. After that "summer"
1832 # time would be cancelled last Sunday of September at 3:00 and
1833 # reintroduced last Sunday of March at 2:00.
1834 
1835 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1836 # A previous version of this database followed Shanks & Pottenger, who write
1837 # that Tiraspol switched to Moscow time on 1992-01-19 at 02:00.
1838 # However, this is most likely an error, as Moldova declared independence
1839 # on 1991-08-27 (the 1992-01-19 date is that of a Russian decree).
1840 # In early 1992 there was large-scale interethnic violence in the area
1841 # and it's possible that some Russophones continued to observe Moscow time.
1842 # But [two people] separately reported via
1843 # Jesper Nørgaard that as of 2001-01-24 Tiraspol was like Chisinau.
1844 # The Tiraspol entry has therefore been removed for now.
1845 #
1846 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-10-17):
1847 # Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR, also known as
1848 # "Pridnestrovie") has abolished seasonal clock change (no transition
1849 # to the Winter Time).
1850 #
1851 # News (in Russian):
1852 # http://www.kyivpost.ua/russia/news/pridnestrove-otkazalos-ot-perehoda-na-zimnee-vremya-30954.html
1853 # http://www.allmoldova.com/moldova-news/1249064116.html
1854 #
1855 # The substance of this change (reinstatement of the Tiraspol entry)
1856 # is from a patch from Petr Machata (2011-10-17)
1857 #
1858 # From Tim Parenti (2011-10-19)
1859 # In addition, being situated at +4651+2938 would give Tiraspol
1860 # a pre-1880 LMT offset of 1:58:32.
1861 #
1862 # (which agrees with the earlier entry that had been removed)
1863 #
1864 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-10-26)
1865 # NO need to divide Moldova into two timezones at this point.
1866 # As of today, Transnistria (Pridnestrovie)- Tiraspol reversed its own
1867 # decision to abolish DST this winter.
1868 # Following Moldova and neighboring Ukraine- Transnistria (Pridnestrovie)-
1869 # Tiraspol will go back to winter time on October 30, 2011.
1870 # News from Moldova (in russian):
1871 # https://ru.publika.md/link_317061.html
1872 
1873 # From Roman Tudos (2015-07-02):
1874 # http://lex.justice.md/index.php?action=view&view=doc&lang=1&id=355077
1875 # From Paul Eggert (2015-07-01):
1876 # The abovementioned official link to IGO1445-868/2014 states that
1877 # 2014-10-26's fallback transition occurred at 03:00 local time.  Also,
1878 # https://www.trm.md/en/social/la-30-martie-vom-trece-la-ora-de-vara
1879 # says the 2014-03-30 spring-forward transition was at 02:00 local time.
1880 # Guess that since 1997 Moldova has switched one hour before the EU.
1881 
1882 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1883 Rule    Moldova 1997    max     -       Mar     lastSun  2:00   1:00    S
1884 Rule    Moldova 1997    max     -       Oct     lastSun  3:00   0       -
1885 
1886 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1887 Zone    Europe/Chisinau 1:55:20 -       LMT     1880
1888                         1:55    -       CMT     1918 Feb 15 # Chisinau MT
1889                         1:44:24 -       BMT     1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT
1890                         2:00    Romania EE%sT   1940 Aug 15
1891                         2:00    1:00    EEST    1941 Jul 17
1892                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Aug 24
1893                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990 May  6  2:00
1894                         2:00    Russia  EE%sT   1992
1895                         2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1997
1896 # See Romania commentary for the guessed 1997 transition to EU rules.
1897                         2:00    Moldova EE%sT
1898 
1899 # Monaco
1900 # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's
1901 # more precise 0:09:21.
1902 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1903 Zone    Europe/Monaco   0:29:32 -       LMT     1891 Mar 15
1904                         0:09:21 -       PMT     1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time
1905                         0:00    France  WE%sT   1945 Sep 16  3:00
1906                         1:00    France  CE%sT   1977
1907                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1908 
1909 # Montenegro
1910 # See Europe/Belgrade.
1911 
1912 # Netherlands
1913 
1914 # Howse writes that the Netherlands' railways used GMT between 1892 and 1940,
1915 # but for other purposes the Netherlands used Amsterdam mean time.
1916 
1917 # However, Robert H. van Gent writes (2001-04-01):
1918 # Howse's statement is only correct up to 1909. From 1909-05-01 (00:00:00
1919 # Amsterdam mean time) onwards, the whole of the Netherlands (including
1920 # the Dutch railways) was required by law to observe Amsterdam mean time
1921 # (19 minutes 32.13 seconds ahead of GMT). This had already been the
1922 # common practice (except for the railways) for many decades but it was
1923 # not until 1909 when the Dutch government finally defined this by law.
1924 # On 1937-07-01 this was changed to 20 minutes (exactly) ahead of GMT and
1925 # was generally known as Dutch Time ("Nederlandse Tijd").
1926 #
1927 # (2001-04-08):
1928 # 1892-05-01 was the date when the Dutch railways were by law required to
1929 # observe GMT while the remainder of the Netherlands adhered to the common
1930 # practice of following Amsterdam mean time.
1931 #
1932 # (2001-04-09):
1933 # In 1835 the authorities of the province of North Holland requested the
1934 # municipal authorities of the towns and cities in the province to observe
1935 # Amsterdam mean time but I do not know in how many cases this request was
1936 # actually followed.
1937 #
1938 # From 1852 onwards the Dutch telegraph offices were by law required to
1939 # observe Amsterdam mean time. As the time signals from the observatory of
1940 # Leiden were also distributed by the telegraph system, I assume that most
1941 # places linked up with the telegraph (and railway) system automatically
1942 # adopted Amsterdam mean time.
1943 #
1944 # Although the early Dutch railway companies initially observed a variety
1945 # of times, most of them had adopted Amsterdam mean time by 1858 but it
1946 # was not until 1866 when they were all required by law to observe
1947 # Amsterdam mean time.
1948 
1949 # The data entries before 1945 are taken from
1950 # https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/wettijd/wettijd.htm
1951 
1952 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1953 Rule    Neth    1916    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    NST     # Netherlands Summer Time
1954 Rule    Neth    1916    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       AMT     # Amsterdam Mean Time
1955 Rule    Neth    1917    only    -       Apr     16      2:00s   1:00    NST
1956 Rule    Neth    1917    only    -       Sep     17      2:00s   0       AMT
1957 Rule    Neth    1918    1921    -       Apr     Mon>=1       2:00s   1:00    NST
1958 Rule    Neth    1918    1921    -       Sep     lastMon 2:00s   0       AMT
1959 Rule    Neth    1922    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    NST
1960 Rule    Neth    1922    1936    -       Oct     Sun>=2       2:00s   0       AMT
1961 Rule    Neth    1923    only    -       Jun     Fri>=1       2:00s   1:00    NST
1962 Rule    Neth    1924    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    NST
1963 Rule    Neth    1925    only    -       Jun     Fri>=1       2:00s   1:00    NST
1964 # From 1926 through 1939 DST began 05-15, except that it was delayed by a week
1965 # in years when 05-15 fell in the Pentecost weekend.
1966 Rule    Neth    1926    1931    -       May     15      2:00s   1:00    NST
1967 Rule    Neth    1932    only    -       May     22      2:00s   1:00    NST
1968 Rule    Neth    1933    1936    -       May     15      2:00s   1:00    NST
1969 Rule    Neth    1937    only    -       May     22      2:00s   1:00    NST
1970 Rule    Neth    1937    only    -       Jul      1      0:00    1:00    S
1971 Rule    Neth    1937    1939    -       Oct     Sun>=2       2:00s   0       -
1972 Rule    Neth    1938    1939    -       May     15      2:00s   1:00    S
1973 Rule    Neth    1945    only    -       Apr      2      2:00s   1:00    S
1974 Rule    Neth    1945    only    -       Sep     16      2:00s   0       -
1975 #
1976 # Amsterdam Mean Time was +00:19:32.13 exactly, but the .13 is omitted
1977 # below because the current format requires GMTOFF to be an integer.
1978 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1979 Zone Europe/Amsterdam   0:19:32 -       LMT     1835
1980                         0:19:32 Neth    %s      1937 Jul  1
1981                         0:20    Neth +0020/+0120 1940 May 16  0:00
1982                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00
1983                         1:00    Neth    CE%sT   1977
1984                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1985 
1986 # Norway
1987 # http://met.no/met/met_lex/q_u/sommertid.html (2004-01) agrees with Shanks &
1988 # Pottenger.
1989 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1990 Rule    Norway  1916    only    -       May     22      1:00    1:00    S
1991 Rule    Norway  1916    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       -
1992 Rule    Norway  1945    only    -       Apr      2      2:00s   1:00    S
1993 Rule    Norway  1945    only    -       Oct      1      2:00s   0       -
1994 Rule    Norway  1959    1964    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   1:00    S
1995 Rule    Norway  1959    1965    -       Sep     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       -
1996 Rule    Norway  1965    only    -       Apr     25      2:00s   1:00    S
1997 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1998 Zone    Europe/Oslo     0:43:00 -       LMT     1895 Jan  1
1999                         1:00    Norway  CE%sT   1940 Aug 10 23:00
2000                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00
2001                         1:00    Norway  CE%sT   1980
2002                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
2003 
2004 # Svalbard & Jan Mayen
2005 
2006 # From Steffen Thorsen (2001-05-01):
2007 # Although I could not find it explicitly, it seems that Jan Mayen and
2008 # Svalbard have been using the same time as Norway at least since the
2009 # time they were declared as parts of Norway.  Svalbard was declared
2010 # as a part of Norway by law of 1925-07-17 no 11, section 4 and Jan
2011 # Mayen by law of 1930-02-27 no 2, section 2. (From
2012 # <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19250717-011.html> and
2013 # <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19300227-002.html>).  The law/regulation
2014 # for normal/standard time in Norway is from 1894-06-29 no 1 (came
2015 # into operation on 1895-01-01) and Svalbard/Jan Mayen seem to be a
2016 # part of this law since 1925/1930. (From
2017 # <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-18940629-001.html>) I have not been
2018 # able to find if Jan Mayen used a different time zone (e.g. -0100)
2019 # before 1930. Jan Mayen has only been "inhabited" since 1921 by
2020 # Norwegian meteorologists and maybe used the same time as Norway ever
2021 # since 1921.  Svalbard (Arctic/Longyearbyen) has been inhabited since
2022 # before 1895, and therefore probably changed the local time somewhere
2023 # between 1895 and 1925 (inclusive).
2024 
2025 # From Paul Eggert (2013-09-04):
2026 #
2027 # Actually, Jan Mayen was never occupied by Germany during World War II,
2028 # so it must have diverged from Oslo time during the war, as Oslo was
2029 # keeping Berlin time.
2030 #
2031 # <https://www.jan-mayen.no/history.htm> says that the meteorologists
2032 # burned down their station in 1940 and left the island, but returned in
2033 # 1941 with a small Norwegian garrison and continued operations despite
2034 # frequent air attacks from Germans.  In 1943 the Americans established a
2035 # radiolocating station on the island, called "Atlantic City".  Possibly
2036 # the UT offset changed during the war, but I think it unlikely that
2037 # Jan Mayen used German daylight-saving rules.
2038 #
2039 # Svalbard is more complicated, as it was raided in August 1941 by an
2040 # Allied party that evacuated the civilian population to England (says
2041 # <http://www.bartleby.com/65/sv/Svalbard.html>).  The Svalbard FAQ
2042 # <http://www.svalbard.com/SvalbardFAQ.html> says that the Germans were
2043 # expelled on 1942-05-14.  However, small parties of Germans did return,
2044 # and according to Wilhelm Dege's book "War North of 80" (1954)
2045 # http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/departments/UP/1-55238/1-55238-110-2.html
2046 # the German armed forces at the Svalbard weather station code-named
2047 # Haudegen did not surrender to the Allies until September 1945.
2048 #
2049 # All these events predate our cutoff date of 1970, so use Europe/Oslo
2050 # for these regions.
2051 Link    Europe/Oslo     Arctic/Longyearbyen
2052 
2053 # Poland
2054 
2055 # The 1919 dates and times can be found in Tygodnik Urzędowy nr 1 (1919-03-20),
2056 # <http://www.wbc.poznan.pl/publication/32156> pp 1-2.
2057 
2058 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2059 Rule    Poland  1918    1919    -       Sep     16      2:00s   0       -
2060 Rule    Poland  1919    only    -       Apr     15      2:00s   1:00    S
2061 Rule    Poland  1944    only    -       Apr      3      2:00s   1:00    S
2062 # Whitman gives 1944 Nov 30; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2063 Rule    Poland  1944    only    -       Oct      4      2:00    0       -
2064 # For 1944-1948 Whitman gives the previous day; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2065 Rule    Poland  1945    only    -       Apr     29      0:00    1:00    S
2066 Rule    Poland  1945    only    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       -
2067 # For 1946 on the source is Kazimierz Borkowski,
2068 # Toruń Center for Astronomy, Dept. of Radio Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus U.,
2069 # https://www.astro.uni.torun.pl/~kb/Artykuly/U-PA/Czas2.htm#tth_tAb1
2070 # Thanks to Przemysław Augustyniak (2005-05-28) for this reference.
2071 # He also gives these further references:
2072 # Mon Pol nr 13, poz 162 (1995) <http://www.abc.com.pl/serwis/mp/1995/0162.htm>
2073 # Druk nr 2180 (2003) <http://www.senat.gov.pl/k5/dok/sejm/053/2180.pdf>
2074 Rule    Poland  1946    only    -       Apr     14      0:00s   1:00    S
2075 Rule    Poland  1946    only    -       Oct      7      2:00s   0       -
2076 Rule    Poland  1947    only    -       May      4      2:00s   1:00    S
2077 Rule    Poland  1947    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
2078 Rule    Poland  1948    only    -       Apr     18      2:00s   1:00    S
2079 Rule    Poland  1949    only    -       Apr     10      2:00s   1:00    S
2080 Rule    Poland  1957    only    -       Jun      2      1:00s   1:00    S
2081 Rule    Poland  1957    1958    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00s   0       -
2082 Rule    Poland  1958    only    -       Mar     30      1:00s   1:00    S
2083 Rule    Poland  1959    only    -       May     31      1:00s   1:00    S
2084 Rule    Poland  1959    1961    -       Oct     Sun>=1       1:00s   0       -
2085 Rule    Poland  1960    only    -       Apr      3      1:00s   1:00    S
2086 Rule    Poland  1961    1964    -       May     lastSun 1:00s   1:00    S
2087 Rule    Poland  1962    1964    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00s   0       -
2088 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2089 Zone    Europe/Warsaw   1:24:00 -       LMT     1880
2090                         1:24:00 -       WMT     1915 Aug  5 # Warsaw Mean Time
2091                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1918 Sep 16  3:00
2092                         2:00    Poland  EE%sT   1922 Jun
2093                         1:00    Poland  CE%sT   1940 Jun 23  2:00
2094                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Oct
2095                         1:00    Poland  CE%sT   1977
2096                         1:00    W-Eur   CE%sT   1988
2097                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
2098 
2099 # Portugal
2100 #
2101 # From Paul Eggert (2014-08-11), after a heads-up from Stephen Colebourne:
2102 # According to a Portuguese decree (1911-05-26)
2103 # https://dre.pt/application/dir/pdf1sdip/1911/05/12500/23132313.pdf
2104 # Lisbon was at -0:36:44.68, but switched to GMT on 1912-01-01 at 00:00.
2105 # Round the old offset to -0:36:45.  This agrees with Willett but disagrees
2106 # with Shanks, who says the transition occurred on 1911-05-24 at 00:00 for
2107 # Europe/Lisbon, Atlantic/Azores, and Atlantic/Madeira.
2108 #
2109 # From Rui Pedro Salgueiro (1992-11-12):
2110 # Portugal has recently (September, 27) changed timezone
2111 # (from WET to MET or CET) to harmonize with EEC.
2112 #
2113 # Martin Bruckmann (1996-02-29) reports via Peter Ilieve
2114 # that Portugal is reverting to 0:00 by not moving its clocks this spring.
2115 # The new Prime Minister was fed up with getting up in the dark in the winter.
2116 #
2117 # From Paul Eggert (1996-11-12):
2118 # IATA SSIM (1991-09) reports several 1991-09 and 1992-09 transitions
2119 # at 02:00u, not 01:00u.  Assume that these are typos.
2120 # IATA SSIM (1991/1992) reports that the Azores were at -1:00.
2121 # IATA SSIM (1993-02) says +0:00; later issues (through 1996-09) say -1:00.
2122 # Guess that the Azores changed to EU rules in 1992 (since that's when Portugal
2123 # harmonized with the EU), and that they stayed +0:00 that winter.
2124 #
2125 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2126 # DSH writes that despite Decree 1,469 (1915), the change to the clocks was not
2127 # done every year, depending on what Spain did, because of railroad schedules.
2128 # Go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2129 Rule    Port    1916    only    -       Jun     17      23:00   1:00    S
2130 # Whitman gives 1916 Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2131 Rule    Port    1916    only    -       Nov      1       1:00   0       -
2132 Rule    Port    1917    only    -       Feb     28      23:00s  1:00    S
2133 Rule    Port    1917    1921    -       Oct     14      23:00s  0       -
2134 Rule    Port    1918    only    -       Mar      1      23:00s  1:00    S
2135 Rule    Port    1919    only    -       Feb     28      23:00s  1:00    S
2136 Rule    Port    1920    only    -       Feb     29      23:00s  1:00    S
2137 Rule    Port    1921    only    -       Feb     28      23:00s  1:00    S
2138 Rule    Port    1924    only    -       Apr     16      23:00s  1:00    S
2139 Rule    Port    1924    only    -       Oct     14      23:00s  0       -
2140 Rule    Port    1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00s  1:00    S
2141 Rule    Port    1926    1929    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
2142 Rule    Port    1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00s  1:00    S
2143 Rule    Port    1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00s  1:00    S
2144 Rule    Port    1929    only    -       Apr     20      23:00s  1:00    S
2145 Rule    Port    1931    only    -       Apr     18      23:00s  1:00    S
2146 # Whitman gives 1931 Oct 8; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2147 Rule    Port    1931    1932    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
2148 Rule    Port    1932    only    -       Apr      2      23:00s  1:00    S
2149 Rule    Port    1934    only    -       Apr      7      23:00s  1:00    S
2150 # Whitman gives 1934 Oct 5; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2151 Rule    Port    1934    1938    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
2152 # Shanks & Pottenger give 1935 Apr 30; go with Whitman.
2153 Rule    Port    1935    only    -       Mar     30      23:00s  1:00    S
2154 Rule    Port    1936    only    -       Apr     18      23:00s  1:00    S
2155 # Whitman gives 1937 Apr 2; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2156 Rule    Port    1937    only    -       Apr      3      23:00s  1:00    S
2157 Rule    Port    1938    only    -       Mar     26      23:00s  1:00    S
2158 Rule    Port    1939    only    -       Apr     15      23:00s  1:00    S
2159 # Whitman gives 1939 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2160 Rule    Port    1939    only    -       Nov     18      23:00s  0       -
2161 Rule    Port    1940    only    -       Feb     24      23:00s  1:00    S
2162 # Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Oct 7; go with Whitman.
2163 Rule    Port    1940    1941    -       Oct      5      23:00s  0       -
2164 Rule    Port    1941    only    -       Apr      5      23:00s  1:00    S
2165 Rule    Port    1942    1945    -       Mar     Sat>=8       23:00s  1:00    S
2166 Rule    Port    1942    only    -       Apr     25      22:00s  2:00    M # Midsummer
2167 Rule    Port    1942    only    -       Aug     15      22:00s  1:00    S
2168 Rule    Port    1942    1945    -       Oct     Sat>=24      23:00s  0       -
2169 Rule    Port    1943    only    -       Apr     17      22:00s  2:00    M
2170 Rule    Port    1943    1945    -       Aug     Sat>=25      22:00s  1:00    S
2171 Rule    Port    1944    1945    -       Apr     Sat>=21      22:00s  2:00    M
2172 Rule    Port    1946    only    -       Apr     Sat>=1       23:00s  1:00    S
2173 Rule    Port    1946    only    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
2174 Rule    Port    1947    1949    -       Apr     Sun>=1        2:00s  1:00    S
2175 Rule    Port    1947    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1        2:00s  0       -
2176 # Shanks & Pottenger say DST was observed in 1950; go with Whitman.
2177 # Whitman gives Oct lastSun for 1952 on; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2178 Rule    Port    1951    1965    -       Apr     Sun>=1        2:00s  1:00    S
2179 Rule    Port    1951    1965    -       Oct     Sun>=1        2:00s  0       -
2180 Rule    Port    1977    only    -       Mar     27       0:00s  1:00    S
2181 Rule    Port    1977    only    -       Sep     25       0:00s  0       -
2182 Rule    Port    1978    1979    -       Apr     Sun>=1        0:00s  1:00    S
2183 Rule    Port    1978    only    -       Oct      1       0:00s  0       -
2184 Rule    Port    1979    1982    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00s  0       -
2185 Rule    Port    1980    only    -       Mar     lastSun  0:00s  1:00    S
2186 Rule    Port    1981    1982    -       Mar     lastSun  1:00s  1:00    S
2187 Rule    Port    1983    only    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
2188 #
2189 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2190 Zone    Europe/Lisbon   -0:36:45 -      LMT     1884
2191                         -0:36:45 -      LMT     1912 Jan  1 # Lisbon Mean Time
2192                          0:00   Port    WE%sT   1966 Apr  3  2:00
2193                          1:00   -       CET     1976 Sep 26  1:00
2194                          0:00   Port    WE%sT   1983 Sep 25  1:00s
2195                          0:00   W-Eur   WE%sT   1992 Sep 27  1:00s
2196                          1:00   EU      CE%sT   1996 Mar 31  1:00u
2197                          0:00   EU      WE%sT
2198 # This Zone can be simplified once we assume zic %z.
2199 Zone Atlantic/Azores    -1:42:40 -      LMT     1884        # Ponta Delgada
2200                         -1:54:32 -      HMT     1912 Jan  1 # Horta Mean Time
2201                         -2:00   Port    -02/-01 1942 Apr 25 22:00s
2202                         -2:00   Port    +00     1942 Aug 15 22:00s
2203                         -2:00   Port    -02/-01 1943 Apr 17 22:00s
2204                         -2:00   Port    +00     1943 Aug 28 22:00s
2205                         -2:00   Port    -02/-01 1944 Apr 22 22:00s
2206                         -2:00   Port    +00     1944 Aug 26 22:00s
2207                         -2:00   Port    -02/-01 1945 Apr 21 22:00s
2208                         -2:00   Port    +00     1945 Aug 25 22:00s
2209                         -2:00   Port    -02/-01 1966 Apr  3  2:00
2210                         -1:00   Port    -01/+00 1983 Sep 25  1:00s
2211                         -1:00   W-Eur   -01/+00 1992 Sep 27  1:00s
2212                          0:00   EU      WE%sT   1993 Mar 28  1:00u
2213                         -1:00   EU      -01/+00
2214 # This Zone can be simplified once we assume zic %z.
2215 Zone Atlantic/Madeira   -1:07:36 -      LMT     1884        # Funchal
2216                         -1:07:36 -      FMT     1912 Jan  1 # Funchal Mean Time
2217                         -1:00   Port    -01/+00 1942 Apr 25 22:00s
2218                         -1:00   Port    +01     1942 Aug 15 22:00s
2219                         -1:00   Port    -01/+00 1943 Apr 17 22:00s
2220                         -1:00   Port    +01     1943 Aug 28 22:00s
2221                         -1:00   Port    -01/+00 1944 Apr 22 22:00s
2222                         -1:00   Port    +01     1944 Aug 26 22:00s
2223                         -1:00   Port    -01/+00 1945 Apr 21 22:00s
2224                         -1:00   Port    +01     1945 Aug 25 22:00s
2225                         -1:00   Port    -01/+00 1966 Apr  3  2:00
2226                          0:00   Port    WE%sT   1983 Sep 25  1:00s
2227                          0:00   EU      WE%sT
2228 
2229 # Romania
2230 #
2231 # From Paul Eggert (1999-10-07):
2232 # Nine O'clock <http://www.nineoclock.ro/POL/1778pol.html>
2233 # (1998-10-23) reports that the switch occurred at
2234 # 04:00 local time in fall 1998.  For lack of better info,
2235 # assume that Romania and Moldova switched to EU rules in 1997,
2236 # the same year as Bulgaria.
2237 #
2238 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2239 Rule    Romania 1932    only    -       May     21       0:00s  1:00    S
2240 Rule    Romania 1932    1939    -       Oct     Sun>=1        0:00s  0       -
2241 Rule    Romania 1933    1939    -       Apr     Sun>=2        0:00s  1:00    S
2242 Rule    Romania 1979    only    -       May     27       0:00   1:00    S
2243 Rule    Romania 1979    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       -
2244 Rule    Romania 1980    only    -       Apr      5      23:00   1:00    S
2245 Rule    Romania 1980    only    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00   0       -
2246 Rule    Romania 1991    1993    -       Mar     lastSun  0:00s  1:00    S
2247 Rule    Romania 1991    1993    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       -
2248 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2249 Zone Europe/Bucharest   1:44:24 -       LMT     1891 Oct
2250                         1:44:24 -       BMT     1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT
2251                         2:00    Romania EE%sT   1981 Mar 29  2:00s
2252                         2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1991
2253                         2:00    Romania EE%sT   1994
2254                         2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1997
2255                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
2256 
2257 
2258 # Russia
2259 
2260 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-09-15):
2261 # Based on last Russian Government Decree No. 725 on August 31, 2011
2262 # (Government document
2263 # http://www.government.ru/gov/results/16355/print/
2264 # in Russian)
2265 # there are few corrections have to be made for some Russian time zones...
2266 # All updated Russian Time Zones were placed in table and translated to English
2267 # by WorldTimeZone.com at the link below:
2268 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia36.htm
2269 
2270 # From Sanjeev Gupta (2011-09-27):
2271 # Scans of [Decree No. 23 of January 8, 1992] are available at:
2272 # http://government.consultant.ru/page.aspx?1223966
2273 # They are in Cyrillic letters (presumably Russian).
2274 
2275 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09):
2276 # Regarding the instant when clocks in time-zone-shifting parts of Russia
2277 # changed in September 2011:
2278 #
2279 # One source is
2280 # http://government.ru/gov/results/16355/
2281 # which, according to translate.google.com, begins "Decree of August 31,
2282 # 2011 No. 725" and contains no other dates or "effective date" information.
2283 #
2284 # Another source is
2285 # https://rg.ru/2011/09/06/chas-zona-dok.html
2286 # which, according to translate.google.com, begins "Resolution of the
2287 # Government of the Russian Federation on August 31, 2011 N 725" and also
2288 # contains "Date first official publication: September 6, 2011 Posted on:
2289 # in the 'RG' - Federal Issue No. 5573 September 6, 2011" but which
2290 # does not contain any "effective date" information.
2291 #
2292 # Another source is
2293 # https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oymyakonsky_District#cite_note-RuTime-7
2294 # which, in note 8, contains "Resolution No. 725 of August 31, 2011...
2295 # Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication"
2296 # but which does not contain any reference to September 6, 2011.
2297 #
2298 # The Wikipedia article refers to
2299 # http://base.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi?req=doc;base=LAW;n=118896
2300 # which seems to copy the text of the government.ru page.
2301 #
2302 # Tobias Conradi combines Wikipedia's
2303 # "as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication"
2304 # with www.rg.ru's "Date of first official publication: September 6, 2011" to
2305 # get September 13, 2011 as the cutover date (unusually, a Tuesday, as Tobias
2306 # Conradi notes).
2307 #
2308 # None of the sources indicates a time of day for changing clocks.
2309 #
2310 # Go with 2011-09-13 0:00s.
2311 
2312 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-01):
2313 # According to the Russian news (ITAR-TASS News Agency)
2314 # http://en.itar-tass.com/russia/738562
2315 # the State Duma has approved ... the draft bill on returning to
2316 # winter time standard and return Russia 11 time zones.  The new
2317 # regulations will come into effect on October 26, 2014 at 02:00 ...
2318 # http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/main.nsf/%28Spravka%29?OpenAgent&RN=431985-6&02
2319 # Here is a link where we put together table (based on approved Bill N
2320 # 431985-6) with proposed 11 Russian time zones and corresponding
2321 # areas/cities/administrative centers in the Russian Federation (in English):
2322 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia65.html
2323 #
2324 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-22):
2325 # Putin signed the Federal Law 431985-6 ... (in Russian)
2326 # http://itar-tass.com/obschestvo/1333711
2327 # http://www.pravo.gov.ru:8080/page.aspx?111660
2328 # http://www.kremlin.ru/acts/46279
2329 # From October 26, 2014 the new Russian time zone map will look like this:
2330 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia-map-2014-07.html
2331 
2332 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
2333 # Moscow time zone abbreviations after 1919-07-01, and Moscow rules after 1991,
2334 # are from Andrey A. Chernov.  The rest is from Shanks & Pottenger,
2335 # except we follow Chernov's report that 1992 DST transitions were Sat
2336 # 23:00, not Sun 02:00s.
2337 #
2338 # From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski (1994-06-29):
2339 # But now it is some months since Novosibirsk is 3 hours ahead of Moscow!
2340 # I do not know why they have decided to make this change;
2341 # as far as I remember it was done exactly during winter->summer switching
2342 # so we (Novosibirsk) simply did not switch.
2343 #
2344 # From Andrey A. Chernov (1996-10-04):
2345 # 'MSK' and 'MSD' were born and used initially on Moscow computers with
2346 # UNIX-like OSes by several developer groups (e.g. Demos group, Kiae group)....
2347 # The next step was the UUCP network, the Relcom predecessor
2348 # (used mainly for mail), and MSK/MSD was actively used there.
2349 #
2350 # From Chris Carrier (1996-10-30):
2351 # According to a friend of mine who rode the Trans-Siberian Railroad from
2352 # Moscow to Irkutsk in 1995, public air and rail transport in Russia ...
2353 # still follows Moscow time, no matter where in Russia it is located.
2354 #
2355 # For Grozny, Chechnya, we have the following story from
2356 # John Daniszewski, "Scavengers in the Rubble", Los Angeles Times (2001-02-07):
2357 # News - often false - is spread by word of mouth.  A rumor that it was
2358 # time to move the clocks back put this whole city out of sync with
2359 # the rest of Russia for two weeks - even soldiers stationed here began
2360 # enforcing curfew at the wrong time.
2361 #
2362 # From Gwillim Law (2001-06-05):
2363 # There's considerable evidence that Sakhalin Island used to be in
2364 # UTC+11, and has changed to UTC+10, in this decade.  I start with the
2365 # SSIM, which listed Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk in zone RU10 along with Magadan
2366 # until February 1997, and then in RU9 with Khabarovsk and Vladivostok
2367 # since September 1997....  Although the Kuril Islands are
2368 # administratively part of Sakhalin oblast', they appear to have
2369 # remained on UTC+11 along with Magadan.
2370 
2371 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
2372 # The comments detailing the coverage of each Russian zone are meant to assist
2373 # with maintenance only and represent our best guesses as to which regions
2374 # are covered by each zone.  They are not meant to be taken as an authoritative
2375 # listing.  The region codes listed come from
2376 # https://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Federal_subjects_of_Russia&oldid=611810498
2377 # and are used for convenience only; no guarantees are made regarding their
2378 # future stability.  ISO 3166-2:RU codes are also listed for first-level
2379 # divisions where available.
2380 
2381 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2382 
2383 
2384 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
2385 # Europe/Kaliningrad covers...
2386 # 39    RU-KGD  Kaliningrad Oblast
2387 
2388 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2389 # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
2390 
2391 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07):
2392 # http://www.rgo.ru/ru/kaliningradskoe-oblastnoe-otdelenie/ob-otdelenii/publikacii/kak-nam-zhilos-bez-letnego-vremeni
2393 # confirms that the 1989 change to Moscow-1 was implemented.
2394 # (The article, though, is misattributed to 1990 while saying that
2395 # summer->winter transition would be done on the 24 of September. But
2396 # 1990-09-24 was Monday, while 1989-09-24 was Sunday as expected.)
2397 # ...
2398 # http://www.kaliningradka.ru/site_pc/cherez/index.php?ELEMENT_ID=40091
2399 # says that Kaliningrad switched to Moscow-1 on 1989-03-26, avoided
2400 # at the last moment switch to Moscow-1 on 1991-03-31, switched to
2401 # Moscow on 1991-11-03, switched to Moscow-1 on 1992-01-19.
2402 
2403 Zone Europe/Kaliningrad  1:22:00 -      LMT     1893 Apr
2404                          1:00   C-Eur   CE%sT   1945
2405                          2:00   Poland  CE%sT   1946
2406                          3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 1989 Mar 26  2:00s
2407                          2:00   Russia  EE%sT   2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2408                          3:00   -       +03     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2409                          2:00   -       EET
2410 
2411 
2412 # From Paul Eggert (2016-02-21), per Tim Parenti (2014-07-03) and
2413 # Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
2414 # Europe/Moscow covers...
2415 # 01    RU-AD   Adygea, Republic of
2416 # 05    RU-DA   Dagestan, Republic of
2417 # 06    RU-IN   Ingushetia, Republic of
2418 # 07    RU-KB   Kabardino-Balkar Republic
2419 # 08    RU-KL   Kalmykia, Republic of
2420 # 09    RU-KC   Karachay-Cherkess Republic
2421 # 10    RU-KR   Karelia, Republic of
2422 # 11    RU-KO   Komi Republic
2423 # 12    RU-ME   Mari El Republic
2424 # 13    RU-MO   Mordovia, Republic of
2425 # 15    RU-SE   North Ossetia-Alania, Republic of
2426 # 16    RU-TA   Tatarstan, Republic of
2427 # 20    RU-CE   Chechen Republic
2428 # 21    RU-CU   Chuvash Republic
2429 # 23    RU-KDA  Krasnodar Krai
2430 # 26    RU-STA  Stavropol Krai
2431 # 29    RU-ARK  Arkhangelsk Oblast
2432 # 31    RU-BEL  Belgorod Oblast
2433 # 32    RU-BRY  Bryansk Oblast
2434 # 33    RU-VLA  Vladimir Oblast
2435 # 35    RU-VLG  Vologda Oblast
2436 # 36    RU-VOR  Voronezh Oblast
2437 # 37    RU-IVA  Ivanovo Oblast
2438 # 40    RU-KLU  Kaluga Oblast
2439 # 44    RU-KOS  Kostroma Oblast
2440 # 46    RU-KRS  Kursk Oblast
2441 # 47    RU-LEN  Leningrad Oblast
2442 # 48    RU-LIP  Lipetsk Oblast
2443 # 50    RU-MOS  Moscow Oblast
2444 # 51    RU-MUR  Murmansk Oblast
2445 # 52    RU-NIZ  Nizhny Novgorod Oblast
2446 # 53    RU-NGR  Novgorod Oblast
2447 # 57    RU-ORL  Oryol Oblast
2448 # 58    RU-PNZ  Penza Oblast
2449 # 60    RU-PSK  Pskov Oblast
2450 # 61    RU-ROS  Rostov Oblast
2451 # 62    RU-RYA  Ryazan Oblast
2452 # 67    RU-SMO  Smolensk Oblast
2453 # 68    RU-TAM  Tambov Oblast
2454 # 69    RU-TVE  Tver Oblast
2455 # 71    RU-TUL  Tula Oblast
2456 # 76    RU-YAR  Yaroslavl Oblast
2457 # 77    RU-MOW  Moscow
2458 # 78    RU-SPE  Saint Petersburg
2459 # 83    RU-NEN  Nenets Autonomous Okrug
2460 
2461 # From Paul Eggert (2016-08-23):
2462 # The Soviets switched to UT-based time in 1919.  Decree No. 59
2463 # (1919-02-08) http://istmat.info/node/35567 established UT-based time
2464 # zones, and Decree No. 147 (1919-03-29) http://istmat.info/node/35854
2465 # specified a transition date of 1919-07-01, apparently at 00:00 UT.
2466 # No doubt only the Soviet-controlled regions switched on that date;
2467 # later transitions to UT-based time in other parts of Russia are
2468 # taken from what appear to be guesses by Shanks.
2469 # (Thanks to Alexander Belopolsky for pointers to the decrees.)
2470 
2471 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07):
2472 # 11. Regions-violators, 1981-1982.
2473 # Wikipedia refers to
2474 # http://maps.monetonos.ru/maps/raznoe/Old_Maps/Old_Maps/Articles/022/3_1981.html
2475 # http://besp.narod.ru/nauka_1981_3.htm
2476 #
2477 # The second link provides two articles scanned from the Nauka i Zhizn
2478 # magazine No. 3, 1981 and a scan of the short article attributed to
2479 # the Trud newspaper from February 1982.  The first link provides the
2480 # same Nauka i Zhizn articles converted to the text form (but misses
2481 # time belt changes map).
2482 #
2483 # The second Nauka i Zhizn article says that in addition to
2484 # introduction of summer time on 1981-04-01 there are some time belt
2485 # border changes on 1981-10-01, mostly affecting Nenets Autonomous
2486 # Okrug, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Yakutia, Magadan Oblast and Chukotka
2487 # according to the provided map (colored one).  In addition to that
2488 # "time violators" (regions which were not using rules of the time
2489 # belts in which they were located) would not be moving off the DST on
2490 # 1981-10-01 to restore the decree time usage.  (Komi ASSR was
2491 # supposed to repeat that move in October 1982 to account for the 2
2492 # hour difference.)  Map depicting "time violators" before 1981-10-01
2493 # is also provided.
2494 #
2495 # The article from Trud says that 1981-10-01 changes caused problems
2496 # and some territories would be moved to pre-1981-10-01 time by not
2497 # moving to summer time on 1982-04-01.  Namely: Dagestan,
2498 # Kabardino-Balkar, Kalmyk, Komi, Mari, Mordovian, North Ossetian,
2499 # Tatar, Chechen-Ingush and Chuvash ASSR, Krasnodar and Stavropol
2500 # krais, Arkhangelsk, Vladimir, Vologda, Voronezh, Gorky, Ivanovo,
2501 # Kostroma, Lipetsk, Penza, Rostov, Ryazan, Tambov, Tyumen and
2502 # Yaroslavl oblasts, Nenets and Evenk autonomous okrugs, Khatangsky
2503 # district of Taymyr Autonomous Okrug.  As a result Evenk Autonomous
2504 # Okrug and Khatangsky district of Taymyr Autonomous Okrug would end
2505 # up on Moscow+4, Tyumen Oblast on Moscow+2 and the rest on Moscow
2506 # time.
2507 #
2508 # http://astrozet.net/files/Zones/DOC/RU/1980-925.txt
2509 # attributes the 1982 changes to the Act of the Council of Ministers
2510 # of the USSR No. 126 from 18.02.1982.  1980-925.txt also adds
2511 # Udmurtia to the list of affected territories and lists Khatangsky
2512 # district separately from Taymyr Autonomous Okrug.  Probably erroneously.
2513 #
2514 # The affected territories are currently listed under Europe/Moscow,
2515 # Asia/Yekaterinburg and Asia/Krasnoyarsk.
2516 #
2517 # 12. Udmurtia
2518 # The fact that Udmurtia is depicted as a violator in the Nauka i
2519 # Zhizn article hints at Izhevsk being on different time from
2520 # Kuybyshev before 1981-10-01. Udmurtia is not mentioned in the 1989 act.
2521 # http://astrozet.net/files/Zones/DOC/RU/1980-925.txt
2522 # implies Udmurtia was on Moscow time after 1982-04-01.
2523 # Wikipedia implies Udmurtia being on Moscow+1 until 1991.
2524 #
2525 # ...
2526 #
2527 # All Russian zones are supposed to have by default a -1 change at
2528 # 1991-03-31 2:00 (cancellation of the decree time in the USSR) and a +1
2529 # change at 1992-01-19 2:00 (restoration of the decree time in Russia).
2530 #
2531 # There were some exceptions, though.
2532 # Wikipedia says newspapers listed Astrakhan, Saratov, Kirov, Volgograd,
2533 # Izhevsk, Grozny, Kazan and Samara as such exceptions for the 1992
2534 # change. (Different newspapers providing different lists. And some
2535 # lists found in the internet are quite wild.)
2536 #
2537 # And apparently some exceptions were reverted in the last moment.
2538 # http://www.kaliningradka.ru/site_pc/cherez/index.php?ELEMENT_ID=40091
2539 # says that Kaliningrad decided not to be an exception 2 days before the
2540 # 1991-03-31 switch and one person at
2541 # https://izhevsk.ru/forum_light_message/50/682597-m8369040.html
2542 # says he remembers that Samara opted out of the 1992-01-19 exception
2543 # 2 days before the switch.
2544 #
2545 #
2546 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2547 # Given the above, we appear to be missing some Zone entries for the
2548 # chaotic early 1980s in Russia.  It's not clear what these entries
2549 # should be.  For now, sweep this under the rug and just document the
2550 # time in Moscow.
2551 
2552 # From Vladimir Karpinsky (2014-07-08):
2553 # LMT in Moscow (before Jul 3, 1916) is 2:30:17, that was defined by Moscow
2554 # Observatory (coordinates: 55 deg. 45'29.70", 37 deg. 34'05.30")....
2555 # LMT in Moscow since Jul 3, 1916 is 2:31:01 as a result of new standard.
2556 # (The info is from the book by Byalokoz ... p. 18.)
2557 # The time in St. Petersburg as capital of Russia was defined by
2558 # Pulkov observatory, near St. Petersburg.  In 1916 LMT Moscow
2559 # was synchronized with LMT St. Petersburg (+30 minutes), (Pulkov observatory
2560 # coordinates: 59 deg. 46'18.70", 30 deg. 19'40.70") so 30 deg. 19'40.70" >
2561 # 2h01m18.7s = 2:01:19.  LMT Moscow = LMT St.Petersburg + 30m 2:01:19 + 0:30 =
2562 # 2:31:19 ...
2563 #
2564 # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-08):
2565 # Milne does not list Moscow, but suggests that its time might be listed in
2566 # Résumés mensuels et annuels des observations météorologiques (1895).
2567 # Presumably this is OCLC 85825704, a journal published with parallel text in
2568 # Russian and French.  This source has not been located; go with Karpinsky.
2569 
2570 Zone Europe/Moscow       2:30:17 -      LMT     1880
2571                          2:30:17 -      MMT     1916 Jul  3 # Moscow Mean Time
2572                          2:31:19 Russia %s      1919 Jul  1  0:00u
2573                          3:00   Russia  %s      1921 Oct
2574                          3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 1922 Oct
2575                          2:00   -       EET     1930 Jun 21
2576                          3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2577                          2:00   Russia  EE%sT   1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2578                          3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2579                          4:00   -       MSK     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2580                          3:00   -       MSK
2581 
2582 
2583 # From Paul Eggert (2016-12-06):
2584 # Europe/Simferopol covers Crimea.
2585 
2586 Zone Europe/Simferopol   2:16:24 -      LMT     1880
2587                          2:16   -       SMT     1924 May  2 # Simferopol Mean T
2588                          2:00   -       EET     1930 Jun 21
2589                          3:00   -       MSK     1941 Nov
2590                          1:00   C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Apr 13
2591                          3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 1990
2592                          3:00   -       MSK     1990 Jul  1  2:00
2593                          2:00   -       EET     1992
2594 # Central Crimea used Moscow time 1994/1997.
2595 #
2596 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
2597 # The _Economist_ (1994-05-28, p 45) reports that central Crimea switched
2598 # from Kiev to Moscow time sometime after the January 1994 elections.
2599 # Shanks (1999) says "date of change uncertain", but implies that it happened
2600 # sometime between the 1994 DST switches.  Shanks & Pottenger simply say
2601 # 1994-09-25 03:00, but that can't be right.  For now, guess it
2602 # changed in May.
2603                          2:00   E-Eur   EE%sT   1994 May
2604 # From IATA SSIM (1994/1997), which also says that Kerch is still like Kiev.
2605                          3:00   E-Eur   MSK/MSD 1996 Mar 31  0:00s
2606                          3:00   1:00    MSD     1996 Oct 27  3:00s
2607 # IATA SSIM (1997-09) says Crimea switched to EET/EEST.
2608 # Assume it happened in March by not changing the clocks.
2609                          3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 1997
2610                          3:00   -       MSK     1997 Mar lastSun  1:00u
2611 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-03-17):
2612 # time change at 2:00 (2am) on March 30, 2014
2613 # https://vz.ru/news/2014/3/17/677464.html
2614 # From Paul Eggert (2014-03-30):
2615 # Simferopol and Sevastopol reportedly changed their central town clocks
2616 # late the previous day, but this appears to have been ceremonial
2617 # and the discrepancies are small enough to not worry about.
2618                          2:00   EU      EE%sT   2014 Mar 30  2:00
2619                          4:00   -       MSK     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2620                          3:00   -       MSK
2621 
2622 
2623 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2624 # Europe/Astrakhan covers:
2625 # 30    RU-AST  Astrakhan Oblast
2626 #
2627 # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
2628 
2629 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-01-12):
2630 # On February 10, 2016 Astrakhan Oblast got approval by the Federation
2631 # Council to change its time zone to UTC+4 (from current UTC+3 Moscow time)....
2632 # This Federal Law shall enter into force on 27 March 2016 at 02:00.
2633 # From Matt Johnson (2016-03-09):
2634 # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201602150056
2635 
2636 Zone Europe/Astrakhan    3:12:12 -      LMT     1924 May
2637                          3:00   -       +03     1930 Jun 21
2638                          4:00   Russia  +04/+05 1989 Mar 26  2:00s
2639                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2640                          4:00   -       +04     1992 Mar 29  2:00s
2641                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2642                          4:00   -       +04     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2643                          3:00   -       +03     2016 Mar 27  2:00s
2644                          4:00   -       +04
2645 
2646 # From Paul Eggert (2016-11-11):
2647 # Europe/Volgograd covers:
2648 # 34    RU-VGG  Volgograd Oblast
2649 # The 1988 transition is from USSR act No. 5 (1988-01-04).
2650 
2651 Zone Europe/Volgograd    2:57:40 -      LMT     1920 Jan  3
2652                          3:00   -       +03     1930 Jun 21
2653                          4:00   -       +04     1961 Nov 11
2654                          4:00   Russia  +04/+05 1988 Mar 27  2:00s
2655                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2656                          4:00   -       +04     1992 Mar 29  2:00s
2657                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2658                          4:00   -       +04     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2659                          3:00   -       +03
2660 
2661 # From Paul Eggert (2016-11-11):
2662 # Europe/Saratov covers:
2663 # 64    RU-SAR  Saratov Oblast
2664 
2665 # From Yuri Konotopov (2016-11-11):
2666 # Dec 4, 2016 02:00 UTC+3....  Saratov Region's local time will be ... UTC+4.
2667 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-11-11):
2668 # ... Byalokoz listed Saratov on 03:04:18.
2669 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-11-22):
2670 # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201611220031
2671 
2672 Zone Europe/Saratov      3:04:18 -      LMT     1919 Jul  1  0:00u
2673                          3:00   -       +03     1930 Jun 21
2674                          4:00   Russia  +04/+05 1988 Mar 27  2:00s
2675                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2676                          4:00   -       +04     1992 Mar 29  2:00s
2677                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2678                          4:00   -       +04     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2679                          3:00   -       +03     2016 Dec  4  2:00s
2680                          4:00   -       +04
2681 
2682 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2683 # Europe/Kirov covers:
2684 # 43    RU-KIR  Kirov Oblast
2685 # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
2686 #
2687 Zone Europe/Kirov        3:18:48 -      LMT     1919 Jul  1  0:00u
2688                          3:00   -       +03     1930 Jun 21
2689                          4:00   Russia  +04/+05 1989 Mar 26  2:00s
2690                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2691                          4:00   -       +04     1992 Mar 29  2:00s
2692                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2693                          4:00   -       +04     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2694                          3:00   -       +03
2695 
2696 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
2697 # Europe/Samara covers...
2698 # 18    RU-UD   Udmurt Republic
2699 # 63    RU-SAM  Samara Oblast
2700 
2701 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2702 # Byalokoz 1919 says Samara was 3:20:20.
2703 # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
2704 
2705 Zone Europe/Samara       3:20:20 -      LMT     1919 Jul  1  0:00u
2706                          3:00   -       +03     1930 Jun 21
2707                          4:00   -       +04     1935 Jan 27
2708                          4:00   Russia  +04/+05 1989 Mar 26  2:00s
2709                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2710                          2:00   Russia  +02/+03 1991 Sep 29  2:00s
2711                          3:00   -       +03     1991 Oct 20  3:00
2712                          4:00   Russia  +04/+05 2010 Mar 28  2:00s
2713                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2714                          4:00   -       +04
2715 
2716 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2717 # Europe/Ulyanovsk covers:
2718 # 73    RU-ULY  Ulyanovsk Oblast
2719 
2720 # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
2721 
2722 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-02-17):
2723 # Ulyanovsk ... on their way to change time zones by March 27, 2016 at 2am.
2724 # Ulyanovsk Oblast ... from MSK to MSK+1 (UTC+3 to UTC+4) ...
2725 # 920582-6 ... 02/17/2016 The State Duma passed the bill in the first reading.
2726 # From Matt Johnson (2016-03-09):
2727 # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201603090051
2728 
2729 Zone Europe/Ulyanovsk    3:13:36 -      LMT     1919 Jul  1  0:00u
2730                          3:00   -       +03     1930 Jun 21
2731                          4:00   Russia  +04/+05 1989 Mar 26  2:00s
2732                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2733                          2:00   Russia  +02/+03 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2734                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2735                          4:00   -       +04     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2736                          3:00   -       +03     2016 Mar 27  2:00s
2737                          4:00   -       +04
2738 
2739 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
2740 # Asia/Yekaterinburg covers...
2741 # 02    RU-BA   Bashkortostan, Republic of
2742 # 90    RU-PER  Perm Krai
2743 # 45    RU-KGN  Kurgan Oblast
2744 # 56    RU-ORE  Orenburg Oblast
2745 # 66    RU-SVE  Sverdlovsk Oblast
2746 # 72    RU-TYU  Tyumen Oblast
2747 # 74    RU-CHE  Chelyabinsk Oblast
2748 # 86    RU-KHM  Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug - Yugra
2749 # 89    RU-YAN  Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug
2750 #
2751 # Note: Effective 2005-12-01, (59) Perm Oblast and (81) Komi-Permyak
2752 # Autonomous Okrug merged to form (90, RU-PER) Perm Krai.
2753 
2754 # Milne says Yekaterinburg was 4:02:32.9; round to nearest.
2755 # Byalokoz 1919 says its provincial time was based on Perm, at 3:45:05.
2756 # Assume it switched on 1916-07-03, the time of the new standard.
2757 # The 1919 and 1930 transitions are from Shanks.
2758 
2759 Zone Asia/Yekaterinburg  4:02:33 -      LMT     1916 Jul  3
2760                          3:45:05 -      PMT     1919 Jul 15  4:00
2761                          4:00   -       +04     1930 Jun 21
2762                          5:00   Russia  +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2763                          4:00   Russia  +04/+05 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2764                          5:00   Russia  +05/+06 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2765                          6:00   -       +06     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2766                          5:00   -       +05
2767 
2768 
2769 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
2770 # Asia/Omsk covers...
2771 # 55    RU-OMS  Omsk Oblast
2772 
2773 # Byalokoz 1919 says Omsk was 4:53:30.
2774 
2775 Zone Asia/Omsk           4:53:30 -      LMT     1919 Nov 14
2776                          5:00   -       +05     1930 Jun 21
2777                          6:00   Russia  +06/+07 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2778                          5:00   Russia  +05/+06 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2779                          6:00   Russia  +06/+07 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2780                          7:00   -       +07     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2781                          6:00   -       +06
2782 
2783 # From Paul Eggert (2016-02-22):
2784 # Asia/Barnaul covers:
2785 # 04    RU-AL   Altai Republic
2786 # 22    RU-ALT  Altai Krai
2787 
2788 # Data before 1991 are from Shanks & Pottenger.
2789 
2790 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07):
2791 # Letter of Bank of Russia from 1995-05-25
2792 # http://www.bestpravo.ru/rossijskoje/lj-akty/y3a.htm
2793 # suggests that Altai Republic transitioned to Moscow+3 on
2794 # 1995-05-28.
2795 #
2796 # https://regnum.ru/news/society/1957270.html
2797 # has some historical data for Altai Krai:
2798 # before 1957: west part on UTC+6, east on UTC+7
2799 # after 1957: UTC+7
2800 # since 1995: UTC+6
2801 # http://barnaul.rusplt.ru/index/pochemu_altajskij_kraj_okazalsja_v_neprivychnom_chasovom_pojase-17648.html
2802 # confirms that and provides more details including 1995-05-28 transition date.
2803 
2804 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-02-17):
2805 # Altai Krai and Altai Republic on their way to change time zones
2806 # by March 27, 2016 at 2am....
2807 # Altai Republic / Gorno-Altaysk MSK+3 to MSK+4 (UTC+6 to UTC+7) ...
2808 # Altai Krai / Barnaul MSK+3 to MSK+4 (UTC+6 to UTC+7)
2809 # From Matt Johnson (2016-03-09):
2810 # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201603090043
2811 # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201603090038
2812 
2813 Zone Asia/Barnaul        5:35:00 -      LMT     1919 Dec 10
2814                          6:00   -       +06     1930 Jun 21
2815                          7:00   Russia  +07/+08 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2816                          6:00   Russia  +06/+07 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2817                          7:00   Russia  +07/+08 1995 May 28
2818                          6:00   Russia  +06/+07 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2819                          7:00   -       +07     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2820                          6:00   -       +06     2016 Mar 27  2:00s
2821                          7:00   -       +07
2822 
2823 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2824 # Asia/Novosibirsk covers:
2825 # 54    RU-NVS  Novosibirsk Oblast
2826 
2827 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-05-30):
2828 # http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/main.nsf/(Spravka)?OpenAgent&RN=1085784-6
2829 # moves Novosibirsk oblast from UTC+6 to UTC+7.
2830 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-07-04):
2831 # The law was signed yesterday and published today on
2832 # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201607040064
2833 
2834 Zone Asia/Novosibirsk    5:31:40 -      LMT     1919 Dec 14  6:00
2835                          6:00   -       +06     1930 Jun 21
2836                          7:00   Russia  +07/+08 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2837                          6:00   Russia  +06/+07 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2838                          7:00   Russia  +07/+08 1993 May 23 # say Shanks & P.
2839                          6:00   Russia  +06/+07 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2840                          7:00   -       +07     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2841                          6:00   -       +06     2016 Jul 24  2:00s
2842                          7:00   -       +07
2843 
2844 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2845 # Asia/Tomsk covers:
2846 # 70    RU-TOM  Tomsk Oblast
2847 
2848 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-24):
2849 # Byalokoz listed Tomsk at 5:39:51.
2850 
2851 # From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski (1994-06-29):
2852 # Tomsk is still 4 hours ahead of Moscow.
2853 
2854 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-19):
2855 # http://pravo.gov.ru/proxy/ips/?docbody=&nd=102075743
2856 # (fifth time belt being UTC+5+1(decree time)
2857 # / UTC+5+1(decree time)+1(summer time)) ...
2858 # Note that time belts (numbered from 2 (Moscow) to 12 according to their
2859 # GMT/UTC offset and having too many exceptions like regions formally
2860 # belonging to one belt but using time from another) were replaced
2861 # with time zones in 2011 with different numbering (there was a
2862 # 2-hour gap between second and third zones in 2011-2014).
2863 
2864 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-04-12):
2865 # http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/main.nsf/(SpravkaNew)?OpenAgent&RN=1006865-6
2866 # This bill was approved in the first reading today.  It moves Tomsk oblast
2867 # from UTC+6 to UTC+7 and is supposed to come into effect on 2016-05-29 at
2868 # 2:00.  The bill needs to be approved in the second and the third readings by
2869 # the State Duma, approved by the Federation Council, signed by the President
2870 # and published to become a law.  Minor changes in the text are to be expected
2871 # before the second reading (references need to be updated to account for the
2872 # recent changes).
2873 #
2874 # Judging by the ultra-short one-day amendments period, recent similar laws,
2875 # the State Duma schedule and the Federation Council schedule
2876 # http://www.duma.gov.ru/legislative/planning/day-shedule/por_vesna_2016/
2877 # http://council.gov.ru/activity/meetings/schedule/63303
2878 # I speculate that the final text of the bill will be proposed tomorrow, the
2879 # bill will be approved in the second and the third readings on Friday,
2880 # approved by the Federation Council on 2016-04-20, signed by the President and
2881 # published as a law around 2016-04-26.
2882 
2883 # From Matt Johnson (2016-04-26):
2884 # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201604260048
2885 
2886 Zone    Asia/Tomsk       5:39:51 -      LMT     1919 Dec 22
2887                          6:00   -       +06     1930 Jun 21
2888                          7:00   Russia  +07/+08 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2889                          6:00   Russia  +06/+07 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2890                          7:00   Russia  +07/+08 2002 May  1  3:00
2891                          6:00   Russia  +06/+07 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2892                          7:00   -       +07     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2893                          6:00   -       +06     2016 May 29  2:00s
2894                          7:00   -       +07
2895 
2896 
2897 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
2898 # Asia/Novokuznetsk covers...
2899 # 42    RU-KEM  Kemerovo Oblast
2900 
2901 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-10-13):
2902 # Kemerovo oblast' (Kemerovo region) in Russia will change current time zone on
2903 # March 28, 2010:
2904 # from current Russia Zone 6 - Krasnoyarsk Time Zone (KRA) UTC +0700
2905 # to Russia Zone 5 - Novosibirsk Time Zone (NOV) UTC +0600
2906 #
2907 # This is according to Government of Russia decree No. 740, on September
2908 # 14, 2009 "Application in the territory of the Kemerovo region the Fifth
2909 # time zone." ("Russia Zone 5" or old "USSR Zone 5" is GMT +0600)
2910 #
2911 # Russian Government web site (Russian language)
2912 # http://www.government.ru/content/governmentactivity/rfgovernmentdecisions/archive/2009/09/14/991633.htm
2913 # or Russian-English translation by WorldTimeZone.com with reference
2914 # map to local region and new Russia Time Zone map after March 28, 2010
2915 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia03.html
2916 #
2917 # Thus, when Russia will switch to DST on the night of March 28, 2010
2918 # Kemerovo region (Kemerovo oblast') will not change the clock.
2919 
2920 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-02), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02):
2921 # The Kemerovo region will remain at UTC+7 through the 2014-10-26 change, thus
2922 # realigning itself with KRAT.
2923 
2924 Zone Asia/Novokuznetsk   5:48:48 -      LMT     1924 May  1
2925                          6:00   -       +06     1930 Jun 21
2926                          7:00   Russia  +07/+08 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2927                          6:00   Russia  +06/+07 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2928                          7:00   Russia  +07/+08 2010 Mar 28  2:00s
2929                          6:00   Russia  +06/+07 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2930                          7:00   -       +07
2931 
2932 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
2933 # Asia/Krasnoyarsk covers...
2934 # 17    RU-TY   Tuva Republic
2935 # 19    RU-KK   Khakassia, Republic of
2936 # 24    RU-KYA  Krasnoyarsk Krai
2937 #
2938 # Note: Effective 2007-01-01, (88) Evenk Autonomous Okrug and (84) Taymyr
2939 # Autonomous Okrug were merged into (24, RU-KYA) Krasnoyarsk Krai.
2940 
2941 # Byalokoz 1919 says Krasnoyarsk was 6:11:26.
2942 
2943 Zone Asia/Krasnoyarsk    6:11:26 -      LMT     1920 Jan  6
2944                          6:00   -       +06     1930 Jun 21
2945                          7:00   Russia  +07/+08 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2946                          6:00   Russia  +06/+07 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2947                          7:00   Russia  +07/+08 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2948                          8:00   -       +08     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2949                          7:00   -       +07
2950 
2951 
2952 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
2953 # Asia/Irkutsk covers...
2954 # 03    RU-BU   Buryatia, Republic of
2955 # 38    RU-IRK  Irkutsk Oblast
2956 #
2957 # Note: Effective 2008-01-01, (85) Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug was
2958 # merged into (38, RU-IRK) Irkutsk Oblast.
2959 
2960 # Milne 1899 says Irkutsk was 6:57:15.
2961 # Byalokoz 1919 says Irkutsk was 6:57:05.
2962 # Go with Byalokoz.
2963 
2964 Zone Asia/Irkutsk        6:57:05 -      LMT     1880
2965                          6:57:05 -      IMT     1920 Jan 25 # Irkutsk Mean Time
2966                          7:00   -       +07     1930 Jun 21
2967                          8:00   Russia  +08/+09 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2968                          7:00   Russia  +07/+08 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2969                          8:00   Russia  +08/+09 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2970                          9:00   -       +09     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2971                          8:00   -       +08
2972 
2973 
2974 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
2975 # Asia/Chita covers...
2976 # 92    RU-ZAB  Zabaykalsky Krai
2977 #
2978 # Note: Effective 2008-03-01, (75) Chita Oblast and (80) Agin-Buryat
2979 # Autonomous Okrug merged to form (92, RU-ZAB) Zabaykalsky Krai.
2980 
2981 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-01-02):
2982 # [The] time zone in the Trans-Baikal Territory (Zabaykalsky Krai) -
2983 # Asia/Chita [is changing] from UTC+8 to UTC+9.  Effective date will
2984 # be March 27, 2016 at 2:00am....
2985 # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201512300107
2986 
2987 Zone Asia/Chita  7:33:52 -      LMT     1919 Dec 15
2988                          8:00   -       +08     1930 Jun 21
2989                          9:00   Russia  +09/+10 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2990                          8:00   Russia  +08/+09 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2991                          9:00   Russia  +09/+10 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2992                         10:00   -       +10     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2993                          8:00   -       +08     2016 Mar 27  2:00
2994                          9:00   -       +09
2995 
2996 
2997 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
2998 # Asia/Yakutsk covers...
2999 # 28    RU-AMU  Amur Oblast
3000 #
3001 # ...and parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
3002 # 14-02 ****    Aldansky District
3003 # 14-04 ****    Amginsky District
3004 # 14-05 ****    Anabarsky District
3005 # 14-06 ****    Bulunsky District
3006 # 14-07 ****    Verkhnevilyuysky District
3007 # 14-10 ****    Vilyuysky District
3008 # 14-11 ****    Gorny District
3009 # 14-12 ****    Zhigansky District
3010 # 14-13 ****    Kobyaysky District
3011 # 14-14 ****    Lensky District
3012 # 14-15 ****    Megino-Kangalassky District
3013 # 14-16 ****    Mirninsky District
3014 # 14-18 ****    Namsky District
3015 # 14-19 ****    Neryungrinsky District
3016 # 14-21 ****    Nyurbinsky District
3017 # 14-23 ****    Olenyoksky District
3018 # 14-24 ****    Olyokminsky District
3019 # 14-26 ****    Suntarsky District
3020 # 14-27 ****    Tattinsky District
3021 # 14-29 ****    Ust-Aldansky District
3022 # 14-32 ****    Khangalassky District
3023 # 14-33 ****    Churapchinsky District
3024 # 14-34 ****    Eveno-Bytantaysky National District
3025 
3026 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
3027 # Our commentary seems to have lost mention of (14-19) Neryungrinsky District.
3028 # Since the surrounding districts of Sakha are all YAKT, assume this is, too.
3029 # Also assume its history has been the same as the rest of Asia/Yakutsk.
3030 
3031 # Byalokoz 1919 says Yakutsk was 8:38:58.
3032 
3033 Zone Asia/Yakutsk        8:38:58 -      LMT     1919 Dec 15
3034                          8:00   -       +08     1930 Jun 21
3035                          9:00   Russia  +09/+10 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3036                          8:00   Russia  +08/+09 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3037                          9:00   Russia  +09/+10 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3038                         10:00   -       +10     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3039                          9:00   -       +09
3040 
3041 
3042 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
3043 # Asia/Vladivostok covers...
3044 # 25    RU-PRI  Primorsky Krai
3045 # 27    RU-KHA  Khabarovsk Krai
3046 # 79    RU-YEV  Jewish Autonomous Oblast
3047 #
3048 # ...and parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
3049 # 14-09 ****    Verkhoyansky District
3050 # 14-31 ****    Ust-Yansky District
3051 
3052 # Milne 1899 says Vladivostok was 8:47:33.5.
3053 # Byalokoz 1919 says Vladivostok was 8:47:31.
3054 # Go with Byalokoz.
3055 
3056 Zone Asia/Vladivostok    8:47:31 -      LMT     1922 Nov 15
3057                          9:00   -       +09     1930 Jun 21
3058                         10:00   Russia  +10/+11 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3059                          9:00   Russia  +09/+10 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3060                         10:00   Russia  +10/+11 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3061                         11:00   -       +11     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3062                         10:00   -       +10
3063 
3064 
3065 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
3066 # Asia/Khandyga covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
3067 # 14-28 ****    Tomponsky District
3068 # 14-30 ****    Ust-Maysky District
3069 
3070 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09):
3071 # Tomponskij and Ust'-Majskij switched from Vladivostok time to Yakutsk time
3072 # in 2011.
3073 
3074 # From Paul Eggert (2012-11-25):
3075 # Shanks and Pottenger (2003) has Khandyga on Yakutsk time.
3076 # Make a wild guess that it switched to Vladivostok time in 2004.
3077 # This transition is no doubt wrong, but we have no better info.
3078 
3079 Zone Asia/Khandyga       9:02:13 -      LMT     1919 Dec 15
3080                          8:00   -       +08     1930 Jun 21
3081                          9:00   Russia  +09/+10 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3082                          8:00   Russia  +08/+09 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3083                          9:00   Russia  +09/+10 2004
3084                         10:00   Russia  +10/+11 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3085                         11:00   -       +11     2011 Sep 13  0:00s # Decree 725?
3086                         10:00   -       +10     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3087                          9:00   -       +09
3088 
3089 
3090 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
3091 # Asia/Sakhalin covers...
3092 # 65    RU-SAK  Sakhalin Oblast
3093 # ...with the exception of:
3094 # 65-11 ****    Severo-Kurilsky District (North Kuril Islands)
3095 
3096 # From Matt Johnson (2016-02-22):
3097 # Asia/Sakhalin is moving (in entirety) from UTC+10 to UTC+11 ...
3098 # (2016-03-09):
3099 # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201603090044
3100 
3101 # The Zone name should be Asia/Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, but that's too long.
3102 Zone Asia/Sakhalin       9:30:48 -      LMT     1905 Aug 23
3103                          9:00   -       +09     1945 Aug 25
3104                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 1991 Mar 31  2:00s # Sakhalin T
3105                         10:00   Russia  +10/+11 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3106                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 1997 Mar lastSun  2:00s
3107                         10:00   Russia  +10/+11 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3108                         11:00   -       +11     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3109                         10:00   -       +10     2016 Mar 27  2:00s
3110                         11:00   -       +11
3111 
3112 
3113 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
3114 # Asia/Magadan covers...
3115 # 49    RU-MAG  Magadan Oblast
3116 
3117 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02):
3118 # Magadan Oblast is moving from UTC+12 to UTC+10 on 2014-10-26; however,
3119 # several districts of Sakha Republic as well as Severo-Kurilsky District of
3120 # the Sakhalin Oblast (also known as the North Kuril Islands), represented
3121 # until now by Asia/Magadan, will instead move to UTC+11.  These regions will
3122 # need their own zone.
3123 
3124 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-03-27):
3125 # ... draft bill 948300-6 to change its time zone from UTC+10 to UTC+11 ...
3126 # will take ... effect ... on April 24, 2016 at 2 o'clock
3127 #
3128 # From Matt Johnson (2016-04-05):
3129 # ... signed by the President today ...
3130 # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201604050038
3131 
3132 Zone Asia/Magadan       10:03:12 -      LMT     1924 May  2
3133                         10:00   -       +10     1930 Jun 21 # Magadan Time
3134                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3135                         10:00   Russia  +10/+11 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3136                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3137                         12:00   -       +12     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3138                         10:00   -       +10     2016 Apr 24  2:00s
3139                         11:00   -       +11
3140 
3141 
3142 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
3143 # Asia/Srednekolymsk covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
3144 # 14-01 ****    Abyysky District
3145 # 14-03 ****    Allaikhovsky District
3146 # 14-08 ****    Verkhnekolymsky District
3147 # 14-17 ****    Momsky District
3148 # 14-20 ****    Nizhnekolymsky District
3149 # 14-25 ****    Srednekolymsky District
3150 #
3151 # ...and parts of (65, RU-SAK) Sakhalin Oblast:
3152 # 65-11 ****    Severo-Kurilsky District (North Kuril Islands)
3153 
3154 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-02):
3155 # Oymyakonsky District of Sakha Republic (represented by Ust-Nera), along with
3156 # most of Sakhalin Oblast (represented by Sakhalin) will be moving to UTC+10 on
3157 # 2014-10-26 to stay aligned with VLAT/SAKT; however, Severo-Kurilsky District
3158 # of the Sakhalin Oblast (also known as the North Kuril Islands, represented by
3159 # Severo-Kurilsk) will remain on UTC+11.
3160 
3161 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
3162 # Assume North Kuril Islands have history like Magadan before 2011-03-27.
3163 # There is a decent chance this is wrong, in which case a new zone
3164 # Asia/Severo-Kurilsk would become necessary.
3165 #
3166 # Srednekolymsk and Zyryanka are the most populous places amongst these
3167 # districts, but have very similar populations.  In fact, Wikipedia currently
3168 # lists them both as having 3528 people, exactly 1668 males and 1860 females
3169 # each!  (Yikes!)
3170 # https://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Srednekolymsky_District&oldid=603435276
3171 # https://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Verkhnekolymsky_District&oldid=594378493
3172 # Assume this is a mistake, albeit an amusing one.
3173 #
3174 # Looking at censuses, the populations of the two municipalities seem to have
3175 # fluctuated recently.  Zyryanka was more populous than Srednekolymsk in the
3176 # 1989 and 2002 censuses, but Srednekolymsk was more populous in the most
3177 # recent (2010) census, 3525 to 3170.  (See pages 195 and 197 of
3178 # http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/Documents/Vol1/pub-01-05.pdf
3179 # in Russian.)  In addition, Srednekolymsk appears to be a much older
3180 # settlement and the population of Zyryanka seems to be declining.
3181 # Go with Srednekolymsk.
3182 
3183 Zone Asia/Srednekolymsk 10:14:52 -      LMT     1924 May  2
3184                         10:00   -       +10     1930 Jun 21
3185                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3186                         10:00   Russia  +10/+11 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3187                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3188                         12:00   -       +12     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3189                         11:00   -       +11
3190 
3191 
3192 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
3193 # Asia/Ust-Nera covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
3194 # 14-22 ****    Oymyakonsky District
3195 
3196 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09):
3197 # Ojmyakonskij [and the Kuril Islands] switched from
3198 # Magadan time to Vladivostok time in 2011.
3199 #
3200 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02):
3201 # It's unlikely that any of the Kuril Islands were involved in such a switch,
3202 # as the South and Middle Kurils have been on UTC+11 (SAKT) with the rest of
3203 # Sakhalin Oblast since at least 2011-09, and the North Kurils have been on
3204 # UTC+12 since at least then, too.
3205 
3206 Zone Asia/Ust-Nera       9:32:54 -      LMT     1919 Dec 15
3207                          8:00   -       +08     1930 Jun 21
3208                          9:00   Russia  +09/+10 1981 Apr  1
3209                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3210                         10:00   Russia  +10/+11 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3211                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3212                         12:00   -       +12     2011 Sep 13  0:00s # Decree 725?
3213                         11:00   -       +11     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3214                         10:00   -       +10
3215 
3216 
3217 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
3218 # Asia/Kamchatka covers...
3219 # 91    RU-KAM  Kamchatka Krai
3220 #
3221 # Note: Effective 2007-07-01, (41) Kamchatka Oblast and (82) Koryak
3222 # Autonomous Okrug merged to form (91, RU-KAM) Kamchatka Krai.
3223 
3224 # The Zone name should be Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski or perhaps
3225 # Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, but these are too long.
3226 Zone Asia/Kamchatka     10:34:36 -      LMT     1922 Nov 10
3227                         11:00   -       +11     1930 Jun 21
3228                         12:00   Russia  +12/+13 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3229                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3230                         12:00   Russia  +12/+13 2010 Mar 28  2:00s
3231                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3232                         12:00   -       +12
3233 
3234 
3235 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
3236 # Asia/Anadyr covers...
3237 # 87    RU-CHU  Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
3238 
3239 Zone Asia/Anadyr        11:49:56 -      LMT     1924 May  2
3240                         12:00   -       +12     1930 Jun 21
3241                         13:00   Russia  +13/+14 1982 Apr  1  0:00s
3242                         12:00   Russia  +12/+13 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3243                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3244                         12:00   Russia  +12/+13 2010 Mar 28  2:00s
3245                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3246                         12:00   -       +12
3247 
3248 
3249 # San Marino
3250 # See Europe/Rome.
3251 
3252 # Serbia
3253 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3254 Zone    Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 -       LMT     1884
3255                         1:00    -       CET     1941 Apr 18 23:00
3256                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945
3257                         1:00    -       CET     1945 May  8  2:00s
3258                         1:00    1:00    CEST    1945 Sep 16  2:00s
3259 # Metod Koželj reports that the legal date of
3260 # transition to EU rules was 1982-11-27, for all of Yugoslavia at the time.
3261 # Shanks & Pottenger don't give as much detail, so go with Koželj.
3262                         1:00    -       CET     1982 Nov 27
3263                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
3264 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Ljubljana   # Slovenia
3265 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Podgorica   # Montenegro
3266 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Sarajevo    # Bosnia and Herzegovina
3267 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Skopje      # Macedonia
3268 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Zagreb      # Croatia
3269 
3270 # Slovakia
3271 Link Europe/Prague Europe/Bratislava
3272 
3273 # Slovenia
3274 # See Europe/Belgrade.
3275 
3276 # Spain
3277 #
3278 # From Paul Eggert (2016-12-14):
3279 #
3280 # The source for Europe/Madrid before 2013 is:
3281 # Planesas P. La hora oficial en España y sus cambios.
3282 # Anuario del Observatorio Astronómico de Madrid (2013, in Spanish).
3283 # http://astronomia.ign.es/rknowsys-theme/images/webAstro/paginas/documentos/Anuario/lahoraoficialenespana.pdf
3284 # As this source says that historical time in the Canaries is obscure,
3285 # and it does not discuss Ceuta, stick with Shanks for now for that data.
3286 #
3287 # In the 1918 and 1919 fallback transitions in Spain, the clock for
3288 # the hour-longer day officially kept going after midnight, so that
3289 # the repeated instances of that day's 00:00 hour were 24 hours apart,
3290 # with a fallback transition from the second occurrence of 00:59... to
3291 # the next day's 00:00.  Our data format cannot represent this
3292 # directly, and instead repeats the first hour of the next day, with a
3293 # fallback transition from the next day's 00:59... to 00:00.
3294 
3295 # From Michael Deckers (2016-12-15):
3296 # The Royal Decree of 1900-06-26 quoted by Planesas, online at
3297 # https://www.boe.es/datos/pdfs/BOE//1900/209/A00383-00384.pdf
3298 # says in its article 5 (my translation):
3299 # These dispositions will enter into force beginning with the
3300 # instant at which, according to the time indicated in article 1,
3301 # the 1st day of January of 1901 will begin.
3302 
3303 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3304 Rule    Spain   1918    only    -       Apr     15      23:00   1:00    S
3305 Rule    Spain   1918    1919    -       Oct      6      24:00s  0       -
3306 Rule    Spain   1919    only    -       Apr      6      23:00   1:00    S
3307 Rule    Spain   1924    only    -       Apr     16      23:00   1:00    S
3308 Rule    Spain   1924    only    -       Oct      4      24:00s  0       -
3309 Rule    Spain   1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00   1:00    S
3310 Rule    Spain   1926    1929    -       Oct     Sat>=1       24:00s  0       -
3311 Rule    Spain   1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00   1:00    S
3312 Rule    Spain   1928    only    -       Apr     15       0:00   1:00    S
3313 Rule    Spain   1929    only    -       Apr     20      23:00   1:00    S
3314 # Republican Spain during the civil war; it controlled Madrid until 1939-03-28.
3315 Rule    Spain   1937    only    -       Jun     16      23:00   1:00    S
3316 Rule    Spain   1937    only    -       Oct      2      24:00s  0       -
3317 Rule    Spain   1938    only    -       Apr      2      23:00   1:00    S
3318 Rule    Spain   1938    only    -       Apr     30      23:00   2:00    M
3319 Rule    Spain   1938    only    -       Oct      2      24:00   1:00    S
3320 # The following rules are for unified Spain again.
3321 #
3322 # Planesas does not say what happened in Madrid between its fall on
3323 # 1939-03-28 and the Nationalist spring-forward transition on
3324 # 1939-04-15.  For lack of better info, assume Madrid's clocks did not
3325 # change during that period.
3326 #
3327 # The first rule is commented out, as it is redundant for Republican Spain.
3328 #Rule   Spain   1939    only    -       Apr     15      23:00   1:00    S
3329 Rule    Spain   1939    only    -       Oct      7      24:00s  0       -
3330 Rule    Spain   1942    only    -       May      2      23:00   1:00    S
3331 Rule    Spain   1942    only    -       Sep      1       1:00   0       -
3332 Rule    Spain   1943    1946    -       Apr     Sat>=13      23:00   1:00    S
3333 Rule    Spain   1943    1944    -       Oct     Sun>=1        1:00   0       -
3334 Rule    Spain   1945    1946    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00   0       -
3335 Rule    Spain   1949    only    -       Apr     30      23:00   1:00    S
3336 Rule    Spain   1949    only    -       Oct      2       1:00   0       -
3337 Rule    Spain   1974    1975    -       Apr     Sat>=12      23:00   1:00    S
3338 Rule    Spain   1974    1975    -       Oct     Sun>=1        1:00   0       -
3339 Rule    Spain   1976    only    -       Mar     27      23:00   1:00    S
3340 Rule    Spain   1976    1977    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00   0       -
3341 Rule    Spain   1977    only    -       Apr      2      23:00   1:00    S
3342 Rule    Spain   1978    only    -       Apr      2       2:00s  1:00    S
3343 Rule    Spain   1978    only    -       Oct      1       2:00s  0       -
3344 # Nationalist Spain during the civil war
3345 #Rule NatSpain  1937    only    -       May     22      23:00   1:00    S
3346 #Rule NatSpain  1937    1938    -       Oct     Sat>=1       24:00s  0       -
3347 #Rule NatSpain  1938    only    -       Mar     26      23:00   1:00    S
3348 # The following rules are copied from Morocco from 1967 through 1978.
3349 Rule SpainAfrica 1967   only    -       Jun      3      12:00   1:00    S
3350 Rule SpainAfrica 1967   only    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       -
3351 Rule SpainAfrica 1974   only    -       Jun     24       0:00   1:00    S
3352 Rule SpainAfrica 1974   only    -       Sep      1       0:00   0       -
3353 Rule SpainAfrica 1976   1977    -       May      1       0:00   1:00    S
3354 Rule SpainAfrica 1976   only    -       Aug      1       0:00   0       -
3355 Rule SpainAfrica 1977   only    -       Sep     28       0:00   0       -
3356 Rule SpainAfrica 1978   only    -       Jun      1       0:00   1:00    S
3357 Rule SpainAfrica 1978   only    -       Aug      4       0:00   0       -
3358 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3359 Zone    Europe/Madrid   -0:14:44 -      LMT     1900 Dec 31 23:45:16
3360                          0:00   Spain   WE%sT   1940 Mar 16 23:00
3361                          1:00   Spain   CE%sT   1979
3362                          1:00   EU      CE%sT
3363 Zone    Africa/Ceuta    -0:21:16 -      LMT     1900 Dec 31 23:38:44
3364                          0:00   -       WET     1918 May  6 23:00
3365                          0:00   1:00    WEST    1918 Oct  7 23:00
3366                          0:00   -       WET     1924
3367                          0:00   Spain   WE%sT   1929
3368                          0:00 SpainAfrica WE%sT 1984 Mar 16
3369                          1:00   -       CET     1986
3370                          1:00   EU      CE%sT
3371 Zone    Atlantic/Canary -1:01:36 -      LMT     1922 Mar # Las Palmas de Gran C.
3372                         -1:00   -       -01     1946 Sep 30  1:00
3373                          0:00   -       WET     1980 Apr  6  0:00s
3374                          0:00   1:00    WEST    1980 Sep 28  1:00u
3375                          0:00   EU      WE%sT
3376 # IATA SSIM (1996-09) says the Canaries switch at 2:00u, not 1:00u.
3377 # Ignore this for now, as the Canaries are part of the EU.
3378 
3379 # Sweden
3380 
3381 # From Ivan Nilsson (2001-04-13), superseding Shanks & Pottenger:
3382 #
3383 # The law "Svensk författningssamling 1878, no 14" about standard time in 1879:
3384 # From the beginning of 1879 (that is 01-01 00:00) the time for all
3385 # places in the country is "the mean solar time for the meridian at
3386 # three degrees, or twelve minutes of time, to the west of the
3387 # meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm".  The law is dated 1878-05-31.
3388 #
3389 # The observatory at that time had the meridian 18 degrees 03' 30"
3390 # eastern longitude = 01:12:14 in time.  Less 12 minutes gives the
3391 # national standard time as 01:00:14 ahead of GMT....
3392 #
3393 # About the beginning of CET in Sweden. The lawtext ("Svensk
3394 # författningssamling 1899, no 44") states, that "from the beginning
3395 # of 1900... ... the same as the mean solar time for the meridian at
3396 # the distance of one hour of time from the meridian of the English
3397 # observatory at Greenwich, or at 12 minutes 14 seconds to the west
3398 # from the meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm". The law is dated
3399 # 1899-06-16.  In short: At 1900-01-01 00:00:00 the new standard time
3400 # in Sweden is 01:00:00 ahead of GMT.
3401 #
3402 # 1916: The lawtext ("Svensk författningssamling 1916, no 124") states
3403 # that "1916-05-15 is considered to begin one hour earlier". It is
3404 # pretty obvious that at 05-14 23:00 the clocks are set to 05-15 00:00....
3405 # Further the law says, that "1916-09-30 is considered to end one hour later".
3406 #
3407 # The laws regulating [DST] are available on the site of the Swedish
3408 # Parliament beginning with 1985 - the laws regulating 1980/1984 are
3409 # not available on the site (to my knowledge they are only available
3410 # in Swedish): <http://www.riksdagen.se/english/work/sfst.asp> (type
3411 # "sommartid" without the quotes in the field "Fritext" and then click
3412 # the Sök-button).
3413 #
3414 # (2001-05-13):
3415 #
3416 # I have now found a newspaper stating that at 1916-10-01 01:00
3417 # summertime the church-clocks etc were set back one hour to show
3418 # 1916-10-01 00:00 standard time.  The article also reports that some
3419 # people thought the switch to standard time would take place already
3420 # at 1916-10-01 00:00 summer time, but they had to wait for another
3421 # hour before the event took place.
3422 #
3423 # Source: The newspaper "Dagens Nyheter", 1916-10-01, page 7 upper left.
3424 
3425 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3426 Zone Europe/Stockholm   1:12:12 -       LMT     1879 Jan  1
3427                         1:00:14 -       SET     1900 Jan  1 # Swedish Time
3428                         1:00    -       CET     1916 May 14 23:00
3429                         1:00    1:00    CEST    1916 Oct  1  1:00
3430                         1:00    -       CET     1980
3431                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
3432 
3433 # Switzerland
3434 # From Howse:
3435 # By the end of the 18th century clocks and watches became commonplace
3436 # and their performance improved enormously.  Communities began to keep
3437 # mean time in preference to apparent time - Geneva from 1780 ....
3438 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3439 # From Whitman (who writes "Midnight?"):
3440 # Rule  Swiss   1940    only    -       Nov      2      0:00    1:00    S
3441 # Rule  Swiss   1940    only    -       Dec     31      0:00    0       -
3442 # From Shanks & Pottenger:
3443 # Rule  Swiss   1941    1942    -       May     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    S
3444 # Rule  Swiss   1941    1942    -       Oct     Sun>=1       0:00    0       -
3445 
3446 # From Alois Treindl (2008-12-17):
3447 # I have researched the DST usage in Switzerland during the 1940ies.
3448 #
3449 # As I wrote in an earlier message, I suspected the current tzdata values
3450 # to be wrong. This is now verified.
3451 #
3452 # I have found copies of the original ruling by the Swiss Federal
3453 # government, in 'Eidgenössische Gesetzessammlung 1941 and 1942' (Swiss
3454 # federal law collection)...
3455 #
3456 # DST began on Monday 5 May 1941, 1:00 am by shifting the clocks to 2:00 am
3457 # DST ended on Monday 6 Oct 1941, 2:00 am by shifting the clocks to 1:00 am.
3458 #
3459 # DST began on Monday, 4 May 1942 at 01:00 am
3460 # DST ended on Monday, 5 Oct 1942 at 02:00 am
3461 #
3462 # There was no DST in 1940, I have checked the law collection carefully.
3463 # It is also indicated by the fact that the 1942 entry in the law
3464 # collection points back to 1941 as a reference, but no reference to any
3465 # other years are made.
3466 #
3467 # Newspaper articles I have read in the archives on 6 May 1941 reported
3468 # about the introduction of DST (Sommerzeit in German) during the previous
3469 # night as an absolute novelty, because this was the first time that such
3470 # a thing had happened in Switzerland.
3471 #
3472 # I have also checked 1916, because one book source (Gabriel, Traité de
3473 # l'heure dans le monde) claims that Switzerland had DST in 1916. This is
3474 # false, no official document could be found. Probably Gabriel got misled
3475 # by references to Germany, which introduced DST in 1916 for the first time.
3476 #
3477 # The tzdata rules for Switzerland must be changed to:
3478 # Rule  Swiss   1941    1942    -       May     Mon>=1  1:00    1:00    S
3479 # Rule  Swiss   1941    1942    -       Oct     Mon>=1  2:00    0       -
3480 #
3481 # The 1940 rules must be deleted.
3482 #
3483 # One further detail for Switzerland, which is probably out of scope for
3484 # most users of tzdata: The [Europe/Zurich zone] ...
3485 # describes all of Switzerland correctly, with the exception of
3486 # the Canton de Genève (Geneva, Genf). Between 1848 and 1894 Geneva did not
3487 # follow Bern Mean Time but kept its own local mean time.
3488 # To represent this, an extra zone would be needed.
3489 #
3490 # From Alois Treindl (2013-09-11):
3491 # The Federal regulations say
3492 # https://www.admin.ch/opc/de/classified-compilation/20071096/index.html
3493 # ... the meridian for Bern mean time ... is 7 degrees 26' 22.50".
3494 # Expressed in time, it is 0h29m45.5s.
3495 
3496 # From Pierre-Yves Berger (2013-09-11):
3497 # the "Circulaire du conseil fédéral" (December 11 1893)
3498 # http://www.amtsdruckschriften.bar.admin.ch/viewOrigDoc.do?id=10071353
3499 # clearly states that the [1894-06-01] change should be done at midnight
3500 # but if no one is present after 11 at night, could be postponed until one
3501 # hour before the beginning of service.
3502 
3503 # From Paul Eggert (2013-09-11):
3504 # Round BMT to the nearest even second, 0:29:46.
3505 #
3506 # We can find no reliable source for Shanks's assertion that all of Switzerland
3507 # except Geneva switched to Bern Mean Time at 00:00 on 1848-09-12.  This book:
3508 #
3509 #       Jakob Messerli. Gleichmässig, pünktlich, schnell. Zeiteinteilung und
3510 #       Zeitgebrauch in der Schweiz im 19. Jahrhundert. Chronos, Zurich 1995,
3511 #       ISBN 3-905311-68-2, OCLC 717570797.
3512 #
3513 # suggests that the transition was more gradual, and that the Swiss did not
3514 # agree about civil time during the transition.  The timekeeping it gives the
3515 # most detail for is postal and telegraph time: here, federal legislation (the
3516 # "Bundesgesetz über die Erstellung von elektrischen Telegraphen") passed on
3517 # 1851-11-23, and an official implementation notice was published 1853-07-16
3518 # (Bundesblatt 1853, Bd. II, S. 859).  On p 72 Messerli writes that in
3519 # practice since July 1853 Bernese time was used in "all postal and telegraph
3520 # offices in Switzerland from Geneva to St. Gallen and Basel to Chiasso"
3521 # (Google translation).  For now, model this transition as occurring on
3522 # 1853-07-16, though it probably occurred at some other date in Zurich, and
3523 # legal civil time probably changed at still some other transition date.
3524 
3525 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3526 Rule    Swiss   1941    1942    -       May     Mon>=1       1:00    1:00    S
3527 Rule    Swiss   1941    1942    -       Oct     Mon>=1       2:00    0       -
3528 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3529 Zone    Europe/Zurich   0:34:08 -       LMT     1853 Jul 16 # See above comment.
3530                         0:29:46 -       BMT     1894 Jun    # Bern Mean Time
3531                         1:00    Swiss   CE%sT   1981
3532                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
3533 
3534 # Turkey
3535 
3536 # From Kıvanç Yazan (2016-09-25):
3537 # 1) For 1986-2006, DST started at 01:00 local and ended at 02:00 local, with
3538 #    no exceptions.
3539 # 2) 1994's lastSun was overridden with Mar 20 ...
3540 # Here are official papers:
3541 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/19032.pdf  - page 2 for 1986
3542 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/19400.pdf  - page 4 for 1987
3543 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/19752.pdf  - page 15 for 1988
3544 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/20102.pdf  - page 6 for 1989
3545 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/20464.pdf  - page 1 for 1990 - 1992
3546 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/21531.pdf  - page 15 for 1993 - 1995
3547 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/21879.pdf  - page 1 for overriding 1994
3548 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/22588.pdf  - page 1 for 1996, 1997
3549 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/23286.pdf  - page 10 for 1998 - 2000
3550 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2001/03/20010324.htm#2  - for 2001
3551 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2002/03/20020316.htm#2  - for 2002-2006
3552 # From Paul Eggert (2016-09-25):
3553 # Prefer the above sources to Shanks & Pottenger for time stamps after 1985.
3554 
3555 # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-03-09):
3556 # Starting 2007 though, it seems that they are adopting EU's 1:00 UTC
3557 # start/end time, according to the following page (2007-03-07):
3558 # http://www.ntvmsnbc.com/news/402029.asp
3559 # The official document is located here - it is in Turkish...:
3560 # http://rega.basbakanlik.gov.tr/eskiler/2007/03/20070307-7.htm
3561 # I was able to locate the following seemingly official document
3562 # (on a non-government server though) describing dates between 2002 and 2006:
3563 # http://www.alomaliye.com/bkk_2002_3769.htm
3564 
3565 # From Gökdeniz Karadağ (2011-03-10):
3566 # According to the articles linked below, Turkey will change into summer
3567 # time zone (GMT+3) on March 28, 2011 at 3:00 a.m. instead of March 27.
3568 # This change is due to a nationwide exam on 27th.
3569 # https://www.worldbulletin.net/?aType=haber&ArticleID=70872
3570 # Turkish:
3571 # https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/yaz-saati-uygulamasi-bir-gun-ileri-alindi-17230464
3572 
3573 # From Faruk Pasin (2014-02-14):
3574 # The DST for Turkey has been changed for this year because of the
3575 # Turkish Local election....
3576 # http://www.sabah.com.tr/Ekonomi/2014/02/12/yaz-saatinde-onemli-degisiklik
3577 # ... so Turkey will move clocks forward one hour on March 31 at 3:00 a.m.
3578 # From Randal L. Schwartz (2014-04-15):
3579 # Having landed on a flight from the states to Istanbul (via AMS) on March 31,
3580 # I can tell you that NOBODY (even the airlines) respected this timezone DST
3581 # change delay.  Maybe the word just didn't get out in time.
3582 # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-15):
3583 # The press reported massive confusion, as election officials obeyed the rule
3584 # change but cell phones (and airline baggage systems) did not.  See:
3585 # Kostidis M. Eventful elections in Turkey. Balkan News Agency
3586 # http://www.balkaneu.com/eventful-elections-turkey/ 2014-03-30.
3587 # I guess the best we can do is document the official time.
3588 
3589 # From Fatih (2015-09-29):
3590 # It's officially announced now by the Ministry of Energy.
3591 # Turkey delays winter time to 8th of November 04:00
3592 # http://www.aa.com.tr/tr/turkiye/yaz-saati-uygulamasi-8-kasimda-sona-erecek/362217
3593 #
3594 # From BBC News (2015-10-25):
3595 # Confused Turks are asking "what's the time?" after automatic clocks defied a
3596 # government decision ... "For the next two weeks #Turkey is on EEST... Erdogan
3597 # Engineered Standard Time," said Twitter user @aysekarahasan.
3598 # http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-34631326
3599 
3600 # From Burak AYDIN (2016-09-08):
3601 # Turkey will stay in Daylight Saving Time even in winter....
3602 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2016/09/20160908-2.pdf
3603 #
3604 # From Paul Eggert (2016-09-07):
3605 # The change is permanent, so this is the new standard time in Turkey.
3606 # It takes effect today, which is not much notice.
3607 
3608 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3609 Rule    Turkey  1916    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S
3610 Rule    Turkey  1916    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
3611 Rule    Turkey  1920    only    -       Mar     28      0:00    1:00    S
3612 Rule    Turkey  1920    only    -       Oct     25      0:00    0       -
3613 Rule    Turkey  1921    only    -       Apr      3      0:00    1:00    S
3614 Rule    Turkey  1921    only    -       Oct      3      0:00    0       -
3615 Rule    Turkey  1922    only    -       Mar     26      0:00    1:00    S
3616 Rule    Turkey  1922    only    -       Oct      8      0:00    0       -
3617 # Whitman gives 1923 Apr 28 - Sep 16 and no DST in 1924-1925;
3618 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
3619 Rule    Turkey  1924    only    -       May     13      0:00    1:00    S
3620 Rule    Turkey  1924    1925    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
3621 Rule    Turkey  1925    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S
3622 Rule    Turkey  1940    only    -       Jun     30      0:00    1:00    S
3623 Rule    Turkey  1940    only    -       Oct      5      0:00    0       -
3624 Rule    Turkey  1940    only    -       Dec      1      0:00    1:00    S
3625 Rule    Turkey  1941    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
3626 Rule    Turkey  1942    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
3627 # Whitman omits the next two transition and gives 1945 Oct 1;
3628 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
3629 Rule    Turkey  1942    only    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       -
3630 Rule    Turkey  1945    only    -       Apr      2      0:00    1:00    S
3631 Rule    Turkey  1945    only    -       Oct      8      0:00    0       -
3632 Rule    Turkey  1946    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    S
3633 Rule    Turkey  1946    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
3634 Rule    Turkey  1947    1948    -       Apr     Sun>=16      0:00    1:00    S
3635 Rule    Turkey  1947    1950    -       Oct     Sun>=2       0:00    0       -
3636 Rule    Turkey  1949    only    -       Apr     10      0:00    1:00    S
3637 Rule    Turkey  1950    only    -       Apr     19      0:00    1:00    S
3638 Rule    Turkey  1951    only    -       Apr     22      0:00    1:00    S
3639 Rule    Turkey  1951    only    -       Oct      8      0:00    0       -
3640 Rule    Turkey  1962    only    -       Jul     15      0:00    1:00    S
3641 Rule    Turkey  1962    only    -       Oct      8      0:00    0       -
3642 Rule    Turkey  1964    only    -       May     15      0:00    1:00    S
3643 Rule    Turkey  1964    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
3644 Rule    Turkey  1970    1972    -       May     Sun>=2       0:00    1:00    S
3645 Rule    Turkey  1970    1972    -       Oct     Sun>=2       0:00    0       -
3646 Rule    Turkey  1973    only    -       Jun      3      1:00    1:00    S
3647 Rule    Turkey  1973    only    -       Nov      4      3:00    0       -
3648 Rule    Turkey  1974    only    -       Mar     31      2:00    1:00    S
3649 Rule    Turkey  1974    only    -       Nov      3      5:00    0       -
3650 Rule    Turkey  1975    only    -       Mar     30      0:00    1:00    S
3651 Rule    Turkey  1975    1976    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       -
3652 Rule    Turkey  1976    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    S
3653 Rule    Turkey  1977    1978    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    S
3654 Rule    Turkey  1977    only    -       Oct     16      0:00    0       -
3655 Rule    Turkey  1979    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1       3:00    1:00    S
3656 Rule    Turkey  1979    1982    -       Oct     Mon>=11      0:00    0       -
3657 Rule    Turkey  1981    1982    -       Mar     lastSun 3:00    1:00    S
3658 Rule    Turkey  1983    only    -       Jul     31      0:00    1:00    S
3659 Rule    Turkey  1983    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       -
3660 Rule    Turkey  1985    only    -       Apr     20      0:00    1:00    S
3661 Rule    Turkey  1985    only    -       Sep     28      0:00    0       -
3662 Rule    Turkey  1986    1993    -       Mar     lastSun 1:00s   1:00    S
3663 Rule    Turkey  1986    1995    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00s   0       -
3664 Rule    Turkey  1994    only    -       Mar     20      1:00s   1:00    S
3665 Rule    Turkey  1995    2006    -       Mar     lastSun 1:00s   1:00    S
3666 Rule    Turkey  1996    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 1:00s   0       -
3667 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3668 Zone    Europe/Istanbul 1:55:52 -       LMT     1880
3669                         1:56:56 -       IMT     1910 Oct # Istanbul Mean Time?
3670                         2:00    Turkey  EE%sT   1978 Oct 15
3671                         3:00    Turkey  +03/+04 1985 Apr 20
3672                         2:00    Turkey  EE%sT   2007
3673                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   2011 Mar 27  1:00u
3674                         2:00    -       EET     2011 Mar 28  1:00u
3675                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   2014 Mar 30  1:00u
3676                         2:00    -       EET     2014 Mar 31  1:00u
3677                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   2015 Oct 25  1:00u
3678                         2:00    1:00    EEST    2015 Nov  8  1:00u
3679                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   2016 Sep  7
3680                         3:00    -       +03
3681 Link    Europe/Istanbul Asia/Istanbul   # Istanbul is in both continents.
3682 
3683 # Ukraine
3684 #
3685 # From Igor Karpov, who works for the Ukrainian Ministry of Justice,
3686 # via Garrett Wollman (2003-01-27):
3687 # BTW, I've found the official document on this matter. It's government
3688 # regulations No. 509, May 13, 1996. In my poor translation it says:
3689 # "Time in Ukraine is set to second timezone (Kiev time). Each last Sunday
3690 # of March at 3am the time is changing to 4am and each last Sunday of
3691 # October the time at 4am is changing to 3am"
3692 
3693 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-09-20):
3694 # On September 20, 2011 the deputies of the Verkhovna Rada agreed to
3695 # abolish the transfer clock to winter time.
3696 #
3697 # Bill No. 8330 of MP from the Party of Regions Oleg Nadoshi got
3698 # approval from 266 deputies.
3699 #
3700 # Ukraine abolishes transfer back to the winter time (in Russian)
3701 # http://news.mail.ru/politics/6861560/
3702 #
3703 # The Ukrainians will no longer change the clock (in Russian)
3704 # http://www.segodnya.ua/news/14290482.html
3705 #
3706 # Deputies cancelled the winter time (in Russian)
3707 # https://www.pravda.com.ua/rus/news/2011/09/20/6600616/
3708 #
3709 # From Philip Pizzey (2011-10-18):
3710 # Today my Ukrainian colleagues have informed me that the
3711 # Ukrainian parliament have decided that they will go to winter
3712 # time this year after all.
3713 #
3714 # From Udo Schwedt (2011-10-18):
3715 # As far as I understand, the recent change to the Ukrainian time zone
3716 # (Europe/Kiev) to introduce permanent daylight saving time (similar
3717 # to Russia) was reverted today:
3718 # http://portal.rada.gov.ua/rada/control/en/publish/article/info_left?art_id=287324&cat_id=105995
3719 #
3720 # Also reported by Alexander Bokovoy (2011-10-18) who also noted:
3721 # The law documents themselves are at
3722 # http://w1.c1.rada.gov.ua/pls/zweb_n/webproc4_1?id=&pf3511=41484
3723 
3724 # From Vladimir in Moscow via Alois Treindl re Kiev time 1991/2 (2014-02-28):
3725 # First in Ukraine they changed Time zone from UTC+3 to UTC+2 with DST:
3726 #       03 25 1990 02:00 -03.00 1       Time Zone 3 with DST
3727 #       07 01 1990 02:00 -02.00 1       Time Zone 2 with DST
3728 # * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 18.06.1990, No. 134.
3729 # http://search.ligazakon.ua/l_doc2.nsf/link1/T001500.html
3730 #
3731 # They did not end DST in September, 1990 (according to the law,
3732 # "summer time" was still in action):
3733 #       09 30 1990 03:00 -02.00 1       Time Zone 2 with DST
3734 # * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 21.09.1990, No. 272.
3735 # http://search.ligazakon.ua/l_doc2.nsf/link1/KP900272.html
3736 #
3737 # Again no change in March, 1991 ("summer time" in action):
3738 #       03 31 1991 02:00 -02.00 1       Time Zone 2 with DST
3739 #
3740 # DST ended in September 1991 ("summer time" ended):
3741 #       09 29 1991 03:00 -02.00 0       Time Zone 2, no DST
3742 # * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 25.09.1991, No. 225.
3743 # http://www.uazakon.com/documents/date_21/pg_iwgdoc.htm
3744 # This is an answer.
3745 #
3746 # Since 1992 they had normal DST procedure:
3747 #       03 29 1992 02:00 -02.00 1       DST started
3748 #       09 27 1992 03:00 -02.00 0       DST ended
3749 # * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 20.03.1992, No. 139.
3750 # http://www.uazakon.com/documents/date_8u/pg_grcasa.htm
3751 
3752 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3753 # Most of Ukraine since 1970 has been like Kiev.
3754 # "Kyiv" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but
3755 # "Kiev" is more common in English.
3756 Zone Europe/Kiev        2:02:04 -       LMT     1880
3757                         2:02:04 -       KMT     1924 May  2 # Kiev Mean Time
3758                         2:00    -       EET     1930 Jun 21
3759                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Sep 20
3760                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1943 Nov  6
3761                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990 Jul  1  2:00
3762                         2:00    1:00    EEST    1991 Sep 29  3:00
3763                         2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1995
3764                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
3765 # Ruthenia used CET 1990/1991.
3766 # "Uzhhorod" is the transliteration of the Rusyn/Ukrainian pronunciation, but
3767 # "Uzhgorod" is more common in English.
3768 Zone Europe/Uzhgorod    1:29:12 -       LMT     1890 Oct
3769                         1:00    -       CET     1940
3770                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Oct
3771                         1:00    1:00    CEST    1944 Oct 26
3772                         1:00    -       CET     1945 Jun 29
3773                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990
3774                         3:00    -       MSK     1990 Jul  1  2:00
3775                         1:00    -       CET     1991 Mar 31  3:00
3776                         2:00    -       EET     1992
3777                         2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1995
3778                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
3779 # Zaporozh'ye and eastern Lugansk oblasts observed DST 1990/1991.
3780 # "Zaporizhia" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but
3781 # "Zaporozh'ye" is more common in English.  Use the common English
3782 # spelling, except omit the apostrophe as it is not allowed in
3783 # portable Posix file names.
3784 Zone Europe/Zaporozhye  2:20:40 -       LMT     1880
3785                         2:20    -       +0220   1924 May  2
3786                         2:00    -       EET     1930 Jun 21
3787                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Aug 25
3788                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1943 Oct 25
3789                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31  2:00
3790                         2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1995
3791                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
3792 
3793 # Vatican City
3794 # See Europe/Rome.
3795 
3796 ###############################################################################
3797 
3798 # One source shows that Bulgaria, Cyprus, Finland, and Greece observe DST from
3799 # the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in September in 1986.
3800 # The source shows Romania changing a day later than everybody else.
3801 #
3802 # According to Bernard Sieloff's source, Poland is in the MET time zone but
3803 # uses the WE DST rules.  The Western USSR uses EET+1 and ME DST rules.
3804 # Bernard Sieloff's source claims Romania switches on the same day, but at
3805 # 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST).  It also claims that Turkey
3806 # switches on the same day, but switches on at 01:00 standard time
3807 # and off at 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST)
3808 
3809 # ...
3810 # Date: Wed, 28 Jan 87 16:56:27 -0100
3811 # From: Tom Hofmann
3812 # ...
3813 #
3814 # ...the European time rules are...standardized since 1981, when
3815 # most European countries started DST.  Before that year, only
3816 # a few countries (UK, France, Italy) had DST, each according
3817 # to own national rules.  In 1981, however, DST started on
3818 # 'Apr firstSun', and not on 'Mar lastSun' as in the following
3819 # years...
3820 # But also since 1981 there are some more national exceptions
3821 # than listed in 'europe': Switzerland, for example, joined DST
3822 # one year later, Denmark ended DST on 'Oct 1' instead of 'Sep
3823 # lastSun' in 1981 - I don't know how they handle now.
3824 #
3825 # Finally, DST ist always from 'Apr 1' to 'Oct 1' in the
3826 # Soviet Union (as far as I know).
3827 #
3828 # Tom Hofmann, Scientific Computer Center, CIBA-GEIGY AG,
3829 # 4002 Basle, Switzerland
3830 # ...
3831 
3832 # ...
3833 # Date: Wed, 4 Feb 87 22:35:22 +0100
3834 # From: Dik T. Winter
3835 # ...
3836 #
3837 # The information from Tom Hofmann is (as far as I know) not entirely correct.
3838 # After a request from chongo at amdahl I tried to retrieve all information
3839 # about DST in Europe.  I was able to find all from about 1969.
3840 #
3841 # ...standardization on DST in Europe started in about 1977 with switches on
3842 # first Sunday in April and last Sunday in September...
3843 # In 1981 UK joined Europe insofar that
3844 # the starting day for both shifted to last Sunday in March.  And from 1982
3845 # the whole of Europe used DST, with switch dates April 1 and October 1 in
3846 # the Sov[i]et Union.  In 1985 the SU reverted to standard Europe[a]n switch
3847 # dates...
3848 #
3849 # It should also be remembered that time-zones are not constants; e.g.
3850 # Portugal switched in 1976 from MET (or CET) to WET with DST...
3851 # Note also that though there were rules for switch dates not
3852 # all countries abided to these dates, and many individual deviations
3853 # occurred, though not since 1982 I believe.  Another note: it is always
3854 # assumed that DST is 1 hour ahead of normal time, this need not be the
3855 # case; at least in the Netherlands there have been times when DST was 2 hours
3856 # in advance of normal time.
3857 #
3858 # ...
3859 # dik t. winter, cwi, amsterdam, nederland
3860 # ...
3861 
3862 # From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
3863 # ...
3864 # Greece: Last Sunday in April to last Sunday in September (iffy on dates).
3865 # Since 1978.  Change at midnight.
3866 # ...
3867 # Monaco: has same DST as France.
3868 # ...