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   7 # particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
   8 # by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
   9 #
  10 # This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  11 # ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  12 # FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  13 # version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  14 # accompanied this code).
  15 #
  16 # You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  17 # 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  18 # Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  19 #
  20 # Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  21 # or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  22 # questions.
  23 #
  24 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
  25 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
  26 
  27 # This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
  28 # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
  29 # tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
  30 # the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
  31 
  32 # From Paul Eggert (2017-02-10):
  33 #
  34 # Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:
  35 # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
  36 # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
  37 # Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.
  38 #
  39 # Many years ago Gwillim Law wrote that a good source
  40 # for time zone data was the International Air Transport
  41 # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
  42 # published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
  43 # of the IATA's data after 1990.  Except where otherwise noted,
  44 # IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.
  45 #
  46 # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
  47 # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
  48 #
  49 # Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for
  50 # entries through 1991, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.
  51 #
  52 # Other sources occasionally used include:
  53 #
  54 #       Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
  55 #       Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated),
  56 #       which I found in the UCLA library.
  57 #
  58 #       William Willett, The Waste of Daylight, 19th edition
  59 #       <http://cs.ucla.edu/~eggert/The-Waste-of-Daylight-19th.pdf>
  60 #       [PDF] (1914-03)
  61 #
  62 #       Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94
  63 #       <https://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359>.  He writes:
  64 #       "It is requested that corrections and additions to these tables
  65 #       may be sent to Mr. John Milne, Royal Geographical Society,
  66 #       Savile Row, London."  Nowadays please email them to tz@iana.org.
  67 #
  68 #       Byalokoz EL. New Counting of Time in Russia since July 1, 1919.
  69 #       This Russian-language source was consulted by Vladimir Karpinsky; see
  70 #       https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2014-August/021320.html
  71 #       The full Russian citation is:
  72 #       Бялокоз, Евгений Людвигович. Новый счет времени в течении суток
  73 #       введенный декретом Совета народных комиссаров для всей России с 1-го
  74 #       июля 1919 г. / Изд. 2-е Междуведомственной комиссии. - Петроград:
  75 #       Десятая гос. тип., 1919.
  76 #       http://resolver.gpntb.ru/purl?docushare/dsweb/Get/Resource-2011/Byalokoz__E.L.__Novyy__schet__vremeni__v__techenie__sutok__izd__2(1).pdf
  77 #
  78 #       Brazil's Divisão Serviço da Hora (DSHO),
  79 #       History of Summer Time
  80 #       <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HISTHV.htm>
  81 #       (1998-09-21, in Portuguese)
  82 #
  83 # I invented the abbreviations marked '*' in the following table;
  84 # the rest are variants of the "xMT" pattern for a city's mean time,
  85 # or are from other sources.  Corrections are welcome!
  86 #                   std  dst  2dst
  87 #                   LMT             Local Mean Time
  88 #       -4:00       AST  ADT        Atlantic
  89 #        0:00       GMT  BST  BDST  Greenwich, British Summer
  90 #        0:00       GMT  IST        Greenwich, Irish Summer
  91 #        0:00       WET  WEST WEMT  Western Europe
  92 #        0:19:32.13 AMT* NST*       Amsterdam, Netherlands Summer (1835-1937)
  93 #        1:00       BST             British Standard (1968-1971)
  94 #        1:00       IST  GMT        Irish Standard (1968-) with winter DST
  95 #        1:00       CET  CEST CEMT  Central Europe
  96 #        1:00:14    SET             Swedish (1879-1899)
  97 #        1:36:34    RMT* LST*       Riga, Latvian Summer (1880-1926)*
  98 #        2:00       EET  EEST       Eastern Europe
  99 #        3:00       MSK  MSD  MDST* Moscow
 100 
 101 # From Peter Ilieve (1994-12-04), re EEC/EC/EU members:
 102 # The original six: Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy,
 103 # Luxembourg, the Netherlands.
 104 # Plus, from 1 Jan 73: Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom.
 105 # Plus, from 1 Jan 81: Greece.
 106 # Plus, from 1 Jan 86: Spain, Portugal.
 107 # Plus, from 1 Jan 95: Austria, Finland, Sweden. (Norway negotiated terms for
 108 # entry but in a referendum on 28 Nov 94 the people voted No by 52.2% to 47.8%
 109 # on a turnout of 88.6%. This was almost the same result as Norway's previous
 110 # referendum in 1972, they are the only country to have said No twice.
 111 # Referendums in the other three countries voted Yes.)
 112 # ...
 113 # Estonia ... uses EU dates but not at 01:00 GMT, they use midnight GMT.
 114 # I don't think they know yet what they will do from 1996 onwards.
 115 # ...
 116 # There shouldn't be any [current members who are not using EU rules].
 117 # A Directive has the force of law, member states are obliged to enact
 118 # national law to implement it. The only contentious issue was the
 119 # different end date for the UK and Ireland, and this was always allowed
 120 # in the Directive.
 121 
 122 
 123 ###############################################################################
 124 
 125 # Britain (United Kingdom) and Ireland (Eire)
 126 
 127 # From Peter Ilieve (1994-07-06):
 128 #
 129 # On 17 Jan 1994 the Independent, a UK quality newspaper, had a piece about
 130 # historical vistas along the Thames in west London. There was a photo
 131 # and a sketch map showing some of the sightlines involved. One paragraph
 132 # of the text said:
 133 #
 134 # 'An old stone obelisk marking a forgotten terrestrial meridian stands
 135 # beside the river at Kew. In the 18th century, before time and longitude
 136 # was standardised by the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, scholars observed
 137 # this stone and the movement of stars from Kew Observatory nearby. They
 138 # made their calculations and set the time for the Horse Guards and Parliament,
 139 # but now the stone is obscured by scrubwood and can only be seen by walking
 140 # along the towpath within a few yards of it.'
 141 #
 142 # I have a one inch to one mile map of London and my estimate of the stone's
 143 # position is 51 degrees 28' 30" N, 0 degrees 18' 45" W. The longitude should
 144 # be within about +-2". The Ordnance Survey grid reference is TQ172761.
 145 #
 146 # [This yields GMTOFF = -0:01:15 for London LMT in the 18th century.]
 147 
 148 # From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18):
 149 #
 150 # Howse writes that Britain was the first country to use standard time.
 151 # The railways cared most about the inconsistencies of local mean time,
 152 # and it was they who forced a uniform time on the country.
 153 # The original idea was credited to Dr. William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828)
 154 # and was popularized by Abraham Follett Osler (1808-1903).
 155 # The first railway to adopt London time was the Great Western Railway
 156 # in November 1840; other railways followed suit, and by 1847 most
 157 # (though not all) railways used London time.  On 1847-09-22 the
 158 # Railway Clearing House, an industry standards body, recommended that GMT be
 159 # adopted at all stations as soon as the General Post Office permitted it.
 160 # The transition occurred on 12-01 for the L&NW, the Caledonian,
 161 # and presumably other railways; the January 1848 Bradshaw's lists many
 162 # railways as using GMT.  By 1855 the vast majority of public
 163 # clocks in Britain were set to GMT (though some, like the great clock
 164 # on Tom Tower at Christ Church, Oxford, were fitted with two minute hands,
 165 # one for local time and one for GMT).  The last major holdout was the legal
 166 # system, which stubbornly stuck to local time for many years, leading
 167 # to oddities like polls opening at 08:13 and closing at 16:13.
 168 # The legal system finally switched to GMT when the Statutes (Definition
 169 # of Time) Act took effect; it received the Royal Assent on 1880-08-02.
 170 #
 171 # In the tables below, we condense this complicated story into a single
 172 # transition date for London, namely 1847-12-01.  We don't know as much
 173 # about Dublin, so we use 1880-08-02, the legal transition time.
 174 
 175 # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-19):
 176 # The ancients had no need for daylight saving, as they kept time
 177 # informally or via hours whose length depended on the time of year.
 178 # Daylight saving time in its modern sense was invented by the
 179 # New Zealand entomologist George Vernon Hudson (1867-1946),
 180 # whose day job as a postal clerk led him to value
 181 # after-hours daylight in which to pursue his research.
 182 # In 1895 he presented a paper to the Wellington Philosophical Society
 183 # that proposed a two-hour daylight-saving shift.  See:
 184 # Hudson GV. On seasonal time-adjustment in countries south of lat. 30 deg.
 185 # Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute. 1895;28:734
 186 # http://rsnz.natlib.govt.nz/volume/rsnz_28/rsnz_28_00_006110.html
 187 # Although some interest was expressed in New Zealand, his proposal
 188 # did not find its way into law and eventually it was almost forgotten.
 189 #
 190 # In England, DST was independently reinvented by William Willett (1857-1915),
 191 # a London builder and member of the Royal Astronomical Society
 192 # who circulated a pamphlet "The Waste of Daylight" (1907)
 193 # that proposed advancing clocks 20 minutes on each of four Sundays in April,
 194 # and retarding them by the same amount on four Sundays in September.
 195 # A bill was drafted in 1909 and introduced in Parliament several times,
 196 # but it met with ridicule and opposition, especially from farming interests.
 197 # Later editions of the pamphlet proposed one-hour summer time, and
 198 # it was eventually adopted as a wartime measure in 1916.
 199 # See: Summer Time Arrives Early, The Times (2000-05-18).
 200 # A monument to Willett was unveiled on 1927-05-21, in an open space in
 201 # a 45-acre wood near Chislehurst, Kent that was purchased by popular
 202 # subscription and open to the public.  On the south face of the monolith,
 203 # designed by G. W. Miller, is the William Willett Memorial Sundial,
 204 # which is permanently set to Summer Time.
 205 
 206 # From Winston Churchill (1934-04-28):
 207 # It is one of the paradoxes of history that we should owe the boon of
 208 # summer time, which gives every year to the people of this country
 209 # between 160 and 170 hours more daylight leisure, to a war which
 210 # plunged Europe into darkness for four years, and shook the
 211 # foundations of civilization throughout the world.
 212 #       -- "A Silent Toast to William Willett", Pictorial Weekly;
 213 #       republished in Finest Hour (Spring 2002) 1(114):26
 214 #       https://www.winstonchurchill.org/publications/finest-hour/finest-hour-114/a-silent-toast-to-william-willett-by-winston-s-churchill
 215 
 216 # From Paul Eggert (2015-08-08):
 217 # The OED Supplement says that the English originally said "Daylight Saving"
 218 # when they were debating the adoption of DST in 1908; but by 1916 this
 219 # term appears only in quotes taken from DST's opponents, whereas the
 220 # proponents (who eventually won the argument) are quoted as using "Summer".
 221 # The term "Summer Time" was introduced by Herbert Samuel, Home Secretary; see:
 222 # Viscount Samuel. Leisure in a Democracy. Cambridge University Press
 223 # ISBN 978-1-107-49471-8 (1949, reissued 2015), p 8.
 224 
 225 # From Arthur David Olson (1989-01-19):
 226 # A source at the British Information Office in New York avers that it's
 227 # known as "British" Summer Time in all parts of the United Kingdom.
 228 
 229 # Date: 4 Jan 89 08:57:25 GMT (Wed)
 230 # From: Jonathan Leffler
 231 # [British Summer Time] is fixed annually by Act of Parliament.
 232 # If you can predict what Parliament will do, you should be in
 233 # politics making a fortune, not computing.
 234 
 235 # From Chris Carrier (1996-06-14):
 236 # I remember reading in various wartime issues of the London Times the
 237 # acronym BDST for British Double Summer Time.  Look for the published
 238 # time of sunrise and sunset in The Times, when BDST was in effect, and
 239 # if you find a zone reference it will say, "All times B.D.S.T."
 240 
 241 # From Joseph S. Myers (1999-09-02):
 242 # ... some military cables (WO 219/4100 - this is a copy from the
 243 # main SHAEF archives held in the US National Archives, SHAEF/5252/8/516)
 244 # agree that the usage is BDST (this appears in a message dated 17 Feb 1945).
 245 
 246 # From Joseph S. Myers (2000-10-03):
 247 # On 18th April 1941, Sir Stephen Tallents of the BBC wrote to Sir
 248 # Alexander Maxwell of the Home Office asking whether there was any
 249 # official designation; the reply of the 21st was that there wasn't
 250 # but he couldn't think of anything better than the "Double British
 251 # Summer Time" that the BBC had been using informally.
 252 # https://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/bbc-19410418.png
 253 # https://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/ho-19410421.png
 254 
 255 # From Sir Alexander Maxwell in the above-mentioned letter (1941-04-21):
 256 # [N]o official designation has as far as I know been adopted for the time
 257 # which is to be introduced in May....
 258 # I cannot think of anything better than "Double British Summer Time"
 259 # which could not be said to run counter to any official description.
 260 
 261 # From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
 262 # Howse writes (p 157) 'DBST' too, but 'BDST' seems to have been common
 263 # and follows the more usual convention of putting the location name first,
 264 # so we use 'BDST'.
 265 
 266 # Peter Ilieve (1998-04-19) described at length
 267 # the history of summer time legislation in the United Kingdom.
 268 # Since 1998 Joseph S. Myers has been updating
 269 # and extending this list, which can be found in
 270 # https://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/
 271 
 272 # From Joseph S. Myers (1998-01-06):
 273 #
 274 # The legal time in the UK outside of summer time is definitely GMT, not UTC;
 275 # see Lord Tanlaw's speech
 276 # https://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld199798/ldhansrd/vo970611/text/70611-10.htm#70611-10_head0
 277 # (Lords Hansard 11 June 1997 columns 964 to 976).
 278 
 279 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
 280 #
 281 # For lack of other data, follow Shanks & Pottenger for Eire in 1940-1948.
 282 #
 283 # Given Ilieve and Myers's data, the following claims by Shanks & Pottenger
 284 # are incorrect:
 285 #     * Wales did not switch from GMT to daylight saving time until
 286 #       1921 Apr 3, when they began to conform with the rest of Great Britain.
 287 # Actually, Wales was identical after 1880.
 288 #     * Eire had two transitions on 1916 Oct 1.
 289 # It actually just had one transition.
 290 #     * Northern Ireland used single daylight saving time throughout WW II.
 291 # Actually, it conformed to Britain.
 292 #     * GB-Eire changed standard time to 1 hour ahead of GMT on 1968-02-18.
 293 # Actually, that date saw the usual switch to summer time.
 294 # Standard time was not changed until 1968-10-27 (the clocks didn't change).
 295 #
 296 # Here is another incorrect claim by Shanks & Pottenger:
 297 #     * Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man did not switch from GMT
 298 #       to daylight saving time until 1921 Apr 3, when they began to
 299 #       conform with Great Britain.
 300 # S.R.&O. 1916, No. 382 and HO 45/10811/312364 (quoted above) say otherwise.
 301 #
 302 # The following claim by Shanks & Pottenger is possible though doubtful;
 303 # we'll ignore it for now.
 304 #     * Dublin's 1971-10-31 switch was at 02:00, even though London's was 03:00.
 305 
 306 # From Paul Eggert (2017-12-04):
 307 #
 308 # Dunsink Observatory (8 km NW of Dublin's center) was to Dublin as
 309 # Greenwich was to London.  For example:




 310 #
 311 #   "Timeball on the ballast office is down.  Dunsink time."
 312 #   -- James Joyce, Ulysses
 313 #
 314 # The abbreviation DMT stood for "Dublin Mean Time" or "Dunsink Mean Time";
 315 # this being Ireland, opinions differed.
 316 #
 317 # Whitman says Dublin/Dunsink Mean Time was UT-00:25:21, which agrees
 318 # with measurements of recent visitors to the Meridian Room of Dunsink
 319 # Observatory; see Malone D. Dunsink and timekeeping. 2016-01-24.
 320 # <https://www.maths.tcd.ie/~dwmalone/time/dunsink.html>.  Malone
 321 # writes that the Nautical Almanac listed UT-00:25:22 until 1896, when
 322 # it moved to UT-00:25:21.1 (I confirmed that the 1893 edition used
 323 # the former and the 1896 edition used the latter).  Evidently the
 324 # news of this change propagated slowly, as Milne 1899 still lists
 325 # UT-00:25:22 and cites the International Telegraph Bureau.  As it is
 326 # not clear that there was any practical significance to the change
 327 # from UT-00:25:22 to UT-00:25:21.1 in civil timekeeping, omit this
 328 # transition for now and just use the latter value, omitting its
 329 # fraction since our format cannot represent fractions.
 330 
 331 # "Countess Markievicz ... claimed that the [1916] abolition of Dublin Mean Time
 332 # was among various actions undertaken by the 'English' government that
 333 # would 'put the whole country into the SF (Sinn Féin) camp'.  She claimed
 334 # Irish 'public feeling (was) outraged by forcing of English time on us'."
 335 # -- Parsons M. Dublin lost its time zone - and 25 minutes - after 1916 Rising.
 336 # Irish Times 2014-10-27.
 337 # https://www.irishtimes.com/news/politics/dublin-lost-its-time-zone-and-25-minutes-after-1916-rising-1.1977411
 338 
 339 # From Joseph S. Myers (2005-01-26):
 340 # Irish laws are available online at <http://www.irishstatutebook.ie>.
 341 # These include various relating to legal time, for example:
 342 #
 343 # ZZA13Y1923.html ZZA12Y1924.html ZZA8Y1925.html ZZSIV20PG1267.html
 344 #
 345 # ZZSI71Y1947.html ZZSI128Y1948.html ZZSI23Y1949.html ZZSI41Y1950.html
 346 # ZZSI27Y1951.html ZZSI73Y1952.html
 347 #
 348 # ZZSI11Y1961.html ZZSI232Y1961.html ZZSI182Y1962.html
 349 # ZZSI167Y1963.html ZZSI257Y1964.html ZZSI198Y1967.html
 350 # ZZA23Y1968.html ZZA17Y1971.html
 351 #
 352 # ZZSI67Y1981.html ZZSI212Y1982.html ZZSI45Y1986.html
 353 # ZZSI264Y1988.html ZZSI52Y1990.html ZZSI371Y1992.html
 354 # ZZSI395Y1994.html ZZSI484Y1997.html ZZSI506Y2001.html
 355 #
 356 # [These are all relative to the root, e.g., the first is
 357 # <http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/ZZA13Y1923.html>.]
 358 #
 359 # (These are those I found, but there could be more.  In any case these
 360 # should allow various updates to the comments in the europe file to cover
 361 # the laws applicable in Ireland.)
 362 #
 363 # (Note that the time in the Republic of Ireland since 1968 has been defined
 364 # in terms of standard time being GMT+1 with a period of winter time when it
 365 # is GMT, rather than standard time being GMT with a period of summer time
 366 # being GMT+1.)
 367 
 368 # From Paul Eggert (1999-03-28):
 369 # Clive Feather (<news:859845706.26043.0@office.demon.net>, 1997-03-31)
 370 # reports that Folkestone (Cheriton) Shuttle Terminal uses Concession Time
 371 # (CT), equivalent to French civil time.
 372 # Julian Hill (<news:36118128.5A14@virgin.net>, 1998-09-30) reports that
 373 # trains between Dollands Moor (the freight facility next door)
 374 # and Frethun run in CT.
 375 # My admittedly uninformed guess is that the terminal has two authorities,
 376 # the French concession operators and the British civil authorities,
 377 # and that the time depends on who you're talking to.
 378 # If, say, the British police were called to the station for some reason,
 379 # I would expect the official police report to use GMT/BST and not CET/CEST.
 380 # This is a borderline case, but for now let's stick to GMT/BST.
 381 
 382 # From an anonymous contributor (1996-06-02):
 383 # The law governing time in Ireland is under Statutory Instrument SI 395/94,
 384 # which gives force to European Union 7th Council Directive No. 94/21/EC.
 385 # Under this directive, the Minister for Justice in Ireland makes appropriate
 386 # regulations. I spoke this morning with the Secretary of the Department of
 387 # Justice (tel +353 1 678 9711) who confirmed to me that the correct name is
 388 # "Irish Summer Time", abbreviated to "IST".
 389 #
 390 # From Paul Eggert (2017-12-07):
 391 # The 1996 anonymous contributor's goal was to determine the correct
 392 # abbreviation for summer time in Dublin and so the contributor
 393 # focused on the "IST", not on the "Irish Summer Time".  Though the
 394 # "IST" was correct, the "Irish Summer Time" appears to have been an
 395 # error, as Ireland's Standard Time (Amendment) Act, 1971 states that
 396 # standard time in Ireland remains at UT +01 and is observed in
 397 # summer, and that Greenwich mean time is observed in winter.  (Thanks
 398 # to Derick Rethans for pointing out the error.)  That is, when
 399 # Ireland amended the 1968 act that established UT +01 as Irish
 400 # Standard Time, it left standard time unchanged and established GMT
 401 # as a negative daylight saving time in winter.  So, in this database
 402 # IST stands for Irish Summer Time for timestamps before 1968, and for
 403 # Irish Standard Time after that.  See:
 404 # http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1971/act/17/enacted/en/print
 405 
 406 # Michael Deckers (2017-06-01) gave the following URLs for Ireland's
 407 # Summer Time Act, 1925 and Summer Time Orders, 1926 and 1947:
 408 # http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1925/act/8/enacted/en/print
 409 # http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1926/sro/919/made/en/print
 410 # http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1947/sro/71/made/en/print
 411 
 412 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 413 # Summer Time Act, 1916
 414 Rule    GB-Eire 1916    only    -       May     21      2:00s   1:00    BST
 415 Rule    GB-Eire 1916    only    -       Oct      1      2:00s   0       GMT
 416 # S.R.&O. 1917, No. 358
 417 Rule    GB-Eire 1917    only    -       Apr      8      2:00s   1:00    BST
 418 Rule    GB-Eire 1917    only    -       Sep     17      2:00s   0       GMT
 419 # S.R.&O. 1918, No. 274
 420 Rule    GB-Eire 1918    only    -       Mar     24      2:00s   1:00    BST
 421 Rule    GB-Eire 1918    only    -       Sep     30      2:00s   0       GMT
 422 # S.R.&O. 1919, No. 297
 423 Rule    GB-Eire 1919    only    -       Mar     30      2:00s   1:00    BST
 424 Rule    GB-Eire 1919    only    -       Sep     29      2:00s   0       GMT
 425 # S.R.&O. 1920, No. 458
 426 Rule    GB-Eire 1920    only    -       Mar     28      2:00s   1:00    BST
 427 # S.R.&O. 1920, No. 1844
 428 Rule    GB-Eire 1920    only    -       Oct     25      2:00s   0       GMT
 429 # S.R.&O. 1921, No. 363
 430 Rule    GB-Eire 1921    only    -       Apr      3      2:00s   1:00    BST
 431 Rule    GB-Eire 1921    only    -       Oct      3      2:00s   0       GMT
 432 # S.R.&O. 1922, No. 264
 433 Rule    GB-Eire 1922    only    -       Mar     26      2:00s   1:00    BST
 434 Rule    GB-Eire 1922    only    -       Oct      8      2:00s   0       GMT
 435 # The Summer Time Act, 1922
 436 Rule    GB-Eire 1923    only    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 437 Rule    GB-Eire 1923    1924    -       Sep     Sun>=16      2:00s   0       GMT
 438 Rule    GB-Eire 1924    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 439 Rule    GB-Eire 1925    1926    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 440 # The Summer Time Act, 1925
 441 Rule    GB-Eire 1925    1938    -       Oct     Sun>=2       2:00s   0       GMT
 442 Rule    GB-Eire 1927    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 443 Rule    GB-Eire 1928    1929    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 444 Rule    GB-Eire 1930    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 445 Rule    GB-Eire 1931    1932    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 446 Rule    GB-Eire 1933    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 447 Rule    GB-Eire 1934    only    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 448 Rule    GB-Eire 1935    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 449 Rule    GB-Eire 1936    1937    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 450 Rule    GB-Eire 1938    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 451 Rule    GB-Eire 1939    only    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 452 # S.R.&O. 1939, No. 1379
 453 Rule    GB-Eire 1939    only    -       Nov     Sun>=16      2:00s   0       GMT
 454 # S.R.&O. 1940, No. 172 and No. 1883
 455 Rule    GB-Eire 1940    only    -       Feb     Sun>=23      2:00s   1:00    BST
 456 # S.R.&O. 1941, No. 476
 457 Rule    GB-Eire 1941    only    -       May     Sun>=2       1:00s   2:00    BDST
 458 Rule    GB-Eire 1941    1943    -       Aug     Sun>=9       1:00s   1:00    BST
 459 # S.R.&O. 1942, No. 506
 460 Rule    GB-Eire 1942    1944    -       Apr     Sun>=2       1:00s   2:00    BDST
 461 # S.R.&O. 1944, No. 932
 462 Rule    GB-Eire 1944    only    -       Sep     Sun>=16      1:00s   1:00    BST
 463 # S.R.&O. 1945, No. 312
 464 Rule    GB-Eire 1945    only    -       Apr     Mon>=2       1:00s   2:00    BDST
 465 Rule    GB-Eire 1945    only    -       Jul     Sun>=9       1:00s   1:00    BST
 466 # S.R.&O. 1945, No. 1208
 467 Rule    GB-Eire 1945    1946    -       Oct     Sun>=2       2:00s   0       GMT
 468 Rule    GB-Eire 1946    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 469 # The Summer Time Act, 1947
 470 Rule    GB-Eire 1947    only    -       Mar     16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 471 Rule    GB-Eire 1947    only    -       Apr     13      1:00s   2:00    BDST
 472 Rule    GB-Eire 1947    only    -       Aug     10      1:00s   1:00    BST
 473 Rule    GB-Eire 1947    only    -       Nov      2      2:00s   0       GMT
 474 # Summer Time Order, 1948 (S.I. 1948/495)
 475 Rule    GB-Eire 1948    only    -       Mar     14      2:00s   1:00    BST
 476 Rule    GB-Eire 1948    only    -       Oct     31      2:00s   0       GMT
 477 # Summer Time Order, 1949 (S.I. 1949/373)
 478 Rule    GB-Eire 1949    only    -       Apr      3      2:00s   1:00    BST
 479 Rule    GB-Eire 1949    only    -       Oct     30      2:00s   0       GMT
 480 # Summer Time Order, 1950 (S.I. 1950/518)
 481 # Summer Time Order, 1951 (S.I. 1951/430)
 482 # Summer Time Order, 1952 (S.I. 1952/451)
 483 Rule    GB-Eire 1950    1952    -       Apr     Sun>=14      2:00s   1:00    BST
 484 Rule    GB-Eire 1950    1952    -       Oct     Sun>=21      2:00s   0       GMT
 485 # revert to the rules of the Summer Time Act, 1925
 486 Rule    GB-Eire 1953    only    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 487 Rule    GB-Eire 1953    1960    -       Oct     Sun>=2       2:00s   0       GMT
 488 Rule    GB-Eire 1954    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 489 Rule    GB-Eire 1955    1956    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 490 Rule    GB-Eire 1957    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 491 Rule    GB-Eire 1958    1959    -       Apr     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 492 Rule    GB-Eire 1960    only    -       Apr     Sun>=9       2:00s   1:00    BST
 493 # Summer Time Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/71)
 494 # Summer Time (1962) Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/2465)
 495 # Summer Time Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/81)
 496 Rule    GB-Eire 1961    1963    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    BST
 497 Rule    GB-Eire 1961    1968    -       Oct     Sun>=23      2:00s   0       GMT
 498 # Summer Time (1964) Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/2101)
 499 # Summer Time Order, 1964 (S.I. 1964/1201)
 500 # Summer Time Order, 1967 (S.I. 1967/1148)
 501 Rule    GB-Eire 1964    1967    -       Mar     Sun>=19      2:00s   1:00    BST
 502 # Summer Time Order, 1968 (S.I. 1968/117)
 503 Rule    GB-Eire 1968    only    -       Feb     18      2:00s   1:00    BST
 504 # The British Standard Time Act, 1968
 505 #       (no summer time)
 506 # The Summer Time Act, 1972
 507 Rule    GB-Eire 1972    1980    -       Mar     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 508 Rule    GB-Eire 1972    1980    -       Oct     Sun>=23      2:00s   0       GMT
 509 # Summer Time Order, 1980 (S.I. 1980/1089)
 510 # Summer Time Order, 1982 (S.I. 1982/1673)
 511 # Summer Time Order, 1986 (S.I. 1986/223)
 512 # Summer Time Order, 1988 (S.I. 1988/931)
 513 Rule    GB-Eire 1981    1995    -       Mar     lastSun 1:00u   1:00    BST
 514 Rule    GB-Eire 1981    1989    -       Oct     Sun>=23      1:00u   0       GMT
 515 # Summer Time Order, 1989 (S.I. 1989/985)
 516 # Summer Time Order, 1992 (S.I. 1992/1729)
 517 # Summer Time Order 1994 (S.I. 1994/2798)
 518 Rule    GB-Eire 1990    1995    -       Oct     Sun>=22      1:00u   0       GMT
 519 # Summer Time Order 1997 (S.I. 1997/2982)
 520 # See EU for rules starting in 1996.
 521 #
 522 # Use Europe/London for Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man.
 523 
 524 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 525 Zone    Europe/London   -0:01:15 -      LMT     1847 Dec  1  0:00s
 526                          0:00   GB-Eire %s      1968 Oct 27
 527                          1:00   -       BST     1971 Oct 31  2:00u
 528                          0:00   GB-Eire %s      1996
 529                          0:00   EU      GMT/BST
 530 Link    Europe/London   Europe/Jersey
 531 Link    Europe/London   Europe/Guernsey
 532 Link    Europe/London   Europe/Isle_of_Man
 533 
 534 # From Paul Eggert (2018-01-19):
 535 # The following is like GB-Eire and EU, except with standard time in
 536 # summer and negative daylight saving time in winter.
 537 # Although currently commented out, this will need to become uncommented
 538 # once the ICU/OpenJDK workaround is removed; see below.
 539 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 540 #Rule   Eire    1971    only    -       Oct     31       2:00u  -1:00   GMT
 541 #Rule   Eire    1972    1980    -       Mar     Sun>=16       2:00u  0       IST
 542 #Rule   Eire    1972    1980    -       Oct     Sun>=23       2:00u  -1:00   GMT
 543 #Rule   Eire    1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  1:00u  0       IST
 544 #Rule   Eire    1981    1989    -       Oct     Sun>=23       1:00u  -1:00   GMT
 545 #Rule   Eire    1990    1995    -       Oct     Sun>=22       1:00u  -1:00   GMT
 546 #Rule   Eire    1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  1:00u  -1:00   GMT
 547 
 548 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 549 Zone    Europe/Dublin   -0:25:00 -      LMT     1880 Aug  2
 550                         -0:25:21 -      DMT     1916 May 21  2:00s
 551                         -0:25:21 1:00   IST     1916 Oct  1  2:00s
 552                          0:00   GB-Eire %s      1921 Dec  6 # independence
 553                          0:00   GB-Eire GMT/IST 1940 Feb 25  2:00s
 554                          0:00   1:00    IST     1946 Oct  6  2:00s
 555                          0:00   -       GMT     1947 Mar 16  2:00s
 556                          0:00   1:00    IST     1947 Nov  2  2:00s
 557                          0:00   -       GMT     1948 Apr 18  2:00s
 558                          0:00   GB-Eire GMT/IST 1968 Oct 27
 559 # From Paul Eggert (2018-01-18):
 560 # The next line should look like this:
 561 #                        1:00   Eire    IST/GMT
 562 # However, in January 2018 we discovered that the Eire rules cause
 563 # problems with tests for ICU:
 564 # https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2018-January/025825.html
 565 # and with tests for OpenJDK:
 566 # https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2018-January/025822.html
 567 # To work around this problem, use a traditional approximation for
 568 # time stamps after 1971-10-31 02:00 UTC, to give ICU and OpenJDK
 569 # developers breathing room to fix bugs.  This approximation has
 570 # correct UTC offsets, but results in tm_isdst flags are the reverse
 571 # of what they should be.  This workaround is temporary and should be
 572 # removed reasonably soon.
 573                          1:00   -       IST     1971 Oct 31  2:00u
 574                          0:00   GB-Eire GMT/IST 1996
 575                          0:00   EU      GMT/IST
 576 # End of workaround for ICU and OpenJDK bugs.
 577 
 578 
 579 ###############################################################################
 580 
 581 # Europe
 582 
 583 # The following rules are for the European Union and for its
 584 # predecessor organization, the European Communities.
 585 # For brevity they are called "EU rules" elsewhere in this file.
 586 
 587 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 588 Rule    EU      1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1        1:00u  1:00    S
 589 Rule    EU      1977    only    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
 590 Rule    EU      1978    only    -       Oct      1       1:00u  0       -
 591 Rule    EU      1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
 592 Rule    EU      1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  1:00u  1:00    S
 593 Rule    EU      1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
 594 # The most recent directive covers the years starting in 2002.  See:
 595 # Directive 2000/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
 596 # of 19 January 2001 on summer-time arrangements.
 597 # http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32000L0084:EN:NOT
 598 
 599 # W-Eur differs from EU only in that W-Eur uses standard time.
 600 Rule    W-Eur   1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1        1:00s  1:00    S
 601 Rule    W-Eur   1977    only    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00s  0       -
 602 Rule    W-Eur   1978    only    -       Oct      1       1:00s  0       -
 603 Rule    W-Eur   1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00s  0       -
 604 Rule    W-Eur   1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  1:00s  1:00    S
 605 Rule    W-Eur   1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  1:00s  0       -
 606 
 607 # Older C-Eur rules are for convenience in the tables.
 608 # From 1977 on, C-Eur differs from EU only in that C-Eur uses standard time.
 609 Rule    C-Eur   1916    only    -       Apr     30      23:00   1:00    S
 610 Rule    C-Eur   1916    only    -       Oct      1       1:00   0       -
 611 Rule    C-Eur   1917    1918    -       Apr     Mon>=15       2:00s  1:00    S
 612 Rule    C-Eur   1917    1918    -       Sep     Mon>=15       2:00s  0       -
 613 Rule    C-Eur   1940    only    -       Apr      1       2:00s  1:00    S
 614 Rule    C-Eur   1942    only    -       Nov      2       2:00s  0       -
 615 Rule    C-Eur   1943    only    -       Mar     29       2:00s  1:00    S
 616 Rule    C-Eur   1943    only    -       Oct      4       2:00s  0       -
 617 Rule    C-Eur   1944    1945    -       Apr     Mon>=1        2:00s  1:00    S
 618 # Whitman gives 1944 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
 619 Rule    C-Eur   1944    only    -       Oct      2       2:00s  0       -
 620 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2008-07-13):
 621 #
 622 # I found what is probably a typo of 2:00 which should perhaps be 2:00s
 623 # in the C-Eur rule from tz database version 2008d (this part was
 624 # corrected in version 2008d). The circumstantial evidence is simply the
 625 # tz database itself, as seen below:
 626 #
 627 # Zone Europe/Paris 0:09:21 - LMT 1891 Mar 15  0:01
 628 #    0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16  3:00
 629 #
 630 # Zone Europe/Monaco 0:29:32 - LMT 1891 Mar 15
 631 #    0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16  3:00
 632 #
 633 # Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884
 634 #    1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16  2:00s
 635 #
 636 # Rule France 1945 only - Sep 16  3:00 0 -
 637 # Rule Belgium 1945 only - Sep 16  2:00s 0 -
 638 # Rule Neth 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
 639 #
 640 # The rule line to be changed is:
 641 #
 642 # Rule C-Eur 1945 only - Sep 16  2:00 0 -
 643 #
 644 # It seems that Paris, Monaco, Rule France, Rule Belgium all agree on
 645 # 2:00 standard time, e.g. 3:00 local time.  However there are no
 646 # countries that use C-Eur rules in September 1945, so the only items
 647 # affected are apparently these fictitious zones that translate acronyms
 648 # CET and MET:
 649 #
 650 # Zone CET  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT
 651 # Zone MET  1:00 C-Eur ME%sT
 652 #
 653 # It this is right then the corrected version would look like:
 654 #
 655 # Rule C-Eur 1945 only - Sep 16  2:00s 0 -
 656 #
 657 # A small step for mankind though 8-)
 658 Rule    C-Eur   1945    only    -       Sep     16       2:00s  0       -
 659 Rule    C-Eur   1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1        2:00s  1:00    S
 660 Rule    C-Eur   1977    only    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 661 Rule    C-Eur   1978    only    -       Oct      1       2:00s  0       -
 662 Rule    C-Eur   1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 663 Rule    C-Eur   1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
 664 Rule    C-Eur   1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 665 
 666 # E-Eur differs from EU only in that E-Eur switches at midnight local time.
 667 Rule    E-Eur   1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1        0:00   1:00    S
 668 Rule    E-Eur   1977    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       -
 669 Rule    E-Eur   1978    only    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       -
 670 Rule    E-Eur   1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       -
 671 Rule    E-Eur   1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  0:00   1:00    S
 672 Rule    E-Eur   1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  0:00   0       -
 673 
 674 
 675 # Daylight saving time for Russia and the Soviet Union
 676 #
 677 # The 1917-1921 decree URLs are from Alexander Belopolsky (2016-08-23).
 678 
 679 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 680 Rule    Russia  1917    only    -       Jul      1      23:00   1:00    MST  # Moscow Summer Time
 681 #
 682 # Decree No. 142 (1917-12-22) http://istmat.info/node/28137
 683 Rule    Russia  1917    only    -       Dec     28       0:00   0       MMT  # Moscow Mean Time
 684 #
 685 # Decree No. 497 (1918-05-30) http://istmat.info/node/30001
 686 Rule    Russia  1918    only    -       May     31      22:00   2:00    MDST # Moscow Double Summer Time
 687 Rule    Russia  1918    only    -       Sep     16       1:00   1:00    MST
 688 #
 689 # Decree No. 258 (1919-05-29) http://istmat.info/node/37949
 690 Rule    Russia  1919    only    -       May     31      23:00   2:00    MDST
 691 #
 692 Rule    Russia  1919    only    -       Jul      1       0:00u  1:00    MSD
 693 Rule    Russia  1919    only    -       Aug     16       0:00   0       MSK
 694 #
 695 # Decree No. 63 (1921-02-03) http://istmat.info/node/45840
 696 Rule    Russia  1921    only    -       Feb     14      23:00   1:00    MSD
 697 #
 698 # Decree No. 121 (1921-03-07) http://istmat.info/node/45949
 699 Rule    Russia  1921    only    -       Mar     20      23:00   2:00    +05
 700 #
 701 Rule    Russia  1921    only    -       Sep      1       0:00   1:00    MSD
 702 Rule    Russia  1921    only    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       -
 703 # Act No. 925 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1980-10-24):
 704 Rule    Russia  1981    1984    -       Apr      1       0:00   1:00    S
 705 Rule    Russia  1981    1983    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       -
 706 # Act No. 967 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1984-09-13), repeated in
 707 # Act No. 227 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1989-03-14):
 708 Rule    Russia  1984    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 709 Rule    Russia  1985    2010    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
 710 #
 711 Rule    Russia  1996    2010    -       Oct     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 712 # As described below, Russia's 2014 change affects Zone data, not Rule data.
 713 
 714 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07):
 715 # Wikipedia and other sources refer to the Act of the Council of
 716 # Ministers of the USSR from 1988-01-04 No. 5 and the Act of the
 717 # Council of Ministers of the USSR from 1989-03-14 No. 227.
 718 #
 719 # I did not find full texts of these acts.  For the 1989 one we have
 720 # title at https://base.garant.ru/70754136/ :
 721 # "About change in calculation of time on the territories of
 722 # Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR and Estonian SSR, Astrakhan,
 723 # Kaliningrad, Kirov, Kuybyshev, Ulyanovsk and Uralsk oblasts".
 724 # And http://astrozet.net/files/Zones/DOC/RU/1980-925.txt appears to
 725 # contain quotes from both acts: Since last Sunday of March 1988 rules
 726 # of the second time belt are installed in Volgograd and Saratov
 727 # oblasts.  Since last Sunday of March 1989:
 728 # a) Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR, Estonian SSR, Kaliningrad oblast:
 729 # second time belt rules without extra hour (Moscow-1);
 730 # b) Astrakhan, Kirov, Kuybyshev, Ulyanovsk oblasts: second time belt
 731 # rules (Moscow time)
 732 # c) Uralsk oblast: third time belt rules (Moscow+1).
 733 
 734 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-27):
 735 # Unamended version of the act of the
 736 # Government of the Russian Federation No. 23 from 08.01.1992
 737 # http://pravo.gov.ru/proxy/ips/?docbody=&nd=102014034&rdk=0
 738 # says that every year clocks were to be moved forward on last Sunday
 739 # of March at 2 hours and moved backwards on last Sunday of September
 740 # at 3 hours.  It was amended in 1996 to replace September with October.
 741 
 742 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-06-14):
 743 # According to Kremlin press service, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev
 744 # signed a federal law "On calculation of time" on June 9, 2011.
 745 # According to the law Russia is abolishing daylight saving time.
 746 #
 747 # Medvedev signed a law "On the Calculation of Time" (in russian):
 748 # http://bmockbe.ru/events/?ID=7583
 749 #
 750 # Medvedev signed a law on the calculation of the time (in russian):
 751 # https://www.regnum.ru/news/polit/1413906.html
 752 
 753 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15):
 754 # Take "abolishing daylight saving time" to mean that time is now considered
 755 # to be standard.
 756 
 757 # These are for backward compatibility with older versions.
 758 
 759 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 760 Zone    WET             0:00    EU      WE%sT
 761 Zone    CET             1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT
 762 Zone    MET             1:00    C-Eur   ME%sT
 763 Zone    EET             2:00    EU      EE%sT
 764 
 765 # Previous editions of this database used abbreviations like MET DST
 766 # for Central European Summer Time, but this didn't agree with common usage.
 767 
 768 # From Markus Kuhn (1996-07-12):
 769 # The official German names ... are
 770 #
 771 #       Mitteleuropäische Zeit (MEZ)         = UTC+01:00
 772 #       Mitteleuropäische Sommerzeit (MESZ)  = UTC+02:00
 773 #
 774 # as defined in the German Time Act (Gesetz über die Zeitbestimmung (ZeitG),
 775 # 1978-07-25, Bundesgesetzblatt, Jahrgang 1978, Teil I, S. 1110-1111)....
 776 # I wrote ... to the German Federal Physical-Technical Institution
 777 #
 778 #       Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)
 779 #       Laboratorium 4.41 "Zeiteinheit"
 780 #       Postfach 3345
 781 #       D-38023 Braunschweig
 782 #       phone: +49 531 592-0
 783 #
 784 # ... I received today an answer letter from Dr. Peter Hetzel, head of the PTB
 785 # department for time and frequency transmission.  He explained that the
 786 # PTB translates MEZ and MESZ into English as
 787 #
 788 #       Central European Time (CET)         = UTC+01:00
 789 #       Central European Summer Time (CEST) = UTC+02:00
 790 
 791 
 792 # Albania
 793 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 794 Rule    Albania 1940    only    -       Jun     16      0:00    1:00    S
 795 Rule    Albania 1942    only    -       Nov      2      3:00    0       -
 796 Rule    Albania 1943    only    -       Mar     29      2:00    1:00    S
 797 Rule    Albania 1943    only    -       Apr     10      3:00    0       -
 798 Rule    Albania 1974    only    -       May      4      0:00    1:00    S
 799 Rule    Albania 1974    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       -
 800 Rule    Albania 1975    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S
 801 Rule    Albania 1975    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       -
 802 Rule    Albania 1976    only    -       May      2      0:00    1:00    S
 803 Rule    Albania 1976    only    -       Oct      3      0:00    0       -
 804 Rule    Albania 1977    only    -       May      8      0:00    1:00    S
 805 Rule    Albania 1977    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       -
 806 Rule    Albania 1978    only    -       May      6      0:00    1:00    S
 807 Rule    Albania 1978    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
 808 Rule    Albania 1979    only    -       May      5      0:00    1:00    S
 809 Rule    Albania 1979    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       -
 810 Rule    Albania 1980    only    -       May      3      0:00    1:00    S
 811 Rule    Albania 1980    only    -       Oct      4      0:00    0       -
 812 Rule    Albania 1981    only    -       Apr     26      0:00    1:00    S
 813 Rule    Albania 1981    only    -       Sep     27      0:00    0       -
 814 Rule    Albania 1982    only    -       May      2      0:00    1:00    S
 815 Rule    Albania 1982    only    -       Oct      3      0:00    0       -
 816 Rule    Albania 1983    only    -       Apr     18      0:00    1:00    S
 817 Rule    Albania 1983    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
 818 Rule    Albania 1984    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
 819 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 820 Zone    Europe/Tirane   1:19:20 -       LMT     1914
 821                         1:00    -       CET     1940 Jun 16
 822                         1:00    Albania CE%sT   1984 Jul
 823                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
 824 
 825 # Andorra
 826 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 827 Zone    Europe/Andorra  0:06:04 -       LMT     1901
 828                         0:00    -       WET     1946 Sep 30
 829                         1:00    -       CET     1985 Mar 31  2:00
 830                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
 831 
 832 # Austria
 833 
 834 # Milne says Vienna time was 1:05:21.
 835 
 836 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): Shanks & Pottenger give 1918-06-16 and
 837 # 1945-11-18, but the Austrian Federal Office of Metrology and
 838 # Surveying (BEV) gives 1918-09-16 and for Vienna gives the "alleged"
 839 # date of 1945-04-12 with no time.  For the 1980-04-06 transition
 840 # Shanks & Pottenger give 02:00, the BEV 00:00.  Go with the BEV,
 841 # and guess 02:00 for 1945-04-12.
 842 
 843 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 844 Rule    Austria 1920    only    -       Apr      5      2:00s   1:00    S
 845 Rule    Austria 1920    only    -       Sep     13      2:00s   0       -
 846 Rule    Austria 1946    only    -       Apr     14      2:00s   1:00    S
 847 Rule    Austria 1946    1948    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 848 Rule    Austria 1947    only    -       Apr      6      2:00s   1:00    S
 849 Rule    Austria 1948    only    -       Apr     18      2:00s   1:00    S
 850 Rule    Austria 1980    only    -       Apr      6      0:00    1:00    S
 851 Rule    Austria 1980    only    -       Sep     28      0:00    0       -
 852 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 853 Zone    Europe/Vienna   1:05:21 -       LMT     1893 Apr
 854                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1920
 855                         1:00    Austria CE%sT   1940 Apr  1  2:00s
 856                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00s
 857                         1:00    1:00    CEST    1945 Apr 12  2:00s
 858                         1:00    -       CET     1946
 859                         1:00    Austria CE%sT   1981
 860                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
 861 
 862 # Belarus
 863 #
 864 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-07-02):
 865 # http://www.lawbelarus.com/repub/sub30/texf9611.htm
 866 # (Act of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus from
 867 # 1992-03-25 No. 157) ... says clocks were to be moved forward at 2:00
 868 # on last Sunday of March and backward at 3:00 on last Sunday of September
 869 # (the same as previous USSR and contemporary Russian regulations).
 870 #
 871 # From Yauhen Kharuzhy (2011-09-16):
 872 # By latest Belarus government act Europe/Minsk timezone was changed to
 873 # GMT+3 without DST (was GMT+2 with DST).
 874 #
 875 # Sources (Russian language):
 876 # http://www.belta.by/ru/all_news/society/V-Belarusi-otmenjaetsja-perexod-na-sezonnoe-vremja_i_572952.html
 877 # http://naviny.by/rubrics/society/2011/09/16/ic_articles_116_175144/
 878 # https://news.tut.by/society/250578.html
 879 #
 880 # From Alexander Bokovoy (2014-10-09):
 881 # Belarussian government decided against changing to winter time....
 882 # http://eng.belta.by/all_news/society/Belarus-decides-against-adjusting-time-in-Russias-wake_i_76335.html
 883 #
 884 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 885 Zone    Europe/Minsk    1:50:16 -       LMT     1880
 886                         1:50    -       MMT     1924 May  2 # Minsk Mean Time
 887                         2:00    -       EET     1930 Jun 21
 888                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Jun 28
 889                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Jul  3
 890                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990
 891                         3:00    -       MSK     1991 Mar 31  2:00s
 892                         2:00    Russia  EE%sT   2011 Mar 27  2:00s
 893                         3:00    -       +03
 894 
 895 # Belgium
 896 #
 897 # From Paul Eggert (1997-07-02):
 898 # Entries from 1918 through 1991 are taken from:
 899 #       Annuaire de L'Observatoire Royal de Belgique,
 900 #       Avenue Circulaire, 3, B-1180 BRUXELLES, CLVIIe année, 1991
 901 #       (Imprimerie HAYEZ, s.p.r.l., Rue Fin, 4, 1080 BRUXELLES, MCMXC),
 902 #       pp 8-9.
 903 # LMT before 1892 was 0:17:30, according to the official journal of Belgium:
 904 #       Moniteur Belge, Samedi 30 Avril 1892, N.121.
 905 # Thanks to Pascal Delmoitie for these references.
 906 # The 1918 rules are listed for completeness; they apply to unoccupied Belgium.
 907 # Assume Brussels switched to WET in 1918 when the armistice took effect.
 908 #
 909 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 910 Rule    Belgium 1918    only    -       Mar      9       0:00s  1:00    S
 911 Rule    Belgium 1918    1919    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
 912 Rule    Belgium 1919    only    -       Mar      1      23:00s  1:00    S
 913 Rule    Belgium 1920    only    -       Feb     14      23:00s  1:00    S
 914 Rule    Belgium 1920    only    -       Oct     23      23:00s  0       -
 915 Rule    Belgium 1921    only    -       Mar     14      23:00s  1:00    S
 916 Rule    Belgium 1921    only    -       Oct     25      23:00s  0       -
 917 Rule    Belgium 1922    only    -       Mar     25      23:00s  1:00    S
 918 Rule    Belgium 1922    1927    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
 919 Rule    Belgium 1923    only    -       Apr     21      23:00s  1:00    S
 920 Rule    Belgium 1924    only    -       Mar     29      23:00s  1:00    S
 921 Rule    Belgium 1925    only    -       Apr      4      23:00s  1:00    S
 922 # DSH writes that a royal decree of 1926-02-22 specified the Sun following 3rd
 923 # Sat in Apr (except if it's Easter, in which case it's one Sunday earlier),
 924 # to Sun following 1st Sat in Oct, and that a royal decree of 1928-09-15
 925 # changed the transition times to 02:00 GMT.
 926 Rule    Belgium 1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00s  1:00    S
 927 Rule    Belgium 1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00s  1:00    S
 928 Rule    Belgium 1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00s  1:00    S
 929 Rule    Belgium 1928    1938    -       Oct     Sun>=2        2:00s  0       -
 930 Rule    Belgium 1929    only    -       Apr     21       2:00s  1:00    S
 931 Rule    Belgium 1930    only    -       Apr     13       2:00s  1:00    S
 932 Rule    Belgium 1931    only    -       Apr     19       2:00s  1:00    S
 933 Rule    Belgium 1932    only    -       Apr      3       2:00s  1:00    S
 934 Rule    Belgium 1933    only    -       Mar     26       2:00s  1:00    S
 935 Rule    Belgium 1934    only    -       Apr      8       2:00s  1:00    S
 936 Rule    Belgium 1935    only    -       Mar     31       2:00s  1:00    S
 937 Rule    Belgium 1936    only    -       Apr     19       2:00s  1:00    S
 938 Rule    Belgium 1937    only    -       Apr      4       2:00s  1:00    S
 939 Rule    Belgium 1938    only    -       Mar     27       2:00s  1:00    S
 940 Rule    Belgium 1939    only    -       Apr     16       2:00s  1:00    S
 941 Rule    Belgium 1939    only    -       Nov     19       2:00s  0       -
 942 Rule    Belgium 1940    only    -       Feb     25       2:00s  1:00    S
 943 Rule    Belgium 1944    only    -       Sep     17       2:00s  0       -
 944 Rule    Belgium 1945    only    -       Apr      2       2:00s  1:00    S
 945 Rule    Belgium 1945    only    -       Sep     16       2:00s  0       -
 946 Rule    Belgium 1946    only    -       May     19       2:00s  1:00    S
 947 Rule    Belgium 1946    only    -       Oct      7       2:00s  0       -
 948 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 949 Zone    Europe/Brussels 0:17:30 -       LMT     1880
 950                         0:17:30 -       BMT     1892 May  1 12:00  # Brussels MT
 951                         0:00    -       WET     1914 Nov  8
 952                         1:00    -       CET     1916 May  1  0:00
 953                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1918 Nov 11 11:00u
 954                         0:00    Belgium WE%sT   1940 May 20  2:00s
 955                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Sep  3
 956                         1:00    Belgium CE%sT   1977
 957                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
 958 
 959 # Bosnia and Herzegovina
 960 # See Europe/Belgrade.
 961 
 962 # Bulgaria
 963 #
 964 # From Plamen Simenov via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
 965 # A document of Government of Bulgaria (No. 94/1997) says:
 966 # EET -> EETDST is in 03:00 Local time in last Sunday of March ...
 967 # EETDST -> EET is in 04:00 Local time in last Sunday of October
 968 #
 969 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 970 Rule    Bulg    1979    only    -       Mar     31      23:00   1:00    S
 971 Rule    Bulg    1979    only    -       Oct      1       1:00   0       -
 972 Rule    Bulg    1980    1982    -       Apr     Sat>=1       23:00   1:00    S
 973 Rule    Bulg    1980    only    -       Sep     29       1:00   0       -
 974 Rule    Bulg    1981    only    -       Sep     27       2:00   0       -
 975 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 976 Zone    Europe/Sofia    1:33:16 -       LMT     1880
 977                         1:56:56 -       IMT     1894 Nov 30 # Istanbul MT?
 978                         2:00    -       EET     1942 Nov  2  3:00
 979                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945
 980                         1:00    -       CET     1945 Apr  2  3:00
 981                         2:00    -       EET     1979 Mar 31 23:00
 982                         2:00    Bulg    EE%sT   1982 Sep 26  3:00
 983                         2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1991
 984                         2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1997
 985                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
 986 
 987 # Croatia
 988 # See Europe/Belgrade.
 989 
 990 # Cyprus
 991 # Please see the 'asia' file for Asia/Nicosia.
 992 
 993 # Czech Republic / Czechia
 994 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 995 Rule    Czech   1945    only    -       Apr      8      2:00s   1:00    S
 996 Rule    Czech   1945    only    -       Nov     18      2:00s   0       -
 997 Rule    Czech   1946    only    -       May      6      2:00s   1:00    S
 998 Rule    Czech   1946    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 999 Rule    Czech   1947    only    -       Apr     20      2:00s   1:00    S
1000 Rule    Czech   1948    only    -       Apr     18      2:00s   1:00    S
1001 Rule    Czech   1949    only    -       Apr      9      2:00s   1:00    S
1002 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1003 Zone    Europe/Prague   0:57:44 -       LMT     1850
1004                         0:57:44 -       PMT     1891 Oct    # Prague Mean Time
1005                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Sep 17  2:00s
1006                         1:00    Czech   CE%sT   1979
1007                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1008 # Use Europe/Prague also for Slovakia.
1009 
1010 # Denmark, Faroe Islands, and Greenland
1011 
1012 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-04-26):
1013 # http://www.hum.aau.dk/~poe/tid/tine/DanskTid.htm says that the law
1014 # [introducing standard time] was in effect from 1894-01-01....
1015 # The page http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A18930008330-REGL
1016 # confirms this, and states that the law was put forth 1893-03-29.
1017 #
1018 # The EU [actually, EEC and Euratom] treaty with effect from 1973:
1019 # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19722110030-REGL
1020 #
1021 # This provoked a new law from 1974 to make possible summer time changes
1022 # in subsequent decrees with the law
1023 # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19740022330-REGL
1024 #
1025 # It seems however that no decree was set forward until 1980.  I have
1026 # not found any decree, but in another related law, the effecting DST
1027 # changes are stated explicitly to be from 1980-04-06 at 02:00 to
1028 # 1980-09-28 at 02:00.  If this is true, this differs slightly from
1029 # the EU rule in that DST runs to 02:00, not 03:00.  We don't know
1030 # when Denmark began using the EU rule correctly, but we have only
1031 # confirmation of the 1980-time, so I presume it was correct in 1981:
1032 # The law is about the management of the extra hour, concerning
1033 # working hours reported and effect on obligatory-rest rules (which
1034 # was suspended on that night):
1035 # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/C19801120554-REGL
1036 
1037 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-06-11):
1038 # The Herning Folkeblad (1980-09-26) reported that the night between
1039 # Saturday and Sunday the clock is set back from three to two.
1040 
1041 # From Paul Eggert (2005-06-11):
1042 # Hence the "02:00" of the 1980 law refers to standard time, not
1043 # wall-clock time, and so the EU rules were in effect in 1980.
1044 
1045 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1046 Rule    Denmark 1916    only    -       May     14      23:00   1:00    S
1047 Rule    Denmark 1916    only    -       Sep     30      23:00   0       -
1048 Rule    Denmark 1940    only    -       May     15       0:00   1:00    S
1049 Rule    Denmark 1945    only    -       Apr      2       2:00s  1:00    S
1050 Rule    Denmark 1945    only    -       Aug     15       2:00s  0       -
1051 Rule    Denmark 1946    only    -       May      1       2:00s  1:00    S
1052 Rule    Denmark 1946    only    -       Sep      1       2:00s  0       -
1053 Rule    Denmark 1947    only    -       May      4       2:00s  1:00    S
1054 Rule    Denmark 1947    only    -       Aug     10       2:00s  0       -
1055 Rule    Denmark 1948    only    -       May      9       2:00s  1:00    S
1056 Rule    Denmark 1948    only    -       Aug      8       2:00s  0       -
1057 #
1058 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1059 Zone Europe/Copenhagen   0:50:20 -      LMT     1890
1060                          0:50:20 -      CMT     1894 Jan  1 # Copenhagen MT
1061                          1:00   Denmark CE%sT   1942 Nov  2  2:00s
1062                          1:00   C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00
1063                          1:00   Denmark CE%sT   1980
1064                          1:00   EU      CE%sT
1065 Zone Atlantic/Faroe     -0:27:04 -      LMT     1908 Jan 11 # Tórshavn
1066                          0:00   -       WET     1981
1067                          0:00   EU      WE%sT
1068 #
1069 # From Paul Eggert (2004-10-31):
1070 # During World War II, Germany maintained secret manned weather stations in
1071 # East Greenland and Franz Josef Land, but we don't know their time zones.
1072 # My source for this is Wilhelm Dege's book mentioned under Svalbard.
1073 #
1074 # From Paul Eggert (2017-12-10):
1075 # Greenland joined the European Communities as part of Denmark,
1076 # obtained home rule on 1979-05-01, and left the European Communities
1077 # on 1985-02-01.  It therefore should have been using EU
1078 # rules at least through 1984.  Shanks & Pottenger say Scoresbysund and Godthåb
1079 # used C-Eur rules after 1980, but IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says they use EU
1080 # rules since at least 1991.  Assume EU rules since 1980.
1081 
1082 # From Gwillim Law (2001-06-06), citing
1083 # <http://www.statkart.no/efs/efshefter/2001/efs5-2001.pdf> (2001-03-15),
1084 # and with translations corrected by Steffen Thorsen:
1085 #
1086 # Greenland has four local times, and the relation to UTC
1087 # is according to the following time line:
1088 #
1089 # The military zone near Thule  UTC-4
1090 # Standard Greenland time       UTC-3
1091 # Scoresbysund                  UTC-1
1092 # Danmarkshavn                  UTC
1093 #
1094 # In the military area near Thule and in Danmarkshavn DST will not be
1095 # introduced.
1096 
1097 # From Rives McDow (2001-11-01):
1098 #
1099 # I correspond regularly with the Dansk Polarcenter, and wrote them at
1100 # the time to clarify the situation in Thule.  Unfortunately, I have
1101 # not heard back from them regarding my recent letter.  [But I have
1102 # info from earlier correspondence.]
1103 #
1104 # According to the center, a very small local time zone around Thule
1105 # Air Base keeps the time according to UTC-4, implementing daylight
1106 # savings using North America rules, changing the time at 02:00 local time....
1107 #
1108 # The east coast of Greenland north of the community of Scoresbysund
1109 # uses UTC in the same way as in Iceland, year round, with no dst.
1110 # There are just a few stations on this coast, including the
1111 # Danmarkshavn ICAO weather station mentioned in your September 29th
1112 # email.  The other stations are two sledge patrol stations in
1113 # Mestersvig and Daneborg, the air force base at Station Nord, and the
1114 # DPC research station at Zackenberg.
1115 #
1116 # Scoresbysund and two small villages nearby keep time UTC-1 and use
1117 # the same daylight savings time period as in West Greenland (Godthåb).
1118 #
1119 # The rest of Greenland, including Godthåb (this area, although it
1120 # includes central Greenland, is known as west Greenland), keeps time
1121 # UTC-3, with daylight savings methods according to European rules.
1122 #
1123 # It is common procedure to use UTC 0 in the wilderness of East and
1124 # North Greenland, because it is mainly Icelandic aircraft operators
1125 # maintaining traffic in these areas.  However, the official status of
1126 # this area is that it sticks with Godthåb time.  This area might be
1127 # considered a dual time zone in some respects because of this.
1128 
1129 # From Rives McDow (2001-11-19):
1130 # I heard back from someone stationed at Thule; the time change took place
1131 # there at 2:00 AM.
1132 
1133 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1134 # From 1997 on the CIA map shows Danmarkshavn on GMT;
1135 # the 1995 map as like Godthåb.
1136 # For lack of better info, assume they were like Godthåb before 1996.
1137 # startkart.no says Thule does not observe DST, but this is clearly an error,
1138 # so go with Shanks & Pottenger for Thule transitions until this year.
1139 # For 2007 on assume Thule will stay in sync with US DST rules.
1140 
1141 # From J William Piggott (2016-02-20):
1142 # "Greenland north of the community of Scoresbysund" is officially named
1143 # "National Park" by Executive Order:
1144 # http://naalakkersuisut.gl/~/media/Nanoq/Files/Attached%20Files/Engelske-tekster/Legislation/Executive%20Order%20National%20Park.rtf
1145 # It is their only National Park.
1146 #
1147 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1148 Rule    Thule   1991    1992    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1149 Rule    Thule   1991    1992    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1150 Rule    Thule   1993    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
1151 Rule    Thule   1993    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1152 Rule    Thule   2007    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
1153 Rule    Thule   2007    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
1154 #
1155 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1156 Zone America/Danmarkshavn -1:14:40 -    LMT     1916 Jul 28
1157                         -3:00   -       -03     1980 Apr  6  2:00
1158                         -3:00   EU      -03/-02 1996
1159                         0:00    -       GMT
1160 Zone America/Scoresbysund -1:27:52 -    LMT     1916 Jul 28 # Ittoqqortoormiit
1161                         -2:00   -       -02     1980 Apr  6  2:00
1162                         -2:00   C-Eur   -02/-01 1981 Mar 29
1163                         -1:00   EU      -01/+00
1164 Zone America/Godthab    -3:26:56 -      LMT     1916 Jul 28 # Nuuk
1165                         -3:00   -       -03     1980 Apr  6  2:00
1166                         -3:00   EU      -03/-02
1167 Zone America/Thule      -4:35:08 -      LMT     1916 Jul 28 # Pituffik air base
1168                         -4:00   Thule   A%sT
1169 
1170 # Estonia
1171 #
1172 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
1173 # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
1174 #
1175 # From Peter Ilieve (1994-10-15):
1176 # A relative in Tallinn confirms the accuracy of the data for 1989 onwards
1177 # [through 1994] and gives the legal authority for it,
1178 # a regulation of the Government of Estonia, No. 111 of 1989....
1179 #
1180 # From Peter Ilieve (1996-10-28):
1181 # [IATA SSIM (1992/1996) claims that the Baltic republics switch at 01:00s,
1182 # but a relative confirms that Estonia still switches at 02:00s, writing:]
1183 # "I do not [know] exactly but there are some little different
1184 # (confusing) rules for International Air and Railway Transport Schedules
1185 # conversion in Sunday connected with end of summer time in Estonia....
1186 # A discussion is running about the summer time efficiency and effect on
1187 # human physiology.  It seems that Estonia maybe will not change to
1188 # summer time next spring."
1189 
1190 # From Peter Ilieve (1998-11-04), heavily edited:
1191 # The 1998-09-22 Estonian time law
1192 # http://trip.rk.ee/cgi-bin/thw?${BASE}=akt&${OOHTML}=rtd&TA=1998&TO=1&AN=1390
1193 # refers to the Eighth Directive and cites the association agreement between
1194 # the EU and Estonia, ratified by the Estonian law (RT II 1995, 22-27, 120).
1195 #
1196 # I also asked [my relative] whether they use any standard abbreviation
1197 # for their standard and summer times. He says no, they use "suveaeg"
1198 # (summer time) and "talveaeg" (winter time).
1199 
1200 # From The Baltic Times <https://www.baltictimes.com/> (1999-09-09)
1201 # via Steffen Thorsen:
1202 # This year will mark the last time Estonia shifts to summer time,
1203 # a council of the ruling coalition announced Sept. 6....
1204 # But what this could mean for Estonia's chances of joining the European
1205 # Union are still unclear.  In 1994, the EU declared summer time compulsory
1206 # for all member states until 2001.  Brussels has yet to decide what to do
1207 # after that.
1208 
1209 # From Mart Oruaas (2000-01-29):
1210 # Regulation No. 301 (1999-10-12) obsoletes previous regulation
1211 # No. 206 (1998-09-22) and thus sticks Estonia to +02:00 GMT for all
1212 # the year round.  The regulation is effective 1999-11-01.
1213 
1214 # From Toomas Soome (2002-02-21):
1215 # The Estonian government has changed once again timezone politics.
1216 # Now we are using again EU rules.
1217 #
1218 # From Urmet Jänes (2002-03-28):
1219 # The legislative reference is Government decree No. 84 on 2002-02-21.
1220 
1221 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1222 Zone    Europe/Tallinn  1:39:00 -       LMT     1880
1223                         1:39:00 -       TMT     1918 Feb    # Tallinn Mean Time
1224                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1919 Jul
1225                         1:39:00 -       TMT     1921 May
1226                         2:00    -       EET     1940 Aug  6
1227                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Sep 15
1228                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Sep 22
1229                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1989 Mar 26  2:00s
1230                         2:00    1:00    EEST    1989 Sep 24  2:00s
1231                         2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1998 Sep 22
1232                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   1999 Oct 31  4:00
1233                         2:00    -       EET     2002 Feb 21
1234                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
1235 
1236 # Finland
1237 
1238 # From Hannu Strang (1994-09-25 06:03:37 UTC):
1239 # Well, here in Helsinki we're just changing from summer time to regular one,
1240 # and it's supposed to change at 4am...
1241 
1242 # From Janne Snabb (2010-07-15):
1243 #
1244 # I noticed that the Finland data is not accurate for years 1981 and 1982.
1245 # During these two first trial years the DST adjustment was made one hour
1246 # earlier than in forthcoming years. Starting 1983 the adjustment was made
1247 # according to the central European standards.
1248 #
1249 # This is documented in Heikki Oja: Aikakirja 2007, published by The Almanac
1250 # Office of University of Helsinki, ISBN 952-10-3221-9, available online (in
1251 # Finnish) at
1252 # https://almanakka.helsinki.fi/aikakirja/Aikakirja2007kokonaan.pdf
1253 #
1254 # Page 105 (56 in PDF version) has a handy table of all past daylight savings
1255 # transitions. It is easy enough to interpret without Finnish skills.
1256 #
1257 # This is also confirmed by Finnish Broadcasting Company's archive at:
1258 # http://www.yle.fi/elavaarkisto/?s=s&g=1&ag=5&t=&a=3401
1259 #
1260 # The news clip from 1981 says that "the time between 2 and 3 o'clock does not
1261 # exist tonight."
1262 
1263 # From Konstantin Hyppönen (2014-06-13):
1264 # [Heikki Oja's book Aikakirja 2013]
1265 # https://almanakka.helsinki.fi/images/aikakirja/Aikakirja2013kokonaan.pdf
1266 # pages 104-105, including a scan from a newspaper published on Apr 2 1942
1267 # say that ... [o]n Apr 2 1942, 24 o'clock (which means Apr 3 1942,
1268 # 00:00), clocks were moved one hour forward. The newspaper
1269 # mentions "on the night from Thursday to Friday"....
1270 # On Oct 4 1942, clocks were moved at 1:00 one hour backwards.
1271 #
1272 # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-14):
1273 # Go with Oja over Shanks.
1274 
1275 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1276 Rule    Finland 1942    only    -       Apr     2       24:00   1:00    S
1277 Rule    Finland 1942    only    -       Oct     4       1:00    0       -
1278 Rule    Finland 1981    1982    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    S
1279 Rule    Finland 1981    1982    -       Sep     lastSun 3:00    0       -
1280 
1281 # Milne says Helsinki (Helsingfors) time was 1:39:49.2 (official document);
1282 # round to nearest.
1283 
1284 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1285 Zone    Europe/Helsinki 1:39:49 -       LMT     1878 May 31
1286                         1:39:49 -       HMT     1921 May    # Helsinki Mean Time
1287                         2:00    Finland EE%sT   1983
1288                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
1289 
1290 # Åland Is
1291 Link    Europe/Helsinki Europe/Mariehamn
1292 
1293 
1294 # France
1295 
1296 # From Ciro Discepolo (2000-12-20):
1297 #
1298 # Henri Le Corre, Régimes horaires pour le monde entier, Éditions
1299 # Traditionnelles - Paris 2 books, 1993
1300 #
1301 # Gabriel, Traité de l'heure dans le monde, Guy Trédaniel,
1302 # Paris, 1991
1303 #
1304 # Françoise Gauquelin, Problèmes de l'heure résolus en astrologie,
1305 # Guy Trédaniel, Paris 1987
1306 
1307 
1308 #
1309 # Shank & Pottenger seem to use '24:00' ambiguously; resolve it with Whitman.
1310 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1311 Rule    France  1916    only    -       Jun     14      23:00s  1:00    S
1312 Rule    France  1916    1919    -       Oct     Sun>=1       23:00s  0       -
1313 Rule    France  1917    only    -       Mar     24      23:00s  1:00    S
1314 Rule    France  1918    only    -       Mar      9      23:00s  1:00    S
1315 Rule    France  1919    only    -       Mar      1      23:00s  1:00    S
1316 Rule    France  1920    only    -       Feb     14      23:00s  1:00    S
1317 Rule    France  1920    only    -       Oct     23      23:00s  0       -
1318 Rule    France  1921    only    -       Mar     14      23:00s  1:00    S
1319 Rule    France  1921    only    -       Oct     25      23:00s  0       -
1320 Rule    France  1922    only    -       Mar     25      23:00s  1:00    S
1321 # DSH writes that a law of 1923-05-24 specified 3rd Sat in Apr at 23:00 to 1st
1322 # Sat in Oct at 24:00; and that in 1930, because of Easter, the transitions
1323 # were Apr 12 and Oct 5.  Go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1324 Rule    France  1922    1938    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
1325 Rule    France  1923    only    -       May     26      23:00s  1:00    S
1326 Rule    France  1924    only    -       Mar     29      23:00s  1:00    S
1327 Rule    France  1925    only    -       Apr      4      23:00s  1:00    S
1328 Rule    France  1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00s  1:00    S
1329 Rule    France  1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00s  1:00    S
1330 Rule    France  1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00s  1:00    S
1331 Rule    France  1929    only    -       Apr     20      23:00s  1:00    S
1332 Rule    France  1930    only    -       Apr     12      23:00s  1:00    S
1333 Rule    France  1931    only    -       Apr     18      23:00s  1:00    S
1334 Rule    France  1932    only    -       Apr      2      23:00s  1:00    S
1335 Rule    France  1933    only    -       Mar     25      23:00s  1:00    S
1336 Rule    France  1934    only    -       Apr      7      23:00s  1:00    S
1337 Rule    France  1935    only    -       Mar     30      23:00s  1:00    S
1338 Rule    France  1936    only    -       Apr     18      23:00s  1:00    S
1339 Rule    France  1937    only    -       Apr      3      23:00s  1:00    S
1340 Rule    France  1938    only    -       Mar     26      23:00s  1:00    S
1341 Rule    France  1939    only    -       Apr     15      23:00s  1:00    S
1342 Rule    France  1939    only    -       Nov     18      23:00s  0       -
1343 Rule    France  1940    only    -       Feb     25       2:00   1:00    S
1344 # The French rules for 1941-1944 were not used in Paris, but Shanks & Pottenger
1345 # write that they were used in Monaco and in many French locations.
1346 # Le Corre writes that the upper limit of the free zone was Arnéguy, Orthez,
1347 # Mont-de-Marsan, Bazas, Langon, Lamothe-Montravel, Marœuil, La
1348 # Rochefoucauld, Champagne-Mouton, La Roche-Posay, La Haye-Descartes,
1349 # Loches, Montrichard, Vierzon, Bourges, Moulins, Digoin,
1350 # Paray-le-Monial, Montceau-les-Mines, Chalon-sur-Saône, Arbois,
1351 # Dole, Morez, St-Claude, and Collonges (Haute-Savoie).
1352 Rule    France  1941    only    -       May      5       0:00   2:00    M # Midsummer
1353 # Shanks & Pottenger say this transition occurred at Oct 6 1:00,
1354 # but go with Denis Excoffier (1997-12-12),
1355 # who quotes the Ephémérides astronomiques for 1998 from Bureau des Longitudes
1356 # as saying 5/10/41 22hUT.
1357 Rule    France  1941    only    -       Oct      6       0:00   1:00    S
1358 Rule    France  1942    only    -       Mar      9       0:00   2:00    M
1359 Rule    France  1942    only    -       Nov      2       3:00   1:00    S
1360 Rule    France  1943    only    -       Mar     29       2:00   2:00    M
1361 Rule    France  1943    only    -       Oct      4       3:00   1:00    S
1362 Rule    France  1944    only    -       Apr      3       2:00   2:00    M
1363 Rule    France  1944    only    -       Oct      8       1:00   1:00    S
1364 Rule    France  1945    only    -       Apr      2       2:00   2:00    M
1365 Rule    France  1945    only    -       Sep     16       3:00   0       -
1366 # Shanks & Pottenger give Mar 28 2:00 and Sep 26 3:00;
1367 # go with Excoffier's 28/3/76 0hUT and 25/9/76 23hUT.
1368 Rule    France  1976    only    -       Mar     28       1:00   1:00    S
1369 Rule    France  1976    only    -       Sep     26       1:00   0       -
1370 # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time, and Whitman 0:09:05,
1371 # but Howse quotes the actual French legislation as saying 0:09:21.
1372 # Go with Howse.  Howse writes that the time in France was officially based
1373 # on PMT-0:09:21 until 1978-08-09, when the time base finally switched to UTC.
1374 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1375 Zone    Europe/Paris    0:09:21 -       LMT     1891 Mar 15  0:01
1376                         0:09:21 -       PMT     1911 Mar 11  0:01 # Paris MT
1377 # Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Jun 14 0:00; go with Excoffier and Le Corre.
1378                         0:00    France  WE%sT   1940 Jun 14 23:00
1379 # Le Corre says Paris stuck with occupied-France time after the liberation;
1380 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1381                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Aug 25
1382                         0:00    France  WE%sT   1945 Sep 16  3:00
1383                         1:00    France  CE%sT   1977
1384                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1385 
1386 # Germany
1387 
1388 # From Markus Kuhn (1998-09-29):
1389 # The German time zone web site by the Physikalisch-Technische
1390 # Bundesanstalt contains DST information back to 1916.
1391 # [See tz-link.html for the URL.]
1392 
1393 # From Jörg Schilling (2002-10-23):
1394 # In 1945, Berlin was switched to Moscow Summer time (GMT+4) by
1395 # https://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/biografien/BersarinNikolai/
1396 # General [Nikolai] Bersarin.
1397 
1398 # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-08):
1399 # http://www.parlament-berlin.de/pds-fraktion.nsf/727459127c8b66ee8525662300459099/defc77cb784f180ac1256c2b0030274b/$FILE/bersarint.pdf
1400 # says that Bersarin issued an order to use Moscow time on May 20.
1401 # However, Moscow did not observe daylight saving in 1945, so
1402 # this was equivalent to UT +03, not +04.
1403 
1404 
1405 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1406 Rule    Germany 1946    only    -       Apr     14      2:00s   1:00    S
1407 Rule    Germany 1946    only    -       Oct      7      2:00s   0       -
1408 Rule    Germany 1947    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
1409 # http://www.ptb.de/de/org/4/44/441/salt.htm says the following transition
1410 # occurred at 3:00 MEZ, not the 2:00 MEZ given in Shanks & Pottenger.
1411 # Go with the PTB.
1412 Rule    Germany 1947    only    -       Apr      6      3:00s   1:00    S
1413 Rule    Germany 1947    only    -       May     11      2:00s   2:00    M
1414 Rule    Germany 1947    only    -       Jun     29      3:00    1:00    S
1415 Rule    Germany 1948    only    -       Apr     18      2:00s   1:00    S
1416 Rule    Germany 1949    only    -       Apr     10      2:00s   1:00    S
1417 
1418 Rule SovietZone 1945    only    -       May     24      2:00    2:00    M # Midsummer
1419 Rule SovietZone 1945    only    -       Sep     24      3:00    1:00    S
1420 Rule SovietZone 1945    only    -       Nov     18      2:00s   0       -
1421 
1422 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1423 Zone    Europe/Berlin   0:53:28 -       LMT     1893 Apr
1424                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 May 24  2:00
1425                         1:00 SovietZone CE%sT   1946
1426                         1:00    Germany CE%sT   1980
1427                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1428 
1429 # From Tobias Conradi (2011-09-12):
1430 # Büsingen <http://www.buesingen.de>, surrounded by the Swiss canton
1431 # Schaffhausen, did not start observing DST in 1980 as the rest of DE
1432 # (West Germany at that time) and DD (East Germany at that time) did.
1433 # DD merged into DE, the area is currently covered by code DE in ISO 3166-1,
1434 # which in turn is covered by the zone Europe/Berlin.
1435 #
1436 # Source for the time in Büsingen 1980:
1437 # http://www.srf.ch/player/video?id=c012c029-03b7-4c2b-9164-aa5902cd58d3
1438 
1439 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-03):
1440 # Büsingen and Zurich have shared clocks since 1970.
1441 
1442 Link    Europe/Zurich   Europe/Busingen
1443 
1444 # Georgia
1445 # Please see the "asia" file for Asia/Tbilisi.
1446 # Herodotus (Histories, IV.45) says Georgia north of the Phasis (now Rioni)
1447 # is in Europe.  Our reference location Tbilisi is in the Asian part.
1448 
1449 # Gibraltar
1450 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1451 Zone Europe/Gibraltar   -0:21:24 -      LMT     1880 Aug  2  0:00s
1452                         0:00    GB-Eire %s      1957 Apr 14  2:00
1453                         1:00    -       CET     1982
1454                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1455 
1456 # Greece
1457 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1458 # Whitman gives 1932 Jul 5 - Nov 1; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1459 Rule    Greece  1932    only    -       Jul      7      0:00    1:00    S
1460 Rule    Greece  1932    only    -       Sep      1      0:00    0       -
1461 # Whitman gives 1941 Apr 25 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1462 Rule    Greece  1941    only    -       Apr      7      0:00    1:00    S
1463 # Whitman gives 1942 Feb 2 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1464 Rule    Greece  1942    only    -       Nov      2      3:00    0       -
1465 Rule    Greece  1943    only    -       Mar     30      0:00    1:00    S
1466 Rule    Greece  1943    only    -       Oct      4      0:00    0       -
1467 # Whitman gives 1944 Oct 3 - Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1468 Rule    Greece  1952    only    -       Jul      1      0:00    1:00    S
1469 Rule    Greece  1952    only    -       Nov      2      0:00    0       -
1470 Rule    Greece  1975    only    -       Apr     12      0:00s   1:00    S
1471 Rule    Greece  1975    only    -       Nov     26      0:00s   0       -
1472 Rule    Greece  1976    only    -       Apr     11      2:00s   1:00    S
1473 Rule    Greece  1976    only    -       Oct     10      2:00s   0       -
1474 Rule    Greece  1977    1978    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    S
1475 Rule    Greece  1977    only    -       Sep     26      2:00s   0       -
1476 Rule    Greece  1978    only    -       Sep     24      4:00    0       -
1477 Rule    Greece  1979    only    -       Apr      1      9:00    1:00    S
1478 Rule    Greece  1979    only    -       Sep     29      2:00    0       -
1479 Rule    Greece  1980    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
1480 Rule    Greece  1980    only    -       Sep     28      0:00    0       -
1481 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1482 Zone    Europe/Athens   1:34:52 -       LMT     1895 Sep 14
1483                         1:34:52 -       AMT     1916 Jul 28  0:01 # Athens MT
1484                         2:00    Greece  EE%sT   1941 Apr 30
1485                         1:00    Greece  CE%sT   1944 Apr  4
1486                         2:00    Greece  EE%sT   1981
1487                         # Shanks & Pottenger say it switched to C-Eur in 1981;
1488                         # go with EU rules instead, since Greece joined Jan 1.
1489                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
1490 
1491 # Hungary
1492 # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-15):
1493 # Dates for 1916-1945 are taken from:
1494 # Oross A. Jelen a múlt jövője: a nyári időszámítás Magyarországon 1916-1945.
1495 # National Archives of Hungary (2012-10-29).
1496 # http://mnl.gov.hu/a_het_dokumentuma/a_nyari_idoszamitas_magyarorszagon_19161945.html
1497 # This source does not always give times, which are taken from Shanks
1498 # & Pottenger (which disagree about the dates).
1499 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1500 Rule    Hungary 1918    only    -       Apr      1       3:00   1:00    S
1501 Rule    Hungary 1918    only    -       Sep     16       3:00   0       -
1502 Rule    Hungary 1919    only    -       Apr     15       3:00   1:00    S
1503 Rule    Hungary 1919    only    -       Nov     24       3:00   0       -
1504 Rule    Hungary 1945    only    -       May      1      23:00   1:00    S
1505 Rule    Hungary 1945    only    -       Nov      1       0:00   0       -
1506 Rule    Hungary 1946    only    -       Mar     31       2:00s  1:00    S
1507 Rule    Hungary 1946    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1        2:00s  0       -
1508 Rule    Hungary 1947    1949    -       Apr     Sun>=4        2:00s  1:00    S
1509 Rule    Hungary 1950    only    -       Apr     17       2:00s  1:00    S
1510 Rule    Hungary 1950    only    -       Oct     23       2:00s  0       -
1511 Rule    Hungary 1954    1955    -       May     23       0:00   1:00    S
1512 Rule    Hungary 1954    1955    -       Oct      3       0:00   0       -
1513 Rule    Hungary 1956    only    -       Jun     Sun>=1        0:00   1:00    S
1514 Rule    Hungary 1956    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       -
1515 Rule    Hungary 1957    only    -       Jun     Sun>=1        1:00   1:00    S
1516 Rule    Hungary 1957    only    -       Sep     lastSun  3:00   0       -
1517 Rule    Hungary 1980    only    -       Apr      6       1:00   1:00    S
1518 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1519 Zone    Europe/Budapest 1:16:20 -       LMT     1890 Oct
1520                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1918
1521                         1:00    Hungary CE%sT   1941 Apr  8
1522                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945
1523                         1:00    Hungary CE%sT   1980 Sep 28  2:00s
1524                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1525 
1526 # Iceland
1527 #
1528 # From Adam David (1993-11-06):
1529 # The name of the timezone in Iceland for system / mail / news purposes is GMT.
1530 #
1531 # (1993-12-05):
1532 # This material is paraphrased from the 1988 edition of the University of
1533 # Iceland Almanak.
1534 #
1535 # From January 1st, 1908 the whole of Iceland was standardised at 1 hour
1536 # behind GMT. Previously, local mean solar time was used in different parts
1537 # of Iceland, the almanak had been based on Reykjavik mean solar time which
1538 # was 1 hour and 28 minutes behind GMT.
1539 #
1540 # "first day of winter" referred to [below] means the first day of the 26 weeks
1541 # of winter, according to the old icelandic calendar that dates back to the
1542 # time the norsemen first settled Iceland.  The first day of winter is always
1543 # Saturday, but is not dependent on the Julian or Gregorian calendars.
1544 #
1545 # (1993-12-10):
1546 # I have a reference from the Oxford Icelandic-English dictionary for the
1547 # beginning of winter, which ties it to the ecclesiastical calendar (and thus
1548 # to the julian/gregorian calendar) over the period in question.
1549 #       the winter begins on the Saturday next before St. Luke's day
1550 #       (old style), or on St. Luke's day, if a Saturday.
1551 # St. Luke's day ought to be traceable from ecclesiastical sources. "old style"
1552 # might be a reference to the Julian calendar as opposed to Gregorian, or it
1553 # might mean something else (???).
1554 #
1555 # From Paul Eggert (2014-11-22):
1556 # The information below is taken from the 1988 Almanak; see
1557 # http://www.almanak.hi.is/klukkan.html
1558 #
1559 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1560 Rule    Iceland 1917    1919    -       Feb     19      23:00   1:00    S
1561 Rule    Iceland 1917    only    -       Oct     21       1:00   0       -
1562 Rule    Iceland 1918    1919    -       Nov     16       1:00   0       -
1563 Rule    Iceland 1921    only    -       Mar     19      23:00   1:00    S
1564 Rule    Iceland 1921    only    -       Jun     23       1:00   0       -
1565 Rule    Iceland 1939    only    -       Apr     29      23:00   1:00    S
1566 Rule    Iceland 1939    only    -       Oct     29       2:00   0       -
1567 Rule    Iceland 1940    only    -       Feb     25       2:00   1:00    S
1568 Rule    Iceland 1940    1941    -       Nov     Sun>=2        1:00s  0       -
1569 Rule    Iceland 1941    1942    -       Mar     Sun>=2        1:00s  1:00    S
1570 # 1943-1946 - first Sunday in March until first Sunday in winter
1571 Rule    Iceland 1943    1946    -       Mar     Sun>=1        1:00s  1:00    S
1572 Rule    Iceland 1942    1948    -       Oct     Sun>=22       1:00s  0       -
1573 # 1947-1967 - first Sunday in April until first Sunday in winter
1574 Rule    Iceland 1947    1967    -       Apr     Sun>=1        1:00s  1:00    S
1575 # 1949 and 1967 Oct transitions delayed by 1 week
1576 Rule    Iceland 1949    only    -       Oct     30       1:00s  0       -
1577 Rule    Iceland 1950    1966    -       Oct     Sun>=22       1:00s  0       -
1578 Rule    Iceland 1967    only    -       Oct     29       1:00s  0       -
1579 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1580 Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik -1:28   -       LMT     1908
1581                         -1:00   Iceland -01/+00 1968 Apr  7  1:00s
1582                          0:00   -       GMT
1583 
1584 # Italy
1585 #
1586 # From Paul Eggert (2001-03-06):
1587 # Sicily and Sardinia each had their own time zones from 1866 to 1893,
1588 # called Palermo Time (+00:53:28) and Cagliari Time (+00:36:32).
1589 # During World War II, German-controlled Italy used German time.
1590 # But these events all occurred before the 1970 cutoff,
1591 # so record only the time in Rome.
1592 #
1593 # From Michael Deckers (2016-10-24):
1594 # http://www.ac-ilsestante.it/MERIDIANE/ora_legale quotes a law of 1893-08-10
1595 # ... [translated as] "The preceding dispositions will enter into
1596 # force at the instant at which, according to the time specified in
1597 # the 1st article, the 1st of November 1893 will begin...."
1598 #
1599 # From Pierpaolo Bernardi (2016-10-20):
1600 # The authoritative source for time in Italy is the national metrological
1601 # institute, which has a summary page of historical DST data at
1602 # http://www.inrim.it/res/tf/ora_legale_i.shtml
1603 # (2016-10-24):
1604 # http://www.renzobaldini.it/le-ore-legali-in-italia/
1605 # has still different data for 1944.  It divides Italy in two, as
1606 # there were effectively two governments at the time, north of Gothic
1607 # Line German controlled territory, official government RSI, and south
1608 # of the Gothic Line, controlled by allied armies.
1609 #
1610 # From Brian Inglis (2016-10-23):
1611 # Viceregal LEGISLATIVE DECREE. 14 September 1944, no. 219.
1612 # Restoration of Standard Time. (044U0219) (OJ 62 of 30.9.1944) ...
1613 # Given the R. law decreed on 1944-03-29, no. 92, by which standard time is
1614 # advanced to sixty minutes later starting at hour two on 1944-04-02; ...
1615 # Starting at hour three on the date 1944-09-17 standard time will be resumed.
1616 #
1617 # From Paul Eggert (2016-10-27):
1618 # Go with INRiM for DST rules, except as corrected by Inglis for 1944
1619 # for the Kingdom of Italy.  This is consistent with Renzo Baldini.
1620 # Model Rome's occupation by using C-Eur rules from 1943-09-10
1621 # to 1944-06-04; although Rome was an open city during this period, it
1622 # was effectively controlled by Germany.
1623 #
1624 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1625 Rule    Italy   1916    only    -       Jun      3      24:00   1:00    S
1626 Rule    Italy   1916    1917    -       Sep     30      24:00   0       -
1627 Rule    Italy   1917    only    -       Mar     31      24:00   1:00    S
1628 Rule    Italy   1918    only    -       Mar      9      24:00   1:00    S
1629 Rule    Italy   1918    only    -       Oct      6      24:00   0       -
1630 Rule    Italy   1919    only    -       Mar      1      24:00   1:00    S
1631 Rule    Italy   1919    only    -       Oct      4      24:00   0       -
1632 Rule    Italy   1920    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    S
1633 Rule    Italy   1920    only    -       Sep     18      24:00   0       -
1634 Rule    Italy   1940    only    -       Jun     14      24:00   1:00    S
1635 Rule    Italy   1942    only    -       Nov      2       2:00s  0       -
1636 Rule    Italy   1943    only    -       Mar     29       2:00s  1:00    S
1637 Rule    Italy   1943    only    -       Oct      4       2:00s  0       -
1638 Rule    Italy   1944    only    -       Apr      2       2:00s  1:00    S
1639 Rule    Italy   1944    only    -       Sep     17       2:00s  0       -
1640 Rule    Italy   1945    only    -       Apr      2       2:00   1:00    S
1641 Rule    Italy   1945    only    -       Sep     15       1:00   0       -
1642 Rule    Italy   1946    only    -       Mar     17       2:00s  1:00    S
1643 Rule    Italy   1946    only    -       Oct      6       2:00s  0       -
1644 Rule    Italy   1947    only    -       Mar     16       0:00s  1:00    S
1645 Rule    Italy   1947    only    -       Oct      5       0:00s  0       -
1646 Rule    Italy   1948    only    -       Feb     29       2:00s  1:00    S
1647 Rule    Italy   1948    only    -       Oct      3       2:00s  0       -
1648 Rule    Italy   1966    1968    -       May     Sun>=22       0:00s  1:00    S
1649 Rule    Italy   1966    only    -       Sep     24      24:00   0       -
1650 Rule    Italy   1967    1969    -       Sep     Sun>=22       0:00s  0       -
1651 Rule    Italy   1969    only    -       Jun      1       0:00s  1:00    S
1652 Rule    Italy   1970    only    -       May     31       0:00s  1:00    S
1653 Rule    Italy   1970    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       -
1654 Rule    Italy   1971    1972    -       May     Sun>=22       0:00s  1:00    S
1655 Rule    Italy   1971    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       -
1656 Rule    Italy   1972    only    -       Oct      1       0:00s  0       -
1657 Rule    Italy   1973    only    -       Jun      3       0:00s  1:00    S
1658 Rule    Italy   1973    1974    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       -
1659 Rule    Italy   1974    only    -       May     26       0:00s  1:00    S
1660 Rule    Italy   1975    only    -       Jun      1       0:00s  1:00    S
1661 Rule    Italy   1975    1977    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       -
1662 Rule    Italy   1976    only    -       May     30       0:00s  1:00    S
1663 Rule    Italy   1977    1979    -       May     Sun>=22       0:00s  1:00    S
1664 Rule    Italy   1978    only    -       Oct      1       0:00s  0       -
1665 Rule    Italy   1979    only    -       Sep     30       0:00s  0       -
1666 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1667 Zone    Europe/Rome     0:49:56 -       LMT     1866 Sep 22
1668                         0:49:56 -       RMT     1893 Oct 31 23:49:56 # Rome Mean
1669                         1:00    Italy   CE%sT   1943 Sep 10
1670                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Jun  4
1671                         1:00    Italy   CE%sT   1980
1672                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1673 
1674 Link    Europe/Rome     Europe/Vatican
1675 Link    Europe/Rome     Europe/San_Marino
1676 
1677 # Latvia
1678 
1679 # From Liene Kanepe (1998-09-17):
1680 
1681 # I asked about this matter Scientific Secretary of the Institute of Astronomy
1682 # of The University of Latvia Dr. paed Mr. Ilgonis Vilks. I also searched the
1683 # correct data in juridical acts and I found some juridical documents about
1684 # changes in the counting of time in Latvia from 1981....
1685 #
1686 # Act No. 35 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1981-01-22 ...
1687 # according to the Act No. 925 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1980-10-24
1688 # ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning
1689 # the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on 1 April at 00:00 (GMT 31 March 21:00)
1690 # and 1 hour backward on the 1 October at 00:00 (GMT 30 September 20:00).
1691 #
1692 # Act No. 592 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1984-09-24 ...
1693 # according to the Act No. 967 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1984-09-13
1694 # ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning
1695 # the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on the last Sunday of March at 02:00
1696 # (GMT 23:00 on the previous day) and 1 hour backward on the last Sunday of
1697 # September at 03:00 (GMT 23:00 on the previous day).
1698 #
1699 # Act No. 81 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1989-03-22 ...
1700 # according to the Act No. 227 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1989-03-14
1701 # ...: since the last Sunday of March 1989 in Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR,
1702 # Estonian SSR and Kaliningrad region of Russian Federation all year round the
1703 # time of 2nd time zone (Moscow time minus one hour). On the territory of Latvia
1704 # transition to summer time is performed on the last Sunday of March at 02:00
1705 # (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour forward.  The end of
1706 # daylight saving time is performed on the last Sunday of September at 03:00
1707 # (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour backward. Exception is
1708 # 1989-03-26, when we must not turn the hands of the clock....
1709 #
1710 # The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Latvia of
1711 # 1997-01-21 on transition to Summer time ... established the same order of
1712 # daylight savings time settings as in the States of the European Union.
1713 
1714 # From Andrei Ivanov (2000-03-06):
1715 # This year Latvia will not switch to Daylight Savings Time (as specified in
1716 # The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Rep. of Latvia of
1717 # 29-Feb-2000 (No. 79) <http://www.lv-laiks.lv/wwwraksti/2000/071072/vd4.htm>,
1718 # in Latvian for subscribers only).
1719 
1720 # From RFE/RL Newsline
1721 # http://www.rferl.org/newsline/2001/01/3-CEE/cee-030101.html
1722 # (2001-01-03), noted after a heads-up by Rives McDow:
1723 # The Latvian government on 2 January decided that the country will
1724 # institute daylight-saving time this spring, LETA reported.
1725 # Last February the three Baltic states decided not to turn back their
1726 # clocks one hour in the spring....
1727 # Minister of Economy Aigars Kalvītis noted that Latvia had too few
1728 # daylight hours and thus decided to comply with a draft European
1729 # Commission directive that provides for instituting daylight-saving
1730 # time in EU countries between 2002 and 2006. The Latvian government
1731 # urged Lithuania and Estonia to adopt a similar time policy, but it
1732 # appears that they will not do so....
1733 
1734 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1735 Rule    Latvia  1989    1996    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
1736 Rule    Latvia  1989    1996    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
1737 
1738 # Milne 1899 says Riga was 1:36:28 (Polytechnique House time).
1739 # Byalokoz 1919 says Latvia was 1:36:34.
1740 # Go with Byalokoz.
1741 
1742 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1743 Zone    Europe/Riga     1:36:34 -       LMT     1880
1744                         1:36:34 -       RMT     1918 Apr 15  2:00 # Riga MT
1745                         1:36:34 1:00    LST     1918 Sep 16  3:00 # Latvian ST
1746                         1:36:34 -       RMT     1919 Apr  1  2:00
1747                         1:36:34 1:00    LST     1919 May 22  3:00
1748                         1:36:34 -       RMT     1926 May 11
1749                         2:00    -       EET     1940 Aug  5
1750                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Jul
1751                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Oct 13
1752                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1989 Mar lastSun  2:00s
1753                         2:00    1:00    EEST    1989 Sep lastSun  2:00s
1754                         2:00    Latvia  EE%sT   1997 Jan 21
1755                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   2000 Feb 29
1756                         2:00    -       EET     2001 Jan  2
1757                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
1758 
1759 # Liechtenstein
1760 
1761 # From Paul Eggert (2013-09-09):
1762 # Shanks & Pottenger say Vaduz is like Zurich.
1763 
1764 # From Alois Treindl (2013-09-18):
1765 # http://www.eliechtensteinensia.li/LIJ/1978/1938-1978/1941.pdf
1766 # ... confirms on p. 6 that Liechtenstein followed Switzerland in 1941 and 1942.
1767 # I ... translate only the last two paragraphs:
1768 #    ... during second world war, in the years 1941 and 1942, Liechtenstein
1769 #    introduced daylight saving time, adapting to Switzerland.  From 1943 on
1770 #    central European time was in force throughout the year.
1771 #    From a report of the duke's government to the high council,
1772 #    regarding the introduction of a time law, of 31 May 1977.
1773 
1774 Link Europe/Zurich Europe/Vaduz
1775 
1776 
1777 # Lithuania
1778 
1779 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
1780 # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
1781 
1782 # From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
1783 # IATA SSIM (1992/1996) says Lithuania uses W-Eur rules, but since it is
1784 # known to be wrong about Estonia and Latvia, assume it's wrong here too.
1785 
1786 # From Marius Gedminas (1998-08-07):
1787 # I would like to inform that in this year Lithuanian time zone
1788 # (Europe/Vilnius) was changed.
1789 
1790 # From ELTA No. 972 (2582) (1999-09-29) <http://www.elta.lt/>,
1791 # via Steffen Thorsen:
1792 # Lithuania has shifted back to the second time zone (GMT plus two hours)
1793 # to be valid here starting from October 31,
1794 # as decided by the national government on Wednesday....
1795 # The Lithuanian government also announced plans to consider a
1796 # motion to give up shifting to summer time in spring, as it was
1797 # already done by Estonia.
1798 
1799 # From the Fact File, Lithuanian State Department of Tourism
1800 # <http://www.tourism.lt/informa/ff.htm> (2000-03-27):
1801 # Local time is GMT+2 hours ..., no daylight saving.
1802 
1803 # From a user via Klaus Marten (2003-02-07):
1804 # As a candidate for membership of the European Union, Lithuania will
1805 # observe Summer Time in 2003, changing its clocks at the times laid
1806 # down in EU Directive 2000/84 of 19.I.01 (i.e. at the same times as its
1807 # neighbour Latvia). The text of the Lithuanian government Order of
1808 # 7.XI.02 to this effect can be found at
1809 # http://www.lrvk.lt/nut/11/n1749.htm
1810 
1811 
1812 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1813 Zone    Europe/Vilnius  1:41:16 -       LMT     1880
1814                         1:24:00 -       WMT     1917        # Warsaw Mean Time
1815                         1:35:36 -       KMT     1919 Oct 10 # Kaunas Mean Time
1816                         1:00    -       CET     1920 Jul 12
1817                         2:00    -       EET     1920 Oct  9
1818                         1:00    -       CET     1940 Aug  3
1819                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Jun 24
1820                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Aug
1821                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1989 Mar 26  2:00s
1822                         2:00    Russia  EE%sT   1991 Sep 29  2:00s
1823                         2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1998
1824                         2:00    -       EET     1998 Mar 29  1:00u
1825                         1:00    EU      CE%sT   1999 Oct 31  1:00u
1826                         2:00    -       EET     2003 Jan  1
1827                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
1828 
1829 # Luxembourg
1830 # Whitman disagrees with most of these dates in minor ways;
1831 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1832 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1833 Rule    Lux     1916    only    -       May     14      23:00   1:00    S
1834 Rule    Lux     1916    only    -       Oct      1       1:00   0       -
1835 Rule    Lux     1917    only    -       Apr     28      23:00   1:00    S
1836 Rule    Lux     1917    only    -       Sep     17       1:00   0       -
1837 Rule    Lux     1918    only    -       Apr     Mon>=15       2:00s  1:00    S
1838 Rule    Lux     1918    only    -       Sep     Mon>=15       2:00s  0       -
1839 Rule    Lux     1919    only    -       Mar      1      23:00   1:00    S
1840 Rule    Lux     1919    only    -       Oct      5       3:00   0       -
1841 Rule    Lux     1920    only    -       Feb     14      23:00   1:00    S
1842 Rule    Lux     1920    only    -       Oct     24       2:00   0       -
1843 Rule    Lux     1921    only    -       Mar     14      23:00   1:00    S
1844 Rule    Lux     1921    only    -       Oct     26       2:00   0       -
1845 Rule    Lux     1922    only    -       Mar     25      23:00   1:00    S
1846 Rule    Lux     1922    only    -       Oct     Sun>=2        1:00   0       -
1847 Rule    Lux     1923    only    -       Apr     21      23:00   1:00    S
1848 Rule    Lux     1923    only    -       Oct     Sun>=2        2:00   0       -
1849 Rule    Lux     1924    only    -       Mar     29      23:00   1:00    S
1850 Rule    Lux     1924    1928    -       Oct     Sun>=2        1:00   0       -
1851 Rule    Lux     1925    only    -       Apr      5      23:00   1:00    S
1852 Rule    Lux     1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00   1:00    S
1853 Rule    Lux     1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00   1:00    S
1854 Rule    Lux     1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00   1:00    S
1855 Rule    Lux     1929    only    -       Apr     20      23:00   1:00    S
1856 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1857 Zone Europe/Luxembourg  0:24:36 -       LMT     1904 Jun
1858                         1:00    Lux     CE%sT   1918 Nov 25
1859                         0:00    Lux     WE%sT   1929 Oct  6  2:00s
1860                         0:00    Belgium WE%sT   1940 May 14  3:00
1861                         1:00    C-Eur   WE%sT   1944 Sep 18  3:00
1862                         1:00    Belgium CE%sT   1977
1863                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1864 
1865 # Macedonia
1866 # See Europe/Belgrade.
1867 
1868 # Malta
1869 #
1870 # From Paul Eggert (2016-10-21):
1871 # Assume 1900-1972 was like Rome, overriding Shanks.
1872 #
1873 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1874 Rule    Malta   1973    only    -       Mar     31      0:00s   1:00    S
1875 Rule    Malta   1973    only    -       Sep     29      0:00s   0       -
1876 Rule    Malta   1974    only    -       Apr     21      0:00s   1:00    S
1877 Rule    Malta   1974    only    -       Sep     16      0:00s   0       -
1878 Rule    Malta   1975    1979    -       Apr     Sun>=15      2:00    1:00    S
1879 Rule    Malta   1975    1980    -       Sep     Sun>=15      2:00    0       -
1880 Rule    Malta   1980    only    -       Mar     31      2:00    1:00    S
1881 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1882 Zone    Europe/Malta    0:58:04 -       LMT     1893 Nov  2  0:00s # Valletta
1883                         1:00    Italy   CE%sT   1973 Mar 31
1884                         1:00    Malta   CE%sT   1981
1885                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1886 
1887 # Moldova
1888 
1889 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07):
1890 # the act of the government of the Republic of Moldova Nr. 132 from 1990-05-04
1891 # http://lex.justice.md/viewdoc.php?action=view&view=doc&id=298782&lang=2
1892 # ... says that since 1990-05-06 on the territory of the Moldavian SSR
1893 # time would be calculated as the standard time of the second time belt
1894 # plus one hour of the "summer" time. To implement that clocks would be
1895 # adjusted one hour backwards at 1990-05-06 2:00. After that "summer"
1896 # time would be cancelled last Sunday of September at 3:00 and
1897 # reintroduced last Sunday of March at 2:00.
1898 
1899 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1900 # A previous version of this database followed Shanks & Pottenger, who write
1901 # that Tiraspol switched to Moscow time on 1992-01-19 at 02:00.
1902 # However, this is most likely an error, as Moldova declared independence
1903 # on 1991-08-27 (the 1992-01-19 date is that of a Russian decree).
1904 # In early 1992 there was large-scale interethnic violence in the area
1905 # and it's possible that some Russophones continued to observe Moscow time.
1906 # But [two people] separately reported via
1907 # Jesper Nørgaard that as of 2001-01-24 Tiraspol was like Chisinau.
1908 # The Tiraspol entry has therefore been removed for now.
1909 #
1910 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-10-17):
1911 # Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR, also known as
1912 # "Pridnestrovie") has abolished seasonal clock change (no transition
1913 # to the Winter Time).
1914 #
1915 # News (in Russian):
1916 # http://www.kyivpost.ua/russia/news/pridnestrove-otkazalos-ot-perehoda-na-zimnee-vremya-30954.html
1917 # http://www.allmoldova.com/moldova-news/1249064116.html
1918 #
1919 # The substance of this change (reinstatement of the Tiraspol entry)
1920 # is from a patch from Petr Machata (2011-10-17)
1921 #
1922 # From Tim Parenti (2011-10-19)
1923 # In addition, being situated at +4651+2938 would give Tiraspol
1924 # a pre-1880 LMT offset of 1:58:32.
1925 #
1926 # (which agrees with the earlier entry that had been removed)
1927 #
1928 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-10-26)
1929 # NO need to divide Moldova into two timezones at this point.
1930 # As of today, Transnistria (Pridnestrovie)- Tiraspol reversed its own
1931 # decision to abolish DST this winter.
1932 # Following Moldova and neighboring Ukraine- Transnistria (Pridnestrovie)-
1933 # Tiraspol will go back to winter time on October 30, 2011.
1934 # News from Moldova (in russian):
1935 # https://ru.publika.md/link_317061.html
1936 
1937 # From Roman Tudos (2015-07-02):
1938 # http://lex.justice.md/index.php?action=view&view=doc&lang=1&id=355077
1939 # From Paul Eggert (2015-07-01):
1940 # The abovementioned official link to IGO1445-868/2014 states that
1941 # 2014-10-26's fallback transition occurred at 03:00 local time.  Also,
1942 # https://www.trm.md/en/social/la-30-martie-vom-trece-la-ora-de-vara
1943 # says the 2014-03-30 spring-forward transition was at 02:00 local time.
1944 # Guess that since 1997 Moldova has switched one hour before the EU.
1945 
1946 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1947 Rule    Moldova 1997    max     -       Mar     lastSun  2:00   1:00    S
1948 Rule    Moldova 1997    max     -       Oct     lastSun  3:00   0       -
1949 
1950 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1951 Zone    Europe/Chisinau 1:55:20 -       LMT     1880
1952                         1:55    -       CMT     1918 Feb 15 # Chisinau MT
1953                         1:44:24 -       BMT     1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT
1954                         2:00    Romania EE%sT   1940 Aug 15
1955                         2:00    1:00    EEST    1941 Jul 17
1956                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Aug 24
1957                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990 May  6  2:00
1958                         2:00    Russia  EE%sT   1992
1959                         2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1997
1960 # See Romania commentary for the guessed 1997 transition to EU rules.
1961                         2:00    Moldova EE%sT
1962 
1963 # Monaco
1964 # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's
1965 # more precise 0:09:21.
1966 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1967 Zone    Europe/Monaco   0:29:32 -       LMT     1891 Mar 15
1968                         0:09:21 -       PMT     1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time
1969                         0:00    France  WE%sT   1945 Sep 16  3:00
1970                         1:00    France  CE%sT   1977
1971                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1972 
1973 # Montenegro
1974 # See Europe/Belgrade.
1975 
1976 # Netherlands
1977 
1978 # Howse writes that the Netherlands' railways used GMT between 1892 and 1940,
1979 # but for other purposes the Netherlands used Amsterdam mean time.
1980 
1981 # However, Robert H. van Gent writes (2001-04-01):
1982 # Howse's statement is only correct up to 1909. From 1909-05-01 (00:00:00
1983 # Amsterdam mean time) onwards, the whole of the Netherlands (including
1984 # the Dutch railways) was required by law to observe Amsterdam mean time
1985 # (19 minutes 32.13 seconds ahead of GMT). This had already been the
1986 # common practice (except for the railways) for many decades but it was
1987 # not until 1909 when the Dutch government finally defined this by law.
1988 # On 1937-07-01 this was changed to 20 minutes (exactly) ahead of GMT and
1989 # was generally known as Dutch Time ("Nederlandse Tijd").
1990 #
1991 # (2001-04-08):
1992 # 1892-05-01 was the date when the Dutch railways were by law required to
1993 # observe GMT while the remainder of the Netherlands adhered to the common
1994 # practice of following Amsterdam mean time.
1995 #
1996 # (2001-04-09):
1997 # In 1835 the authorities of the province of North Holland requested the
1998 # municipal authorities of the towns and cities in the province to observe
1999 # Amsterdam mean time but I do not know in how many cases this request was
2000 # actually followed.
2001 #
2002 # From 1852 onwards the Dutch telegraph offices were by law required to
2003 # observe Amsterdam mean time. As the time signals from the observatory of
2004 # Leiden were also distributed by the telegraph system, I assume that most
2005 # places linked up with the telegraph (and railway) system automatically
2006 # adopted Amsterdam mean time.
2007 #
2008 # Although the early Dutch railway companies initially observed a variety
2009 # of times, most of them had adopted Amsterdam mean time by 1858 but it
2010 # was not until 1866 when they were all required by law to observe
2011 # Amsterdam mean time.
2012 
2013 # The data entries before 1945 are taken from
2014 # https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/wettijd/wettijd.htm
2015 
2016 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2017 Rule    Neth    1916    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    NST     # Netherlands Summer Time
2018 Rule    Neth    1916    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       AMT     # Amsterdam Mean Time
2019 Rule    Neth    1917    only    -       Apr     16      2:00s   1:00    NST
2020 Rule    Neth    1917    only    -       Sep     17      2:00s   0       AMT
2021 Rule    Neth    1918    1921    -       Apr     Mon>=1       2:00s   1:00    NST
2022 Rule    Neth    1918    1921    -       Sep     lastMon 2:00s   0       AMT
2023 Rule    Neth    1922    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    NST
2024 Rule    Neth    1922    1936    -       Oct     Sun>=2       2:00s   0       AMT
2025 Rule    Neth    1923    only    -       Jun     Fri>=1       2:00s   1:00    NST
2026 Rule    Neth    1924    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    NST
2027 Rule    Neth    1925    only    -       Jun     Fri>=1       2:00s   1:00    NST
2028 # From 1926 through 1939 DST began 05-15, except that it was delayed by a week
2029 # in years when 05-15 fell in the Pentecost weekend.
2030 Rule    Neth    1926    1931    -       May     15      2:00s   1:00    NST
2031 Rule    Neth    1932    only    -       May     22      2:00s   1:00    NST
2032 Rule    Neth    1933    1936    -       May     15      2:00s   1:00    NST
2033 Rule    Neth    1937    only    -       May     22      2:00s   1:00    NST
2034 Rule    Neth    1937    only    -       Jul      1      0:00    1:00    S
2035 Rule    Neth    1937    1939    -       Oct     Sun>=2       2:00s   0       -
2036 Rule    Neth    1938    1939    -       May     15      2:00s   1:00    S
2037 Rule    Neth    1945    only    -       Apr      2      2:00s   1:00    S
2038 Rule    Neth    1945    only    -       Sep     16      2:00s   0       -
2039 #
2040 # Amsterdam Mean Time was +00:19:32.13 exactly, but the .13 is omitted
2041 # below because the current format requires GMTOFF to be an integer.
2042 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2043 Zone Europe/Amsterdam   0:19:32 -       LMT     1835
2044                         0:19:32 Neth    %s      1937 Jul  1
2045                         0:20    Neth +0020/+0120 1940 May 16  0:00
2046                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00
2047                         1:00    Neth    CE%sT   1977
2048                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
2049 
2050 # Norway
2051 # http://met.no/met/met_lex/q_u/sommertid.html (2004-01) agrees with Shanks &
2052 # Pottenger.
2053 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2054 Rule    Norway  1916    only    -       May     22      1:00    1:00    S
2055 Rule    Norway  1916    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       -
2056 Rule    Norway  1945    only    -       Apr      2      2:00s   1:00    S
2057 Rule    Norway  1945    only    -       Oct      1      2:00s   0       -
2058 Rule    Norway  1959    1964    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   1:00    S
2059 Rule    Norway  1959    1965    -       Sep     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       -
2060 Rule    Norway  1965    only    -       Apr     25      2:00s   1:00    S
2061 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2062 Zone    Europe/Oslo     0:43:00 -       LMT     1895 Jan  1
2063                         1:00    Norway  CE%sT   1940 Aug 10 23:00
2064                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00
2065                         1:00    Norway  CE%sT   1980
2066                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
2067 
2068 # Svalbard & Jan Mayen
2069 
2070 # From Steffen Thorsen (2001-05-01):
2071 # Although I could not find it explicitly, it seems that Jan Mayen and
2072 # Svalbard have been using the same time as Norway at least since the
2073 # time they were declared as parts of Norway.  Svalbard was declared
2074 # as a part of Norway by law of 1925-07-17 no 11, section 4 and Jan
2075 # Mayen by law of 1930-02-27 no 2, section 2. (From
2076 # <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19250717-011.html> and
2077 # <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19300227-002.html>).  The law/regulation
2078 # for normal/standard time in Norway is from 1894-06-29 no 1 (came
2079 # into operation on 1895-01-01) and Svalbard/Jan Mayen seem to be a
2080 # part of this law since 1925/1930. (From
2081 # <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-18940629-001.html>) I have not been
2082 # able to find if Jan Mayen used a different time zone (e.g. -0100)
2083 # before 1930. Jan Mayen has only been "inhabited" since 1921 by
2084 # Norwegian meteorologists and maybe used the same time as Norway ever
2085 # since 1921.  Svalbard (Arctic/Longyearbyen) has been inhabited since
2086 # before 1895, and therefore probably changed the local time somewhere
2087 # between 1895 and 1925 (inclusive).
2088 
2089 # From Paul Eggert (2013-09-04):
2090 #
2091 # Actually, Jan Mayen was never occupied by Germany during World War II,
2092 # so it must have diverged from Oslo time during the war, as Oslo was
2093 # keeping Berlin time.
2094 #
2095 # <https://www.jan-mayen.no/history.htm> says that the meteorologists
2096 # burned down their station in 1940 and left the island, but returned in
2097 # 1941 with a small Norwegian garrison and continued operations despite
2098 # frequent air attacks from Germans.  In 1943 the Americans established a
2099 # radiolocating station on the island, called "Atlantic City".  Possibly
2100 # the UT offset changed during the war, but I think it unlikely that
2101 # Jan Mayen used German daylight-saving rules.
2102 #
2103 # Svalbard is more complicated, as it was raided in August 1941 by an
2104 # Allied party that evacuated the civilian population to England (says
2105 # <http://www.bartleby.com/65/sv/Svalbard.html>).  The Svalbard FAQ
2106 # <http://www.svalbard.com/SvalbardFAQ.html> says that the Germans were
2107 # expelled on 1942-05-14.  However, small parties of Germans did return,
2108 # and according to Wilhelm Dege's book "War North of 80" (1954)
2109 # http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/departments/UP/1-55238/1-55238-110-2.html
2110 # the German armed forces at the Svalbard weather station code-named
2111 # Haudegen did not surrender to the Allies until September 1945.
2112 #
2113 # All these events predate our cutoff date of 1970, so use Europe/Oslo
2114 # for these regions.
2115 Link    Europe/Oslo     Arctic/Longyearbyen
2116 
2117 # Poland
2118 
2119 # The 1919 dates and times can be found in Tygodnik Urzędowy nr 1 (1919-03-20),
2120 # <http://www.wbc.poznan.pl/publication/32156> pp 1-2.
2121 
2122 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2123 Rule    Poland  1918    1919    -       Sep     16      2:00s   0       -
2124 Rule    Poland  1919    only    -       Apr     15      2:00s   1:00    S
2125 Rule    Poland  1944    only    -       Apr      3      2:00s   1:00    S
2126 # Whitman gives 1944 Nov 30; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2127 Rule    Poland  1944    only    -       Oct      4      2:00    0       -
2128 # For 1944-1948 Whitman gives the previous day; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2129 Rule    Poland  1945    only    -       Apr     29      0:00    1:00    S
2130 Rule    Poland  1945    only    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       -
2131 # For 1946 on the source is Kazimierz Borkowski,
2132 # Toruń Center for Astronomy, Dept. of Radio Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus U.,
2133 # https://www.astro.uni.torun.pl/~kb/Artykuly/U-PA/Czas2.htm#tth_tAb1
2134 # Thanks to Przemysław Augustyniak (2005-05-28) for this reference.
2135 # He also gives these further references:
2136 # Mon Pol nr 13, poz 162 (1995) <http://www.abc.com.pl/serwis/mp/1995/0162.htm>
2137 # Druk nr 2180 (2003) <http://www.senat.gov.pl/k5/dok/sejm/053/2180.pdf>
2138 Rule    Poland  1946    only    -       Apr     14      0:00s   1:00    S
2139 Rule    Poland  1946    only    -       Oct      7      2:00s   0       -
2140 Rule    Poland  1947    only    -       May      4      2:00s   1:00    S
2141 Rule    Poland  1947    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
2142 Rule    Poland  1948    only    -       Apr     18      2:00s   1:00    S
2143 Rule    Poland  1949    only    -       Apr     10      2:00s   1:00    S
2144 Rule    Poland  1957    only    -       Jun      2      1:00s   1:00    S
2145 Rule    Poland  1957    1958    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00s   0       -
2146 Rule    Poland  1958    only    -       Mar     30      1:00s   1:00    S
2147 Rule    Poland  1959    only    -       May     31      1:00s   1:00    S
2148 Rule    Poland  1959    1961    -       Oct     Sun>=1       1:00s   0       -
2149 Rule    Poland  1960    only    -       Apr      3      1:00s   1:00    S
2150 Rule    Poland  1961    1964    -       May     lastSun 1:00s   1:00    S
2151 Rule    Poland  1962    1964    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00s   0       -
2152 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2153 Zone    Europe/Warsaw   1:24:00 -       LMT     1880
2154                         1:24:00 -       WMT     1915 Aug  5 # Warsaw Mean Time
2155                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1918 Sep 16  3:00
2156                         2:00    Poland  EE%sT   1922 Jun
2157                         1:00    Poland  CE%sT   1940 Jun 23  2:00
2158                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Oct
2159                         1:00    Poland  CE%sT   1977
2160                         1:00    W-Eur   CE%sT   1988
2161                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
2162 
2163 # Portugal
2164 #
2165 # From Paul Eggert (2014-08-11), after a heads-up from Stephen Colebourne:
2166 # According to a Portuguese decree (1911-05-26)
2167 # https://dre.pt/application/dir/pdf1sdip/1911/05/12500/23132313.pdf
2168 # Lisbon was at -0:36:44.68, but switched to GMT on 1912-01-01 at 00:00.
2169 # Round the old offset to -0:36:45.  This agrees with Willett but disagrees
2170 # with Shanks, who says the transition occurred on 1911-05-24 at 00:00 for
2171 # Europe/Lisbon, Atlantic/Azores, and Atlantic/Madeira.
2172 #
2173 # From Rui Pedro Salgueiro (1992-11-12):
2174 # Portugal has recently (September, 27) changed timezone
2175 # (from WET to MET or CET) to harmonize with EEC.
2176 #
2177 # Martin Bruckmann (1996-02-29) reports via Peter Ilieve
2178 # that Portugal is reverting to 0:00 by not moving its clocks this spring.
2179 # The new Prime Minister was fed up with getting up in the dark in the winter.
2180 #
2181 # From Paul Eggert (1996-11-12):
2182 # IATA SSIM (1991-09) reports several 1991-09 and 1992-09 transitions
2183 # at 02:00u, not 01:00u.  Assume that these are typos.
2184 # IATA SSIM (1991/1992) reports that the Azores were at -1:00.
2185 # IATA SSIM (1993-02) says +0:00; later issues (through 1996-09) say -1:00.
2186 # Guess that the Azores changed to EU rules in 1992 (since that's when Portugal
2187 # harmonized with EU rules), and that they stayed +0:00 that winter.
2188 #
2189 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2190 # DSH writes that despite Decree 1,469 (1915), the change to the clocks was not
2191 # done every year, depending on what Spain did, because of railroad schedules.
2192 # Go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2193 Rule    Port    1916    only    -       Jun     17      23:00   1:00    S
2194 # Whitman gives 1916 Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2195 Rule    Port    1916    only    -       Nov      1       1:00   0       -
2196 Rule    Port    1917    only    -       Feb     28      23:00s  1:00    S
2197 Rule    Port    1917    1921    -       Oct     14      23:00s  0       -
2198 Rule    Port    1918    only    -       Mar      1      23:00s  1:00    S
2199 Rule    Port    1919    only    -       Feb     28      23:00s  1:00    S
2200 Rule    Port    1920    only    -       Feb     29      23:00s  1:00    S
2201 Rule    Port    1921    only    -       Feb     28      23:00s  1:00    S
2202 Rule    Port    1924    only    -       Apr     16      23:00s  1:00    S
2203 Rule    Port    1924    only    -       Oct     14      23:00s  0       -
2204 Rule    Port    1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00s  1:00    S
2205 Rule    Port    1926    1929    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
2206 Rule    Port    1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00s  1:00    S
2207 Rule    Port    1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00s  1:00    S
2208 Rule    Port    1929    only    -       Apr     20      23:00s  1:00    S
2209 Rule    Port    1931    only    -       Apr     18      23:00s  1:00    S
2210 # Whitman gives 1931 Oct 8; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2211 Rule    Port    1931    1932    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
2212 Rule    Port    1932    only    -       Apr      2      23:00s  1:00    S
2213 Rule    Port    1934    only    -       Apr      7      23:00s  1:00    S
2214 # Whitman gives 1934 Oct 5; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2215 Rule    Port    1934    1938    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
2216 # Shanks & Pottenger give 1935 Apr 30; go with Whitman.
2217 Rule    Port    1935    only    -       Mar     30      23:00s  1:00    S
2218 Rule    Port    1936    only    -       Apr     18      23:00s  1:00    S
2219 # Whitman gives 1937 Apr 2; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2220 Rule    Port    1937    only    -       Apr      3      23:00s  1:00    S
2221 Rule    Port    1938    only    -       Mar     26      23:00s  1:00    S
2222 Rule    Port    1939    only    -       Apr     15      23:00s  1:00    S
2223 # Whitman gives 1939 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2224 Rule    Port    1939    only    -       Nov     18      23:00s  0       -
2225 Rule    Port    1940    only    -       Feb     24      23:00s  1:00    S
2226 # Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Oct 7; go with Whitman.
2227 Rule    Port    1940    1941    -       Oct      5      23:00s  0       -
2228 Rule    Port    1941    only    -       Apr      5      23:00s  1:00    S
2229 Rule    Port    1942    1945    -       Mar     Sat>=8       23:00s  1:00    S
2230 Rule    Port    1942    only    -       Apr     25      22:00s  2:00    M # Midsummer
2231 Rule    Port    1942    only    -       Aug     15      22:00s  1:00    S
2232 Rule    Port    1942    1945    -       Oct     Sat>=24      23:00s  0       -
2233 Rule    Port    1943    only    -       Apr     17      22:00s  2:00    M
2234 Rule    Port    1943    1945    -       Aug     Sat>=25      22:00s  1:00    S
2235 Rule    Port    1944    1945    -       Apr     Sat>=21      22:00s  2:00    M
2236 Rule    Port    1946    only    -       Apr     Sat>=1       23:00s  1:00    S
2237 Rule    Port    1946    only    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
2238 Rule    Port    1947    1949    -       Apr     Sun>=1        2:00s  1:00    S
2239 Rule    Port    1947    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1        2:00s  0       -
2240 # Shanks & Pottenger say DST was observed in 1950; go with Whitman.
2241 # Whitman gives Oct lastSun for 1952 on; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2242 Rule    Port    1951    1965    -       Apr     Sun>=1        2:00s  1:00    S
2243 Rule    Port    1951    1965    -       Oct     Sun>=1        2:00s  0       -
2244 Rule    Port    1977    only    -       Mar     27       0:00s  1:00    S
2245 Rule    Port    1977    only    -       Sep     25       0:00s  0       -
2246 Rule    Port    1978    1979    -       Apr     Sun>=1        0:00s  1:00    S
2247 Rule    Port    1978    only    -       Oct      1       0:00s  0       -
2248 Rule    Port    1979    1982    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00s  0       -
2249 Rule    Port    1980    only    -       Mar     lastSun  0:00s  1:00    S
2250 Rule    Port    1981    1982    -       Mar     lastSun  1:00s  1:00    S
2251 Rule    Port    1983    only    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
2252 #
2253 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2254 Zone    Europe/Lisbon   -0:36:45 -      LMT     1884
2255                         -0:36:45 -      LMT     1912 Jan  1 # Lisbon Mean Time
2256                          0:00   Port    WE%sT   1966 Apr  3  2:00
2257                          1:00   -       CET     1976 Sep 26  1:00
2258                          0:00   Port    WE%sT   1983 Sep 25  1:00s
2259                          0:00   W-Eur   WE%sT   1992 Sep 27  1:00s
2260                          1:00   EU      CE%sT   1996 Mar 31  1:00u
2261                          0:00   EU      WE%sT
2262 # This Zone can be simplified once we assume zic %z.
2263 Zone Atlantic/Azores    -1:42:40 -      LMT     1884        # Ponta Delgada
2264                         -1:54:32 -      HMT     1912 Jan  1 # Horta Mean Time
2265                         -2:00   Port    -02/-01 1942 Apr 25 22:00s
2266                         -2:00   Port    +00     1942 Aug 15 22:00s
2267                         -2:00   Port    -02/-01 1943 Apr 17 22:00s
2268                         -2:00   Port    +00     1943 Aug 28 22:00s
2269                         -2:00   Port    -02/-01 1944 Apr 22 22:00s
2270                         -2:00   Port    +00     1944 Aug 26 22:00s
2271                         -2:00   Port    -02/-01 1945 Apr 21 22:00s
2272                         -2:00   Port    +00     1945 Aug 25 22:00s
2273                         -2:00   Port    -02/-01 1966 Apr  3  2:00
2274                         -1:00   Port    -01/+00 1983 Sep 25  1:00s
2275                         -1:00   W-Eur   -01/+00 1992 Sep 27  1:00s
2276                          0:00   EU      WE%sT   1993 Mar 28  1:00u
2277                         -1:00   EU      -01/+00
2278 # This Zone can be simplified once we assume zic %z.
2279 Zone Atlantic/Madeira   -1:07:36 -      LMT     1884        # Funchal
2280                         -1:07:36 -      FMT     1912 Jan  1 # Funchal Mean Time
2281                         -1:00   Port    -01/+00 1942 Apr 25 22:00s
2282                         -1:00   Port    +01     1942 Aug 15 22:00s
2283                         -1:00   Port    -01/+00 1943 Apr 17 22:00s
2284                         -1:00   Port    +01     1943 Aug 28 22:00s
2285                         -1:00   Port    -01/+00 1944 Apr 22 22:00s
2286                         -1:00   Port    +01     1944 Aug 26 22:00s
2287                         -1:00   Port    -01/+00 1945 Apr 21 22:00s
2288                         -1:00   Port    +01     1945 Aug 25 22:00s
2289                         -1:00   Port    -01/+00 1966 Apr  3  2:00
2290                          0:00   Port    WE%sT   1983 Sep 25  1:00s
2291                          0:00   EU      WE%sT
2292 
2293 # Romania
2294 #
2295 # From Paul Eggert (1999-10-07):
2296 # Nine O'clock <http://www.nineoclock.ro/POL/1778pol.html>
2297 # (1998-10-23) reports that the switch occurred at
2298 # 04:00 local time in fall 1998.  For lack of better info,
2299 # assume that Romania and Moldova switched to EU rules in 1997,
2300 # the same year as Bulgaria.
2301 #
2302 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2303 Rule    Romania 1932    only    -       May     21       0:00s  1:00    S
2304 Rule    Romania 1932    1939    -       Oct     Sun>=1        0:00s  0       -
2305 Rule    Romania 1933    1939    -       Apr     Sun>=2        0:00s  1:00    S
2306 Rule    Romania 1979    only    -       May     27       0:00   1:00    S
2307 Rule    Romania 1979    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       -
2308 Rule    Romania 1980    only    -       Apr      5      23:00   1:00    S
2309 Rule    Romania 1980    only    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00   0       -
2310 Rule    Romania 1991    1993    -       Mar     lastSun  0:00s  1:00    S
2311 Rule    Romania 1991    1993    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       -
2312 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2313 Zone Europe/Bucharest   1:44:24 -       LMT     1891 Oct
2314                         1:44:24 -       BMT     1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT
2315                         2:00    Romania EE%sT   1981 Mar 29  2:00s
2316                         2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1991
2317                         2:00    Romania EE%sT   1994
2318                         2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1997
2319                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
2320 
2321 
2322 # Russia
2323 
2324 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-09-15):
2325 # Based on last Russian Government Decree No. 725 on August 31, 2011
2326 # (Government document
2327 # http://www.government.ru/gov/results/16355/print/
2328 # in Russian)
2329 # there are few corrections have to be made for some Russian time zones...
2330 # All updated Russian Time Zones were placed in table and translated to English
2331 # by WorldTimeZone.com at the link below:
2332 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia36.htm
2333 
2334 # From Sanjeev Gupta (2011-09-27):
2335 # Scans of [Decree No. 23 of January 8, 1992] are available at:
2336 # http://government.consultant.ru/page.aspx?1223966
2337 # They are in Cyrillic letters (presumably Russian).
2338 
2339 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09):
2340 # Regarding the instant when clocks in time-zone-shifting parts of Russia
2341 # changed in September 2011:
2342 #
2343 # One source is
2344 # http://government.ru/gov/results/16355/
2345 # which, according to translate.google.com, begins "Decree of August 31,
2346 # 2011 No. 725" and contains no other dates or "effective date" information.
2347 #
2348 # Another source is
2349 # https://rg.ru/2011/09/06/chas-zona-dok.html
2350 # which, according to translate.google.com, begins "Resolution of the
2351 # Government of the Russian Federation on August 31, 2011 N 725" and also
2352 # contains "Date first official publication: September 6, 2011 Posted on:
2353 # in the 'RG' - Federal Issue No. 5573 September 6, 2011" but which
2354 # does not contain any "effective date" information.
2355 #
2356 # Another source is
2357 # https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oymyakonsky_District#cite_note-RuTime-7
2358 # which, in note 8, contains "Resolution No. 725 of August 31, 2011...
2359 # Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication"
2360 # but which does not contain any reference to September 6, 2011.
2361 #
2362 # The Wikipedia article refers to
2363 # http://base.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi?req=doc;base=LAW;n=118896
2364 # which seems to copy the text of the government.ru page.
2365 #
2366 # Tobias Conradi combines Wikipedia's
2367 # "as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication"
2368 # with www.rg.ru's "Date of first official publication: September 6, 2011" to
2369 # get September 13, 2011 as the cutover date (unusually, a Tuesday, as Tobias
2370 # Conradi notes).
2371 #
2372 # None of the sources indicates a time of day for changing clocks.
2373 #
2374 # Go with 2011-09-13 0:00s.
2375 
2376 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-01):
2377 # According to the Russian news (ITAR-TASS News Agency)
2378 # http://en.itar-tass.com/russia/738562
2379 # the State Duma has approved ... the draft bill on returning to
2380 # winter time standard and return Russia 11 time zones.  The new
2381 # regulations will come into effect on October 26, 2014 at 02:00 ...
2382 # http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/main.nsf/%28Spravka%29?OpenAgent&RN=431985-6&02
2383 # Here is a link where we put together table (based on approved Bill N
2384 # 431985-6) with proposed 11 Russian time zones and corresponding
2385 # areas/cities/administrative centers in the Russian Federation (in English):
2386 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia65.html
2387 #
2388 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-22):
2389 # Putin signed the Federal Law 431985-6 ... (in Russian)
2390 # http://itar-tass.com/obschestvo/1333711
2391 # http://www.pravo.gov.ru:8080/page.aspx?111660
2392 # http://www.kremlin.ru/acts/46279
2393 # From October 26, 2014 the new Russian time zone map will look like this:
2394 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia-map-2014-07.html
2395 
2396 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
2397 # Moscow time zone abbreviations after 1919-07-01, and Moscow rules after 1991,
2398 # are from Andrey A. Chernov.  The rest is from Shanks & Pottenger,
2399 # except we follow Chernov's report that 1992 DST transitions were Sat
2400 # 23:00, not Sun 02:00s.
2401 #
2402 # From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski (1994-06-29):
2403 # But now it is some months since Novosibirsk is 3 hours ahead of Moscow!
2404 # I do not know why they have decided to make this change;
2405 # as far as I remember it was done exactly during winter->summer switching
2406 # so we (Novosibirsk) simply did not switch.
2407 #
2408 # From Andrey A. Chernov (1996-10-04):
2409 # 'MSK' and 'MSD' were born and used initially on Moscow computers with
2410 # UNIX-like OSes by several developer groups (e.g. Demos group, Kiae group)....
2411 # The next step was the UUCP network, the Relcom predecessor
2412 # (used mainly for mail), and MSK/MSD was actively used there.
2413 #
2414 # From Chris Carrier (1996-10-30):
2415 # According to a friend of mine who rode the Trans-Siberian Railroad from
2416 # Moscow to Irkutsk in 1995, public air and rail transport in Russia ...
2417 # still follows Moscow time, no matter where in Russia it is located.
2418 #
2419 # For Grozny, Chechnya, we have the following story from
2420 # John Daniszewski, "Scavengers in the Rubble", Los Angeles Times (2001-02-07):
2421 # News - often false - is spread by word of mouth.  A rumor that it was
2422 # time to move the clocks back put this whole city out of sync with
2423 # the rest of Russia for two weeks - even soldiers stationed here began
2424 # enforcing curfew at the wrong time.
2425 #
2426 # From Gwillim Law (2001-06-05):
2427 # There's considerable evidence that Sakhalin Island used to be in
2428 # UTC+11, and has changed to UTC+10, in this decade.  I start with the
2429 # SSIM, which listed Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk in zone RU10 along with Magadan
2430 # until February 1997, and then in RU9 with Khabarovsk and Vladivostok
2431 # since September 1997....  Although the Kuril Islands are
2432 # administratively part of Sakhalin oblast', they appear to have
2433 # remained on UTC+11 along with Magadan.
2434 
2435 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
2436 # The comments detailing the coverage of each Russian zone are meant to assist
2437 # with maintenance only and represent our best guesses as to which regions
2438 # are covered by each zone.  They are not meant to be taken as an authoritative
2439 # listing.  The region codes listed come from
2440 # https://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Federal_subjects_of_Russia&oldid=611810498
2441 # and are used for convenience only; no guarantees are made regarding their
2442 # future stability.  ISO 3166-2:RU codes are also listed for first-level
2443 # divisions where available.
2444 
2445 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2446 
2447 
2448 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
2449 # Europe/Kaliningrad covers...
2450 # 39    RU-KGD  Kaliningrad Oblast
2451 
2452 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2453 # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
2454 
2455 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07):
2456 # http://www.rgo.ru/ru/kaliningradskoe-oblastnoe-otdelenie/ob-otdelenii/publikacii/kak-nam-zhilos-bez-letnego-vremeni
2457 # confirms that the 1989 change to Moscow-1 was implemented.
2458 # (The article, though, is misattributed to 1990 while saying that
2459 # summer->winter transition would be done on the 24 of September. But
2460 # 1990-09-24 was Monday, while 1989-09-24 was Sunday as expected.)
2461 # ...
2462 # http://www.kaliningradka.ru/site_pc/cherez/index.php?ELEMENT_ID=40091
2463 # says that Kaliningrad switched to Moscow-1 on 1989-03-26, avoided
2464 # at the last moment switch to Moscow-1 on 1991-03-31, switched to
2465 # Moscow on 1991-11-03, switched to Moscow-1 on 1992-01-19.
2466 
2467 Zone Europe/Kaliningrad  1:22:00 -      LMT     1893 Apr
2468                          1:00   C-Eur   CE%sT   1945
2469                          2:00   Poland  CE%sT   1946
2470                          3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 1989 Mar 26  2:00s
2471                          2:00   Russia  EE%sT   2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2472                          3:00   -       +03     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2473                          2:00   -       EET
2474 
2475 
2476 # From Paul Eggert (2016-02-21), per Tim Parenti (2014-07-03) and
2477 # Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
2478 # Europe/Moscow covers...
2479 # 01    RU-AD   Adygea, Republic of
2480 # 05    RU-DA   Dagestan, Republic of
2481 # 06    RU-IN   Ingushetia, Republic of
2482 # 07    RU-KB   Kabardino-Balkar Republic
2483 # 08    RU-KL   Kalmykia, Republic of
2484 # 09    RU-KC   Karachay-Cherkess Republic
2485 # 10    RU-KR   Karelia, Republic of
2486 # 11    RU-KO   Komi Republic
2487 # 12    RU-ME   Mari El Republic
2488 # 13    RU-MO   Mordovia, Republic of
2489 # 15    RU-SE   North Ossetia-Alania, Republic of
2490 # 16    RU-TA   Tatarstan, Republic of
2491 # 20    RU-CE   Chechen Republic
2492 # 21    RU-CU   Chuvash Republic
2493 # 23    RU-KDA  Krasnodar Krai
2494 # 26    RU-STA  Stavropol Krai
2495 # 29    RU-ARK  Arkhangelsk Oblast
2496 # 31    RU-BEL  Belgorod Oblast
2497 # 32    RU-BRY  Bryansk Oblast
2498 # 33    RU-VLA  Vladimir Oblast
2499 # 35    RU-VLG  Vologda Oblast
2500 # 36    RU-VOR  Voronezh Oblast
2501 # 37    RU-IVA  Ivanovo Oblast
2502 # 40    RU-KLU  Kaluga Oblast
2503 # 44    RU-KOS  Kostroma Oblast
2504 # 46    RU-KRS  Kursk Oblast
2505 # 47    RU-LEN  Leningrad Oblast
2506 # 48    RU-LIP  Lipetsk Oblast
2507 # 50    RU-MOS  Moscow Oblast
2508 # 51    RU-MUR  Murmansk Oblast
2509 # 52    RU-NIZ  Nizhny Novgorod Oblast
2510 # 53    RU-NGR  Novgorod Oblast
2511 # 57    RU-ORL  Oryol Oblast
2512 # 58    RU-PNZ  Penza Oblast
2513 # 60    RU-PSK  Pskov Oblast
2514 # 61    RU-ROS  Rostov Oblast
2515 # 62    RU-RYA  Ryazan Oblast
2516 # 67    RU-SMO  Smolensk Oblast
2517 # 68    RU-TAM  Tambov Oblast
2518 # 69    RU-TVE  Tver Oblast
2519 # 71    RU-TUL  Tula Oblast
2520 # 76    RU-YAR  Yaroslavl Oblast
2521 # 77    RU-MOW  Moscow
2522 # 78    RU-SPE  Saint Petersburg
2523 # 83    RU-NEN  Nenets Autonomous Okrug
2524 
2525 # From Paul Eggert (2016-08-23):
2526 # The Soviets switched to UT-based time in 1919.  Decree No. 59
2527 # (1919-02-08) http://istmat.info/node/35567 established UT-based time
2528 # zones, and Decree No. 147 (1919-03-29) http://istmat.info/node/35854
2529 # specified a transition date of 1919-07-01, apparently at 00:00 UT.
2530 # No doubt only the Soviet-controlled regions switched on that date;
2531 # later transitions to UT-based time in other parts of Russia are
2532 # taken from what appear to be guesses by Shanks.
2533 # (Thanks to Alexander Belopolsky for pointers to the decrees.)
2534 
2535 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07):
2536 # 11. Regions-violators, 1981-1982.
2537 # Wikipedia refers to
2538 # http://maps.monetonos.ru/maps/raznoe/Old_Maps/Old_Maps/Articles/022/3_1981.html
2539 # http://besp.narod.ru/nauka_1981_3.htm
2540 #
2541 # The second link provides two articles scanned from the Nauka i Zhizn
2542 # magazine No. 3, 1981 and a scan of the short article attributed to
2543 # the Trud newspaper from February 1982.  The first link provides the
2544 # same Nauka i Zhizn articles converted to the text form (but misses
2545 # time belt changes map).
2546 #
2547 # The second Nauka i Zhizn article says that in addition to
2548 # introduction of summer time on 1981-04-01 there are some time belt
2549 # border changes on 1981-10-01, mostly affecting Nenets Autonomous
2550 # Okrug, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Yakutia, Magadan Oblast and Chukotka
2551 # according to the provided map (colored one).  In addition to that
2552 # "time violators" (regions which were not using rules of the time
2553 # belts in which they were located) would not be moving off the DST on
2554 # 1981-10-01 to restore the decree time usage.  (Komi ASSR was
2555 # supposed to repeat that move in October 1982 to account for the 2
2556 # hour difference.)  Map depicting "time violators" before 1981-10-01
2557 # is also provided.
2558 #
2559 # The article from Trud says that 1981-10-01 changes caused problems
2560 # and some territories would be moved to pre-1981-10-01 time by not
2561 # moving to summer time on 1982-04-01.  Namely: Dagestan,
2562 # Kabardino-Balkar, Kalmyk, Komi, Mari, Mordovian, North Ossetian,
2563 # Tatar, Chechen-Ingush and Chuvash ASSR, Krasnodar and Stavropol
2564 # krais, Arkhangelsk, Vladimir, Vologda, Voronezh, Gorky, Ivanovo,
2565 # Kostroma, Lipetsk, Penza, Rostov, Ryazan, Tambov, Tyumen and
2566 # Yaroslavl oblasts, Nenets and Evenk autonomous okrugs, Khatangsky
2567 # district of Taymyr Autonomous Okrug.  As a result Evenk Autonomous
2568 # Okrug and Khatangsky district of Taymyr Autonomous Okrug would end
2569 # up on Moscow+4, Tyumen Oblast on Moscow+2 and the rest on Moscow
2570 # time.
2571 #
2572 # http://astrozet.net/files/Zones/DOC/RU/1980-925.txt
2573 # attributes the 1982 changes to the Act of the Council of Ministers
2574 # of the USSR No. 126 from 18.02.1982.  1980-925.txt also adds
2575 # Udmurtia to the list of affected territories and lists Khatangsky
2576 # district separately from Taymyr Autonomous Okrug.  Probably erroneously.
2577 #
2578 # The affected territories are currently listed under Europe/Moscow,
2579 # Asia/Yekaterinburg and Asia/Krasnoyarsk.
2580 #
2581 # 12. Udmurtia
2582 # The fact that Udmurtia is depicted as a violator in the Nauka i
2583 # Zhizn article hints at Izhevsk being on different time from
2584 # Kuybyshev before 1981-10-01. Udmurtia is not mentioned in the 1989 act.
2585 # http://astrozet.net/files/Zones/DOC/RU/1980-925.txt
2586 # implies Udmurtia was on Moscow time after 1982-04-01.
2587 # Wikipedia implies Udmurtia being on Moscow+1 until 1991.
2588 #
2589 # ...
2590 #
2591 # All Russian zones are supposed to have by default a -1 change at
2592 # 1991-03-31 2:00 (cancellation of the decree time in the USSR) and a +1
2593 # change at 1992-01-19 2:00 (restoration of the decree time in Russia).
2594 #
2595 # There were some exceptions, though.
2596 # Wikipedia says newspapers listed Astrakhan, Saratov, Kirov, Volgograd,
2597 # Izhevsk, Grozny, Kazan and Samara as such exceptions for the 1992
2598 # change. (Different newspapers providing different lists. And some
2599 # lists found in the internet are quite wild.)
2600 #
2601 # And apparently some exceptions were reverted in the last moment.
2602 # http://www.kaliningradka.ru/site_pc/cherez/index.php?ELEMENT_ID=40091
2603 # says that Kaliningrad decided not to be an exception 2 days before the
2604 # 1991-03-31 switch and one person at
2605 # https://izhevsk.ru/forum_light_message/50/682597-m8369040.html
2606 # says he remembers that Samara opted out of the 1992-01-19 exception
2607 # 2 days before the switch.
2608 #
2609 #
2610 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2611 # Given the above, we appear to be missing some Zone entries for the
2612 # chaotic early 1980s in Russia.  It's not clear what these entries
2613 # should be.  For now, sweep this under the rug and just document the
2614 # time in Moscow.
2615 
2616 # From Vladimir Karpinsky (2014-07-08):
2617 # LMT in Moscow (before Jul 3, 1916) is 2:30:17, that was defined by Moscow
2618 # Observatory (coordinates: 55 deg. 45'29.70", 37 deg. 34'05.30")....
2619 # LMT in Moscow since Jul 3, 1916 is 2:31:01 as a result of new standard.
2620 # (The info is from the book by Byalokoz ... p. 18.)
2621 # The time in St. Petersburg as capital of Russia was defined by
2622 # Pulkov observatory, near St. Petersburg.  In 1916 LMT Moscow
2623 # was synchronized with LMT St. Petersburg (+30 minutes), (Pulkov observatory
2624 # coordinates: 59 deg. 46'18.70", 30 deg. 19'40.70") so 30 deg. 19'40.70" >
2625 # 2h01m18.7s = 2:01:19.  LMT Moscow = LMT St.Petersburg + 30m 2:01:19 + 0:30 =
2626 # 2:31:19 ...
2627 #
2628 # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-08):
2629 # Milne does not list Moscow, but suggests that its time might be listed in
2630 # Résumés mensuels et annuels des observations météorologiques (1895).
2631 # Presumably this is OCLC 85825704, a journal published with parallel text in
2632 # Russian and French.  This source has not been located; go with Karpinsky.
2633 
2634 Zone Europe/Moscow       2:30:17 -      LMT     1880
2635                          2:30:17 -      MMT     1916 Jul  3 # Moscow Mean Time
2636                          2:31:19 Russia %s      1919 Jul  1  0:00u
2637                          3:00   Russia  %s      1921 Oct
2638                          3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 1922 Oct
2639                          2:00   -       EET     1930 Jun 21
2640                          3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2641                          2:00   Russia  EE%sT   1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2642                          3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2643                          4:00   -       MSK     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2644                          3:00   -       MSK
2645 
2646 
2647 # From Paul Eggert (2016-12-06):
2648 # Europe/Simferopol covers Crimea.
2649 
2650 Zone Europe/Simferopol   2:16:24 -      LMT     1880
2651                          2:16   -       SMT     1924 May  2 # Simferopol Mean T
2652                          2:00   -       EET     1930 Jun 21
2653                          3:00   -       MSK     1941 Nov
2654                          1:00   C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Apr 13
2655                          3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 1990
2656                          3:00   -       MSK     1990 Jul  1  2:00
2657                          2:00   -       EET     1992
2658 # Central Crimea used Moscow time 1994/1997.
2659 #
2660 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
2661 # The _Economist_ (1994-05-28, p 45) reports that central Crimea switched
2662 # from Kiev to Moscow time sometime after the January 1994 elections.
2663 # Shanks (1999) says "date of change uncertain", but implies that it happened
2664 # sometime between the 1994 DST switches.  Shanks & Pottenger simply say
2665 # 1994-09-25 03:00, but that can't be right.  For now, guess it
2666 # changed in May.
2667                          2:00   E-Eur   EE%sT   1994 May
2668 # From IATA SSIM (1994/1997), which also says that Kerch is still like Kiev.
2669                          3:00   E-Eur   MSK/MSD 1996 Mar 31  0:00s
2670                          3:00   1:00    MSD     1996 Oct 27  3:00s
2671 # IATA SSIM (1997-09) says Crimea switched to EET/EEST.
2672 # Assume it happened in March by not changing the clocks.
2673                          3:00   Russia  MSK/MSD 1997
2674                          3:00   -       MSK     1997 Mar lastSun  1:00u
2675 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-03-17):
2676 # time change at 2:00 (2am) on March 30, 2014
2677 # https://vz.ru/news/2014/3/17/677464.html
2678 # From Paul Eggert (2014-03-30):
2679 # Simferopol and Sevastopol reportedly changed their central town clocks
2680 # late the previous day, but this appears to have been ceremonial
2681 # and the discrepancies are small enough to not worry about.
2682                          2:00   EU      EE%sT   2014 Mar 30  2:00
2683                          4:00   -       MSK     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2684                          3:00   -       MSK
2685 
2686 
2687 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2688 # Europe/Astrakhan covers:
2689 # 30    RU-AST  Astrakhan Oblast
2690 #
2691 # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
2692 
2693 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-01-12):
2694 # On February 10, 2016 Astrakhan Oblast got approval by the Federation
2695 # Council to change its time zone to UTC+4 (from current UTC+3 Moscow time)....
2696 # This Federal Law shall enter into force on 27 March 2016 at 02:00.
2697 # From Matt Johnson (2016-03-09):
2698 # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201602150056
2699 
2700 Zone Europe/Astrakhan    3:12:12 -      LMT     1924 May
2701                          3:00   -       +03     1930 Jun 21
2702                          4:00   Russia  +04/+05 1989 Mar 26  2:00s
2703                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2704                          4:00   -       +04     1992 Mar 29  2:00s
2705                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2706                          4:00   -       +04     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2707                          3:00   -       +03     2016 Mar 27  2:00s
2708                          4:00   -       +04
2709 
2710 # From Paul Eggert (2016-11-11):
2711 # Europe/Volgograd covers:
2712 # 34    RU-VGG  Volgograd Oblast
2713 # The 1988 transition is from USSR act No. 5 (1988-01-04).
2714 
2715 Zone Europe/Volgograd    2:57:40 -      LMT     1920 Jan  3
2716                          3:00   -       +03     1930 Jun 21
2717                          4:00   -       +04     1961 Nov 11
2718                          4:00   Russia  +04/+05 1988 Mar 27  2:00s
2719                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2720                          4:00   -       +04     1992 Mar 29  2:00s
2721                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2722                          4:00   -       +04     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2723                          3:00   -       +03
2724 
2725 # From Paul Eggert (2016-11-11):
2726 # Europe/Saratov covers:
2727 # 64    RU-SAR  Saratov Oblast
2728 
2729 # From Yuri Konotopov (2016-11-11):
2730 # Dec 4, 2016 02:00 UTC+3....  Saratov Region's local time will be ... UTC+4.
2731 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-11-11):
2732 # ... Byalokoz listed Saratov on 03:04:18.
2733 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-11-22):
2734 # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201611220031
2735 
2736 Zone Europe/Saratov      3:04:18 -      LMT     1919 Jul  1  0:00u
2737                          3:00   -       +03     1930 Jun 21
2738                          4:00   Russia  +04/+05 1988 Mar 27  2:00s
2739                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2740                          4:00   -       +04     1992 Mar 29  2:00s
2741                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2742                          4:00   -       +04     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2743                          3:00   -       +03     2016 Dec  4  2:00s
2744                          4:00   -       +04
2745 
2746 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2747 # Europe/Kirov covers:
2748 # 43    RU-KIR  Kirov Oblast
2749 # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
2750 #
2751 Zone Europe/Kirov        3:18:48 -      LMT     1919 Jul  1  0:00u
2752                          3:00   -       +03     1930 Jun 21
2753                          4:00   Russia  +04/+05 1989 Mar 26  2:00s
2754                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2755                          4:00   -       +04     1992 Mar 29  2:00s
2756                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2757                          4:00   -       +04     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2758                          3:00   -       +03
2759 
2760 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
2761 # Europe/Samara covers...
2762 # 18    RU-UD   Udmurt Republic
2763 # 63    RU-SAM  Samara Oblast
2764 
2765 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2766 # Byalokoz 1919 says Samara was 3:20:20.
2767 # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
2768 
2769 Zone Europe/Samara       3:20:20 -      LMT     1919 Jul  1  0:00u
2770                          3:00   -       +03     1930 Jun 21
2771                          4:00   -       +04     1935 Jan 27
2772                          4:00   Russia  +04/+05 1989 Mar 26  2:00s
2773                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2774                          2:00   Russia  +02/+03 1991 Sep 29  2:00s
2775                          3:00   -       +03     1991 Oct 20  3:00
2776                          4:00   Russia  +04/+05 2010 Mar 28  2:00s
2777                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2778                          4:00   -       +04
2779 
2780 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2781 # Europe/Ulyanovsk covers:
2782 # 73    RU-ULY  Ulyanovsk Oblast
2783 
2784 # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
2785 
2786 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-02-17):
2787 # Ulyanovsk ... on their way to change time zones by March 27, 2016 at 2am.
2788 # Ulyanovsk Oblast ... from MSK to MSK+1 (UTC+3 to UTC+4) ...
2789 # 920582-6 ... 02/17/2016 The State Duma passed the bill in the first reading.
2790 # From Matt Johnson (2016-03-09):
2791 # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201603090051
2792 
2793 Zone Europe/Ulyanovsk    3:13:36 -      LMT     1919 Jul  1  0:00u
2794                          3:00   -       +03     1930 Jun 21
2795                          4:00   Russia  +04/+05 1989 Mar 26  2:00s
2796                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2797                          2:00   Russia  +02/+03 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2798                          3:00   Russia  +03/+04 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2799                          4:00   -       +04     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2800                          3:00   -       +03     2016 Mar 27  2:00s
2801                          4:00   -       +04
2802 
2803 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
2804 # Asia/Yekaterinburg covers...
2805 # 02    RU-BA   Bashkortostan, Republic of
2806 # 90    RU-PER  Perm Krai
2807 # 45    RU-KGN  Kurgan Oblast
2808 # 56    RU-ORE  Orenburg Oblast
2809 # 66    RU-SVE  Sverdlovsk Oblast
2810 # 72    RU-TYU  Tyumen Oblast
2811 # 74    RU-CHE  Chelyabinsk Oblast
2812 # 86    RU-KHM  Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug - Yugra
2813 # 89    RU-YAN  Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug
2814 #
2815 # Note: Effective 2005-12-01, (59) Perm Oblast and (81) Komi-Permyak
2816 # Autonomous Okrug merged to form (90, RU-PER) Perm Krai.
2817 
2818 # Milne says Yekaterinburg was 4:02:32.9; round to nearest.
2819 # Byalokoz 1919 says its provincial time was based on Perm, at 3:45:05.
2820 # Assume it switched on 1916-07-03, the time of the new standard.
2821 # The 1919 and 1930 transitions are from Shanks.
2822 
2823 Zone Asia/Yekaterinburg  4:02:33 -      LMT     1916 Jul  3
2824                          3:45:05 -      PMT     1919 Jul 15  4:00
2825                          4:00   -       +04     1930 Jun 21
2826                          5:00   Russia  +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2827                          4:00   Russia  +04/+05 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2828                          5:00   Russia  +05/+06 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2829                          6:00   -       +06     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2830                          5:00   -       +05
2831 
2832 
2833 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
2834 # Asia/Omsk covers...
2835 # 55    RU-OMS  Omsk Oblast
2836 
2837 # Byalokoz 1919 says Omsk was 4:53:30.
2838 
2839 Zone Asia/Omsk           4:53:30 -      LMT     1919 Nov 14
2840                          5:00   -       +05     1930 Jun 21
2841                          6:00   Russia  +06/+07 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2842                          5:00   Russia  +05/+06 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2843                          6:00   Russia  +06/+07 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2844                          7:00   -       +07     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2845                          6:00   -       +06
2846 
2847 # From Paul Eggert (2016-02-22):
2848 # Asia/Barnaul covers:
2849 # 04    RU-AL   Altai Republic
2850 # 22    RU-ALT  Altai Krai
2851 
2852 # Data before 1991 are from Shanks & Pottenger.
2853 
2854 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07):
2855 # Letter of Bank of Russia from 1995-05-25
2856 # http://www.bestpravo.ru/rossijskoje/lj-akty/y3a.htm
2857 # suggests that Altai Republic transitioned to Moscow+3 on
2858 # 1995-05-28.
2859 #
2860 # https://regnum.ru/news/society/1957270.html
2861 # has some historical data for Altai Krai:
2862 # before 1957: west part on UT+6, east on UT+7
2863 # after 1957: UT+7
2864 # since 1995: UT+6
2865 # http://barnaul.rusplt.ru/index/pochemu_altajskij_kraj_okazalsja_v_neprivychnom_chasovom_pojase-17648.html
2866 # confirms that and provides more details including 1995-05-28 transition date.
2867 
2868 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-02-17):
2869 # Altai Krai and Altai Republic on their way to change time zones
2870 # by March 27, 2016 at 2am....
2871 # Altai Republic / Gorno-Altaysk MSK+3 to MSK+4 (UTC+6 to UTC+7) ...
2872 # Altai Krai / Barnaul MSK+3 to MSK+4 (UTC+6 to UTC+7)
2873 # From Matt Johnson (2016-03-09):
2874 # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201603090043
2875 # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201603090038
2876 
2877 Zone Asia/Barnaul        5:35:00 -      LMT     1919 Dec 10
2878                          6:00   -       +06     1930 Jun 21
2879                          7:00   Russia  +07/+08 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2880                          6:00   Russia  +06/+07 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2881                          7:00   Russia  +07/+08 1995 May 28
2882                          6:00   Russia  +06/+07 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2883                          7:00   -       +07     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2884                          6:00   -       +06     2016 Mar 27  2:00s
2885                          7:00   -       +07
2886 
2887 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2888 # Asia/Novosibirsk covers:
2889 # 54    RU-NVS  Novosibirsk Oblast
2890 
2891 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-05-30):
2892 # http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/main.nsf/(Spravka)?OpenAgent&RN=1085784-6
2893 # moves Novosibirsk oblast from UTC+6 to UTC+7.
2894 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-07-04):
2895 # The law was signed yesterday and published today on
2896 # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201607040064
2897 
2898 Zone Asia/Novosibirsk    5:31:40 -      LMT     1919 Dec 14  6:00
2899                          6:00   -       +06     1930 Jun 21
2900                          7:00   Russia  +07/+08 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2901                          6:00   Russia  +06/+07 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2902                          7:00   Russia  +07/+08 1993 May 23 # say Shanks & P.
2903                          6:00   Russia  +06/+07 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2904                          7:00   -       +07     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2905                          6:00   -       +06     2016 Jul 24  2:00s
2906                          7:00   -       +07
2907 
2908 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2909 # Asia/Tomsk covers:
2910 # 70    RU-TOM  Tomsk Oblast
2911 
2912 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-24):
2913 # Byalokoz listed Tomsk at 5:39:51.
2914 
2915 # From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski (1994-06-29):
2916 # Tomsk is still 4 hours ahead of Moscow.
2917 
2918 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-19):
2919 # http://pravo.gov.ru/proxy/ips/?docbody=&nd=102075743
2920 # (fifth time belt being UTC+5+1(decree time)
2921 # / UTC+5+1(decree time)+1(summer time)) ...
2922 # Note that time belts (numbered from 2 (Moscow) to 12 according to their
2923 # GMT/UTC offset and having too many exceptions like regions formally
2924 # belonging to one belt but using time from another) were replaced
2925 # with time zones in 2011 with different numbering (there was a
2926 # 2-hour gap between second and third zones in 2011-2014).
2927 
2928 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-04-12):
2929 # http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/main.nsf/(SpravkaNew)?OpenAgent&RN=1006865-6
2930 # This bill was approved in the first reading today.  It moves Tomsk oblast
2931 # from UTC+6 to UTC+7 and is supposed to come into effect on 2016-05-29 at
2932 # 2:00.  The bill needs to be approved in the second and the third readings by
2933 # the State Duma, approved by the Federation Council, signed by the President
2934 # and published to become a law.  Minor changes in the text are to be expected
2935 # before the second reading (references need to be updated to account for the
2936 # recent changes).
2937 #
2938 # Judging by the ultra-short one-day amendments period, recent similar laws,
2939 # the State Duma schedule and the Federation Council schedule
2940 # http://www.duma.gov.ru/legislative/planning/day-shedule/por_vesna_2016/
2941 # http://council.gov.ru/activity/meetings/schedule/63303
2942 # I speculate that the final text of the bill will be proposed tomorrow, the
2943 # bill will be approved in the second and the third readings on Friday,
2944 # approved by the Federation Council on 2016-04-20, signed by the President and
2945 # published as a law around 2016-04-26.
2946 
2947 # From Matt Johnson (2016-04-26):
2948 # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201604260048
2949 
2950 Zone    Asia/Tomsk       5:39:51 -      LMT     1919 Dec 22
2951                          6:00   -       +06     1930 Jun 21
2952                          7:00   Russia  +07/+08 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2953                          6:00   Russia  +06/+07 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2954                          7:00   Russia  +07/+08 2002 May  1  3:00
2955                          6:00   Russia  +06/+07 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2956                          7:00   -       +07     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
2957                          6:00   -       +06     2016 May 29  2:00s
2958                          7:00   -       +07
2959 
2960 
2961 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
2962 # Asia/Novokuznetsk covers...
2963 # 42    RU-KEM  Kemerovo Oblast
2964 
2965 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-10-13):
2966 # Kemerovo oblast' (Kemerovo region) in Russia will change current time zone on
2967 # March 28, 2010:
2968 # from current Russia Zone 6 - Krasnoyarsk Time Zone (KRA) UTC +0700
2969 # to Russia Zone 5 - Novosibirsk Time Zone (NOV) UTC +0600
2970 #
2971 # This is according to Government of Russia decree No. 740, on September
2972 # 14, 2009 "Application in the territory of the Kemerovo region the Fifth
2973 # time zone." ("Russia Zone 5" or old "USSR Zone 5" is GMT +0600)
2974 #
2975 # Russian Government web site (Russian language)
2976 # http://www.government.ru/content/governmentactivity/rfgovernmentdecisions/archive/2009/09/14/991633.htm
2977 # or Russian-English translation by WorldTimeZone.com with reference
2978 # map to local region and new Russia Time Zone map after March 28, 2010
2979 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia03.html
2980 #
2981 # Thus, when Russia will switch to DST on the night of March 28, 2010
2982 # Kemerovo region (Kemerovo oblast') will not change the clock.
2983 
2984 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-02), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02):
2985 # The Kemerovo region will remain at UTC+7 through the 2014-10-26 change, thus
2986 # realigning itself with KRAT.
2987 
2988 Zone Asia/Novokuznetsk   5:48:48 -      LMT     1924 May  1
2989                          6:00   -       +06     1930 Jun 21
2990                          7:00   Russia  +07/+08 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2991                          6:00   Russia  +06/+07 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2992                          7:00   Russia  +07/+08 2010 Mar 28  2:00s
2993                          6:00   Russia  +06/+07 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
2994                          7:00   -       +07
2995 
2996 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
2997 # Asia/Krasnoyarsk covers...
2998 # 17    RU-TY   Tuva Republic
2999 # 19    RU-KK   Khakassia, Republic of
3000 # 24    RU-KYA  Krasnoyarsk Krai
3001 #
3002 # Note: Effective 2007-01-01, (88) Evenk Autonomous Okrug and (84) Taymyr
3003 # Autonomous Okrug were merged into (24, RU-KYA) Krasnoyarsk Krai.
3004 
3005 # Byalokoz 1919 says Krasnoyarsk was 6:11:26.
3006 
3007 Zone Asia/Krasnoyarsk    6:11:26 -      LMT     1920 Jan  6
3008                          6:00   -       +06     1930 Jun 21
3009                          7:00   Russia  +07/+08 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3010                          6:00   Russia  +06/+07 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3011                          7:00   Russia  +07/+08 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3012                          8:00   -       +08     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3013                          7:00   -       +07
3014 
3015 
3016 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
3017 # Asia/Irkutsk covers...
3018 # 03    RU-BU   Buryatia, Republic of
3019 # 38    RU-IRK  Irkutsk Oblast
3020 #
3021 # Note: Effective 2008-01-01, (85) Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug was
3022 # merged into (38, RU-IRK) Irkutsk Oblast.
3023 
3024 # Milne 1899 says Irkutsk was 6:57:15.
3025 # Byalokoz 1919 says Irkutsk was 6:57:05.
3026 # Go with Byalokoz.
3027 
3028 Zone Asia/Irkutsk        6:57:05 -      LMT     1880
3029                          6:57:05 -      IMT     1920 Jan 25 # Irkutsk Mean Time
3030                          7:00   -       +07     1930 Jun 21
3031                          8:00   Russia  +08/+09 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3032                          7:00   Russia  +07/+08 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3033                          8:00   Russia  +08/+09 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3034                          9:00   -       +09     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3035                          8:00   -       +08
3036 
3037 
3038 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
3039 # Asia/Chita covers...
3040 # 92    RU-ZAB  Zabaykalsky Krai
3041 #
3042 # Note: Effective 2008-03-01, (75) Chita Oblast and (80) Agin-Buryat
3043 # Autonomous Okrug merged to form (92, RU-ZAB) Zabaykalsky Krai.
3044 
3045 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-01-02):
3046 # [The] time zone in the Trans-Baikal Territory (Zabaykalsky Krai) -
3047 # Asia/Chita [is changing] from UTC+8 to UTC+9.  Effective date will
3048 # be March 27, 2016 at 2:00am....
3049 # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201512300107
3050 
3051 Zone Asia/Chita  7:33:52 -      LMT     1919 Dec 15
3052                          8:00   -       +08     1930 Jun 21
3053                          9:00   Russia  +09/+10 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3054                          8:00   Russia  +08/+09 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3055                          9:00   Russia  +09/+10 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3056                         10:00   -       +10     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3057                          8:00   -       +08     2016 Mar 27  2:00
3058                          9:00   -       +09
3059 
3060 
3061 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
3062 # Asia/Yakutsk covers...
3063 # 28    RU-AMU  Amur Oblast
3064 #
3065 # ...and parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
3066 # 14-02 ****    Aldansky District
3067 # 14-04 ****    Amginsky District
3068 # 14-05 ****    Anabarsky District
3069 # 14-06 ****    Bulunsky District
3070 # 14-07 ****    Verkhnevilyuysky District
3071 # 14-10 ****    Vilyuysky District
3072 # 14-11 ****    Gorny District
3073 # 14-12 ****    Zhigansky District
3074 # 14-13 ****    Kobyaysky District
3075 # 14-14 ****    Lensky District
3076 # 14-15 ****    Megino-Kangalassky District
3077 # 14-16 ****    Mirninsky District
3078 # 14-18 ****    Namsky District
3079 # 14-19 ****    Neryungrinsky District
3080 # 14-21 ****    Nyurbinsky District
3081 # 14-23 ****    Olenyoksky District
3082 # 14-24 ****    Olyokminsky District
3083 # 14-26 ****    Suntarsky District
3084 # 14-27 ****    Tattinsky District
3085 # 14-29 ****    Ust-Aldansky District
3086 # 14-32 ****    Khangalassky District
3087 # 14-33 ****    Churapchinsky District
3088 # 14-34 ****    Eveno-Bytantaysky National District
3089 
3090 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
3091 # Our commentary seems to have lost mention of (14-19) Neryungrinsky District.
3092 # Since the surrounding districts of Sakha are all YAKT, assume this is, too.
3093 # Also assume its history has been the same as the rest of Asia/Yakutsk.
3094 
3095 # Byalokoz 1919 says Yakutsk was 8:38:58.
3096 
3097 Zone Asia/Yakutsk        8:38:58 -      LMT     1919 Dec 15
3098                          8:00   -       +08     1930 Jun 21
3099                          9:00   Russia  +09/+10 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3100                          8:00   Russia  +08/+09 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3101                          9:00   Russia  +09/+10 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3102                         10:00   -       +10     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3103                          9:00   -       +09
3104 
3105 
3106 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
3107 # Asia/Vladivostok covers...
3108 # 25    RU-PRI  Primorsky Krai
3109 # 27    RU-KHA  Khabarovsk Krai
3110 # 79    RU-YEV  Jewish Autonomous Oblast
3111 #
3112 # ...and parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
3113 # 14-09 ****    Verkhoyansky District
3114 # 14-31 ****    Ust-Yansky District
3115 
3116 # Milne 1899 says Vladivostok was 8:47:33.5.
3117 # Byalokoz 1919 says Vladivostok was 8:47:31.
3118 # Go with Byalokoz.
3119 
3120 Zone Asia/Vladivostok    8:47:31 -      LMT     1922 Nov 15
3121                          9:00   -       +09     1930 Jun 21
3122                         10:00   Russia  +10/+11 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3123                          9:00   Russia  +09/+10 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3124                         10:00   Russia  +10/+11 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3125                         11:00   -       +11     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3126                         10:00   -       +10
3127 
3128 
3129 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
3130 # Asia/Khandyga covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
3131 # 14-28 ****    Tomponsky District
3132 # 14-30 ****    Ust-Maysky District
3133 
3134 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09):
3135 # Tomponskij and Ust'-Majskij switched from Vladivostok time to Yakutsk time
3136 # in 2011.
3137 
3138 # From Paul Eggert (2012-11-25):
3139 # Shanks and Pottenger (2003) has Khandyga on Yakutsk time.
3140 # Make a wild guess that it switched to Vladivostok time in 2004.
3141 # This transition is no doubt wrong, but we have no better info.
3142 
3143 Zone Asia/Khandyga       9:02:13 -      LMT     1919 Dec 15
3144                          8:00   -       +08     1930 Jun 21
3145                          9:00   Russia  +09/+10 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3146                          8:00   Russia  +08/+09 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3147                          9:00   Russia  +09/+10 2004
3148                         10:00   Russia  +10/+11 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3149                         11:00   -       +11     2011 Sep 13  0:00s # Decree 725?
3150                         10:00   -       +10     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3151                          9:00   -       +09
3152 
3153 
3154 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
3155 # Asia/Sakhalin covers...
3156 # 65    RU-SAK  Sakhalin Oblast
3157 # ...with the exception of:
3158 # 65-11 ****    Severo-Kurilsky District (North Kuril Islands)
3159 
3160 # From Matt Johnson (2016-02-22):
3161 # Asia/Sakhalin is moving (in entirety) from UTC+10 to UTC+11 ...
3162 # (2016-03-09):
3163 # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201603090044
3164 
3165 # The Zone name should be Asia/Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, but that's too long.
3166 Zone Asia/Sakhalin       9:30:48 -      LMT     1905 Aug 23
3167                          9:00   -       +09     1945 Aug 25
3168                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 1991 Mar 31  2:00s # Sakhalin T
3169                         10:00   Russia  +10/+11 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3170                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 1997 Mar lastSun  2:00s
3171                         10:00   Russia  +10/+11 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3172                         11:00   -       +11     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3173                         10:00   -       +10     2016 Mar 27  2:00s
3174                         11:00   -       +11
3175 
3176 
3177 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
3178 # Asia/Magadan covers...
3179 # 49    RU-MAG  Magadan Oblast
3180 
3181 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02):
3182 # Magadan Oblast is moving from UTC+12 to UTC+10 on 2014-10-26; however,
3183 # several districts of Sakha Republic as well as Severo-Kurilsky District of
3184 # the Sakhalin Oblast (also known as the North Kuril Islands), represented
3185 # until now by Asia/Magadan, will instead move to UTC+11.  These regions will
3186 # need their own zone.
3187 
3188 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-03-27):
3189 # ... draft bill 948300-6 to change its time zone from UTC+10 to UTC+11 ...
3190 # will take ... effect ... on April 24, 2016 at 2 o'clock
3191 #
3192 # From Matt Johnson (2016-04-05):
3193 # ... signed by the President today ...
3194 # http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201604050038
3195 
3196 Zone Asia/Magadan       10:03:12 -      LMT     1924 May  2
3197                         10:00   -       +10     1930 Jun 21 # Magadan Time
3198                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3199                         10:00   Russia  +10/+11 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3200                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3201                         12:00   -       +12     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3202                         10:00   -       +10     2016 Apr 24  2:00s
3203                         11:00   -       +11
3204 
3205 
3206 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
3207 # Asia/Srednekolymsk covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
3208 # 14-01 ****    Abyysky District
3209 # 14-03 ****    Allaikhovsky District
3210 # 14-08 ****    Verkhnekolymsky District
3211 # 14-17 ****    Momsky District
3212 # 14-20 ****    Nizhnekolymsky District
3213 # 14-25 ****    Srednekolymsky District
3214 #
3215 # ...and parts of (65, RU-SAK) Sakhalin Oblast:
3216 # 65-11 ****    Severo-Kurilsky District (North Kuril Islands)
3217 
3218 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-02):
3219 # Oymyakonsky District of Sakha Republic (represented by Ust-Nera), along with
3220 # most of Sakhalin Oblast (represented by Sakhalin) will be moving to UTC+10 on
3221 # 2014-10-26 to stay aligned with VLAT/SAKT; however, Severo-Kurilsky District
3222 # of the Sakhalin Oblast (also known as the North Kuril Islands, represented by
3223 # Severo-Kurilsk) will remain on UTC+11.
3224 
3225 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
3226 # Assume North Kuril Islands have history like Magadan before 2011-03-27.
3227 # There is a decent chance this is wrong, in which case a new zone
3228 # Asia/Severo-Kurilsk would become necessary.
3229 #
3230 # Srednekolymsk and Zyryanka are the most populous places amongst these
3231 # districts, but have very similar populations.  In fact, Wikipedia currently
3232 # lists them both as having 3528 people, exactly 1668 males and 1860 females
3233 # each!  (Yikes!)
3234 # https://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Srednekolymsky_District&oldid=603435276
3235 # https://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Verkhnekolymsky_District&oldid=594378493
3236 # Assume this is a mistake, albeit an amusing one.
3237 #
3238 # Looking at censuses, the populations of the two municipalities seem to have
3239 # fluctuated recently.  Zyryanka was more populous than Srednekolymsk in the
3240 # 1989 and 2002 censuses, but Srednekolymsk was more populous in the most
3241 # recent (2010) census, 3525 to 3170.  (See pages 195 and 197 of
3242 # http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/Documents/Vol1/pub-01-05.pdf
3243 # in Russian.)  In addition, Srednekolymsk appears to be a much older
3244 # settlement and the population of Zyryanka seems to be declining.
3245 # Go with Srednekolymsk.
3246 
3247 Zone Asia/Srednekolymsk 10:14:52 -      LMT     1924 May  2
3248                         10:00   -       +10     1930 Jun 21
3249                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3250                         10:00   Russia  +10/+11 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3251                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3252                         12:00   -       +12     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3253                         11:00   -       +11
3254 
3255 
3256 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
3257 # Asia/Ust-Nera covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
3258 # 14-22 ****    Oymyakonsky District
3259 
3260 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09):
3261 # Ojmyakonskij [and the Kuril Islands] switched from
3262 # Magadan time to Vladivostok time in 2011.
3263 #
3264 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02):
3265 # It's unlikely that any of the Kuril Islands were involved in such a switch,
3266 # as the South and Middle Kurils have been on UTC+11 (SAKT) with the rest of
3267 # Sakhalin Oblast since at least 2011-09, and the North Kurils have been on
3268 # UTC+12 since at least then, too.
3269 
3270 Zone Asia/Ust-Nera       9:32:54 -      LMT     1919 Dec 15
3271                          8:00   -       +08     1930 Jun 21
3272                          9:00   Russia  +09/+10 1981 Apr  1
3273                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3274                         10:00   Russia  +10/+11 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3275                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3276                         12:00   -       +12     2011 Sep 13  0:00s # Decree 725?
3277                         11:00   -       +11     2014 Oct 26  2:00s
3278                         10:00   -       +10
3279 
3280 
3281 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
3282 # Asia/Kamchatka covers...
3283 # 91    RU-KAM  Kamchatka Krai
3284 #
3285 # Note: Effective 2007-07-01, (41) Kamchatka Oblast and (82) Koryak
3286 # Autonomous Okrug merged to form (91, RU-KAM) Kamchatka Krai.
3287 
3288 # The Zone name should be Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski or perhaps
3289 # Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, but these are too long.
3290 Zone Asia/Kamchatka     10:34:36 -      LMT     1922 Nov 10
3291                         11:00   -       +11     1930 Jun 21
3292                         12:00   Russia  +12/+13 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3293                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3294                         12:00   Russia  +12/+13 2010 Mar 28  2:00s
3295                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3296                         12:00   -       +12
3297 
3298 
3299 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
3300 # Asia/Anadyr covers...
3301 # 87    RU-CHU  Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
3302 
3303 Zone Asia/Anadyr        11:49:56 -      LMT     1924 May  2
3304                         12:00   -       +12     1930 Jun 21
3305                         13:00   Russia  +13/+14 1982 Apr  1  0:00s
3306                         12:00   Russia  +12/+13 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3307                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3308                         12:00   Russia  +12/+13 2010 Mar 28  2:00s
3309                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3310                         12:00   -       +12
3311 
3312 
3313 # San Marino
3314 # See Europe/Rome.
3315 
3316 # Serbia
3317 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3318 Zone    Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 -       LMT     1884
3319                         1:00    -       CET     1941 Apr 18 23:00
3320                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945
3321                         1:00    -       CET     1945 May  8  2:00s
3322                         1:00    1:00    CEST    1945 Sep 16  2:00s
3323 # Metod Koželj reports that the legal date of
3324 # transition to EU rules was 1982-11-27, for all of Yugoslavia at the time.
3325 # Shanks & Pottenger don't give as much detail, so go with Koželj.
3326                         1:00    -       CET     1982 Nov 27
3327                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
3328 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Ljubljana   # Slovenia
3329 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Podgorica   # Montenegro
3330 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Sarajevo    # Bosnia and Herzegovina
3331 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Skopje      # Macedonia
3332 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Zagreb      # Croatia
3333 
3334 # Slovakia
3335 Link Europe/Prague Europe/Bratislava
3336 
3337 # Slovenia
3338 # See Europe/Belgrade.
3339 
3340 # Spain
3341 #
3342 # From Paul Eggert (2016-12-14):
3343 #
3344 # The source for Europe/Madrid before 2013 is:
3345 # Planesas P. La hora oficial en España y sus cambios.
3346 # Anuario del Observatorio Astronómico de Madrid (2013, in Spanish).
3347 # http://astronomia.ign.es/rknowsys-theme/images/webAstro/paginas/documentos/Anuario/lahoraoficialenespana.pdf
3348 # As this source says that historical time in the Canaries is obscure,
3349 # and it does not discuss Ceuta, stick with Shanks for now for that data.
3350 #
3351 # In the 1918 and 1919 fallback transitions in Spain, the clock for
3352 # the hour-longer day officially kept going after midnight, so that
3353 # the repeated instances of that day's 00:00 hour were 24 hours apart,
3354 # with a fallback transition from the second occurrence of 00:59... to
3355 # the next day's 00:00.  Our data format cannot represent this
3356 # directly, and instead repeats the first hour of the next day, with a
3357 # fallback transition from the next day's 00:59... to 00:00.
3358 
3359 # From Michael Deckers (2016-12-15):
3360 # The Royal Decree of 1900-06-26 quoted by Planesas, online at
3361 # https://www.boe.es/datos/pdfs/BOE//1900/209/A00383-00384.pdf
3362 # says in its article 5 (my translation):
3363 # These dispositions will enter into force beginning with the
3364 # instant at which, according to the time indicated in article 1,
3365 # the 1st day of January of 1901 will begin.
3366 
3367 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3368 Rule    Spain   1918    only    -       Apr     15      23:00   1:00    S
3369 Rule    Spain   1918    1919    -       Oct      6      24:00s  0       -
3370 Rule    Spain   1919    only    -       Apr      6      23:00   1:00    S
3371 Rule    Spain   1924    only    -       Apr     16      23:00   1:00    S
3372 Rule    Spain   1924    only    -       Oct      4      24:00s  0       -
3373 Rule    Spain   1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00   1:00    S
3374 Rule    Spain   1926    1929    -       Oct     Sat>=1       24:00s  0       -
3375 Rule    Spain   1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00   1:00    S
3376 Rule    Spain   1928    only    -       Apr     15       0:00   1:00    S
3377 Rule    Spain   1929    only    -       Apr     20      23:00   1:00    S
3378 # Republican Spain during the civil war; it controlled Madrid until 1939-03-28.
3379 Rule    Spain   1937    only    -       Jun     16      23:00   1:00    S
3380 Rule    Spain   1937    only    -       Oct      2      24:00s  0       -
3381 Rule    Spain   1938    only    -       Apr      2      23:00   1:00    S
3382 Rule    Spain   1938    only    -       Apr     30      23:00   2:00    M
3383 Rule    Spain   1938    only    -       Oct      2      24:00   1:00    S
3384 # The following rules are for unified Spain again.
3385 #
3386 # Planesas does not say what happened in Madrid between its fall on
3387 # 1939-03-28 and the Nationalist spring-forward transition on
3388 # 1939-04-15.  For lack of better info, assume Madrid's clocks did not
3389 # change during that period.
3390 #
3391 # The first rule is commented out, as it is redundant for Republican Spain.
3392 #Rule   Spain   1939    only    -       Apr     15      23:00   1:00    S
3393 Rule    Spain   1939    only    -       Oct      7      24:00s  0       -
3394 Rule    Spain   1942    only    -       May      2      23:00   1:00    S
3395 Rule    Spain   1942    only    -       Sep      1       1:00   0       -
3396 Rule    Spain   1943    1946    -       Apr     Sat>=13      23:00   1:00    S
3397 Rule    Spain   1943    1944    -       Oct     Sun>=1        1:00   0       -
3398 Rule    Spain   1945    1946    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00   0       -
3399 Rule    Spain   1949    only    -       Apr     30      23:00   1:00    S
3400 Rule    Spain   1949    only    -       Oct      2       1:00   0       -
3401 Rule    Spain   1974    1975    -       Apr     Sat>=12      23:00   1:00    S
3402 Rule    Spain   1974    1975    -       Oct     Sun>=1        1:00   0       -
3403 Rule    Spain   1976    only    -       Mar     27      23:00   1:00    S
3404 Rule    Spain   1976    1977    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00   0       -
3405 Rule    Spain   1977    only    -       Apr      2      23:00   1:00    S
3406 Rule    Spain   1978    only    -       Apr      2       2:00s  1:00    S
3407 Rule    Spain   1978    only    -       Oct      1       2:00s  0       -
3408 # Nationalist Spain during the civil war
3409 #Rule NatSpain  1937    only    -       May     22      23:00   1:00    S
3410 #Rule NatSpain  1937    1938    -       Oct     Sat>=1       24:00s  0       -
3411 #Rule NatSpain  1938    only    -       Mar     26      23:00   1:00    S
3412 # The following rules are copied from Morocco from 1967 through 1978.
3413 Rule SpainAfrica 1967   only    -       Jun      3      12:00   1:00    S
3414 Rule SpainAfrica 1967   only    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       -
3415 Rule SpainAfrica 1974   only    -       Jun     24       0:00   1:00    S
3416 Rule SpainAfrica 1974   only    -       Sep      1       0:00   0       -
3417 Rule SpainAfrica 1976   1977    -       May      1       0:00   1:00    S
3418 Rule SpainAfrica 1976   only    -       Aug      1       0:00   0       -
3419 Rule SpainAfrica 1977   only    -       Sep     28       0:00   0       -
3420 Rule SpainAfrica 1978   only    -       Jun      1       0:00   1:00    S
3421 Rule SpainAfrica 1978   only    -       Aug      4       0:00   0       -
3422 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3423 Zone    Europe/Madrid   -0:14:44 -      LMT     1900 Dec 31 23:45:16
3424                          0:00   Spain   WE%sT   1940 Mar 16 23:00
3425                          1:00   Spain   CE%sT   1979
3426                          1:00   EU      CE%sT
3427 Zone    Africa/Ceuta    -0:21:16 -      LMT     1900 Dec 31 23:38:44
3428                          0:00   -       WET     1918 May  6 23:00
3429                          0:00   1:00    WEST    1918 Oct  7 23:00
3430                          0:00   -       WET     1924
3431                          0:00   Spain   WE%sT   1929
3432                          0:00 SpainAfrica WE%sT 1984 Mar 16
3433                          1:00   -       CET     1986
3434                          1:00   EU      CE%sT
3435 Zone    Atlantic/Canary -1:01:36 -      LMT     1922 Mar # Las Palmas de Gran C.
3436                         -1:00   -       -01     1946 Sep 30  1:00
3437                          0:00   -       WET     1980 Apr  6  0:00s
3438                          0:00   1:00    WEST    1980 Sep 28  1:00u
3439                          0:00   EU      WE%sT
3440 # IATA SSIM (1996-09) says the Canaries switch at 2:00u, not 1:00u.
3441 # Ignore this for now, as the Canaries are part of the EU.
3442 
3443 # Sweden
3444 
3445 # From Ivan Nilsson (2001-04-13), superseding Shanks & Pottenger:
3446 #
3447 # The law "Svensk författningssamling 1878, no 14" about standard time in 1879:
3448 # From the beginning of 1879 (that is 01-01 00:00) the time for all
3449 # places in the country is "the mean solar time for the meridian at
3450 # three degrees, or twelve minutes of time, to the west of the
3451 # meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm".  The law is dated 1878-05-31.
3452 #
3453 # The observatory at that time had the meridian 18 degrees 03' 30"
3454 # eastern longitude = 01:12:14 in time.  Less 12 minutes gives the
3455 # national standard time as 01:00:14 ahead of GMT....
3456 #
3457 # About the beginning of CET in Sweden. The lawtext ("Svensk
3458 # författningssamling 1899, no 44") states, that "from the beginning
3459 # of 1900... ... the same as the mean solar time for the meridian at
3460 # the distance of one hour of time from the meridian of the English
3461 # observatory at Greenwich, or at 12 minutes 14 seconds to the west
3462 # from the meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm". The law is dated
3463 # 1899-06-16.  In short: At 1900-01-01 00:00:00 the new standard time
3464 # in Sweden is 01:00:00 ahead of GMT.
3465 #
3466 # 1916: The lawtext ("Svensk författningssamling 1916, no 124") states
3467 # that "1916-05-15 is considered to begin one hour earlier". It is
3468 # pretty obvious that at 05-14 23:00 the clocks are set to 05-15 00:00....
3469 # Further the law says, that "1916-09-30 is considered to end one hour later".
3470 #
3471 # The laws regulating [DST] are available on the site of the Swedish
3472 # Parliament beginning with 1985 - the laws regulating 1980/1984 are
3473 # not available on the site (to my knowledge they are only available
3474 # in Swedish): <http://www.riksdagen.se/english/work/sfst.asp> (type
3475 # "sommartid" without the quotes in the field "Fritext" and then click
3476 # the Sök-button).
3477 #
3478 # (2001-05-13):
3479 #
3480 # I have now found a newspaper stating that at 1916-10-01 01:00
3481 # summertime the church-clocks etc were set back one hour to show
3482 # 1916-10-01 00:00 standard time.  The article also reports that some
3483 # people thought the switch to standard time would take place already
3484 # at 1916-10-01 00:00 summer time, but they had to wait for another
3485 # hour before the event took place.
3486 #
3487 # Source: The newspaper "Dagens Nyheter", 1916-10-01, page 7 upper left.
3488 
3489 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3490 Zone Europe/Stockholm   1:12:12 -       LMT     1879 Jan  1
3491                         1:00:14 -       SET     1900 Jan  1 # Swedish Time
3492                         1:00    -       CET     1916 May 14 23:00
3493                         1:00    1:00    CEST    1916 Oct  1  1:00
3494                         1:00    -       CET     1980
3495                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
3496 
3497 # Switzerland
3498 # From Howse:
3499 # By the end of the 18th century clocks and watches became commonplace
3500 # and their performance improved enormously.  Communities began to keep
3501 # mean time in preference to apparent time - Geneva from 1780 ....
3502 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3503 # From Whitman (who writes "Midnight?"):
3504 # Rule  Swiss   1940    only    -       Nov      2      0:00    1:00    S
3505 # Rule  Swiss   1940    only    -       Dec     31      0:00    0       -
3506 # From Shanks & Pottenger:
3507 # Rule  Swiss   1941    1942    -       May     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    S
3508 # Rule  Swiss   1941    1942    -       Oct     Sun>=1       0:00    0       -
3509 
3510 # From Alois Treindl (2008-12-17):
3511 # I have researched the DST usage in Switzerland during the 1940ies.
3512 #
3513 # As I wrote in an earlier message, I suspected the current tzdata values
3514 # to be wrong. This is now verified.
3515 #
3516 # I have found copies of the original ruling by the Swiss Federal
3517 # government, in 'Eidgenössische Gesetzessammlung 1941 and 1942' (Swiss
3518 # federal law collection)...
3519 #
3520 # DST began on Monday 5 May 1941, 1:00 am by shifting the clocks to 2:00 am
3521 # DST ended on Monday 6 Oct 1941, 2:00 am by shifting the clocks to 1:00 am.
3522 #
3523 # DST began on Monday, 4 May 1942 at 01:00 am
3524 # DST ended on Monday, 5 Oct 1942 at 02:00 am
3525 #
3526 # There was no DST in 1940, I have checked the law collection carefully.
3527 # It is also indicated by the fact that the 1942 entry in the law
3528 # collection points back to 1941 as a reference, but no reference to any
3529 # other years are made.
3530 #
3531 # Newspaper articles I have read in the archives on 6 May 1941 reported
3532 # about the introduction of DST (Sommerzeit in German) during the previous
3533 # night as an absolute novelty, because this was the first time that such
3534 # a thing had happened in Switzerland.
3535 #
3536 # I have also checked 1916, because one book source (Gabriel, Traité de
3537 # l'heure dans le monde) claims that Switzerland had DST in 1916. This is
3538 # false, no official document could be found. Probably Gabriel got misled
3539 # by references to Germany, which introduced DST in 1916 for the first time.
3540 #
3541 # The tzdata rules for Switzerland must be changed to:
3542 # Rule  Swiss   1941    1942    -       May     Mon>=1  1:00    1:00    S
3543 # Rule  Swiss   1941    1942    -       Oct     Mon>=1  2:00    0       -
3544 #
3545 # The 1940 rules must be deleted.
3546 #
3547 # One further detail for Switzerland, which is probably out of scope for
3548 # most users of tzdata: The [Europe/Zurich zone] ...
3549 # describes all of Switzerland correctly, with the exception of
3550 # the Canton de Genève (Geneva, Genf). Between 1848 and 1894 Geneva did not
3551 # follow Bern Mean Time but kept its own local mean time.
3552 # To represent this, an extra zone would be needed.
3553 #
3554 # From Alois Treindl (2013-09-11):
3555 # The Federal regulations say
3556 # https://www.admin.ch/opc/de/classified-compilation/20071096/index.html
3557 # ... the meridian for Bern mean time ... is 7 degrees 26' 22.50".
3558 # Expressed in time, it is 0h29m45.5s.
3559 
3560 # From Pierre-Yves Berger (2013-09-11):
3561 # the "Circulaire du conseil fédéral" (December 11 1893)
3562 # http://www.amtsdruckschriften.bar.admin.ch/viewOrigDoc.do?id=10071353
3563 # clearly states that the [1894-06-01] change should be done at midnight
3564 # but if no one is present after 11 at night, could be postponed until one
3565 # hour before the beginning of service.
3566 
3567 # From Paul Eggert (2013-09-11):
3568 # Round BMT to the nearest even second, 0:29:46.
3569 #
3570 # We can find no reliable source for Shanks's assertion that all of Switzerland
3571 # except Geneva switched to Bern Mean Time at 00:00 on 1848-09-12.  This book:
3572 #
3573 #       Jakob Messerli. Gleichmässig, pünktlich, schnell. Zeiteinteilung und
3574 #       Zeitgebrauch in der Schweiz im 19. Jahrhundert. Chronos, Zurich 1995,
3575 #       ISBN 3-905311-68-2, OCLC 717570797.
3576 #
3577 # suggests that the transition was more gradual, and that the Swiss did not
3578 # agree about civil time during the transition.  The timekeeping it gives the
3579 # most detail for is postal and telegraph time: here, federal legislation (the
3580 # "Bundesgesetz über die Erstellung von elektrischen Telegraphen") passed on
3581 # 1851-11-23, and an official implementation notice was published 1853-07-16
3582 # (Bundesblatt 1853, Bd. II, S. 859).  On p 72 Messerli writes that in
3583 # practice since July 1853 Bernese time was used in "all postal and telegraph
3584 # offices in Switzerland from Geneva to St. Gallen and Basel to Chiasso"
3585 # (Google translation).  For now, model this transition as occurring on
3586 # 1853-07-16, though it probably occurred at some other date in Zurich, and
3587 # legal civil time probably changed at still some other transition date.
3588 
3589 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3590 Rule    Swiss   1941    1942    -       May     Mon>=1       1:00    1:00    S
3591 Rule    Swiss   1941    1942    -       Oct     Mon>=1       2:00    0       -
3592 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3593 Zone    Europe/Zurich   0:34:08 -       LMT     1853 Jul 16 # See above comment.
3594                         0:29:46 -       BMT     1894 Jun    # Bern Mean Time
3595                         1:00    Swiss   CE%sT   1981
3596                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
3597 
3598 # Turkey
3599 
3600 # From Kıvanç Yazan (2016-09-25):
3601 # 1) For 1986-2006, DST started at 01:00 local and ended at 02:00 local, with
3602 #    no exceptions.
3603 # 2) 1994's lastSun was overridden with Mar 20 ...
3604 # Here are official papers:
3605 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/19032.pdf  - page 2 for 1986
3606 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/19400.pdf  - page 4 for 1987
3607 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/19752.pdf  - page 15 for 1988
3608 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/20102.pdf  - page 6 for 1989
3609 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/20464.pdf  - page 1 for 1990 - 1992
3610 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/21531.pdf  - page 15 for 1993 - 1995
3611 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/21879.pdf  - page 1 for overriding 1994
3612 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/22588.pdf  - page 1 for 1996, 1997
3613 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/23286.pdf  - page 10 for 1998 - 2000
3614 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2001/03/20010324.htm#2  - for 2001
3615 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2002/03/20020316.htm#2  - for 2002-2006
3616 # From Paul Eggert (2016-09-25):
3617 # Prefer the above sources to Shanks & Pottenger for time stamps after 1985.
3618 
3619 # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-03-09):
3620 # Starting 2007 though, it seems that they are adopting EU's 1:00 UTC
3621 # start/end time, according to the following page (2007-03-07):
3622 # http://www.ntvmsnbc.com/news/402029.asp
3623 # The official document is located here - it is in Turkish...:
3624 # http://rega.basbakanlik.gov.tr/eskiler/2007/03/20070307-7.htm
3625 # I was able to locate the following seemingly official document
3626 # (on a non-government server though) describing dates between 2002 and 2006:
3627 # http://www.alomaliye.com/bkk_2002_3769.htm
3628 
3629 # From Gökdeniz Karadağ (2011-03-10):
3630 # According to the articles linked below, Turkey will change into summer
3631 # time zone (GMT+3) on March 28, 2011 at 3:00 a.m. instead of March 27.
3632 # This change is due to a nationwide exam on 27th.
3633 # https://www.worldbulletin.net/?aType=haber&ArticleID=70872
3634 # Turkish:
3635 # https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/yaz-saati-uygulamasi-bir-gun-ileri-alindi-17230464
3636 
3637 # From Faruk Pasin (2014-02-14):
3638 # The DST for Turkey has been changed for this year because of the
3639 # Turkish Local election....
3640 # http://www.sabah.com.tr/Ekonomi/2014/02/12/yaz-saatinde-onemli-degisiklik
3641 # ... so Turkey will move clocks forward one hour on March 31 at 3:00 a.m.
3642 # From Randal L. Schwartz (2014-04-15):
3643 # Having landed on a flight from the states to Istanbul (via AMS) on March 31,
3644 # I can tell you that NOBODY (even the airlines) respected this timezone DST
3645 # change delay.  Maybe the word just didn't get out in time.
3646 # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-15):
3647 # The press reported massive confusion, as election officials obeyed the rule
3648 # change but cell phones (and airline baggage systems) did not.  See:
3649 # Kostidis M. Eventful elections in Turkey. Balkan News Agency
3650 # http://www.balkaneu.com/eventful-elections-turkey/ 2014-03-30.
3651 # I guess the best we can do is document the official time.
3652 
3653 # From Fatih (2015-09-29):
3654 # It's officially announced now by the Ministry of Energy.
3655 # Turkey delays winter time to 8th of November 04:00
3656 # http://www.aa.com.tr/tr/turkiye/yaz-saati-uygulamasi-8-kasimda-sona-erecek/362217
3657 #
3658 # From BBC News (2015-10-25):
3659 # Confused Turks are asking "what's the time?" after automatic clocks defied a
3660 # government decision ... "For the next two weeks #Turkey is on EEST... Erdogan
3661 # Engineered Standard Time," said Twitter user @aysekarahasan.
3662 # http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-34631326
3663 
3664 # From Burak AYDIN (2016-09-08):
3665 # Turkey will stay in Daylight Saving Time even in winter....
3666 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2016/09/20160908-2.pdf
3667 #
3668 # From Paul Eggert (2016-09-07):
3669 # The change is permanent, so this is the new standard time in Turkey.
3670 # It takes effect today, which is not much notice.
3671 
3672 # From Kıvanç Yazan (2017-10-28):
3673 # Turkey will go back to Daylight Saving Time starting 2018-10.
3674 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2017/10/20171028-5.pdf
3675 #
3676 # From Even Scharning (2017-11-08):
3677 # ... today it was announced that the DST will become "continuous":
3678 # http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/son-dakika-yaz-saati-uygulamasi-surekli-hale-geldi-40637482
3679 # From Paul Eggert (2017-11-08):
3680 # Although Google Translate misfires on that source, it looks like
3681 # Turkey reversed last month's decision, and so will stay at +03.
3682 
3683 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3684 Rule    Turkey  1916    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S
3685 Rule    Turkey  1916    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
3686 Rule    Turkey  1920    only    -       Mar     28      0:00    1:00    S
3687 Rule    Turkey  1920    only    -       Oct     25      0:00    0       -
3688 Rule    Turkey  1921    only    -       Apr      3      0:00    1:00    S
3689 Rule    Turkey  1921    only    -       Oct      3      0:00    0       -
3690 Rule    Turkey  1922    only    -       Mar     26      0:00    1:00    S
3691 Rule    Turkey  1922    only    -       Oct      8      0:00    0       -
3692 # Whitman gives 1923 Apr 28 - Sep 16 and no DST in 1924-1925;
3693 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
3694 Rule    Turkey  1924    only    -       May     13      0:00    1:00    S
3695 Rule    Turkey  1924    1925    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
3696 Rule    Turkey  1925    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S
3697 Rule    Turkey  1940    only    -       Jun     30      0:00    1:00    S
3698 Rule    Turkey  1940    only    -       Oct      5      0:00    0       -
3699 Rule    Turkey  1940    only    -       Dec      1      0:00    1:00    S
3700 Rule    Turkey  1941    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
3701 Rule    Turkey  1942    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
3702 # Whitman omits the next two transition and gives 1945 Oct 1;
3703 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
3704 Rule    Turkey  1942    only    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       -
3705 Rule    Turkey  1945    only    -       Apr      2      0:00    1:00    S
3706 Rule    Turkey  1945    only    -       Oct      8      0:00    0       -
3707 Rule    Turkey  1946    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    S
3708 Rule    Turkey  1946    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
3709 Rule    Turkey  1947    1948    -       Apr     Sun>=16      0:00    1:00    S
3710 Rule    Turkey  1947    1950    -       Oct     Sun>=2       0:00    0       -
3711 Rule    Turkey  1949    only    -       Apr     10      0:00    1:00    S
3712 Rule    Turkey  1950    only    -       Apr     19      0:00    1:00    S
3713 Rule    Turkey  1951    only    -       Apr     22      0:00    1:00    S
3714 Rule    Turkey  1951    only    -       Oct      8      0:00    0       -
3715 Rule    Turkey  1962    only    -       Jul     15      0:00    1:00    S
3716 Rule    Turkey  1962    only    -       Oct      8      0:00    0       -
3717 Rule    Turkey  1964    only    -       May     15      0:00    1:00    S
3718 Rule    Turkey  1964    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
3719 Rule    Turkey  1970    1972    -       May     Sun>=2       0:00    1:00    S
3720 Rule    Turkey  1970    1972    -       Oct     Sun>=2       0:00    0       -
3721 Rule    Turkey  1973    only    -       Jun      3      1:00    1:00    S
3722 Rule    Turkey  1973    only    -       Nov      4      3:00    0       -
3723 Rule    Turkey  1974    only    -       Mar     31      2:00    1:00    S
3724 Rule    Turkey  1974    only    -       Nov      3      5:00    0       -
3725 Rule    Turkey  1975    only    -       Mar     30      0:00    1:00    S
3726 Rule    Turkey  1975    1976    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       -
3727 Rule    Turkey  1976    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    S
3728 Rule    Turkey  1977    1978    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    S
3729 Rule    Turkey  1977    only    -       Oct     16      0:00    0       -
3730 Rule    Turkey  1979    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1       3:00    1:00    S
3731 Rule    Turkey  1979    1982    -       Oct     Mon>=11      0:00    0       -
3732 Rule    Turkey  1981    1982    -       Mar     lastSun 3:00    1:00    S
3733 Rule    Turkey  1983    only    -       Jul     31      0:00    1:00    S
3734 Rule    Turkey  1983    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       -
3735 Rule    Turkey  1985    only    -       Apr     20      0:00    1:00    S
3736 Rule    Turkey  1985    only    -       Sep     28      0:00    0       -
3737 Rule    Turkey  1986    1993    -       Mar     lastSun 1:00s   1:00    S
3738 Rule    Turkey  1986    1995    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00s   0       -
3739 Rule    Turkey  1994    only    -       Mar     20      1:00s   1:00    S
3740 Rule    Turkey  1995    2006    -       Mar     lastSun 1:00s   1:00    S
3741 Rule    Turkey  1996    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 1:00s   0       -
3742 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3743 Zone    Europe/Istanbul 1:55:52 -       LMT     1880
3744                         1:56:56 -       IMT     1910 Oct # Istanbul Mean Time?
3745                         2:00    Turkey  EE%sT   1978 Oct 15
3746                         3:00    Turkey  +03/+04 1985 Apr 20
3747                         2:00    Turkey  EE%sT   2007
3748                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   2011 Mar 27  1:00u
3749                         2:00    -       EET     2011 Mar 28  1:00u
3750                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   2014 Mar 30  1:00u
3751                         2:00    -       EET     2014 Mar 31  1:00u
3752                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   2015 Oct 25  1:00u
3753                         2:00    1:00    EEST    2015 Nov  8  1:00u
3754                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   2016 Sep  7
3755                         3:00    -       +03
3756 Link    Europe/Istanbul Asia/Istanbul   # Istanbul is in both continents.
3757 
3758 # Ukraine
3759 #
3760 # From Igor Karpov, who works for the Ukrainian Ministry of Justice,
3761 # via Garrett Wollman (2003-01-27):
3762 # BTW, I've found the official document on this matter. It's government
3763 # regulations No. 509, May 13, 1996. In my poor translation it says:
3764 # "Time in Ukraine is set to second timezone (Kiev time). Each last Sunday
3765 # of March at 3am the time is changing to 4am and each last Sunday of
3766 # October the time at 4am is changing to 3am"
3767 
3768 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-09-20):
3769 # On September 20, 2011 the deputies of the Verkhovna Rada agreed to
3770 # abolish the transfer clock to winter time.
3771 #
3772 # Bill No. 8330 of MP from the Party of Regions Oleg Nadoshi got
3773 # approval from 266 deputies.
3774 #
3775 # Ukraine abolishes transfer back to the winter time (in Russian)
3776 # http://news.mail.ru/politics/6861560/
3777 #
3778 # The Ukrainians will no longer change the clock (in Russian)
3779 # http://www.segodnya.ua/news/14290482.html
3780 #
3781 # Deputies cancelled the winter time (in Russian)
3782 # https://www.pravda.com.ua/rus/news/2011/09/20/6600616/
3783 #
3784 # From Philip Pizzey (2011-10-18):
3785 # Today my Ukrainian colleagues have informed me that the
3786 # Ukrainian parliament have decided that they will go to winter
3787 # time this year after all.
3788 #
3789 # From Udo Schwedt (2011-10-18):
3790 # As far as I understand, the recent change to the Ukrainian time zone
3791 # (Europe/Kiev) to introduce permanent daylight saving time (similar
3792 # to Russia) was reverted today:
3793 # http://portal.rada.gov.ua/rada/control/en/publish/article/info_left?art_id=287324&cat_id=105995
3794 #
3795 # Also reported by Alexander Bokovoy (2011-10-18) who also noted:
3796 # The law documents themselves are at
3797 # http://w1.c1.rada.gov.ua/pls/zweb_n/webproc4_1?id=&pf3511=41484
3798 
3799 # From Vladimir in Moscow via Alois Treindl re Kiev time 1991/2 (2014-02-28):
3800 # First in Ukraine they changed Time zone from UTC+3 to UTC+2 with DST:
3801 #       03 25 1990 02:00 -03.00 1       Time Zone 3 with DST
3802 #       07 01 1990 02:00 -02.00 1       Time Zone 2 with DST
3803 # * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 18.06.1990, No. 134.
3804 # http://search.ligazakon.ua/l_doc2.nsf/link1/T001500.html
3805 #
3806 # They did not end DST in September, 1990 (according to the law,
3807 # "summer time" was still in action):
3808 #       09 30 1990 03:00 -02.00 1       Time Zone 2 with DST
3809 # * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 21.09.1990, No. 272.
3810 # http://search.ligazakon.ua/l_doc2.nsf/link1/KP900272.html
3811 #
3812 # Again no change in March, 1991 ("summer time" in action):
3813 #       03 31 1991 02:00 -02.00 1       Time Zone 2 with DST
3814 #
3815 # DST ended in September 1991 ("summer time" ended):
3816 #       09 29 1991 03:00 -02.00 0       Time Zone 2, no DST
3817 # * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 25.09.1991, No. 225.
3818 # http://www.uazakon.com/documents/date_21/pg_iwgdoc.htm
3819 # This is an answer.
3820 #
3821 # Since 1992 they had normal DST procedure:
3822 #       03 29 1992 02:00 -02.00 1       DST started
3823 #       09 27 1992 03:00 -02.00 0       DST ended
3824 # * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 20.03.1992, No. 139.
3825 # http://www.uazakon.com/documents/date_8u/pg_grcasa.htm
3826 
3827 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3828 # Most of Ukraine since 1970 has been like Kiev.
3829 # "Kyiv" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but
3830 # "Kiev" is more common in English.
3831 Zone Europe/Kiev        2:02:04 -       LMT     1880
3832                         2:02:04 -       KMT     1924 May  2 # Kiev Mean Time
3833                         2:00    -       EET     1930 Jun 21
3834                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Sep 20
3835                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1943 Nov  6
3836                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990 Jul  1  2:00
3837                         2:00    1:00    EEST    1991 Sep 29  3:00
3838                         2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1995
3839                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
3840 # Ruthenia used CET 1990/1991.
3841 # "Uzhhorod" is the transliteration of the Rusyn/Ukrainian pronunciation, but
3842 # "Uzhgorod" is more common in English.
3843 Zone Europe/Uzhgorod    1:29:12 -       LMT     1890 Oct
3844                         1:00    -       CET     1940
3845                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Oct
3846                         1:00    1:00    CEST    1944 Oct 26
3847                         1:00    -       CET     1945 Jun 29
3848                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990
3849                         3:00    -       MSK     1990 Jul  1  2:00
3850                         1:00    -       CET     1991 Mar 31  3:00
3851                         2:00    -       EET     1992
3852                         2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1995
3853                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
3854 # Zaporozh'ye and eastern Lugansk oblasts observed DST 1990/1991.
3855 # "Zaporizhia" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but
3856 # "Zaporozh'ye" is more common in English.  Use the common English
3857 # spelling, except omit the apostrophe as it is not allowed in
3858 # portable Posix file names.
3859 Zone Europe/Zaporozhye  2:20:40 -       LMT     1880
3860                         2:20    -       +0220   1924 May  2
3861                         2:00    -       EET     1930 Jun 21
3862                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Aug 25
3863                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1943 Oct 25
3864                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31  2:00
3865                         2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1995
3866                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
3867 
3868 # Vatican City
3869 # See Europe/Rome.
3870 
3871 ###############################################################################
3872 
3873 # One source shows that Bulgaria, Cyprus, Finland, and Greece observe DST from
3874 # the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in September in 1986.
3875 # The source shows Romania changing a day later than everybody else.
3876 #
3877 # According to Bernard Sieloff's source, Poland is in the MET time zone but
3878 # uses the WE DST rules.  The Western USSR uses EET+1 and ME DST rules.
3879 # Bernard Sieloff's source claims Romania switches on the same day, but at
3880 # 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST).  It also claims that Turkey
3881 # switches on the same day, but switches on at 01:00 standard time
3882 # and off at 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST)
3883 
3884 # ...
3885 # Date: Wed, 28 Jan 87 16:56:27 -0100
3886 # From: Tom Hofmann
3887 # ...
3888 #
3889 # ...the European time rules are...standardized since 1981, when
3890 # most European countries started DST.  Before that year, only
3891 # a few countries (UK, France, Italy) had DST, each according
3892 # to own national rules.  In 1981, however, DST started on
3893 # 'Apr firstSun', and not on 'Mar lastSun' as in the following
3894 # years...
3895 # But also since 1981 there are some more national exceptions
3896 # than listed in 'europe': Switzerland, for example, joined DST
3897 # one year later, Denmark ended DST on 'Oct 1' instead of 'Sep
3898 # lastSun' in 1981 - I don't know how they handle now.
3899 #
3900 # Finally, DST ist always from 'Apr 1' to 'Oct 1' in the
3901 # Soviet Union (as far as I know).
3902 #
3903 # Tom Hofmann, Scientific Computer Center, CIBA-GEIGY AG,
3904 # 4002 Basle, Switzerland
3905 # ...
3906 
3907 # ...
3908 # Date: Wed, 4 Feb 87 22:35:22 +0100
3909 # From: Dik T. Winter
3910 # ...
3911 #
3912 # The information from Tom Hofmann is (as far as I know) not entirely correct.
3913 # After a request from chongo at amdahl I tried to retrieve all information
3914 # about DST in Europe.  I was able to find all from about 1969.
3915 #
3916 # ...standardization on DST in Europe started in about 1977 with switches on
3917 # first Sunday in April and last Sunday in September...
3918 # In 1981 UK joined Europe insofar that
3919 # the starting day for both shifted to last Sunday in March.  And from 1982
3920 # the whole of Europe used DST, with switch dates April 1 and October 1 in
3921 # the Sov[i]et Union.  In 1985 the SU reverted to standard Europe[a]n switch
3922 # dates...
3923 #
3924 # It should also be remembered that time-zones are not constants; e.g.
3925 # Portugal switched in 1976 from MET (or CET) to WET with DST...
3926 # Note also that though there were rules for switch dates not
3927 # all countries abided to these dates, and many individual deviations
3928 # occurred, though not since 1982 I believe.  Another note: it is always
3929 # assumed that DST is 1 hour ahead of normal time, this need not be the
3930 # case; at least in the Netherlands there have been times when DST was 2 hours
3931 # in advance of normal time.
3932 #
3933 # ...
3934 # dik t. winter, cwi, amsterdam, nederland
3935 # ...
3936 
3937 # From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
3938 # ...
3939 # Greece: Last Sunday in April to last Sunday in September (iffy on dates).
3940 # Since 1978.  Change at midnight.
3941 # ...
3942 # Monaco: has same DST as France.
3943 # ...
--- EOF ---