1 #
   2 # DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
   3 #
   4 # This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   5 # under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
   6 # published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
   7 # particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
   8 # by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
   9 #
  10 # This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  11 # ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  12 # FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  13 # version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  14 # accompanied this code).
  15 #
  16 # You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  17 # 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  18 # Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  19 #
  20 # Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  21 # or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  22 # questions.
  23 #
  24 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
  25 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
  26 
  27 # also includes Central America and the Caribbean
  28 
  29 # This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
  30 # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
  31 # tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
  32 # the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
  33 
  34 # From Paul Eggert (1999-03-22):
  35 # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
  36 # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
  37 
  38 ###############################################################################
  39 
  40 # United States
  41 
  42 # From Paul Eggert (1999-03-31):
  43 # Howse writes (pp 121-125) that time zones were invented by
  44 # Professor Charles Ferdinand Dowd (1825-1904),
  45 # Principal of Temple Grove Ladies' Seminary (Saratoga Springs, NY).
  46 # His pamphlet "A System of National Time for Railroads" (1870)
  47 # was the result of his proposals at the Convention of Railroad Trunk Lines
  48 # in New York City (1869-10).  His 1870 proposal was based on Washington, DC,
  49 # but in 1872-05 he moved the proposed origin to Greenwich.
  50 
  51 # From Paul Eggert (2016-09-21):
  52 # Dowd's proposal left many details unresolved, such as where to draw
  53 # lines between time zones.  The key individual who made time zones
  54 # work in the US was William Frederick Allen - railway engineer,
  55 # managing editor of the Travelers' Guide, and secretary of the
  56 # General Time Convention, a railway standardization group.  Allen
  57 # spent months in dialogs with scientific and railway leaders,
  58 # developed a workable plan to institute time zones, and presented it
  59 # to the General Time Convention on 1883-04-11, saying that his plan
  60 # meant "local time would be practically abolished" - a plus for
  61 # railway scheduling.  By the next convention on 1883-10-11 nearly all
  62 # railroads had agreed and it took effect on 1883-11-18 at 12:00.
  63 # That Sunday was called the "day of two noons", as the eastern parts
  64 # of the new zones observed noon twice.  Allen witnessed the
  65 # transition in New York City, writing:
  66 #
  67 #   I heard the bells of St. Paul's strike on the old time.  Four
  68 #   minutes later, obedient to the electrical signal from the Naval
  69 #   Observatory ... the time-ball made its rapid descent, the chimes
  70 #   of old Trinity rang twelve measured strokes, and local time was
  71 #   abandoned, probably forever.
  72 #
  73 # Most of the US soon followed suit.  See:
  74 # Bartky IR. The adoption of standard time. Technol Cult 1989 Jan;30(1):25-56.
  75 # http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3105430
  76 
  77 # From Paul Eggert (2005-04-16):
  78 # That 1883 transition occurred at 12:00 new time, not at 12:00 old time.
  79 # See p 46 of David Prerau, Seize the daylight, Thunder's Mouth Press (2005).
  80 
  81 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
  82 # A good source for time zone historical data in the US is
  83 # Thomas G. Shanks, The American Atlas (5th edition),
  84 # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1991).
  85 # Make sure you have the errata sheet; the book is somewhat useless without it.
  86 # It is the source for most of the pre-1991 US entries below.
  87 
  88 # From Paul Eggert (2001-03-06):
  89 # Daylight Saving Time was first suggested as a joke by Benjamin Franklin
  90 # in his whimsical essay "An Economical Project for Diminishing the Cost
  91 # of Light" published in the Journal de Paris (1784-04-26).
  92 # Not everyone is happy with the results:
  93 #
  94 #       I don't really care how time is reckoned so long as there is some
  95 #       agreement about it, but I object to being told that I am saving
  96 #       daylight when my reason tells me that I am doing nothing of the kind.
  97 #       I even object to the implication that I am wasting something
  98 #       valuable if I stay in bed after the sun has risen.  As an admirer
  99 #       of moonlight I resent the bossy insistence of those who want to
 100 #       reduce my time for enjoying it.  At the back of the Daylight Saving
 101 #       scheme I detect the bony, blue-fingered hand of Puritanism, eager
 102 #       to push people into bed earlier, and get them up earlier, to make
 103 #       them healthy, wealthy and wise in spite of themselves.
 104 #
 105 #        -- Robertson Davies, The diary of Samuel Marchbanks,
 106 #          Clarke, Irwin (1947), XIX, Sunday
 107 #
 108 # For more about the first ten years of DST in the United States, see
 109 # Robert Garland, Ten years of daylight saving from the Pittsburgh standpoint
 110 # (Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, 1927).
 111 # http://www.clpgh.org/exhibit/dst.html
 112 #
 113 # Shanks says that DST was called "War Time" in the US in 1918 and 1919.
 114 # However, DST was imposed by the Standard Time Act of 1918, which
 115 # was the first nationwide legal time standard, and apparently
 116 # time was just called "Standard Time" or "Daylight Saving Time".
 117 
 118 # From Arthur David Olson:
 119 # US Daylight Saving Time ended on the last Sunday of *October* in 1974.
 120 # See, for example, the front page of the Saturday, 1974-10-26
 121 # and Sunday, 1974-10-27 editions of the Washington Post.
 122 
 123 # From Arthur David Olson:
 124 # Before the Uniform Time Act of 1966 took effect in 1967, observance of
 125 # Daylight Saving Time in the US was by local option, except during wartime.
 126 
 127 # From Arthur David Olson (2000-09-25):
 128 # Last night I heard part of a rebroadcast of a 1945 Arch Oboler radio drama.
 129 # In the introduction, Oboler spoke of "Eastern Peace Time."
 130 # An AltaVista search turned up:
 131 # https://web.archive.org/web/20000926032210/http://rowayton.org/rhs/hstaug45.html
 132 # "When the time is announced over the radio now, it is 'Eastern Peace
 133 # Time' instead of the old familiar 'Eastern War Time.'  Peace is wonderful."
 134 # (August 1945) by way of confirmation.
 135 #
 136 # From Paul Eggert (2017-09-23):
 137 # This was the V-J Day issue of the Clamdigger, a Rowayton, CT newsletter.
 138 
 139 # From Joseph Gallant citing
 140 # George H. Douglas, _The Early Days of Radio Broadcasting_ (1987):
 141 # At 7 P.M. (Eastern War Time) [on 1945-08-14], the networks were set
 142 # to switch to London for Attlee's address, but the American people
 143 # never got to hear his speech live. According to one press account,
 144 # CBS' Bob Trout was first to announce the word of Japan's surrender,
 145 # but a few seconds later, NBC, ABC and Mutual also flashed the word
 146 # of surrender, all of whom interrupting the bells of Big Ben in
 147 # London which were to precede Mr. Attlee's speech.
 148 
 149 # From Paul Eggert (2003-02-09): It was Robert St John, not Bob Trout.  From
 150 # Myrna Oliver's obituary of St John on page B16 of today's Los Angeles Times:
 151 #
 152 # ... a war-weary U.S. clung to radios, awaiting word of Japan's surrender.
 153 # Any announcement from Asia would reach St. John's New York newsroom on a
 154 # wire service teletype machine, which had prescribed signals for major news.
 155 # Associated Press, for example, would ring five bells before spewing out
 156 # typed copy of an important story, and 10 bells for news "of transcendental
 157 # importance."
 158 #
 159 # On Aug. 14, stalling while talking steadily into the NBC networks' open
 160 # microphone, St. John heard five bells and waited only to hear a sixth bell,
 161 # before announcing confidently: "Ladies and gentlemen, World War II is over.
 162 # The Japanese have agreed to our surrender terms."
 163 #
 164 # He had scored a 20-second scoop on other broadcasters.
 165 
 166 # From Arthur David Olson (2005-08-22):
 167 # Paul has been careful to use the "US" rules only in those locations
 168 # that are part of the United States; this reflects the real scope of
 169 # U.S. government action.  So even though the "US" rules have changed
 170 # in the latest release, other countries won't be affected.
 171 
 172 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 173 Rule    US      1918    1919    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 174 Rule    US      1918    1919    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 175 Rule    US      1942    only    -       Feb     9       2:00    1:00    W # War
 176 Rule    US      1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace
 177 Rule    US      1945    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 178 Rule    US      1967    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 179 Rule    US      1967    1973    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 180 Rule    US      1974    only    -       Jan     6       2:00    1:00    D
 181 Rule    US      1975    only    -       Feb     23      2:00    1:00    D
 182 Rule    US      1976    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 183 Rule    US      1987    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
 184 Rule    US      2007    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
 185 Rule    US      2007    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
 186 
 187 # From Arthur David Olson, 2005-12-19
 188 # We generate the files specified below to guard against old files with
 189 # obsolete information being left in the time zone binary directory.
 190 # We limit the list to names that have appeared in previous versions of
 191 # this time zone package.
 192 # We do these as separate Zones rather than as Links to avoid problems if
 193 # a particular place changes whether it observes DST.
 194 # We put these specifications here in the northamerica file both to
 195 # increase the chances that they'll actually get compiled and to
 196 # avoid the need to duplicate the US rules in another file.
 197 
 198 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 199 Zone    EST              -5:00  -       EST
 200 Zone    MST              -7:00  -       MST
 201 Zone    HST             -10:00  -       HST
 202 Zone    EST5EDT          -5:00  US      E%sT
 203 Zone    CST6CDT          -6:00  US      C%sT
 204 Zone    MST7MDT          -7:00  US      M%sT
 205 Zone    PST8PDT          -8:00  US      P%sT
 206 
 207 # From U. S. Naval Observatory (1989-01-19):
 208 # USA  EASTERN       5 H  BEHIND UTC    NEW YORK, WASHINGTON
 209 # USA  EASTERN       4 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30
 210 # USA  CENTRAL       6 H  BEHIND UTC    CHICAGO, HOUSTON
 211 # USA  CENTRAL       5 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30
 212 # USA  MOUNTAIN      7 H  BEHIND UTC    DENVER
 213 # USA  MOUNTAIN      6 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30
 214 # USA  PACIFIC       8 H  BEHIND UTC    L.A., SAN FRANCISCO
 215 # USA  PACIFIC       7 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30
 216 # USA  ALASKA STD    9 H  BEHIND UTC    MOST OF ALASKA     (AKST)
 217 # USA  ALASKA STD    8 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30 (AKDT)
 218 # USA  ALEUTIAN     10 H  BEHIND UTC    ISLANDS WEST OF 170W
 219 # USA    "           9 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30
 220 # USA  HAWAII       10 H  BEHIND UTC
 221 # USA  BERING       11 H  BEHIND UTC    SAMOA, MIDWAY
 222 
 223 # From Arthur David Olson (1989-01-21):
 224 # The above dates are for 1988.
 225 # Note the "AKST" and "AKDT" abbreviations, the claim that there's
 226 # no DST in Samoa, and the claim that there is DST in Alaska and the
 227 # Aleutians.
 228 
 229 # From Arthur David Olson (1988-02-13):
 230 # Legal standard time zone names, from United States Code (1982 Edition and
 231 # Supplement III), Title 15, Chapter 6, Section 260 and forward.  First, names
 232 # up to 1967-04-01 (when most provisions of the Uniform Time Act of 1966
 233 # took effect), as explained in sections 263 and 261:
 234 #       (none)
 235 #       United States standard eastern time
 236 #       United States standard mountain time
 237 #       United States standard central time
 238 #       United States standard Pacific time
 239 #       (none)
 240 #       United States standard Alaska time
 241 #       (none)
 242 # Next, names from 1967-04-01 until 1983-11-30 (the date for
 243 # public law 98-181):
 244 #       Atlantic standard time
 245 #       eastern standard time
 246 #       central standard time
 247 #       mountain standard time
 248 #       Pacific standard time
 249 #       Yukon standard time
 250 #       Alaska-Hawaii standard time
 251 #       Bering standard time
 252 # And after 1983-11-30:
 253 #       Atlantic standard time
 254 #       eastern standard time
 255 #       central standard time
 256 #       mountain standard time
 257 #       Pacific standard time
 258 #       Alaska standard time
 259 #       Hawaii-Aleutian standard time
 260 #       Samoa standard time
 261 # The law doesn't give abbreviations.
 262 #
 263 # From Paul Eggert (2016-12-19):
 264 # Here are URLs for the 1918 and 1966 legislation:
 265 # http://uscode.house.gov/statviewer.htm?volume=40&page=451
 266 # http://uscode.house.gov/statviewer.htm?volume=80&page=108
 267 # Although the 1918 names were officially "United States Standard
 268 # Eastern Time" and similarly for "Central", "Mountain", "Pacific",
 269 # and "Alaska", in practice "Standard" was placed just before "Time",
 270 # as codified in 1966.  In practice, Alaska time was abbreviated "AST"
 271 # before 1968.  Summarizing the 1967 name changes:
 272 #       1918 names                      1967 names
 273 #  -08  Standard Pacific Time (PST)     Pacific standard time (PST)
 274 #  -09  (unofficial) Yukon (YST)        Yukon standard time (YST)
 275 #  -10  Standard Alaska Time (AST)      Alaska-Hawaii standard time (AHST)
 276 #  -11  (unofficial) Nome (NST)         Bering standard time (BST)
 277 #
 278 # From Paul Eggert (2000-01-08), following a heads-up from Rives McDow:
 279 # Public law 106-564 (2000-12-23) introduced ... "Chamorro Standard Time"
 280 # for time in Guam and the Northern Marianas.  See the file "australasia".
 281 #
 282 # From Paul Eggert (2015-04-17):
 283 # HST and HDT are standardized abbreviations for Hawaii-Aleutian
 284 # standard and daylight times.  See section 9.47 (p 234) of the
 285 # U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual (2008)
 286 # https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/GPO-STYLEMANUAL-2008/pdf/GPO-STYLEMANUAL-2008.pdf
 287 
 288 # From Arthur David Olson, 2005-08-09
 289 # The following was signed into law on 2005-08-08.
 290 #
 291 # H.R. 6, Energy Policy Act of 2005, SEC. 110. DAYLIGHT SAVINGS.
 292 #   (a) Amendment.--Section 3(a) of the Uniform Time Act of 1966 (15
 293 #   U.S.C. 260a(a)) is amended--
 294 #     (1) by striking "first Sunday of April" and inserting "second
 295 #     Sunday of March"; and
 296 #     (2) by striking "last Sunday of October" and inserting "first
 297 #     Sunday of November'.
 298 #   (b) Effective Date.--Subsection (a) shall take effect 1 year after the
 299 #   date of enactment of this Act or March 1, 2007, whichever is later.
 300 #   (c) Report to Congress.--Not later than 9 months after the effective
 301 #   date stated in subsection (b), the Secretary shall report to Congress
 302 #   on the impact of this section on energy consumption in the United
 303 #   States.
 304 #   (d) Right to Revert.--Congress retains the right to revert the
 305 #   Daylight Saving Time back to the 2005 time schedules once the
 306 #   Department study is complete.
 307 
 308 # US eastern time, represented by New York
 309 
 310 # Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, most of Florida,
 311 # Georgia, southeast Indiana (Dearborn and Ohio counties), eastern Kentucky
 312 # (except America/Kentucky/Louisville below), Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts,
 313 # New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio,
 314 # Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, eastern Tennessee,
 315 # Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia
 316 
 317 # From Dave Cantor (2004-11-02):
 318 # Early this summer I had the occasion to visit the Mount Washington
 319 # Observatory weather station atop (of course!) Mount Washington [, NH]....
 320 # One of the staff members said that the station was on Eastern Standard Time
 321 # and didn't change their clocks for Daylight Saving ... so that their
 322 # reports will always have times which are 5 hours behind UTC.
 323 
 324 # From Paul Eggert (2005-08-26):
 325 # According to today's Huntsville Times
 326 # http://www.al.com/news/huntsvilletimes/index.ssf?/base/news/1125047783228320.xml&coll=1
 327 # a few towns on Alabama's "eastern border with Georgia, such as Phenix City
 328 # in Russell County, Lanett in Chambers County and some towns in Lee County,
 329 # set their watches and clocks on Eastern time."  It quotes H.H. "Bubba"
 330 # Roberts, city administrator in Phenix City. as saying "We are in the Central
 331 # time zone, but we do go by the Eastern time zone because so many people work
 332 # in Columbus."
 333 #
 334 # From Paul Eggert (2017-02-22):
 335 # Four cities are involved.  The two not mentioned above are Smiths Station
 336 # and Valley.  Barbara Brooks, Valley's assistant treasurer, heard it started
 337 # because West Point Pepperell textile mills were in Alabama while the
 338 # corporate office was in Georgia, and residents voted to keep Eastern
 339 # time even after the mills closed.  See: Kazek K. Did you know which
 340 # Alabama towns are in a different time zone?  al.com 2017-02-06.
 341 # http://www.al.com/living/index.ssf/2017/02/do_you_know_which_alabama_town.html
 342 
 343 # From Paul Eggert (2014-09-06):
 344 # Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 44, 4 (1884-02-08), 208
 345 # says that New York City Hall time was 3 minutes 58.4 seconds fast of
 346 # Eastern time (i.e., -4:56:01.6) just before the 1883 switch.  Round to the
 347 # nearest second.
 348 
 349 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 350 Rule    NYC     1920    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 351 Rule    NYC     1920    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 352 Rule    NYC     1921    1966    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 353 Rule    NYC     1921    1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 354 Rule    NYC     1955    1966    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 355 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 356 Zone America/New_York   -4:56:02 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:03:58
 357                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1920
 358                         -5:00   NYC     E%sT    1942
 359                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1946
 360                         -5:00   NYC     E%sT    1967
 361                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 362 
 363 # US central time, represented by Chicago
 364 
 365 # Alabama, Arkansas, Florida panhandle (Bay, Calhoun, Escambia,
 366 # Gulf, Holmes, Jackson, Okaloosa, Santa Rosa, Walton, and
 367 # Washington counties), Illinois, western Indiana
 368 # (Gibson, Jasper, Lake, LaPorte, Newton, Porter, Posey, Spencer,
 369 # Vanderburgh, and Warrick counties), Iowa, most of Kansas, western
 370 # Kentucky, Louisiana, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, eastern
 371 # Nebraska, eastern North Dakota, Oklahoma, eastern South Dakota,
 372 # western Tennessee, most of Texas, Wisconsin
 373 
 374 # From Paul Eggert (2018-01-07):
 375 # In 1869 the Chicago Astronomical Society contracted with the city to keep
 376 # time.  Though delayed by the Great Fire, by 1880 a wire ran from the
 377 # Dearborn Observatory (on the University of Chicago campus) to City Hall,
 378 # which then sent signals to police and fire stations.  However, railroads got
 379 # their time signals from the Allegheny Observatory, the Madison Observatory,
 380 # the Ann Arbor Observatory, etc., so their clocks did not agree with each
 381 # other or with the city's official time.  The confusion took some years to
 382 # clear up.  See:
 383 # Moser M. How Chicago gave America its time zones. Chicago. 2018-01-04.
 384 # http://www.chicagomag.com/city-life/January-2018/How-Chicago-Gave-America-Its-Time-Zones/
 385 
 386 # From Larry M. Smith (2006-04-26) re Wisconsin:
 387 # https://docs.legis.wisconsin.gov/statutes/statutes/175.pdf
 388 # is currently enforced at the 01:00 time of change.  Because the local
 389 # "bar time" in the state corresponds to 02:00, a number of citations
 390 # are issued for the "sale of class 'B' alcohol after prohibited
 391 # hours" within the deviated hour of this change every year....
 392 #
 393 # From Douglas R. Bomberg (2007-03-12):
 394 # Wisconsin has enacted (nearly eleventh-hour) legislation to get WI
 395 # Statue 175 closer in synch with the US Congress' intent....
 396 # https://docs.legis.wisconsin.gov/2007/related/acts/3
 397 
 398 # From an email administrator of the City of Fort Pierre, SD (2015-12-21):
 399 # Fort Pierre is technically located in the Mountain time zone as is
 400 # the rest of Stanley County.  Most of Stanley County and Fort Pierre
 401 # uses the Central time zone due to doing most of their business in
 402 # Pierre so it simplifies schedules.  I have lived in Stanley County
 403 # all my life and it has been that way since I can remember.  (43 years!)
 404 #
 405 # From Paul Eggert (2015-12-25):
 406 # Assume this practice predates 1970, so Fort Pierre can use America/Chicago.
 407 
 408 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 409 Rule    Chicago 1920    only    -       Jun     13      2:00    1:00    D
 410 Rule    Chicago 1920    1921    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 411 Rule    Chicago 1921    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 412 Rule    Chicago 1922    1966    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 413 Rule    Chicago 1922    1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 414 Rule    Chicago 1955    1966    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 415 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 416 Zone America/Chicago    -5:50:36 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:09:24
 417                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1920
 418                         -6:00   Chicago C%sT    1936 Mar  1  2:00
 419                         -5:00   -       EST     1936 Nov 15  2:00
 420                         -6:00   Chicago C%sT    1942
 421                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
 422                         -6:00   Chicago C%sT    1967
 423                         -6:00   US      C%sT
 424 # Oliver County, ND switched from mountain to central time on 1992-10-25.
 425 Zone America/North_Dakota/Center -6:45:12 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:14:48
 426                         -7:00   US      M%sT    1992 Oct 25  2:00
 427                         -6:00   US      C%sT
 428 # Morton County, ND, switched from mountain to central time on
 429 # 2003-10-26, except for the area around Mandan which was already central time.
 430 # See <http://dmses.dot.gov/docimages/p63/135818.pdf>.
 431 # Officially this switch also included part of Sioux County, and
 432 # Jones, Mellette, and Todd Counties in South Dakota;
 433 # but in practice these other counties were already observing central time.
 434 # See <http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/EPA-IMPACT/2003/October/Day-28/i27056.htm>.
 435 Zone America/North_Dakota/New_Salem -6:45:39 - LMT      1883 Nov 18 12:14:21
 436                         -7:00   US      M%sT    2003 Oct 26  2:00
 437                         -6:00   US      C%sT
 438 
 439 # From Josh Findley (2011-01-21):
 440 # ...it appears that Mercer County, North Dakota, changed from the
 441 # mountain time zone to the central time zone at the last transition from
 442 # daylight-saving to standard time (on Nov. 7, 2010):
 443 # https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-29/html/2010-24376.htm
 444 # http://www.bismarcktribune.com/news/local/article_1eb1b588-c758-11df-b472-001cc4c03286.html
 445 
 446 # From Andy Lipscomb (2011-01-24):
 447 # ...according to the Census Bureau, the largest city is Beulah (although
 448 # it's commonly referred to as Beulah-Hazen, with Hazen being the next
 449 # largest city in Mercer County).  Google Maps places Beulah's city hall
 450 # at 47 degrees 15' 51" N, 101 degrees 46' 40" W, which yields an offset
 451 # of 6h47'07".
 452 
 453 Zone America/North_Dakota/Beulah -6:47:07 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:12:53
 454                         -7:00   US      M%sT    2010 Nov  7  2:00
 455                         -6:00   US      C%sT
 456 
 457 # US mountain time, represented by Denver
 458 #
 459 # Colorado, far western Kansas, Montana, western
 460 # Nebraska, Nevada border (Jackpot, Owyhee, and Mountain City),
 461 # New Mexico, southwestern North Dakota,
 462 # western South Dakota, far western Texas (El Paso County, Hudspeth County,
 463 # and Pine Springs and Nickel Creek in Culberson County), Utah, Wyoming
 464 #
 465 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 466 Rule    Denver  1920    1921    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 467 Rule    Denver  1920    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 468 Rule    Denver  1921    only    -       May     22      2:00    0       S
 469 Rule    Denver  1965    1966    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 470 Rule    Denver  1965    1966    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 471 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 472 Zone America/Denver     -6:59:56 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:00:04
 473                         -7:00   US      M%sT    1920
 474                         -7:00   Denver  M%sT    1942
 475                         -7:00   US      M%sT    1946
 476                         -7:00   Denver  M%sT    1967
 477                         -7:00   US      M%sT
 478 
 479 # US Pacific time, represented by Los Angeles
 480 #
 481 # California, northern Idaho (Benewah, Bonner, Boundary, Clearwater,
 482 # Kootenai, Latah, Lewis, Nez Perce, and Shoshone counties, Idaho county
 483 # north of the Salmon River, and the towns of Burgdorf and Warren),
 484 # Nevada (except West Wendover), Oregon (except the northern 3/4 of
 485 # Malheur county), and Washington
 486 
 487 # From Paul Eggert (2016-08-20):
 488 # In early February 1948, in response to California's electricity shortage,
 489 # PG&E changed power frequency from 60 to 59.5 Hz during daylight hours,
 490 # causing electric clocks to lose six minutes per day.  (This did not change
 491 # legal time, and is not part of the data here.)  See:
 492 # Ross SA. An energy crisis from the past: Northern California in 1948.
 493 # Working Paper No. 8, Institute of Governmental Studies, UC Berkeley,
 494 # 1973-11.  https://escholarship.org/uc/item/8x22k30c
 495 #
 496 # In another measure to save electricity, DST was instituted from 1948-03-14
 497 # at 02:01 to 1949-01-16 at 02:00, with the governor having the option to move
 498 # the fallback transition earlier.  See pages 3-4 of:
 499 # http://clerk.assembly.ca.gov/sites/clerk.assembly.ca.gov/files/archive/Statutes/1948/48Vol1_Chapters.pdf
 500 #
 501 # In response:
 502 #
 503 #   Governor Warren received a torrent of objecting mail, and it is not too much
 504 #   to speculate that the objections to Daylight Saving Time were one important
 505 #   factor in the defeat of the Dewey-Warren Presidential ticket in California.
 506 #     -- Ross, p 25
 507 #
 508 # On December 8 the governor exercised the option, setting the date to January 1
 509 # (LA Times 1948-12-09).  The transition time was 02:00 (LA Times 1949-01-01).
 510 #
 511 # Despite the controversy, in 1949 California voters approved Proposition 12,
 512 # which established DST from April's last Sunday at 01:00 until September's
 513 # last Sunday at 02:00. This was amended by 1962's Proposition 6, which changed
 514 # the fall-back date to October's last Sunday. See:
 515 # https://repository.uchastings.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1501&context=ca_ballot_props
 516 # https://repository.uchastings.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1636&context=ca_ballot_props
 517 #
 518 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 519 Rule    CA      1948    only    -       Mar     14      2:01    1:00    D
 520 Rule    CA      1949    only    -       Jan      1      2:00    0       S
 521 Rule    CA      1950    1966    -       Apr     lastSun 1:00    1:00    D
 522 Rule    CA      1950    1961    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 523 Rule    CA      1962    1966    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 524 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 525 Zone America/Los_Angeles -7:52:58 -     LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:07:02
 526                         -8:00   US      P%sT    1946
 527                         -8:00   CA      P%sT    1967
 528                         -8:00   US      P%sT
 529 
 530 # Alaska
 531 # AK%sT is the modern abbreviation for -09 per USNO.
 532 #
 533 # From Paul Eggert (2017-06-15):
 534 # Howse writes that Alaska switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar,
 535 # and from east-of-GMT to west-of-GMT days, when the US bought it from Russia.
 536 # On Friday, 1867-10-18 (Gregorian), at precisely 15:30 local time, the
 537 # Russian forts and fleet at Sitka fired salutes to mark the ceremony of
 538 # formal transfer.  See the Sacramento Daily Union (1867-11-14), p 3, col 2.
 539 # https://cdnc.ucr.edu/cgi-bin/cdnc?a=d&d=SDU18671114.2.12.1
 540 # Sitka workers did not change their calendars until Sunday, 1867-10-20,
 541 # and so celebrated two Sundays that week.  See: Ahllund T (tr Hallamaa P).
 542 # From the memoirs of a Finnish workman. Alaska History. 2006 Fall;21(2):1-25.
 543 # http://alaskahistoricalsociety.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Ahllund-2006-Memoirs-of-a-Finnish-Workman.pdf
 544 # Include only the time zone part of this transition, ignoring the switch
 545 # from Julian to Gregorian, since we can't represent the Julian calendar.
 546 #
 547 # As far as we know, of the locations mentioned below only Sitka was
 548 # permanently inhabited in 1867 by anyone using either calendar.
 549 # (Yakutat was colonized by the Russians in 1799, but the settlement was
 550 # destroyed in 1805 by a Yakutat-kon war party.)  Many of Alaska's inhabitants
 551 # were unaware of the US acquisition of Alaska, much less of any calendar or
 552 # time change.  However, the Russian-influenced part of Alaska did observe
 553 # Russian time, and it is more accurate to model this than to ignore it.
 554 # The database format requires an exact transition time; use the Russian
 555 # salute as a somewhat-arbitrary time for the formal transfer of control for
 556 # all of Alaska.  Sitka's UTC offset is -9:01:13; adjust its 15:30 to the
 557 # local times of other Alaskan locations so that they change simultaneously.
 558 
 559 # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-18):
 560 # One opinion of the early-1980s turmoil in Alaska over time zones and
 561 # daylight saving time appeared as graffiti on a Juneau airport wall:
 562 # "Welcome to Juneau.  Please turn your watch back to the 19th century."
 563 # See: Turner W. Alaska's four time zones now two. NY Times 1983-11-01.
 564 # http://www.nytimes.com/1983/11/01/us/alaska-s-four-time-zones-now-two.html
 565 #
 566 # Steve Ferguson (2011-01-31) referred to the following source:
 567 # Norris F. Keeping time in Alaska: national directives, local response.
 568 # Alaska History 2001;16(1-2).
 569 # http://alaskahistoricalsociety.org/discover-alaska/glimpses-of-the-past/keeping-time-in-alaska/
 570 
 571 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-02-01):
 572 # Here's database-relevant material from the 2001 "Alaska History" article:
 573 #
 574 # On September 20 [1979]...DOT...officials decreed that on April 27,
 575 # 1980, Juneau and other nearby communities would move to Yukon Time.
 576 # Sitka, Petersburg, Wrangell, and Ketchikan, however, would remain on
 577 # Pacific Time.
 578 #
 579 # ...on September 22, 1980, DOT Secretary Neil E. Goldschmidt rescinded the
 580 # Department's September 1979 decision. Juneau and other communities in
 581 # northern Southeast reverted to Pacific Time on October 26.
 582 #
 583 # On October 28 [1983]...the Metlakatla Indian Community Council voted
 584 # unanimously to keep the reservation on Pacific Time.
 585 #
 586 # According to DOT official Joanne Petrie, Indian reservations are not
 587 # bound to follow time zones imposed by neighboring jurisdictions.
 588 #
 589 # (The last is consistent with how the database now handles the Navajo
 590 # Nation.)
 591 
 592 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-02-09):
 593 # I just spoke by phone with a staff member at the Metlakatla Indian
 594 # Community office (using contact information available at
 595 # http://www.commerce.state.ak.us/dca/commdb/CIS.cfm?Comm_Boro_name=Metlakatla
 596 # It's shortly after 1:00 here on the east coast of the United States;
 597 # the staffer said it was shortly after 10:00 there. When I asked whether
 598 # that meant they were on Pacific time, they said no - they were on their
 599 # own time. I asked about daylight saving; they said it wasn't used. I
 600 # did not inquire about practices in the past.
 601 
 602 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-08-17):
 603 # For lack of better information, assume that Metlakatla's
 604 # abandonment of use of daylight saving resulted from the 1983 vote.
 605 
 606 # From Steffen Thorsen (2015-11-09):
 607 # It seems Metlakatla did go off PST on Sunday, November 1, changing
 608 # their time to AKST and are going to follow Alaska's DST, switching
 609 # between AKST and AKDT from now on....
 610 # https://www.krbd.org/2015/10/30/annette-island-times-they-are-a-changing/
 611 
 612 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 613 Zone America/Juneau      15:02:19 -     LMT     1867 Oct 19 15:33:32
 614                          -8:57:41 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00
 615                          -8:00  -       PST     1942
 616                          -8:00  US      P%sT    1946
 617                          -8:00  -       PST     1969
 618                          -8:00  US      P%sT    1980 Apr 27  2:00
 619                          -9:00  US      Y%sT    1980 Oct 26  2:00
 620                          -8:00  US      P%sT    1983 Oct 30  2:00
 621                          -9:00  US      Y%sT    1983 Nov 30
 622                          -9:00  US      AK%sT
 623 Zone America/Sitka       14:58:47 -     LMT     1867 Oct 19 15:30
 624                          -9:01:13 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00
 625                          -8:00  -       PST     1942
 626                          -8:00  US      P%sT    1946
 627                          -8:00  -       PST     1969
 628                          -8:00  US      P%sT    1983 Oct 30  2:00
 629                          -9:00  US      Y%sT    1983 Nov 30
 630                          -9:00  US      AK%sT
 631 Zone America/Metlakatla  15:13:42 -     LMT     1867 Oct 19 15:44:55
 632                          -8:46:18 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00
 633                          -8:00  -       PST     1942
 634                          -8:00  US      P%sT    1946
 635                          -8:00  -       PST     1969
 636                          -8:00  US      P%sT    1983 Oct 30  2:00
 637                          -8:00  -       PST     2015 Nov  1  2:00
 638                          -9:00  US      AK%sT
 639 Zone America/Yakutat     14:41:05 -     LMT     1867 Oct 19 15:12:18
 640                          -9:18:55 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00
 641                          -9:00  -       YST     1942
 642                          -9:00  US      Y%sT    1946
 643                          -9:00  -       YST     1969
 644                          -9:00  US      Y%sT    1983 Nov 30
 645                          -9:00  US      AK%sT
 646 Zone America/Anchorage   14:00:24 -     LMT     1867 Oct 19 14:31:37
 647                          -9:59:36 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00
 648                         -10:00  -       AST     1942
 649                         -10:00  US      A%sT    1967 Apr
 650                         -10:00  -       AHST    1969
 651                         -10:00  US      AH%sT   1983 Oct 30  2:00
 652                          -9:00  US      Y%sT    1983 Nov 30
 653                          -9:00  US      AK%sT
 654 Zone America/Nome        12:58:22 -     LMT     1867 Oct 19 13:29:35
 655                         -11:01:38 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00
 656                         -11:00  -       NST     1942
 657                         -11:00  US      N%sT    1946
 658                         -11:00  -       NST     1967 Apr
 659                         -11:00  -       BST     1969
 660                         -11:00  US      B%sT    1983 Oct 30  2:00
 661                          -9:00  US      Y%sT    1983 Nov 30
 662                          -9:00  US      AK%sT
 663 Zone America/Adak        12:13:22 -     LMT     1867 Oct 19 12:44:35
 664                         -11:46:38 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00
 665                         -11:00  -       NST     1942
 666                         -11:00  US      N%sT    1946
 667                         -11:00  -       NST     1967 Apr
 668                         -11:00  -       BST     1969
 669                         -11:00  US      B%sT    1983 Oct 30  2:00
 670                         -10:00  US      AH%sT   1983 Nov 30
 671                         -10:00  US      H%sT
 672 # The following switches don't quite make our 1970 cutoff.
 673 #
 674 # Shanks writes that part of southwest Alaska (e.g. Aniak)
 675 # switched from -11:00 to -10:00 on 1968-09-22 at 02:00,
 676 # and another part (e.g. Akiak) made the same switch five weeks later.
 677 #
 678 # From David Flater (2004-11-09):
 679 # In e-mail, 2004-11-02, Ray Hudson, historian/liaison to the Unalaska
 680 # Historic Preservation Commission, provided this information, which
 681 # suggests that Unalaska deviated from statutory time from early 1967
 682 # possibly until 1983:
 683 #
 684 #  Minutes of the Unalaska City Council Meeting, January 10, 1967:
 685 #  "Except for St. Paul and Akutan, Unalaska is the only important
 686 #  location not on Alaska Standard Time.  The following resolution was
 687 #  made by William Robinson and seconded by Henry Swanson: Be it
 688 #  resolved that the City of Unalaska hereby goes to Alaska Standard
 689 #  Time as of midnight Friday, January 13, 1967 (1 A.M. Saturday,
 690 #  January 14, Alaska Standard Time.)  This resolution was passed with
 691 #  three votes for and one against."
 692 
 693 # Hawaii
 694 
 695 # From Arthur David Olson (2010-12-09):
 696 # "Hawaiian Time" by Robert C. Schmitt and Doak C. Cox appears on pages 207-225
 697 # of volume 26 of The Hawaiian Journal of History (1992). As of 2010-12-09,
 698 # the article is available at
 699 # https://evols.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10524/239/2/JL26215.pdf
 700 # and indicates that standard time was adopted effective noon, January
 701 # 13, 1896 (page 218), that in "1933, the Legislature decreed daylight
 702 # saving for the period between the last Sunday of each April and the
 703 # last Sunday of each September, but less than a month later repealed the
 704 # act," (page 220), that year-round daylight saving time was in effect
 705 # from 1942-02-09 to 1945-09-30 (page 221, with no time of day given for
 706 # when clocks changed) and that clocks were changed by 30 minutes
 707 # effective the second Sunday of June, 1947 (page 219, with no time of
 708 # day given for when clocks changed). A footnote for the 1933 changes
 709 # cites Session Laws of Hawaii 1933, "Act. 90 (approved 26 Apr. 1933)
 710 # and Act 163 (approved 21 May 1933)."
 711 
 712 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-01-19):
 713 # The following is from "Laws of the Territory of Hawaii Passed by the
 714 # Seventeenth Legislature: Regular Session 1933," available (as of
 715 # 2011-01-19) at American University's Pence Law Library. Page 85: "Act
 716 # 90...At 2 o'clock ante meridian of the last Sunday in April of each
 717 # year, the standard time of this Territory shall be advanced one
 718 # hour...This Act shall take effect upon its approval. Approved this 26th
 719 # day of April, A. D. 1933. LAWRENCE M JUDD, Governor of the Territory of
 720 # Hawaii." Page 172: "Act 163...Act 90 of the Session Laws of 1933 is
 721 # hereby repealed...This Act shall take effect upon its approval, upon
 722 # which date the standard time of this Territory shall be restored to
 723 # that existing immediately prior to the taking effect of said Act 90.
 724 # Approved this 21st day of May, A. D. 1933. LAWRENCE M. JUDD, Governor
 725 # of the Territory of Hawaii."
 726 #
 727 # Note that 1933-05-21 was a Sunday.
 728 # We're left to guess the time of day when Act 163 was approved; guess noon.
 729 
 730 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 731 Zone Pacific/Honolulu   -10:31:26 -     LMT     1896 Jan 13 12:00
 732                         -10:30  -       HST     1933 Apr 30  2:00
 733                         -10:30  1:00    HDT     1933 May 21 12:00
 734                         -10:30  -       HST     1942 Feb  9  2:00
 735                         -10:30  1:00    HDT     1945 Sep 30  2:00
 736                         -10:30  -       HST     1947 Jun  8  2:00
 737                         -10:00  -       HST
 738 
 739 # Now we turn to US areas that have diverged from the consensus since 1970.
 740 
 741 # Arizona mostly uses MST.
 742 
 743 # From Paul Eggert (2002-10-20):
 744 #
 745 # The information in the rest of this paragraph is derived from the
 746 # Daylight Saving Time web page
 747 # <http://www.dlapr.lib.az.us/links/daylight.htm> (2002-01-23)
 748 # maintained by the Arizona State Library, Archives and Public Records.
 749 # Between 1944-01-01 and 1944-04-01 the State of Arizona used standard
 750 # time, but by federal law railroads, airlines, bus lines, military
 751 # personnel, and some engaged in interstate commerce continued to
 752 # observe war (i.e., daylight saving) time.  The 1944-03-17 Phoenix
 753 # Gazette says that was the date the law changed, and that 04-01 was
 754 # the date the state's clocks would change.  In 1945 the State of
 755 # Arizona used standard time all year, again with exceptions only as
 756 # mandated by federal law.  Arizona observed DST in 1967, but Arizona
 757 # Laws 1968, ch. 183 (effective 1968-03-21) repealed DST.
 758 #
 759 # Shanks says the 1944 experiment came to an end on 1944-03-17.
 760 # Go with the Arizona State Library instead.
 761 
 762 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 763 Zone America/Phoenix    -7:28:18 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 11:31:42
 764                         -7:00   US      M%sT    1944 Jan  1  0:01
 765                         -7:00   -       MST     1944 Apr  1  0:01
 766                         -7:00   US      M%sT    1944 Oct  1  0:01
 767                         -7:00   -       MST     1967
 768                         -7:00   US      M%sT    1968 Mar 21
 769                         -7:00   -       MST
 770 # From Arthur David Olson (1988-02-13):
 771 # A writer from the Inter Tribal Council of Arizona, Inc.,
 772 # notes in private correspondence dated 1987-12-28 that "Presently, only the
 773 # Navajo Nation participates in the Daylight Saving Time policy, due to its
 774 # large size and location in three states."  (The "only" means that other
 775 # tribal nations don't use DST.)
 776 #
 777 # From Paul Eggert (2013-08-26):
 778 # See America/Denver for a zone appropriate for the Navajo Nation.
 779 
 780 # Southern Idaho (Ada, Adams, Bannock, Bear Lake, Bingham, Blaine,
 781 # Boise, Bonneville, Butte, Camas, Canyon, Caribou, Cassia, Clark,
 782 # Custer, Elmore, Franklin, Fremont, Gem, Gooding, Jefferson, Jerome,
 783 # Lemhi, Lincoln, Madison, Minidoka, Oneida, Owyhee, Payette, Power,
 784 # Teton, Twin Falls, Valley, Washington counties, and the southern
 785 # quarter of Idaho county) and eastern Oregon (most of Malheur County)
 786 # switched four weeks late in 1974.
 787 #
 788 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 789 Zone America/Boise      -7:44:49 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:15:11
 790                         -8:00   US      P%sT    1923 May 13  2:00
 791                         -7:00   US      M%sT    1974
 792                         -7:00   -       MST     1974 Feb  3  2:00
 793                         -7:00   US      M%sT
 794 
 795 # Indiana
 796 #
 797 # For a map of Indiana's time zone regions, see:
 798 # https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_in_Indiana
 799 #
 800 # From Paul Eggert (2007-08-17):
 801 # Since 1970, most of Indiana has been like America/Indiana/Indianapolis,
 802 # with the following exceptions:
 803 #
 804 # - Gibson, Jasper, Lake, LaPorte, Newton, Porter, Posey, Spencer,
 805 #   Vanderburgh, and Warrick counties have been like America/Chicago.
 806 #
 807 # - Dearborn and Ohio counties have been like America/New_York.
 808 #
 809 # - Clark, Floyd, and Harrison counties have been like
 810 #   America/Kentucky/Louisville.
 811 #
 812 # - Crawford, Daviess, Dubois, Knox, Martin, Perry, Pike, Pulaski, Starke,
 813 #   and Switzerland counties have their own time zone histories as noted below.
 814 #
 815 # Shanks partitioned Indiana into 345 regions, each with its own time history,
 816 # and wrote "Even newspaper reports present contradictory information."
 817 # Those Hoosiers!  Such a flighty and changeable people!
 818 # Fortunately, most of the complexity occurred before our cutoff date of 1970.
 819 #
 820 # Other than Indianapolis, the Indiana place names are so nondescript
 821 # that they would be ambiguous if we left them at the 'America' level.
 822 # So we reluctantly put them all in a subdirectory 'America/Indiana'.
 823 
 824 # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-26):
 825 # https://www.federalregister.gov/articles/2006/01/20/06-563/standard-time-zone-boundary-in-the-state-of-indiana
 826 # says "DOT is relocating the time zone boundary in Indiana to move Starke,
 827 # Pulaski, Knox, Daviess, Martin, Pike, Dubois, and Perry Counties from the
 828 # Eastern Time Zone to the Central Time Zone.... The effective date of
 829 # this rule is 2 a.m. EST Sunday, April 2, 2006, which is the
 830 # changeover date from standard time to Daylight Saving Time."
 831 # Strictly speaking, this meant the affected counties changed their
 832 # clocks twice that night, but this obviously was in error.  The intent
 833 # was that 01:59:59 EST be followed by 02:00:00 CDT.
 834 
 835 # From Gwillim Law (2007-02-10):
 836 # The Associated Press has been reporting that Pulaski County, Indiana is
 837 # going to switch from Central to Eastern Time on March 11, 2007....
 838 # http://www.indystar.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070207/LOCAL190108/702070524/0/LOCAL
 839 
 840 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 841 Rule Indianapolis 1941  only    -       Jun     22      2:00    1:00    D
 842 Rule Indianapolis 1941  1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 843 Rule Indianapolis 1946  1954    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 844 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 845 Zone America/Indiana/Indianapolis -5:44:38 - LMT        1883 Nov 18 12:15:22
 846                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1920
 847                         -6:00 Indianapolis C%sT 1942
 848                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
 849                         -6:00 Indianapolis C%sT 1955 Apr 24  2:00
 850                         -5:00   -       EST     1957 Sep 29  2:00
 851                         -6:00   -       CST     1958 Apr 27  2:00
 852                         -5:00   -       EST     1969
 853                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1971
 854                         -5:00   -       EST     2006
 855                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 856 #
 857 # Eastern Crawford County, Indiana, left its clocks alone in 1974,
 858 # as well as from 1976 through 2005.
 859 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 860 Rule    Marengo 1951    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 861 Rule    Marengo 1951    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 862 Rule    Marengo 1954    1960    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 863 Rule    Marengo 1954    1960    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 864 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 865 Zone America/Indiana/Marengo -5:45:23 - LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:14:37
 866                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1951
 867                         -6:00   Marengo C%sT    1961 Apr 30  2:00
 868                         -5:00   -       EST     1969
 869                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1974 Jan  6  2:00
 870                         -6:00   1:00    CDT     1974 Oct 27  2:00
 871                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1976
 872                         -5:00   -       EST     2006
 873                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 874 #
 875 # Daviess, Dubois, Knox, and Martin Counties, Indiana,
 876 # switched from eastern to central time in April 2006, then switched back
 877 # in November 2007.
 878 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 879 Rule Vincennes  1946    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 880 Rule Vincennes  1946    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 881 Rule Vincennes  1953    1954    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 882 Rule Vincennes  1953    1959    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 883 Rule Vincennes  1955    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D
 884 Rule Vincennes  1956    1963    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 885 Rule Vincennes  1960    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 886 Rule Vincennes  1961    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 887 Rule Vincennes  1962    1963    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 888 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 889 Zone America/Indiana/Vincennes -5:50:07 - LMT   1883 Nov 18 12:09:53
 890                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
 891                         -6:00 Vincennes C%sT    1964 Apr 26  2:00
 892                         -5:00   -       EST     1969
 893                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1971
 894                         -5:00   -       EST     2006 Apr  2  2:00
 895                         -6:00   US      C%sT    2007 Nov  4  2:00
 896                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 897 #
 898 # Perry County, Indiana, switched from eastern to central time in April 2006.
 899 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 900 Rule Perry      1946    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 901 Rule Perry      1946    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 902 Rule Perry      1953    1954    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 903 Rule Perry      1953    1959    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 904 Rule Perry      1955    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D
 905 Rule Perry      1956    1963    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 906 Rule Perry      1960    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 907 Rule Perry      1961    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 908 Rule Perry      1962    1963    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 909 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 910 Zone America/Indiana/Tell_City -5:47:03 - LMT   1883 Nov 18 12:12:57
 911                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
 912                         -6:00 Perry     C%sT    1964 Apr 26  2:00
 913                         -5:00   -       EST     1969
 914                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1971
 915                         -5:00   -       EST     2006 Apr  2  2:00
 916                         -6:00   US      C%sT
 917 #
 918 # Pike County, Indiana moved from central to eastern time in 1977,
 919 # then switched back in 2006, then switched back again in 2007.
 920 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 921 Rule    Pike    1955    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D
 922 Rule    Pike    1955    1960    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 923 Rule    Pike    1956    1964    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 924 Rule    Pike    1961    1964    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 925 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 926 Zone America/Indiana/Petersburg -5:49:07 - LMT  1883 Nov 18 12:10:53
 927                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1955
 928                         -6:00   Pike    C%sT    1965 Apr 25  2:00
 929                         -5:00   -       EST     1966 Oct 30  2:00
 930                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1977 Oct 30  2:00
 931                         -5:00   -       EST     2006 Apr  2  2:00
 932                         -6:00   US      C%sT    2007 Nov  4  2:00
 933                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 934 #
 935 # Starke County, Indiana moved from central to eastern time in 1991,
 936 # then switched back in 2006.
 937 # From Arthur David Olson (1991-10-28):
 938 # An article on page A3 of the Sunday, 1991-10-27 Washington Post
 939 # notes that Starke County switched from Central time to Eastern time as of
 940 # 1991-10-27.
 941 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 942 Rule    Starke  1947    1961    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 943 Rule    Starke  1947    1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 944 Rule    Starke  1955    1956    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 945 Rule    Starke  1957    1958    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 946 Rule    Starke  1959    1961    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 947 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 948 Zone America/Indiana/Knox -5:46:30 -    LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:13:30
 949                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1947
 950                         -6:00   Starke  C%sT    1962 Apr 29  2:00
 951                         -5:00   -       EST     1963 Oct 27  2:00
 952                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1991 Oct 27  2:00
 953                         -5:00   -       EST     2006 Apr  2  2:00
 954                         -6:00   US      C%sT
 955 #
 956 # Pulaski County, Indiana, switched from eastern to central time in
 957 # April 2006 and then switched back in March 2007.
 958 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 959 Rule    Pulaski 1946    1960    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 960 Rule    Pulaski 1946    1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 961 Rule    Pulaski 1955    1956    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 962 Rule    Pulaski 1957    1960    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 963 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 964 Zone America/Indiana/Winamac -5:46:25 - LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:13:35
 965                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
 966                         -6:00   Pulaski C%sT    1961 Apr 30  2:00
 967                         -5:00   -       EST     1969
 968                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1971
 969                         -5:00   -       EST     2006 Apr  2  2:00
 970                         -6:00   US      C%sT    2007 Mar 11  2:00
 971                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 972 #
 973 # Switzerland County, Indiana, did not observe DST from 1973 through 2005.
 974 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 975 Zone America/Indiana/Vevay -5:40:16 -   LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:19:44
 976                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1954 Apr 25  2:00
 977                         -5:00   -       EST     1969
 978                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1973
 979                         -5:00   -       EST     2006
 980                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 981 
 982 # Part of Kentucky left its clocks alone in 1974.
 983 # This also includes Clark, Floyd, and Harrison counties in Indiana.
 984 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 985 Rule Louisville 1921    only    -       May     1       2:00    1:00    D
 986 Rule Louisville 1921    only    -       Sep     1       2:00    0       S
 987 Rule Louisville 1941    1961    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 988 Rule Louisville 1941    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 989 Rule Louisville 1946    only    -       Jun     2       2:00    0       S
 990 Rule Louisville 1950    1955    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 991 Rule Louisville 1956    1960    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 992 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 993 Zone America/Kentucky/Louisville -5:43:02 -     LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:16:58
 994                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1921
 995                         -6:00 Louisville C%sT   1942
 996                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
 997                         -6:00 Louisville C%sT   1961 Jul 23  2:00
 998                         -5:00   -       EST     1968
 999                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1974 Jan  6  2:00
1000                         -6:00   1:00    CDT     1974 Oct 27  2:00
1001                         -5:00   US      E%sT
1002 #
1003 # Wayne County, Kentucky
1004 #
1005 # From Lake Cumberland LIFE
1006 # http://www.lake-cumberland.com/life/archive/news990129time.shtml
1007 # (1999-01-29) via WKYM-101.7:
1008 # Clinton County has joined Wayne County in asking the DoT to change from
1009 # the Central to the Eastern time zone....  The Wayne County government made
1010 # the same request in December.  And while Russell County officials have not
1011 # taken action, the majority of respondents to a poll conducted there in
1012 # August indicated they would like to change to "fast time" also.
1013 # The three Lake Cumberland counties are the farthest east of any U.S.
1014 # location in the Central time zone.
1015 #
1016 # From Rich Wales (2000-08-29):
1017 # After prolonged debate, and despite continuing deep differences of opinion,
1018 # Wayne County (central Kentucky) is switching from Central (-0600) to Eastern
1019 # (-0500) time.  They won't "fall back" this year.  See Sara Shipley,
1020 # The difference an hour makes, Nando Times (2000-08-29 15:33 -0400).
1021 #
1022 # From Paul Eggert (2001-07-16):
1023 # The final rule was published in the
1024 # Federal Register 65, 160 (2000-08-17), pp 50154-50158.
1025 # https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2000-08-17/html/00-20854.htm
1026 #
1027 Zone America/Kentucky/Monticello -5:39:24 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:20:36
1028                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
1029                         -6:00   -       CST     1968
1030                         -6:00   US      C%sT    2000 Oct 29  2:00
1031                         -5:00   US      E%sT
1032 
1033 
1034 # From Rives McDow (2000-08-30):
1035 # Here ... are all the changes in the US since 1985.
1036 # Kearny County, KS (put all of county on central;
1037 #       previously split between MST and CST) ... 1990-10
1038 # Starke County, IN (from CST to EST) ... 1991-10
1039 # Oliver County, ND (from MST to CST) ... 1992-10
1040 # West Wendover, NV (from PST TO MST) ... 1999-10
1041 # Wayne County, KY (from CST to EST) ... 2000-10
1042 #
1043 # From Paul Eggert (2001-07-17):
1044 # We don't know where the line used to be within Kearny County, KS,
1045 # so omit that change for now.
1046 # See America/Indiana/Knox for the Starke County, IN change.
1047 # See America/North_Dakota/Center for the Oliver County, ND change.
1048 # West Wendover, NV officially switched from Pacific to mountain time on
1049 # 1999-10-31.  See the
1050 # Federal Register 64, 203 (1999-10-21), pp 56705-56707.
1051 # https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1999-10-21/html/99-27240.htm
1052 # However, the Federal Register says that West Wendover already operated
1053 # on mountain time, and the rule merely made this official;
1054 # hence a separate tz entry is not needed.
1055 
1056 # Michigan
1057 #
1058 # From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
1059 # Michigan didn't observe DST from 1968 to 1973.
1060 #
1061 # From Paul Eggert (1999-03-31):
1062 # Shanks writes that Michigan started using standard time on 1885-09-18,
1063 # but Howse writes (pp 124-125, referring to Popular Astronomy, 1901-01)
1064 # that Detroit kept
1065 #
1066 #       local time until 1900 when the City Council decreed that clocks should
1067 #       be put back twenty-eight minutes to Central Standard Time.  Half the
1068 #       city obeyed, half refused.  After considerable debate, the decision
1069 #       was rescinded and the city reverted to Sun time.  A derisive offer to
1070 #       erect a sundial in front of the city hall was referred to the
1071 #       Committee on Sewers.  Then, in 1905, Central time was adopted
1072 #       by city vote.
1073 #
1074 # This story is too entertaining to be false, so go with Howse over Shanks.
1075 #
1076 # From Paul Eggert (2001-03-06):
1077 # Garland (1927) writes "Cleveland and Detroit advanced their clocks
1078 # one hour in 1914."  This change is not in Shanks.  We have no more
1079 # info, so omit this for now.
1080 #
1081 # From Paul Eggert (2017-07-26):
1082 # Although Shanks says Detroit observed DST in 1967 from 06-14 00:01
1083 # until 10-29 00:01, I now see multiple reports that this is incorrect.
1084 # For example, according to a 50-year anniversary report about the 1967
1085 # Detroit riots and a major-league doubleheader on 1967-07-23, "By the time
1086 # the last fly ball of the doubleheader settled into the glove of leftfielder
1087 # Lenny Green, it was after 7 p.m.  Detroit did not observe daylight saving
1088 # time, so light was already starting to fail.  Twilight was made even deeper
1089 # by billowing columns of smoke that ascended in an unbroken wall north of the
1090 # ballpark."  See: Dow B. Detroit '67: As violence unfolded, Tigers played two
1091 # at home vs. Yankees. Detroit Free Press 2017-07-23.
1092 # https://www.freep.com/story/sports/mlb/tigers/2017/07/23/detroit-tigers-1967-riot-new-york-yankees/499951001/
1093 #
1094 # Most of Michigan observed DST from 1973 on, but was a bit late in 1975.
1095 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
1096 Rule    Detroit 1948    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1097 Rule    Detroit 1948    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1098 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1099 Zone America/Detroit    -5:32:11 -      LMT     1905
1100                         -6:00   -       CST     1915 May 15  2:00
1101                         -5:00   -       EST     1942
1102                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1946
1103                         -5:00   Detroit E%sT    1973
1104                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1975
1105                         -5:00   -       EST     1975 Apr 27  2:00
1106                         -5:00   US      E%sT
1107 #
1108 # Dickinson, Gogebic, Iron, and Menominee Counties, Michigan,
1109 # switched from EST to CST/CDT in 1973.
1110 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
1111 Rule Menominee  1946    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1112 Rule Menominee  1946    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1113 Rule Menominee  1966    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1114 Rule Menominee  1966    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1115 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1116 Zone America/Menominee  -5:50:27 -      LMT     1885 Sep 18 12:00
1117                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
1118                         -6:00 Menominee C%sT    1969 Apr 27  2:00
1119                         -5:00   -       EST     1973 Apr 29  2:00
1120                         -6:00   US      C%sT
1121 
1122 # Navassa
1123 # administered by the US Fish and Wildlife Service
1124 # claimed by US under the provisions of the 1856 Guano Islands Act
1125 # also claimed by Haiti
1126 # occupied 1857/1900 by the Navassa Phosphate Co
1127 # US lighthouse 1917/1996-09
1128 # currently uninhabited
1129 # see Mark Fineman, "An Isle Rich in Guano and Discord",
1130 # _Los Angeles Times_ (1998-11-10), A1, A10; it cites
1131 # Jimmy Skaggs, _The Great Guano Rush_ (1994).
1132 
1133 ################################################################################
1134 
1135 
1136 # From Paul Eggert (2017-02-10):
1137 #
1138 # Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:
1139 # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
1140 # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
1141 # Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.
1142 #
1143 # Many years ago Gwillim Law wrote that a good source
1144 # for time zone data was the International Air Transport
1145 # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
1146 # published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
1147 # of the IATA's data after 1990.  Except where otherwise noted,
1148 # IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.
1149 #
1150 # Other sources occasionally used include:
1151 #
1152 #       Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
1153 #       Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated),
1154 #       which I found in the UCLA library.
1155 #
1156 #       William Willett, The Waste of Daylight, 19th edition
1157 #       <http://cs.ucla.edu/~eggert/The-Waste-of-Daylight-19th.pdf>
1158 #       [PDF] (1914-03)
1159 #
1160 #       Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94
1161 #       <https://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359>.
1162 #
1163 # See the 'europe' file for Greenland.
1164 
1165 # Canada
1166 
1167 # From Alain LaBonté (1994-11-14):
1168 # I post here the time zone abbreviations standardized in Canada
1169 # for both English and French in the CAN/CSA-Z234.4-89 standard....
1170 #
1171 #       UTC     Standard time   Daylight saving time
1172 #       offset  French  English French  English
1173 #       -2:30   -       -       HAT     NDT
1174 #       -3      -       -       HAA     ADT
1175 #       -3:30   HNT     NST     -       -
1176 #       -4      HNA     AST     HAE     EDT
1177 #       -5      HNE     EST     HAC     CDT
1178 #       -6      HNC     CST     HAR     MDT
1179 #       -7      HNR     MST     HAP     PDT
1180 #       -8      HNP     PST     HAY     YDT
1181 #       -9      HNY     YST     -       -
1182 #
1183 #       HN: Heure Normale       ST: Standard Time
1184 #       HA: Heure Avancée      DT: Daylight saving Time
1185 #
1186 #       A: de l'Atlantique      Atlantic
1187 #       C: du Centre            Central
1188 #       E: de l'Est             Eastern
1189 #       M:                      Mountain
1190 #       N:                      Newfoundland
1191 #       P: du Pacifique         Pacific
1192 #       R: des Rocheuses
1193 #       T: de Terre-Neuve
1194 #       Y: du Yukon             Yukon
1195 #
1196 # From Paul Eggert (1994-11-22):
1197 # Alas, this sort of thing must be handled by localization software.
1198 
1199 # Unless otherwise specified, the data entries for Canada are all from Shanks
1200 # & Pottenger.
1201 
1202 # From Chris Walton (2006-04-01, 2006-04-25, 2006-06-26, 2007-01-31,
1203 # 2007-03-01):
1204 # The British Columbia government announced yesterday that it will
1205 # adjust daylight savings next year to align with changes in the
1206 # U.S. and the rest of Canada....
1207 # https://archive.news.gov.bc.ca/releases/news_releases_2005-2009/2006AG0014-000330.htm
1208 # ...
1209 # Nova Scotia
1210 # Daylight saving time will be extended by four weeks starting in 2007....
1211 # https://www.novascotia.ca/just/regulations/rg2/2006/ma1206.pdf
1212 #
1213 # [For New Brunswick] the new legislation dictates that the time change is to
1214 # be done at 02:00 instead of 00:01.
1215 # https://www.gnb.ca/0062/acts/BBA-2006/Chap-19.pdf
1216 # ...
1217 # Manitoba has traditionally changed the clock every fall at 03:00.
1218 # As of 2006, the transition is to take place one hour earlier at 02:00.
1219 # https://web2.gov.mb.ca/laws/statutes/ccsm/o030e.php
1220 # ...
1221 # [Alberta, Ontario, Quebec] will follow US rules.
1222 # http://www.qp.gov.ab.ca/documents/spring/CH03_06.CFM
1223 # http://www.e-laws.gov.on.ca/DBLaws/Source/Regs/English/2006/R06111_e.htm
1224 # http://www2.publicationsduquebec.gouv.qc.ca/dynamicSearch/telecharge.php?type=5&file=2006C39A.PDF
1225 # ...
1226 # P.E.I. will follow US rules....
1227 # http://www.assembly.pe.ca/bills/pdf_chapter/62/3/chapter-41.pdf
1228 # ...
1229 # Province of Newfoundland and Labrador....
1230 # http://www.hoa.gov.nl.ca/hoa/bills/Bill0634.htm
1231 # ...
1232 # Yukon
1233 # https://www.gov.yk.ca/legislation/regs/oic2006_127.pdf
1234 # ...
1235 # N.W.T. will follow US rules.  Whoever maintains the government web site
1236 # does not seem to believe in bookmarks.  To see the news release, click the
1237 # following link and search for "Daylight Savings Time Change".  Press the
1238 # "Daylight Savings Time Change" link; it will fire off a popup using
1239 # JavaScript.
1240 # http://www.exec.gov.nt.ca/currentnews/currentPR.asp?mode=archive
1241 # ...
1242 # Nunavut
1243 # An amendment to the Interpretation Act was registered on February 19/2007....
1244 # http://action.attavik.ca/home/justice-gn/attach/2007/gaz02part2.pdf
1245 
1246 # From Paul Eggert (2014-10-18):
1247 # H. David Matthews and Mary Vincent's map
1248 # "It's about TIME", _Canadian Geographic_ (September-October 1998)
1249 # http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/Magazine/SO98/alacarte.asp
1250 # contains detailed boundaries for regions observing nonstandard
1251 # time and daylight saving time arrangements in Canada circa 1998.
1252 #
1253 # National Research Council Canada maintains info about time zones and DST.
1254 # https://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/services/time/time_zones.html
1255 # https://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/services/time/faq/index.html#Q5
1256 # Its unofficial information is often taken from Matthews and Vincent.
1257 
1258 # From Paul Eggert (2006-06-27):
1259 # For now, assume all of DST-observing Canada will fall into line with the
1260 # new US DST rules,
1261 
1262 # From Chris Walton (2011-12-01)
1263 # In the first of Tammy Hardwick's articles
1264 # http://www.ilovecreston.com/?p=articles&t=spec&ar=260
1265 # she quotes the Friday November 1/1918 edition of the Creston Review.
1266 # The quote includes these two statements:
1267 # 'Sunday the CPR went back to the old system of time...'
1268 # '... The daylight saving scheme was dropped all over Canada at the same time,'
1269 # These statements refer to a transition from daylight time to standard time
1270 # that occurred nationally on Sunday October 27/1918.  This transition was
1271 # also documented in the Saturday October 26/1918 edition of the Toronto Star.
1272 
1273 # In light of that evidence, we alter the date from the earlier believed
1274 # Oct 31, to Oct 27, 1918 (and Sunday is a more likely transition day
1275 # than Thursday) in all Canadian rulesets.
1276 
1277 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1278 Rule    Canada  1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D
1279 Rule    Canada  1918    only    -       Oct     27      2:00    0       S
1280 Rule    Canada  1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War
1281 Rule    Canada  1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace
1282 Rule    Canada  1945    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S
1283 Rule    Canada  1974    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1284 Rule    Canada  1974    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1285 Rule    Canada  1987    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
1286 Rule    Canada  2007    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
1287 Rule    Canada  2007    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
1288 
1289 
1290 # Newfoundland and Labrador
1291 
1292 # From Paul Eggert (2017-10-14):
1293 # Legally Labrador should observe Newfoundland time; see:
1294 # McLeod J. Labrador time - legal or not? St. John's Telegram, 2017-10-07
1295 # http://www.thetelegram.com/news/local/labrador-time--legal-or-not-154860/
1296 # Matthews and Vincent (1998) write that the only part of Labrador
1297 # that follows the rules is the southeast corner, including Port Hope
1298 # Simpson and Mary's Harbour, but excluding, say, Black Tickle.
1299 
1300 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1301 Rule    StJohns 1917    only    -       Apr      8      2:00    1:00    D
1302 Rule    StJohns 1917    only    -       Sep     17      2:00    0       S
1303 # Whitman gives 1919 Apr 5 and 1920 Apr 5; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1304 Rule    StJohns 1919    only    -       May      5      23:00   1:00    D
1305 Rule    StJohns 1919    only    -       Aug     12      23:00   0       S
1306 # For 1931-1935 Whitman gives Apr same date; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1307 Rule    StJohns 1920    1935    -       May     Sun>=1       23:00   1:00    D
1308 Rule    StJohns 1920    1935    -       Oct     lastSun 23:00   0       S
1309 # For 1936-1941 Whitman gives May Sun>=8 and Oct Sun>=1; go with Shanks &
1310 # Pottenger.
1311 Rule    StJohns 1936    1941    -       May     Mon>=9       0:00    1:00    D
1312 Rule    StJohns 1936    1941    -       Oct     Mon>=2       0:00    0       S
1313 # Whitman gives the following transitions:
1314 # 1942 03-01/12-31, 1943 05-30/09-05, 1944 07-10/09-02, 1945 01-01/10-07
1315 # but go with Shanks & Pottenger and assume they used Canadian rules.
1316 # For 1946-9 Whitman gives May 5,4,9,1 - Oct 1,5,3,2, and for 1950 he gives
1317 # Apr 30 - Sep 24; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1318 Rule    StJohns 1946    1950    -       May     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
1319 Rule    StJohns 1946    1950    -       Oct     Sun>=2       2:00    0       S
1320 Rule    StJohns 1951    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1321 Rule    StJohns 1951    1959    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1322 Rule    StJohns 1960    1986    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1323 # From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
1324 # INMS (2000-09-12) says that, since 1988 at least, Newfoundland switches
1325 # at 00:01 local time.  For now, assume it started in 1987.
1326 
1327 # From Michael Pelley (2011-09-12):
1328 # We received today, Monday, September 12, 2011, notification that the
1329 # changes to the Newfoundland Standard Time Act have been proclaimed.
1330 # The change in the Act stipulates that the change from Daylight Savings
1331 # Time to Standard Time and from Standard Time to Daylight Savings Time
1332 # now occurs at 2:00AM.
1333 # ...
1334 # http://www.assembly.nl.ca/legislation/sr/annualstatutes/2011/1106.chp.htm
1335 # ...
1336 # MICHAEL PELLEY  |  Manager of Enterprise Architecture - Solution Delivery
1337 # Office of the Chief Information Officer
1338 # Executive Council
1339 # Government of Newfoundland & Labrador
1340 
1341 Rule    StJohns 1987    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:01    1:00    D
1342 Rule    StJohns 1987    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 0:01    0       S
1343 Rule    StJohns 1988    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:01    2:00    DD
1344 Rule    StJohns 1989    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:01    1:00    D
1345 Rule    StJohns 2007    2011    -       Mar     Sun>=8       0:01    1:00    D
1346 Rule    StJohns 2007    2010    -       Nov     Sun>=1       0:01    0       S
1347 #
1348 # St John's has an apostrophe, but Posix file names can't have apostrophes.
1349 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1350 Zone America/St_Johns   -3:30:52 -      LMT     1884
1351                         -3:30:52 StJohns N%sT   1918
1352                         -3:30:52 Canada N%sT    1919
1353                         -3:30:52 StJohns N%sT   1935 Mar 30
1354                         -3:30   StJohns N%sT    1942 May 11
1355                         -3:30   Canada  N%sT    1946
1356                         -3:30   StJohns N%sT    2011 Nov
1357                         -3:30   Canada  N%sT
1358 
1359 # most of east Labrador
1360 
1361 # The name 'Happy Valley-Goose Bay' is too long; use 'Goose Bay'.
1362 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1363 Zone America/Goose_Bay  -4:01:40 -      LMT     1884 # Happy Valley-Goose Bay
1364                         -3:30:52 -      NST     1918
1365                         -3:30:52 Canada N%sT    1919
1366                         -3:30:52 -      NST     1935 Mar 30
1367                         -3:30   -       NST     1936
1368                         -3:30   StJohns N%sT    1942 May 11
1369                         -3:30   Canada  N%sT    1946
1370                         -3:30   StJohns N%sT    1966 Mar 15  2:00
1371                         -4:00   StJohns A%sT    2011 Nov
1372                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT
1373 
1374 
1375 # west Labrador, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward I
1376 
1377 # From Brian Inglis (2015-07-20):
1378 # From the historical weather station records available at:
1379 # https://weatherspark.com/history/28351/1971/Sydney-Nova-Scotia-Canada
1380 # Sydney shares the same time history as Glace Bay, so was
1381 # likely to be the same across the island....
1382 # Sydney, as the capital and most populous location, or Cape Breton, would
1383 # have been better names for the zone had we known this in 1996.
1384 
1385 # From Paul Eggert (2015-07-20):
1386 # Shanks & Pottenger write that since 1970 most of this region has been like
1387 # Halifax.  Many locales did not observe peacetime DST until 1972;
1388 # the Cape Breton area, represented by Glace Bay, is the largest we know of
1389 # (Glace Bay was perhaps not the best name choice but no point changing now).
1390 # Shanks & Pottenger also write that Liverpool, NS was the only town
1391 # in Canada to observe DST in 1971 but not 1970; for now we'll assume
1392 # this is a typo.
1393 
1394 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1395 Rule    Halifax 1916    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    D
1396 Rule    Halifax 1916    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       S
1397 Rule    Halifax 1920    only    -       May      9      0:00    1:00    D
1398 Rule    Halifax 1920    only    -       Aug     29      0:00    0       S
1399 Rule    Halifax 1921    only    -       May      6      0:00    1:00    D
1400 Rule    Halifax 1921    1922    -       Sep      5      0:00    0       S
1401 Rule    Halifax 1922    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    D
1402 Rule    Halifax 1923    1925    -       May     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
1403 Rule    Halifax 1923    only    -       Sep      4      0:00    0       S
1404 Rule    Halifax 1924    only    -       Sep     15      0:00    0       S
1405 Rule    Halifax 1925    only    -       Sep     28      0:00    0       S
1406 Rule    Halifax 1926    only    -       May     16      0:00    1:00    D
1407 Rule    Halifax 1926    only    -       Sep     13      0:00    0       S
1408 Rule    Halifax 1927    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D
1409 Rule    Halifax 1927    only    -       Sep     26      0:00    0       S
1410 Rule    Halifax 1928    1931    -       May     Sun>=8       0:00    1:00    D
1411 Rule    Halifax 1928    only    -       Sep      9      0:00    0       S
1412 Rule    Halifax 1929    only    -       Sep      3      0:00    0       S
1413 Rule    Halifax 1930    only    -       Sep     15      0:00    0       S
1414 Rule    Halifax 1931    1932    -       Sep     Mon>=24      0:00    0       S
1415 Rule    Halifax 1932    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D
1416 Rule    Halifax 1933    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    D
1417 Rule    Halifax 1933    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       S
1418 Rule    Halifax 1934    only    -       May     20      0:00    1:00    D
1419 Rule    Halifax 1934    only    -       Sep     16      0:00    0       S
1420 Rule    Halifax 1935    only    -       Jun      2      0:00    1:00    D
1421 Rule    Halifax 1935    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       S
1422 Rule    Halifax 1936    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    D
1423 Rule    Halifax 1936    only    -       Sep     14      0:00    0       S
1424 Rule    Halifax 1937    1938    -       May     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
1425 Rule    Halifax 1937    1941    -       Sep     Mon>=24      0:00    0       S
1426 Rule    Halifax 1939    only    -       May     28      0:00    1:00    D
1427 Rule    Halifax 1940    1941    -       May     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
1428 Rule    Halifax 1946    1949    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1429 Rule    Halifax 1946    1949    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1430 Rule    Halifax 1951    1954    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1431 Rule    Halifax 1951    1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1432 Rule    Halifax 1956    1959    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1433 Rule    Halifax 1956    1959    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1434 Rule    Halifax 1962    1973    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1435 Rule    Halifax 1962    1973    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1436 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1437 Zone America/Halifax    -4:14:24 -      LMT     1902 Jun 15
1438                         -4:00   Halifax A%sT    1918
1439                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1919
1440                         -4:00   Halifax A%sT    1942 Feb  9  2:00s
1441                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1946
1442                         -4:00   Halifax A%sT    1974
1443                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT
1444 Zone America/Glace_Bay  -3:59:48 -      LMT     1902 Jun 15
1445                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1953
1446                         -4:00   Halifax A%sT    1954
1447                         -4:00   -       AST     1972
1448                         -4:00   Halifax A%sT    1974
1449                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT
1450 
1451 # New Brunswick
1452 
1453 # From Paul Eggert (2007-01-31):
1454 # The Time Definition Act <http://www.gnb.ca/0062/PDF-acts/t-06.pdf>
1455 # says they changed at 00:01 through 2006, and
1456 # <http://www.canlii.org/nb/laws/sta/t-6/20030127/whole.html> makes it
1457 # clear that this was the case since at least 1993.
1458 # For now, assume it started in 1993.
1459 
1460 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1461 Rule    Moncton 1933    1935    -       Jun     Sun>=8       1:00    1:00    D
1462 Rule    Moncton 1933    1935    -       Sep     Sun>=8       1:00    0       S
1463 Rule    Moncton 1936    1938    -       Jun     Sun>=1       1:00    1:00    D
1464 Rule    Moncton 1936    1938    -       Sep     Sun>=1       1:00    0       S
1465 Rule    Moncton 1939    only    -       May     27      1:00    1:00    D
1466 Rule    Moncton 1939    1941    -       Sep     Sat>=21      1:00    0       S
1467 Rule    Moncton 1940    only    -       May     19      1:00    1:00    D
1468 Rule    Moncton 1941    only    -       May      4      1:00    1:00    D
1469 Rule    Moncton 1946    1972    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1470 Rule    Moncton 1946    1956    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1471 Rule    Moncton 1957    1972    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1472 Rule    Moncton 1993    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:01    1:00    D
1473 Rule    Moncton 1993    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 0:01    0       S
1474 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1475 Zone America/Moncton    -4:19:08 -      LMT     1883 Dec  9
1476                         -5:00   -       EST     1902 Jun 15
1477                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1933
1478                         -4:00   Moncton A%sT    1942
1479                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1946
1480                         -4:00   Moncton A%sT    1973
1481                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1993
1482                         -4:00   Moncton A%sT    2007
1483                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT
1484 
1485 # Quebec
1486 
1487 # From Paul Eggert (2015-03-24):
1488 # See America/Toronto for most of Quebec, including Montreal.
1489 #
1490 # Matthews and Vincent (1998) also write that Quebec east of the -63
1491 # meridian is supposed to observe AST, but residents as far east as
1492 # Natashquan use EST/EDT, and residents east of Natashquan use AST.
1493 # The Quebec department of justice writes in
1494 # "The situation in Minganie and Basse-Côte-Nord"
1495 # http://www.justice.gouv.qc.ca/english/publications/generale/temps-minganie-a.htm
1496 # that the coastal strip from just east of Natashquan to Blanc-Sablon
1497 # observes Atlantic standard time all year round.
1498 # https://www.assnat.qc.ca/Media/Process.aspx?MediaId=ANQ.Vigie.Bll.DocumentGenerique_8845en
1499 # says this common practice was codified into law as of 2007.
1500 # For lack of better info, guess this practice began around 1970, contra to
1501 # Shanks & Pottenger who have this region observing AST/ADT.
1502 
1503 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1504 Zone America/Blanc-Sablon -3:48:28 -    LMT     1884
1505                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1970
1506                         -4:00   -       AST
1507 
1508 # Ontario
1509 
1510 # From Paul Eggert (2006-07-09):
1511 # Shanks & Pottenger write that since 1970 most of Ontario has been like
1512 # Toronto.
1513 # Thunder Bay skipped DST in 1973.
1514 # Many smaller locales did not observe peacetime DST until 1974;
1515 # Nipigon (EST) and Rainy River (CST) are the largest that we know of.
1516 # Far west Ontario is like Winnipeg; far east Quebec is like Halifax.
1517 
1518 # From Mark Brader (2003-07-26):
1519 # [According to the Toronto Star] Orillia, Ontario, adopted DST
1520 # effective Saturday, 1912-06-22, 22:00; the article mentions that
1521 # Port Arthur (now part of Thunder Bay, Ontario) as well as Moose Jaw
1522 # have already done so.  In Orillia DST was to run until Saturday,
1523 # 1912-08-31 (no time mentioned), but it was met with considerable
1524 # hostility from certain segments of the public, and was revoked after
1525 # only two weeks - I copied it as Saturday, 1912-07-07, 22:00, but
1526 # presumably that should be -07-06.  (1912-06-19, -07-12; also letters
1527 # earlier in June).
1528 #
1529 # Kenora, Ontario, was to abandon DST on 1914-06-01 (-05-21).
1530 #
1531 # From Paul Eggert (2017-07-08):
1532 # For more on Orillia, see: Daubs K. Bold attempt at daylight saving
1533 # time became a comic failure in Orillia. Toronto Star 2017-07-08.
1534 # https://www.thestar.com/news/insight/2017/07/08/bold-attempt-at-daylight-saving-time-became-a-comic-failure-in-orillia.html
1535 
1536 # From Paul Eggert (1997-10-17):
1537 # Mark Brader writes that an article in the 1997-10-14 Toronto Star
1538 # says that Atikokan, Ontario currently does not observe DST,
1539 # but will vote on 11-10 whether to use EST/EDT.
1540 # He also writes that the Ontario Time Act (1990, Chapter T.9)
1541 # http://www.gov.on.ca/MBS/english/publications/statregs/conttext.html
1542 # says that Ontario east of 90W uses EST/EDT, and west of 90W uses CST/CDT.
1543 # Officially Atikokan is therefore on CST/CDT, and most likely this report
1544 # concerns a non-official time observed as a matter of local practice.
1545 #
1546 # From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
1547 # Matthews and Vincent (1998) write that Atikokan, Pickle Lake, and
1548 # New Osnaburgh observe CST all year, that Big Trout Lake observes
1549 # CST/CDT, and that Upsala and Shebandowan observe EST/EDT, all in
1550 # violation of the official Ontario rules.
1551 #
1552 # From Paul Eggert (2006-07-09):
1553 # Chris Walton (2006-07-06) mentioned an article by Stephanie MacLellan in the
1554 # 2005-07-21 Chronicle-Journal, which said:
1555 #
1556 #       The clocks in Atikokan stay set on standard time year-round.
1557 #       This means they spend about half the time on central time and
1558 #       the other half on eastern time.
1559 #
1560 #       For the most part, the system works, Mayor Dennis Brown said.
1561 #
1562 #       "The majority of businesses in Atikokan deal more with Eastern
1563 #       Canada, but there are some that deal with Western Canada," he
1564 #       said.  "I don't see any changes happening here."
1565 #
1566 # Walton also writes "Supposedly Pickle Lake and Mishkeegogamang
1567 # [New Osnaburgh] follow the same practice."
1568 
1569 # From Garry McKinnon (2006-07-14) via Chris Walton:
1570 # I chatted with a member of my board who has an outstanding memory
1571 # and a long history in Atikokan (and in the telecom industry) and he
1572 # can say for certain that Atikokan has been practicing the current
1573 # time keeping since 1952, at least.
1574 
1575 # From Paul Eggert (2006-07-17):
1576 # Shanks & Pottenger say that Atikokan has agreed with Rainy River
1577 # ever since standard time was introduced, but the information from
1578 # McKinnon sounds more authoritative.  For now, assume that Atikokan
1579 # switched to EST immediately after WWII era daylight saving time
1580 # ended.  This matches the old (less-populous) America/Coral_Harbour
1581 # entry since our cutoff date of 1970, so we can move
1582 # America/Coral_Harbour to the 'backward' file.
1583 
1584 # From Mark Brader (2010-03-06):
1585 #
1586 # Currently the database has:
1587 #
1588 # # Ontario
1589 #
1590 # # From Paul Eggert (2006-07-09):
1591 # # Shanks & Pottenger write that since 1970 most of Ontario has been like
1592 # # Toronto.
1593 # # Thunder Bay skipped DST in 1973.
1594 # # Many smaller locales did not observe peacetime DST until 1974;
1595 # # Nipigon (EST) and Rainy River (CST) are the largest that we know of.
1596 #
1597 # In the (Toronto) Globe and Mail for Saturday, 1955-09-24, in the bottom
1598 # right corner of page 1, it says that Toronto will return to standard
1599 # time at 2 am Sunday morning (which agrees with the database), and that:
1600 #
1601 #     The one-hour setback will go into effect throughout most of Ontario,
1602 #     except in areas like Windsor which remains on standard time all year.
1603 #
1604 # Windsor is, of course, a lot larger than Nipigon.
1605 #
1606 # I only came across this incidentally.  I don't know if Windsor began
1607 # observing DST when Detroit did, or in 1974, or on some other date.
1608 #
1609 # By the way, the article continues by noting that:
1610 #
1611 #     Some cities in the United States have pushed the deadline back
1612 #     three weeks and will change over from daylight saving in October.
1613 
1614 # From Arthur David Olson (2010-07-17):
1615 #
1616 # "Standard Time and Time Zones in Canada" appeared in
1617 # The Journal of The Royal Astronomical Society of Canada,
1618 # volume 26, number 2 (February 1932) and, as of 2010-07-17,
1619 # was available at
1620 # http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1932JRASC..26...49S
1621 #
1622 # It includes the text below (starting on page 57):
1623 #
1624 #   A list of the places in Canada using daylight saving time would
1625 # require yearly revision. From information kindly furnished by
1626 # the provincial governments and by the postmasters in many cities
1627 # and towns, it is found that the following places used daylight sav-
1628 # ing in 1930. The information for the province of Quebec is definite,
1629 # for the other provinces only approximate:
1630 #
1631 #       Province        Daylight saving time used
1632 # Prince Edward Island  Not used.
1633 # Nova Scotia           In Halifax only.
1634 # New Brunswick         In St. John only.
1635 # Quebec                In the following places:
1636 #                       Montreal        Lachine
1637 #                       Quebec          Mont-Royal
1638 #                       Lévis          Iberville
1639 #                       St. Lambert     Cap de la Madelèine
1640 #                       Verdun          Loretteville
1641 #                       Westmount       Richmond
1642 #                       Outremont       St. Jérôme
1643 #                       Longueuil       Greenfield Park
1644 #                       Arvida          Waterloo
1645 #                       Chambly-Canton  Beaulieu
1646 #                       Melbourne       La Tuque
1647 #                       St. Théophile  Buckingham
1648 # Ontario               Used generally in the cities and towns along
1649 #                       the southerly part of the province. Not
1650 #                       used in the northwesterly part.
1651 # Manitoba              Not used.
1652 # Saskatchewan          In Regina only.
1653 # Alberta               Not used.
1654 # British Columbia      Not used.
1655 #
1656 #   With some exceptions, the use of daylight saving may be said to be limited
1657 # to those cities and towns lying between Quebec city and Windsor, Ont.
1658 
1659 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1660 Rule    Toronto 1919    only    -       Mar     30      23:30   1:00    D
1661 Rule    Toronto 1919    only    -       Oct     26      0:00    0       S
1662 Rule    Toronto 1920    only    -       May      2      2:00    1:00    D
1663 Rule    Toronto 1920    only    -       Sep     26      0:00    0       S
1664 Rule    Toronto 1921    only    -       May     15      2:00    1:00    D
1665 Rule    Toronto 1921    only    -       Sep     15      2:00    0       S
1666 Rule    Toronto 1922    1923    -       May     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
1667 # Shanks & Pottenger say 1923-09-19; assume it's a typo and that "-16"
1668 # was meant.
1669 Rule    Toronto 1922    1926    -       Sep     Sun>=15      2:00    0       S
1670 Rule    Toronto 1924    1927    -       May     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
1671 # The 1927-to-1939 rules can be expressed more simply as
1672 # Rule  Toronto 1927    1937    -       Sep     Sun>=25      2:00    0       S
1673 # Rule  Toronto 1928    1937    -       Apr     Sun>=25      2:00    1:00    D
1674 # Rule  Toronto 1938    1940    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1675 # Rule  Toronto 1938    1939    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1676 # The rules below avoid use of Sun>=25
1677 # (which pre-2004 versions of zic cannot handle).
1678 Rule    Toronto 1927    1932    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1679 Rule    Toronto 1928    1931    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1680 Rule    Toronto 1932    only    -       May     1       2:00    1:00    D
1681 Rule    Toronto 1933    1940    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1682 Rule    Toronto 1933    only    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       S
1683 Rule    Toronto 1934    1939    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1684 Rule    Toronto 1945    1946    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1685 Rule    Toronto 1946    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1686 Rule    Toronto 1947    1949    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    1:00    D
1687 Rule    Toronto 1947    1948    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       S
1688 Rule    Toronto 1949    only    -       Nov     lastSun 0:00    0       S
1689 Rule    Toronto 1950    1973    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1690 Rule    Toronto 1950    only    -       Nov     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1691 Rule    Toronto 1951    1956    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1692 # Shanks & Pottenger say Toronto ended DST a week early in 1971,
1693 # namely on 1971-10-24, but Mark Brader wrote (2003-05-31) that this
1694 # is wrong, and that he had confirmed it by checking the 1971-10-30
1695 # Toronto Star, which said that DST was ending 1971-10-31 as usual.
1696 Rule    Toronto 1957    1973    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1697 
1698 # From Paul Eggert (2003-07-27):
1699 # Willett (1914-03) writes (p. 17) "In the Cities of Fort William, and
1700 # Port Arthur, Ontario, the principle of the Bill has been in
1701 # operation for the past three years, and in the City of Moose Jaw,
1702 # Saskatchewan, for one year."
1703 
1704 # From David Bryan via Tory Tronrud, Director/Curator,
1705 # Thunder Bay Museum (2003-11-12):
1706 # There is some suggestion, however, that, by-law or not, daylight
1707 # savings time was being practiced in Fort William and Port Arthur
1708 # before 1909.... [I]n 1910, the line between the Eastern and Central
1709 # Time Zones was permanently moved about two hundred miles west to
1710 # include the Thunder Bay area....  When Canada adopted daylight
1711 # savings time in 1916, Fort William and Port Arthur, having done so
1712 # already, did not change their clocks....  During the Second World
1713 # War,... [t]he cities agreed to implement DST during the summer
1714 # months for the remainder of the war years.
1715 
1716 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1717 Zone America/Toronto    -5:17:32 -      LMT     1895
1718                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1919
1719                         -5:00   Toronto E%sT    1942 Feb  9  2:00s
1720                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1946
1721                         -5:00   Toronto E%sT    1974
1722                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT
1723 Zone America/Thunder_Bay -5:57:00 -     LMT     1895
1724                         -6:00   -       CST     1910
1725                         -5:00   -       EST     1942
1726                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1970
1727                         -5:00   Toronto E%sT    1973
1728                         -5:00   -       EST     1974
1729                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT
1730 Zone America/Nipigon    -5:53:04 -      LMT     1895
1731                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1940 Sep 29
1732                         -5:00   1:00    EDT     1942 Feb  9  2:00s
1733                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT
1734 Zone America/Rainy_River -6:18:16 -     LMT     1895
1735                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT    1940 Sep 29
1736                         -6:00   1:00    CDT     1942 Feb  9  2:00s
1737                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT
1738 Zone America/Atikokan   -6:06:28 -      LMT     1895
1739                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT    1940 Sep 29
1740                         -6:00   1:00    CDT     1942 Feb  9  2:00s
1741                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT    1945 Sep 30  2:00
1742                         -5:00   -       EST
1743 
1744 
1745 # Manitoba
1746 
1747 # From Rob Douglas (2006-04-06):
1748 # the old Manitoba Time Act - as amended by Bill 2, assented to
1749 # March 27, 1987 ... said ...
1750 # "between two o'clock Central Standard Time in the morning of
1751 # the first Sunday of April of each year and two o'clock Central
1752 # Standard Time in the morning of the last Sunday of October next
1753 # following, one hour in advance of Central Standard Time."...
1754 # I believe that the English legislation [of the old time act] had
1755 # been assented to (March 22, 1967)....
1756 # Also, as far as I can tell, there was no order-in-council varying
1757 # the time of Daylight Saving Time for 2005 and so the provisions of
1758 # the 1987 version would apply - the changeover was at 2:00 Central
1759 # Standard Time (i.e. not until 3:00 Central Daylight Time).
1760 
1761 # From Paul Eggert (2006-04-10):
1762 # Shanks & Pottenger say Manitoba switched at 02:00 (not 02:00s)
1763 # starting 1966.  Since 02:00s is clearly correct for 1967 on, assume
1764 # it was also 02:00s in 1966.
1765 
1766 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1767 Rule    Winn    1916    only    -       Apr     23      0:00    1:00    D
1768 Rule    Winn    1916    only    -       Sep     17      0:00    0       S
1769 Rule    Winn    1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D
1770 Rule    Winn    1918    only    -       Oct     27      2:00    0       S
1771 Rule    Winn    1937    only    -       May     16      2:00    1:00    D
1772 Rule    Winn    1937    only    -       Sep     26      2:00    0       S
1773 Rule    Winn    1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War
1774 Rule    Winn    1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace
1775 Rule    Winn    1945    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1776 Rule    Winn    1946    only    -       May     12      2:00    1:00    D
1777 Rule    Winn    1946    only    -       Oct     13      2:00    0       S
1778 Rule    Winn    1947    1949    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1779 Rule    Winn    1947    1949    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1780 Rule    Winn    1950    only    -       May      1      2:00    1:00    D
1781 Rule    Winn    1950    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S
1782 Rule    Winn    1951    1960    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1783 Rule    Winn    1951    1958    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1784 Rule    Winn    1959    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1785 Rule    Winn    1960    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1786 Rule    Winn    1963    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1787 Rule    Winn    1963    only    -       Sep     22      2:00    0       S
1788 Rule    Winn    1966    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
1789 Rule    Winn    1966    2005    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
1790 Rule    Winn    1987    2005    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
1791 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1792 Zone America/Winnipeg   -6:28:36 -      LMT     1887 Jul 16
1793                         -6:00   Winn    C%sT    2006
1794                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT
1795 
1796 
1797 # Saskatchewan
1798 
1799 # From Mark Brader (2003-07-26):
1800 # The first actual adoption of DST in Canada was at the municipal
1801 # level.  As the [Toronto] Star put it (1912-06-07), "While people
1802 # elsewhere have long been talking of legislation to save daylight,
1803 # the city of Moose Jaw [Saskatchewan] has acted on its own hook."
1804 # DST in Moose Jaw began on Saturday, 1912-06-01 (no time mentioned:
1805 # presumably late evening, as below), and would run until "the end of
1806 # the summer".  The discrepancy between municipal time and railroad
1807 # time was noted.
1808 
1809 # From Paul Eggert (2003-07-27):
1810 # Willett (1914-03) notes that DST "has been in operation ... in the
1811 # City of Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, for one year."
1812 
1813 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1814 # Shanks & Pottenger say that since 1970 this region has mostly been as Regina.
1815 # Some western towns (e.g. Swift Current) switched from MST/MDT to CST in 1972.
1816 # Other western towns (e.g. Lloydminster) are like Edmonton.
1817 # Matthews and Vincent (1998) write that Denare Beach and Creighton
1818 # are like Winnipeg, in violation of Saskatchewan law.
1819 
1820 # From W. Jones (1992-11-06):
1821 # The. . .below is based on information I got from our law library, the
1822 # provincial archives, and the provincial Community Services department.
1823 # A precise history would require digging through newspaper archives, and
1824 # since you didn't say what you wanted, I didn't bother.
1825 #
1826 # Saskatchewan is split by a time zone meridian (105W) and over the years
1827 # the boundary became pretty ragged as communities near it reevaluated
1828 # their affiliations in one direction or the other.  In 1965 a provincial
1829 # referendum favoured legislating common time practices.
1830 #
1831 # On 15 April 1966 the Time Act (c. T-14, Revised Statutes of
1832 # Saskatchewan 1978) was proclaimed, and established that the eastern
1833 # part of Saskatchewan would use CST year round, that districts in
1834 # northwest Saskatchewan would by default follow CST but could opt to
1835 # follow Mountain Time rules (thus 1 hour difference in the winter and
1836 # zero in the summer), and that districts in southwest Saskatchewan would
1837 # by default follow MT but could opt to follow CST.
1838 #
1839 # It took a few years for the dust to settle (I know one story of a town
1840 # on one time zone having its school in another, such that a mom had to
1841 # serve her family lunch in two shifts), but presently it seems that only
1842 # a few towns on the border with Alberta (e.g. Lloydminster) follow MT
1843 # rules any more; all other districts appear to have used CST year round
1844 # since sometime in the 1960s.
1845 
1846 # From Chris Walton (2006-06-26):
1847 # The Saskatchewan time act which was last updated in 1996 is about 30 pages
1848 # long and rather painful to read.
1849 # http://www.qp.gov.sk.ca/documents/English/Statutes/Statutes/T14.pdf
1850 
1851 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1852 Rule    Regina  1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D
1853 Rule    Regina  1918    only    -       Oct     27      2:00    0       S
1854 Rule    Regina  1930    1934    -       May     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
1855 Rule    Regina  1930    1934    -       Oct     Sun>=1       0:00    0       S
1856 Rule    Regina  1937    1941    -       Apr     Sun>=8       0:00    1:00    D
1857 Rule    Regina  1937    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8       0:00    0       S
1858 Rule    Regina  1938    only    -       Oct     Sun>=1       0:00    0       S
1859 Rule    Regina  1939    1941    -       Oct     Sun>=8       0:00    0       S
1860 Rule    Regina  1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War
1861 Rule    Regina  1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace
1862 Rule    Regina  1945    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1863 Rule    Regina  1946    only    -       Apr     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
1864 Rule    Regina  1946    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8       2:00    0       S
1865 Rule    Regina  1947    1957    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1866 Rule    Regina  1947    1957    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1867 Rule    Regina  1959    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1868 Rule    Regina  1959    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1869 #
1870 Rule    Swift   1957    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1871 Rule    Swift   1957    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1872 Rule    Swift   1959    1961    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1873 Rule    Swift   1959    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1874 Rule    Swift   1960    1961    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1875 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1876 Zone America/Regina     -6:58:36 -      LMT     1905 Sep
1877                         -7:00   Regina  M%sT    1960 Apr lastSun  2:00
1878                         -6:00   -       CST
1879 Zone America/Swift_Current -7:11:20 -   LMT     1905 Sep
1880                         -7:00   Canada  M%sT    1946 Apr lastSun  2:00
1881                         -7:00   Regina  M%sT    1950
1882                         -7:00   Swift   M%sT    1972 Apr lastSun  2:00
1883                         -6:00   -       CST
1884 
1885 
1886 # Alberta
1887 
1888 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1889 Rule    Edm     1918    1919    -       Apr     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
1890 Rule    Edm     1918    only    -       Oct     27      2:00    0       S
1891 Rule    Edm     1919    only    -       May     27      2:00    0       S
1892 Rule    Edm     1920    1923    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1893 Rule    Edm     1920    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1894 Rule    Edm     1921    1923    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1895 Rule    Edm     1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War
1896 Rule    Edm     1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace
1897 Rule    Edm     1945    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1898 Rule    Edm     1947    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1899 Rule    Edm     1947    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1900 Rule    Edm     1967    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1901 Rule    Edm     1967    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1902 Rule    Edm     1969    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1903 Rule    Edm     1969    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1904 Rule    Edm     1972    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1905 Rule    Edm     1972    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1906 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1907 Zone America/Edmonton   -7:33:52 -      LMT     1906 Sep
1908                         -7:00   Edm     M%sT    1987
1909                         -7:00   Canada  M%sT
1910 
1911 
1912 # British Columbia
1913 
1914 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1915 # Shanks & Pottenger write that since 1970 most of this region has
1916 # been like Vancouver.
1917 # Dawson Creek uses MST.  Much of east BC is like Edmonton.
1918 # Matthews and Vincent (1998) write that Creston is like Dawson Creek.
1919 
1920 # It seems though that (re: Creston) is not entirely correct:
1921 
1922 # From Chris Walton (2011-12-01):
1923 # There are two areas within the Canadian province of British Columbia
1924 # that do not currently observe daylight saving:
1925 # a) The Creston Valley (includes the town of Creston and surrounding area)
1926 # b) The eastern half of the Peace River Regional District
1927 # (includes the cities of Dawson Creek and Fort St. John)
1928 
1929 # Earlier this year I stumbled across a detailed article about the time
1930 # keeping history of Creston; it was written by Tammy Hardwick who is the
1931 # manager of the Creston & District Museum. The article was written in May 2009.
1932 # http://www.ilovecreston.com/?p=articles&t=spec&ar=260
1933 # According to the article, Creston has not changed its clocks since June 1918.
1934 # i.e. Creston has been stuck on UT-7 for 93 years.
1935 # Dawson Creek, on the other hand, changed its clocks as recently as April 1972.
1936 
1937 # Unfortunately the exact date for the time change in June 1918 remains
1938 # unknown and will be difficult to ascertain.  I e-mailed Tammy a few months
1939 # ago to ask if Sunday June 2 was a reasonable guess.  She said it was just
1940 # as plausible as any other date (in June).  She also said that after writing
1941 # the article she had discovered another time change in 1916; this is the
1942 # subject of another article which she wrote in October 2010.
1943 # http://www.creston.museum.bc.ca/index.php?module=comments&uop=view_comment&cm+id=56
1944 
1945 # Here is a summary of the three clock change events in Creston's history:
1946 # 1. 1884 or 1885: adoption of Mountain Standard Time (GMT-7)
1947 # Exact date unknown
1948 # 2. Oct 1916: switch to Pacific Standard Time (GMT-8)
1949 # Exact date in October unknown; Sunday October 1 is a reasonable guess.
1950 # 3. June 1918: switch to Pacific Daylight Time (GMT-7)
1951 # Exact date in June unknown; Sunday June 2 is a reasonable guess.
1952 # note 1:
1953 # On Oct 27/1918 when daylight saving ended in the rest of Canada,
1954 # Creston did not change its clocks.
1955 # note 2:
1956 # During WWII when the Federal Government legislated a mandatory clock change,
1957 # Creston did not oblige.
1958 # note 3:
1959 # There is no guarantee that Creston will remain on Mountain Standard Time
1960 # (UTC-7) forever.
1961 # The subject was debated at least once this year by the town Council.
1962 # http://www.bclocalnews.com/kootenay_rockies/crestonvalleyadvance/news/116760809.html
1963 
1964 # During a period WWII, summer time (Daylight saying) was mandatory in Canada.
1965 # In Creston, that was handled by shifting the area to PST (-8:00) then applying
1966 # summer time to cause the offset to be -7:00, the same as it had been before
1967 # the change.  It can be argued that the timezone abbreviation during this
1968 # period should be PDT rather than MST, but that doesn't seem important enough
1969 # (to anyone) to further complicate the rules.
1970 
1971 # The transition dates (and times) are guesses.
1972 
1973 # From Matt Johnson (2015-09-21):
1974 # Fort Nelson, BC, Canada will cancel DST this year.  So while previously they
1975 # were aligned with America/Vancouver, they're now aligned with
1976 # America/Dawson_Creek.
1977 # http://www.northernrockies.ca/EN/meta/news/archives/2015/northern-rockies-time-change.html
1978 #
1979 # From Tim Parenti (2015-09-23):
1980 # This requires a new zone for the Northern Rockies Regional Municipality,
1981 # America/Fort_Nelson.  The resolution of 2014-12-08 was reached following a
1982 # 2014-11-15 poll with nearly 75% support.  Effectively, the municipality has
1983 # been on MST (-0700) like Dawson Creek since it advanced its clocks on
1984 # 2015-03-08.
1985 #
1986 # From Paul Eggert (2015-09-23):
1987 # Shanks says Fort Nelson did not observe DST in 1946, unlike Vancouver.
1988 
1989 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1990 Rule    Vanc    1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D
1991 Rule    Vanc    1918    only    -       Oct     27      2:00    0       S
1992 Rule    Vanc    1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War
1993 Rule    Vanc    1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace
1994 Rule    Vanc    1945    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S
1995 Rule    Vanc    1946    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1996 Rule    Vanc    1946    only    -       Oct     13      2:00    0       S
1997 Rule    Vanc    1947    1961    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1998 Rule    Vanc    1962    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1999 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2000 Zone America/Vancouver  -8:12:28 -      LMT     1884
2001                         -8:00   Vanc    P%sT    1987
2002                         -8:00   Canada  P%sT
2003 Zone America/Dawson_Creek -8:00:56 -    LMT     1884
2004                         -8:00   Canada  P%sT    1947
2005                         -8:00   Vanc    P%sT    1972 Aug 30  2:00
2006                         -7:00   -       MST
2007 Zone America/Fort_Nelson        -8:10:47 -      LMT     1884
2008                         -8:00   Vanc    P%sT    1946
2009                         -8:00   -       PST     1947
2010                         -8:00   Vanc    P%sT    1987
2011                         -8:00   Canada  P%sT    2015 Mar  8  2:00
2012                         -7:00   -       MST
2013 Zone America/Creston    -7:46:04 -      LMT     1884
2014                         -7:00   -       MST     1916 Oct 1
2015                         -8:00   -       PST     1918 Jun 2
2016                         -7:00   -       MST
2017 
2018 # Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Yukon
2019 
2020 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
2021 # Dawson switched to PST in 1973.  Inuvik switched to MST in 1979.
2022 # Mathew Englander (1996-10-07) gives the following refs:
2023 #       * 1967. Paragraph 28(34)(g) of the Interpretation Act, S.C. 1967-68,
2024 #       c. 7 defines Yukon standard time as UTC-9....
2025 #       see Interpretation Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. I-21, s. 35(1).
2026 #       [https://www.canlii.org/en/ca/laws/stat/rsc-1985-c-i-21/latest/rsc-1985-c-i-21.html]
2027 #       * C.O. 1973/214 switched Yukon to PST on 1973-10-28 00:00.
2028 #       * O.I.C. 1980/02 established DST.
2029 #       * O.I.C. 1987/056 changed DST to Apr firstSun 2:00 to Oct lastSun 2:00.
2030 
2031 # From Brian Inglis (2015-04-14):
2032 #
2033 # I tried to trace the history of Yukon time and found the following
2034 # regulations, giving the reference title and URL if found, regulation name,
2035 # and relevant quote if available.  Each regulation specifically revokes its
2036 # predecessor.  The final reference is to the current Interpretation Act
2037 # authorizing and resulting from these regulatory changes.
2038 #
2039 # Only recent regulations were retrievable via Yukon government site search or
2040 # index, and only some via Canadian legal sources.  Other sources used include
2041 # articles titled "Standard Time and Time Zones in Canada" from JRASC via ADS
2042 # Abstracts, cited by ADO for 1932 ..., and updated versions from 1958 and
2043 # 1970 quoted below; each article includes current extracts from provincial
2044 # and territorial ST and DST regulations at the end, summaries and details of
2045 # standard times and daylight saving time at many locations across Canada,
2046 # with time zone maps, tables and calculations for Canadian Sunrise, Sunset,
2047 # and LMST; they also cover many countries and global locations, with a chart
2048 # and table showing current Universal Time offsets, and may be useful as
2049 # another source of information for 1970 and earlier.
2050 #
2051 # * Standard Time and Time Zones in Canada; Smith, C.C.; JRASC, Vol. 26,
2052 #   pp.49-77; February 1932; SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2053 #   http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1932JRASC..26...49S from p.75:
2054 #   Yukon Interpretation Ordinance
2055 #   Yukon standard time is the local mean time at the one hundred and
2056 #   thirty-fifth meridian.
2057 #
2058 # * Standard Time and Time Zones in Canada; Smith, C.C.; Thomson, Malcolm M.;
2059 #   JRASC, Vol. 52, pp.193-223; October 1958; SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System
2060 #   (ADS) http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1958JRASC..52..193S from pp.220-1:
2061 #   Yukon Interpretation Ordinance, 1955, Chap. 16.
2062 #
2063 #     (1) Subject to this section, standard time shall be reckoned as nine
2064 #     hours behind Greenwich Time and called Yukon Standard Time.
2065 #
2066 #     (2) Notwithstanding subsection (1), the Commissioner may make regulations
2067 #     varying the manner of reckoning standard time.
2068 #
2069 # * Yukon Territory Commissioner's Order 1966-20 Interpretation Ordinance
2070 #   http://? - no online source found
2071 #
2072 # * Standard Time and Time Zones in Canada; Thomson, Malcolm M.; JRASC,
2073 #   Vol. 64, pp.129-162; June 1970; SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2074 #   http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1970JRASC..64..129T from p.156: Yukon
2075 #   Territory Commissioner's Order 1967-59 Interpretation Ordinance ...
2076 #
2077 #     1. Commissioner's Order 1966-20 dated at Whitehorse in the Yukon
2078 #     Territory on 27th January, 1966, is hereby revoked.
2079 #
2080 #     2. Yukon (East) Standard Time as defined by section 36 of the
2081 #     Interpretation Ordinance from and after mid-night on the 28th day of May,
2082 #     1967 shall be reckoned in the same manner as Pacific Standard Time, that
2083 #     is to say, eight hours behind Greenwich Time in the area of the Yukon
2084 #     Territory lying east of the 138th degree longitude west.
2085 #
2086 #     3. In the remainder of the Territory, lying west of the 138th degree
2087 #     longitude west, Yukon (West) Standard Time shall be reckoned as nine
2088 #     hours behind Greenwich Time.
2089 #
2090 # * Yukon Standard Time defined as Pacific Standard Time, YCO 1973/214
2091 #   https://www.canlii.org/en/yk/laws/regu/yco-1973-214/latest/yco-1973-214.html
2092 #   C.O. 1973/214 INTERPRETATION ACT ...
2093 #
2094 #     1. Effective October 28, 1973 Commissioner's Order 1967/59 is hereby
2095 #     revoked.
2096 #
2097 #     2. Yukon Standard Time as defined by section 36 of the Interpretation
2098 #     Act from and after midnight on the twenty-eighth day of October, 1973
2099 #     shall be reckoned in the same manner as Pacific Standard Time, that is
2100 #     to say eight hours behind Greenwich Time.
2101 #
2102 # * O.I.C. 1980/02 INTERPRETATION ACT
2103 #   http://? - no online source found
2104 #
2105 # * Yukon Daylight Saving Time, YOIC 1987/56
2106 #   https://www.canlii.org/en/yk/laws/regu/yoic-1987-56/latest/yoic-1987-56.html
2107 #   O.I.C. 1987/056 INTERPRETATION ACT ...
2108 #
2109 #   In every year between
2110 #     (a) two o'clock in the morning in the first Sunday in April, and
2111 #     (b) two o'clock in the morning in the last Sunday in October,
2112 #   Standard Time shall be reckoned as seven hours behind Greenwich Time and
2113 #   called Yukon Daylight Saving Time.
2114 #   ...
2115 #   Dated ... 9th day of March, A.D., 1987.
2116 #
2117 # * Yukon Daylight Saving Time 2006, YOIC 2006/127
2118 #   https://www.canlii.org/en/yk/laws/regu/yoic-2006-127/latest/yoic-2006-127.html
2119 #   O.I.C. 2006/127 INTERPRETATION ACT ...
2120 #
2121 #     1. In Yukon each year the time for general purposes shall be 7 hours
2122 #     behind Greenwich mean time during the period commencing at two o'clock
2123 #     in the forenoon on the second Sunday of March and ending at two o'clock
2124 #     in the forenoon on the first Sunday of November and shall be called
2125 #     Yukon Daylight Saving Time.
2126 #
2127 #     2. Order-in-Council 1987/56 is revoked.
2128 #
2129 #     3. This order comes into force January 1, 2007.
2130 #
2131 # * Interpretation Act, RSY 2002, c 125
2132 # https://www.canlii.org/en/yk/laws/stat/rsy-2002-c-125/latest/rsy-2002-c-125.html
2133 
2134 # From Rives McDow (1999-09-04):
2135 # Nunavut ... moved ... to incorporate the whole territory into one time zone.
2136 # Nunavut moves to single time zone Oct. 31
2137 # http://www.nunatsiaq.com/nunavut/nvt90903_13.html
2138 #
2139 # From Antoine Leca (1999-09-06):
2140 # We then need to create a new timezone for the Kitikmeot region of Nunavut
2141 # to differentiate it from the Yellowknife region.
2142 
2143 # From Paul Eggert (1999-09-20):
2144 # Basic Facts: The New Territory
2145 # http://www.nunavut.com/basicfacts/english/basicfacts_1territory.html
2146 # (1999) reports that Pangnirtung operates on eastern time,
2147 # and that Coral Harbour does not observe DST.  We don't know when
2148 # Pangnirtung switched to eastern time; we'll guess 1995.
2149 
2150 # From Rives McDow (1999-11-08):
2151 # On October 31, when the rest of Nunavut went to Central time,
2152 # Pangnirtung wobbled.  Here is the result of their wobble:
2153 #
2154 # The following businesses and organizations in Pangnirtung use Central Time:
2155 #
2156 #       First Air, Power Corp, Nunavut Construction, Health Center, RCMP,
2157 #       Eastern Arctic National Parks, A & D Specialist
2158 #
2159 # The following businesses and organizations in Pangnirtung use Eastern Time:
2160 #
2161 #       Hamlet office, All other businesses, Both schools, Airport operator
2162 #
2163 # This has made for an interesting situation there, which warranted the news.
2164 # No one there that I spoke with seems concerned, or has plans to
2165 # change the local methods of keeping time, as it evidently does not
2166 # really interfere with any activities or make things difficult locally.
2167 # They plan to celebrate New Year's turn-over twice, one hour apart,
2168 # so it appears that the situation will last at least that long.
2169 # The Nunavut Intergovernmental Affairs hopes that they will "come to
2170 # their senses", but the locals evidently don't see any problem with
2171 # the current state of affairs.
2172 
2173 # From Michaela Rodrigue, writing in the
2174 # Nunatsiaq News (1999-11-19):
2175 # http://www.nunatsiaqonline.ca/archives/nunavut991130/nvt91119_17.html
2176 # Clyde River, Pangnirtung and Sanikiluaq now operate with two time zones,
2177 # central - or Nunavut time - for government offices, and eastern time
2178 # for municipal offices and schools....  Igloolik [was similar but then]
2179 # made the switch to central time on Saturday, Nov. 6.
2180 
2181 # From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
2182 # Matthews and Vincent (1998) say the following, but we lack histories
2183 # for these potential new Zones.
2184 #
2185 # The Canadian Forces station at Alert uses Eastern Time while the
2186 # handful of residents at the Eureka weather station [in the Central
2187 # zone] skip daylight savings.  Baffin Island, which is crossed by the
2188 # Central, Eastern and Atlantic Time zones only uses Eastern Time.
2189 # Gjoa Haven, Taloyoak and Pelly Bay all use Mountain instead of
2190 # Central Time and Southampton Island [in the Central zone] is not
2191 # required to use daylight savings.
2192 
2193 # From <http://www.nunatsiaqonline.ca/archives/nunavut001130/nvt21110_02.html>
2194 # Nunavut now has two time zones (2000-11-10):
2195 # The Nunavut government would allow its employees in Kugluktuk and
2196 # Cambridge Bay to operate on central time year-round, putting them
2197 # one hour behind the rest of Nunavut for six months during the winter.
2198 # At the end of October the two communities had rebelled against
2199 # Nunavut's unified time zone, refusing to shift to eastern time with
2200 # the rest of the territory for the winter.  Cambridge Bay remained on
2201 # central time, while Kugluktuk, even farther west, reverted to
2202 # mountain time, which they had used before the advent of Nunavut's
2203 # unified time zone in 1999.
2204 #
2205 # From Rives McDow (2001-01-20), quoting the Nunavut government:
2206 # The preceding decision came into effect at midnight, Saturday Nov 4, 2000.
2207 
2208 # From Paul Eggert (2000-12-04):
2209 # Let's just keep track of the official times for now.
2210 
2211 # From Rives McDow (2001-03-07):
2212 # The premier of Nunavut has issued a ministerial statement advising
2213 # that effective 2001-04-01, the territory of Nunavut will revert
2214 # back to three time zones (mountain, central, and eastern).  Of the
2215 # cities in Nunavut, Coral Harbor is the only one that I know of that
2216 # has said it will not observe dst, staying on EST year round.  I'm
2217 # checking for more info, and will get back to you if I come up with
2218 # more.
2219 # [Also see <http://www.nunatsiaq.com/nunavut/nvt10309_06.html> (2001-03-09).]
2220 
2221 # From Gwillim Law (2005-05-21):
2222 # According to ...
2223 # http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/Magazine/SO98/geomap.asp
2224 # (from a 1998 Canadian Geographic article), the de facto and de jure time
2225 # for Southampton Island (at the north end of Hudson Bay) is UTC-5 all year
2226 # round.  Using Google, it's easy to find other websites that confirm this.
2227 # I wasn't able to find how far back this time regimen goes, but since it
2228 # predates the creation of Nunavut, it probably goes back many years....
2229 # The Inuktitut name of Coral Harbour is Sallit, but it's rarely used.
2230 #
2231 # From Paul Eggert (2014-10-17):
2232 # For lack of better information, assume that Southampton Island observed
2233 # daylight saving only during wartime.  Gwillim Law's email also
2234 # mentioned maps now maintained by National Research Council Canada;
2235 # see above for an up-to-date link.
2236 
2237 # From Chris Walton (2007-03-01):
2238 # ... the community of Resolute (located on Cornwallis Island in
2239 # Nunavut) moved from Central Time to Eastern Time last November.
2240 # Basically the community did not change its clocks at the end of
2241 # daylight saving....
2242 # http://www.nnsl.com/frames/newspapers/2006-11/nov13_06none.html
2243 
2244 # From Chris Walton (2011-03-21):
2245 # Back in 2007 I initiated the creation of a new "zone file" for Resolute
2246 # Bay. Resolute Bay is a small community located about 900km north of
2247 # the Arctic Circle. The zone file was required because Resolute Bay had
2248 # decided to use UTC-5 instead of UTC-6 for the winter of 2006-2007.
2249 #
2250 # According to new information which I received last week, Resolute Bay
2251 # went back to using UTC-6 in the winter of 2007-2008...
2252 #
2253 # On March 11/2007 most of Canada went onto daylight saving. On March
2254 # 14/2007 I phoned the Resolute Bay hamlet office to do a "time check." I
2255 # talked to somebody that was both knowledgeable and helpful. I was able
2256 # to confirm that Resolute Bay was still operating on UTC-5. It was
2257 # explained to me that Resolute Bay had been on the Eastern Time zone
2258 # (EST) in the winter, and was now back on the Central Time zone (CDT).
2259 # i.e. the time zone had changed twice in the last year but the clocks
2260 # had not moved. The residents had to know which time zone they were in
2261 # so they could follow the correct TV schedule...
2262 #
2263 # On Nov 02/2008 most of Canada went onto standard time. On Nov 03/2008 I
2264 # phoned the Resolute Bay hamlet office...[D]ue to the challenging nature
2265 # of the phone call, I decided to seek out an alternate source of
2266 # information. I found an e-mail address for somebody by the name of
2267 # Stephanie Adams whose job was listed as "Inns North Support Officer for
2268 # Arctic Co-operatives." I was under the impression that Stephanie lived
2269 # and worked in Resolute Bay...
2270 #
2271 # On March 14/2011 I phoned the hamlet office again. I was told that
2272 # Resolute Bay had been using Central Standard Time over the winter of
2273 # 2010-2011 and that the clocks had therefore been moved one hour ahead
2274 # on March 13/2011. The person I talked to was aware that Resolute Bay
2275 # had previously experimented with Eastern Standard Time but he could not
2276 # tell me when the practice had stopped.
2277 #
2278 # On March 17/2011 I searched the Web to find an e-mail address of
2279 # somebody that might be able to tell me exactly when Resolute Bay went
2280 # off Eastern Standard Time. I stumbled on the name "Aziz Kheraj." Aziz
2281 # used to be the mayor of Resolute Bay and he apparently owns half the
2282 # businesses including "South Camp Inn." This website has some info on
2283 # Aziz:
2284 # http://www.uphere.ca/node/493
2285 #
2286 # I sent Aziz an e-mail asking when Resolute Bay had stopped using
2287 # Eastern Standard Time.
2288 #
2289 # Aziz responded quickly with this: "hi, The time was not changed for the
2290 # 1 year only, the following year, the community went back to the old way
2291 # of "spring ahead-fall behind" currently we are zulu plus 5 hrs and in
2292 # the winter Zulu plus 6 hrs"
2293 #
2294 # This of course conflicted with everything I had ascertained in November 2008.
2295 #
2296 # I sent Aziz a copy of my 2008 e-mail exchange with Stephanie. Aziz
2297 # responded with this: "Hi, Stephanie lives in Winnipeg. I live here, You
2298 # may want to check with the weather office in Resolute Bay or do a
2299 # search on the weather through Env. Canada. web site"
2300 #
2301 # If I had realized the Stephanie did not live in Resolute Bay I would
2302 # never have contacted her.  I now believe that all the information I
2303 # obtained in November 2008 should be ignored...
2304 # I apologize for reporting incorrect information in 2008.
2305 
2306 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2307 Rule    NT_YK   1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D
2308 Rule    NT_YK   1918    only    -       Oct     27      2:00    0       S
2309 Rule    NT_YK   1919    only    -       May     25      2:00    1:00    D
2310 Rule    NT_YK   1919    only    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       S
2311 Rule    NT_YK   1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War
2312 Rule    NT_YK   1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace
2313 Rule    NT_YK   1945    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S
2314 Rule    NT_YK   1965    only    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    2:00    DD
2315 Rule    NT_YK   1965    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
2316 Rule    NT_YK   1980    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
2317 Rule    NT_YK   1980    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
2318 Rule    NT_YK   1987    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
2319 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2320 # aka Panniqtuuq
2321 Zone America/Pangnirtung 0      -       -00     1921 # trading post est.
2322                         -4:00   NT_YK   A%sT    1995 Apr Sun>=1  2:00
2323                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1999 Oct 31  2:00
2324                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT    2000 Oct 29  2:00
2325                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT
2326 # formerly Frobisher Bay
2327 Zone America/Iqaluit    0       -       -00     1942 Aug # Frobisher Bay est.
2328                         -5:00   NT_YK   E%sT    1999 Oct 31  2:00
2329                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT    2000 Oct 29  2:00
2330                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT
2331 # aka Qausuittuq
2332 Zone America/Resolute   0       -       -00     1947 Aug 31 # Resolute founded
2333                         -6:00   NT_YK   C%sT    2000 Oct 29  2:00
2334                         -5:00   -       EST     2001 Apr  1  3:00
2335                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT    2006 Oct 29  2:00
2336                         -5:00   -       EST     2007 Mar 11  3:00
2337                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT
2338 # aka Kangiqiniq
2339 Zone America/Rankin_Inlet 0     -       -00     1957 # Rankin Inlet founded
2340                         -6:00   NT_YK   C%sT    2000 Oct 29  2:00
2341                         -5:00   -       EST     2001 Apr  1  3:00
2342                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT
2343 # aka Iqaluktuuttiaq
2344 Zone America/Cambridge_Bay 0    -       -00     1920 # trading post est.?
2345                         -7:00   NT_YK   M%sT    1999 Oct 31  2:00
2346                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT    2000 Oct 29  2:00
2347                         -5:00   -       EST     2000 Nov  5  0:00
2348                         -6:00   -       CST     2001 Apr  1  3:00
2349                         -7:00   Canada  M%sT
2350 Zone America/Yellowknife 0      -       -00     1935 # Yellowknife founded?
2351                         -7:00   NT_YK   M%sT    1980
2352                         -7:00   Canada  M%sT
2353 Zone America/Inuvik     0       -       -00     1953 # Inuvik founded
2354                         -8:00   NT_YK   P%sT    1979 Apr lastSun  2:00
2355                         -7:00   NT_YK   M%sT    1980
2356                         -7:00   Canada  M%sT
2357 Zone America/Whitehorse -9:00:12 -      LMT     1900 Aug 20
2358                         -9:00   NT_YK   Y%sT    1967 May 28  0:00
2359                         -8:00   NT_YK   P%sT    1980
2360                         -8:00   Canada  P%sT
2361 Zone America/Dawson     -9:17:40 -      LMT     1900 Aug 20
2362                         -9:00   NT_YK   Y%sT    1973 Oct 28  0:00
2363                         -8:00   NT_YK   P%sT    1980
2364                         -8:00   Canada  P%sT
2365 
2366 
2367 ###############################################################################
2368 
2369 # Mexico
2370 
2371 # From Paul Eggert (2014-12-07):
2372 # The Investigation and Analysis Service of the
2373 # Mexican Library of Congress (MLoC) has published a
2374 # history of Mexican local time (in Spanish)
2375 # http://www.diputados.gob.mx/bibliot/publica/inveyana/polisoc/horver/index.htm
2376 #
2377 # Here are the discrepancies between Shanks & Pottenger (S&P) and the MLoC.
2378 # (In all cases we go with the MLoC.)
2379 # S&P report that Baja was at -8:00 in 1922/1923.
2380 # S&P say the 1930 transition in Baja was 1930-11-16.
2381 # S&P report no DST during summer 1931.
2382 # S&P report a transition at 1932-03-30 23:00, not 1932-04-01.
2383 
2384 # From Gwillim Law (2001-02-20):
2385 # There are some other discrepancies between the Decrees page and the
2386 # tz database.  I think they can best be explained by supposing that
2387 # the researchers who prepared the Decrees page failed to find some of
2388 # the relevant documents.
2389 
2390 # From Alan Perry (1996-02-15):
2391 # A guy from our Mexico subsidiary finally found the Presidential Decree
2392 # outlining the timezone changes in Mexico.
2393 #
2394 # ------------- Begin Forwarded Message -------------
2395 #
2396 # I finally got my hands on the Official Presidential Decree that sets up the
2397 # rules for the DST changes. The rules are:
2398 #
2399 # 1. The country is divided in 3 timezones:
2400 #    - Baja California Norte (the Mexico/BajaNorte TZ)
2401 #    - Baja California Sur, Nayarit, Sinaloa and Sonora (the Mexico/BajaSur TZ)
2402 #    - The rest of the country (the Mexico/General TZ)
2403 #
2404 # 2. From the first Sunday in April at 2:00 AM to the last Sunday in October
2405 #    at 2:00 AM, the times in each zone are as follows:
2406 #    BajaNorte: GMT+7
2407 #    BajaSur:   GMT+6
2408 #    General:   GMT+5
2409 #
2410 # 3. The rest of the year, the times are as follows:
2411 #    BajaNorte: GMT+8
2412 #    BajaSur:   GMT+7
2413 #    General:   GMT+6
2414 #
2415 # The Decree was published in Mexico's Official Newspaper on January 4th.
2416 #
2417 # -------------- End Forwarded Message --------------
2418 # From Paul Eggert (1996-06-12):
2419 # For an English translation of the decree, see
2420 # "Diario Oficial: Time Zone Changeover" (1996-01-04).
2421 # http://mexico-travel.com/extra/timezone_eng.html
2422 
2423 # From Rives McDow (1998-10-08):
2424 # The State of Quintana Roo has reverted back to central STD and DST times
2425 # (i.e. UTC -0600 and -0500 as of 1998-08-02).
2426 
2427 # From Rives McDow (2000-01-10):
2428 # Effective April 4, 1999 at 2:00 AM local time, Sonora changed to the time
2429 # zone 5 hours from the International Date Line, and will not observe daylight
2430 # savings time so as to stay on the same time zone as the southern part of
2431 # Arizona year round.
2432 
2433 # From Jesper Nørgaard, translating
2434 # <http://www.reforma.com/nacional/articulo/064327/> (2001-01-17):
2435 # In Oaxaca, the 55.000 teachers from the Section 22 of the National
2436 # Syndicate of Education Workers, refuse to apply daylight saving each
2437 # year, so that the more than 10,000 schools work at normal hour the
2438 # whole year.
2439 
2440 # From Gwillim Law (2001-01-19):
2441 # <http://www.reforma.com/negocios_y_dinero/articulo/064481/> ... says
2442 # (translated):...
2443 # January 17, 2000 - The Energy Secretary, Ernesto Martens, announced
2444 # that Summer Time will be reduced from seven to five months, starting
2445 # this year....
2446 # http://www.publico.com.mx/scripts/texto3.asp?action=pagina&pag=21&pos=p&secc=naci&date=01/17/2001
2447 # [translated], says "summer time will ... take effect on the first Sunday
2448 # in May, and end on the last Sunday of September.
2449 
2450 # From Arthur David Olson (2001-01-25):
2451 # The 2001-01-24 traditional Washington Post contained the page one
2452 # story "Timely Issue Divides Mexicans."...
2453 # http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A37383-2001Jan23.html
2454 # ... Mexico City Mayor López Obrador "...is threatening to keep
2455 # Mexico City and its 20 million residents on a different time than
2456 # the rest of the country..." In particular, López Obrador would abolish
2457 # observation of Daylight Saving Time.
2458 
2459 # Official statute published by the Energy Department
2460 # http://www.conae.gob.mx/ahorro/decretohorver2001.html#decre
2461 # (2001-02-01) shows Baja and Chihauhua as still using US DST rules,
2462 # and Sonora with no DST.  This was reported by Jesper Nørgaard (2001-02-03).
2463 
2464 # From Paul Eggert (2001-03-03):
2465 #
2466 # http://www.latimes.com/news/nation/20010303/t000018766.html
2467 # James F. Smith writes in today's LA Times
2468 # * Sonora will continue to observe standard time.
2469 # * Last week Mexico City's mayor Andrés Manuel López Obrador decreed that
2470 #   the Federal District will not adopt DST.
2471 # * 4 of 16 district leaders announced they'll ignore the decree.
2472 # * The decree does not affect federal-controlled facilities including
2473 #   the airport, banks, hospitals, and schools.
2474 #
2475 # For now we'll assume that the Federal District will bow to federal rules.
2476 
2477 # From Jesper Nørgaard (2001-04-01):
2478 # I found some references to the Mexican application of daylight
2479 # saving, which modifies what I had already sent you, stating earlier
2480 # that a number of northern Mexican states would go on daylight
2481 # saving. The modification reverts this to only cover Baja California
2482 # (Norte), while all other states (except Sonora, who has no daylight
2483 # saving all year) will follow the original decree of president
2484 # Vicente Fox, starting daylight saving May 6, 2001 and ending
2485 # September 30, 2001.
2486 # References: "Diario de Monterrey" <http://www.diariodemonterrey.com/index.asp>
2487 # Palabra <http://palabra.infosel.com/010331/primera/ppri3101.pdf> (2001-03-31)
2488 
2489 # From Reuters (2001-09-04):
2490 # Mexico's Supreme Court on Tuesday declared that daylight savings was
2491 # unconstitutional in Mexico City, creating the possibility the
2492 # capital will be in a different time zone from the rest of the nation
2493 # next year....  The Supreme Court's ruling takes effect at 2:00
2494 # a.m. (0800 GMT) on Sept. 30, when Mexico is scheduled to revert to
2495 # standard time. "This is so residents of the Federal District are not
2496 # subject to unexpected time changes," a statement from the court said.
2497 
2498 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2002-03-12):
2499 # ... consulting my local grocery store(!) and my coworkers, they all insisted
2500 # that a new decision had been made to reinstate US style DST in Mexico....
2501 # http://www.conae.gob.mx/ahorro/horaver2001_m1_2002.html (2002-02-20)
2502 # confirms this.  Sonora as usual is the only state where DST is not applied.
2503 
2504 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-12-28):
2505 #
2506 # Steffen Thorsen wrote:
2507 # > Mexico's House of Representatives has approved a proposal for northern
2508 # > Mexico's border cities to share the same daylight saving schedule as
2509 # > the United States.
2510 # Now this has passed both the Congress and the Senate, so starting from
2511 # 2010, some border regions will be the same:
2512 # http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/2009/dec/28/clocks-will-match-both-sides-border/
2513 # http://www.elmananarey.com/diario/noticia/nacional/noticias/empatan_horario_de_frontera_con_eu/621939
2514 # (Spanish)
2515 #
2516 # Could not find the new law text, but the proposed law text changes are here:
2517 # http://gaceta.diputados.gob.mx/Gaceta/61/2009/dic/20091210-V.pdf
2518 # (Gaceta Parlamentaria)
2519 #
2520 # There is also a list of the votes here:
2521 # http://gaceta.diputados.gob.mx/Gaceta/61/2009/dic/V2-101209.html
2522 #
2523 # Our page:
2524 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/north-mexico-dst-change.html
2525 
2526 # From Arthur David Olson (2010-01-20):
2527 # The page
2528 # http://dof.gob.mx/nota_detalle.php?codigo=5127480&fecha=06/01/2010
2529 # includes this text:
2530 # En los municipios fronterizos de Tijuana y Mexicali en Baja California;
2531 # Juárez y Ojinaga en Chihuahua; Acuña y Piedras Negras en Coahuila;
2532 # Anáhuac en Nuevo León; y Nuevo Laredo, Reynosa y Matamoros en
2533 # Tamaulipas, la aplicación de este horario estacional surtirá efecto
2534 # desde las dos horas del segundo domingo de marzo y concluirá a las dos
2535 # horas del primer domingo de noviembre.
2536 # En los municipios fronterizos que se encuentren ubicados en la franja
2537 # fronteriza norte en el territorio comprendido entre la línea
2538 # internacional y la línea paralela ubicada a una distancia de veinte
2539 # kilómetros, así como la Ciudad de Ensenada, Baja California, hacia el
2540 # interior del país, la aplicación de este horario estacional surtirá
2541 # efecto desde las dos horas del segundo domingo de marzo y concluirá a
2542 # las dos horas del primer domingo de noviembre.
2543 
2544 # From Steffen Thorsen (2014-12-08), translated by Gwillim Law:
2545 # The Mexican state of Quintana Roo will likely change to EST in 2015.
2546 #
2547 # http://www.unioncancun.mx/articulo/2014/12/04/medio-ambiente/congreso-aprueba-una-hora-mas-de-sol-en-qroo
2548 # "With this change, the time conflict that has existed between the municipios
2549 # of Quintana Roo and the municipio of Felipe Carrillo Puerto may come to an
2550 # end. The latter declared itself in rebellion 15 years ago when a time change
2551 # was initiated in Mexico, and since then it has refused to change its time
2552 # zone along with the rest of the country."
2553 #
2554 # From Steffen Thorsen (2015-01-14), translated by Gwillim Law:
2555 # http://sipse.com/novedades/confirman-aplicacion-de-nueva-zona-horaria-para-quintana-roo-132331.html
2556 # "...the new time zone will come into effect at two o'clock on the first Sunday
2557 # of February, when we will have to advance the clock one hour from its current
2558 # time..."
2559 # Also, the new zone will not use DST.
2560 #
2561 # From Carlos Raúl Perasso (2015-02-02):
2562 # The decree that modifies the Mexican Hour System Law has finally
2563 # been published at the Diario Oficial de la Federación
2564 # http://www.dof.gob.mx/nota_detalle.php?codigo=5380123&fecha=31/01/2015
2565 # It establishes 5 zones for Mexico:
2566 # 1- Zona Centro (Central Zone): Corresponds to longitude 90 W,
2567 #    includes most of Mexico, excluding what's mentioned below.
2568 # 2- Zona Pacífico (Pacific Zone): Longitude 105 W, includes the
2569 #    states of Baja California Sur; Chihuahua; Nayarit (excluding Bahía
2570 #    de Banderas which lies in Central Zone); Sinaloa and Sonora.
2571 # 3- Zona Noroeste (Northwest Zone): Longitude 120 W, includes the
2572 #    state of Baja California.
2573 # 4- Zona Sureste (Southeast Zone): Longitude 75 W, includes the state
2574 #    of Quintana Roo.
2575 # 5- The islands, reefs and keys shall take their timezone from the
2576 #    longitude they are located at.
2577 
2578 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2579 Rule    Mexico  1939    only    -       Feb     5       0:00    1:00    D
2580 Rule    Mexico  1939    only    -       Jun     25      0:00    0       S
2581 Rule    Mexico  1940    only    -       Dec     9       0:00    1:00    D
2582 Rule    Mexico  1941    only    -       Apr     1       0:00    0       S
2583 Rule    Mexico  1943    only    -       Dec     16      0:00    1:00    W # War
2584 Rule    Mexico  1944    only    -       May     1       0:00    0       S
2585 Rule    Mexico  1950    only    -       Feb     12      0:00    1:00    D
2586 Rule    Mexico  1950    only    -       Jul     30      0:00    0       S
2587 Rule    Mexico  1996    2000    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
2588 Rule    Mexico  1996    2000    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
2589 Rule    Mexico  2001    only    -       May     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
2590 Rule    Mexico  2001    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
2591 Rule    Mexico  2002    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
2592 Rule    Mexico  2002    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
2593 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2594 # Quintana Roo; represented by Cancún
2595 Zone America/Cancun     -5:47:04 -      LMT     1922 Jan  1  0:12:56
2596                         -6:00   -       CST     1981 Dec 23
2597                         -5:00   Mexico  E%sT    1998 Aug  2  2:00
2598                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT    2015 Feb  1  2:00
2599                         -5:00   -       EST
2600 # Campeche, Yucatán; represented by Mérida
2601 Zone America/Merida     -5:58:28 -      LMT     1922 Jan  1  0:01:32
2602                         -6:00   -       CST     1981 Dec 23
2603                         -5:00   -       EST     1982 Dec  2
2604                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT
2605 # Coahuila, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas (near US border)
2606 # This includes the following municipalities:
2607 #   in Coahuila: Ocampo, Acuña, Zaragoza, Jiménez, Piedras Negras, Nava,
2608 #     Guerrero, Hidalgo.
2609 #   in Nuevo León: Anáhuac, Los Aldama.
2610 #   in Tamaulipas: Nuevo Laredo, Guerrero, Mier, Miguel Alemán, Camargo,
2611 #     Gustavo Díaz Ordaz, Reynosa, Río Bravo, Valle Hermoso, Matamoros.
2612 # See: Inicia mañana Horario de Verano en zona fronteriza, El Universal,
2613 # 2016-03-12
2614 # http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/articulo/estados/2016/03/12/inicia-manana-horario-de-verano-en-zona-fronteriza
2615 Zone America/Matamoros  -6:40:00 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:20:00
2616                         -6:00   -       CST     1988
2617                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1989
2618                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT    2010
2619                         -6:00   US      C%sT
2620 # Durango; Coahuila, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas (away from US border)
2621 Zone America/Monterrey  -6:41:16 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:18:44
2622                         -6:00   -       CST     1988
2623                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1989
2624                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT
2625 # Central Mexico
2626 Zone America/Mexico_City -6:36:36 -     LMT     1922 Jan  1  0:23:24
2627                         -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00
2628                         -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15
2629                         -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00
2630                         -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct
2631                         -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1
2632                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT    2001 Sep 30  2:00
2633                         -6:00   -       CST     2002 Feb 20
2634                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT
2635 # Chihuahua (near US border)
2636 # This includes the municipalities of Janos, Ascensión, Juárez, Guadalupe,
2637 # Práxedis G Guerrero, Coyame del Sotol, Ojinaga, and Manuel Benavides.
2638 # (See the 2016-03-12 El Universal source mentioned above.)
2639 Zone America/Ojinaga    -6:57:40 -      LMT     1922 Jan  1  0:02:20
2640                         -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00
2641                         -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15
2642                         -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00
2643                         -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct
2644                         -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1
2645                         -6:00   -       CST     1996
2646                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT    1998
2647                         -6:00   -       CST     1998 Apr Sun>=1  3:00
2648                         -7:00   Mexico  M%sT    2010
2649                         -7:00   US      M%sT
2650 # Chihuahua (away from US border)
2651 Zone America/Chihuahua  -7:04:20 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:55:40
2652                         -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00
2653                         -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15
2654                         -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00
2655                         -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct
2656                         -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1
2657                         -6:00   -       CST     1996
2658                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT    1998
2659                         -6:00   -       CST     1998 Apr Sun>=1  3:00
2660                         -7:00   Mexico  M%sT
2661 # Sonora
2662 Zone America/Hermosillo -7:23:52 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:36:08
2663                         -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00
2664                         -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15
2665                         -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00
2666                         -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct
2667                         -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1
2668                         -6:00   -       CST     1942 Apr 24
2669                         -7:00   -       MST     1949 Jan 14
2670                         -8:00   -       PST     1970
2671                         -7:00   Mexico  M%sT    1999
2672                         -7:00   -       MST
2673 
2674 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-04-21):
2675 # According to news, Bahía de Banderas (Mexican state of Nayarit)
2676 # changed time zone UTC-7 to new time zone UTC-6 on April 4, 2010 (to
2677 # share the same time zone as nearby city Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco).
2678 #
2679 # (Spanish)
2680 # Bahía de Banderas homologa su horario al del centro del
2681 # país, a partir de este domingo
2682 # http://www.nayarit.gob.mx/notes.asp?id=20748
2683 #
2684 # Bahía de Banderas homologa su horario con el del Centro del
2685 # País
2686 # http://www.bahiadebanderas.gob.mx/principal/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=261:bahia-de-banderas-homologa-su-horario-con-el-del-centro-del-pais&catid=42:comunicacion-social&Itemid=50
2687 #
2688 # (English)
2689 # Puerto Vallarta and Bahía de Banderas: One Time Zone
2690 # http://virtualvallarta.com/puertovallarta/puertovallarta/localnews/2009-12-03-Puerto-Vallarta-and-Bahia-de-Banderas-One-Time-Zone.shtml
2691 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_mexico08.html
2692 #
2693 # "Mexico's Senate approved the amendments to the Mexican Schedule System that
2694 # will allow Bahía de Banderas and Puerto Vallarta to share the same time
2695 # zone ..."
2696 # Baja California Sur, Nayarit, Sinaloa
2697 
2698 # From Arthur David Olson (2010-05-01):
2699 # Use "Bahia_Banderas" to keep the name to fourteen characters.
2700 
2701 # Mazatlán
2702 Zone America/Mazatlan   -7:05:40 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:54:20
2703                         -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00
2704                         -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15
2705                         -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00
2706                         -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct
2707                         -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1
2708                         -6:00   -       CST     1942 Apr 24
2709                         -7:00   -       MST     1949 Jan 14
2710                         -8:00   -       PST     1970
2711                         -7:00   Mexico  M%sT
2712 
2713 # Bahía de Banderas
2714 Zone America/Bahia_Banderas     -7:01:00 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:59:00
2715                         -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00
2716                         -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15
2717                         -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00
2718                         -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct
2719                         -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1
2720                         -6:00   -       CST     1942 Apr 24
2721                         -7:00   -       MST     1949 Jan 14
2722                         -8:00   -       PST     1970
2723                         -7:00   Mexico  M%sT    2010 Apr  4  2:00
2724                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT
2725 
2726 # Baja California
2727 Zone America/Tijuana    -7:48:04 -      LMT     1922 Jan  1  0:11:56
2728                         -7:00   -       MST     1924
2729                         -8:00   -       PST     1927 Jun 10 23:00
2730                         -7:00   -       MST     1930 Nov 15
2731                         -8:00   -       PST     1931 Apr  1
2732                         -8:00   1:00    PDT     1931 Sep 30
2733                         -8:00   -       PST     1942 Apr 24
2734                         -8:00   1:00    PWT     1945 Aug 14 23:00u
2735                         -8:00   1:00    PPT     1945 Nov 12 # Peace
2736                         -8:00   -       PST     1948 Apr  5
2737                         -8:00   1:00    PDT     1949 Jan 14
2738                         -8:00   -       PST     1954
2739                         -8:00   CA      P%sT    1961
2740                         -8:00   -       PST     1976
2741                         -8:00   US      P%sT    1996
2742                         -8:00   Mexico  P%sT    2001
2743                         -8:00   US      P%sT    2002 Feb 20
2744                         -8:00   Mexico  P%sT    2010
2745                         -8:00   US      P%sT
2746 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
2747 # Formerly there was an America/Ensenada zone, which differed from
2748 # America/Tijuana only in that it did not observe DST from 1976
2749 # through 1995.  This was as per Shanks (1999).  But Shanks & Pottenger say
2750 # Ensenada did not observe DST from 1948 through 1975.  Guy Harris reports
2751 # that the 1987 OAG says "Only Ensenada, Mexicali, San Felipe and
2752 # Tijuana observe DST," which agrees with Shanks & Pottenger but implies that
2753 # DST-observance was a town-by-town matter back then.  This concerns
2754 # data after 1970 so most likely there should be at least one Zone
2755 # other than America/Tijuana for Baja, but it's not clear yet what its
2756 # name or contents should be.
2757 #
2758 # From Paul Eggert (2015-10-08):
2759 # Formerly there was an America/Santa_Isabel zone, but this appears to
2760 # have come from a misreading of
2761 # http://dof.gob.mx/nota_detalle.php?codigo=5127480&fecha=06/01/2010
2762 # It has been moved to the 'backward' file.
2763 #
2764 #
2765 # Revillagigedo Is
2766 # no information
2767 
2768 ###############################################################################
2769 
2770 # Anguilla
2771 # Antigua and Barbuda
2772 # See America/Port_of_Spain.
2773 
2774 # Bahamas
2775 #
2776 # For 1899 Milne gives -5:09:29.5; round that.
2777 #
2778 # From Sue Williams (2006-12-07):
2779 # The Bahamas announced about a month ago that they plan to change their DST
2780 # rules to sync with the U.S. starting in 2007....
2781 # http://www.jonesbahamas.com/?c=45&a=10412
2782 
2783 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2784 Rule    Bahamas 1964    1975    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
2785 Rule    Bahamas 1964    1975    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
2786 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2787 Zone    America/Nassau  -5:09:30 -      LMT     1912 Mar 2
2788                         -5:00   Bahamas E%sT    1976
2789                         -5:00   US      E%sT
2790 
2791 # Barbados
2792 
2793 # For 1899 Milne gives -3:58:29.2; round that.
2794 
2795 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2796 Rule    Barb    1977    only    -       Jun     12      2:00    1:00    D
2797 Rule    Barb    1977    1978    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
2798 Rule    Barb    1978    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=15      2:00    1:00    D
2799 Rule    Barb    1979    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S
2800 Rule    Barb    1980    only    -       Sep     25      2:00    0       S
2801 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2802 Zone America/Barbados   -3:58:29 -      LMT     1924 # Bridgetown
2803                         -3:58:29 -      BMT     1932 # Bridgetown Mean Time
2804                         -4:00   Barb    A%sT
2805 
2806 # Belize
2807 # Whitman entirely disagrees with Shanks; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2808 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2809 Rule    Belize  1918    1942    -       Oct     Sun>=2       0:00    0:30    -0530
2810 Rule    Belize  1919    1943    -       Feb     Sun>=9       0:00    0       CST
2811 Rule    Belize  1973    only    -       Dec      5      0:00    1:00    CDT
2812 Rule    Belize  1974    only    -       Feb      9      0:00    0       CST
2813 Rule    Belize  1982    only    -       Dec     18      0:00    1:00    CDT
2814 Rule    Belize  1983    only    -       Feb     12      0:00    0       CST
2815 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2816 Zone    America/Belize  -5:52:48 -      LMT     1912 Apr
2817                         -6:00   Belize  %s
2818 
2819 # Bermuda
2820 
2821 # For 1899 Milne gives -4:19:18.3 as the meridian of the clock tower,
2822 # Bermuda dockyard, Ireland I; round that.
2823 
2824 # From Dan Jones, reporting in The Royal Gazette (2006-06-26):
2825 
2826 # Next year, however, clocks in the US will go forward on the second Sunday
2827 # in March, until the first Sunday in November.  And, after the Time Zone
2828 # (Seasonal Variation) Bill 2006 was passed in the House of Assembly on
2829 # Friday, the same thing will happen in Bermuda.
2830 # http://www.theroyalgazette.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060529/NEWS/105290135
2831 
2832 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2833 Zone Atlantic/Bermuda   -4:19:18 -      LMT     1930 Jan  1  2:00 # Hamilton
2834                         -4:00   -       AST     1974 Apr 28  2:00
2835                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1976
2836                         -4:00   US      A%sT
2837 
2838 # Cayman Is
2839 # See America/Panama.
2840 
2841 # Costa Rica
2842 
2843 # Milne gives -5:36:13.3 as San José mean time; round to nearest.
2844 
2845 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2846 Rule    CR      1979    1980    -       Feb     lastSun 0:00    1:00    D
2847 Rule    CR      1979    1980    -       Jun     Sun>=1       0:00    0       S
2848 Rule    CR      1991    1992    -       Jan     Sat>=15      0:00    1:00    D
2849 # IATA SSIM (1991-09) says the following was at 1:00;
2850 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2851 Rule    CR      1991    only    -       Jul      1      0:00    0       S
2852 Rule    CR      1992    only    -       Mar     15      0:00    0       S
2853 # There are too many San Josés elsewhere, so we'll use 'Costa Rica'.
2854 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2855 Zone America/Costa_Rica -5:36:13 -      LMT     1890        # San José
2856                         -5:36:13 -      SJMT    1921 Jan 15 # San José Mean Time
2857                         -6:00   CR      C%sT
2858 # Coco
2859 # no information; probably like America/Costa_Rica
2860 
2861 # Cuba
2862 
2863 # From Paul Eggert (2013-02-21):
2864 # Milne gives -5:28:50.45 for the observatory at Havana, -5:29:23.57
2865 # for the port, and -5:30 for meteorological observations.
2866 # For now, stick with Shanks & Pottenger.
2867 
2868 # From Arthur David Olson (1999-03-29):
2869 # The 1999-03-28 exhibition baseball game held in Havana, Cuba, between
2870 # the Cuban National Team and the Baltimore Orioles was carried live on
2871 # the Orioles Radio Network, including affiliate WTOP in Washington, DC.
2872 # During the game, play-by-play announcer Jim Hunter noted that
2873 # "We'll be losing two hours of sleep...Cuba switched to Daylight Saving
2874 # Time today."  (The "two hour" remark referred to losing one hour of
2875 # sleep on 1999-03-28 - when the announcers were in Cuba as it switched
2876 # to DST - and one more hour on 1999-04-04 - when the announcers will have
2877 # returned to Baltimore, which switches on that date.)
2878 
2879 # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-11-11):
2880 # DST start in Cuba in 2004 ... does not follow the same rules as the
2881 # years before.  The correct date should be Sunday 2004-03-28 00:00 ...
2882 # https://web.archive.org/web/20040402060750/http://www.granma.cu/espanol/2004/marzo/sab27/reloj.html
2883 
2884 # From Evert van der Veer via Steffen Thorsen (2004-10-28):
2885 # Cuba is not going back to standard time this year.
2886 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
2887 # http://www.granma.cu/ingles/2004/septiembre/juev30/41medid-i.html
2888 # says that it's due to a problem at the Antonio Guiteras
2889 # thermoelectric plant, and says "This October there will be no return
2890 # to normal hours (after daylight saving time)".
2891 # For now, let's assume that it's a temporary measure.
2892 
2893 # From Carlos A. Carnero Delgado (2005-11-12):
2894 # This year (just like in 2004-2005) there's no change in time zone
2895 # adjustment in Cuba.  We will stay in daylight saving time:
2896 # http://www.granma.cu/espanol/2005/noviembre/mier9/horario.html
2897 
2898 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-10-21):
2899 # An article in GRANMA INTERNACIONAL claims that Cuba will end
2900 # the 3 years of permanent DST next weekend, see
2901 # http://www.granma.cu/ingles/2006/octubre/lun16/43horario.html
2902 # "On Saturday night, October 28 going into Sunday, October 29, at 01:00,
2903 # watches should be set back one hour - going back to 00:00 hours - returning
2904 # to the normal schedule....
2905 
2906 # From Paul Eggert (2007-03-02):
2907 # <http://www.granma.cubaweb.cu/english/news/art89.html>, dated yesterday,
2908 # says Cuban clocks will advance at midnight on March 10.
2909 # For lack of better information, assume Cuba will use US rules,
2910 # except that it switches at midnight standard time as usual.
2911 #
2912 # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-10-25):
2913 # Carlos Alberto Fonseca Arauz informed me that Cuba will end DST one week
2914 # earlier - on the last Sunday of October, just like in 2006.
2915 #
2916 # He supplied these references:
2917 #
2918 # http://www.prensalatina.com.mx/article.asp?ID=%7B4CC32C1B-A9F7-42FB-8A07-8631AFC923AF%7D&language=ES
2919 # http://actualidad.terra.es/sociedad/articulo/cuba_llama_ahorrar_energia_cambio_1957044.htm
2920 #
2921 # From Alex Krivenyshev (2007-10-25):
2922 # Here is also article from Granma (Cuba):
2923 #
2924 # Regirá el Horario Normal desde el próximo domingo 28 de octubre
2925 # http://www.granma.cubaweb.cu/2007/10/24/nacional/artic07.html
2926 #
2927 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_cuba03.html
2928 
2929 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-09):
2930 # I'm in Maryland which is now observing United States Eastern Daylight
2931 # Time. At 9:44 local time I used RealPlayer to listen to
2932 # http://media.enet.cu/radioreloj
2933 # a Cuban information station, and heard
2934 # the time announced as "ocho cuarenta y cuatro" ("eight forty-four"),
2935 # indicating that Cuba is still on standard time.
2936 
2937 # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-03-12):
2938 # It seems that Cuba will start DST on Sunday, 2007-03-16...
2939 # It was announced yesterday, according to this source (in Spanish):
2940 # http://www.nnc.cubaweb.cu/marzo-2008/cien-1-11-3-08.htm
2941 #
2942 # Some more background information is posted here:
2943 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-starts-dst-march-16.html
2944 #
2945 # The article also says that Cuba has been observing DST since 1963,
2946 # while Shanks (and tzdata) has 1965 as the first date (except in the
2947 # 1940's). Many other web pages in Cuba also claim that it has been
2948 # observed since 1963, but with the exception of 1970 - an exception
2949 # which is not present in tzdata/Shanks. So there is a chance we need to
2950 # change some historic records as well.
2951 #
2952 # One example:
2953 # http://www.radiohc.cu/espanol/noticias/mar07/11mar/hor.htm
2954 
2955 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2008-03-13):
2956 # The Cuban time change has just been confirmed on the most authoritative
2957 # web site, the Granma.  Please check out
2958 # http://www.granma.cubaweb.cu/2008/03/13/nacional/artic10.html
2959 #
2960 # Basically as expected after Steffen Thorsen's information, the change
2961 # will take place midnight between Saturday and Sunday.
2962 
2963 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-12):
2964 # Assume Sun>=15 (third Sunday) going forward.
2965 
2966 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-04)
2967 # According to the Radio Reloj - Cuba will start Daylight Saving Time on
2968 # midnight between Saturday, March 07, 2009 and Sunday, March 08, 2009-
2969 # not on midnight March 14 / March 15 as previously thought.
2970 #
2971 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_cuba05.html
2972 # (in Spanish)
2973 
2974 # From Arthur David Olson (2009-03-09)
2975 # I listened over the Internet to
2976 # http://media.enet.cu/readioreloj
2977 # this morning; when it was 10:05 a. m. here in Bethesda, Maryland the
2978 # the time was announced as "diez cinco" - the same time as here, indicating
2979 # that has indeed switched to DST. Assume second Sunday from 2009 forward.
2980 
2981 # From Steffen Thorsen (2011-03-08):
2982 # Granma announced that Cuba is going to start DST on 2011-03-20 00:00:00
2983 # this year. Nothing about the end date known so far (if that has
2984 # changed at all).
2985 #
2986 # Source:
2987 # http://granma.co.cu/2011/03/08/nacional/artic01.html
2988 #
2989 # Our info:
2990 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-starts-dst-2011.html
2991 #
2992 # From Steffen Thorsen (2011-10-30)
2993 # Cuba will end DST two weeks later this year. Instead of going back
2994 # tonight, it has been delayed to 2011-11-13 at 01:00.
2995 #
2996 # One source (Spanish)
2997 # http://www.radioangulo.cu/noticias/cuba/17105-cuba-restablecera-el-horario-del-meridiano-de-greenwich.html
2998 #
2999 # Our page:
3000 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-time-changes-2011.html
3001 #
3002 # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-01)
3003 # According to Radio Reloj, Cuba will start DST on Midnight between March
3004 # 31 and April 1.
3005 #
3006 # Radio Reloj has the following info (Spanish):
3007 # http://www.radioreloj.cu/index.php/noticias-radio-reloj/71-miscelaneas/7529-cuba-aplicara-el-horario-de-verano-desde-el-1-de-abril
3008 #
3009 # Our info on it:
3010 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-starts-dst-2012.html
3011 
3012 # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-11-03):
3013 # Radio Reloj and many other sources report that Cuba is changing back
3014 # to standard time on 2012-11-04:
3015 # http://www.radioreloj.cu/index.php/noticias-radio-reloj/36-nacionales/9961-regira-horario-normal-en-cuba-desde-el-domingo-cuatro-de-noviembre
3016 # From Paul Eggert (2012-11-03):
3017 # For now, assume the future rule is first Sunday in November.
3018 
3019 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3020 Rule    Cuba    1928    only    -       Jun     10      0:00    1:00    D
3021 Rule    Cuba    1928    only    -       Oct     10      0:00    0       S
3022 Rule    Cuba    1940    1942    -       Jun     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
3023 Rule    Cuba    1940    1942    -       Sep     Sun>=1       0:00    0       S
3024 Rule    Cuba    1945    1946    -       Jun     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
3025 Rule    Cuba    1945    1946    -       Sep     Sun>=1       0:00    0       S
3026 Rule    Cuba    1965    only    -       Jun     1       0:00    1:00    D
3027 Rule    Cuba    1965    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       S
3028 Rule    Cuba    1966    only    -       May     29      0:00    1:00    D
3029 Rule    Cuba    1966    only    -       Oct     2       0:00    0       S
3030 Rule    Cuba    1967    only    -       Apr     8       0:00    1:00    D
3031 Rule    Cuba    1967    1968    -       Sep     Sun>=8       0:00    0       S
3032 Rule    Cuba    1968    only    -       Apr     14      0:00    1:00    D
3033 Rule    Cuba    1969    1977    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    1:00    D
3034 Rule    Cuba    1969    1971    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       S
3035 Rule    Cuba    1972    1974    -       Oct     8       0:00    0       S
3036 Rule    Cuba    1975    1977    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       S
3037 Rule    Cuba    1978    only    -       May     7       0:00    1:00    D
3038 Rule    Cuba    1978    1990    -       Oct     Sun>=8       0:00    0       S
3039 Rule    Cuba    1979    1980    -       Mar     Sun>=15      0:00    1:00    D
3040 Rule    Cuba    1981    1985    -       May     Sun>=5       0:00    1:00    D
3041 Rule    Cuba    1986    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=14      0:00    1:00    D
3042 Rule    Cuba    1990    1997    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
3043 Rule    Cuba    1991    1995    -       Oct     Sun>=8       0:00s   0       S
3044 Rule    Cuba    1996    only    -       Oct      6      0:00s   0       S
3045 Rule    Cuba    1997    only    -       Oct     12      0:00s   0       S
3046 Rule    Cuba    1998    1999    -       Mar     lastSun 0:00s   1:00    D
3047 Rule    Cuba    1998    2003    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00s   0       S
3048 Rule    Cuba    2000    2003    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:00s   1:00    D
3049 Rule    Cuba    2004    only    -       Mar     lastSun 0:00s   1:00    D
3050 Rule    Cuba    2006    2010    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00s   0       S
3051 Rule    Cuba    2007    only    -       Mar     Sun>=8       0:00s   1:00    D
3052 Rule    Cuba    2008    only    -       Mar     Sun>=15      0:00s   1:00    D
3053 Rule    Cuba    2009    2010    -       Mar     Sun>=8       0:00s   1:00    D
3054 Rule    Cuba    2011    only    -       Mar     Sun>=15      0:00s   1:00    D
3055 Rule    Cuba    2011    only    -       Nov     13      0:00s   0       S
3056 Rule    Cuba    2012    only    -       Apr     1       0:00s   1:00    D
3057 Rule    Cuba    2012    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1       0:00s   0       S
3058 Rule    Cuba    2013    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8       0:00s   1:00    D
3059 
3060 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3061 Zone    America/Havana  -5:29:28 -      LMT     1890
3062                         -5:29:36 -      HMT     1925 Jul 19 12:00 # Havana MT
3063                         -5:00   Cuba    C%sT
3064 
3065 # Dominica
3066 # See America/Port_of_Spain.
3067 
3068 # Dominican Republic
3069 
3070 # From Steffen Thorsen (2000-10-30):
3071 # Enrique Morales reported to me that the Dominican Republic has changed the
3072 # time zone to Eastern Standard Time as of Sunday 29 at 2 am....
3073 # http://www.listin.com.do/antes/261000/republica/princi.html
3074 
3075 # From Paul Eggert (2000-12-04):
3076 # That URL (2000-10-26, in Spanish) says they planned to use US-style DST.
3077 
3078 # From Rives McDow (2000-12-01):
3079 # Dominican Republic changed its mind and presidential decree on Tuesday,
3080 # November 28, 2000, with a new decree.  On Sunday, December 3 at 1:00 AM the
3081 # Dominican Republic will be reverting to 8 hours from the International Date
3082 # Line, and will not be using DST in the foreseeable future.  The reason they
3083 # decided to use DST was to be in synch with Puerto Rico, who was also going
3084 # to implement DST.  When Puerto Rico didn't implement DST, the president
3085 # decided to revert.
3086 
3087 
3088 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3089 Rule    DR      1966    only    -       Oct     30      0:00    1:00    EDT
3090 Rule    DR      1967    only    -       Feb     28      0:00    0       EST
3091 Rule    DR      1969    1973    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0:30    -0430
3092 Rule    DR      1970    only    -       Feb     21      0:00    0       EST
3093 Rule    DR      1971    only    -       Jan     20      0:00    0       EST
3094 Rule    DR      1972    1974    -       Jan     21      0:00    0       EST
3095 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3096 Zone America/Santo_Domingo -4:39:36 -   LMT     1890
3097                         -4:40   -       SDMT    1933 Apr  1 12:00 # S. Dom. MT
3098                         -5:00   DR      %s      1974 Oct 27
3099                         -4:00   -       AST     2000 Oct 29  2:00
3100                         -5:00   US      E%sT    2000 Dec  3  1:00
3101                         -4:00   -       AST
3102 
3103 # El Salvador
3104 
3105 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3106 Rule    Salv    1987    1988    -       May     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
3107 Rule    Salv    1987    1988    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       S
3108 # There are too many San Salvadors elsewhere, so use America/El_Salvador
3109 # instead of America/San_Salvador.
3110 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3111 Zone America/El_Salvador -5:56:48 -     LMT     1921 # San Salvador
3112                         -6:00   Salv    C%sT
3113 
3114 # Grenada
3115 # Guadeloupe
3116 # St Barthélemy
3117 # St Martin (French part)
3118 # See America/Port_of_Spain.
3119 
3120 # Guatemala
3121 #
3122 # From Gwillim Law (2006-04-22), after a heads-up from Oscar van Vlijmen:
3123 # Diario Co Latino, at
3124 # <http://www.diariocolatino.com/internacionales/detalles.asp?NewsID=8079>,
3125 # says in an article dated 2006-04-19 that the Guatemalan government had
3126 # decided on that date to advance official time by 60 minutes, to lessen the
3127 # impact of the elevated cost of oil....  Daylight saving time will last from
3128 # 2006-04-29 24:00 (Guatemalan standard time) to 2006-09-30 (time unspecified).
3129 # From Paul Eggert (2006-06-22):
3130 # The Ministry of Energy and Mines, press release CP-15/2006
3131 # (2006-04-19), says DST ends at 24:00.  See
3132 # http://www.sieca.org.gt/Sitio_publico/Energeticos/Doc/Medidas/Cambio_Horario_Nac_190406.pdf
3133 
3134 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3135 Rule    Guat    1973    only    -       Nov     25      0:00    1:00    D
3136 Rule    Guat    1974    only    -       Feb     24      0:00    0       S
3137 Rule    Guat    1983    only    -       May     21      0:00    1:00    D
3138 Rule    Guat    1983    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
3139 Rule    Guat    1991    only    -       Mar     23      0:00    1:00    D
3140 Rule    Guat    1991    only    -       Sep      7      0:00    0       S
3141 Rule    Guat    2006    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    D
3142 Rule    Guat    2006    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       S
3143 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3144 Zone America/Guatemala  -6:02:04 -      LMT     1918 Oct 5
3145                         -6:00   Guat    C%sT
3146 
3147 # Haiti
3148 # From Gwillim Law (2005-04-15):
3149 # Risto O. Nykänen wrote me that Haiti is now on DST.
3150 # I searched for confirmation, and I found a press release
3151 # on the Web page of the Haitian Consulate in Chicago (2005-03-31),
3152 # <http://www.haitianconsulate.org/time.doc>.  Translated from French, it says:
3153 #
3154 #  "The Prime Minister's Communication Office notifies the public in general
3155 #   and the press in particular that, following a decision of the Interior
3156 #   Ministry and the Territorial Collectivities [I suppose that means the
3157 #   provinces], Haiti will move to Eastern Daylight Time in the night from next
3158 #   Saturday the 2nd to Sunday the 3rd.
3159 #
3160 #  "Consequently, the Prime Minister's Communication Office wishes to inform
3161 #   the population that the country's clocks will be set forward one hour
3162 #   starting at midnight.  This provision will hold until the last Saturday in
3163 #   October 2005.
3164 #
3165 #  "Port-au-Prince, March 31, 2005"
3166 #
3167 # From Steffen Thorsen (2006-04-04):
3168 # I have been informed by users that Haiti observes DST this year like
3169 # last year, so the current "only" rule for 2005 might be changed to a
3170 # "max" rule or to last until 2006. (Who knows if they will observe DST
3171 # next year or if they will extend their DST like US/Canada next year).
3172 #
3173 # I have found this article about it (in French):
3174 # http://www.haitipressnetwork.com/news.cfm?articleID=7612
3175 #
3176 # The reason seems to be an energy crisis.
3177 
3178 # From Stephen Colebourne (2007-02-22):
3179 # Some IATA info: Haiti won't be having DST in 2007.
3180 
3181 # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-11):
3182 # According to several news sources, Haiti will observe DST this year,
3183 # apparently using the same start and end date as USA/Canada.
3184 # So this means they have already changed their time.
3185 #
3186 # http://www.alterpresse.org/spip.php?article12510
3187 # http://radiovision2000haiti.net/home/?p=13253
3188 #
3189 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-11):
3190 # The alterpresse.org source seems to show a US-style leap from 2:00 a.m. to
3191 # 3:00 a.m. rather than the traditional Haitian jump at midnight.
3192 # Assume a US-style fall back as well.
3193 
3194 # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-03-10):
3195 # It appears that Haiti is observing DST this year as well, same rules
3196 # as US/Canada.  They did it last year as well, and it looks like they
3197 # are going to observe DST every year now...
3198 #
3199 # http://radiovision2000haiti.net/public/haiti-avis-changement-dheure-dimanche/
3200 # http://www.canalplushaiti.net/?p=6714
3201 
3202 # From Steffen Thorsen (2016-03-12):
3203 # Jean Antoine, editor of www.haiti-reference.com informed us that Haiti
3204 # are not going on DST this year.  Several other resources confirm this: ...
3205 # https://www.radiotelevisioncaraibes.com/presse/heure_d_t_pas_de_changement_d_heure_pr_vu_pour_cet_ann_e.html
3206 # https://www.vantbefinfo.com/changement-dheure-pas-pour-haiti/
3207 # http://news.anmwe.com/haiti-lheure-nationale-ne-sera-ni-avancee-ni-reculee-cette-annee/
3208 
3209 # From Steffen Thorsen (2017-03-12):
3210 # We have received 4 mails from different people telling that Haiti
3211 # has started DST again today, and this source seems to confirm that,
3212 # I have not been able to find a more authoritative source:
3213 # https://www.haitilibre.com/en/news-20319-haiti-notices-time-change-in-haiti.html
3214 
3215 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3216 Rule    Haiti   1983    only    -       May     8       0:00    1:00    D
3217 Rule    Haiti   1984    1987    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    1:00    D
3218 Rule    Haiti   1983    1987    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       S
3219 # Shanks & Pottenger say AT is 2:00, but IATA SSIM (1991/1997) says 1:00s.
3220 # Go with IATA.
3221 Rule    Haiti   1988    1997    -       Apr     Sun>=1       1:00s   1:00    D
3222 Rule    Haiti   1988    1997    -       Oct     lastSun 1:00s   0       S
3223 Rule    Haiti   2005    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
3224 Rule    Haiti   2005    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       S
3225 Rule    Haiti   2012    2015    -       Mar     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
3226 Rule    Haiti   2012    2015    -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
3227 Rule    Haiti   2017    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
3228 Rule    Haiti   2017    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
3229 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3230 Zone America/Port-au-Prince -4:49:20 -  LMT     1890
3231                         -4:49   -       PPMT    1917 Jan 24 12:00 # P-a-P MT
3232                         -5:00   Haiti   E%sT
3233 
3234 # Honduras
3235 # Shanks & Pottenger say 1921 Jan 1; go with Whitman's more precise Apr 1.
3236 
3237 # From Paul Eggert (2006-05-05):
3238 # worldtimezone.com reports a 2006-05-02 Spanish-language AP article
3239 # saying Honduras will start using DST midnight Saturday, effective 4
3240 # months until September.  La Tribuna reported today
3241 # <http://www.latribuna.hn/99299.html> that Manuel Zelaya, the president
3242 # of Honduras, refused to back down on this.
3243 
3244 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-08-08):
3245 # It seems that Honduras has returned from DST to standard time this Monday at
3246 # 00:00 hours (prolonging Sunday to 25 hours duration).
3247 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_honduras04.html
3248 
3249 # From Paul Eggert (2006-08-08):
3250 # Also see Diario El Heraldo, The country returns to standard time (2006-08-08).
3251 # http://www.elheraldo.hn/nota.php?nid=54941&sec=12
3252 # It mentions executive decree 18-2006.
3253 
3254 # From Steffen Thorsen (2006-08-17):
3255 # Honduras will observe DST from 2007 to 2009, exact dates are not
3256 # published, I have located this authoritative source:
3257 # http://www.presidencia.gob.hn/noticia.aspx?nId=47
3258 
3259 # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-03-30):
3260 # http://www.laprensahn.com/pais_nota.php?id04962=7386
3261 # So it seems that Honduras will not enter DST this year....
3262 
3263 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3264 Rule    Hond    1987    1988    -       May     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
3265 Rule    Hond    1987    1988    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       S
3266 Rule    Hond    2006    only    -       May     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
3267 Rule    Hond    2006    only    -       Aug     Mon>=1       0:00    0       S
3268 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3269 Zone America/Tegucigalpa -5:48:52 -     LMT     1921 Apr
3270                         -6:00   Hond    C%sT
3271 #
3272 # Great Swan I ceded by US to Honduras in 1972
3273 
3274 # Jamaica
3275 # Shanks & Pottenger give -5:07:12, but Milne records -5:07:10.41 from an
3276 # unspecified official document, and says "This time is used throughout the
3277 # island".  Go with Milne.  Round to the nearest second as required by zic.
3278 #
3279 # Shanks & Pottenger give April 28 for the 1974 spring-forward transition, but
3280 # Lance Neita writes that Prime Minister Michael Manley decreed it January 5.
3281 # Assume Neita meant Jan 6 02:00, the same as the US.  Neita also writes that
3282 # Manley's supporters associated this act with Manley's nickname "Joshua"
3283 # (recall that in the Bible the sun stood still at Joshua's request),
3284 # and with the Rod of Correction which Manley said he had received from
3285 # Haile Selassie, Emperor of Ethiopia.  See:
3286 # Neita L. The politician in all of us. Jamaica Observer 2014-09-20
3287 # http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/columns/The-politician-in-all-of-us_17573647
3288 #
3289 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3290 Zone    America/Jamaica -5:07:11 -      LMT     1890        # Kingston
3291                         -5:07:11 -      KMT     1912 Feb    # Kingston Mean Time
3292                         -5:00   -       EST     1974
3293                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1984
3294                         -5:00   -       EST
3295 
3296 # Martinique
3297 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3298 Zone America/Martinique -4:04:20 -      LMT     1890        # Fort-de-France
3299                         -4:04:20 -      FFMT    1911 May    # Fort-de-France MT
3300                         -4:00   -       AST     1980 Apr  6
3301                         -4:00   1:00    ADT     1980 Sep 28
3302                         -4:00   -       AST
3303 
3304 # Montserrat
3305 # See America/Port_of_Spain.
3306 
3307 # Nicaragua
3308 #
3309 # This uses Shanks & Pottenger for times before 2005.
3310 #
3311 # From Steffen Thorsen (2005-04-12):
3312 # I've got reports from 8 different people that Nicaragua just started
3313 # DST on Sunday 2005-04-10, in order to save energy because of
3314 # expensive petroleum.  The exact end date for DST is not yet
3315 # announced, only "September" but some sites also say "mid-September".
3316 # Some background information is available on the President's official site:
3317 # http://www.presidencia.gob.ni/Presidencia/Files_index/Secretaria/Notas%20de%20Prensa/Presidente/2005/ABRIL/Gobierno-de-nicaragua-adelanta-hora-oficial-06abril.htm
3318 # The Decree, no 23-2005 is available here:
3319 # http://www.presidencia.gob.ni/buscador_gaceta/BD/DECRETOS/2005/Decreto%2023-2005%20Se%20adelanta%20en%20una%20hora%20en%20todo%20el%20territorio%20nacional%20apartir%20de%20las%2024horas%20del%2009%20de%20Abril.pdf
3320 #
3321 # From Paul Eggert (2005-05-01):
3322 # The decree doesn't say anything about daylight saving, but for now let's
3323 # assume that it is daylight saving....
3324 #
3325 # From Gwillim Law (2005-04-21):
3326 # The Associated Press story on the time change, which can be found at
3327 # http://www.lapalmainteractivo.com/guias/content/gen/ap/America_Latina/AMC_GEN_NICARAGUA_HORA.html
3328 # and elsewhere, says (fifth paragraph, translated from Spanish): "The last
3329 # time that a change of clocks was applied to save energy was in the year 2000
3330 # during the Arnoldo Alemán administration."...
3331 # The northamerica file says that Nicaragua has been on UTC-6 continuously
3332 # since December 1998.  I wasn't able to find any details of Nicaraguan time
3333 # changes in 2000.  Perhaps a note could be added to the northamerica file, to
3334 # the effect that we have indirect evidence that DST was observed in 2000.
3335 #
3336 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-11-02):
3337 # Nicaragua left DST the 2005-10-02 at 00:00 (local time).
3338 # http://www.presidencia.gob.ni/presidencia/files_index/secretaria/comunicados/2005/septiembre/26septiembre-cambio-hora.htm
3339 # (2005-09-26)
3340 #
3341 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-05-05):
3342 # http://www.elnuevodiario.com.ni/2006/05/01/nacionales/18410
3343 # (my informal translation)
3344 # By order of the president of the republic, Enrique Bolaños, Nicaragua
3345 # advanced by sixty minutes their official time, yesterday at 2 in the
3346 # morning, and will stay that way until 30th of September.
3347 #
3348 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-09-30):
3349 # http://www.presidencia.gob.ni/buscador_gaceta/BD/DECRETOS/2006/D-063-2006P-PRN-Cambio-Hora.pdf
3350 # My informal translation runs:
3351 # The natural sun time is restored in all the national territory, in that the
3352 # time is returned one hour at 01:00 am of October 1 of 2006.
3353 #
3354 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3355 Rule    Nic     1979    1980    -       Mar     Sun>=16      0:00    1:00    D
3356 Rule    Nic     1979    1980    -       Jun     Mon>=23      0:00    0       S
3357 Rule    Nic     2005    only    -       Apr     10      0:00    1:00    D
3358 Rule    Nic     2005    only    -       Oct     Sun>=1       0:00    0       S
3359 Rule    Nic     2006    only    -       Apr     30      2:00    1:00    D
3360 Rule    Nic     2006    only    -       Oct     Sun>=1       1:00    0       S
3361 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3362 Zone    America/Managua -5:45:08 -      LMT     1890
3363                         -5:45:12 -      MMT     1934 Jun 23 # Managua Mean Time?
3364                         -6:00   -       CST     1973 May
3365                         -5:00   -       EST     1975 Feb 16
3366                         -6:00   Nic     C%sT    1992 Jan  1  4:00
3367                         -5:00   -       EST     1992 Sep 24
3368                         -6:00   -       CST     1993
3369                         -5:00   -       EST     1997
3370                         -6:00   Nic     C%sT
3371 
3372 # Panama
3373 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3374 Zone    America/Panama  -5:18:08 -      LMT     1890
3375                         -5:19:36 -      CMT     1908 Apr 22 # Colón Mean Time
3376                         -5:00   -       EST
3377 Link America/Panama America/Cayman
3378 
3379 # Puerto Rico
3380 # There are too many San Juans elsewhere, so we'll use 'Puerto_Rico'.
3381 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3382 Zone America/Puerto_Rico -4:24:25 -     LMT     1899 Mar 28 12:00 # San Juan
3383                         -4:00   -       AST     1942 May  3
3384                         -4:00   US      A%sT    1946
3385                         -4:00   -       AST
3386 
3387 # St Kitts-Nevis
3388 # St Lucia
3389 # See America/Port_of_Spain.
3390 
3391 # St Pierre and Miquelon
3392 # There are too many St Pierres elsewhere, so we'll use 'Miquelon'.
3393 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3394 Zone America/Miquelon   -3:44:40 -      LMT     1911 May 15 # St Pierre
3395                         -4:00   -       AST     1980 May
3396                         -3:00   -       -03     1987
3397                         -3:00   Canada  -03/-02
3398 
3399 # St Vincent and the Grenadines
3400 # See America/Port_of_Spain.
3401 
3402 # Turks and Caicos
3403 #
3404 # From Chris Dunn in
3405 # https://bugs.debian.org/415007
3406 # (2007-03-15): In the Turks & Caicos Islands (America/Grand_Turk) the
3407 # daylight saving dates for time changes have been adjusted to match
3408 # the recent U.S. change of dates.
3409 #
3410 # From Brian Inglis (2007-04-28):
3411 # http://www.turksandcaicos.tc/calendar/index.htm [2007-04-26]
3412 # there is an entry for Nov 4 "Daylight Savings Time Ends 2007" and three
3413 # rows before that there is an out of date entry for Oct:
3414 # "Eastern Standard Times Begins 2007
3415 # Clocks are set back one hour at 2:00 a.m. local Daylight Saving Time"
3416 # indicating that the normal ET rules are followed.
3417 #
3418 # From Paul Eggert (2014-08-19):
3419 # The 2014-08-13 Cabinet meeting decided to stay on UT -04 year-round.  See:
3420 # http://tcweeklynews.com/daylight-savings-time-to-be-maintained-p5353-127.htm
3421 # Model this as a switch from EST/EDT to AST ...
3422 # From Chris Walton (2014-11-04):
3423 # ... the TCI government appears to have delayed the switch to
3424 # "permanent daylight saving time" by one year....
3425 # http://tcweeklynews.com/time-change-to-go-ahead-this-november-p5437-127.htm
3426 #
3427 # From the Turks & Caicos Cabinet (2017-07-20), heads-up from Steffen Thorsen:
3428 # ... agreed to the reintroduction in TCI of Daylight Saving Time (DST)
3429 # during the summer months and Standard Time, also known as Local
3430 # Time, during the winter months with effect from April 2018 ...
3431 # https://www.gov.uk/government/news/turks-and-caicos-post-cabinet-meeting-statement--3
3432 #
3433 # From Paul Eggert (2017-08-26):
3434 # The date of effect of the spring 2018 change appears to be March 11,
3435 # which makes more sense.  See: Hamilton D. Time change back
3436 # by March 2018 for TCI. Magnetic Media. 2017-08-25.
3437 # http://magneticmediatv.com/2017/08/time-change-back-by-march-2018-for-tci/
3438 #
3439 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3440 Zone America/Grand_Turk -4:44:32 -      LMT     1890
3441                         -5:07:11 -      KMT     1912 Feb # Kingston Mean Time
3442                         -5:00   -       EST     1979
3443                         -5:00   US      E%sT    2015 Nov Sun>=1 2:00
3444                         -4:00   -       AST     2018 Mar 11 3:00
3445                         -5:00   US      E%sT
3446 
3447 # British Virgin Is
3448 # Virgin Is
3449 # See America/Port_of_Spain.
3450 
3451 
3452 # Local Variables:
3453 # coding: utf-8
3454 # End:
--- EOF ---