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   9 #
  10 # This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  11 # ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  12 # FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  13 # version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  14 # accompanied this code).
  15 #
  16 # You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  17 # 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  18 # Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  19 #
  20 # Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  21 # or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  22 # questions.
  23 #
  24 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
  25 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
  26 
  27 # This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
  28 # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
  29 # tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
  30 # the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
  31 
  32 # From Paul Eggert (2016-12-05):
  33 #
  34 # Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:
  35 # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
  36 # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
  37 # Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.
  38 #
  39 # Many years ago Gwillim Law wrote that a good source
  40 # for time zone data was the International Air Transport
  41 # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
  42 # published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
  43 # of the IATA's data after 1990.  Except where otherwise noted,
  44 # IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.
  45 #
  46 # For data circa 1899, a common source is:
  47 # Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94.
  48 # https://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359
  49 #
  50 # These tables use numeric abbreviations like -03 and -0330 for
  51 # integer hour and minute UTC offsets.  Although earlier editions used
  52 # alphabetic time zone abbreviations, these abbreviations were
  53 # invented and did not reflect common practice.
  54 
  55 ###############################################################################
  56 
  57 ###############################################################################
  58 
  59 # Argentina
  60 
  61 # From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
  62 # Argentina: first Sunday in October to first Sunday in April since 1976.
  63 # Double Summer time from 1969 to 1974.  Switches at midnight.
  64 
  65 # From U. S. Naval Observatory (1988-01-19):
  66 # ARGENTINA           3 H BEHIND   UTC
  67 
  68 # From Hernan G. Otero (1995-06-26):
  69 # I am sending modifications to the Argentine time zone table...
  70 # AR was chosen because they are the ISO letters that represent Argentina.
  71 
  72 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
  73 Rule    Arg     1930    only    -       Dec      1      0:00    1:00    S
  74 Rule    Arg     1931    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       -
  75 Rule    Arg     1931    only    -       Oct     15      0:00    1:00    S
  76 Rule    Arg     1932    1940    -       Mar      1      0:00    0       -
  77 Rule    Arg     1932    1939    -       Nov      1      0:00    1:00    S
  78 Rule    Arg     1940    only    -       Jul      1      0:00    1:00    S
  79 Rule    Arg     1941    only    -       Jun     15      0:00    0       -
  80 Rule    Arg     1941    only    -       Oct     15      0:00    1:00    S
  81 Rule    Arg     1943    only    -       Aug      1      0:00    0       -
  82 Rule    Arg     1943    only    -       Oct     15      0:00    1:00    S
  83 Rule    Arg     1946    only    -       Mar      1      0:00    0       -
  84 Rule    Arg     1946    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    1:00    S
  85 Rule    Arg     1963    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
  86 Rule    Arg     1963    only    -       Dec     15      0:00    1:00    S
  87 Rule    Arg     1964    1966    -       Mar      1      0:00    0       -
  88 Rule    Arg     1964    1966    -       Oct     15      0:00    1:00    S
  89 Rule    Arg     1967    only    -       Apr      2      0:00    0       -
  90 Rule    Arg     1967    1968    -       Oct     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    S
  91 Rule    Arg     1968    1969    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:00    0       -
  92 Rule    Arg     1974    only    -       Jan     23      0:00    1:00    S
  93 Rule    Arg     1974    only    -       May      1      0:00    0       -
  94 Rule    Arg     1988    only    -       Dec      1      0:00    1:00    S
  95 #
  96 # From Hernan G. Otero (1995-06-26):
  97 # These corrections were contributed by InterSoft Argentina S.A.,
  98 # obtaining the data from the:
  99 # Talleres de Hidrografía Naval Argentina
 100 # (Argentine Naval Hydrography Institute)
 101 Rule    Arg     1989    1993    -       Mar     Sun>=1       0:00    0       -
 102 Rule    Arg     1989    1992    -       Oct     Sun>=15      0:00    1:00    S
 103 #
 104 # From Hernan G. Otero (1995-06-26):
 105 # From this moment on, the law that mandated the daylight saving
 106 # time corrections was derogated and no more modifications
 107 # to the time zones (for daylight saving) are now made.
 108 #
 109 # From Rives McDow (2000-01-10):
 110 # On October 3, 1999, 0:00 local, Argentina implemented daylight savings time,
 111 # which did not result in the switch of a time zone, as they stayed 9 hours
 112 # from the International Date Line.
 113 Rule    Arg     1999    only    -       Oct     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    S
 114 # From Paul Eggert (2007-12-28):
 115 # DST was set to expire on March 5, not March 3, but since it was converted
 116 # to standard time on March 3 it's more convenient for us to pretend that
 117 # it ended on March 3.
 118 Rule    Arg     2000    only    -       Mar     3       0:00    0       -
 119 #
 120 # From Peter Gradelski via Steffen Thorsen (2000-03-01):
 121 # We just checked with our São Paulo office and they say the government of
 122 # Argentina decided not to become one of the countries that go on or off DST.
 123 # So Buenos Aires should be -3 hours from GMT at all times.
 124 #
 125 # From Fabián L. Arce Jofré (2000-04-04):
 126 # The law that claimed DST for Argentina was derogated by President Fernando
 127 # de la Rúa on March 2, 2000, because it would make people spend more energy
 128 # in the winter time, rather than less.  The change took effect on March 3.
 129 #
 130 # From Mariano Absatz (2001-06-06):
 131 # one of the major newspapers here in Argentina said that the 1999
 132 # Timezone Law (which never was effectively applied) will (would?) be
 133 # in effect.... The article is at
 134 # http://ar.clarin.com/diario/2001-06-06/e-01701.htm
 135 # ... The Law itself is "Ley No. 25155", sanctioned on 1999-08-25, enacted
 136 # 1999-09-17, and published 1999-09-21.  The official publication is at:
 137 # http://www.boletin.jus.gov.ar/BON/Primera/1999/09-Septiembre/21/PDF/BO21-09-99LEG.PDF
 138 # Regretfully, you have to subscribe (and pay) for the on-line version....
 139 #
 140 # (2001-06-12):
 141 # the timezone for Argentina will not change next Sunday.
 142 # Apparently it will do so on Sunday 24th....
 143 # http://ar.clarin.com/diario/2001-06-12/s-03501.htm
 144 #
 145 # (2001-06-25):
 146 # Last Friday (yes, the last working day before the date of the change), the
 147 # Senate annulled the 1999 law that introduced the changes later postponed.
 148 # http://www.clarin.com.ar/diario/2001-06-22/s-03601.htm
 149 # It remains the vote of the Deputies..., but it will be the same....
 150 # This kind of things had always been done this way in Argentina.
 151 # We are still -03:00 all year round in all of the country.
 152 #
 153 # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-12-21):
 154 # A user (Leonardo Chaim) reported that Argentina will adopt DST....
 155 # all of the country (all Zone-entries) are affected.  News reports like
 156 # http://www.lanacion.com.ar/opinion/nota.asp?nota_id=973037 indicate
 157 # that Argentina will use DST next year as well, from October to
 158 # March, although exact rules are not given.
 159 #
 160 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2007-12-26)
 161 # The last hurdle of Argentina DST is over, the proposal was approved in
 162 # the lower chamber too (Diputados) with a vote 192 for and 2 against.
 163 # By the way thanks to Mariano Absatz and Daniel Mario Vega for the link to
 164 # the original scanned proposal, where the dates and the zero hours are
 165 # clear and unambiguous...This is the article about final approval:
 166 # http://www.lanacion.com.ar/politica/nota.asp?nota_id=973996
 167 #
 168 # From Paul Eggert (2007-12-22):
 169 # For dates after mid-2008, the following rules are my guesses and
 170 # are quite possibly wrong, but are more likely than no DST at all.
 171 
 172 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2008-09-05):
 173 # As per message from Carlos Alberto Fonseca Arauz (Nicaragua),
 174 # Argentina will start DST on Sunday October 19, 2008.
 175 #
 176 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_argentina03.html
 177 # http://www.impulsobaires.com.ar/nota.php?id=57832 (in spanish)
 178 
 179 # From Juan Manuel Docile in https://bugs.gentoo.org/240339 (2008-10-07)
 180 # via Rodrigo Severo:
 181 # Argentinian law No. 25.155 is no longer valid.
 182 # http://www.infoleg.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/60000-64999/60036/norma.htm
 183 # The new one is law No. 26.350
 184 # http://www.infoleg.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/135000-139999/136191/norma.htm
 185 # So there is no summer time in Argentina for now.
 186 
 187 # From Mariano Absatz (2008-10-20):
 188 # Decree 1693/2008 applies Law 26.350 for the summer 2008/2009 establishing DST
 189 # in Argentina from 2008-10-19 until 2009-03-15.
 190 # http://www.boletinoficial.gov.ar/Bora.Portal/CustomControls/PdfContent.aspx?fp=16102008&pi=3&pf=4&s=0&sec=01
 191 #
 192 
 193 # Decree 1705/2008 excepting 12 Provinces from applying DST in the summer
 194 # 2008/2009: Catamarca, La Rioja, Mendoza, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, La
 195 # Pampa, Neuquén, Rio Negro, Chubut, Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego
 196 # http://www.boletinoficial.gov.ar/Bora.Portal/CustomControls/PdfContent.aspx?fp=17102008&pi=1&pf=1&s=0&sec=01
 197 #
 198 # Press release 235 dated Saturday October 18th, from the Government of the
 199 # Province of Jujuy saying it will not apply DST either (even when it was not
 200 # included in Decree 1705/2008).
 201 # http://www.jujuy.gov.ar/index2/partes_prensa/18_10_08/235-181008.doc
 202 
 203 # From fullinet (2009-10-18):
 204 # As announced in
 205 # http://www.argentina.gob.ar/argentina/portal/paginas.dhtml?pagina=356
 206 # (an official .gob.ar) under title: "Sin Cambio de Hora"
 207 # (English: "No hour change").
 208 #
 209 # "Por el momento, el Gobierno Nacional resolvió no modificar la hora
 210 # oficial, decisión que estaba en estudio para su implementación el
 211 # domingo 18 de octubre. Desde el Ministerio de Planificación se anunció
 212 # que la Argentina hoy, en estas condiciones meteorológicas, no necesita
 213 # la modificación del huso horario, ya que 2009 nos encuentra con
 214 # crecimiento en la producción y distribución energética."
 215 
 216 Rule    Arg     2007    only    -       Dec     30      0:00    1:00    S
 217 Rule    Arg     2008    2009    -       Mar     Sun>=15      0:00    0       -
 218 Rule    Arg     2008    only    -       Oct     Sun>=15      0:00    1:00    S
 219 
 220 # From Mariano Absatz (2004-05-21):
 221 # Today it was officially published that the Province of Mendoza is changing
 222 # its timezone this winter... starting tomorrow night....
 223 # http://www.gobernac.mendoza.gov.ar/boletin/pdf/20040521-27158-normas.pdf
 224 # From Paul Eggert (2004-05-24):
 225 # It's Law No. 7,210.  This change is due to a public power emergency, so for
 226 # now we'll assume it's for this year only.
 227 #
 228 # From Paul Eggert (2014-08-09):
 229 # Hora de verano para la República Argentina
 230 # http://buenasiembra.com.ar/esoterismo/astrologia/hora-de-verano-de-la-republica-argentina-27.html
 231 # says that standard time in Argentina from 1894-10-31
 232 # to 1920-05-01 was -4:16:48.25.  Go with this more-precise value
 233 # over Shanks & Pottenger.
 234 #
 235 # From Mariano Absatz (2004-06-05):
 236 # These media articles from a major newspaper mostly cover the current state:
 237 # http://www.lanacion.com.ar/04/05/27/de_604825.asp
 238 # http://www.lanacion.com.ar/04/05/28/de_605203.asp
 239 #
 240 # The following eight (8) provinces pulled clocks back to UTC-04:00 at
 241 # midnight Monday May 31st. (that is, the night between 05/31 and 06/01).
 242 # Apparently, all nine provinces would go back to UTC-03:00 at the same
 243 # time in October 17th.
 244 #
 245 # Catamarca, Chubut, La Rioja, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz,
 246 # Tierra del Fuego, Tucumán.
 247 #
 248 # From Mariano Absatz (2004-06-14):
 249 # ... this weekend, the Province of Tucumán decided it'd go back to UTC-03:00
 250 # yesterday midnight (that is, at 24:00 Saturday 12th), since the people's
 251 # annoyance with the change is much higher than the power savings obtained....
 252 #
 253 # From Gwillim Law (2004-06-14):
 254 # http://www.lanacion.com.ar/04/06/10/de_609078.asp ...
 255 #     "The time change in Tierra del Fuego was a conflicted decision from
 256 #   the start.  The government had decreed that the measure would take
 257 #   effect on June 1, but a normative error forced the new time to begin
 258 #   three days earlier, from a Saturday to a Sunday....
 259 # Our understanding was that the change was originally scheduled to take place
 260 # on June 1 at 00:00 in Chubut, Santa Cruz, Tierra del Fuego (and some other
 261 # provinces).  Sunday was May 30, only two days earlier.  So the article
 262 # contains a contradiction.  I would give more credence to the Saturday/Sunday
 263 # date than the "three days earlier" phrase, and conclude that Tierra del
 264 # Fuego set its clocks back at 2004-05-30 00:00.
 265 #
 266 # From Steffen Thorsen (2004-10-05):
 267 # The previous law 7210 which changed the province of Mendoza's time zone
 268 # back in May have been modified slightly in a new law 7277, which set the
 269 # new end date to 2004-09-26 (original date was 2004-10-17).
 270 # http://www.gobernac.mendoza.gov.ar/boletin/pdf/20040924-27244-normas.pdf
 271 #
 272 # From Mariano Absatz (2004-10-05):
 273 # San Juan changed from UTC-03:00 to UTC-04:00 at midnight between
 274 # Sunday, May 30th and Monday, May 31st.  It changed back to UTC-03:00
 275 # at midnight between Saturday, July 24th and Sunday, July 25th....
 276 # http://www.sanjuan.gov.ar/prensa/archivo/000329.html
 277 # http://www.sanjuan.gov.ar/prensa/archivo/000426.html
 278 # http://www.sanjuan.gov.ar/prensa/archivo/000441.html
 279 
 280 # From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-01-17):
 281 # Here are articles that Argentina Province San Luis is planning to end DST
 282 # as earlier as upcoming Monday January 21, 2008 or February 2008:
 283 #
 284 # Provincia argentina retrasa reloj y marca diferencia con resto del país
 285 # (Argentine Province delayed clock and mark difference with the rest of the
 286 # country)
 287 # http://cl.invertia.com/noticias/noticia.aspx?idNoticia=200801171849_EFE_ET4373&idtel
 288 #
 289 # Es inminente que en San Luis atrasen una hora los relojes
 290 # (It is imminent in San Luis clocks one hour delay)
 291 # https://www.lagaceta.com.ar/nota/253414/Economia/Es-inminente-que-en-San-Luis-atrasen-una-hora-los-relojes.html
 292 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_argentina02.html
 293 
 294 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2008-01-18):
 295 # The page of the San Luis provincial government
 296 # http://www.sanluis.gov.ar/notas.asp?idCanal=0&id=22812
 297 # confirms what Alex Krivenyshev has earlier sent to the tz
 298 # emailing list about that San Luis plans to return to standard
 299 # time much earlier than the rest of the country. It also
 300 # confirms that upon request the provinces San Juan and Mendoza
 301 # refused to follow San Luis in this change.
 302 #
 303 # The change is supposed to take place Monday the 21st at 0:00
 304 # hours. As far as I understand it if this goes ahead, we need
 305 # a new timezone for San Luis (although there are also documented
 306 # independent changes in the southamerica file of San Luis in
 307 # 1990 and 1991 which has not been confirmed).
 308 
 309 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2008-01-25):
 310 # Unfortunately the below page has become defunct, about the San Luis
 311 # time change. Perhaps because it now is part of a group of pages "Most
 312 # important pages of 2008."
 313 #
 314 # You can use
 315 # http://www.sanluis.gov.ar/notas.asp?idCanal=8141&id=22834
 316 # instead it seems. Or use "Buscador" from the main page of the San Luis
 317 # government, and fill in "huso" and click OK, and you will get 3 pages
 318 # from which the first one is identical to the above.
 319 
 320 # From Mariano Absatz (2008-01-28):
 321 # I can confirm that the Province of San Luis (and so far only that
 322 # province) decided to go back to UTC-3 effective midnight Jan 20th 2008
 323 # (that is, Monday 21st at 0:00 is the time the clocks were delayed back
 324 # 1 hour), and they intend to keep UTC-3 as their timezone all year round
 325 # (that is, unless they change their mind any minute now).
 326 #
 327 # So we'll have to add yet another city to 'southamerica' (I think San
 328 # Luis city is the mos populated city in the Province, so it'd be
 329 # America/Argentina/San_Luis... of course I can't remember if San Luis's
 330 # history of particular changes goes along with Mendoza or San Juan :-(
 331 # (I only remember not being able to collect hard facts about San Luis
 332 # back in 2004, when these provinces changed to UTC-4 for a few days, I
 333 # mailed them personally and never got an answer).
 334 
 335 # From Paul Eggert (2014-08-12):
 336 # Unless otherwise specified, data entries are from Shanks & Pottenger through
 337 # 1992, from the IATA otherwise.  As noted below, Shanks & Pottenger say that
 338 # America/Cordoba split into 6 subregions during 1991/1992, one of which
 339 # was America/San_Luis, but we haven't verified this yet so for now we'll
 340 # keep America/Cordoba a single region rather than splitting it into the
 341 # other 5 subregions.
 342 
 343 # From Mariano Absatz (2009-03-13):
 344 # Yesterday (with our usual 2-day notice) the Province of San Luis
 345 # decided that next Sunday instead of "staying" @utc-03:00 they will go
 346 # to utc-04:00 until the second Saturday in October...
 347 #
 348 # The press release is at
 349 # http://www.sanluis.gov.ar/SL/Paginas/NoticiaDetalle.asp?TemaId=1&InfoPrensaId=3102
 350 # (I couldn't find the decree, but www.sanluis.gov.ar
 351 # is the official page for the Province Government.)
 352 #
 353 # There's also a note in only one of the major national papers ...
 354 # http://www.lanacion.com.ar/nota.asp?nota_id=1107912
 355 #
 356 # The press release says [quick and dirty translation]:
 357 # ... announced that next Sunday, at 00:00, Puntanos (the San Luis
 358 # inhabitants) will have to turn back one hour their clocks
 359 #
 360 # Since then, San Luis will establish its own Province timezone. Thus,
 361 # during 2009, this timezone change will run from 00:00 the third Sunday
 362 # in March until 24:00 of the second Saturday in October.
 363 
 364 # From Mariano Absatz (2009-10-16):
 365 # ...the Province of San Luis is a case in itself.
 366 #
 367 # The Law at
 368 # http://www.diputadossanluis.gov.ar/diputadosasp/paginas/verNorma.asp?NormaID=276
 369 # is ambiguous because establishes a calendar from the 2nd Sunday in
 370 # October at 0:00 thru the 2nd Saturday in March at 24:00 and the
 371 # complement of that starting on the 2nd Sunday of March at 0:00 and
 372 # ending on the 2nd Saturday of March at 24:00.
 373 #
 374 # This clearly breaks every time the 1st of March or October is a Sunday.
 375 #
 376 # IMHO, the "spirit of the Law" is to make the changes at 0:00 on the 2nd
 377 # Sunday of October and March.
 378 #
 379 # The problem is that the changes in the rest of the Provinces that did
 380 # change in 2007/2008, were made according to the Federal Law and Decrees
 381 # that did so on the 3rd Sunday of October and March.
 382 #
 383 # In fact, San Luis actually switched from UTC-4 to UTC-3 last Sunday
 384 # (October 11th) at 0:00.
 385 #
 386 # So I guess a new set of rules, besides "Arg", must be made and the last
 387 # America/Argentina/San_Luis entries should change to use these...
 388 # ...
 389 
 390 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-04-09):
 391 # According to news reports from El Diario de la República Province San
 392 # Luis, Argentina (standard time UTC-04) will keep Daylight Saving Time
 393 # after April 11, 2010 - will continue to have same time as rest of
 394 # Argentina (UTC-3) (no DST).
 395 #
 396 # Confirmaron la prórroga del huso horario de verano (Spanish)
 397 # http://www.eldiariodelarepublica.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=29383&Itemid=9
 398 # or (some English translation):
 399 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_argentina08.html
 400 
 401 # From Mariano Absatz (2010-04-12):
 402 # yes...I can confirm this...and given that San Luis keeps calling
 403 # UTC-03:00 "summer time", we should't just let San Luis go back to "Arg"
 404 # rules...San Luis is still using "Western ARgentina Time" and it got
 405 # stuck on Summer daylight savings time even though the summer is over.
 406 
 407 # From Paul Eggert (2013-09-05):
 408 # Perhaps San Luis operates on the legal fiction that it is at -04
 409 # with perpetual summer time, but ordinary usage typically seems to
 410 # just say it's at -03; see, for example,
 411 # https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hora_oficial_argentina
 412 # We've documented similar situations as being plain changes to
 413 # standard time, so let's do that here too.  This does not change UTC
 414 # offsets, only tm_isdst and the time zone abbreviations.  One minor
 415 # plus is that this silences a zic complaint that there's no POSIX TZ
 416 # setting for time stamps past 2038.
 417 
 418 # From Paul Eggert (2013-02-21):
 419 # Milne says Córdoba time was -4:16:48.2.  Round to the nearest second.
 420 
 421 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 422 #
 423 # Buenos Aires (BA), Capital Federal (CF),
 424 Zone America/Argentina/Buenos_Aires -3:53:48 - LMT      1894 Oct 31
 425                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May    # Córdoba Mean Time
 426                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 427                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 428                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3
 429                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3
 430                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02
 431 #
 432 # Córdoba (CB), Santa Fe (SF), Entre Ríos (ER), Corrientes (CN), Misiones (MN),
 433 # Chaco (CC), Formosa (FM), Santiago del Estero (SE)
 434 #
 435 # Shanks & Pottenger also make the following claims, which we haven't verified:
 436 # - Formosa switched to -3:00 on 1991-01-07.
 437 # - Misiones switched to -3:00 on 1990-12-29.
 438 # - Chaco switched to -3:00 on 1991-01-04.
 439 # - Santiago del Estero switched to -4:00 on 1991-04-01,
 440 #   then to -3:00 on 1991-04-26.
 441 #
 442 Zone America/Argentina/Cordoba -4:16:48 - LMT   1894 Oct 31
 443                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May
 444                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 445                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 446                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1991 Mar  3
 447                         -4:00   -       -04     1991 Oct 20
 448                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3
 449                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3
 450                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02
 451 #
 452 # Salta (SA), La Pampa (LP), Neuquén (NQ), Rio Negro (RN)
 453 Zone America/Argentina/Salta -4:21:40 - LMT     1894 Oct 31
 454                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May
 455                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 456                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 457                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1991 Mar  3
 458                         -4:00   -       -04     1991 Oct 20
 459                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3
 460                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3
 461                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Oct 18
 462                         -3:00   -       -03
 463 #
 464 # Tucumán (TM)
 465 Zone America/Argentina/Tucuman -4:20:52 - LMT   1894 Oct 31
 466                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May
 467                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 468                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 469                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1991 Mar  3
 470                         -4:00   -       -04     1991 Oct 20
 471                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3
 472                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3
 473                         -3:00   -       -03     2004 Jun  1
 474                         -4:00   -       -04     2004 Jun 13
 475                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02
 476 #
 477 # La Rioja (LR)
 478 Zone America/Argentina/La_Rioja -4:27:24 - LMT  1894 Oct 31
 479                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May
 480                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 481                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 482                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1991 Mar  1
 483                         -4:00   -       -04     1991 May  7
 484                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3
 485                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3
 486                         -3:00   -       -03     2004 Jun  1
 487                         -4:00   -       -04     2004 Jun 20
 488                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Oct 18
 489                         -3:00   -       -03
 490 #
 491 # San Juan (SJ)
 492 Zone America/Argentina/San_Juan -4:34:04 - LMT  1894 Oct 31
 493                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May
 494                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 495                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 496                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1991 Mar  1
 497                         -4:00   -       -04     1991 May  7
 498                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3
 499                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3
 500                         -3:00   -       -03     2004 May 31
 501                         -4:00   -       -04     2004 Jul 25
 502                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Oct 18
 503                         -3:00   -       -03
 504 #
 505 # Jujuy (JY)
 506 Zone America/Argentina/Jujuy -4:21:12 - LMT     1894 Oct 31
 507                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May
 508                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 509                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 510                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1990 Mar  4
 511                         -4:00   -       -04     1990 Oct 28
 512                         -4:00   1:00    -03     1991 Mar 17
 513                         -4:00   -       -04     1991 Oct  6
 514                         -3:00   1:00    -02     1992
 515                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3
 516                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3
 517                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Oct 18
 518                         -3:00   -       -03
 519 #
 520 # Catamarca (CT), Chubut (CH)
 521 Zone America/Argentina/Catamarca -4:23:08 - LMT 1894 Oct 31
 522                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May
 523                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 524                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 525                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1991 Mar  3
 526                         -4:00   -       -04     1991 Oct 20
 527                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3
 528                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3
 529                         -3:00   -       -03     2004 Jun  1
 530                         -4:00   -       -04     2004 Jun 20
 531                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Oct 18
 532                         -3:00   -       -03
 533 #
 534 # Mendoza (MZ)
 535 Zone America/Argentina/Mendoza -4:35:16 - LMT   1894 Oct 31
 536                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May
 537                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 538                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 539                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1990 Mar  4
 540                         -4:00   -       -04     1990 Oct 15
 541                         -4:00   1:00    -03     1991 Mar  1
 542                         -4:00   -       -04     1991 Oct 15
 543                         -4:00   1:00    -03     1992 Mar  1
 544                         -4:00   -       -04     1992 Oct 18
 545                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3
 546                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3
 547                         -3:00   -       -03     2004 May 23
 548                         -4:00   -       -04     2004 Sep 26
 549                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Oct 18
 550                         -3:00   -       -03
 551 #
 552 # San Luis (SL)
 553 
 554 Rule    SanLuis 2008    2009    -       Mar     Sun>=8       0:00    0       -
 555 Rule    SanLuis 2007    2008    -       Oct     Sun>=8       0:00    1:00    S
 556 
 557 Zone America/Argentina/San_Luis -4:25:24 - LMT  1894 Oct 31
 558                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May
 559                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 560                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 561                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1990
 562                         -3:00   1:00    -02     1990 Mar 14
 563                         -4:00   -       -04     1990 Oct 15
 564                         -4:00   1:00    -03     1991 Mar  1
 565                         -4:00   -       -04     1991 Jun  1
 566                         -3:00   -       -03     1999 Oct  3
 567                         -4:00   1:00    -03     2000 Mar  3
 568                         -3:00   -       -03     2004 May 31
 569                         -4:00   -       -04     2004 Jul 25
 570                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Jan 21
 571                         -4:00   SanLuis -04/-03 2009 Oct 11
 572                         -3:00   -       -03
 573 #
 574 # Santa Cruz (SC)
 575 Zone America/Argentina/Rio_Gallegos -4:36:52 - LMT      1894 Oct 31
 576                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May
 577                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 578                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 579                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3
 580                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3
 581                         -3:00   -       -03     2004 Jun  1
 582                         -4:00   -       -04     2004 Jun 20
 583                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Oct 18
 584                         -3:00   -       -03
 585 #
 586 # Tierra del Fuego, Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur (TF)
 587 Zone America/Argentina/Ushuaia -4:33:12 - LMT   1894 Oct 31
 588                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May
 589                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 590                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 591                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3
 592                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3
 593                         -3:00   -       -03     2004 May 30
 594                         -4:00   -       -04     2004 Jun 20
 595                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Oct 18
 596                         -3:00   -       -03
 597 
 598 # Aruba
 599 Link America/Curacao America/Aruba
 600 
 601 # Bolivia
 602 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 603 Zone    America/La_Paz  -4:32:36 -      LMT     1890
 604                         -4:32:36 -      CMT     1931 Oct 15 # Calamarca MT
 605                         -4:32:36 1:00   BOST    1932 Mar 21 # Bolivia ST
 606                         -4:00   -       -04
 607 
 608 # Brazil
 609 
 610 # From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18):
 611 # The mayor of Rio recently attempted to change the time zone rules
 612 # just in his city, in order to leave more summer time for the tourist trade.
 613 # The rule change lasted only part of the day;
 614 # the federal government refused to follow the city's rules, and business
 615 # was in a chaos, so the mayor backed down that afternoon.
 616 
 617 # From IATA SSIM (1996-02):
 618 # _Only_ the following states in BR1 observe DST: Rio Grande do Sul (RS),
 619 # Santa Catarina (SC), Paraná (PR), São Paulo (SP), Rio de Janeiro (RJ),
 620 # Espírito Santo (ES), Minas Gerais (MG), Bahia (BA), Goiás (GO),
 621 # Distrito Federal (DF), Tocantins (TO), Sergipe [SE] and Alagoas [AL].
 622 # [The last three states are new to this issue of the IATA SSIM.]
 623 
 624 # From Gwillim Law (1996-10-07):
 625 # Geography, history (Tocantins was part of Goiás until 1989), and other
 626 # sources of time zone information lead me to believe that AL, SE, and TO were
 627 # always in BR1, and so the only change was whether or not they observed DST....
 628 # The earliest issue of the SSIM I have is 2/91.  Each issue from then until
 629 # 9/95 says that DST is observed only in the ten states I quoted from 9/95,
 630 # along with Mato Grosso (MT) and Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), which are in BR2
 631 # (UTC-4)....  The other two time zones given for Brazil are BR3, which is
 632 # UTC-5, no DST, and applies only in the state of Acre (AC); and BR4, which is
 633 # UTC-2, and applies to Fernando de Noronha (formerly FN, but I believe it's
 634 # become part of the state of Pernambuco).  The boundary between BR1 and BR2
 635 # has never been clearly stated.  They've simply been called East and West.
 636 # However, some conclusions can be drawn from another IATA manual: the Airline
 637 # Coding Directory, which lists close to 400 airports in Brazil.  For each
 638 # airport it gives a time zone which is coded to the SSIM.  From that
 639 # information, I'm led to conclude that the states of Amapá (AP), Ceará (CE),
 640 # Maranhão (MA), Paraíba (PR), Pernambuco (PE), Piauí (PI), and Rio Grande do
 641 # Norte (RN), and the eastern part of Pará (PA) are all in BR1 without DST.
 642 
 643 # From Marcos Tadeu (1998-09-27):
 644 # Brazilian official page <http://pcdsh01.on.br/verao1.html>
 645 
 646 # From Jesper Nørgaard (2000-11-03):
 647 # [For an official list of which regions in Brazil use which time zones, see:]
 648 # http://pcdsh01.on.br/Fusbr.htm
 649 # http://pcdsh01.on.br/Fusbrhv.htm
 650 
 651 # From Celso Doria via David Madeo (2002-10-09):
 652 # The reason for the delay this year has to do with elections in Brazil.
 653 #
 654 # Unlike in the United States, elections in Brazil are 100% computerized and
 655 # the results are known almost immediately.  Yesterday, it was the first
 656 # round of the elections when 115 million Brazilians voted for President,
 657 # Governor, Senators, Federal Deputies, and State Deputies.  Nobody is
 658 # counting (or re-counting) votes anymore and we know there will be a second
 659 # round for the Presidency and also for some Governors.  The 2nd round will
 660 # take place on October 27th.
 661 #
 662 # The reason why the DST will only begin November 3rd is that the thousands
 663 # of electoral machines used cannot have their time changed, and since the
 664 # Constitution says the elections must begin at 8:00 AM and end at 5:00 PM,
 665 # the Government decided to postpone DST, instead of changing the Constitution
 666 # (maybe, for the next elections, it will be possible to change the clock)...
 667 
 668 # From Rodrigo Severo (2004-10-04):
 669 # It's just the biannual change made necessary by the much hyped, supposedly
 670 # modern Brazilian eletronic voting machines which, apparently, can't deal
 671 # with a time change between the first and the second rounds of the elections.
 672 
 673 # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-09-20):
 674 # Brazil will start DST on 2007-10-14 00:00 and end on 2008-02-17 00:00:
 675 # http://www.mme.gov.br/site/news/detail.do;jsessionid=BBA06811AFCAAC28F0285210913513DA?newsId=13975
 676 
 677 # From Paul Schulze (2008-06-24):
 678 # ...by law number 11.662 of April 24, 2008 (published in the "Diario
 679 # Oficial da União"...) in Brazil there are changes in the timezones,
 680 # effective today (00:00am at June 24, 2008) as follows:
 681 #
 682 # a) The timezone UTC+5 is extinguished, with all the Acre state and the
 683 # part of the Amazonas state that had this timezone now being put to the
 684 # timezone UTC+4
 685 # b) The whole Pará state now is put at timezone UTC+3, instead of just
 686 # part of it, as was before.
 687 #
 688 # This change follows a proposal of senator Tiao Viana of Acre state, that
 689 # proposed it due to concerns about open television channels displaying
 690 # programs inappropriate to youths in the states that had the timezone
 691 # UTC+5 too early in the night. In the occasion, some more corrections
 692 # were proposed, trying to unify the timezones of any given state. This
 693 # change modifies timezone rules defined in decree 2.784 of 18 June,
 694 # 1913.
 695 
 696 # From Rodrigo Severo (2008-06-24):
 697 # Just correcting the URL:
 698 # https://www.in.gov.br/imprensa/visualiza/index.jsp?jornal=do&secao=1&pagina=1&data=25/04/2008
 699 #
 700 # As a result of the above Decree I believe the America/Rio_Branco
 701 # timezone shall be modified from UTC-5 to UTC-4 and a new timezone shall
 702 # be created to represent the...west side of the Pará State. I
 703 # suggest this new timezone be called Santarem as the most
 704 # important/populated city in the affected area.
 705 #
 706 # This new timezone would be the same as the Rio_Branco timezone up to
 707 # the 2008/06/24 change which would be to UTC-3 instead of UTC-4.
 708 
 709 # From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-06-24):
 710 # This is a quick reference page for New and Old Brazil Time Zones map.
 711 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/brazil-time-new-old.php
 712 #
 713 # - 4 time zones replaced by 3 time zones - eliminating time zone UTC-05
 714 # (state Acre and the part of the Amazonas will be UTC/GMT-04) - western
 715 # part of Par state is moving to one timezone UTC-03 (from UTC-04).
 716 
 717 # From Paul Eggert (2002-10-10):
 718 # The official decrees referenced below are mostly taken from
 719 # Decretos sobre o Horário de Verão no Brasil.
 720 # http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV.html
 721 
 722 # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-08-29):
 723 # As announced by the government and many newspapers in Brazil late
 724 # yesterday, Brazil will start DST on 2008-10-19 (need to change rule) and
 725 # it will end on 2009-02-15 (current rule for Brazil is fine). Based on
 726 # past years experience with the elections, there was a good chance that
 727 # the start was postponed to November, but it did not happen this year.
 728 #
 729 # It has not yet been posted to http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV.html
 730 #
 731 # An official page about it:
 732 # http://www.mme.gov.br/site/news/detail.do?newsId=16722
 733 # Note that this link does not always work directly, but must be accessed
 734 # by going to
 735 # http://www.mme.gov.br/first
 736 #
 737 # One example link that works directly:
 738 # http://jornale.com.br/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=13530&Itemid=54
 739 # (Portuguese)
 740 #
 741 # We have a written a short article about it as well:
 742 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/brazil-dst-2008-2009.html
 743 #
 744 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-10-04):
 745 # State Bahia will return to Daylight savings time this year after 8 years off.
 746 # The announcement was made by Governor Jaques Wagner in an interview to a
 747 # television station in Salvador.
 748 
 749 # In Portuguese:
 750 # http://g1.globo.com/bahia/noticia/2011/10/governador-jaques-wagner-confirma-horario-de-verao-na-bahia.html
 751 # https://noticias.terra.com.br/brasil/noticias/0,,OI5390887-EI8139,00-Bahia+volta+a+ter+horario+de+verao+apos+oito+anos.html
 752 
 753 # From Guilherme Bernardes Rodrigues (2011-10-07):
 754 # There is news in the media, however there is still no decree about it.
 755 # I just send a e-mail to Zulmira Brandao at http://pcdsh01.on.br/ the
 756 # official agency about time in Brazil, and she confirmed that the old rule is
 757 # still in force.
 758 
 759 # From Guilherme Bernardes Rodrigues (2011-10-14)
 760 # It's official, the President signed a decree that includes Bahia in summer
 761 # time.
 762 #        [ and in a second message (same day): ]
 763 # I found the decree.
 764 #
 765 # DECRETO No. 7.584, DE 13 DE OUTUBRO DE 2011
 766 # Link :
 767 # http://www.in.gov.br/visualiza/index.jsp?data=13/10/2011&jornal=1000&pagina=6&totalArquivos=6
 768 
 769 # From Kelley Cook (2012-10-16):
 770 # The governor of state of Bahia in Brazil announced on Thursday that
 771 # due to public pressure, he is reversing the DST policy they implemented
 772 # last year and will not be going to Summer Time on October 21st....
 773 # http://www.correio24horas.com.br/r/artigo/apos-pressoes-wagner-suspende-horario-de-verao-na-bahia
 774 
 775 # From Rodrigo Severo (2012-10-16):
 776 # Tocantins state will have DST.
 777 # https://noticias.terra.com.br/brasil/noticias/0,,OI6232536-EI306.html
 778 
 779 # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-09-20):
 780 # Tocantins in Brazil is very likely not to observe DST from October....
 781 # http://conexaoto.com.br/2013/09/18/ministerio-confirma-que-tocantins-esta-fora-do-horario-de-verao-em-2013-mas-falta-publicacao-de-decreto
 782 # We will keep this article updated when this is confirmed:
 783 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/brazil-starts-dst-2013.html
 784 
 785 # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-10-17):
 786 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/acre-amazonas-change-time-zone.html
 787 # Senator Jorge Viana announced that Acre will change time zone on November 10.
 788 # He did not specify the time of the change, nor if western parts of Amazonas
 789 # will change as well.
 790 #
 791 # From Paul Eggert (2013-10-17):
 792 # For now, assume western Amazonas will change as well.
 793 
 794 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 795 # Decree 20,466 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV20466.htm> (1931-10-01)
 796 # Decree 21,896 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV21896.htm> (1932-01-10)
 797 Rule    Brazil  1931    only    -       Oct      3      11:00   1:00    S
 798 Rule    Brazil  1932    1933    -       Apr      1       0:00   0       -
 799 Rule    Brazil  1932    only    -       Oct      3       0:00   1:00    S
 800 # Decree 23,195 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV23195.htm> (1933-10-10)
 801 # revoked DST.
 802 # Decree 27,496 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV27496.htm> (1949-11-24)
 803 # Decree 27,998 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV27998.htm> (1950-04-13)
 804 Rule    Brazil  1949    1952    -       Dec      1       0:00   1:00    S
 805 Rule    Brazil  1950    only    -       Apr     16       1:00   0       -
 806 Rule    Brazil  1951    1952    -       Apr      1       0:00   0       -
 807 # Decree 32,308 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV32308.htm> (1953-02-24)
 808 Rule    Brazil  1953    only    -       Mar      1       0:00   0       -
 809 # Decree 34,724 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV34724.htm> (1953-11-30)
 810 # revoked DST.
 811 # Decree 52,700 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV52700.htm> (1963-10-18)
 812 # established DST from 1963-10-23 00:00 to 1964-02-29 00:00
 813 # in SP, RJ, GB, MG, ES, due to the prolongation of the drought.
 814 # Decree 53,071 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV53071.htm> (1963-12-03)
 815 # extended the above decree to all of the national territory on 12-09.
 816 Rule    Brazil  1963    only    -       Dec      9       0:00   1:00    S
 817 # Decree 53,604 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV53604.htm> (1964-02-25)
 818 # extended summer time by one day to 1964-03-01 00:00 (start of school).
 819 Rule    Brazil  1964    only    -       Mar      1       0:00   0       -
 820 # Decree 55,639 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV55639.htm> (1965-01-27)
 821 Rule    Brazil  1965    only    -       Jan     31       0:00   1:00    S
 822 Rule    Brazil  1965    only    -       Mar     31       0:00   0       -
 823 # Decree 57,303 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV57303.htm> (1965-11-22)
 824 Rule    Brazil  1965    only    -       Dec      1       0:00   1:00    S
 825 # Decree 57,843 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV57843.htm> (1966-02-18)
 826 Rule    Brazil  1966    1968    -       Mar      1       0:00   0       -
 827 Rule    Brazil  1966    1967    -       Nov      1       0:00   1:00    S
 828 # Decree 63,429 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV63429.htm> (1968-10-15)
 829 # revoked DST.
 830 # Decree 91,698 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV91698.htm> (1985-09-27)
 831 Rule    Brazil  1985    only    -       Nov      2       0:00   1:00    S
 832 # Decree 92,310 (1986-01-21)
 833 # Decree 92,463 (1986-03-13)
 834 Rule    Brazil  1986    only    -       Mar     15       0:00   0       -
 835 # Decree 93,316 (1986-10-01)
 836 Rule    Brazil  1986    only    -       Oct     25       0:00   1:00    S
 837 Rule    Brazil  1987    only    -       Feb     14       0:00   0       -
 838 # Decree 94,922 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV94922.htm> (1987-09-22)
 839 Rule    Brazil  1987    only    -       Oct     25       0:00   1:00    S
 840 Rule    Brazil  1988    only    -       Feb      7       0:00   0       -
 841 # Decree 96,676 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV96676.htm> (1988-09-12)
 842 # except for the states of AC, AM, PA, RR, RO, and AP (then a territory)
 843 Rule    Brazil  1988    only    -       Oct     16       0:00   1:00    S
 844 Rule    Brazil  1989    only    -       Jan     29       0:00   0       -
 845 # Decree 98,077 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV98077.htm> (1989-08-21)
 846 # with the same exceptions
 847 Rule    Brazil  1989    only    -       Oct     15       0:00   1:00    S
 848 Rule    Brazil  1990    only    -       Feb     11       0:00   0       -
 849 # Decree 99,530 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV99530.htm> (1990-09-17)
 850 # adopted by RS, SC, PR, SP, RJ, ES, MG, GO, MS, DF.
 851 # Decree 99,629 (1990-10-19) adds BA, MT.
 852 Rule    Brazil  1990    only    -       Oct     21       0:00   1:00    S
 853 Rule    Brazil  1991    only    -       Feb     17       0:00   0       -
 854 # Unnumbered decree <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1991.htm> (1991-09-25)
 855 # adopted by RS, SC, PR, SP, RJ, ES, MG, BA, GO, MT, MS, DF.
 856 Rule    Brazil  1991    only    -       Oct     20       0:00   1:00    S
 857 Rule    Brazil  1992    only    -       Feb      9       0:00   0       -
 858 # Unnumbered decree <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1992.htm> (1992-10-16)
 859 # adopted by same states.
 860 Rule    Brazil  1992    only    -       Oct     25       0:00   1:00    S
 861 Rule    Brazil  1993    only    -       Jan     31       0:00   0       -
 862 # Decree 942 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV942.htm> (1993-09-28)
 863 # adopted by same states, plus AM.
 864 # Decree 1,252 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1252.htm> (1994-09-22;
 865 # web page corrected 2004-01-07) adopted by same states, minus AM.
 866 # Decree 1,636 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1636.htm> (1995-09-14)
 867 # adopted by same states, plus MT and TO.
 868 # Decree 1,674 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1674.htm> (1995-10-13)
 869 # adds AL, SE.
 870 Rule    Brazil  1993    1995    -       Oct     Sun>=11       0:00   1:00    S
 871 Rule    Brazil  1994    1995    -       Feb     Sun>=15       0:00   0       -
 872 Rule    Brazil  1996    only    -       Feb     11       0:00   0       -
 873 # Decree 2,000 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV2000.htm> (1996-09-04)
 874 # adopted by same states, minus AL, SE.
 875 Rule    Brazil  1996    only    -       Oct      6       0:00   1:00    S
 876 Rule    Brazil  1997    only    -       Feb     16       0:00   0       -
 877 # From Daniel C. Sobral (1998-02-12):
 878 # In 1997, the DS began on October 6. The stated reason was that
 879 # because international television networks ignored Brazil's policy on DS,
 880 # they bought the wrong times on satellite for coverage of Pope's visit.
 881 # This year, the ending date of DS was postponed to March 1
 882 # to help dealing with the shortages of electric power.
 883 #
 884 # Decree 2,317 (1997-09-04), adopted by same states.
 885 Rule    Brazil  1997    only    -       Oct      6       0:00   1:00    S
 886 # Decree 2,495 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/figuras/HV2495.JPG>
 887 # (1998-02-10)
 888 Rule    Brazil  1998    only    -       Mar      1       0:00   0       -
 889 # Decree 2,780 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/figuras/Hv98.jpg> (1998-09-11)
 890 # adopted by the same states as before.
 891 Rule    Brazil  1998    only    -       Oct     11       0:00   1:00    S
 892 Rule    Brazil  1999    only    -       Feb     21       0:00   0       -
 893 # Decree 3,150 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/figuras/HV3150.gif>
 894 # (1999-08-23) adopted by same states.
 895 # Decree 3,188 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV99.gif> (1999-09-30)
 896 # adds SE, AL, PB, PE, RN, CE, PI, MA and RR.
 897 Rule    Brazil  1999    only    -       Oct      3       0:00   1:00    S
 898 Rule    Brazil  2000    only    -       Feb     27       0:00   0       -
 899 # Decree 3,592 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/DEC3592.htm> (2000-09-06)
 900 # adopted by the same states as before.
 901 # Decree 3,630 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/Dec3630.jpg> (2000-10-13)
 902 # repeals DST in PE and RR, effective 2000-10-15 00:00.
 903 # Decree 3,632 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/Dec3632.jpg> (2000-10-17)
 904 # repeals DST in SE, AL, PB, RN, CE, PI and MA, effective 2000-10-22 00:00.
 905 # Decree 3,916 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/figuras/HV3916.gif>
 906 # (2001-09-13) reestablishes DST in AL, CE, MA, PB, PE, PI, RN, SE.
 907 Rule    Brazil  2000    2001    -       Oct     Sun>=8        0:00   1:00    S
 908 Rule    Brazil  2001    2006    -       Feb     Sun>=15       0:00   0       -
 909 # Decree 4,399 (2002-10-01) repeals DST in AL, CE, MA, PB, PE, PI, RN, SE.
 910 # 4,399 <http://www.presidencia.gov.br/CCIVIL/decreto/2002/D4399.htm>
 911 Rule    Brazil  2002    only    -       Nov      3       0:00   1:00    S
 912 # Decree 4,844 (2003-09-24; corrected 2003-09-26) repeals DST in BA, MT, TO.
 913 # 4,844 <http://www.presidencia.gov.br/CCIVIL/decreto/2003/D4844.htm>
 914 Rule    Brazil  2003    only    -       Oct     19       0:00   1:00    S
 915 # Decree 5,223 (2004-10-01) reestablishes DST in MT.
 916 # 5,223 <http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2004-2006/2004/Decreto/D5223.htm>
 917 Rule    Brazil  2004    only    -       Nov      2       0:00   1:00    S
 918 # Decree 5,539 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV5539.gif> (2005-09-19),
 919 # adopted by the same states as before.
 920 Rule    Brazil  2005    only    -       Oct     16       0:00   1:00    S
 921 # Decree 5,920 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV5920.gif> (2006-10-03),
 922 # adopted by the same states as before.
 923 Rule    Brazil  2006    only    -       Nov      5       0:00   1:00    S
 924 Rule    Brazil  2007    only    -       Feb     25       0:00   0       -
 925 # Decree 6,212 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV6212.gif> (2007-09-26),
 926 # adopted by the same states as before.
 927 Rule    Brazil  2007    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8        0:00   1:00    S
 928 # From Frederico A. C. Neves (2008-09-10):
 929 # According to this decree
 930 # http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2007-2010/2008/Decreto/D6558.htm
 931 # [t]he DST period in Brazil now on will be from the 3rd Oct Sunday to the
 932 # 3rd Feb Sunday. There is an exception on the return date when this is
 933 # the Carnival Sunday then the return date will be the next Sunday...
 934 Rule    Brazil  2008    max     -       Oct     Sun>=15      0:00    1:00    S
 935 Rule    Brazil  2008    2011    -       Feb     Sun>=15      0:00    0       -


 936 Rule    Brazil  2012    only    -       Feb     Sun>=22      0:00    0       -




 937 Rule    Brazil  2013    2014    -       Feb     Sun>=15      0:00    0       -
 938 Rule    Brazil  2015    only    -       Feb     Sun>=22      0:00    0       -
 939 Rule    Brazil  2016    2022    -       Feb     Sun>=15      0:00    0       -







 940 Rule    Brazil  2023    only    -       Feb     Sun>=22      0:00    0       -
 941 Rule    Brazil  2024    2025    -       Feb     Sun>=15      0:00    0       -
 942 Rule    Brazil  2026    only    -       Feb     Sun>=22      0:00    0       -
 943 Rule    Brazil  2027    2033    -       Feb     Sun>=15      0:00    0       -
 944 Rule    Brazil  2034    only    -       Feb     Sun>=22      0:00    0       -
 945 Rule    Brazil  2035    2036    -       Feb     Sun>=15      0:00    0       -
 946 Rule    Brazil  2037    only    -       Feb     Sun>=22      0:00    0       -
 947 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-09-29):
 948 # The next is wrong in some years but is better than nothing.
 949 Rule    Brazil  2038    max     -       Feb     Sun>=15      0:00    0       -
 950 
 951 # The latest ruleset listed above says that the following states observe DST:
 952 # DF, ES, GO, MG, MS, MT, PR, RJ, RS, SC, SP.
 953 
 954 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 955 #
 956 # Fernando de Noronha (administratively part of PE)
 957 Zone America/Noronha    -2:09:40 -      LMT     1914
 958                         -2:00   Brazil  -02/-01 1990 Sep 17
 959                         -2:00   -       -02     1999 Sep 30
 960                         -2:00   Brazil  -02/-01 2000 Oct 15
 961                         -2:00   -       -02     2001 Sep 13
 962                         -2:00   Brazil  -02/-01 2002 Oct  1
 963                         -2:00   -       -02
 964 # Other Atlantic islands have no permanent settlement.
 965 # These include Trindade and Martim Vaz (administratively part of ES),
 966 # Rocas Atoll (RN), and the St Peter and St Paul Archipelago (PE).
 967 # Fernando de Noronha was a separate territory from 1942-09-02 to 1989-01-01;
 968 # it also included the Penedos.
 969 #
 970 # Amapá (AP), east Pará (PA)
 971 # East Pará includes Belém, Marabá, Serra Norte, and São Félix do Xingu.
 972 # The division between east and west Pará is the river Xingu.
 973 # In the north a very small part from the river Javary (now Jari I guess,
 974 # the border with Amapá) to the Amazon, then to the Xingu.
 975 Zone America/Belem      -3:13:56 -      LMT     1914
 976                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 1988 Sep 12
 977                         -3:00   -       -03
 978 #
 979 # west Pará (PA)
 980 # West Pará includes Altamira, Óbidos, Prainha, Oriximiná, and Santarém.
 981 Zone America/Santarem   -3:38:48 -      LMT     1914
 982                         -4:00   Brazil  -04/-03 1988 Sep 12
 983                         -4:00   -       -04     2008 Jun 24  0:00
 984                         -3:00   -       -03
 985 #
 986 # Maranhão (MA), Piauí (PI), Ceará (CE), Rio Grande do Norte (RN),
 987 # Paraíba (PB)
 988 Zone America/Fortaleza  -2:34:00 -      LMT     1914
 989                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 1990 Sep 17
 990                         -3:00   -       -03     1999 Sep 30
 991                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2000 Oct 22
 992                         -3:00   -       -03     2001 Sep 13
 993                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2002 Oct  1
 994                         -3:00   -       -03
 995 #
 996 # Pernambuco (PE) (except Atlantic islands)
 997 Zone America/Recife     -2:19:36 -      LMT     1914
 998                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 1990 Sep 17
 999                         -3:00   -       -03     1999 Sep 30
1000                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2000 Oct 15
1001                         -3:00   -       -03     2001 Sep 13
1002                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2002 Oct  1
1003                         -3:00   -       -03
1004 #
1005 # Tocantins (TO)
1006 Zone America/Araguaina  -3:12:48 -      LMT     1914
1007                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 1990 Sep 17
1008                         -3:00   -       -03     1995 Sep 14
1009                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2003 Sep 24
1010                         -3:00   -       -03     2012 Oct 21
1011                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2013 Sep
1012                         -3:00   -       -03
1013 #
1014 # Alagoas (AL), Sergipe (SE)
1015 Zone America/Maceio     -2:22:52 -      LMT     1914
1016                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 1990 Sep 17
1017                         -3:00   -       -03     1995 Oct 13
1018                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 1996 Sep  4
1019                         -3:00   -       -03     1999 Sep 30
1020                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2000 Oct 22
1021                         -3:00   -       -03     2001 Sep 13
1022                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2002 Oct  1
1023                         -3:00   -       -03
1024 #
1025 # Bahia (BA)
1026 # There are too many Salvadors elsewhere, so use America/Bahia instead
1027 # of America/Salvador.
1028 Zone America/Bahia      -2:34:04 -      LMT     1914
1029                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2003 Sep 24
1030                         -3:00   -       -03     2011 Oct 16
1031                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2012 Oct 21
1032                         -3:00   -       -03
1033 #
1034 # Goiás (GO), Distrito Federal (DF), Minas Gerais (MG),
1035 # Espírito Santo (ES), Rio de Janeiro (RJ), São Paulo (SP), Paraná (PR),
1036 # Santa Catarina (SC), Rio Grande do Sul (RS)
1037 Zone America/Sao_Paulo  -3:06:28 -      LMT     1914
1038                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 1963 Oct 23  0:00
1039                         -3:00   1:00    -02     1964
1040                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02
1041 #
1042 # Mato Grosso do Sul (MS)
1043 Zone America/Campo_Grande -3:38:28 -    LMT     1914
1044                         -4:00   Brazil  -04/-03
1045 #
1046 # Mato Grosso (MT)
1047 Zone America/Cuiaba     -3:44:20 -      LMT     1914
1048                         -4:00   Brazil  -04/-03 2003 Sep 24
1049                         -4:00   -       -04     2004 Oct  1
1050                         -4:00   Brazil  -04/-03
1051 #
1052 # Rondônia (RO)
1053 Zone America/Porto_Velho -4:15:36 -     LMT     1914
1054                         -4:00   Brazil  -04/-03 1988 Sep 12
1055                         -4:00   -       -04
1056 #
1057 # Roraima (RR)
1058 Zone America/Boa_Vista  -4:02:40 -      LMT     1914
1059                         -4:00   Brazil  -04/-03 1988 Sep 12
1060                         -4:00   -       -04     1999 Sep 30
1061                         -4:00   Brazil  -04/-03 2000 Oct 15
1062                         -4:00   -       -04
1063 #
1064 # east Amazonas (AM): Boca do Acre, Jutaí, Manaus, Floriano Peixoto
1065 # The great circle line from Tabatinga to Porto Acre divides
1066 # east from west Amazonas.
1067 Zone America/Manaus     -4:00:04 -      LMT     1914
1068                         -4:00   Brazil  -04/-03 1988 Sep 12
1069                         -4:00   -       -04     1993 Sep 28
1070                         -4:00   Brazil  -04/-03 1994 Sep 22
1071                         -4:00   -       -04
1072 #
1073 # west Amazonas (AM): Atalaia do Norte, Boca do Maoco, Benjamin Constant,
1074 #       Eirunepé, Envira, Ipixuna
1075 Zone America/Eirunepe   -4:39:28 -      LMT     1914
1076                         -5:00   Brazil  -05/-04 1988 Sep 12
1077                         -5:00   -       -05     1993 Sep 28
1078                         -5:00   Brazil  -05/-04 1994 Sep 22
1079                         -5:00   -       -05     2008 Jun 24  0:00
1080                         -4:00   -       -04     2013 Nov 10
1081                         -5:00   -       -05
1082 #
1083 # Acre (AC)
1084 Zone America/Rio_Branco -4:31:12 -      LMT     1914
1085                         -5:00   Brazil  -05/-04 1988 Sep 12
1086                         -5:00   -       -05     2008 Jun 24  0:00
1087                         -4:00   -       -04     2013 Nov 10
1088                         -5:00   -       -05
1089 
1090 # Chile
1091 
1092 # From Paul Eggert (2015-04-03):
1093 # Shanks & Pottenger says America/Santiago introduced standard time in
1094 # 1890 and rounds its UTC offset to 70W40; guess that in practice this
1095 # was the same offset as in 1916-1919.  It also says Pacific/Easter
1096 # standardized on 109W22 in 1890; assume this didn't change the clocks.
1097 #
1098 # Dates for America/Santiago from 1910 to 2004 are primarily from
1099 # the following source, cited by Oscar van Vlijmen (2006-10-08):
1100 # [1] Chile Law
1101 # http://www.webexhibits.org/daylightsaving/chile.html
1102 # This contains a copy of this official table:
1103 # Cambios en la hora oficial de Chile desde 1900 (retrieved 2008-03-30)
1104 # https://web.archive.org/web/20080330200901/http://www.horaoficial.cl/cambio.htm
1105 # [1] needs several corrections, though.
1106 #
1107 # The first set of corrections is from:
1108 # [2] History of the Official Time of Chile
1109 # http://www.horaoficial.cl/ing/horaof_ing.html (retrieved 2012-03-06).  See:
1110 # https://web.archive.org/web/20120306042032/http://www.horaoficial.cl/ing/horaof_ing.html
1111 # This is an English translation of:
1112 # Historia de la hora oficial de Chile (retrieved 2012-10-24).  See:
1113 # https://web.archive.org/web/20121024234627/http://www.horaoficial.cl/horaof.htm
1114 # A fancier Spanish version (requiring mouse-clicking) is at:
1115 # http://www.horaoficial.cl/historia_hora.html
1116 # Conflicts between [1] and [2] were resolved as follows:
1117 #
1118 #  - [1] says the 1910 transition was Jan 1, [2] says Jan 10 and cites
1119 #    Boletín No. 1, Aviso No. 1 (1910).  Go with [2].
1120 #
1121 #  - [1] says SMT was -4:42:45, [2] says Chile's official time from
1122 #    1916 to 1919 was -4:42:46.3, the meridian of Chile's National
1123 #    Astronomical Observatory (OAN), then located in what is now
1124 #    Quinta Normal in Santiago.  Go with [2], rounding it to -4:42:46.
1125 #
1126 #  - [1] says the 1918 transition was Sep 1, [2] says Sep 10 and cites
1127 #    Boletín No. 22, Aviso No. 129/1918 (1918-08-23).  Go with [2].
1128 #
1129 #  - [1] does not give times for transitions; assume they occur
1130 #    at midnight mainland time, the current common practice.  However,
1131 #    go with [2]'s specification of 23:00 for the 1947-05-21 transition.
1132 #
1133 # Another correction to [1] is from Jesper Nørgaard Welen, who
1134 # wrote (2006-10-08), "I think that there are some obvious mistakes in
1135 # the suggested link from Oscar van Vlijmen,... for instance entry 66
1136 # says that GMT-4 ended 1990-09-12 while entry 67 only begins GMT-3 at
1137 # 1990-09-15 (they should have been 1990-09-15 and 1990-09-16
1138 # respectively), but anyhow it clears up some doubts too."
1139 #
1140 # Data for Pacific/Easter from 1910 through 1967 come from Shanks &
1141 # Pottenger.  After that, for lack of better info assume
1142 # Pacific/Easter is always two hours behind America/Santiago;
1143 # this is known to work for DST transitions starting in 2008 and
1144 # may well be true for earlier transitions.
1145 
1146 # From Eduardo Krell (1995-10-19):
1147 # The law says to switch to DST at midnight [24:00] on the second SATURDAY
1148 # of October....  The law is the same for March and October.
1149 # (1998-09-29):
1150 # Because of the drought this year, the government decided to go into
1151 # DST earlier (saturday 9/26 at 24:00). This is a one-time change only ...
1152 # (unless there's another dry season next year, I guess).
1153 
1154 # From Julio I. Pacheco Troncoso (1999-03-18):
1155 # Because of the same drought, the government decided to end DST later,
1156 # on April 3, (one-time change).
1157 
1158 # From Germán Poo-Caamaño (2008-03-03):
1159 # Due to drought, Chile extends Daylight Time in three weeks.  This
1160 # is one-time change (Saturday 3/29 at 24:00 for America/Santiago
1161 # and Saturday 3/29 at 22:00 for Pacific/Easter)
1162 # The Supreme Decree is located at
1163 # http://www.shoa.cl/servicios/supremo316.pdf
1164 #
1165 # From José Miguel Garrido (2008-03-05):
1166 # http://www.shoa.cl/noticias/2008/04hora/hora.htm
1167 
1168 # From Angel Chiang (2010-03-04):
1169 # Subject: DST in Chile exceptionally extended to 3 April due to earthquake
1170 # http://www.gobiernodechile.cl/viewNoticia.aspx?idArticulo=30098
1171 #
1172 # From Arthur David Olson (2010-03-06):
1173 # Angel Chiang's message confirmed by Julio Pacheco; Julio provided a patch.
1174 
1175 # From Glenn Eychaner (2011-03-28):
1176 # http://diario.elmercurio.com/2011/03/28/_portada/_portada/noticias/7565897A-CA86-49E6-9E03-660B21A4883E.htm?id=3D{7565897A-CA86-49E6-9E03-660B21A4883E}
1177 # In English:
1178 # Chile's clocks will go back an hour this year on the 7th of May instead
1179 # of this Saturday. They will go forward again the 3rd Saturday in
1180 # August, not in October as they have since 1968.
1181 
1182 # From Mauricio Parada (2012-02-22), translated by Glenn Eychaner (2012-02-23):
1183 # As stated in the website of the Chilean Energy Ministry
1184 # http://www.minenergia.cl/ministerio/noticias/generales/gobierno-anuncia-fechas-de-cambio-de.html
1185 # The Chilean Government has decided to postpone the entrance into winter time
1186 # (to leave DST) from March 11 2012 to April 28th 2012....
1187 # Quote from the website communication:
1188 #
1189 # 6. For the year 2012, the dates of entry into winter time will be as follows:
1190 # a. Saturday April 28, 2012, clocks should go back 60 minutes; that is, at
1191 # 23:59:59, instead of passing to 0:00, the time should be adjusted to be 23:00
1192 # of the same day.
1193 # b. Saturday, September 1, 2012, clocks should go forward 60 minutes; that is,
1194 # at 23:59:59, instead of passing to 0:00, the time should be adjusted to be
1195 # 01:00 on September 2.
1196 
1197 # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-02-15):
1198 # According to several news sources, Chile has extended DST this year,
1199 # they will end DST later and start DST earlier than planned.  They
1200 # hope to save energy.  The new end date is 2013-04-28 00:00 and new
1201 # start date is 2013-09-08 00:00....
1202 # http://www.gob.cl/informa/2013/02/15/gobierno-anuncia-fechas-de-cambio-de-hora-para-el-ano-2013.htm
1203 
1204 # From José Miguel Garrido (2014-02-19):
1205 # Today appeared in the Diario Oficial a decree amending the time change
1206 # dates to 2014.
1207 # DST End: last Saturday of April 2014 (Sun 27 Apr 2014 03:00 UTC)
1208 # DST Start: first Saturday of September 2014 (Sun 07 Sep 2014 04:00 UTC)
1209 # http://www.diariooficial.interior.gob.cl//media/2014/02/19/do-20140219.pdf
1210 
1211 # From Eduardo Romero Urra (2015-03-03):
1212 # Today has been published officially that Chile will use the DST time
1213 # permanently until March 25 of 2017
1214 # http://www.diariooficial.interior.gob.cl/media/2015/03/03/1-large.jpg
1215 #
1216 # From Paul Eggert (2015-03-03):
1217 # For now, assume that the extension will persist indefinitely.
1218 
1219 # From Juan Correa (2016-03-18):
1220 # The decree regarding DST has been published in today's Official Gazette:
1221 # http://www.diariooficial.interior.gob.cl/versiones-anteriores/do/20160318/
1222 # http://www.leychile.cl/Navegar?idNorma=1088502
1223 # It does consider the second Saturday of May and August as the dates
1224 # for the transition; and it lists DST dates until 2019, but I think
1225 # this scheme will stick.
1226 #
1227 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
1228 # For now, assume the pattern holds for the indefinite future.
1229 # The decree says transitions occur at 24:00; in practice this appears
1230 # to mean 24:00 mainland time, not 24:00 local time, so that Easter
1231 # Island is always two hours behind the mainland.
1232 
1233 # From Juan Correa (2016-12-04):
1234 # Magallanes region ... will keep DST (UTC -3) all year round....
1235 # http://www.soychile.cl/Santiago/Sociedad/2016/12/04/433428/Bachelet-firmo-el-decreto-para-establecer-un-horario-unico-para-la-Region-de-Magallanes.aspx
1236 #
1237 # From Deborah Goldsmith (2017-01-19):
1238 # http://www.diariooficial.interior.gob.cl/publicaciones/2017/01/17/41660/01/1169626.pdf
1239 # From Paul Eggert (2017-01-19):
1240 # The above says the Magallanes change expires 2019-05-11 at 24:00,
1241 # so in theory, they will revert to -04/-03 after that, which means
1242 # they will switch from -03 to -04 one hour after Santiago does that day.
1243 # For now, assume that they will not revert.
1244 
1245 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1246 Rule    Chile   1927    1931    -       Sep      1      0:00    1:00    S
1247 Rule    Chile   1928    1932    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       -
1248 Rule    Chile   1968    only    -       Nov      3      4:00u   1:00    S
1249 Rule    Chile   1969    only    -       Mar     30      3:00u   0       -
1250 Rule    Chile   1969    only    -       Nov     23      4:00u   1:00    S
1251 Rule    Chile   1970    only    -       Mar     29      3:00u   0       -
1252 Rule    Chile   1971    only    -       Mar     14      3:00u   0       -
1253 Rule    Chile   1970    1972    -       Oct     Sun>=9       4:00u   1:00    S
1254 Rule    Chile   1972    1986    -       Mar     Sun>=9       3:00u   0       -
1255 Rule    Chile   1973    only    -       Sep     30      4:00u   1:00    S
1256 Rule    Chile   1974    1987    -       Oct     Sun>=9       4:00u   1:00    S
1257 Rule    Chile   1987    only    -       Apr     12      3:00u   0       -
1258 Rule    Chile   1988    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=9       3:00u   0       -
1259 Rule    Chile   1988    1989    -       Oct     Sun>=9       4:00u   1:00    S
1260 Rule    Chile   1990    only    -       Sep     16      4:00u   1:00    S
1261 Rule    Chile   1991    1996    -       Mar     Sun>=9       3:00u   0       -
1262 Rule    Chile   1991    1997    -       Oct     Sun>=9       4:00u   1:00    S
1263 Rule    Chile   1997    only    -       Mar     30      3:00u   0       -
1264 Rule    Chile   1998    only    -       Mar     Sun>=9       3:00u   0       -
1265 Rule    Chile   1998    only    -       Sep     27      4:00u   1:00    S
1266 Rule    Chile   1999    only    -       Apr      4      3:00u   0       -
1267 Rule    Chile   1999    2010    -       Oct     Sun>=9       4:00u   1:00    S
1268 Rule    Chile   2000    2007    -       Mar     Sun>=9       3:00u   0       -
1269 # N.B.: the end of March 29 in Chile is March 30 in Universal time,
1270 # which is used below in specifying the transition.
1271 Rule    Chile   2008    only    -       Mar     30      3:00u   0       -
1272 Rule    Chile   2009    only    -       Mar     Sun>=9       3:00u   0       -
1273 Rule    Chile   2010    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       3:00u   0       -
1274 Rule    Chile   2011    only    -       May     Sun>=2       3:00u   0       -
1275 Rule    Chile   2011    only    -       Aug     Sun>=16      4:00u   1:00    S
1276 Rule    Chile   2012    2014    -       Apr     Sun>=23      3:00u   0       -
1277 Rule    Chile   2012    2014    -       Sep     Sun>=2       4:00u   1:00    S
1278 Rule    Chile   2016    max     -       May     Sun>=9       3:00u   0       -
1279 Rule    Chile   2016    max     -       Aug     Sun>=9       4:00u   1:00    S
1280 # IATA SSIM anomalies: (1992-02) says 1992-03-14;
1281 # (1996-09) says 1998-03-08.  Ignore these.
1282 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1283 Zone America/Santiago   -4:42:46 -      LMT     1890
1284                         -4:42:46 -      SMT     1910 Jan 10 # Santiago Mean Time
1285                         -5:00   -       -05     1916 Jul  1
1286                         -4:42:46 -      SMT     1918 Sep 10
1287                         -4:00   -       -04     1919 Jul  1
1288                         -4:42:46 -      SMT     1927 Sep  1
1289                         -5:00   Chile   -05/-04 1932 Sep  1
1290                         -4:00   -       -04     1942 Jun  1
1291                         -5:00   -       -05     1942 Aug  1
1292                         -4:00   -       -04     1946 Jul 15
1293                         -4:00   1:00    -03     1946 Sep  1 # central Chile
1294                         -4:00   -       -04     1947 Apr  1
1295                         -5:00   -       -05     1947 May 21 23:00
1296                         -4:00   Chile   -04/-03
1297 Zone America/Punta_Arenas -4:43:40 -    LMT     1890
1298                         -4:42:46 -      SMT     1910 Jan 10
1299                         -5:00   -       -05     1916 Jul  1
1300                         -4:42:46 -      SMT     1918 Sep 10
1301                         -4:00   -       -04     1919 Jul  1
1302                         -4:42:46 -      SMT     1927 Sep  1
1303                         -5:00   Chile   -05/-04 1932 Sep  1
1304                         -4:00   -       -04     1942 Jun  1
1305                         -5:00   -       -05     1942 Aug  1
1306                         -4:00   -       -04     1947 Apr  1
1307                         -5:00   -       -05     1947 May 21 23:00
1308                         -4:00   Chile   -04/-03 2016 Dec  4
1309                         -3:00   -       -03
1310 Zone Pacific/Easter     -7:17:28 -      LMT     1890
1311                         -7:17:28 -      EMT     1932 Sep    # Easter Mean Time
1312                         -7:00   Chile   -07/-06 1982 Mar 14 3:00u # Easter Time
1313                         -6:00   Chile   -06/-05
1314 #
1315 # Salas y Gómez Island is uninhabited.
1316 # Other Chilean locations, including Juan Fernández Is, Desventuradas Is,
1317 # and Antarctic bases, are like America/Santiago.
1318 
1319 # Antarctic base using South American rules
1320 # (See the file 'antarctica' for more.)
1321 #
1322 # Palmer, Anvers Island, since 1965 (moved 2 miles in 1968)
1323 #
1324 # From Ethan Dicks (1996-10-06):
1325 # It keeps the same time as Punta Arenas, Chile, because, just like us
1326 # and the South Pole, that's the other end of their supply line....
1327 # I verified with someone who was there that since 1980,
1328 # Palmer has followed Chile.  Prior to that, before the Falklands War,
1329 # Palmer used to be supplied from Argentina.
1330 #
1331 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1332 Zone Antarctica/Palmer  0       -       -00     1965
1333                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
1334                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1982 May
1335                         -4:00   Chile   -04/-03 2016 Dec  4
1336                         -3:00   -       -03
1337 
1338 # Colombia
1339 
1340 # Milne gives 4:56:16.4 for Bogotá time in 1899; round to nearest.  He writes,
1341 # "A variation of fifteen minutes in the public clocks of Bogota is not rare."
1342 
1343 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1344 Rule    CO      1992    only    -       May      3      0:00    1:00    S
1345 Rule    CO      1993    only    -       Apr      4      0:00    0       -
1346 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1347 Zone    America/Bogota  -4:56:16 -      LMT     1884 Mar 13
1348                         -4:56:16 -      BMT     1914 Nov 23 # Bogotá Mean Time
1349                         -5:00   CO      -05/-04
1350 # Malpelo, Providencia, San Andres
1351 # no information; probably like America/Bogota
1352 
1353 # Curaçao
1354 
1355 # Milne gives 4:35:46.9 for Curaçao mean time; round to nearest.
1356 #
1357 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1358 # Shanks & Pottenger say that The Bottom and Philipsburg have been at
1359 # -4:00 since standard time was introduced on 1912-03-02; and that
1360 # Kralendijk and Rincon used Kralendijk Mean Time (-4:33:08) from
1361 # 1912-02-02 to 1965-01-01.  The former is dubious, since S&P also say
1362 # Saba Island has been like Curaçao.
1363 # This all predates our 1970 cutoff, though.
1364 #
1365 # By July 2007 Curaçao and St Maarten are planned to become
1366 # associated states within the Netherlands, much like Aruba;
1367 # Bonaire, Saba and St Eustatius would become directly part of the
1368 # Netherlands as Kingdom Islands.  This won't affect their time zones
1369 # though, as far as we know.
1370 #
1371 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1372 Zone    America/Curacao -4:35:47 -      LMT     1912 Feb 12 # Willemstad
1373                         -4:30   -       -0430   1965
1374                         -4:00   -       AST
1375 
1376 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15):
1377 # use links for places with new iso3166 codes.
1378 # The name "Lower Prince's Quarter" is both longer than fourteen characters
1379 # and contains an apostrophe; use "Lower_Princes" below.
1380 
1381 Link    America/Curacao America/Lower_Princes   # Sint Maarten
1382 Link    America/Curacao America/Kralendijk      # Caribbean Netherlands
1383 
1384 # Ecuador
1385 #
1386 # Milne says the Central and South American Telegraph Company used -5:24:15.
1387 #
1388 # From Alois Treindl (2016-12-15):
1389 # https://www.elcomercio.com/actualidad/hora-sixto-1993.html
1390 # ... Whether the law applied also to Galápagos, I do not know.
1391 # From Paul Eggert (2016-12-15):
1392 # https://www.elcomercio.com/afull/modificacion-husohorario-ecuador-presidentes-decreto.html
1393 # This says President Sixto Durán Ballén signed decree No. 285, which
1394 # established DST from 1992-11-28 to 1993-02-05; it does not give transition
1395 # times.  The people called it "hora de Sixto" ("Sixto hour").  The change did
1396 # not go over well; a popular song "Qué hora es" by Jaime Guevara had lyrics
1397 # that included "Amanecía en mitad de la noche, los guaguas iban a clase sin
1398 # sol" ("It was dawning in the middle of the night, the buses went to class
1399 # without sun").  Although Ballén's campaign slogan was "Ni un paso atrás"
1400 # (Not one step back), the clocks went back in 1993 and the experiment was not
1401 # repeated.  For now, assume transitions were at 00:00 local time country-wide.
1402 #
1403 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1404 Rule    Ecuador 1992    only    -       Nov     28      0:00    1:00    S
1405 Rule    Ecuador 1993    only    -       Feb      5      0:00    0       -
1406 #
1407 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1408 Zone America/Guayaquil  -5:19:20 -      LMT     1890
1409                         -5:14:00 -      QMT     1931 # Quito Mean Time
1410                         -5:00   Ecuador -05/-04
1411 Zone Pacific/Galapagos  -5:58:24 -      LMT     1931 # Puerto Baquerizo Moreno
1412                         -5:00   -       -05     1986
1413                         -6:00   Ecuador -06/-05
1414 
1415 # Falklands
1416 
1417 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1418 # Between 1990 and 2000 inclusive, Shanks & Pottenger and the IATA agree except
1419 # the IATA gives 1996-09-08.  Go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1420 
1421 # From Falkland Islands Government Office, London (2001-01-22)
1422 # via Jesper Nørgaard:
1423 # ... the clocks revert back to Local Mean Time at 2 am on Sunday 15
1424 # April 2001 and advance one hour to summer time at 2 am on Sunday 2
1425 # September.  It is anticipated that the clocks will revert back at 2
1426 # am on Sunday 21 April 2002 and advance to summer time at 2 am on
1427 # Sunday 1 September.
1428 
1429 # From Rives McDow (2001-02-13):
1430 #
1431 # I have communicated several times with people there, and the last
1432 # time I had communications that was helpful was in 1998.  Here is
1433 # what was said then:
1434 #
1435 # "The general rule was that Stanley used daylight saving and the Camp
1436 # did not. However for various reasons many people in the Camp have
1437 # started to use daylight saving (known locally as 'Stanley Time')
1438 # There is no rule as to who uses daylight saving - it is a matter of
1439 # personal choice and so it is impossible to draw a map showing who
1440 # uses it and who does not. Any list would be out of date as soon as
1441 # it was produced. This year daylight saving ended on April 18/19th
1442 # and started again on September 12/13th.  I do not know what the rule
1443 # is, but can find out if you like.  We do not change at the same time
1444 # as UK or Chile."
1445 #
1446 # I did have in my notes that the rule was "Second Saturday in Sep at
1447 # 0:00 until third Saturday in Apr at 0:00".  I think that this does
1448 # not agree in some cases with Shanks; is this true?
1449 #
1450 # Also, there is no mention in the list that some areas in the
1451 # Falklands do not use DST.  I have found in my communications there
1452 # that these areas are on the western half of East Falkland and all of
1453 # West Falkland.  Stanley is the only place that consistently observes
1454 # DST.  Again, as in other places in the world, the farmers don't like
1455 # it.  West Falkland is almost entirely sheep farmers.
1456 #
1457 # I know one lady there that keeps a list of which farm keeps DST and
1458 # which doesn't each year.  She runs a shop in Stanley, and says that
1459 # the list changes each year.  She uses it to communicate to her
1460 # customers, catching them when they are home for lunch or dinner.
1461 
1462 # From Paul Eggert (2001-03-05):
1463 # For now, we'll just record the time in Stanley, since we have no
1464 # better info.
1465 
1466 # From Steffen Thorsen (2011-04-01):
1467 # The Falkland Islands will not turn back clocks this winter, but stay on
1468 # daylight saving time.
1469 #
1470 # One source:
1471 # http://www.falklandnews.com/public/story.cfm?get=5914&source=3
1472 #
1473 # We have gotten this confirmed by a clerk of the legislative assembly:
1474 # Normally the clocks revert to Local Mean Time (UTC/GMT -4 hours) on the
1475 # third Sunday of April at 0200hrs and advance to Summer Time (UTC/GMT -3
1476 # hours) on the first Sunday of September at 0200hrs.
1477 #
1478 # IMPORTANT NOTE: During 2011, on a trial basis, the Falkland Islands
1479 # will not revert to local mean time, but clocks will remain on Summer
1480 # time (UTC/GMT - 3 hours) throughout the whole of 2011.  Any long term
1481 # change to local time following the trial period will be notified.
1482 #
1483 # From Andrew Newman (2012-02-24)
1484 # A letter from Justin McPhee, Chief Executive,
1485 # Cable & Wireless Falkland Islands (dated 2012-02-22)
1486 # states...
1487 #   The current Atlantic/Stanley entry under South America expects the
1488 #   clocks to go back to standard Falklands Time (FKT) on the 15th April.
1489 #   The database entry states that in 2011 Stanley was staying on fixed
1490 #   summer time on a trial basis only.  FIG need to contact IANA and/or
1491 #   the maintainers of the database to inform them we're adopting
1492 #   the same policy this year and suggest recommendations for future years.
1493 #
1494 # For now we will assume permanent summer time for the Falklands
1495 # until advised differently (to apply for 2012 and beyond, after the 2011
1496 # experiment was apparently successful.)
1497 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1498 Rule    Falk    1937    1938    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    1:00    S
1499 Rule    Falk    1938    1942    -       Mar     Sun>=19      0:00    0       -
1500 Rule    Falk    1939    only    -       Oct     1       0:00    1:00    S
1501 Rule    Falk    1940    1942    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    1:00    S
1502 Rule    Falk    1943    only    -       Jan     1       0:00    0       -
1503 Rule    Falk    1983    only    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    1:00    S
1504 Rule    Falk    1984    1985    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    0       -
1505 Rule    Falk    1984    only    -       Sep     16      0:00    1:00    S
1506 Rule    Falk    1985    2000    -       Sep     Sun>=9       0:00    1:00    S
1507 Rule    Falk    1986    2000    -       Apr     Sun>=16      0:00    0       -
1508 Rule    Falk    2001    2010    -       Apr     Sun>=15      2:00    0       -
1509 Rule    Falk    2001    2010    -       Sep     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    S
1510 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1511 Zone Atlantic/Stanley   -3:51:24 -      LMT     1890
1512                         -3:51:24 -      SMT     1912 Mar 12 # Stanley Mean Time
1513                         -4:00   Falk    -04/-03 1983 May
1514                         -3:00   Falk    -03/-02 1985 Sep 15
1515                         -4:00   Falk    -04/-03 2010 Sep  5  2:00
1516                         -3:00   -       -03
1517 
1518 # French Guiana
1519 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1520 Zone America/Cayenne    -3:29:20 -      LMT     1911 Jul
1521                         -4:00   -       -04     1967 Oct
1522                         -3:00   -       -03
1523 
1524 # Guyana
1525 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1526 Zone    America/Guyana  -3:52:40 -      LMT     1915 Mar    # Georgetown
1527                         -3:45   -       -0345   1975 Jul 31
1528                         -3:00   -       -03     1991
1529 # IATA SSIM (1996-06) says -4:00.  Assume a 1991 switch.
1530                         -4:00   -       -04
1531 
1532 # Paraguay
1533 #
1534 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1535 # Shanks & Pottenger say that spring transitions are 01:00 -> 02:00,
1536 # and autumn transitions are 00:00 -> 23:00.  Go with pre-1999
1537 # editions of Shanks, and with the IATA, who say transitions occur at 00:00.
1538 #
1539 # From Waldemar Villamayor-Venialbo (2013-09-20):
1540 # No time of the day is established for the adjustment, so people normally
1541 # adjust their clocks at 0 hour of the given dates.
1542 #
1543 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1544 Rule    Para    1975    1988    -       Oct      1      0:00    1:00    S
1545 Rule    Para    1975    1978    -       Mar      1      0:00    0       -
1546 Rule    Para    1979    1991    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       -
1547 Rule    Para    1989    only    -       Oct     22      0:00    1:00    S
1548 Rule    Para    1990    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    1:00    S
1549 Rule    Para    1991    only    -       Oct      6      0:00    1:00    S
1550 Rule    Para    1992    only    -       Mar      1      0:00    0       -
1551 Rule    Para    1992    only    -       Oct      5      0:00    1:00    S
1552 Rule    Para    1993    only    -       Mar     31      0:00    0       -
1553 Rule    Para    1993    1995    -       Oct      1      0:00    1:00    S
1554 Rule    Para    1994    1995    -       Feb     lastSun 0:00    0       -
1555 Rule    Para    1996    only    -       Mar      1      0:00    0       -
1556 # IATA SSIM (2000-02) says 1999-10-10; ignore this for now.
1557 # From Steffen Thorsen (2000-10-02):
1558 # I have three independent reports that Paraguay changed to DST this Sunday
1559 # (10-01).
1560 #
1561 # Translated by Gwillim Law (2001-02-27) from
1562 # Noticias, a daily paper in Asunción, Paraguay (2000-10-01):
1563 # http://www.diarionoticias.com.py/011000/nacional/naciona1.htm
1564 # Starting at 0:00 today, the clock will be set forward 60 minutes, in
1565 # fulfillment of Decree No. 7,273 of the Executive Power....  The time change
1566 # system has been operating for several years.  Formerly there was a separate
1567 # decree each year; the new law has the same effect, but permanently.  Every
1568 # year, the time will change on the first Sunday of October; likewise, the
1569 # clock will be set back on the first Sunday of March.
1570 #
1571 Rule    Para    1996    2001    -       Oct     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    S
1572 # IATA SSIM (1997-09) says Mar 1; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1573 Rule    Para    1997    only    -       Feb     lastSun 0:00    0       -
1574 # Shanks & Pottenger say 1999-02-28; IATA SSIM (1999-02) says 1999-02-27, but
1575 # (1999-09) reports no date; go with above sources and Gerd Knops (2001-02-27).
1576 Rule    Para    1998    2001    -       Mar     Sun>=1       0:00    0       -
1577 # From Rives McDow (2002-02-28):
1578 # A decree was issued in Paraguay (No. 16350) on 2002-02-26 that changed the
1579 # dst method to be from the first Sunday in September to the first Sunday in
1580 # April.
1581 Rule    Para    2002    2004    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:00    0       -
1582 Rule    Para    2002    2003    -       Sep     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    S
1583 #
1584 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-01-02):
1585 # There are several sources that claim that Paraguay made
1586 # a timezone rule change in autumn 2004.
1587 # From Steffen Thorsen (2005-01-05):
1588 # Decree 1,867 (2004-03-05)
1589 # From Carlos Raúl Perasso via Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-10-13)
1590 # http://www.presidencia.gov.py/decretos/D1867.pdf
1591 Rule    Para    2004    2009    -       Oct     Sun>=15      0:00    1:00    S
1592 Rule    Para    2005    2009    -       Mar     Sun>=8       0:00    0       -
1593 # From Carlos Raúl Perasso (2010-02-18):
1594 # By decree number 3958 issued yesterday
1595 # http://www.presidencia.gov.py/v1/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/decreto3958.pdf
1596 # Paraguay changes its DST schedule, postponing the March rule to April and
1597 # modifying the October date. The decree reads:
1598 # ...
1599 # Art. 1. It is hereby established that from the second Sunday of the month of
1600 # April of this year (2010), the official time is to be set back 60 minutes,
1601 # and that on the first Sunday of the month of October, it is to be set
1602 # forward 60 minutes, in all the territory of the Paraguayan Republic.
1603 # ...
1604 Rule    Para    2010    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    S
1605 Rule    Para    2010    2012    -       Apr     Sun>=8       0:00    0       -
1606 #
1607 # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-03-07):
1608 # Paraguay will end DST on 2013-03-24 00:00....
1609 # http://www.ande.gov.py/interna.php?id=1075
1610 #
1611 # From Carlos Raúl Perasso (2013-03-15):
1612 # The change in Paraguay is now final.  Decree number 10780
1613 # http://www.presidencia.gov.py/uploads/pdf/presidencia-3b86ff4b691c79d4f5927ca964922ec74772ce857c02ca054a52a37b49afc7fb.pdf
1614 # From Carlos Raúl Perasso (2014-02-28):
1615 # Decree 1264 can be found at:
1616 # http://www.presidencia.gov.py/archivos/documentos/DECRETO1264_ey9r8zai.pdf
1617 Rule    Para    2013    max     -       Mar     Sun>=22      0:00    0       -
1618 
1619 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1620 Zone America/Asuncion   -3:50:40 -      LMT     1890
1621                         -3:50:40 -      AMT     1931 Oct 10 # Asunción Mean Time
1622                         -4:00   -       -04     1972 Oct
1623                         -3:00   -       -03     1974 Apr
1624                         -4:00   Para    -04/-03
1625 
1626 # Peru
1627 #
1628 # From Evelyn C. Leeper via Mark Brader (2003-10-26)
1629 # <news:xrGmb.39935$gA1.13896113@news4.srv.hcvlny.cv.net>:
1630 # When we were in Peru in 1985-1986, they apparently switched over
1631 # sometime between December 29 and January 3 while we were on the Amazon.
1632 #
1633 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1634 # Shanks & Pottenger don't have this transition.  Assume 1986 was like 1987.
1635 
1636 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1637 Rule    Peru    1938    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    1:00    S
1638 Rule    Peru    1938    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       -
1639 Rule    Peru    1938    1939    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    1:00    S
1640 Rule    Peru    1939    1940    -       Mar     Sun>=24      0:00    0       -
1641 Rule    Peru    1986    1987    -       Jan      1      0:00    1:00    S
1642 Rule    Peru    1986    1987    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       -
1643 Rule    Peru    1990    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    1:00    S
1644 Rule    Peru    1990    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       -
1645 # IATA is ambiguous for 1993/1995; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1646 Rule    Peru    1994    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    1:00    S
1647 Rule    Peru    1994    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       -
1648 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1649 Zone    America/Lima    -5:08:12 -      LMT     1890
1650                         -5:08:36 -      LMT     1908 Jul 28 # Lima Mean Time?
1651                         -5:00   Peru    -05/-04
1652 
1653 # South Georgia
1654 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1655 Zone Atlantic/South_Georgia -2:26:08 -  LMT     1890 # Grytviken
1656                         -2:00   -       -02
1657 
1658 # South Sandwich Is
1659 # uninhabited; scientific personnel have wintered
1660 
1661 # Suriname
1662 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1663 Zone America/Paramaribo -3:40:40 -      LMT     1911
1664                         -3:40:52 -      PMT     1935     # Paramaribo Mean Time
1665                         -3:40:36 -      PMT     1945 Oct    # The capital moved?
1666                         -3:30   -       -0330   1984 Oct
1667                         -3:00   -       -03
1668 
1669 # Trinidad and Tobago
1670 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1671 Zone America/Port_of_Spain -4:06:04 -   LMT     1912 Mar 2
1672                         -4:00   -       AST
1673 
1674 # These all agree with Trinidad and Tobago since 1970.
1675 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Anguilla
1676 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Antigua
1677 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Dominica
1678 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Grenada
1679 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Guadeloupe
1680 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Marigot      # St Martin (French part)
1681 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Montserrat
1682 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/St_Barthelemy # St Barthélemy
1683 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/St_Kitts     # St Kitts & Nevis
1684 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/St_Lucia
1685 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/St_Thomas    # Virgin Islands (US)
1686 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/St_Vincent
1687 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Tortola      # Virgin Islands (UK)
1688 
1689 # Uruguay
1690 # From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18):
1691 # Uruguay wins the prize for the strangest peacetime manipulation of the rules.
1692 # From Shanks & Pottenger:
1693 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1694 # Whitman gives 1923 Oct 1; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1695 Rule    Uruguay 1923    only    -       Oct      2       0:00   0:30    HS
1696 Rule    Uruguay 1924    1926    -       Apr      1       0:00   0       -
1697 Rule    Uruguay 1924    1925    -       Oct      1       0:00   0:30    HS
1698 Rule    Uruguay 1933    1935    -       Oct     lastSun  0:00   0:30    HS
1699 # Shanks & Pottenger give 1935 Apr 1 0:00 & 1936 Mar 30 0:00; go with Whitman.
1700 Rule    Uruguay 1934    1936    -       Mar     Sat>=25      23:30s  0       -
1701 Rule    Uruguay 1936    only    -       Nov      1       0:00   0:30    HS
1702 Rule    Uruguay 1937    1941    -       Mar     lastSun  0:00   0       -
1703 # Whitman gives 1937 Oct 3; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1704 Rule    Uruguay 1937    1940    -       Oct     lastSun  0:00   0:30    HS
1705 # Whitman gives 1941 Oct 24 - 1942 Mar 27, 1942 Dec 14 - 1943 Apr 13,
1706 # and 1943 Apr 13 "to present time"; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1707 Rule    Uruguay 1941    only    -       Aug      1       0:00   0:30    HS
1708 Rule    Uruguay 1942    only    -       Jan      1       0:00   0       -
1709 Rule    Uruguay 1942    only    -       Dec     14       0:00   1:00    S
1710 Rule    Uruguay 1943    only    -       Mar     14       0:00   0       -
1711 Rule    Uruguay 1959    only    -       May     24       0:00   1:00    S
1712 Rule    Uruguay 1959    only    -       Nov     15       0:00   0       -
1713 Rule    Uruguay 1960    only    -       Jan     17       0:00   1:00    S
1714 Rule    Uruguay 1960    only    -       Mar      6       0:00   0       -
1715 Rule    Uruguay 1965    1967    -       Apr     Sun>=1        0:00   1:00    S
1716 Rule    Uruguay 1965    only    -       Sep     26       0:00   0       -
1717 Rule    Uruguay 1966    1967    -       Oct     31       0:00   0       -
1718 Rule    Uruguay 1968    1970    -       May     27       0:00   0:30    HS
1719 Rule    Uruguay 1968    1970    -       Dec      2       0:00   0       -
1720 Rule    Uruguay 1972    only    -       Apr     24       0:00   1:00    S
1721 Rule    Uruguay 1972    only    -       Aug     15       0:00   0       -
1722 Rule    Uruguay 1974    only    -       Mar     10       0:00   0:30    HS
1723 Rule    Uruguay 1974    only    -       Dec     22       0:00   1:00    S
1724 Rule    Uruguay 1976    only    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       -
1725 Rule    Uruguay 1977    only    -       Dec      4       0:00   1:00    S
1726 Rule    Uruguay 1978    only    -       Apr      1       0:00   0       -
1727 Rule    Uruguay 1979    only    -       Oct      1       0:00   1:00    S
1728 Rule    Uruguay 1980    only    -       May      1       0:00   0       -
1729 Rule    Uruguay 1987    only    -       Dec     14       0:00   1:00    S
1730 Rule    Uruguay 1988    only    -       Mar     14       0:00   0       -
1731 Rule    Uruguay 1988    only    -       Dec     11       0:00   1:00    S
1732 Rule    Uruguay 1989    only    -       Mar     12       0:00   0       -
1733 Rule    Uruguay 1989    only    -       Oct     29       0:00   1:00    S
1734 # Shanks & Pottenger say no DST was observed in 1990/1 and 1991/2,
1735 # and that 1992/3's DST was from 10-25 to 03-01.  Go with IATA.
1736 Rule    Uruguay 1990    1992    -       Mar     Sun>=1        0:00   0       -
1737 Rule    Uruguay 1990    1991    -       Oct     Sun>=21       0:00   1:00    S
1738 Rule    Uruguay 1992    only    -       Oct     18       0:00   1:00    S
1739 Rule    Uruguay 1993    only    -       Feb     28       0:00   0       -
1740 # From Eduardo Cota (2004-09-20):
1741 # The Uruguayan government has decreed a change in the local time....
1742 # http://www.presidencia.gub.uy/decretos/2004091502.htm
1743 Rule    Uruguay 2004    only    -       Sep     19       0:00   1:00    S
1744 # From Steffen Thorsen (2005-03-11):
1745 # Uruguay's DST was scheduled to end on Sunday, 2005-03-13, but in order to
1746 # save energy ... it was postponed two weeks....
1747 # http://www.presidencia.gub.uy/_Web/noticias/2005/03/2005031005.htm
1748 Rule    Uruguay 2005    only    -       Mar     27       2:00   0       -
1749 # From Eduardo Cota (2005-09-27):
1750 # http://www.presidencia.gub.uy/_Web/decretos/2005/09/CM%20119_09%2009%202005_00001.PDF
1751 # This means that from 2005-10-09 at 02:00 local time, until 2006-03-12 at
1752 # 02:00 local time, official time in Uruguay will be at GMT -2.
1753 Rule    Uruguay 2005    only    -       Oct      9       2:00   1:00    S
1754 Rule    Uruguay 2006    only    -       Mar     12       2:00   0       -
1755 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-09-06):
1756 # http://www.presidencia.gub.uy/_web/decretos/2006/09/CM%20210_08%2006%202006_00001.PDF
1757 #
1758 # From Steffen Thorsen (2015-06-30):
1759 # ... it looks like they will not be using DST the coming summer:
1760 # http://www.elobservador.com.uy/gobierno-resolvio-que-no-habra-cambio-horario-verano-n656787
1761 # http://www.republica.com.uy/este-ano-no-se-modificara-el-huso-horario-en-uruguay/523760/
1762 # From Paul Eggert (2015-06-30):
1763 # Apparently restaurateurs complained that DST caused people to go to the beach
1764 # instead of out to dinner.
1765 # From Pablo Camargo (2015-07-13):
1766 # http://archivo.presidencia.gub.uy/sci/decretos/2015/06/cons_min_201.pdf
1767 # [dated 2015-06-29; repeals Decree 311/006 dated 2006-09-04]
1768 Rule    Uruguay 2006    2014    -       Oct     Sun>=1        2:00   1:00    S
1769 Rule    Uruguay 2007    2015    -       Mar     Sun>=8        2:00   0       -
1770 
1771 # This Zone can be simplified once we assume zic %z.
1772 Zone America/Montevideo -3:44:44 -      LMT     1898 Jun 28
1773                         -3:44:44 -      MMT     1920 May  1 # Montevideo MT
1774                         -3:30   Uruguay -0330/-03 1942 Dec 14
1775                         -3:00   Uruguay -03/-02 1968
1776                         -3:00   Uruguay -03/-0230 1971
1777                         -3:00   Uruguay -03/-02 1974
1778                         -3:00   Uruguay -03/-0230 1974 Dec 22
1779                         -3:00   Uruguay -03/-02
1780 
1781 # Venezuela
1782 #
1783 # From Paul Eggert (2015-07-28):
1784 # For the 1965 transition see Gaceta Oficial No. 27.619 (1964-12-15), p 205.533
1785 # http://www.pgr.gob.ve/dmdocuments/1964/27619.pdf
1786 #
1787 # From John Stainforth (2007-11-28):
1788 # ... the change for Venezuela originally expected for 2007-12-31 has
1789 # been brought forward to 2007-12-09.  The official announcement was
1790 # published today in the "Gaceta Oficial de la República Bolivariana
1791 # de Venezuela, número 38.819" (official document for all laws or
1792 # resolution publication)
1793 # http://www.globovision.com/news.php?nid=72208
1794 
1795 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-04-15):
1796 # https://actualidad.rt.com/actualidad/204758-venezuela-modificar-huso-horario-sequia-elnino
1797 #
1798 # From Paul Eggert (2016-04-15):
1799 # Clocks advance 30 minutes on 2016-05-01 at 02:30....
1800 # "'Venezuela's new time-zone: hours without light, hours without water,
1801 # hours of presidential broadcasts, hours of lines,' quipped comedian
1802 # Jean Mary Curró ...". See: Cawthorne A, Kai D. Venezuela scraps
1803 # half-hour time difference set by Chavez. Reuters 2016-04-15 14:50 -0400
1804 # https://www.reuters.com/article/us-venezuela-timezone-idUSKCN0XC2BE
1805 #
1806 # From Matt Johnson (2016-04-20):
1807 # ... published in the official Gazette [2016-04-18], here:
1808 # http://historico.tsj.gob.ve/gaceta_ext/abril/1842016/E-1842016-4551.pdf
1809 
1810 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1811 Zone    America/Caracas -4:27:44 -      LMT     1890
1812                         -4:27:40 -      CMT     1912 Feb 12 # Caracas Mean Time?
1813                         -4:30   -       -0430   1965 Jan  1  0:00
1814                         -4:00   -       -04     2007 Dec  9  3:00
1815                         -4:30   -       -0430   2016 May  1  2:30
1816                         -4:00   -       -04
--- EOF ---