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   3 #  
   4 # This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   5 # under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
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   7 # particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
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  10 # This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  11 # ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  12 # FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  13 # version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  14 # accompanied this code).
  15 #  
  16 # You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  17 # 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  18 # Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  19 #  
  20 # Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  21 # or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  22 # questions.
  23 #
  24 # <pre>
  25 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
  26 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
  27 
  28 # also includes Central America and the Caribbean
  29 
  30 # This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
  31 # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
  32 # tz@iana.org for general use in the future).
  33 
  34 # From Paul Eggert (1999-03-22):
  35 # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
  36 # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
  37 
  38 ###############################################################################
  39 
  40 # United States
  41 
  42 # From Paul Eggert (1999-03-31):
  43 # Howse writes (pp 121-125) that time zones were invented by
  44 # Professor Charles Ferdinand Dowd (1825-1904),
  45 # Principal of Temple Grove Ladies' Seminary (Saratoga Springs, NY).
  46 # His pamphlet ``A System of National Time for Railroads'' (1870)
  47 # was the result of his proposals at the Convention of Railroad Trunk Lines
  48 # in New York City (1869-10).  His 1870 proposal was based on Washington, DC,
  49 # but in 1872-05 he moved the proposed origin to Greenwich.
  50 # His proposal was adopted by the railroads on 1883-11-18 at 12:00,
  51 # and the most of the country soon followed suit.
  52 
  53 # From Paul Eggert (2005-04-16):
  54 # That 1883 transition occurred at 12:00 new time, not at 12:00 old time.
  55 # See p 46 of David Prerau, Seize the daylight, Thunder's Mouth Press (2005).
  56 
  57 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
  58 # A good source for time zone historical data in the US is
  59 # Thomas G. Shanks, The American Atlas (5th edition),
  60 # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1991).
  61 # Make sure you have the errata sheet; the book is somewhat useless without it.
  62 # It is the source for most of the pre-1991 US entries below.
  63 
  64 # From Paul Eggert (2001-03-06):
  65 # Daylight Saving Time was first suggested as a joke by Benjamin Franklin
  66 # in his whimsical essay ``An Economical Project for Diminishing the Cost
  67 # of Light'' published in the Journal de Paris (1784-04-26).
  68 # Not everyone is happy with the results:
  69 #
  70 #       I don't really care how time is reckoned so long as there is some
  71 #       agreement about it, but I object to being told that I am saving
  72 #       daylight when my reason tells me that I am doing nothing of the kind.
  73 #       I even object to the implication that I am wasting something
  74 #       valuable if I stay in bed after the sun has risen.  As an admirer
  75 #       of moonlight I resent the bossy insistence of those who want to
  76 #       reduce my time for enjoying it.  At the back of the Daylight Saving
  77 #       scheme I detect the bony, blue-fingered hand of Puritanism, eager
  78 #       to push people into bed earlier, and get them up earlier, to make
  79 #       them healthy, wealthy and wise in spite of themselves.
  80 #
  81 #       -- Robertson Davies, The diary of Samuel Marchbanks,
  82 #          Clarke, Irwin (1947), XIX, Sunday
  83 #
  84 # For more about the first ten years of DST in the United States, see
  85 # Robert Garland's <a href="http://www.clpgh.org/exhibit/dst.html">
  86 # Ten years of daylight saving from the Pittsburgh standpoint
  87 # (Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, 1927)</a>.
  88 #
  89 # Shanks says that DST was called "War Time" in the US in 1918 and 1919.
  90 # However, DST was imposed by the Standard Time Act of 1918, which
  91 # was the first nationwide legal time standard, and apparently
  92 # time was just called "Standard Time" or "Daylight Saving Time".
  93 
  94 # From Arthur David Olson:
  95 # US Daylight Saving Time ended on the last Sunday of *October* in 1974.
  96 # See, for example, the front page of the Saturday, 1974-10-26
  97 # and Sunday, 1974-10-27 editions of the Washington Post.
  98 
  99 # From Arthur David Olson:
 100 # Before the Uniform Time Act of 1966 took effect in 1967, observance of
 101 # Daylight Saving Time in the US was by local option, except during wartime.
 102 
 103 # From Arthur David Olson (2000-09-25):
 104 # Last night I heard part of a rebroadcast of a 1945 Arch Oboler radio drama.
 105 # In the introduction, Oboler spoke of "Eastern Peace Time."
 106 # An AltaVista search turned up
 107 # <a href="http://rowayton.org/rhs/hstaug45.html">:
 108 # "When the time is announced over the radio now, it is 'Eastern Peace
 109 # Time' instead of the old familiar 'Eastern War Time.'  Peace is wonderful."
 110 # </a> (August 1945) by way of confirmation.
 111 
 112 # From Joseph Gallant citing
 113 # George H. Douglas, _The Early Days of Radio Broadcasting_ (1987):
 114 # At 7 P.M. (Eastern War Time) [on 1945-08-14], the networks were set
 115 # to switch to London for Attlee's address, but the American people
 116 # never got to hear his speech live. According to one press account,
 117 # CBS' Bob Trout was first to announce the word of Japan's surrender,
 118 # but a few seconds later, NBC, ABC and Mutual also flashed the word
 119 # of surrender, all of whom interrupting the bells of Big Ben in
 120 # London which were to precede Mr. Attlee's speech.
 121 
 122 # From Paul Eggert (2003-02-09): It was Robert St John, not Bob Trout.  From
 123 # Myrna Oliver's obituary of St John on page B16 of today's Los Angeles Times:
 124 #
 125 # ... a war-weary U.S. clung to radios, awaiting word of Japan's surrender.
 126 # Any announcement from Asia would reach St. John's New York newsroom on a
 127 # wire service teletype machine, which had prescribed signals for major news.
 128 # Associated Press, for example, would ring five bells before spewing out
 129 # typed copy of an important story, and 10 bells for news "of transcendental
 130 # importance."
 131 #
 132 # On Aug. 14, stalling while talking steadily into the NBC networks' open
 133 # microphone, St. John heard five bells and waited only to hear a sixth bell,
 134 # before announcing confidently: "Ladies and gentlemen, World War II is over.
 135 # The Japanese have agreed to our surrender terms."
 136 #
 137 # He had scored a 20-second scoop on other broadcasters.
 138 
 139 # From Arthur David Olson (2005-08-22):
 140 # Paul has been careful to use the "US" rules only in those locations
 141 # that are part of the United States; this reflects the real scope of
 142 # U.S. government action.  So even though the "US" rules have changed
 143 # in the latest release, other countries won't be affected.
 144 
 145 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 146 Rule    US      1918    1919    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 147 Rule    US      1918    1919    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 148 Rule    US      1942    only    -       Feb     9       2:00    1:00    W # War
 149 Rule    US      1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace
 150 Rule    US      1945    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S
 151 Rule    US      1967    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 152 Rule    US      1967    1973    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 153 Rule    US      1974    only    -       Jan     6       2:00    1:00    D
 154 Rule    US      1975    only    -       Feb     23      2:00    1:00    D
 155 Rule    US      1976    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 156 Rule    US      1987    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
 157 Rule    US      2007    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
 158 Rule    US      2007    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
 159 
 160 # From Arthur David Olson, 2005-12-19
 161 # We generate the files specified below to guard against old files with
 162 # obsolete information being left in the time zone binary directory.
 163 # We limit the list to names that have appeared in previous versions of
 164 # this time zone package.
 165 # We do these as separate Zones rather than as Links to avoid problems if
 166 # a particular place changes whether it observes DST.
 167 # We put these specifications here in the northamerica file both to
 168 # increase the chances that they'll actually get compiled and to
 169 # avoid the need to duplicate the US rules in another file.
 170 
 171 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 172 Zone    EST              -5:00  -       EST
 173 Zone    MST              -7:00  -       MST
 174 Zone    HST             -10:00  -       HST
 175 Zone    EST5EDT          -5:00  US      E%sT
 176 Zone    CST6CDT          -6:00  US      C%sT
 177 Zone    MST7MDT          -7:00  US      M%sT
 178 Zone    PST8PDT          -8:00  US      P%sT
 179 
 180 # From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
 181 # ...Alaska (and Hawaii) had the timezone names changed in 1967.
 182 #    old                         new
 183 #    Pacific Standard Time(PST)  -same-
 184 #    Yukon Standard Time(YST)    -same-
 185 #    Central Alaska S.T. (CAT)   Alaska-Hawaii St[an]dard Time (AHST)
 186 #    Nome Standard Time (NT)     Bering Standard Time (BST)
 187 #
 188 # ...Alaska's timezone lines were redrawn in 1983 to give only 2 tz.
 189 #    The YST zone now covers nearly all of the state, AHST just part
 190 #    of the Aleutian islands.   No DST.
 191 
 192 # From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19):
 193 # The tables below use `NST', not `NT', for Nome Standard Time.
 194 # I invented `CAWT' for Central Alaska War Time.
 195 
 196 # From U. S. Naval Observatory (1989-01-19):
 197 # USA  EASTERN       5 H  BEHIND UTC    NEW YORK, WASHINGTON
 198 # USA  EASTERN       4 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30
 199 # USA  CENTRAL       6 H  BEHIND UTC    CHICAGO, HOUSTON
 200 # USA  CENTRAL       5 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30
 201 # USA  MOUNTAIN      7 H  BEHIND UTC    DENVER
 202 # USA  MOUNTAIN      6 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30
 203 # USA  PACIFIC       8 H  BEHIND UTC    L.A., SAN FRANCISCO
 204 # USA  PACIFIC       7 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30
 205 # USA  ALASKA STD    9 H  BEHIND UTC    MOST OF ALASKA     (AKST)
 206 # USA  ALASKA STD    8 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30 (AKDT)
 207 # USA  ALEUTIAN     10 H  BEHIND UTC    ISLANDS WEST OF 170W
 208 # USA  - " -         9 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30
 209 # USA  HAWAII       10 H  BEHIND UTC
 210 # USA  BERING       11 H  BEHIND UTC    SAMOA, MIDWAY
 211 
 212 # From Arthur David Olson (1989-01-21):
 213 # The above dates are for 1988.
 214 # Note the "AKST" and "AKDT" abbreviations, the claim that there's
 215 # no DST in Samoa, and the claim that there is DST in Alaska and the
 216 # Aleutians.
 217 
 218 # From Arthur David Olson (1988-02-13):
 219 # Legal standard time zone names, from United States Code (1982 Edition and
 220 # Supplement III), Title 15, Chapter 6, Section 260 and forward.  First, names
 221 # up to 1967-04-01 (when most provisions of the Uniform Time Act of 1966
 222 # took effect), as explained in sections 263 and 261:
 223 #       (none)
 224 #       United States standard eastern time
 225 #       United States standard mountain time
 226 #       United States standard central time
 227 #       United States standard Pacific time
 228 #       (none)
 229 #       United States standard Alaska time
 230 #       (none)
 231 # Next, names from 1967-04-01 until 1983-11-30 (the date for
 232 # public law 98-181):
 233 #       Atlantic standard time
 234 #       eastern standard time
 235 #       central standard time
 236 #       mountain standard time
 237 #       Pacific standard time
 238 #       Yukon standard time
 239 #       Alaska-Hawaii standard time
 240 #       Bering standard time
 241 # And after 1983-11-30:
 242 #       Atlantic standard time
 243 #       eastern standard time
 244 #       central standard time
 245 #       mountain standard time
 246 #       Pacific standard time
 247 #       Alaska standard time
 248 #       Hawaii-Aleutian standard time
 249 #       Samoa standard time
 250 # The law doesn't give abbreviations.
 251 #
 252 # From Paul Eggert (2000-01-08), following a heads-up from Rives McDow:
 253 # Public law 106-564 (2000-12-23) introduced the abbreviation
 254 # "Chamorro Standard Time" for time in Guam and the Northern Marianas.
 255 # See the file "australasia".
 256 
 257 # From Arthur David Olson, 2005-08-09
 258 # The following was signed into law on 2005-08-08.
 259 #
 260 # H.R. 6, Energy Policy Act of 2005, SEC. 110. DAYLIGHT SAVINGS.
 261 #   (a) Amendment- Section 3(a) of the Uniform Time Act of 1966 (15
 262 #   U.S.C. 260a(a)) is amended--
 263 #     (1) by striking `first Sunday of April' and inserting `second
 264 #     Sunday of March'; and
 265 #     (2) by striking `last Sunday of October' and inserting `first
 266 #     Sunday of November'.
 267 #   (b) Effective Date- Subsection (a) shall take effect 1 year after the
 268 #   date of enactment of this Act or March 1, 2007, whichever is later.
 269 #   (c) Report to Congress- Not later than 9 months after the effective
 270 #   date stated in subsection (b), the Secretary shall report to Congress
 271 #   on the impact of this section on energy consumption in the United
 272 #   States.
 273 #   (d) Right to Revert- Congress retains the right to revert the
 274 #   Daylight Saving Time back to the 2005 time schedules once the
 275 #   Department study is complete.
 276 
 277 # US eastern time, represented by New York
 278 
 279 # Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, most of Florida,
 280 # Georgia, southeast Indiana (Dearborn and Ohio counties), eastern Kentucky
 281 # (except America/Kentucky/Louisville below), Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts,
 282 # New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio,
 283 # Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, eastern Tennessee,
 284 # Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia
 285 
 286 # From Dave Cantor (2004-11-02):
 287 # Early this summer I had the occasion to visit the Mount Washington
 288 # Observatory weather station atop (of course!) Mount Washington [, NH]....
 289 # One of the staff members said that the station was on Eastern Standard Time
 290 # and didn't change their clocks for Daylight Saving ... so that their
 291 # reports will always have times which are 5 hours behind UTC.
 292 
 293 # From Paul Eggert (2005-08-26):
 294 # According to today's Huntsville Times
 295 # <http://www.al.com/news/huntsvilletimes/index.ssf?/base/news/1125047783228320.xml&coll=1>
 296 # a few towns on Alabama's "eastern border with Georgia, such as Phenix City
 297 # in Russell County, Lanett in Chambers County and some towns in Lee County,
 298 # set their watches and clocks on Eastern time."  It quotes H.H. "Bubba"
 299 # Roberts, city administrator in Phenix City. as saying "We are in the Central
 300 # time zone, but we do go by the Eastern time zone because so many people work
 301 # in Columbus."
 302 
 303 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 304 Rule    NYC     1920    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 305 Rule    NYC     1920    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 306 Rule    NYC     1921    1966    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 307 Rule    NYC     1921    1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 308 Rule    NYC     1955    1966    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 309 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 310 Zone America/New_York   -4:56:02 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:03:58
 311                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1920
 312                         -5:00   NYC     E%sT    1942
 313                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1946
 314                         -5:00   NYC     E%sT    1967
 315                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 316 
 317 # US central time, represented by Chicago
 318 
 319 # Alabama, Arkansas, Florida panhandle (Bay, Calhoun, Escambia,
 320 # Gulf, Holmes, Jackson, Okaloosa, Santa Rosa, Walton, and
 321 # Washington counties), Illinois, western Indiana
 322 # (Gibson, Jasper, Lake, LaPorte, Newton, Porter, Posey, Spencer,
 323 # Vanderburgh, and Warrick counties), Iowa, most of Kansas, western
 324 # Kentucky, Louisiana, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, eastern
 325 # Nebraska, eastern North Dakota, Oklahoma, eastern South Dakota,
 326 # western Tennessee, most of Texas, Wisconsin
 327 
 328 # From Larry M. Smith (2006-04-26) re Wisconsin:
 329 # http://www.legis.state.wi.us/statutes/Stat0175.pdf ...
 330 # is currently enforced at the 01:00 time of change.  Because the local
 331 # "bar time" in the state corresponds to 02:00, a number of citations
 332 # are issued for the "sale of class 'B' alcohol after prohibited
 333 # hours" within the deviated hour of this change every year....
 334 #
 335 # From Douglas R. Bomberg (2007-03-12):
 336 # Wisconsin has enacted (nearly eleventh-hour) legislation to get WI
 337 # Statue 175 closer in synch with the US Congress' intent....
 338 # http://www.legis.state.wi.us/2007/data/acts/07Act3.pdf
 339 
 340 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 341 Rule    Chicago 1920    only    -       Jun     13      2:00    1:00    D
 342 Rule    Chicago 1920    1921    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 343 Rule    Chicago 1921    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 344 Rule    Chicago 1922    1966    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 345 Rule    Chicago 1922    1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 346 Rule    Chicago 1955    1966    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 347 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 348 Zone America/Chicago    -5:50:36 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:09:24
 349                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1920
 350                         -6:00   Chicago C%sT    1936 Mar  1 2:00
 351                         -5:00   -       EST     1936 Nov 15 2:00
 352                         -6:00   Chicago C%sT    1942
 353                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
 354                         -6:00   Chicago C%sT    1967
 355                         -6:00   US      C%sT
 356 # Oliver County, ND switched from mountain to central time on 1992-10-25.
 357 Zone America/North_Dakota/Center -6:45:12 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:14:48
 358                         -7:00   US      M%sT    1992 Oct 25 02:00
 359                         -6:00   US      C%sT
 360 # Morton County, ND, switched from mountain to central time on
 361 # 2003-10-26, except for the area around Mandan which was already central time.
 362 # See <http://dmses.dot.gov/docimages/p63/135818.pdf>.
 363 # Officially this switch also included part of Sioux County, and
 364 # Jones, Mellette, and Todd Counties in South Dakota;
 365 # but in practice these other counties were already observing central time.
 366 # See <http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/EPA-IMPACT/2003/October/Day-28/i27056.htm>.
 367 Zone America/North_Dakota/New_Salem -6:45:39 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:14:21
 368                         -7:00   US      M%sT    2003 Oct 26 02:00
 369                         -6:00   US      C%sT
 370 
 371 # From Josh Findley (2011-01-21):
 372 # ...it appears that Mercer County, North Dakota, changed from the
 373 # mountain time zone to the central time zone at the last transition from
 374 # daylight-saving to standard time (on Nov. 7, 2010):
 375 # <a href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-29/html/2010-24376.htm">
 376 # http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-29/html/2010-24376.htm
 377 # </a>
 378 # <a href="http://www.bismarcktribune.com/news/local/article_1eb1b588-c758-11df-b472-001cc4c03286.html">
 379 # http://www.bismarcktribune.com/news/local/article_1eb1b588-c758-11df-b472-001cc4c03286.html
 380 # </a>
 381 
 382 # From Andy Lipscomb (2011-01-24):
 383 # ...according to the Census Bureau, the largest city is Beulah (although
 384 # it's commonly referred to as Beulah-Hazen, with Hazen being the next
 385 # largest city in Mercer County).  Google Maps places Beulah's city hall
 386 # at 4715'51" north, 10146'40" west, which yields an offset of 6h47'07".
 387 
 388 Zone America/North_Dakota/Beulah -6:47:07 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:12:53
 389                         -7:00   US      M%sT    2010 Nov  7 2:00
 390                         -6:00   US      C%sT
 391 
 392 # US mountain time, represented by Denver
 393 #
 394 # Colorado, far western Kansas, Montana, western
 395 # Nebraska, Nevada border (Jackpot, Owyhee, and Mountain City),
 396 # New Mexico, southwestern North Dakota,
 397 # western South Dakota, far western Texas (El Paso County, Hudspeth County,
 398 # and Pine Springs and Nickel Creek in Culberson County), Utah, Wyoming
 399 #
 400 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 401 Rule    Denver  1920    1921    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 402 Rule    Denver  1920    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 403 Rule    Denver  1921    only    -       May     22      2:00    0       S
 404 Rule    Denver  1965    1966    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 405 Rule    Denver  1965    1966    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 406 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 407 Zone America/Denver     -6:59:56 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:00:04
 408                         -7:00   US      M%sT    1920
 409                         -7:00   Denver  M%sT    1942
 410                         -7:00   US      M%sT    1946
 411                         -7:00   Denver  M%sT    1967
 412                         -7:00   US      M%sT
 413 
 414 # US Pacific time, represented by Los Angeles
 415 #
 416 # California, northern Idaho (Benewah, Bonner, Boundary, Clearwater,
 417 # Idaho, Kootenai, Latah, Lewis, Nez Perce, and Shoshone counties,
 418 # and the northern three-quarters of Idaho county),
 419 # most of Nevada, most of Oregon, and Washington
 420 #
 421 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 422 Rule    CA      1948    only    -       Mar     14      2:00    1:00    D
 423 Rule    CA      1949    only    -       Jan      1      2:00    0       S
 424 Rule    CA      1950    1966    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 425 Rule    CA      1950    1961    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 426 Rule    CA      1962    1966    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 427 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 428 Zone America/Los_Angeles -7:52:58 -     LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:07:02
 429                         -8:00   US      P%sT    1946
 430                         -8:00   CA      P%sT    1967
 431                         -8:00   US      P%sT
 432 
 433 # Alaska
 434 # AK%sT is the modern abbreviation for -9:00 per USNO.
 435 #
 436 # From Paul Eggert (2001-05-30):
 437 # Howse writes that Alaska switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar,
 438 # and from east-of-GMT to west-of-GMT days, when the US bought it from Russia.
 439 # This was on 1867-10-18, a Friday; the previous day was 1867-10-06 Julian,
 440 # also a Friday.  Include only the time zone part of this transition,
 441 # ignoring the switch from Julian to Gregorian, since we can't represent
 442 # the Julian calendar.
 443 #
 444 # As far as we know, none of the exact locations mentioned below were
 445 # permanently inhabited in 1867 by anyone using either calendar.
 446 # (Yakutat was colonized by the Russians in 1799, but the settlement
 447 # was destroyed in 1805 by a Yakutat-kon war party.)  However, there
 448 # were nearby inhabitants in some cases and for our purposes perhaps
 449 # it's best to simply use the official transition.
 450 #
 451 
 452 # From Steve Ferguson (2011-01-31):
 453 # The author lives in Alaska and many of the references listed are only
 454 # available to Alaskan residents.
 455 #
 456 # <a href="http://www.alaskahistoricalsociety.org/index.cfm?section=discover%20alaska&page=Glimpses%20of%20the%20Past&viewpost=2&ContentId=98">
 457 # http://www.alaskahistoricalsociety.org/index.cfm?section=discover%20alaska&page=Glimpses%20of%20the%20Past&viewpost=2&ContentId=98
 458 # </a>
 459 
 460 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-02-01):
 461 # Here's database-relevant material from the 2001 "Alaska History" article:
 462 #
 463 # On September 20 [1979]...DOT...officials decreed that on April 27,
 464 # 1980, Juneau and other nearby communities would move to Yukon Time.
 465 # Sitka, Petersburg, Wrangell, and Ketchikan, however, would remain on
 466 # Pacific Time.
 467 #
 468 # ...on September 22, 1980, DOT Secretary Neil E. Goldschmidt rescinded the
 469 # Department's September 1979 decision. Juneau and other communities in
 470 # northern Southeast reverted to Pacific Time on October 26.
 471 #
 472 # On October 28 [1983]...the Metlakatla Indian Community Council voted
 473 # unanimously to keep the reservation on Pacific Time.
 474 #
 475 # According to DOT official Joanne Petrie, Indian reservations are not
 476 # bound to follow time zones imposed by neighboring jurisdictions.
 477 #
 478 # (The last is consistent with how the database now handles the Navajo
 479 # Nation.)
 480 
 481 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-02-09):
 482 # I just spoke by phone with a staff member at the Metlakatla Indian
 483 # Community office (using contact information available at
 484 # <a href="http://www.commerce.state.ak.us/dca/commdb/CIS.cfm?Comm_Boro_name=Metlakatla">
 485 # http://www.commerce.state.ak.us/dca/commdb/CIS.cfm?Comm_Boro_name=Metlakatla
 486 # </a>).
 487 # It's shortly after 1:00 here on the east coast of the United States;
 488 # the staffer said it was shortly after 10:00 there. When I asked whether
 489 # that meant they were on Pacific time, they said no--they were on their
 490 # own time. I asked about daylight saving; they said it wasn't used. I
 491 # did not inquire about practices in the past.
 492 
 493 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-08-17):
 494 # For lack of better information, assume that Metlakatla's
 495 # abandonment of use of daylight saving resulted from the 1983 vote.
 496 
 497 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 498 Zone America/Juneau      15:02:19 -     LMT     1867 Oct 18
 499                          -8:57:41 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00
 500                          -8:00  -       PST     1942
 501                          -8:00  US      P%sT    1946
 502                          -8:00  -       PST     1969
 503                          -8:00  US      P%sT    1980 Apr 27 2:00
 504                          -9:00  US      Y%sT    1980 Oct 26 2:00
 505                          -8:00  US      P%sT    1983 Oct 30 2:00
 506                          -9:00  US      Y%sT    1983 Nov 30
 507                          -9:00  US      AK%sT
 508 Zone America/Sitka       14:58:47 -     LMT     1867 Oct 18
 509                          -9:01:13 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00
 510                          -8:00  -       PST     1942
 511                          -8:00  US      P%sT    1946
 512                          -8:00  -       PST     1969
 513                          -8:00  US      P%sT    1983 Oct 30 2:00
 514                          -9:00  US      Y%sT    1983 Nov 30
 515                          -9:00  US      AK%sT
 516 Zone America/Metlakatla  15:13:42 -     LMT     1867 Oct 18
 517                          -8:46:18 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00
 518                          -8:00  -       PST     1942
 519                          -8:00  US      P%sT    1946
 520                          -8:00  -       PST     1969
 521                          -8:00  US      P%sT    1983 Oct 30 2:00
 522                          -8:00  -       MeST
 523 Zone America/Yakutat     14:41:05 -     LMT     1867 Oct 18
 524                          -9:18:55 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00
 525                          -9:00  -       YST     1942
 526                          -9:00  US      Y%sT    1946
 527                          -9:00  -       YST     1969
 528                          -9:00  US      Y%sT    1983 Nov 30
 529                          -9:00  US      AK%sT
 530 Zone America/Anchorage   14:00:24 -     LMT     1867 Oct 18
 531                          -9:59:36 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00
 532                         -10:00  -       CAT     1942
 533                         -10:00  US      CAT/CAWT 1945 Aug 14 23:00u
 534                         -10:00  US      CAT/CAPT 1946 # Peace
 535                         -10:00  -       CAT     1967 Apr
 536                         -10:00  -       AHST    1969
 537                         -10:00  US      AH%sT   1983 Oct 30 2:00
 538                          -9:00  US      Y%sT    1983 Nov 30
 539                          -9:00  US      AK%sT
 540 Zone America/Nome        12:58:21 -     LMT     1867 Oct 18
 541                         -11:01:38 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00
 542                         -11:00  -       NST     1942
 543                         -11:00  US      N%sT    1946
 544                         -11:00  -       NST     1967 Apr
 545                         -11:00  -       BST     1969
 546                         -11:00  US      B%sT    1983 Oct 30 2:00
 547                          -9:00  US      Y%sT    1983 Nov 30
 548                          -9:00  US      AK%sT
 549 Zone America/Adak        12:13:21 -     LMT     1867 Oct 18
 550                         -11:46:38 -     LMT     1900 Aug 20 12:00
 551                         -11:00  -       NST     1942
 552                         -11:00  US      N%sT    1946
 553                         -11:00  -       NST     1967 Apr
 554                         -11:00  -       BST     1969
 555                         -11:00  US      B%sT    1983 Oct 30 2:00
 556                         -10:00  US      AH%sT   1983 Nov 30
 557                         -10:00  US      HA%sT
 558 # The following switches don't quite make our 1970 cutoff.
 559 #
 560 # Shanks writes that part of southwest Alaska (e.g. Aniak)
 561 # switched from -11:00 to -10:00 on 1968-09-22 at 02:00,
 562 # and another part (e.g. Akiak) made the same switch five weeks later.
 563 #
 564 # From David Flater (2004-11-09):
 565 # In e-mail, 2004-11-02, Ray Hudson, historian/liaison to the Unalaska
 566 # Historic Preservation Commission, provided this information, which
 567 # suggests that Unalaska deviated from statutory time from early 1967
 568 # possibly until 1983:
 569 #
 570 #  Minutes of the Unalaska City Council Meeting, January 10, 1967:
 571 #  "Except for St. Paul and Akutan, Unalaska is the only important
 572 #  location not on Alaska Standard Time.  The following resolution was
 573 #  made by William Robinson and seconded by Henry Swanson:  Be it
 574 #  resolved that the City of Unalaska hereby goes to Alaska Standard
 575 #  Time as of midnight Friday, January 13, 1967 (1 A.M. Saturday,
 576 #  January 14, Alaska Standard Time.)  This resolution was passed with
 577 #  three votes for and one against."
 578 
 579 # Hawaii
 580 
 581 # From Arthur David Olson (2010-12-09):
 582 # "Hawaiian Time" by Robert C. Schmitt and Doak C. Cox appears on pages 207-225
 583 # of volume 26 of The Hawaiian Journal of History (1992). As of 2010-12-09,
 584 # the article is available at
 585 # <a href="http://evols.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10524/239/2/JL26215.pdf">
 586 # http://evols.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10524/239/2/JL26215.pdf
 587 # </a>
 588 # and indicates that standard time was adopted effective noon, January
 589 # 13, 1896 (page 218), that in "1933, the Legislature decreed daylight
 590 # saving for the period between the last Sunday of each April and the
 591 # last Sunday of each September, but less than a month later repealed the
 592 # act," (page 220), that year-round daylight saving time was in effect
 593 # from 1942-02-09 to 1945-09-30 (page 221, with no time of day given for
 594 # when clocks changed) and that clocks were changed by 30 minutes
 595 # effective the second Sunday of June, 1947 (page 219, with no time of
 596 # day given for when clocks changed). A footnote for the 1933 changes
 597 # cites Session Laws of Hawaii 1933, "Act. 90 (approved 26 Apr. 1933)
 598 # and Act 163 (approved 21 May 1933)."
 599 
 600 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-01-19):
 601 # The following is from "Laws of the Territory of Hawaii Passed by the
 602 # Seventeenth Legislature: Regular Session 1933," available (as of
 603 # 2011-01-19) at American University's Pence Law Library. Page 85: "Act
 604 # 90...At 2 o'clock ante meridian of the last Sunday in April of each
 605 # year, the standard time of this Territory shall be advanced one
 606 # hour...This Act shall take effect upon its approval. Approved this 26th
 607 # day of April, A. D. 1933. LAWRENCE M JUDD, Governor of the Territory of
 608 # Hawaii." Page 172:  "Act 163...Act 90 of the Session Laws of 1933 is
 609 # hereby repealed...This Act shall take effect upon its approval, upon
 610 # which date the standard time of this Territory shall be restored to
 611 # that existing immediately prior to the taking effect of said Act 90.
 612 # Approved this 21st day of May, A. D. 1933. LAWRENCE M. JUDD, Governor
 613 # of the Territory of Hawaii."
 614 #
 615 # Note that 1933-05-21 was a Sunday.
 616 # We're left to guess the time of day when Act 163 was approved; guess noon.
 617 
 618 Zone Pacific/Honolulu   -10:31:26 -     LMT     1896 Jan 13 12:00 #Schmitt&Cox
 619                         -10:30  -       HST     1933 Apr 30 2:00 #Laws 1933
 620                         -10:30  1:00    HDT     1933 May 21 12:00 #Laws 1933+12
 621                         -10:30  -       HST     1942 Feb 09 2:00 #Schmitt&Cox+2
 622                         -10:30  1:00    HDT     1945 Sep 30 2:00 #Schmitt&Cox+2
 623                         -10:30  -       HST     1947 Jun  8 2:00 #Schmitt&Cox+2
 624                         -10:00  -       HST
 625 
 626 # Now we turn to US areas that have diverged from the consensus since 1970.
 627 
 628 # Arizona mostly uses MST.
 629 
 630 # From Paul Eggert (2002-10-20):
 631 #
 632 # The information in the rest of this paragraph is derived from the
 633 # <a href="http://www.dlapr.lib.az.us/links/daylight.htm">
 634 # Daylight Saving Time web page (2002-01-23)</a> maintained by the
 635 # Arizona State Library, Archives and Public Records.
 636 # Between 1944-01-01 and 1944-04-01 the State of Arizona used standard
 637 # time, but by federal law railroads, airlines, bus lines, military
 638 # personnel, and some engaged in interstate commerce continued to
 639 # observe war (i.e., daylight saving) time.  The 1944-03-17 Phoenix
 640 # Gazette says that was the date the law changed, and that 04-01 was
 641 # the date the state's clocks would change.  In 1945 the State of
 642 # Arizona used standard time all year, again with exceptions only as
 643 # mandated by federal law.  Arizona observed DST in 1967, but Arizona
 644 # Laws 1968, ch. 183 (effective 1968-03-21) repealed DST.
 645 #
 646 # Shanks says the 1944 experiment came to an end on 1944-03-17.
 647 # Go with the Arizona State Library instead.
 648 
 649 Zone America/Phoenix    -7:28:18 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 11:31:42
 650                         -7:00   US      M%sT    1944 Jan  1 00:01
 651                         -7:00   -       MST     1944 Apr  1 00:01
 652                         -7:00   US      M%sT    1944 Oct  1 00:01
 653                         -7:00   -       MST     1967
 654                         -7:00   US      M%sT    1968 Mar 21
 655                         -7:00   -       MST
 656 # From Arthur David Olson (1988-02-13):
 657 # A writer from the Inter Tribal Council of Arizona, Inc.,
 658 # notes in private correspondence dated 1987-12-28 that "Presently, only the
 659 # Navajo Nation participates in the Daylight Saving Time policy, due to its
 660 # large size and location in three states."  (The "only" means that other
 661 # tribal nations don't use DST.)
 662 
 663 Link America/Denver America/Shiprock
 664 
 665 # Southern Idaho (Ada, Adams, Bannock, Bear Lake, Bingham, Blaine,
 666 # Boise, Bonneville, Butte, Camas, Canyon, Caribou, Cassia, Clark,
 667 # Custer, Elmore, Franklin, Fremont, Gem, Gooding, Jefferson, Jerome,
 668 # Lemhi, Lincoln, Madison, Minidoka, Oneida, Owyhee, Payette, Power,
 669 # Teton, Twin Falls, Valley, Washington counties, and the southern
 670 # quarter of Idaho county) and eastern Oregon (most of Malheur County)
 671 # switched four weeks late in 1974.
 672 #
 673 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 674 Zone America/Boise      -7:44:49 -      LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:15:11
 675                         -8:00   US      P%sT    1923 May 13 2:00
 676                         -7:00   US      M%sT    1974
 677                         -7:00   -       MST     1974 Feb  3 2:00
 678                         -7:00   US      M%sT
 679 
 680 # Indiana
 681 #
 682 # For a map of Indiana's time zone regions, see:
 683 # <a href="http://www.mccsc.edu/time.html">
 684 # What time is it in Indiana?
 685 # </a> (2006-03-01)
 686 #
 687 # From Paul Eggert (2007-08-17):
 688 # Since 1970, most of Indiana has been like America/Indiana/Indianapolis,
 689 # with the following exceptions:
 690 #
 691 # - Gibson, Jasper, Lake, LaPorte, Newton, Porter, Posey, Spencer,
 692 #   Vandenburgh, and Warrick counties have been like America/Chicago.
 693 #
 694 # - Dearborn and Ohio counties have been like America/New_York.
 695 #
 696 # - Clark, Floyd, and Harrison counties have been like
 697 #   America/Kentucky/Louisville.
 698 #
 699 # - Crawford, Daviess, Dubois, Knox, Martin, Perry, Pike, Pulaski, Starke,
 700 #   and Switzerland counties have their own time zone histories as noted below.
 701 #
 702 # Shanks partitioned Indiana into 345 regions, each with its own time history,
 703 # and wrote ``Even newspaper reports present contradictory information.''
 704 # Those Hoosiers!  Such a flighty and changeable people!
 705 # Fortunately, most of the complexity occurred before our cutoff date of 1970.
 706 #
 707 # Other than Indianapolis, the Indiana place names are so nondescript
 708 # that they would be ambiguous if we left them at the `America' level.
 709 # So we reluctantly put them all in a subdirectory `America/Indiana'.
 710 
 711 # From Paul Eggert (2005-08-16):
 712 # http://www.mccsc.edu/time.html says that Indiana will use DST starting 2006.
 713 
 714 # From Nathan Stratton Treadway (2006-03-30):
 715 # http://www.dot.gov/affairs/dot0406.htm [3705 B]
 716 # From Deborah Goldsmith (2006-01-18):
 717 # http://dmses.dot.gov/docimages/pdf95/382329_web.pdf [2.9 MB]
 718 # From Paul Eggert (2006-01-20):
 719 # It says "DOT is relocating the time zone boundary in Indiana to move Starke,
 720 # Pulaski, Knox, Daviess, Martin, Pike, Dubois, and Perry Counties from the
 721 # Eastern Time Zone to the Central Time Zone.... The effective date of
 722 # this rule is 2:OO a.m. EST Sunday, April 2, 2006, which is the
 723 # changeover date from standard time to Daylight Saving Time."
 724 # Strictly speaking, this means the affected counties will change their
 725 # clocks twice that night, but this obviously is in error.  The intent
 726 # is that 01:59:59 EST be followed by 02:00:00 CDT.
 727 
 728 # From Gwillim Law (2007-02-10):
 729 # The Associated Press has been reporting that Pulaski County, Indiana is
 730 # going to switch from Central to Eastern Time on March 11, 2007....
 731 # http://www.indystar.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070207/LOCAL190108/702070524/0/LOCAL
 732 
 733 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 734 Rule Indianapolis 1941  only    -       Jun     22      2:00    1:00    D
 735 Rule Indianapolis 1941  1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 736 Rule Indianapolis 1946  1954    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 737 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 738 Zone America/Indiana/Indianapolis -5:44:38 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:15:22
 739                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1920
 740                         -6:00 Indianapolis C%sT 1942
 741                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
 742                         -6:00 Indianapolis C%sT 1955 Apr 24 2:00
 743                         -5:00   -       EST     1957 Sep 29 2:00
 744                         -6:00   -       CST     1958 Apr 27 2:00
 745                         -5:00   -       EST     1969
 746                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1971
 747                         -5:00   -       EST     2006
 748                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 749 #
 750 # Eastern Crawford County, Indiana, left its clocks alone in 1974,
 751 # as well as from 1976 through 2005.
 752 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 753 Rule    Marengo 1951    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 754 Rule    Marengo 1951    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 755 Rule    Marengo 1954    1960    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 756 Rule    Marengo 1954    1960    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 757 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 758 Zone America/Indiana/Marengo -5:45:23 - LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:14:37
 759                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1951
 760                         -6:00   Marengo C%sT    1961 Apr 30 2:00
 761                         -5:00   -       EST     1969
 762                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1974 Jan  6 2:00
 763                         -6:00   1:00    CDT     1974 Oct 27 2:00
 764                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1976
 765                         -5:00   -       EST     2006
 766                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 767 #
 768 # Daviess, Dubois, Knox, and Martin Counties, Indiana,
 769 # switched from eastern to central time in April 2006, then switched back
 770 # in November 2007.
 771 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 772 Rule Vincennes  1946    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 773 Rule Vincennes  1946    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 774 Rule Vincennes  1953    1954    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 775 Rule Vincennes  1953    1959    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 776 Rule Vincennes  1955    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D
 777 Rule Vincennes  1956    1963    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 778 Rule Vincennes  1960    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 779 Rule Vincennes  1961    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 780 Rule Vincennes  1962    1963    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 781 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 782 Zone America/Indiana/Vincennes -5:50:07 - LMT   1883 Nov 18 12:09:53
 783                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
 784                         -6:00 Vincennes C%sT    1964 Apr 26 2:00
 785                         -5:00   -       EST     1969
 786                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1971
 787                         -5:00   -       EST     2006 Apr  2 2:00
 788                         -6:00   US      C%sT    2007 Nov  4 2:00
 789                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 790 #
 791 # Perry County, Indiana, switched from eastern to central time in April 2006.
 792 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 793 Rule Perry      1946    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 794 Rule Perry      1946    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 795 Rule Perry      1953    1954    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 796 Rule Perry      1953    1959    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 797 Rule Perry      1955    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D
 798 Rule Perry      1956    1963    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 799 Rule Perry      1960    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 800 Rule Perry      1961    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 801 Rule Perry      1962    1963    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 802 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 803 Zone America/Indiana/Tell_City -5:47:03 - LMT   1883 Nov 18 12:12:57
 804                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
 805                         -6:00 Perry     C%sT    1964 Apr 26 2:00
 806                         -5:00   -       EST     1969
 807                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1971
 808                         -5:00   -       EST     2006 Apr  2 2:00
 809                         -6:00   US      C%sT
 810 #
 811 # Pike County, Indiana moved from central to eastern time in 1977,
 812 # then switched back in 2006, then switched back again in 2007.
 813 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 814 Rule    Pike    1955    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D
 815 Rule    Pike    1955    1960    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 816 Rule    Pike    1956    1964    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 817 Rule    Pike    1961    1964    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 818 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 819 Zone America/Indiana/Petersburg -5:49:07 - LMT  1883 Nov 18 12:10:53
 820                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1955
 821                         -6:00   Pike    C%sT    1965 Apr 25 2:00
 822                         -5:00   -       EST     1966 Oct 30 2:00
 823                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1977 Oct 30 2:00
 824                         -5:00   -       EST     2006 Apr  2 2:00
 825                         -6:00   US      C%sT    2007 Nov  4 2:00
 826                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 827 #
 828 # Starke County, Indiana moved from central to eastern time in 1991,
 829 # then switched back in 2006.
 830 # From Arthur David Olson (1991-10-28):
 831 # An article on page A3 of the Sunday, 1991-10-27 Washington Post
 832 # notes that Starke County switched from Central time to Eastern time as of
 833 # 1991-10-27.
 834 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 835 Rule    Starke  1947    1961    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 836 Rule    Starke  1947    1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 837 Rule    Starke  1955    1956    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 838 Rule    Starke  1957    1958    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 839 Rule    Starke  1959    1961    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 840 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 841 Zone America/Indiana/Knox -5:46:30 -    LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:13:30
 842                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1947
 843                         -6:00   Starke  C%sT    1962 Apr 29 2:00
 844                         -5:00   -       EST     1963 Oct 27 2:00
 845                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1991 Oct 27 2:00
 846                         -5:00   -       EST     2006 Apr  2 2:00
 847                         -6:00   US      C%sT
 848 #
 849 # Pulaski County, Indiana, switched from eastern to central time in
 850 # April 2006 and then switched back in March 2007.
 851 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 852 Rule    Pulaski 1946    1960    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 853 Rule    Pulaski 1946    1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 854 Rule    Pulaski 1955    1956    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 855 Rule    Pulaski 1957    1960    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 856 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 857 Zone America/Indiana/Winamac -5:46:25 - LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:13:35
 858                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
 859                         -6:00   Pulaski C%sT    1961 Apr 30 2:00
 860                         -5:00   -       EST     1969
 861                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1971
 862                         -5:00   -       EST     2006 Apr  2 2:00
 863                         -6:00   US      C%sT    2007 Mar 11 2:00
 864                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 865 #
 866 # Switzerland County, Indiana, did not observe DST from 1973 through 2005.
 867 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 868 Zone America/Indiana/Vevay -5:40:16 -   LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:19:44
 869                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1954 Apr 25 2:00
 870                         -5:00   -       EST     1969
 871                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1973
 872                         -5:00   -       EST     2006
 873                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 874 
 875 # Part of Kentucky left its clocks alone in 1974.
 876 # This also includes Clark, Floyd, and Harrison counties in Indiana.
 877 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 878 Rule Louisville 1921    only    -       May     1       2:00    1:00    D
 879 Rule Louisville 1921    only    -       Sep     1       2:00    0       S
 880 Rule Louisville 1941    1961    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 881 Rule Louisville 1941    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 882 Rule Louisville 1946    only    -       Jun     2       2:00    0       S
 883 Rule Louisville 1950    1955    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 884 Rule Louisville 1956    1960    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 885 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 886 Zone America/Kentucky/Louisville -5:43:02 -     LMT     1883 Nov 18 12:16:58
 887                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1921
 888                         -6:00 Louisville C%sT   1942
 889                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
 890                         -6:00 Louisville C%sT   1961 Jul 23 2:00
 891                         -5:00   -       EST     1968
 892                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1974 Jan  6 2:00
 893                         -6:00   1:00    CDT     1974 Oct 27 2:00
 894                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 895 #
 896 # Wayne County, Kentucky
 897 #
 898 # From
 899 # <a href="http://www.lake-cumberland.com/life/archive/news990129time.shtml">
 900 # Lake Cumberland LIFE
 901 # </a> (1999-01-29) via WKYM-101.7:
 902 # Clinton County has joined Wayne County in asking the DoT to change from
 903 # the Central to the Eastern time zone....  The Wayne County government made
 904 # the same request in December.  And while Russell County officials have not
 905 # taken action, the majority of respondents to a poll conducted there in
 906 # August indicated they would like to change to "fast time" also.
 907 # The three Lake Cumberland counties are the farthest east of any U.S.
 908 # location in the Central time zone.
 909 #
 910 # From Rich Wales (2000-08-29):
 911 # After prolonged debate, and despite continuing deep differences of opinion,
 912 # Wayne County (central Kentucky) is switching from Central (-0600) to Eastern
 913 # (-0500) time.  They won't "fall back" this year.  See Sara Shipley,
 914 # The difference an hour makes, Nando Times (2000-08-29 15:33 -0400).
 915 #
 916 # From Paul Eggert (2001-07-16):
 917 # The final rule was published in the
 918 # <a href="http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=2000_register&docid=fr17au00-22">
 919 # Federal Register 65, 160 (2000-08-17), page 50154-50158.
 920 # </a>
 921 #
 922 Zone America/Kentucky/Monticello -5:39:24 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:20:36
 923                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
 924                         -6:00   -       CST     1968
 925                         -6:00   US      C%sT    2000 Oct 29  2:00
 926                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 927 
 928 
 929 # From Rives McDow (2000-08-30):
 930 # Here ... are all the changes in the US since 1985.
 931 # Kearny County, KS (put all of county on central;
 932 #       previously split between MST and CST) ... 1990-10
 933 # Starke County, IN (from CST to EST) ... 1991-10
 934 # Oliver County, ND (from MST to CST) ... 1992-10
 935 # West Wendover, NV (from PST TO MST) ... 1999-10
 936 # Wayne County, KY (from CST to EST) ... 2000-10
 937 #
 938 # From Paul Eggert (2001-07-17):
 939 # We don't know where the line used to be within Kearny County, KS,
 940 # so omit that change for now.
 941 # See America/Indiana/Knox for the Starke County, IN change.
 942 # See America/North_Dakota/Center for the Oliver County, ND change.
 943 # West Wendover, NV officially switched from Pacific to mountain time on
 944 # 1999-10-31.  See the
 945 # <a href="http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=1999_register&docid=fr21oc99-15">
 946 # Federal Register 64, 203 (1999-10-21), page 56705-56707.
 947 # </a>
 948 # However, the Federal Register says that West Wendover already operated
 949 # on mountain time, and the rule merely made this official;
 950 # hence a separate tz entry is not needed.
 951 
 952 # Michigan
 953 #
 954 # From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
 955 # Michigan didn't observe DST from 1968 to 1973.
 956 #
 957 # From Paul Eggert (1999-03-31):
 958 # Shanks writes that Michigan started using standard time on 1885-09-18,
 959 # but Howse writes (pp 124-125, referring to Popular Astronomy, 1901-01)
 960 # that Detroit kept
 961 #
 962 #       local time until 1900 when the City Council decreed that clocks should
 963 #       be put back twenty-eight minutes to Central Standard Time.  Half the
 964 #       city obeyed, half refused.  After considerable debate, the decision
 965 #       was rescinded and the city reverted to Sun time.  A derisive offer to
 966 #       erect a sundial in front of the city hall was referred to the
 967 #       Committee on Sewers.  Then, in 1905, Central time was adopted
 968 #       by city vote.
 969 #
 970 # This story is too entertaining to be false, so go with Howse over Shanks.
 971 #
 972 # From Paul Eggert (2001-03-06):
 973 # Garland (1927) writes ``Cleveland and Detroit advanced their clocks
 974 # one hour in 1914.''  This change is not in Shanks.  We have no more
 975 # info, so omit this for now.
 976 #
 977 # Most of Michigan observed DST from 1973 on, but was a bit late in 1975.
 978 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 979 Rule    Detroit 1948    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 980 Rule    Detroit 1948    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 981 Rule    Detroit 1967    only    -       Jun     14      2:00    1:00    D
 982 Rule    Detroit 1967    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 983 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 984 Zone America/Detroit    -5:32:11 -      LMT     1905
 985                         -6:00   -       CST     1915 May 15 2:00
 986                         -5:00   -       EST     1942
 987                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1946
 988                         -5:00   Detroit E%sT    1973
 989                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1975
 990                         -5:00   -       EST     1975 Apr 27 2:00
 991                         -5:00   US      E%sT
 992 #
 993 # Dickinson, Gogebic, Iron, and Menominee Counties, Michigan,
 994 # switched from EST to CST/CDT in 1973.
 995 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER
 996 Rule Menominee  1946    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 997 Rule Menominee  1946    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 998 Rule Menominee  1966    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 999 Rule Menominee  1966    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1000 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1001 Zone America/Menominee  -5:50:27 -      LMT     1885 Sep 18 12:00
1002                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1946
1003                         -6:00 Menominee C%sT    1969 Apr 27 2:00
1004                         -5:00   -       EST     1973 Apr 29 2:00
1005                         -6:00   US      C%sT
1006 
1007 # Navassa
1008 # administered by the US Fish and Wildlife Service
1009 # claimed by US under the provisions of the 1856 Guano Islands Act
1010 # also claimed by Haiti
1011 # occupied 1857/1900 by the Navassa Phosphate Co
1012 # US lighthouse 1917/1996-09
1013 # currently uninhabited
1014 # see Mark Fineman, ``An Isle Rich in Guano and Discord'',
1015 # _Los Angeles Times_ (1998-11-10), A1, A10; it cites
1016 # Jimmy Skaggs, _The Great Guano Rush_ (1994).
1017 
1018 ################################################################################
1019 
1020 
1021 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1022 # A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is
1023 # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
1024 # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
1025 #
1026 # Gwillim Law writes that a good source
1027 # for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
1028 # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
1029 # published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
1030 # of the IATA's data after 1990.
1031 #
1032 # Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for
1033 # entries through 1990, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.
1034 #
1035 # Other sources occasionally used include:
1036 #
1037 #       Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
1038 #       Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated),
1039 #       which I found in the UCLA library.
1040 #
1041 #       <a href="http://www.pettswoodvillage.co.uk/Daylight_Savings_William_Willett.pdf">
1042 #       William Willett, The Waste of Daylight, 19th edition
1043 #       </a> (1914-03)
1044 #
1045 #       Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94
1046 #       <http://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359>.
1047 #
1048 # See the `europe' file for Greenland.
1049 
1050 # Canada
1051 
1052 # From Alain LaBont<e'> (1994-11-14):
1053 # I post here the time zone abbreviations standardized in Canada
1054 # for both English and French in the CAN/CSA-Z234.4-89 standard....
1055 #
1056 #       UTC     Standard time   Daylight savings time
1057 #       offset  French  English French  English
1058 #       -2:30   -       -       HAT     NDT
1059 #       -3      -       -       HAA     ADT
1060 #       -3:30   HNT     NST     -       -
1061 #       -4      HNA     AST     HAE     EDT
1062 #       -5      HNE     EST     HAC     CDT
1063 #       -6      HNC     CST     HAR     MDT
1064 #       -7      HNR     MST     HAP     PDT
1065 #       -8      HNP     PST     HAY     YDT
1066 #       -9      HNY     YST     -       -
1067 #
1068 #       HN: Heure Normale       ST: Standard Time
1069 #       HA: Heure Avanc<e'>e      DT: Daylight saving Time
1070 #
1071 #       A: de l'Atlantique      Atlantic
1072 #       C: du Centre            Central
1073 #       E: de l'Est             Eastern
1074 #       M:                      Mountain
1075 #       N:                      Newfoundland
1076 #       P: du Pacifique         Pacific
1077 #       R: des Rocheuses
1078 #       T: de Terre-Neuve
1079 #       Y: du Yukon             Yukon
1080 #
1081 # From Paul Eggert (1994-11-22):
1082 # Alas, this sort of thing must be handled by localization software.
1083 
1084 # Unless otherwise specified, the data for Canada are all from Shanks
1085 # & Pottenger.
1086 
1087 # From Chris Walton (2006-04-01, 2006-04-25, 2006-06-26, 2007-01-31,
1088 # 2007-03-01):
1089 # The British Columbia government announced yesterday that it will
1090 # adjust daylight savings next year to align with changes in the
1091 # U.S. and the rest of Canada....
1092 # http://www2.news.gov.bc.ca/news_releases_2005-2009/2006AG0014-000330.htm
1093 # ...
1094 # Nova Scotia
1095 # Daylight saving time will be extended by four weeks starting in 2007....
1096 # http://www.gov.ns.ca/just/regulations/rg2/2006/ma1206.pdf
1097 #
1098 # [For New Brunswick] the new legislation dictates that the time change is to
1099 # be done at 02:00 instead of 00:01.
1100 # http://www.gnb.ca/0062/acts/BBA-2006/Chap-19.pdf
1101 # ...
1102 # Manitoba has traditionally changed the clock every fall at 03:00.
1103 # As of 2006, the transition is to take place one hour earlier at 02:00.
1104 # http://web2.gov.mb.ca/laws/statutes/ccsm/o030e.php
1105 # ...
1106 # [Alberta, Ontario, Quebec] will follow US rules.
1107 # http://www.qp.gov.ab.ca/documents/spring/CH03_06.CFM
1108 # http://www.e-laws.gov.on.ca/DBLaws/Source/Regs/English/2006/R06111_e.htm
1109 # http://www2.publicationsduquebec.gouv.qc.ca/dynamicSearch/telecharge.php?type=5&file=2006C39A.PDF
1110 # ...
1111 # P.E.I. will follow US rules....
1112 # http://www.assembly.pe.ca/bills/pdf_chapter/62/3/chapter-41.pdf
1113 # ...
1114 # Province of Newfoundland and Labrador....
1115 # http://www.hoa.gov.nl.ca/hoa/bills/Bill0634.htm
1116 # ...
1117 # Yukon
1118 # http://www.gov.yk.ca/legislation/regs/oic2006_127.pdf
1119 # ...
1120 # N.W.T. will follow US rules.  Whoever maintains the government web site
1121 # does not seem to believe in bookmarks.  To see the news release, click the
1122 # following link and search for "Daylight Savings Time Change".  Press the
1123 # "Daylight Savings Time Change" link; it will fire off a popup using
1124 # JavaScript.
1125 # http://www.exec.gov.nt.ca/currentnews/currentPR.asp?mode=archive
1126 # ...
1127 # Nunavut
1128 # An amendment to the Interpretation Act was registered on February 19/2007....
1129 # http://action.attavik.ca/home/justice-gn/attach/2007/gaz02part2.pdf
1130 
1131 # From Paul Eggert (2006-04-25):
1132 # H. David Matthews and Mary Vincent's map
1133 # <a href="http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/Magazine/SO98/geomap.asp">
1134 # "It's about TIME", _Canadian Geographic_ (September-October 1998)
1135 # </a> contains detailed boundaries for regions observing nonstandard
1136 # time and daylight saving time arrangements in Canada circa 1998.
1137 #
1138 # INMS, the Institute for National Measurement Standards in Ottawa, has <a
1139 # href="http://inms-ienm.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/en/time_services/daylight_saving_e.php">
1140 # information about standard and daylight saving time zones in Canada.
1141 # </a> (updated periodically).
1142 # Its unofficial information is often taken from Matthews and Vincent.
1143 
1144 # From Paul Eggert (2006-06-27):
1145 # For now, assume all of DST-observing Canada will fall into line with the
1146 # new US DST rules,
1147 
1148 # From Chris Walton (2011-12-01)
1149 # In the first of Tammy Hardwick's articles
1150 # <a href="http://www.ilovecreston.com/?p=articles&t=spec&ar=260">
1151 # http://www.ilovecreston.com/?p=articles&t=spec&ar=260
1152 # </a>
1153 # she quotes the Friday November 1/1918 edition of the Creston Review.
1154 # The quote includes these two statements:
1155 # 'Sunday the CPR went back to the old system of time...'
1156 # '... The daylight saving scheme was dropped all over Canada at the same time,'
1157 # These statements refer to a transition from daylight time to standard time
1158 # that occurred nationally on Sunday October 27/1918.  This transition was
1159 # also documented in the Saturday October 26/1918 edition of the Toronto Star.
1160 
1161 # In light of that evidence, we alter the date from the earlier believed
1162 # Oct 31, to Oct 27, 1918 (and Sunday is a more likely transition day
1163 # than Thursday) in all Canadian rulesets.
1164 
1165 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1166 Rule    Canada  1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D
1167 Rule    Canada  1918    only    -       Oct     27      2:00    0       S
1168 Rule    Canada  1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War
1169 Rule    Canada  1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace
1170 Rule    Canada  1945    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S
1171 Rule    Canada  1974    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1172 Rule    Canada  1974    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1173 Rule    Canada  1987    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
1174 Rule    Canada  2007    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
1175 Rule    Canada  2007    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
1176 
1177 
1178 # Newfoundland and Labrador
1179 
1180 # From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
1181 # Matthews and Vincent (1998) write that Labrador should use NST/NDT,
1182 # but the only part of Labrador that follows the rules is the
1183 # southeast corner, including Port Hope Simpson and Mary's Harbour,
1184 # but excluding, say, Black Tickle.
1185 
1186 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1187 Rule    StJohns 1917    only    -       Apr      8      2:00    1:00    D
1188 Rule    StJohns 1917    only    -       Sep     17      2:00    0       S
1189 # Whitman gives 1919 Apr 5 and 1920 Apr 5; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1190 Rule    StJohns 1919    only    -       May      5      23:00   1:00    D
1191 Rule    StJohns 1919    only    -       Aug     12      23:00   0       S
1192 # For 1931-1935 Whitman gives Apr same date; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1193 Rule    StJohns 1920    1935    -       May     Sun>=1       23:00   1:00    D
1194 Rule    StJohns 1920    1935    -       Oct     lastSun 23:00   0       S
1195 # For 1936-1941 Whitman gives May Sun>=8 and Oct Sun>=1; go with Shanks &
1196 # Pottenger.
1197 Rule    StJohns 1936    1941    -       May     Mon>=9       0:00    1:00    D
1198 Rule    StJohns 1936    1941    -       Oct     Mon>=2       0:00    0       S
1199 # Whitman gives the following transitions:
1200 # 1942 03-01/12-31, 1943 05-30/09-05, 1944 07-10/09-02, 1945 01-01/10-07
1201 # but go with Shanks & Pottenger and assume they used Canadian rules.
1202 # For 1946-9 Whitman gives May 5,4,9,1 - Oct 1,5,3,2, and for 1950 he gives
1203 # Apr 30 - Sep 24; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1204 Rule    StJohns 1946    1950    -       May     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
1205 Rule    StJohns 1946    1950    -       Oct     Sun>=2       2:00    0       S
1206 Rule    StJohns 1951    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1207 Rule    StJohns 1951    1959    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1208 Rule    StJohns 1960    1986    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1209 # From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
1210 # INMS (2000-09-12) says that, since 1988 at least, Newfoundland switches
1211 # at 00:01 local time.  For now, assume it started in 1987.
1212 
1213 # From Michael Pelley (2011-09-12):
1214 # We received today, Monday, September 12, 2011, notification that the
1215 # changes to the Newfoundland Standard Time Act have been proclaimed.
1216 # The change in the Act stipulates that the change from Daylight Savings
1217 # Time to Standard Time and from Standard Time to Daylight Savings Time
1218 # now occurs at 2:00AM.
1219 # ...
1220 # <a href="http://www.assembly.nl.ca/legislation/sr/annualstatutes/2011/1106.chp.htm">
1221 # http://www.assembly.nl.ca/legislation/sr/annualstatutes/2011/1106.chp.htm
1222 # </a>
1223 # ...
1224 # MICHAEL PELLEY  |  Manager of Enterprise Architecture - Solution Delivery
1225 # Office of the Chief Information Officer
1226 # Executive Council
1227 # Government of Newfoundland & Labrador
1228 
1229 Rule    StJohns 1987    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:01    1:00    D
1230 Rule    StJohns 1987    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 0:01    0       S
1231 Rule    StJohns 1988    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:01    2:00    DD
1232 Rule    StJohns 1989    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:01    1:00    D
1233 Rule    StJohns 2007    2011    -       Mar     Sun>=8       0:01    1:00    D
1234 Rule    StJohns 2007    2010    -       Nov     Sun>=1       0:01    0       S
1235 #
1236 # St John's has an apostrophe, but Posix file names can't have apostrophes.
1237 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1238 Zone America/St_Johns   -3:30:52 -      LMT     1884
1239                         -3:30:52 StJohns N%sT   1918
1240                         -3:30:52 Canada N%sT    1919
1241                         -3:30:52 StJohns N%sT   1935 Mar 30
1242                         -3:30   StJohns N%sT    1942 May 11
1243                         -3:30   Canada  N%sT    1946
1244                         -3:30   StJohns N%sT    2011 Nov
1245                         -3:30   Canada  N%sT
1246 
1247 # most of east Labrador
1248 
1249 # The name `Happy Valley-Goose Bay' is too long; use `Goose Bay'.
1250 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1251 Zone America/Goose_Bay  -4:01:40 -      LMT     1884 # Happy Valley-Goose Bay
1252                         -3:30:52 -      NST     1918
1253                         -3:30:52 Canada N%sT    1919
1254                         -3:30:52 -      NST     1935 Mar 30
1255                         -3:30   -       NST     1936
1256                         -3:30   StJohns N%sT    1942 May 11
1257                         -3:30   Canada  N%sT    1946
1258                         -3:30   StJohns N%sT    1966 Mar 15 2:00
1259                         -4:00   StJohns A%sT    2011 Nov
1260                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT
1261 
1262 
1263 # west Labrador, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward I
1264 
1265 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1266 # Shanks & Pottenger write that since 1970 most of this region has been like
1267 # Halifax.  Many locales did not observe peacetime DST until 1972;
1268 # Glace Bay, NS is the largest that we know of.
1269 # Shanks & Pottenger also write that Liverpool, NS was the only town
1270 # in Canada to observe DST in 1971 but not 1970; for now we'll assume
1271 # this is a typo.
1272 
1273 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1274 Rule    Halifax 1916    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    D
1275 Rule    Halifax 1916    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       S
1276 Rule    Halifax 1920    only    -       May      9      0:00    1:00    D
1277 Rule    Halifax 1920    only    -       Aug     29      0:00    0       S
1278 Rule    Halifax 1921    only    -       May      6      0:00    1:00    D
1279 Rule    Halifax 1921    1922    -       Sep      5      0:00    0       S
1280 Rule    Halifax 1922    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    D
1281 Rule    Halifax 1923    1925    -       May     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
1282 Rule    Halifax 1923    only    -       Sep      4      0:00    0       S
1283 Rule    Halifax 1924    only    -       Sep     15      0:00    0       S
1284 Rule    Halifax 1925    only    -       Sep     28      0:00    0       S
1285 Rule    Halifax 1926    only    -       May     16      0:00    1:00    D
1286 Rule    Halifax 1926    only    -       Sep     13      0:00    0       S
1287 Rule    Halifax 1927    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D
1288 Rule    Halifax 1927    only    -       Sep     26      0:00    0       S
1289 Rule    Halifax 1928    1931    -       May     Sun>=8       0:00    1:00    D
1290 Rule    Halifax 1928    only    -       Sep      9      0:00    0       S
1291 Rule    Halifax 1929    only    -       Sep      3      0:00    0       S
1292 Rule    Halifax 1930    only    -       Sep     15      0:00    0       S
1293 Rule    Halifax 1931    1932    -       Sep     Mon>=24      0:00    0       S
1294 Rule    Halifax 1932    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D
1295 Rule    Halifax 1933    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    D
1296 Rule    Halifax 1933    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       S
1297 Rule    Halifax 1934    only    -       May     20      0:00    1:00    D
1298 Rule    Halifax 1934    only    -       Sep     16      0:00    0       S
1299 Rule    Halifax 1935    only    -       Jun      2      0:00    1:00    D
1300 Rule    Halifax 1935    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       S
1301 Rule    Halifax 1936    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    D
1302 Rule    Halifax 1936    only    -       Sep     14      0:00    0       S
1303 Rule    Halifax 1937    1938    -       May     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
1304 Rule    Halifax 1937    1941    -       Sep     Mon>=24      0:00    0       S
1305 Rule    Halifax 1939    only    -       May     28      0:00    1:00    D
1306 Rule    Halifax 1940    1941    -       May     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
1307 Rule    Halifax 1946    1949    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1308 Rule    Halifax 1946    1949    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1309 Rule    Halifax 1951    1954    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1310 Rule    Halifax 1951    1954    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1311 Rule    Halifax 1956    1959    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1312 Rule    Halifax 1956    1959    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1313 Rule    Halifax 1962    1973    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1314 Rule    Halifax 1962    1973    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1315 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1316 Zone America/Halifax    -4:14:24 -      LMT     1902 Jun 15
1317                         -4:00   Halifax A%sT    1918
1318                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1919
1319                         -4:00   Halifax A%sT    1942 Feb  9 2:00s
1320                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1946
1321                         -4:00   Halifax A%sT    1974
1322                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT
1323 Zone America/Glace_Bay  -3:59:48 -      LMT     1902 Jun 15
1324                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1953
1325                         -4:00   Halifax A%sT    1954
1326                         -4:00   -       AST     1972
1327                         -4:00   Halifax A%sT    1974
1328                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT
1329 
1330 # New Brunswick
1331 
1332 # From Paul Eggert (2007-01-31):
1333 # The Time Definition Act <http://www.gnb.ca/0062/PDF-acts/t-06.pdf>
1334 # says they changed at 00:01 through 2006, and
1335 # <http://www.canlii.org/nb/laws/sta/t-6/20030127/whole.html> makes it
1336 # clear that this was the case since at least 1993.
1337 # For now, assume it started in 1993.
1338 
1339 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1340 Rule    Moncton 1933    1935    -       Jun     Sun>=8       1:00    1:00    D
1341 Rule    Moncton 1933    1935    -       Sep     Sun>=8       1:00    0       S
1342 Rule    Moncton 1936    1938    -       Jun     Sun>=1       1:00    1:00    D
1343 Rule    Moncton 1936    1938    -       Sep     Sun>=1       1:00    0       S
1344 Rule    Moncton 1939    only    -       May     27      1:00    1:00    D
1345 Rule    Moncton 1939    1941    -       Sep     Sat>=21      1:00    0       S
1346 Rule    Moncton 1940    only    -       May     19      1:00    1:00    D
1347 Rule    Moncton 1941    only    -       May      4      1:00    1:00    D
1348 Rule    Moncton 1946    1972    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1349 Rule    Moncton 1946    1956    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1350 Rule    Moncton 1957    1972    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1351 Rule    Moncton 1993    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:01    1:00    D
1352 Rule    Moncton 1993    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 0:01    0       S
1353 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1354 Zone America/Moncton    -4:19:08 -      LMT     1883 Dec  9
1355                         -5:00   -       EST     1902 Jun 15
1356                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1933
1357                         -4:00   Moncton A%sT    1942
1358                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1946
1359                         -4:00   Moncton A%sT    1973
1360                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1993
1361                         -4:00   Moncton A%sT    2007
1362                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT
1363 
1364 # Quebec
1365 
1366 # From Paul Eggert (2006-07-09):
1367 # Shanks & Pottenger write that since 1970 most of Quebec has been
1368 # like Montreal.
1369 
1370 # From Paul Eggert (2006-06-27):
1371 # Matthews and Vincent (1998) also write that Quebec east of the -63
1372 # meridian is supposed to observe AST, but residents as far east as
1373 # Natashquan use EST/EDT, and residents east of Natashquan use AST.
1374 # In "Official time in Quebec" the Quebec department of justice writes in
1375 # http://www.justice.gouv.qc.ca/english/publications/generale/temps-regl-1-a.htm
1376 # that "The residents of the Municipality of the
1377 # Cote-Nord-du-Golfe-Saint-Laurent and the municipalities of Saint-Augustin,
1378 # Bonne-Esperance and Blanc-Sablon apply the Official Time Act as it is
1379 # written and use Atlantic standard time all year round. The same applies to
1380 # the residents of the Native facilities along the lower North Shore."
1381 # <http://www.assnat.qc.ca/eng/37legislature2/Projets-loi/Publics/06-a002.htm>
1382 # says this common practice was codified into law as of 2007.
1383 # For lack of better info, guess this practice began around 1970, contra to
1384 # Shanks & Pottenger who have this region observing AST/ADT.
1385 
1386 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1387 Rule    Mont    1917    only    -       Mar     25      2:00    1:00    D
1388 Rule    Mont    1917    only    -       Apr     24      0:00    0       S
1389 Rule    Mont    1919    only    -       Mar     31      2:30    1:00    D
1390 Rule    Mont    1919    only    -       Oct     25      2:30    0       S
1391 Rule    Mont    1920    only    -       May      2      2:30    1:00    D
1392 Rule    Mont    1920    1922    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:30    0       S
1393 Rule    Mont    1921    only    -       May      1      2:00    1:00    D
1394 Rule    Mont    1922    only    -       Apr     30      2:00    1:00    D
1395 Rule    Mont    1924    only    -       May     17      2:00    1:00    D
1396 Rule    Mont    1924    1926    -       Sep     lastSun 2:30    0       S
1397 Rule    Mont    1925    1926    -       May     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
1398 # The 1927-to-1937 rules can be expressed more simply as
1399 # Rule  Mont    1927    1937    -       Apr     lastSat 24:00   1:00    D
1400 # Rule  Mont    1927    1937    -       Sep     lastSat 24:00   0       S
1401 # The rules below avoid use of 24:00
1402 # (which pre-1998 versions of zic cannot handle).
1403 Rule    Mont    1927    only    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    D
1404 Rule    Mont    1927    1932    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       S
1405 Rule    Mont    1928    1931    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    1:00    D
1406 Rule    Mont    1932    only    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    D
1407 Rule    Mont    1933    1940    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    1:00    D
1408 Rule    Mont    1933    only    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S
1409 Rule    Mont    1934    1939    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       S
1410 Rule    Mont    1946    1973    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1411 Rule    Mont    1945    1948    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1412 Rule    Mont    1949    1950    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1413 Rule    Mont    1951    1956    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1414 Rule    Mont    1957    1973    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1415 
1416 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1417 Zone America/Blanc-Sablon -3:48:28 -    LMT     1884
1418                         -4:00   Canada  A%sT    1970
1419                         -4:00   -       AST
1420 Zone America/Montreal   -4:54:16 -      LMT     1884
1421                         -5:00   Mont    E%sT    1918
1422                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1919
1423                         -5:00   Mont    E%sT    1942 Feb  9 2:00s
1424                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1946
1425                         -5:00   Mont    E%sT    1974
1426                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT
1427 
1428 
1429 # Ontario
1430 
1431 # From Paul Eggert (2006-07-09):
1432 # Shanks & Pottenger write that since 1970 most of Ontario has been like
1433 # Toronto.
1434 # Thunder Bay skipped DST in 1973.
1435 # Many smaller locales did not observe peacetime DST until 1974;
1436 # Nipigon (EST) and Rainy River (CST) are the largest that we know of.
1437 # Far west Ontario is like Winnipeg; far east Quebec is like Halifax.
1438 
1439 # From Mark Brader (2003-07-26):
1440 # [According to the Toronto Star] Orillia, Ontario, adopted DST
1441 # effective Saturday, 1912-06-22, 22:00; the article mentions that
1442 # Port Arthur (now part of Thunder Bay, Ontario) as well as Moose Jaw
1443 # have already done so.  In Orillia DST was to run until Saturday,
1444 # 1912-08-31 (no time mentioned), but it was met with considerable
1445 # hostility from certain segments of the public, and was revoked after
1446 # only two weeks -- I copied it as Saturday, 1912-07-07, 22:00, but
1447 # presumably that should be -07-06.  (1912-06-19, -07-12; also letters
1448 # earlier in June).
1449 #
1450 # Kenora, Ontario, was to abandon DST on 1914-06-01 (-05-21).
1451 
1452 # From Paul Eggert (1997-10-17):
1453 # Mark Brader writes that an article in the 1997-10-14 Toronto Star
1454 # says that Atikokan, Ontario currently does not observe DST,
1455 # but will vote on 11-10 whether to use EST/EDT.
1456 # He also writes that the
1457 # <a href="http://www.gov.on.ca/MBS/english/publications/statregs/conttext.html">
1458 # Ontario Time Act (1990, Chapter T.9)
1459 # </a>
1460 # says that Ontario east of 90W uses EST/EDT, and west of 90W uses CST/CDT.
1461 # Officially Atikokan is therefore on CST/CDT, and most likely this report
1462 # concerns a non-official time observed as a matter of local practice.
1463 #
1464 # From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
1465 # Matthews and Vincent (1998) write that Atikokan, Pickle Lake, and
1466 # New Osnaburgh observe CST all year, that Big Trout Lake observes
1467 # CST/CDT, and that Upsala and Shebandowan observe EST/EDT, all in
1468 # violation of the official Ontario rules.
1469 #
1470 # From Paul Eggert (2006-07-09):
1471 # Chris Walton (2006-07-06) mentioned an article by Stephanie MacLellan in the
1472 # 2005-07-21 Chronicle-Journal, which said:
1473 #
1474 #       The clocks in Atikokan stay set on standard time year-round.
1475 #       This means they spend about half the time on central time and
1476 #       the other half on eastern time.
1477 #
1478 #       For the most part, the system works, Mayor Dennis Brown said.
1479 #
1480 #       "The majority of businesses in Atikokan deal more with Eastern
1481 #       Canada, but there are some that deal with Western Canada," he
1482 #       said.  "I don't see any changes happening here."
1483 #
1484 # Walton also writes "Supposedly Pickle Lake and Mishkeegogamang
1485 # [New Osnaburgh] follow the same practice."
1486 
1487 # From Garry McKinnon (2006-07-14) via Chris Walton:
1488 # I chatted with a member of my board who has an outstanding memory
1489 # and a long history in Atikokan (and in the telecom industry) and he
1490 # can say for certain that Atikokan has been practicing the current
1491 # time keeping since 1952, at least.
1492 
1493 # From Paul Eggert (2006-07-17):
1494 # Shanks & Pottenger say that Atikokan has agreed with Rainy River
1495 # ever since standard time was introduced, but the information from
1496 # McKinnon sounds more authoritative.  For now, assume that Atikokan
1497 # switched to EST immediately after WWII era daylight saving time
1498 # ended.  This matches the old (less-populous) America/Coral_Harbour
1499 # entry since our cutoff date of 1970, so we can move
1500 # America/Coral_Harbour to the 'backward' file.
1501 
1502 # From Mark Brader (2010-03-06):
1503 #
1504 # Currently the database has:
1505 #
1506 # # Ontario
1507 #
1508 # # From Paul Eggert (2006-07-09):
1509 # # Shanks & Pottenger write that since 1970 most of Ontario has been like
1510 # # Toronto.
1511 # # Thunder Bay skipped DST in 1973.
1512 # # Many smaller locales did not observe peacetime DST until 1974;
1513 # # Nipigon (EST) and Rainy River (CST) are the largest that we know of.
1514 #
1515 # In the (Toronto) Globe and Mail for Saturday, 1955-09-24, in the bottom
1516 # right corner of page 1, it says that Toronto will return to standard
1517 # time at 2 am Sunday morning (which agrees with the database), and that:
1518 #
1519 #     The one-hour setback will go into effect throughout most of Ontario,
1520 #     except in areas like Windsor which remains on standard time all year.
1521 #
1522 # Windsor is, of course, a lot larger than Nipigon.
1523 #
1524 # I only came across this incidentally.  I don't know if Windsor began
1525 # observing DST when Detroit did, or in 1974, or on some other date.
1526 #
1527 # By the way, the article continues by noting that:
1528 #
1529 #     Some cities in the United States have pushed the deadline back
1530 #     three weeks and will change over from daylight saving in October.
1531 
1532 # From Arthur David Olson (2010-07-17):
1533 #
1534 # "Standard Time and Time Zones in Canada" appeared in
1535 # The Journal of The Royal Astronomical Society of Canada,
1536 # volume 26, number 2 (February 1932) and, as of 2010-07-17,
1537 # was available at
1538 # <a href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1932JRASC..26...49S">
1539 # http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1932JRASC..26...49S
1540 # </a>
1541 #
1542 # It includes the text below (starting on page 57):
1543 #
1544 #   A list of the places in Canada using daylight saving time would
1545 # require yearly revision. From information kindly furnished by
1546 # the provincial governments and by the postmasters in many cities
1547 # and towns, it is found that the following places used daylight sav-
1548 # ing in 1930. The information for the province of Quebec is definite,
1549 # for the other provinces only approximate:
1550 #
1551 #       Province        Daylight saving time used
1552 # Prince Edward Island  Not used.
1553 # Nova Scotia           In Halifax only.
1554 # New Brunswick         In St. John only.
1555 # Quebec                In the following places:
1556 #                       Montreal        Lachine
1557 #                       Quebec          Mont-Royal
1558 #                       Levis           Iberville
1559 #                       St. Lambert     Cap de la Madeleine
1560 #                       Verdun          Loretteville
1561 #                       Westmount       Richmond
1562 #                       Outremont       St. Jerome
1563 #                       Longueuil       Greenfield Park
1564 #                       Arvida          Waterloo
1565 #                       Chambly-Canton  Beaulieu
1566 #                       Melbourne       La Tuque
1567 #                       St. Theophile   Buckingham
1568 # Ontario               Used generally in the cities and towns along
1569 #                       the southerly part of the province. Not
1570 #                       used in the northwesterlhy part.
1571 # Manitoba              Not used.
1572 # Saskatchewan          In Regina only.
1573 # Alberta               Not used.
1574 # British Columbia      Not used.
1575 #
1576 #   With some exceptions, the use of daylight saving may be said to be limited
1577 # to those cities and towns lying between Quebec city and Windsor, Ont.
1578 
1579 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1580 Rule    Toronto 1919    only    -       Mar     30      23:30   1:00    D
1581 Rule    Toronto 1919    only    -       Oct     26      0:00    0       S
1582 Rule    Toronto 1920    only    -       May      2      2:00    1:00    D
1583 Rule    Toronto 1920    only    -       Sep     26      0:00    0       S
1584 Rule    Toronto 1921    only    -       May     15      2:00    1:00    D
1585 Rule    Toronto 1921    only    -       Sep     15      2:00    0       S
1586 Rule    Toronto 1922    1923    -       May     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
1587 # Shanks & Pottenger say 1923-09-19; assume it's a typo and that "-16"
1588 # was meant.
1589 Rule    Toronto 1922    1926    -       Sep     Sun>=15      2:00    0       S
1590 Rule    Toronto 1924    1927    -       May     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
1591 # The 1927-to-1939 rules can be expressed more simply as
1592 # Rule  Toronto 1927    1937    -       Sep     Sun>=25      2:00    0       S
1593 # Rule  Toronto 1928    1937    -       Apr     Sun>=25      2:00    1:00    D
1594 # Rule  Toronto 1938    1940    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1595 # Rule  Toronto 1938    1939    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1596 # The rules below avoid use of Sun>=25
1597 # (which pre-2004 versions of zic cannot handle).
1598 Rule    Toronto 1927    1932    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1599 Rule    Toronto 1928    1931    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1600 Rule    Toronto 1932    only    -       May     1       2:00    1:00    D
1601 Rule    Toronto 1933    1940    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1602 Rule    Toronto 1933    only    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       S
1603 Rule    Toronto 1934    1939    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1604 Rule    Toronto 1945    1946    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1605 Rule    Toronto 1946    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1606 Rule    Toronto 1947    1949    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    1:00    D
1607 Rule    Toronto 1947    1948    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       S
1608 Rule    Toronto 1949    only    -       Nov     lastSun 0:00    0       S
1609 Rule    Toronto 1950    1973    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1610 Rule    Toronto 1950    only    -       Nov     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1611 Rule    Toronto 1951    1956    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1612 # Shanks & Pottenger say Toronto ended DST a week early in 1971,
1613 # namely on 1971-10-24, but Mark Brader wrote (2003-05-31) that this
1614 # is wrong, and that he had confirmed it by checking the 1971-10-30
1615 # Toronto Star, which said that DST was ending 1971-10-31 as usual.
1616 Rule    Toronto 1957    1973    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1617 
1618 # From Paul Eggert (2003-07-27):
1619 # Willett (1914-03) writes (p. 17) "In the Cities of Fort William, and
1620 # Port Arthur, Ontario, the principle of the Bill has been in
1621 # operation for the past three years, and in the City of Moose Jaw,
1622 # Saskatchewan, for one year."
1623 
1624 # From David Bryan via Tory Tronrud, Director/Curator,
1625 # Thunder Bay Museum (2003-11-12):
1626 # There is some suggestion, however, that, by-law or not, daylight
1627 # savings time was being practiced in Fort William and Port Arthur
1628 # before 1909.... [I]n 1910, the line between the Eastern and Central
1629 # Time Zones was permanently moved about two hundred miles west to
1630 # include the Thunder Bay area....  When Canada adopted daylight
1631 # savings time in 1916, Fort William and Port Arthur, having done so
1632 # already, did not change their clocks....  During the Second World
1633 # War,... [t]he cities agreed to implement DST during the summer
1634 # months for the remainder of the war years.
1635 
1636 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1637 Zone America/Toronto    -5:17:32 -      LMT     1895
1638                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1919
1639                         -5:00   Toronto E%sT    1942 Feb  9 2:00s
1640                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1946
1641                         -5:00   Toronto E%sT    1974
1642                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT
1643 Zone America/Thunder_Bay -5:57:00 -     LMT     1895
1644                         -6:00   -       CST     1910
1645                         -5:00   -       EST     1942
1646                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1970
1647                         -5:00   Mont    E%sT    1973
1648                         -5:00   -       EST     1974
1649                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT
1650 Zone America/Nipigon    -5:53:04 -      LMT     1895
1651                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1940 Sep 29
1652                         -5:00   1:00    EDT     1942 Feb  9 2:00s
1653                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT
1654 Zone America/Rainy_River -6:18:16 -     LMT     1895
1655                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT    1940 Sep 29
1656                         -6:00   1:00    CDT     1942 Feb  9 2:00s
1657                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT
1658 Zone America/Atikokan   -6:06:28 -      LMT     1895
1659                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT    1940 Sep 29
1660                         -6:00   1:00    CDT     1942 Feb  9 2:00s
1661                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT    1945 Sep 30 2:00
1662                         -5:00   -       EST
1663 
1664 
1665 # Manitoba
1666 
1667 # From Rob Douglas (2006-04-06):
1668 # the old Manitoba Time Act - as amended by Bill 2, assented to
1669 # March 27, 1987 ... said ...
1670 # "between two o'clock Central Standard Time in the morning of
1671 # the first Sunday of April of each year and two o'clock Central
1672 # Standard Time in the morning of the last Sunday of October next
1673 # following, one hour in advance of Central Standard Time."...
1674 # I believe that the English legislation [of the old time act] had =
1675 # been assented to (March 22, 1967)....
1676 # Also, as far as I can tell, there was no order-in-council varying
1677 # the time of Daylight Saving Time for 2005 and so the provisions of
1678 # the 1987 version would apply - the changeover was at 2:00 Central
1679 # Standard Time (i.e. not until 3:00 Central Daylight Time).
1680 
1681 # From Paul Eggert (2006-04-10):
1682 # Shanks & Pottenger say Manitoba switched at 02:00 (not 02:00s)
1683 # starting 1966.  Since 02:00s is clearly correct for 1967 on, assume
1684 # it was also 02:00s in 1966.
1685 
1686 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1687 Rule    Winn    1916    only    -       Apr     23      0:00    1:00    D
1688 Rule    Winn    1916    only    -       Sep     17      0:00    0       S
1689 Rule    Winn    1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D
1690 Rule    Winn    1918    only    -       Oct     27      2:00    0       S
1691 Rule    Winn    1937    only    -       May     16      2:00    1:00    D
1692 Rule    Winn    1937    only    -       Sep     26      2:00    0       S
1693 Rule    Winn    1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War
1694 Rule    Winn    1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace
1695 Rule    Winn    1945    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1696 Rule    Winn    1946    only    -       May     12      2:00    1:00    D
1697 Rule    Winn    1946    only    -       Oct     13      2:00    0       S
1698 Rule    Winn    1947    1949    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1699 Rule    Winn    1947    1949    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1700 Rule    Winn    1950    only    -       May      1      2:00    1:00    D
1701 Rule    Winn    1950    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S
1702 Rule    Winn    1951    1960    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1703 Rule    Winn    1951    1958    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1704 Rule    Winn    1959    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1705 Rule    Winn    1960    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1706 Rule    Winn    1963    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1707 Rule    Winn    1963    only    -       Sep     22      2:00    0       S
1708 Rule    Winn    1966    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
1709 Rule    Winn    1966    2005    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
1710 Rule    Winn    1987    2005    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
1711 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1712 Zone America/Winnipeg   -6:28:36 -      LMT     1887 Jul 16
1713                         -6:00   Winn    C%sT    2006
1714                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT
1715 
1716 
1717 # Saskatchewan
1718 
1719 # From Mark Brader (2003-07-26):
1720 # The first actual adoption of DST in Canada was at the municipal
1721 # level.  As the [Toronto] Star put it (1912-06-07), "While people
1722 # elsewhere have long been talking of legislation to save daylight,
1723 # the city of Moose Jaw [Saskatchewan] has acted on its own hook."
1724 # DST in Moose Jaw began on Saturday, 1912-06-01 (no time mentioned:
1725 # presumably late evening, as below), and would run until "the end of
1726 # the summer".  The discrepancy between municipal time and railroad
1727 # time was noted.
1728 
1729 # From Paul Eggert (2003-07-27):
1730 # Willett (1914-03) notes that DST "has been in operation ... in the
1731 # City of Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, for one year."
1732 
1733 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1734 # Shanks & Pottenger say that since 1970 this region has mostly been as Regina.
1735 # Some western towns (e.g. Swift Current) switched from MST/MDT to CST in 1972.
1736 # Other western towns (e.g. Lloydminster) are like Edmonton.
1737 # Matthews and Vincent (1998) write that Denare Beach and Creighton
1738 # are like Winnipeg, in violation of Saskatchewan law.
1739 
1740 # From W. Jones (1992-11-06):
1741 # The. . .below is based on information I got from our law library, the
1742 # provincial archives, and the provincial Community Services department.
1743 # A precise history would require digging through newspaper archives, and
1744 # since you didn't say what you wanted, I didn't bother.
1745 #
1746 # Saskatchewan is split by a time zone meridian (105W) and over the years
1747 # the boundary became pretty ragged as communities near it reevaluated
1748 # their affiliations in one direction or the other.  In 1965 a provincial
1749 # referendum favoured legislating common time practices.
1750 #
1751 # On 15 April 1966 the Time Act (c. T-14, Revised Statutes of
1752 # Saskatchewan 1978) was proclaimed, and established that the eastern
1753 # part of Saskatchewan would use CST year round, that districts in
1754 # northwest Saskatchewan would by default follow CST but could opt to
1755 # follow Mountain Time rules (thus 1 hour difference in the winter and
1756 # zero in the summer), and that districts in southwest Saskatchewan would
1757 # by default follow MT but could opt to follow CST.
1758 #
1759 # It took a few years for the dust to settle (I know one story of a town
1760 # on one time zone having its school in another, such that a mom had to
1761 # serve her family lunch in two shifts), but presently it seems that only
1762 # a few towns on the border with Alberta (e.g. Lloydminster) follow MT
1763 # rules any more; all other districts appear to have used CST year round
1764 # since sometime in the 1960s.
1765 
1766 # From Chris Walton (2006-06-26):
1767 # The Saskatchewan time act which was last updated in 1996 is about 30 pages
1768 # long and rather painful to read.
1769 # http://www.qp.gov.sk.ca/documents/English/Statutes/Statutes/T14.pdf
1770 
1771 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1772 Rule    Regina  1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D
1773 Rule    Regina  1918    only    -       Oct     27      2:00    0       S
1774 Rule    Regina  1930    1934    -       May     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
1775 Rule    Regina  1930    1934    -       Oct     Sun>=1       0:00    0       S
1776 Rule    Regina  1937    1941    -       Apr     Sun>=8       0:00    1:00    D
1777 Rule    Regina  1937    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8       0:00    0       S
1778 Rule    Regina  1938    only    -       Oct     Sun>=1       0:00    0       S
1779 Rule    Regina  1939    1941    -       Oct     Sun>=8       0:00    0       S
1780 Rule    Regina  1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War
1781 Rule    Regina  1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace
1782 Rule    Regina  1945    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1783 Rule    Regina  1946    only    -       Apr     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
1784 Rule    Regina  1946    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8       2:00    0       S
1785 Rule    Regina  1947    1957    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1786 Rule    Regina  1947    1957    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1787 Rule    Regina  1959    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1788 Rule    Regina  1959    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1789 #
1790 Rule    Swift   1957    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1791 Rule    Swift   1957    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1792 Rule    Swift   1959    1961    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1793 Rule    Swift   1959    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1794 Rule    Swift   1960    1961    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1795 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1796 Zone America/Regina     -6:58:36 -      LMT     1905 Sep
1797                         -7:00   Regina  M%sT    1960 Apr lastSun 2:00
1798                         -6:00   -       CST
1799 Zone America/Swift_Current -7:11:20 -   LMT     1905 Sep
1800                         -7:00   Canada  M%sT    1946 Apr lastSun 2:00
1801                         -7:00   Regina  M%sT    1950
1802                         -7:00   Swift   M%sT    1972 Apr lastSun 2:00
1803                         -6:00   -       CST
1804 
1805 
1806 # Alberta
1807 
1808 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1809 Rule    Edm     1918    1919    -       Apr     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
1810 Rule    Edm     1918    only    -       Oct     27      2:00    0       S
1811 Rule    Edm     1919    only    -       May     27      2:00    0       S
1812 Rule    Edm     1920    1923    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1813 Rule    Edm     1920    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1814 Rule    Edm     1921    1923    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1815 Rule    Edm     1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War
1816 Rule    Edm     1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace
1817 Rule    Edm     1945    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1818 Rule    Edm     1947    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1819 Rule    Edm     1947    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1820 Rule    Edm     1967    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1821 Rule    Edm     1967    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1822 Rule    Edm     1969    only    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1823 Rule    Edm     1969    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1824 Rule    Edm     1972    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1825 Rule    Edm     1972    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1826 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1827 Zone America/Edmonton   -7:33:52 -      LMT     1906 Sep
1828                         -7:00   Edm     M%sT    1987
1829                         -7:00   Canada  M%sT
1830 
1831 
1832 # British Columbia
1833 
1834 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1835 # Shanks & Pottenger write that since 1970 most of this region has
1836 # been like Vancouver.
1837 # Dawson Creek uses MST.  Much of east BC is like Edmonton.
1838 # Matthews and Vincent (1998) write that Creston is like Dawson Creek.
1839 
1840 # It seems though that (re: Creston) is not entirely correct:
1841 
1842 # From Chris Walton (2011-12-01):
1843 # There are two areas within the Canadian province of British Columbia
1844 # that do not currently observe daylight saving:
1845 # a) The Creston Valley (includes the town of Creston and surrounding area)
1846 # b) The eastern half of the Peace River Regional District
1847 # (includes the cities of Dawson Creek and Fort St. John)
1848 
1849 # Earlier this year I stumbled across a detailed article about the time
1850 # keeping history of Creston; it was written by Tammy Hardwick who is the
1851 # manager of the Creston & District Museum. The article was written in May 2009.
1852 # <a href="http://www.ilovecreston.com/?p=articles&t=spec&ar=260">
1853 # http://www.ilovecreston.com/?p=articles&t=spec&ar=260
1854 # </a>
1855 # According to the article, Creston has not changed its clocks since June 1918.
1856 # i.e. Creston has been stuck on UTC-7 for 93 years.
1857 # Dawson Creek, on the other hand, changed its clocks as recently as April 1972.
1858 
1859 # Unfortunately the exact date for the time change in June 1918 remains
1860 # unknown and will be difficult to ascertain.  I e-mailed Tammy a few months
1861 # ago to ask if Sunday June 2 was a reasonable guess.  She said it was just
1862 # as plausible as any other date (in June).  She also said that after writing the
1863 # article she had discovered another time change in 1916; this is the subject
1864 # of another article which she wrote in October 2010.
1865 # <a href="http://www.creston.museum.bc.ca/index.php?module=comments&uop=view_comment&cm+id=56">
1866 # http://www.creston.museum.bc.ca/index.php?module=comments&uop=view_comment&cm+id=56
1867 # </a>
1868 
1869 # Here is a summary of the three clock change events in Creston's history:
1870 # 1. 1884 or 1885: adoption of Mountain Standard Time (GMT-7)
1871 # Exact date unknown
1872 # 2. Oct 1916: switch to Pacific Standard Time (GMT-8)
1873 # Exact date in October unknown;  Sunday October 1 is a reasonable guess.
1874 # 3. June 1918: switch to Pacific Daylight Time (GMT-7)
1875 # Exact date in June unknown; Sunday June 2 is a reasonable guess.
1876 # note#1:
1877 # On Oct 27/1918 when daylight saving ended in the rest of Canada,
1878 # Creston did not change its clocks.
1879 # note#2:
1880 # During WWII when the Federal Government legislated a mandatory clock change,
1881 # Creston did not oblige.
1882 # note#3:
1883 # There is no guarantee that Creston will remain on Mountain Standard Time
1884 # (UTC-7) forever.
1885 # The subject was debated at least once this year by the town Council.
1886 # <a href="http://www.bclocalnews.com/kootenay_rockies/crestonvalleyadvance/news/116760809.html">
1887 # http://www.bclocalnews.com/kootenay_rockies/crestonvalleyadvance/news/116760809.html
1888 # </a>
1889 
1890 # During a period WWII, summer time (Daylight saying) was mandatory in Canada.
1891 # In Creston, that was handled by shifting the area to PST (-8:00) then applying
1892 # summer time to cause the offset to be -7:00, the same as it had been before
1893 # the change.  It can be argued that the timezone abbreviation during this
1894 # period should be PDT rather than MST, but that doesn't seem important enough
1895 # (to anyone) to further complicate the rules.
1896 
1897 # The transition dates (and times) are guesses.
1898 
1899 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1900 Rule    Vanc    1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D
1901 Rule    Vanc    1918    only    -       Oct     27      2:00    0       S
1902 Rule    Vanc    1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War
1903 Rule    Vanc    1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace
1904 Rule    Vanc    1945    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S
1905 Rule    Vanc    1946    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1906 Rule    Vanc    1946    only    -       Oct     13      2:00    0       S
1907 Rule    Vanc    1947    1961    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1908 Rule    Vanc    1962    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1909 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1910 Zone America/Vancouver  -8:12:28 -      LMT     1884
1911                         -8:00   Vanc    P%sT    1987
1912                         -8:00   Canada  P%sT
1913 Zone America/Dawson_Creek -8:00:56 -    LMT     1884
1914                         -8:00   Canada  P%sT    1947
1915                         -8:00   Vanc    P%sT    1972 Aug 30 2:00
1916                         -7:00   -       MST
1917 Zone America/Creston    -7:46:04 -      LMT     1884
1918                         -7:00   -       MST     1916 Oct 1
1919                         -8:00   -       PST     1918 Jun 2
1920                         -7:00   -       MST
1921 
1922 # Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Yukon
1923 
1924 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1925 # Dawson switched to PST in 1973.  Inuvik switched to MST in 1979.
1926 # Mathew Englander (1996-10-07) gives the following refs:
1927 #       * 1967. Paragraph 28(34)(g) of the Interpretation Act, S.C. 1967-68,
1928 #       c. 7 defines Yukon standard time as UTC-9.  This is still valid;
1929 #       see Interpretation Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. I-21, s. 35(1).
1930 #       * C.O. 1973/214 switched Yukon to PST on 1973-10-28 00:00.
1931 #       * O.I.C. 1980/02 established DST.
1932 #       * O.I.C. 1987/056 changed DST to Apr firstSun 2:00 to Oct lastSun 2:00.
1933 # Shanks & Pottenger say Yukon's 1973-10-28 switch was at 2:00; go
1934 # with Englander.
1935 # From Chris Walton (2006-06-26):
1936 # Here is a link to the old daylight saving portion of the interpretation
1937 # act which was last updated in 1987:
1938 # http://www.gov.yk.ca/legislation/regs/oic1987_056.pdf
1939 
1940 # From Rives McDow (1999-09-04):
1941 # Nunavut ... moved ... to incorporate the whole territory into one time zone.
1942 # <a href="http://www.nunatsiaq.com/nunavut/nvt90903_13.html">
1943 # Nunavut moves to single time zone Oct. 31
1944 # </a>
1945 #
1946 # From Antoine Leca (1999-09-06):
1947 # We then need to create a new timezone for the Kitikmeot region of Nunavut
1948 # to differentiate it from the Yellowknife region.
1949 
1950 # From Paul Eggert (1999-09-20):
1951 # <a href="http://www.nunavut.com/basicfacts/english/basicfacts_1territory.html">
1952 # Basic Facts: The New Territory
1953 # </a> (1999) reports that Pangnirtung operates on eastern time,
1954 # and that Coral Harbour does not observe DST.  We don't know when
1955 # Pangnirtung switched to eastern time; we'll guess 1995.
1956 
1957 # From Rives McDow (1999-11-08):
1958 # On October 31, when the rest of Nunavut went to Central time,
1959 # Pangnirtung wobbled.  Here is the result of their wobble:
1960 #
1961 # The following businesses and organizations in Pangnirtung use Central Time:
1962 #
1963 #       First Air, Power Corp, Nunavut Construction, Health Center, RCMP,
1964 #       Eastern Arctic National Parks, A & D Specialist
1965 #
1966 # The following businesses and organizations in Pangnirtung use Eastern Time:
1967 #
1968 #       Hamlet office, All other businesses, Both schools, Airport operator
1969 #
1970 # This has made for an interesting situation there, which warranted the news.
1971 # No one there that I spoke with seems concerned, or has plans to
1972 # change the local methods of keeping time, as it evidently does not
1973 # really interfere with any activities or make things difficult locally.
1974 # They plan to celebrate New Year's turn-over twice, one hour apart,
1975 # so it appears that the situation will last at least that long.
1976 # The Nunavut Intergovernmental Affairs hopes that they will "come to
1977 # their senses", but the locals evidently don't see any problem with
1978 # the current state of affairs.
1979 
1980 # From Michaela Rodrigue, writing in the
1981 # <a href="http://www.nunatsiaq.com/archives/nunavut991130/nvt91119_17.html">
1982 # Nunatsiaq News (1999-11-19)</a>:
1983 # Clyde River, Pangnirtung and Sanikiluaq now operate with two time zones,
1984 # central - or Nunavut time - for government offices, and eastern time
1985 # for municipal offices and schools....  Igloolik [was similar but then]
1986 # made the switch to central time on Saturday, Nov. 6.
1987 
1988 # From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
1989 # Matthews and Vincent (1998) say the following, but we lack histories
1990 # for these potential new Zones.
1991 #
1992 # The Canadian Forces station at Alert uses Eastern Time while the
1993 # handful of residents at the Eureka weather station [in the Central
1994 # zone] skip daylight savings.  Baffin Island, which is crossed by the
1995 # Central, Eastern and Atlantic Time zones only uses Eastern Time.
1996 # Gjoa Haven, Taloyoak and Pelly Bay all use Mountain instead of
1997 # Central Time and Southampton Island [in the Central zone] is not
1998 # required to use daylight savings.
1999 
2000 # From
2001 # <a href="http://www.nunatsiaq.com/archives/nunavut001130/nvt21110_02.html">
2002 # Nunavut now has two time zones
2003 # </a> (2000-11-10):
2004 # The Nunavut government would allow its employees in Kugluktuk and
2005 # Cambridge Bay to operate on central time year-round, putting them
2006 # one hour behind the rest of Nunavut for six months during the winter.
2007 # At the end of October the two communities had rebelled against
2008 # Nunavut's unified time zone, refusing to shift to eastern time with
2009 # the rest of the territory for the winter.  Cambridge Bay remained on
2010 # central time, while Kugluktuk, even farther west, reverted to
2011 # mountain time, which they had used before the advent of Nunavut's
2012 # unified time zone in 1999.
2013 #
2014 # From Rives McDow (2001-01-20), quoting the Nunavut government:
2015 # The preceding decision came into effect at midnight, Saturday Nov 4, 2000.
2016 
2017 # From Paul Eggert (2000-12-04):
2018 # Let's just keep track of the official times for now.
2019 
2020 # From Rives McDow (2001-03-07):
2021 # The premier of Nunavut has issued a ministerial statement advising
2022 # that effective 2001-04-01, the territory of Nunavut will revert
2023 # back to three time zones (mountain, central, and eastern).  Of the
2024 # cities in Nunavut, Coral Harbor is the only one that I know of that
2025 # has said it will not observe dst, staying on EST year round.  I'm
2026 # checking for more info, and will get back to you if I come up with
2027 # more.
2028 # [Also see <http://www.nunatsiaq.com/nunavut/nvt10309_06.html> (2001-03-09).]
2029 
2030 # From Gwillim Law (2005-05-21):
2031 # According to maps at
2032 # http://inms-ienm.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/images/time_services/TZ01SWE.jpg
2033 # http://inms-ienm.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/images/time_services/TZ01SSE.jpg
2034 # (both dated 2003), and
2035 # http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/Magazine/SO98/geomap.asp
2036 # (from a 1998 Canadian Geographic article), the de facto and de jure time
2037 # for Southampton Island (at the north end of Hudson Bay) is UTC-5 all year
2038 # round.  Using Google, it's easy to find other websites that confirm this.
2039 # I wasn't able to find how far back this time regimen goes, but since it
2040 # predates the creation of Nunavut, it probably goes back many years....
2041 # The Inuktitut name of Coral Harbour is Sallit, but it's rarely used.
2042 #
2043 # From Paul Eggert (2005-07-26):
2044 # For lack of better information, assume that Southampton Island observed
2045 # daylight saving only during wartime.
2046 
2047 # From Chris Walton (2007-03-01):
2048 # ... the community of Resolute (located on Cornwallis Island in
2049 # Nunavut) moved from Central Time to Eastern Time last November.
2050 # Basically the community did not change its clocks at the end of
2051 # daylight saving....
2052 # http://www.nnsl.com/frames/newspapers/2006-11/nov13_06none.html
2053 
2054 # From Chris Walton (2011-03-21):
2055 # Back in 2007 I initiated the creation of a new "zone file" for Resolute
2056 # Bay. Resolute Bay is a small community located about 900km north of
2057 # the Arctic Circle. The zone file was required because Resolute Bay had
2058 # decided to use UTC-5 instead of UTC-6 for the winter of 2006-2007.
2059 #
2060 # According to new information which I received last week, Resolute Bay
2061 # went back to using UTC-6 in the winter of 2007-2008...
2062 #
2063 # On March 11/2007 most of Canada went onto daylight saving. On March
2064 # 14/2007 I phoned the Resolute Bay hamlet office to do a "time check." I
2065 # talked to somebody that was both knowledgeable and helpful. I was able
2066 # to confirm that Resolute Bay was still operating on UTC-5. It was
2067 # explained to me that Resolute Bay had been on the Eastern Time zone
2068 # (EST) in the winter, and was now back on the Central Time zone (CDT).
2069 # i.e. the time zone had changed twice in the last year but the clocks
2070 # had not moved. The residents had to know which time zone they were in
2071 # so they could follow the correct TV schedule...
2072 #
2073 # On Nov 02/2008 most of Canada went onto standard time. On Nov 03/2008 I
2074 # phoned the Resolute Bay hamlet office...[D]ue to the challenging nature
2075 # of the phone call, I decided to seek out an alternate source of
2076 # information. I found an e-mail address for somebody by the name of
2077 # Stephanie Adams whose job was listed as "Inns North Support Officer for
2078 # Arctic Co-operatives." I was under the impression that Stephanie lived
2079 # and worked in Resolute Bay...
2080 #
2081 # On March 14/2011 I phoned the hamlet office again. I was told that
2082 # Resolute Bay had been using Central Standard Time over the winter of
2083 # 2010-2011 and that the clocks had therefore been moved one hour ahead
2084 # on March 13/2011. The person I talked to was aware that Resolute Bay
2085 # had previously experimented with Eastern Standard Time but he could not
2086 # tell me when the practice had stopped.
2087 #
2088 # On March 17/2011 I searched the Web to find an e-mail address of
2089 # somebody that might be able to tell me exactly when Resolute Bay went
2090 # off Eastern Standard Time. I stumbled on the name "Aziz Kheraj." Aziz
2091 # used to be the mayor of Resolute Bay and he apparently owns half the
2092 # businesses including "South Camp Inn." This website has some info on
2093 # Aziz:
2094 # <a href="http://www.uphere.ca/node/493">
2095 # http://www.uphere.ca/node/493
2096 # </a>
2097 #
2098 # I sent Aziz an e-mail asking when Resolute Bay had stopped using
2099 # Eastern Standard Time.
2100 #
2101 # Aziz responded quickly with this: "hi, The time was not changed for the
2102 # 1 year only, the following year, the community went back to the old way
2103 # of "spring ahead-fall behind" currently we are zulu plus 5 hrs and in
2104 # the winter Zulu plus 6 hrs"
2105 #
2106 # This of course conflicted with everything I had ascertained in November 2008.
2107 #
2108 # I sent Aziz a copy of my 2008 e-mail exchange with Stephanie. Aziz
2109 # responded with this: "Hi, Stephanie lives in Winnipeg. I live here, You
2110 # may want to check with the weather office in Resolute Bay or do a
2111 # search on the weather through Env. Canada. web site"
2112 #
2113 # If I had realized the Stephanie did not live in Resolute Bay I would
2114 # never have contacted her.  I now believe that all the information I
2115 # obtained in November 2008 should be ignored...
2116 # I apologize for reporting incorrect information in 2008.
2117 
2118 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2119 Rule    NT_YK   1918    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D
2120 Rule    NT_YK   1918    only    -       Oct     27      2:00    0       S
2121 Rule    NT_YK   1919    only    -       May     25      2:00    1:00    D
2122 Rule    NT_YK   1919    only    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       S
2123 Rule    NT_YK   1942    only    -       Feb      9      2:00    1:00    W # War
2124 Rule    NT_YK   1945    only    -       Aug     14      23:00u  1:00    P # Peace
2125 Rule    NT_YK   1945    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S
2126 Rule    NT_YK   1965    only    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    2:00    DD
2127 Rule    NT_YK   1965    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
2128 Rule    NT_YK   1980    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
2129 Rule    NT_YK   1980    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
2130 Rule    NT_YK   1987    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
2131 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2132 # aka Panniqtuuq
2133 Zone America/Pangnirtung 0      -       zzz     1921 # trading post est.
2134                         -4:00   NT_YK   A%sT    1995 Apr Sun>=1 2:00
2135                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT    1999 Oct 31 2:00
2136                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT    2000 Oct 29 2:00
2137                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT
2138 # formerly Frobisher Bay
2139 Zone America/Iqaluit    0       -       zzz     1942 Aug # Frobisher Bay est.
2140                         -5:00   NT_YK   E%sT    1999 Oct 31 2:00
2141                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT    2000 Oct 29 2:00
2142                         -5:00   Canada  E%sT
2143 # aka Qausuittuq
2144 Zone America/Resolute   0       -       zzz     1947 Aug 31 # Resolute founded
2145                         -6:00   NT_YK   C%sT    2000 Oct 29 2:00
2146                         -5:00   -       EST     2001 Apr  1 3:00
2147                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT    2006 Oct 29 2:00
2148                         -5:00   -       EST     2007 Mar 11 3:00
2149                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT
2150 # aka Kangiqiniq
2151 Zone America/Rankin_Inlet 0     -       zzz     1957 # Rankin Inlet founded
2152                         -6:00   NT_YK   C%sT    2000 Oct 29 2:00
2153                         -5:00   -       EST     2001 Apr  1 3:00
2154                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT
2155 # aka Iqaluktuuttiaq
2156 Zone America/Cambridge_Bay 0    -       zzz     1920 # trading post est.?
2157                         -7:00   NT_YK   M%sT    1999 Oct 31 2:00
2158                         -6:00   Canada  C%sT    2000 Oct 29 2:00
2159                         -5:00   -       EST     2000 Nov  5 0:00
2160                         -6:00   -       CST     2001 Apr  1 3:00
2161                         -7:00   Canada  M%sT
2162 Zone America/Yellowknife 0      -       zzz     1935 # Yellowknife founded?
2163                         -7:00   NT_YK   M%sT    1980
2164                         -7:00   Canada  M%sT
2165 Zone America/Inuvik     0       -       zzz     1953 # Inuvik founded
2166                         -8:00   NT_YK   P%sT    1979 Apr lastSun 2:00
2167                         -7:00   NT_YK   M%sT    1980
2168                         -7:00   Canada  M%sT
2169 Zone America/Whitehorse -9:00:12 -      LMT     1900 Aug 20
2170                         -9:00   NT_YK   Y%sT    1966 Jul 1 2:00
2171                         -8:00   NT_YK   P%sT    1980
2172                         -8:00   Canada  P%sT
2173 Zone America/Dawson     -9:17:40 -      LMT     1900 Aug 20
2174                         -9:00   NT_YK   Y%sT    1973 Oct 28 0:00
2175                         -8:00   NT_YK   P%sT    1980
2176                         -8:00   Canada  P%sT
2177 
2178 
2179 ###############################################################################
2180 
2181 # Mexico
2182 
2183 # From Paul Eggert (2001-03-05):
2184 # The Investigation and Analysis Service of the
2185 # Mexican Library of Congress (MLoC) has published a
2186 # <a href="http://www.cddhcu.gob.mx/bibliot/publica/inveyana/polisoc/horver/">
2187 # history of Mexican local time (in Spanish)
2188 # </a>.
2189 #
2190 # Here are the discrepancies between Shanks & Pottenger (S&P) and the MLoC.
2191 # (In all cases we go with the MLoC.)
2192 # S&P report that Baja was at -8:00 in 1922/1923.
2193 # S&P say the 1930 transition in Baja was 1930-11-16.
2194 # S&P report no DST during summer 1931.
2195 # S&P report a transition at 1932-03-30 23:00, not 1932-04-01.
2196 
2197 # From Gwillim Law (2001-02-20):
2198 # There are some other discrepancies between the Decrees page and the
2199 # tz database.  I think they can best be explained by supposing that
2200 # the researchers who prepared the Decrees page failed to find some of
2201 # the relevant documents.
2202 
2203 # From Alan Perry (1996-02-15):
2204 # A guy from our Mexico subsidiary finally found the Presidential Decree
2205 # outlining the timezone changes in Mexico.
2206 #
2207 # ------------- Begin Forwarded Message -------------
2208 #
2209 # I finally got my hands on the Official Presidential Decree that sets up the
2210 # rules for the DST changes. The rules are:
2211 #
2212 # 1. The country is divided in 3 timezones:
2213 #    - Baja California Norte (the Mexico/BajaNorte TZ)
2214 #    - Baja California Sur, Nayarit, Sinaloa and Sonora (the Mexico/BajaSur TZ)
2215 #    - The rest of the country (the Mexico/General TZ)
2216 #
2217 # 2. From the first Sunday in April at 2:00 AM to the last Sunday in October
2218 #    at 2:00 AM, the times in each zone are as follows:
2219 #    BajaNorte: GMT+7
2220 #    BajaSur:   GMT+6
2221 #    General:   GMT+5
2222 #
2223 # 3. The rest of the year, the times are as follows:
2224 #    BajaNorte: GMT+8
2225 #    BajaSur:   GMT+7
2226 #    General:   GMT+6
2227 #
2228 # The Decree was published in Mexico's Official Newspaper on January 4th.
2229 #
2230 # -------------- End Forwarded Message --------------
2231 # From Paul Eggert (1996-06-12):
2232 # For an English translation of the decree, see
2233 # <a href="http://mexico-travel.com/extra/timezone_eng.html">
2234 # ``Diario Oficial: Time Zone Changeover'' (1996-01-04).
2235 # </a>
2236 
2237 # From Rives McDow (1998-10-08):
2238 # The State of Quintana Roo has reverted back to central STD and DST times
2239 # (i.e. UTC -0600 and -0500 as of 1998-08-02).
2240 
2241 # From Rives McDow (2000-01-10):
2242 # Effective April 4, 1999 at 2:00 AM local time, Sonora changed to the time
2243 # zone 5 hours from the International Date Line, and will not observe daylight
2244 # savings time so as to stay on the same time zone as the southern part of
2245 # Arizona year round.
2246 
2247 # From Jesper Norgaard, translating
2248 # <http://www.reforma.com/nacional/articulo/064327/> (2001-01-17):
2249 # In Oaxaca, the 55.000 teachers from the Section 22 of the National
2250 # Syndicate of Education Workers, refuse to apply daylight saving each
2251 # year, so that the more than 10,000 schools work at normal hour the
2252 # whole year.
2253 
2254 # From Gwillim Law (2001-01-19):
2255 # <http://www.reforma.com/negocios_y_dinero/articulo/064481/> ... says
2256 # (translated):...
2257 # January 17, 2000 - The Energy Secretary, Ernesto Martens, announced
2258 # that Summer Time will be reduced from seven to five months, starting
2259 # this year....
2260 # <http://www.publico.com.mx/scripts/texto3.asp?action=pagina&pag=21&pos=p&secc=naci&date=01/17/2001>
2261 # [translated], says "summer time will ... take effect on the first Sunday
2262 # in May, and end on the last Sunday of September.
2263 
2264 # From Arthur David Olson (2001-01-25):
2265 # The 2001-01-24 traditional Washington Post contained the page one
2266 # story "Timely Issue Divides Mexicans."...
2267 # http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A37383-2001Jan23.html
2268 # ... Mexico City Mayor Lopez Obrador "...is threatening to keep
2269 # Mexico City and its 20 million residents on a different time than
2270 # the rest of the country..." In particular, Lopez Obrador would abolish
2271 # observation of Daylight Saving Time.
2272 
2273 # <a href="http://www.conae.gob.mx/ahorro/decretohorver2001.html#decre">
2274 # Official statute published by the Energy Department
2275 # </a> (2001-02-01) shows Baja and Chihauhua as still using US DST rules,
2276 # and Sonora with no DST.  This was reported by Jesper Norgaard (2001-02-03).
2277 
2278 # From Paul Eggert (2001-03-03):
2279 #
2280 # <a href="http://www.latimes.com/news/nation/20010303/t000018766.html">
2281 # James F. Smith writes in today's LA Times
2282 # </a>
2283 # * Sonora will continue to observe standard time.
2284 # * Last week Mexico City's mayor Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador decreed that
2285 #   the Federal District will not adopt DST.
2286 # * 4 of 16 district leaders announced they'll ignore the decree.
2287 # * The decree does not affect federal-controlled facilities including
2288 #   the airport, banks, hospitals, and schools.
2289 #
2290 # For now we'll assume that the Federal District will bow to federal rules.
2291 
2292 # From Jesper Norgaard (2001-04-01):
2293 # I found some references to the Mexican application of daylight
2294 # saving, which modifies what I had already sent you, stating earlier
2295 # that a number of northern Mexican states would go on daylight
2296 # saving. The modification reverts this to only cover Baja California
2297 # (Norte), while all other states (except Sonora, who has no daylight
2298 # saving all year) will follow the original decree of president
2299 # Vicente Fox, starting daylight saving May 6, 2001 and ending
2300 # September 30, 2001.
2301 # References: "Diario de Monterrey" <www.diariodemonterrey.com/index.asp>
2302 # Palabra <http://palabra.infosel.com/010331/primera/ppri3101.pdf> (2001-03-31)
2303 
2304 # From Reuters (2001-09-04):
2305 # Mexico's Supreme Court on Tuesday declared that daylight savings was
2306 # unconstitutional in Mexico City, creating the possibility the
2307 # capital will be in a different time zone from the rest of the nation
2308 # next year....  The Supreme Court's ruling takes effect at 2:00
2309 # a.m. (0800 GMT) on Sept. 30, when Mexico is scheduled to revert to
2310 # standard time. "This is so residents of the Federal District are not
2311 # subject to unexpected time changes," a statement from the court said.
2312 
2313 # From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2002-03-12):
2314 # ... consulting my local grocery store(!) and my coworkers, they all insisted
2315 # that a new decision had been made to reinstate US style DST in Mexico....
2316 # http://www.conae.gob.mx/ahorro/horaver2001_m1_2002.html (2002-02-20)
2317 # confirms this.  Sonora as usual is the only state where DST is not applied.
2318 
2319 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-12-28):
2320 #
2321 # Steffen Thorsen wrote:
2322 # > Mexico's House of Representatives has approved a proposal for northern
2323 # > Mexico's border cities to share the same daylight saving schedule as
2324 # > the United States.
2325 # Now this has passed both the Congress and the Senate, so starting from
2326 # 2010, some border regions will be the same:
2327 # <a href="http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/2009/dec/28/clocks-will-match-both-sides-border/">
2328 # http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/2009/dec/28/clocks-will-match-both-sides-border/
2329 # </a>
2330 # <a href="http://www.elmananarey.com/diario/noticia/nacional/noticias/empatan_horario_de_frontera_con_eu/621939">
2331 # http://www.elmananarey.com/diario/noticia/nacional/noticias/empatan_horario_de_frontera_con_eu/621939
2332 # </a>
2333 # (Spanish)
2334 #
2335 # Could not find the new law text, but the proposed law text changes are here:
2336 # <a href="http://gaceta.diputados.gob.mx/Gaceta/61/2009/dic/20091210-V.pdf">
2337 # http://gaceta.diputados.gob.mx/Gaceta/61/2009/dic/20091210-V.pdf
2338 # </a>
2339 # (Gaceta Parlamentaria)
2340 #
2341 # There is also a list of the votes here:
2342 # <a href="http://gaceta.diputados.gob.mx/Gaceta/61/2009/dic/V2-101209.html">
2343 # http://gaceta.diputados.gob.mx/Gaceta/61/2009/dic/V2-101209.html
2344 # </a>
2345 #
2346 # Our page:
2347 # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/north-mexico-dst-change.html">
2348 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/north-mexico-dst-change.html
2349 # </a>
2350 
2351 # From Arthur David Olson (2010-01-20):
2352 # The page
2353 # <a href="http://dof.gob.mx/nota_detalle.php?codigo=5127480&fecha=06/01/2010">
2354 # http://dof.gob.mx/nota_detalle.php?codigo=5127480&fecha=06/01/2010
2355 # </a>
2356 # includes this text:
2357 # En los municipios fronterizos de Tijuana y Mexicali en Baja California;
2358 # Ju&aacute;rez y Ojinaga en Chihuahua; Acu&ntilde;a y Piedras Negras en Coahuila;
2359 # An&aacute;huac en Nuevo Le&oacute;n; y Nuevo Laredo, Reynosa y Matamoros en
2360 # Tamaulipas, la aplicaci&oacute;n de este horario estacional surtir&aacute; efecto
2361 # desde las dos horas del segundo domingo de marzo y concluir&aacute; a las dos
2362 # horas del primer domingo de noviembre.
2363 # En los municipios fronterizos que se encuentren ubicados en la franja
2364 # fronteriza norte en el territorio comprendido entre la l&iacute;nea
2365 # internacional y la l&iacute;nea paralela ubicada a una distancia de veinte
2366 # kil&oacute;metros, as&iacute; como la Ciudad de Ensenada, Baja California, hacia el
2367 # interior del pa&iacute;s, la aplicaci&oacute;n de este horario estacional surtir&aacute;
2368 # efecto desde las dos horas del segundo domingo de marzo y concluir&aacute; a
2369 # las dos horas del primer domingo de noviembre.
2370 
2371 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2372 Rule    Mexico  1939    only    -       Feb     5       0:00    1:00    D
2373 Rule    Mexico  1939    only    -       Jun     25      0:00    0       S
2374 Rule    Mexico  1940    only    -       Dec     9       0:00    1:00    D
2375 Rule    Mexico  1941    only    -       Apr     1       0:00    0       S
2376 Rule    Mexico  1943    only    -       Dec     16      0:00    1:00    W # War
2377 Rule    Mexico  1944    only    -       May     1       0:00    0       S
2378 Rule    Mexico  1950    only    -       Feb     12      0:00    1:00    D
2379 Rule    Mexico  1950    only    -       Jul     30      0:00    0       S
2380 Rule    Mexico  1996    2000    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
2381 Rule    Mexico  1996    2000    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
2382 Rule    Mexico  2001    only    -       May     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
2383 Rule    Mexico  2001    only    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
2384 Rule    Mexico  2002    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
2385 Rule    Mexico  2002    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
2386 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2387 # Quintana Roo
2388 Zone America/Cancun     -5:47:04 -      LMT     1922 Jan  1  0:12:56
2389                         -6:00   -       CST     1981 Dec 23
2390                         -5:00   Mexico  E%sT    1998 Aug  2  2:00
2391                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT
2392 # Campeche, Yucatan
2393 Zone America/Merida     -5:58:28 -      LMT     1922 Jan  1  0:01:32
2394                         -6:00   -       CST     1981 Dec 23
2395                         -5:00   -       EST     1982 Dec  2
2396                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT
2397 # Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas (near US border)
2398 Zone America/Matamoros  -6:40:00 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:20:00
2399                         -6:00   -       CST     1988
2400                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1989
2401                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT    2010
2402                         -6:00   US      C%sT
2403 # Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas (away from US border)
2404 Zone America/Monterrey  -6:41:16 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:18:44
2405                         -6:00   -       CST     1988
2406                         -6:00   US      C%sT    1989
2407                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT
2408 # Central Mexico
2409 Zone America/Mexico_City -6:36:36 -     LMT     1922 Jan  1 0:23:24
2410                         -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00
2411                         -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15
2412                         -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00
2413                         -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct
2414                         -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1
2415                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT    2001 Sep 30 02:00
2416                         -6:00   -       CST     2002 Feb 20
2417                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT
2418 # Chihuahua (near US border)
2419 Zone America/Ojinaga    -6:57:40 -      LMT     1922 Jan 1 0:02:20
2420                         -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00
2421                         -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15
2422                         -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00
2423                         -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct
2424                         -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1
2425                         -6:00   -       CST     1996
2426                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT    1998
2427                         -6:00   -       CST     1998 Apr Sun>=1 3:00
2428                         -7:00   Mexico  M%sT    2010
2429                         -7:00   US      M%sT
2430 # Chihuahua (away from US border)
2431 Zone America/Chihuahua  -7:04:20 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:55:40
2432                         -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00
2433                         -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15
2434                         -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00
2435                         -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct
2436                         -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1
2437                         -6:00   -       CST     1996
2438                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT    1998
2439                         -6:00   -       CST     1998 Apr Sun>=1 3:00
2440                         -7:00   Mexico  M%sT
2441 # Sonora
2442 Zone America/Hermosillo -7:23:52 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:36:08
2443                         -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00
2444                         -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15
2445                         -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00
2446                         -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct
2447                         -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1
2448                         -6:00   -       CST     1942 Apr 24
2449                         -7:00   -       MST     1949 Jan 14
2450                         -8:00   -       PST     1970
2451                         -7:00   Mexico  M%sT    1999
2452                         -7:00   -       MST
2453 
2454 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-04-21):
2455 # According to news, Bah&iacute;a de Banderas (Mexican state of Nayarit)
2456 # changed time zone UTC-7 to new time zone UTC-6 on April 4, 2010 (to
2457 # share the same time zone as nearby city Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco).
2458 #
2459 # (Spanish)
2460 # Bah&iacute;a de Banderas homologa su horario al del centro del
2461 # pa&iacute;s, a partir de este domingo
2462 # <a href="http://www.nayarit.gob.mx/notes.asp?id=20748">
2463 # http://www.nayarit.gob.mx/notes.asp?id=20748
2464 # </a>
2465 #
2466 # Bah&iacute;a de Banderas homologa su horario con el del Centro del
2467 # Pa&iacute;s
2468 # <a href="http://www.bahiadebanderas.gob.mx/principal/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=261:bahia-de-banderas-homologa-su-horario-con-el-del-centro-del-pais&catid=42:comunicacion-social&Itemid=50">
2469 # http://www.bahiadebanderas.gob.mx/principal/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=261:bahia-de-banderas-homologa-su-horario-con-el-del-centro-del-pais&catid=42:comunicacion-social&Itemid=50"
2470 # </a>
2471 #
2472 # (English)
2473 # Puerto Vallarta and Bah&iacute;a de Banderas: One Time Zone
2474 # <a href="http://virtualvallarta.com/puertovallarta/puertovallarta/localnews/2009-12-03-Puerto-Vallarta-and-Bahia-de-Banderas-One-Time-Zone.shtml">
2475 # http://virtualvallarta.com/puertovallarta/puertovallarta/localnews/2009-12-03-Puerto-Vallarta-and-Bahia-de-Banderas-One-Time-Zone.shtml
2476 # </a>
2477 #
2478 # or
2479 # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_mexico08.html">
2480 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_mexico08.html
2481 # </a>
2482 #
2483 # "Mexico's Senate approved the amendments to the Mexican Schedule System that
2484 # will allow Bah&iacute;a de Banderas and Puerto Vallarta to share the same time
2485 # zone ..."
2486 # Baja California Sur, Nayarit, Sinaloa
2487 
2488 # From Arthur David Olson (2010-05-01):
2489 # Use "Bahia_Banderas" to keep the name to fourteen characters.
2490 
2491 Zone America/Mazatlan   -7:05:40 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:54:20
2492                         -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00
2493                         -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15
2494                         -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00
2495                         -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct
2496                         -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1
2497                         -6:00   -       CST     1942 Apr 24
2498                         -7:00   -       MST     1949 Jan 14
2499                         -8:00   -       PST     1970
2500                         -7:00   Mexico  M%sT
2501 
2502 Zone America/Bahia_Banderas     -7:01:00 -      LMT     1921 Dec 31 23:59:00
2503                         -7:00   -       MST     1927 Jun 10 23:00
2504                         -6:00   -       CST     1930 Nov 15
2505                         -7:00   -       MST     1931 May  1 23:00
2506                         -6:00   -       CST     1931 Oct
2507                         -7:00   -       MST     1932 Apr  1
2508                         -6:00   -       CST     1942 Apr 24
2509                         -7:00   -       MST     1949 Jan 14
2510                         -8:00   -       PST     1970
2511                         -7:00   Mexico  M%sT    2010 Apr 4 2:00
2512                         -6:00   Mexico  C%sT
2513 
2514 # Baja California (near US border)
2515 Zone America/Tijuana    -7:48:04 -      LMT     1922 Jan  1  0:11:56
2516                         -7:00   -       MST     1924
2517                         -8:00   -       PST     1927 Jun 10 23:00
2518                         -7:00   -       MST     1930 Nov 15
2519                         -8:00   -       PST     1931 Apr  1
2520                         -8:00   1:00    PDT     1931 Sep 30
2521                         -8:00   -       PST     1942 Apr 24
2522                         -8:00   1:00    PWT     1945 Aug 14 23:00u
2523                         -8:00   1:00    PPT     1945 Nov 12 # Peace
2524                         -8:00   -       PST     1948 Apr  5
2525                         -8:00   1:00    PDT     1949 Jan 14
2526                         -8:00   -       PST     1954
2527                         -8:00   CA      P%sT    1961
2528                         -8:00   -       PST     1976
2529                         -8:00   US      P%sT    1996
2530                         -8:00   Mexico  P%sT    2001
2531                         -8:00   US      P%sT    2002 Feb 20
2532                         -8:00   Mexico  P%sT    2010
2533                         -8:00   US      P%sT
2534 # Baja California (away from US border)
2535 Zone America/Santa_Isabel       -7:39:28 -      LMT     1922 Jan  1  0:20:32
2536                         -7:00   -       MST     1924
2537                         -8:00   -       PST     1927 Jun 10 23:00
2538                         -7:00   -       MST     1930 Nov 15
2539                         -8:00   -       PST     1931 Apr  1
2540                         -8:00   1:00    PDT     1931 Sep 30
2541                         -8:00   -       PST     1942 Apr 24
2542                         -8:00   1:00    PWT     1945 Aug 14 23:00u
2543                         -8:00   1:00    PPT     1945 Nov 12 # Peace
2544                         -8:00   -       PST     1948 Apr  5
2545                         -8:00   1:00    PDT     1949 Jan 14
2546                         -8:00   -       PST     1954
2547                         -8:00   CA      P%sT    1961
2548                         -8:00   -       PST     1976
2549                         -8:00   US      P%sT    1996
2550                         -8:00   Mexico  P%sT    2001
2551                         -8:00   US      P%sT    2002 Feb 20
2552                         -8:00   Mexico  P%sT
2553 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
2554 # Formerly there was an America/Ensenada zone, which differed from
2555 # America/Tijuana only in that it did not observe DST from 1976
2556 # through 1995.  This was as per Shanks (1999).  But Shanks & Pottenger say
2557 # Ensenada did not observe DST from 1948 through 1975.  Guy Harris reports
2558 # that the 1987 OAG says "Only Ensenada, Mexicale, San Felipe and
2559 # Tijuana observe DST," which agrees with Shanks & Pottenger but implies that
2560 # DST-observance was a town-by-town matter back then.  This concerns
2561 # data after 1970 so most likely there should be at least one Zone
2562 # other than America/Tijuana for Baja, but it's not clear yet what its
2563 # name or contents should be.
2564 #
2565 # Revillagigedo Is
2566 # no information
2567 
2568 ###############################################################################
2569 
2570 # Anguilla
2571 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2572 Zone America/Anguilla   -4:12:16 -      LMT     1912 Mar 2
2573                         -4:00   -       AST
2574 
2575 # Antigua and Barbuda
2576 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2577 Zone    America/Antigua -4:07:12 -      LMT     1912 Mar 2
2578                         -5:00   -       EST     1951
2579                         -4:00   -       AST
2580 
2581 # Bahamas
2582 #
2583 # For 1899 Milne gives -5:09:29.5; round that.
2584 #
2585 # From Sue Williams (2006-12-07):
2586 # The Bahamas announced about a month ago that they plan to change their DST
2587 # rules to sync with the U.S. starting in 2007....
2588 # http://www.jonesbahamas.com/?c=45&a=10412
2589 
2590 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2591 Rule    Bahamas 1964    1975    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
2592 Rule    Bahamas 1964    1975    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
2593 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2594 Zone    America/Nassau  -5:09:30 -      LMT     1912 Mar 2
2595                         -5:00   Bahamas E%sT    1976
2596                         -5:00   US      E%sT
2597 
2598 # Barbados
2599 
2600 # For 1899 Milne gives -3:58:29.2; round that.
2601 
2602 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2603 Rule    Barb    1977    only    -       Jun     12      2:00    1:00    D
2604 Rule    Barb    1977    1978    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
2605 Rule    Barb    1978    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=15      2:00    1:00    D
2606 Rule    Barb    1979    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       S
2607 Rule    Barb    1980    only    -       Sep     25      2:00    0       S
2608 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2609 Zone America/Barbados   -3:58:29 -      LMT     1924            # Bridgetown
2610                         -3:58:29 -      BMT     1932      # Bridgetown Mean Time
2611                         -4:00   Barb    A%sT
2612 
2613 # Belize
2614 # Whitman entirely disagrees with Shanks; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2615 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2616 Rule    Belize  1918    1942    -       Oct     Sun>=2       0:00    0:30    HD
2617 Rule    Belize  1919    1943    -       Feb     Sun>=9       0:00    0       S
2618 Rule    Belize  1973    only    -       Dec      5      0:00    1:00    D
2619 Rule    Belize  1974    only    -       Feb      9      0:00    0       S
2620 Rule    Belize  1982    only    -       Dec     18      0:00    1:00    D
2621 Rule    Belize  1983    only    -       Feb     12      0:00    0       S
2622 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2623 Zone    America/Belize  -5:52:48 -      LMT     1912 Apr
2624                         -6:00   Belize  C%sT
2625 
2626 # Bermuda
2627 
2628 # For 1899 Milne gives -4:19:18.3 as the meridian of the clock tower,
2629 # Bermuda dockyard, Ireland I; round that.
2630 
2631 # From Dan Jones, reporting in The Royal Gazette (2006-06-26):
2632 
2633 # Next year, however, clocks in the US will go forward on the second Sunday
2634 # in March, until the first Sunday in November.  And, after the Time Zone
2635 # (Seasonal Variation) Bill 2006 was passed in the House of Assembly on
2636 # Friday, the same thing will happen in Bermuda.
2637 # http://www.theroyalgazette.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060529/NEWS/105290135
2638 
2639 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2640 Zone Atlantic/Bermuda   -4:19:18 -      LMT     1930 Jan  1 2:00    # Hamilton
2641                         -4:00   -       AST     1974 Apr 28 2:00
2642                         -4:00   Bahamas A%sT    1976
2643                         -4:00   US      A%sT
2644 
2645 # Cayman Is
2646 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2647 Zone    America/Cayman  -5:25:32 -      LMT     1890            # Georgetown
2648                         -5:07:12 -      KMT     1912 Feb    # Kingston Mean Time
2649                         -5:00   -       EST
2650 
2651 # Costa Rica
2652 
2653 # Milne gives -5:36:13.3 as San Jose mean time; round to nearest.
2654 
2655 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2656 Rule    CR      1979    1980    -       Feb     lastSun 0:00    1:00    D
2657 Rule    CR      1979    1980    -       Jun     Sun>=1       0:00    0       S
2658 Rule    CR      1991    1992    -       Jan     Sat>=15      0:00    1:00    D
2659 # IATA SSIM (1991-09) says the following was at 1:00;
2660 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2661 Rule    CR      1991    only    -       Jul      1      0:00    0       S
2662 Rule    CR      1992    only    -       Mar     15      0:00    0       S
2663 # There are too many San Joses elsewhere, so we'll use `Costa Rica'.
2664 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2665 Zone America/Costa_Rica -5:36:13 -      LMT     1890            # San Jose
2666                         -5:36:13 -      SJMT    1921 Jan 15 # San Jose Mean Time
2667                         -6:00   CR      C%sT
2668 # Coco
2669 # no information; probably like America/Costa_Rica
2670 
2671 # Cuba
2672 
2673 # From Paul Eggert (2013-02-21):
2674 # Milne gives -5:28:50.45 for the observatory at Havana, -5:29:23.57
2675 # for the port, and -5:30 for meteorological observations.
2676 # For now, stick with Shanks & Pottenger.
2677 
2678 # From Arthur David Olson (1999-03-29):
2679 # The 1999-03-28 exhibition baseball game held in Havana, Cuba, between
2680 # the Cuban National Team and the Baltimore Orioles was carried live on
2681 # the Orioles Radio Network, including affiliate WTOP in Washington, DC.
2682 # During the game, play-by-play announcer Jim Hunter noted that
2683 # "We'll be losing two hours of sleep...Cuba switched to Daylight Saving
2684 # Time today."  (The "two hour" remark referred to losing one hour of
2685 # sleep on 1999-03-28--when the announcers were in Cuba as it switched
2686 # to DST--and one more hour on 1999-04-04--when the announcers will have
2687 # returned to Baltimore, which switches on that date.)
2688 
2689 # From Evert van der Veer via Steffen Thorsen (2004-10-28):
2690 # Cuba is not going back to standard time this year.
2691 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
2692 # http://www.granma.cu/ingles/2004/septiembre/juev30/41medid-i.html
2693 # says that it's due to a problem at the Antonio Guiteras
2694 # thermoelectric plant, and says "This October there will be no return
2695 # to normal hours (after daylight saving time)".
2696 # For now, let's assume that it's a temporary measure.
2697 
2698 # From Carlos A. Carnero Delgado (2005-11-12):
2699 # This year (just like in 2004-2005) there's no change in time zone
2700 # adjustment in Cuba.  We will stay in daylight saving time:
2701 # http://www.granma.cu/espanol/2005/noviembre/mier9/horario.html
2702 
2703 # From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-10-21):
2704 # An article in GRANMA INTERNACIONAL claims that Cuba will end
2705 # the 3 years of permanent DST next weekend, see
2706 # http://www.granma.cu/ingles/2006/octubre/lun16/43horario.html
2707 # "On Saturday night, October 28 going into Sunday, October 29, at 01:00,
2708 # watches should be set back one hour -- going back to 00:00 hours -- returning
2709 # to the normal schedule....
2710 
2711 # From Paul Eggert (2007-03-02):
2712 # http://www.granma.cubaweb.cu/english/news/art89.html, dated yesterday,
2713 # says Cuban clocks will advance at midnight on March 10.
2714 # For lack of better information, assume Cuba will use US rules,
2715 # except that it switches at midnight standard time as usual.
2716 #
2717 # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-10-25):
2718 # Carlos Alberto Fonseca Arauz informed me that Cuba will end DST one week
2719 # earlier - on the last Sunday of October, just like in 2006.
2720 #
2721 # He supplied these references:
2722 #
2723 # http://www.prensalatina.com.mx/article.asp?ID=%7B4CC32C1B-A9F7-42FB-8A07-8631AFC923AF%7D&language=ES
2724 # http://actualidad.terra.es/sociedad/articulo/cuba_llama_ahorrar_energia_cambio_1957044.htm
2725 #
2726 # From Alex Kryvenishev (2007-10-25):
2727 # Here is also article from Granma (Cuba):
2728 #
2729 # [Regira] el Horario Normal desde el [proximo] domingo 28 de octubre
2730 # http://www.granma.cubaweb.cu/2007/10/24/nacional/artic07.html
2731 #
2732 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_cuba03.html
2733 
2734 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-09):
2735 # I'm in Maryland which is now observing United States Eastern Daylight
2736 # Time. At 9:44 local time I used RealPlayer to listen to
2737 # <a href="http://media.enet.cu/radioreloj">
2738 # http://media.enet.cu/radioreloj
2739 # </a>, a Cuban information station, and heard
2740 # the time announced as "ocho cuarenta y cuatro" ("eight forty-four"),
2741 # indicating that Cuba is still on standard time.
2742 
2743 # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-03-12):
2744 # It seems that Cuba will start DST on Sunday, 2007-03-16...
2745 # It was announced yesterday, according to this source (in Spanish):
2746 # <a href="http://www.nnc.cubaweb.cu/marzo-2008/cien-1-11-3-08.htm">
2747 # http://www.nnc.cubaweb.cu/marzo-2008/cien-1-11-3-08.htm
2748 # </a>
2749 #
2750 # Some more background information is posted here:
2751 # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-starts-dst-march-16.html">
2752 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-starts-dst-march-16.html
2753 # </a>
2754 #
2755 # The article also says that Cuba has been observing DST since 1963,
2756 # while Shanks (and tzdata) has 1965 as the first date (except in the
2757 # 1940's). Many other web pages in Cuba also claim that it has been
2758 # observed since 1963, but with the exception of 1970 - an exception
2759 # which is not present in tzdata/Shanks. So there is a chance we need to
2760 # change some historic records as well.
2761 #
2762 # One example:
2763 # <a href="http://www.radiohc.cu/espanol/noticias/mar07/11mar/hor.htm">
2764 # http://www.radiohc.cu/espanol/noticias/mar07/11mar/hor.htm
2765 # </a>
2766 
2767 # From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2008-03-13):
2768 # The Cuban time change has just been confirmed on the most authoritative
2769 # web site, the Granma.  Please check out
2770 # <a href="http://www.granma.cubaweb.cu/2008/03/13/nacional/artic10.html">
2771 # http://www.granma.cubaweb.cu/2008/03/13/nacional/artic10.html
2772 # </a>
2773 #
2774 # Basically as expected after Steffen Thorsens information, the change
2775 # will take place midnight between Saturday and Sunday.
2776 
2777 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-12):
2778 # Assume Sun>=15 (third Sunday) going forward.
2779 
2780 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-04)
2781 # According to the Radio Reloj - Cuba will start Daylight Saving Time on
2782 # midnight between Saturday, March 07, 2009 and Sunday, March 08, 2009-
2783 # not on midnight March 14 / March 15 as previously thought.
2784 #
2785 # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_cuba05.html">
2786 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_cuba05.html
2787 # (in Spanish)
2788 # </a>
2789 
2790 # From Arthur David Olson (2009-03-09)
2791 # I listened over the Internet to
2792 # <a href="http://media.enet.cu/readioreloj">
2793 # http://media.enet.cu/readioreloj
2794 # </a>
2795 # this morning; when it was 10:05 a. m. here in Bethesda, Maryland the
2796 # the time was announced as "diez cinco"--the same time as here, indicating
2797 # that has indeed switched to DST. Assume second Sunday from 2009 forward.
2798 
2799 # From Steffen Thorsen (2011-03-08):
2800 # Granma announced that Cuba is going to start DST on 2011-03-20 00:00:00
2801 # this year. Nothing about the end date known so far (if that has
2802 # changed at all).
2803 #
2804 # Source:
2805 # <a href="http://granma.co.cu/2011/03/08/nacional/artic01.html">
2806 # http://granma.co.cu/2011/03/08/nacional/artic01.html
2807 # </a>
2808 #
2809 # Our info:
2810 # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-starts-dst-2011.html">
2811 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-starts-dst-2011.html
2812 # </a>
2813 #
2814 # From Steffen Thorsen (2011-10-30)
2815 # Cuba will end DST two weeks later this year. Instead of going back
2816 # tonight, it has been delayed to 2011-11-13 at 01:00.
2817 #
2818 # One source (Spanish)
2819 # <a href="http://www.radioangulo.cu/noticias/cuba/17105-cuba-restablecera-el-horario-del-meridiano-de-greenwich.html">
2820 # http://www.radioangulo.cu/noticias/cuba/17105-cuba-restablecera-el-horario-del-meridiano-de-greenwich.html
2821 # </a>
2822 #
2823 # Our page:
2824 # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-time-changes-2011.html">
2825 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-time-changes-2011.html
2826 # </a>
2827 #
2828 # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-01)
2829 # According to Radio Reloj, Cuba will start DST on Midnight between March
2830 # 31 and April 1.
2831 #
2832 # Radio Reloj has the following info (Spanish):
2833 # <a href="http://www.radioreloj.cu/index.php/noticias-radio-reloj/71-miscelaneas/7529-cuba-aplicara-el-horario-de-verano-desde-el-1-de-abril">
2834 # http://www.radioreloj.cu/index.php/noticias-radio-reloj/71-miscelaneas/7529-cuba-aplicara-el-horario-de-verano-desde-el-1-de-abril
2835 # </a>
2836 #
2837 # Our info on it:
2838 # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-starts-dst-2012.html">
2839 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-starts-dst-2012.html
2840 # </a>
2841 
2842 # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-11-03):
2843 # Radio Reloj and many other sources report that Cuba is changing back
2844 # to standard time on 2012-11-04:
2845 # http://www.radioreloj.cu/index.php/noticias-radio-reloj/36-nacionales/9961-regira-horario-normal-en-cuba-desde-el-domingo-cuatro-de-noviembre
2846 # From Paul Eggert (2012-11-03):
2847 # For now, assume the future rule is first Sunday in November.
2848 
2849 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2850 Rule    Cuba    1928    only    -       Jun     10      0:00    1:00    D
2851 Rule    Cuba    1928    only    -       Oct     10      0:00    0       S
2852 Rule    Cuba    1940    1942    -       Jun     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
2853 Rule    Cuba    1940    1942    -       Sep     Sun>=1       0:00    0       S
2854 Rule    Cuba    1945    1946    -       Jun     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
2855 Rule    Cuba    1945    1946    -       Sep     Sun>=1       0:00    0       S
2856 Rule    Cuba    1965    only    -       Jun     1       0:00    1:00    D
2857 Rule    Cuba    1965    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       S
2858 Rule    Cuba    1966    only    -       May     29      0:00    1:00    D
2859 Rule    Cuba    1966    only    -       Oct     2       0:00    0       S
2860 Rule    Cuba    1967    only    -       Apr     8       0:00    1:00    D
2861 Rule    Cuba    1967    1968    -       Sep     Sun>=8       0:00    0       S
2862 Rule    Cuba    1968    only    -       Apr     14      0:00    1:00    D
2863 Rule    Cuba    1969    1977    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    1:00    D
2864 Rule    Cuba    1969    1971    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       S
2865 Rule    Cuba    1972    1974    -       Oct     8       0:00    0       S
2866 Rule    Cuba    1975    1977    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       S
2867 Rule    Cuba    1978    only    -       May     7       0:00    1:00    D
2868 Rule    Cuba    1978    1990    -       Oct     Sun>=8       0:00    0       S
2869 Rule    Cuba    1979    1980    -       Mar     Sun>=15      0:00    1:00    D
2870 Rule    Cuba    1981    1985    -       May     Sun>=5       0:00    1:00    D
2871 Rule    Cuba    1986    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=14      0:00    1:00    D
2872 Rule    Cuba    1990    1997    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
2873 Rule    Cuba    1991    1995    -       Oct     Sun>=8       0:00s   0       S
2874 Rule    Cuba    1996    only    -       Oct      6      0:00s   0       S
2875 Rule    Cuba    1997    only    -       Oct     12      0:00s   0       S
2876 Rule    Cuba    1998    1999    -       Mar     lastSun 0:00s   1:00    D
2877 Rule    Cuba    1998    2003    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00s   0       S
2878 Rule    Cuba    2000    2004    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:00s   1:00    D
2879 Rule    Cuba    2006    2010    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00s   0       S
2880 Rule    Cuba    2007    only    -       Mar     Sun>=8       0:00s   1:00    D
2881 Rule    Cuba    2008    only    -       Mar     Sun>=15      0:00s   1:00    D
2882 Rule    Cuba    2009    2010    -       Mar     Sun>=8       0:00s   1:00    D
2883 Rule    Cuba    2011    only    -       Mar     Sun>=15      0:00s   1:00    D
2884 Rule    Cuba    2011    only    -       Nov     13      0:00s   0       S
2885 Rule    Cuba    2012    only    -       Apr     1       0:00s   1:00    D
2886 Rule    Cuba    2012    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1       0:00s   0       S
2887 Rule    Cuba    2013    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8       0:00s   1:00    D
2888 
2889 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2890 Zone    America/Havana  -5:29:28 -      LMT     1890
2891                         -5:29:36 -      HMT     1925 Jul 19 12:00 # Havana MT
2892                         -5:00   Cuba    C%sT
2893 
2894 # Dominica
2895 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2896 Zone America/Dominica   -4:05:36 -      LMT     1911 Jul 1 0:01         # Roseau
2897                         -4:00   -       AST
2898 
2899 # Dominican Republic
2900 
2901 # From Steffen Thorsen (2000-10-30):
2902 # Enrique Morales reported to me that the Dominican Republic has changed the
2903 # time zone to Eastern Standard Time as of Sunday 29 at 2 am....
2904 # http://www.listin.com.do/antes/261000/republica/princi.html
2905 
2906 # From Paul Eggert (2000-12-04):
2907 # That URL (2000-10-26, in Spanish) says they planned to use US-style DST.
2908 
2909 # From Rives McDow (2000-12-01):
2910 # Dominican Republic changed its mind and presidential decree on Tuesday,
2911 # November 28, 2000, with a new decree.  On Sunday, December 3 at 1:00 AM the
2912 # Dominican Republic will be reverting to 8 hours from the International Date
2913 # Line, and will not be using DST in the foreseeable future.  The reason they
2914 # decided to use DST was to be in synch with Puerto Rico, who was also going
2915 # to implement DST.  When Puerto Rico didn't implement DST, the president
2916 # decided to revert.
2917 
2918 
2919 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2920 Rule    DR      1966    only    -       Oct     30      0:00    1:00    D
2921 Rule    DR      1967    only    -       Feb     28      0:00    0       S
2922 Rule    DR      1969    1973    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0:30    HD
2923 Rule    DR      1970    only    -       Feb     21      0:00    0       S
2924 Rule    DR      1971    only    -       Jan     20      0:00    0       S
2925 Rule    DR      1972    1974    -       Jan     21      0:00    0       S
2926 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2927 Zone America/Santo_Domingo -4:39:36 -   LMT     1890
2928                         -4:40   -       SDMT    1933 Apr  1 12:00 # S. Dom. MT
2929                         -5:00   DR      E%sT    1974 Oct 27
2930                         -4:00   -       AST     2000 Oct 29 02:00
2931                         -5:00   US      E%sT    2000 Dec  3 01:00
2932                         -4:00   -       AST
2933 
2934 # El Salvador
2935 
2936 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2937 Rule    Salv    1987    1988    -       May     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
2938 Rule    Salv    1987    1988    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       S
2939 # There are too many San Salvadors elsewhere, so use America/El_Salvador
2940 # instead of America/San_Salvador.
2941 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2942 Zone America/El_Salvador -5:56:48 -     LMT     1921            # San Salvador
2943                         -6:00   Salv    C%sT
2944 
2945 # Grenada
2946 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2947 Zone    America/Grenada -4:07:00 -      LMT     1911 Jul        # St George's
2948                         -4:00   -       AST
2949 
2950 # Guadeloupe
2951 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2952 Zone America/Guadeloupe -4:06:08 -      LMT     1911 Jun 8      # Pointe a Pitre
2953                         -4:00   -       AST
2954 # St Barthelemy
2955 Link America/Guadeloupe America/St_Barthelemy
2956 # St Martin (French part)
2957 Link America/Guadeloupe America/Marigot
2958 
2959 # Guatemala
2960 #
2961 # From Gwillim Law (2006-04-22), after a heads-up from Oscar van Vlijmen:
2962 # Diario Co Latino, at
2963 # http://www.diariocolatino.com/internacionales/detalles.asp?NewsID=8079,
2964 # says in an article dated 2006-04-19 that the Guatemalan government had
2965 # decided on that date to advance official time by 60 minutes, to lessen the
2966 # impact of the elevated cost of oil....  Daylight saving time will last from
2967 # 2006-04-29 24:00 (Guatemalan standard time) to 2006-09-30 (time unspecified).
2968 # From Paul Eggert (2006-06-22):
2969 # The Ministry of Energy and Mines, press release CP-15/2006
2970 # (2006-04-19), says DST ends at 24:00.  See
2971 # <http://www.sieca.org.gt/Sitio_publico/Energeticos/Doc/Medidas/Cambio_Horario_Nac_190406.pdf>.
2972 
2973 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2974 Rule    Guat    1973    only    -       Nov     25      0:00    1:00    D
2975 Rule    Guat    1974    only    -       Feb     24      0:00    0       S
2976 Rule    Guat    1983    only    -       May     21      0:00    1:00    D
2977 Rule    Guat    1983    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
2978 Rule    Guat    1991    only    -       Mar     23      0:00    1:00    D
2979 Rule    Guat    1991    only    -       Sep      7      0:00    0       S
2980 Rule    Guat    2006    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    D
2981 Rule    Guat    2006    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       S
2982 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2983 Zone America/Guatemala  -6:02:04 -      LMT     1918 Oct 5
2984                         -6:00   Guat    C%sT
2985 
2986 # Haiti
2987 # From Gwillim Law (2005-04-15):
2988 # Risto O. Nykanen wrote me that Haiti is now on DST.
2989 # I searched for confirmation, and I found a
2990 # <a href="http://www.haitianconsulate.org/time.doc"> press release
2991 # on the Web page of the Haitian Consulate in Chicago (2005-03-31),
2992 # </a>.  Translated from French, it says:
2993 #
2994 #  "The Prime Minister's Communication Office notifies the public in general
2995 #   and the press in particular that, following a decision of the Interior
2996 #   Ministry and the Territorial Collectivities [I suppose that means the
2997 #   provinces], Haiti will move to Eastern Daylight Time in the night from next
2998 #   Saturday the 2nd to Sunday the 3rd.
2999 #
3000 #  "Consequently, the Prime Minister's Communication Office wishes to inform
3001 #   the population that the country's clocks will be set forward one hour
3002 #   starting at midnight.  This provision will hold until the last Saturday in
3003 #   October 2005.
3004 #
3005 #  "Port-au-Prince, March 31, 2005"
3006 #
3007 # From Steffen Thorsen (2006-04-04):
3008 # I have been informed by users that Haiti observes DST this year like
3009 # last year, so the current "only" rule for 2005 might be changed to a
3010 # "max" rule or to last until 2006. (Who knows if they will observe DST
3011 # next year or if they will extend their DST like US/Canada next year).
3012 #
3013 # I have found this article about it (in French):
3014 # http://www.haitipressnetwork.com/news.cfm?articleID=7612
3015 #
3016 # The reason seems to be an energy crisis.
3017 
3018 # From Stephen Colebourne (2007-02-22):
3019 # Some IATA info: Haiti won't be having DST in 2007.
3020 
3021 # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-11):
3022 # According to several news sources, Haiti will observe DST this year,
3023 # apparently using the same start and end date as USA/Canada.
3024 # So this means they have already changed their time.
3025 #
3026 # http://www.alterpresse.org/spip.php?article12510
3027 # http://radiovision2000haiti.net/home/?p=13253
3028 #
3029 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-11):
3030 # The alterpresse.org source seems to show a US-style leap from 2:00 a.m. to
3031 # 3:00 a.m. rather than the traditional Haitian jump at midnight.
3032 # Assume a US-style fall back as well.
3033 
3034 # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-03-10):
3035 # It appears that Haiti is observing DST this year as well, same rules
3036 # as US/Canada.  They did it last year as well, and it looks like they
3037 # are going to observe DST every year now...
3038 #
3039 # http://radiovision2000haiti.net/public/haiti-avis-changement-dheure-dimanche/
3040 # http://www.canalplushaiti.net/?p=6714
3041 
3042 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3043 Rule    Haiti   1983    only    -       May     8       0:00    1:00    D
3044 Rule    Haiti   1984    1987    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    1:00    D
3045 Rule    Haiti   1983    1987    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       S
3046 # Shanks & Pottenger say AT is 2:00, but IATA SSIM (1991/1997) says 1:00s.
3047 # Go with IATA.
3048 Rule    Haiti   1988    1997    -       Apr     Sun>=1       1:00s   1:00    D
3049 Rule    Haiti   1988    1997    -       Oct     lastSun 1:00s   0       S
3050 Rule    Haiti   2005    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
3051 Rule    Haiti   2005    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       S
3052 Rule    Haiti   2012    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
3053 Rule    Haiti   2012    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
3054 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3055 Zone America/Port-au-Prince -4:49:20 -  LMT     1890
3056                         -4:49   -       PPMT    1917 Jan 24 12:00 # P-a-P MT
3057                         -5:00   Haiti   E%sT
3058 
3059 # Honduras
3060 # Shanks & Pottenger say 1921 Jan 1; go with Whitman's more precise Apr 1.
3061 
3062 # From Paul Eggert (2006-05-05):
3063 # worldtimezone.com reports a 2006-05-02 Spanish-language AP article
3064 # saying Honduras will start using DST midnight Saturday, effective 4
3065 # months until September.  La Tribuna reported today
3066 # <http://www.latribuna.hn/99299.html> that Manuel Zelaya, the president
3067 # of Honduras, refused to back down on this.
3068 
3069 # From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-08-08):
3070 # It seems that Honduras has returned from DST to standard time this Monday at
3071 # 00:00 hours (prolonging Sunday to 25 hours duration).
3072 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_honduras04.html
3073 
3074 # From Paul Eggert (2006-08-08):
3075 # Also see Diario El Heraldo, The country returns to standard time (2006-08-08)
3076 # <http://www.elheraldo.hn/nota.php?nid=54941&sec=12>.
3077 # It mentions executive decree 18-2006.
3078 
3079 # From Steffen Thorsen (2006-08-17):
3080 # Honduras will observe DST from 2007 to 2009, exact dates are not
3081 # published, I have located this authoritative source:
3082 # http://www.presidencia.gob.hn/noticia.aspx?nId=47
3083 
3084 # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-03-30):
3085 # http://www.laprensahn.com/pais_nota.php?id04962=7386
3086 # So it seems that Honduras will not enter DST this year....
3087 
3088 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3089 Rule    Hond    1987    1988    -       May     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
3090 Rule    Hond    1987    1988    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       S
3091 Rule    Hond    2006    only    -       May     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
3092 Rule    Hond    2006    only    -       Aug     Mon>=1       0:00    0       S
3093 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3094 Zone America/Tegucigalpa -5:48:52 -     LMT     1921 Apr
3095                         -6:00   Hond    C%sT
3096 #
3097 # Great Swan I ceded by US to Honduras in 1972
3098 
3099 # Jamaica
3100 
3101 # From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
3102 # Follows US rules.
3103 
3104 # From U. S. Naval Observatory (1989-01-19):
3105 # JAMAICA             5 H  BEHIND UTC
3106 
3107 # From Shanks & Pottenger:
3108 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3109 Zone    America/Jamaica -5:07:12 -      LMT     1890            # Kingston
3110                         -5:07:12 -      KMT     1912 Feb    # Kingston Mean Time
3111                         -5:00   -       EST     1974 Apr 28 2:00
3112                         -5:00   US      E%sT    1984
3113                         -5:00   -       EST
3114 
3115 # Martinique
3116 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3117 Zone America/Martinique -4:04:20 -      LMT     1890            # Fort-de-France
3118                         -4:04:20 -      FFMT    1911 May     # Fort-de-France MT
3119                         -4:00   -       AST     1980 Apr  6
3120                         -4:00   1:00    ADT     1980 Sep 28
3121                         -4:00   -       AST
3122 
3123 # Montserrat
3124 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
3125 # In 1995 volcanic eruptions forced evacuation of Plymouth, the capital.
3126 # world.gazetteer.com says Cork Hill is the most populous location now.
3127 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3128 Zone America/Montserrat -4:08:52 -      LMT     1911 Jul 1 0:01   # Cork Hill
3129                         -4:00   -       AST
3130 
3131 # Nicaragua
3132 #
3133 # This uses Shanks & Pottenger for times before 2005.
3134 #
3135 # From Steffen Thorsen (2005-04-12):
3136 # I've got reports from 8 different people that Nicaragua just started
3137 # DST on Sunday 2005-04-10, in order to save energy because of
3138 # expensive petroleum.  The exact end date for DST is not yet
3139 # announced, only "September" but some sites also say "mid-September".
3140 # Some background information is available on the President's official site:
3141 # http://www.presidencia.gob.ni/Presidencia/Files_index/Secretaria/Notas%20de%20Prensa/Presidente/2005/ABRIL/Gobierno-de-nicaragua-adelanta-hora-oficial-06abril.htm
3142 # The Decree, no 23-2005 is available here:
3143 # http://www.presidencia.gob.ni/buscador_gaceta/BD/DECRETOS/2005/Decreto%2023-2005%20Se%20adelanta%20en%20una%20hora%20en%20todo%20el%20territorio%20nacional%20apartir%20de%20las%2024horas%20del%2009%20de%20Abril.pdf
3144 #
3145 # From Paul Eggert (2005-05-01):
3146 # The decree doesn't say anything about daylight saving, but for now let's
3147 # assume that it is daylight saving....
3148 #
3149 # From Gwillim Law (2005-04-21):
3150 # The Associated Press story on the time change, which can be found at
3151 # http://www.lapalmainteractivo.com/guias/content/gen/ap/America_Latina/AMC_GEN_NICARAGUA_HORA.html
3152 # and elsewhere, says (fifth paragraph, translated from Spanish):  "The last
3153 # time that a change of clocks was applied to save energy was in the year 2000
3154 # during the Arnoldo Aleman administration."...
3155 # The northamerica file says that Nicaragua has been on UTC-6 continuously
3156 # since December 1998.  I wasn't able to find any details of Nicaraguan time
3157 # changes in 2000.  Perhaps a note could be added to the northamerica file, to
3158 # the effect that we have indirect evidence that DST was observed in 2000.
3159 #
3160 # From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2005-11-02):
3161 # Nicaragua left DST the 2005-10-02 at 00:00 (local time).
3162 # http://www.presidencia.gob.ni/presidencia/files_index/secretaria/comunicados/2005/septiembre/26septiembre-cambio-hora.htm
3163 # (2005-09-26)
3164 #
3165 # From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-05-05):
3166 # http://www.elnuevodiario.com.ni/2006/05/01/nacionales/18410
3167 # (my informal translation)
3168 # By order of the president of the republic, Enrique Bolanos, Nicaragua
3169 # advanced by sixty minutes their official time, yesterday at 2 in the
3170 # morning, and will stay that way until 30.th. of september.
3171 #
3172 # From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-09-30):
3173 # http://www.presidencia.gob.ni/buscador_gaceta/BD/DECRETOS/2006/D-063-2006P-PRN-Cambio-Hora.pdf
3174 # My informal translation runs:
3175 # The natural sun time is restored in all the national territory, in that the
3176 # time is returned one hour at 01:00 am of October 1 of 2006.
3177 #
3178 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3179 Rule    Nic     1979    1980    -       Mar     Sun>=16      0:00    1:00    D
3180 Rule    Nic     1979    1980    -       Jun     Mon>=23      0:00    0       S
3181 Rule    Nic     2005    only    -       Apr     10      0:00    1:00    D
3182 Rule    Nic     2005    only    -       Oct     Sun>=1       0:00    0       S
3183 Rule    Nic     2006    only    -       Apr     30      2:00    1:00    D
3184 Rule    Nic     2006    only    -       Oct     Sun>=1       1:00    0       S
3185 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3186 Zone    America/Managua -5:45:08 -      LMT     1890
3187                         -5:45:12 -      MMT     1934 Jun 23 # Managua Mean Time?
3188                         -6:00   -       CST     1973 May
3189                         -5:00   -       EST     1975 Feb 16
3190                         -6:00   Nic     C%sT    1992 Jan  1 4:00
3191                         -5:00   -       EST     1992 Sep 24
3192                         -6:00   -       CST     1993
3193                         -5:00   -       EST     1997
3194                         -6:00   Nic     C%sT
3195 
3196 # Panama
3197 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3198 Zone    America/Panama  -5:18:08 -      LMT     1890
3199                         -5:19:36 -      CMT     1908 Apr 22   # Colon Mean Time
3200                         -5:00   -       EST
3201 
3202 # Puerto Rico
3203 # There are too many San Juans elsewhere, so we'll use `Puerto_Rico'.
3204 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3205 Zone America/Puerto_Rico -4:24:25 -     LMT     1899 Mar 28 12:00    # San Juan
3206                         -4:00   -       AST     1942 May  3
3207                         -4:00   US      A%sT    1946
3208                         -4:00   -       AST
3209 
3210 # St Kitts-Nevis
3211 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3212 Zone America/St_Kitts   -4:10:52 -      LMT     1912 Mar 2      # Basseterre
3213                         -4:00   -       AST
3214 
3215 # St Lucia
3216 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3217 Zone America/St_Lucia   -4:04:00 -      LMT     1890            # Castries
3218                         -4:04:00 -      CMT     1912        # Castries Mean Time
3219                         -4:00   -       AST
3220 
3221 # St Pierre and Miquelon
3222 # There are too many St Pierres elsewhere, so we'll use `Miquelon'.
3223 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3224 Zone America/Miquelon   -3:44:40 -      LMT     1911 May 15     # St Pierre
3225                         -4:00   -       AST     1980 May
3226                         -3:00   -       PMST    1987 # Pierre & Miquelon Time
3227                         -3:00   Canada  PM%sT
3228 
3229 # St Vincent and the Grenadines
3230 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3231 Zone America/St_Vincent -4:04:56 -      LMT     1890            # Kingstown
3232                         -4:04:56 -      KMT     1912       # Kingstown Mean Time
3233                         -4:00   -       AST
3234 
3235 # Turks and Caicos
3236 #
3237 # From Chris Dunn in
3238 # <http://bugs.debian.org/cgi-bin/bugreport.cgi?bug=415007>
3239 # (2007-03-15): In the Turks & Caicos Islands (America/Grand_Turk) the
3240 # daylight saving dates for time changes have been adjusted to match
3241 # the recent U.S. change of dates.
3242 #
3243 # From Brian Inglis (2007-04-28):
3244 # http://www.turksandcaicos.tc/calendar/index.htm [2007-04-26]
3245 # there is an entry for Nov 4 "Daylight Savings Time Ends 2007" and three
3246 # rows before that there is an out of date entry for Oct:
3247 # "Eastern Standard Times Begins 2007
3248 # Clocks are set back one hour at 2:00 a.m. local Daylight Saving Time"
3249 # indicating that the normal ET rules are followed.
3250 #
3251 # From Paul Eggert (2006-05-01):
3252 # Shanks & Pottenger say they use US DST rules, but IATA SSIM (1991/1998)
3253 # says they switch at midnight.  Go with Shanks & Pottenger.
3254 #
3255 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3256 Rule    TC      1979    1986    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
3257 Rule    TC      1979    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
3258 Rule    TC      1987    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
3259 Rule    TC      2007    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
3260 Rule    TC      2007    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
3261 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3262 Zone America/Grand_Turk -4:44:32 -      LMT     1890
3263                         -5:07:12 -      KMT     1912 Feb    # Kingston Mean Time
3264                         -5:00   TC      E%sT
3265 
3266 # British Virgin Is
3267 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3268 Zone America/Tortola    -4:18:28 -      LMT     1911 Jul    # Road Town
3269                         -4:00   -       AST
3270 
3271 # Virgin Is
3272 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3273 Zone America/St_Thomas  -4:19:44 -      LMT     1911 Jul    # Charlotte Amalie
3274                         -4:00   -       AST