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  21 # or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  22 # questions.
  23 #
  24 # <pre>
  25 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
  26 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
  27 
  28 # This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
  29 # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
  30 # tz@iana.org for general use in the future).
  31 
  32 # From Paul Eggert (2013-02-21):
  33 #
  34 # A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is
  35 # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
  36 # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
  37 #
  38 # Gwillim Law writes that a good source
  39 # for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
  40 # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
  41 # published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
  42 # of the IATA's data after 1990.
  43 #
  44 # Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for
  45 # entries through 1990, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.
  46 #
  47 # Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
  48 # Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which
  49 # I found in the UCLA library.
  50 #
  51 # For data circa 1899, a common source is:
  52 # Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94
  53 # <http://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359>.
  54 #
  55 # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
  56 # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
  57 #
  58 # Previous editions of this database used WAT, CAT, SAT, and EAT
  59 # for +0:00 through +3:00, respectively,
  60 # but Mark R V Murray reports that
  61 # `SAST' is the official abbreviation for +2:00 in the country of South Africa,
  62 # `CAT' is commonly used for +2:00 in countries north of South Africa, and
  63 # `WAT' is probably the best name for +1:00, as the common phrase for
  64 # the area that includes Nigeria is ``West Africa''.
  65 # He has heard of ``Western Sahara Time'' for +0:00 but can find no reference.
  66 #
  67 # To make things confusing, `WAT' seems to have been used for -1:00 long ago;
  68 # I'd guess that this was because people needed _some_ name for -1:00,
  69 # and at the time, far west Africa was the only major land area in -1:00.
  70 # This usage is now obsolete, as the last use of -1:00 on the African
  71 # mainland seems to have been 1976 in Western Sahara.
  72 #
  73 # To summarize, the following abbreviations seem to have some currency:
  74 #       -1:00   WAT     West Africa Time (no longer used)
  75 #        0:00   GMT     Greenwich Mean Time
  76 #        2:00   CAT     Central Africa Time
  77 #        2:00   SAST    South Africa Standard Time
  78 # and Murray suggests the following abbreviation:
  79 #        1:00   WAT     West Africa Time
  80 # I realize that this leads to `WAT' being used for both -1:00 and 1:00
  81 # for times before 1976, but this is the best I can think of
  82 # until we get more information.
  83 #
  84 # I invented the following abbreviations; corrections are welcome!
  85 #        2:00   WAST    West Africa Summer Time
  86 #        2:30   BEAT    British East Africa Time (no longer used)
  87 #        2:45   BEAUT   British East Africa Unified Time (no longer used)
  88 #        3:00   CAST    Central Africa Summer Time (no longer used)
  89 #        3:00   SAST    South Africa Summer Time (no longer used)
  90 #        3:00   EAT     East Africa Time
  91 #        4:00   EAST    East Africa Summer Time (no longer used)
  92 
  93 # Algeria
  94 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
  95 Rule    Algeria 1916    only    -       Jun     14      23:00s  1:00    S
  96 Rule    Algeria 1916    1919    -       Oct     Sun>=1       23:00s  0       -
  97 Rule    Algeria 1917    only    -       Mar     24      23:00s  1:00    S
  98 Rule    Algeria 1918    only    -       Mar      9      23:00s  1:00    S
  99 Rule    Algeria 1919    only    -       Mar      1      23:00s  1:00    S
 100 Rule    Algeria 1920    only    -       Feb     14      23:00s  1:00    S
 101 Rule    Algeria 1920    only    -       Oct     23      23:00s  0       -
 102 Rule    Algeria 1921    only    -       Mar     14      23:00s  1:00    S
 103 Rule    Algeria 1921    only    -       Jun     21      23:00s  0       -
 104 Rule    Algeria 1939    only    -       Sep     11      23:00s  1:00    S
 105 Rule    Algeria 1939    only    -       Nov     19       1:00   0       -
 106 Rule    Algeria 1944    1945    -       Apr     Mon>=1        2:00   1:00    S
 107 Rule    Algeria 1944    only    -       Oct      8       2:00   0       -
 108 Rule    Algeria 1945    only    -       Sep     16       1:00   0       -
 109 Rule    Algeria 1971    only    -       Apr     25      23:00s  1:00    S
 110 Rule    Algeria 1971    only    -       Sep     26      23:00s  0       -
 111 Rule    Algeria 1977    only    -       May      6       0:00   1:00    S
 112 Rule    Algeria 1977    only    -       Oct     21       0:00   0       -
 113 Rule    Algeria 1978    only    -       Mar     24       1:00   1:00    S
 114 Rule    Algeria 1978    only    -       Sep     22       3:00   0       -
 115 Rule    Algeria 1980    only    -       Apr     25       0:00   1:00    S
 116 Rule    Algeria 1980    only    -       Oct     31       2:00   0       -
 117 # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's
 118 # more precise 0:09:21.
 119 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 120 Zone    Africa/Algiers  0:12:12 -       LMT     1891 Mar 15 0:01
 121                         0:09:21 -       PMT     1911 Mar 11    # Paris Mean Time
 122                         0:00    Algeria WE%sT   1940 Feb 25 2:00
 123                         1:00    Algeria CE%sT   1946 Oct  7
 124                         0:00    -       WET     1956 Jan 29
 125                         1:00    -       CET     1963 Apr 14
 126                         0:00    Algeria WE%sT   1977 Oct 21
 127                         1:00    Algeria CE%sT   1979 Oct 26
 128                         0:00    Algeria WE%sT   1981 May
 129                         1:00    -       CET
 130 
 131 # Angola
 132 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 133 Zone    Africa/Luanda   0:52:56 -       LMT     1892
 134                         0:52:04 -       AOT     1911 May 26 # Angola Time
 135                         1:00    -       WAT
 136 
 137 # Benin
 138 # Whitman says they switched to 1:00 in 1946, not 1934;
 139 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
 140 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 141 Zone Africa/Porto-Novo  0:10:28 -       LMT     1912
 142                         0:00    -       GMT     1934 Feb 26
 143                         1:00    -       WAT
 144 
 145 # Botswana
 146 # From Paul Eggert (2013-02-21):
 147 # Milne says they were regulated by the Cape Town Signal in 1899;
 148 # assume they switched to 2:00 when Cape Town did.
 149 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 150 Zone    Africa/Gaborone 1:43:40 -       LMT     1885
 151                         1:30    -       SAST    1903 Mar
 152                         2:00    -       CAT     1943 Sep 19 2:00
 153                         2:00    1:00    CAST    1944 Mar 19 2:00
 154                         2:00    -       CAT
 155 
 156 # Burkina Faso
 157 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 158 Zone Africa/Ouagadougou -0:06:04 -      LMT     1912
 159                          0:00   -       GMT
 160 
 161 # Burundi
 162 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 163 Zone Africa/Bujumbura   1:57:28 -       LMT     1890
 164                         2:00    -       CAT
 165 
 166 # Cameroon
 167 # Whitman says they switched to 1:00 in 1920; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
 168 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 169 Zone    Africa/Douala   0:38:48 -       LMT     1912
 170                         1:00    -       WAT
 171 
 172 # Cape Verde
 173 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 174 Zone Atlantic/Cape_Verde -1:34:04 -     LMT     1907                    # Praia
 175                         -2:00   -       CVT     1942 Sep
 176                         -2:00   1:00    CVST    1945 Oct 15
 177                         -2:00   -       CVT     1975 Nov 25 2:00
 178                         -1:00   -       CVT
 179 
 180 # Central African Republic
 181 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 182 Zone    Africa/Bangui   1:14:20 -       LMT     1912
 183                         1:00    -       WAT
 184 
 185 # Chad
 186 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 187 Zone    Africa/Ndjamena 1:00:12 -       LMT     1912
 188                         1:00    -       WAT     1979 Oct 14
 189                         1:00    1:00    WAST    1980 Mar  8
 190                         1:00    -       WAT
 191 
 192 # Comoros
 193 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 194 Zone    Indian/Comoro   2:53:04 -       LMT     1911 Jul   # Moroni, Gran Comoro
 195                         3:00    -       EAT
 196 
 197 # Democratic Republic of Congo
 198 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 199 Zone Africa/Kinshasa    1:01:12 -       LMT     1897 Nov 9
 200                         1:00    -       WAT
 201 Zone Africa/Lubumbashi  1:49:52 -       LMT     1897 Nov 9
 202                         2:00    -       CAT
 203 
 204 # Republic of the Congo
 205 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 206 Zone Africa/Brazzaville 1:01:08 -       LMT     1912
 207                         1:00    -       WAT
 208 
 209 # Cote D'Ivoire
 210 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 211 Zone    Africa/Abidjan  -0:16:08 -      LMT     1912
 212                          0:00   -       GMT
 213 
 214 # Djibouti
 215 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 216 Zone    Africa/Djibouti 2:52:36 -       LMT     1911 Jul
 217                         3:00    -       EAT
 218 
 219 ###############################################################################
 220 
 221 # Egypt
 222 
 223 # Milne says Cairo used 2:05:08.9, the local mean time of the Abbasizeh
 224 # observatory; round to nearest.  Milne also says that the official time for
 225 # Egypt was mean noon at the Great Pyramid, 2:04:30.5, but apparently this
 226 # did not apply to Cairo, Alexandria, or Port Said.
 227 
 228 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 229 Rule    Egypt   1940    only    -       Jul     15      0:00    1:00    S
 230 Rule    Egypt   1940    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
 231 Rule    Egypt   1941    only    -       Apr     15      0:00    1:00    S
 232 Rule    Egypt   1941    only    -       Sep     16      0:00    0       -
 233 Rule    Egypt   1942    1944    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
 234 Rule    Egypt   1942    only    -       Oct     27      0:00    0       -
 235 Rule    Egypt   1943    1945    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       -
 236 Rule    Egypt   1945    only    -       Apr     16      0:00    1:00    S
 237 Rule    Egypt   1957    only    -       May     10      0:00    1:00    S
 238 Rule    Egypt   1957    1958    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
 239 Rule    Egypt   1958    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S
 240 Rule    Egypt   1959    1981    -       May      1      1:00    1:00    S
 241 Rule    Egypt   1959    1965    -       Sep     30      3:00    0       -
 242 Rule    Egypt   1966    1994    -       Oct      1      3:00    0       -
 243 Rule    Egypt   1982    only    -       Jul     25      1:00    1:00    S
 244 Rule    Egypt   1983    only    -       Jul     12      1:00    1:00    S
 245 Rule    Egypt   1984    1988    -       May      1      1:00    1:00    S
 246 Rule    Egypt   1989    only    -       May      6      1:00    1:00    S
 247 Rule    Egypt   1990    1994    -       May      1      1:00    1:00    S
 248 # IATA (after 1990) says transitions are at 0:00.
 249 # Go with IATA starting in 1995, except correct 1995 entry from 09-30 to 09-29.
 250 
 251 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-04-20):
 252 # "...Egypt's interim cabinet decided on Wednesday to cancel daylight
 253 # saving time after a poll posted on its website showed the majority of
 254 # Egyptians would approve the cancellation."
 255 #
 256 # Egypt to cancel daylight saving time
 257 # <a href="http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/node/407168">
 258 # http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/node/407168
 259 # </a>
 260 # or
 261 # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_egypt04.html">
 262 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_egypt04.html
 263 # </a>
 264 Rule    Egypt   1995    2010    -       Apr     lastFri  0:00s  1:00    S
 265 Rule    Egypt   1995    2005    -       Sep     lastThu 23:00s  0       -
 266 # From Steffen Thorsen (2006-09-19):
 267 # The Egyptian Gazette, issue 41,090 (2006-09-18), page 1, reports:
 268 # Egypt will turn back clocks by one hour at the midnight of Thursday
 269 # after observing the daylight saving time since May.
 270 # http://news.gom.com.eg/gazette/pdf/2006/09/18/01.pdf
 271 Rule    Egypt   2006    only    -       Sep     21      23:00s  0       -
 272 # From Dirk Losch (2007-08-14):
 273 # I received a mail from an airline which says that the daylight
 274 # saving time in Egypt will end in the night of 2007-09-06 to 2007-09-07.
 275 # From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2007-08-15): [The following agree:]
 276 # http://www.nentjes.info/Bill/bill5.htm
 277 # http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/city.html?n=53
 278 # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-09-04): The official information...:
 279 # http://www.sis.gov.eg/En/EgyptOnline/Miscellaneous/000002/0207000000000000001580.htm
 280 Rule    Egypt   2007    only    -       Sep     Thu>=1       23:00s  0       -
 281 # From Abdelrahman Hassan (2007-09-06):
 282 # Due to the Hijri (lunar Islamic calendar) year being 11 days shorter
 283 # than the year of the Gregorian calendar, Ramadan shifts earlier each
 284 # year. This year it will be observed September 13 (September is quite
 285 # hot in Egypt), and the idea is to make fasting easier for workers by
 286 # shifting business hours one hour out of daytime heat. Consequently,
 287 # unless discontinued, next DST may end Thursday 28 August 2008.
 288 # From Paul Eggert (2007-08-17):
 289 # For lack of better info, assume the new rule is last Thursday in August.
 290 
 291 # From Petr Machata (2009-04-06):
 292 # The following appeared in Red Hat bugzilla[1] (edited):
 293 #
 294 # > $ zdump -v /usr/share/zoneinfo/Africa/Cairo | grep 2009
 295 # > /usr/share/zoneinfo/Africa/Cairo  Thu Apr 23 21:59:59 2009 UTC = Thu =
 296 # Apr 23
 297 # > 23:59:59 2009 EET isdst=0 gmtoff=7200
 298 # > /usr/share/zoneinfo/Africa/Cairo  Thu Apr 23 22:00:00 2009 UTC = Fri =
 299 # Apr 24
 300 # > 01:00:00 2009 EEST isdst=1 gmtoff=10800
 301 # > /usr/share/zoneinfo/Africa/Cairo  Thu Aug 27 20:59:59 2009 UTC = Thu =
 302 # Aug 27
 303 # > 23:59:59 2009 EEST isdst=1 gmtoff=10800
 304 # > /usr/share/zoneinfo/Africa/Cairo  Thu Aug 27 21:00:00 2009 UTC = Thu =
 305 # Aug 27
 306 # > 23:00:00 2009 EET isdst=0 gmtoff=7200
 307 #
 308 # > end date should be Thu Sep 24 2009 (Last Thursday in September at 23:59=
 309 # :59)
 310 # > http://support.microsoft.com/kb/958729/
 311 #
 312 # timeanddate[2] and another site I've found[3] also support that.
 313 #
 314 # [1] <a href="https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=492263">
 315 # https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=492263
 316 # </a>
 317 # [2] <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/clockchange.html?n=53">
 318 # http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/clockchange.html?n=53
 319 # </a>
 320 # [3] <a href="http://wwp.greenwichmeantime.com/time-zone/africa/egypt/">
 321 # http://wwp.greenwichmeantime.com/time-zone/africa/egypt/
 322 # </a>
 323 
 324 # From Arthur David Olson (2009-04-20):
 325 # In 2009 (and for the next several years), Ramadan ends before the fourth
 326 # Thursday in September; Egypt is expected to revert to the last Thursday
 327 # in September.
 328 
 329 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-08-11):
 330 # We have been able to confirm the August change with the Egyptian Cabinet
 331 # Information and Decision Support Center:
 332 # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/egypt-dst-ends-2009.html">
 333 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/egypt-dst-ends-2009.html
 334 # </a>
 335 #
 336 # The Middle East News Agency
 337 # <a href="http://www.mena.org.eg/index.aspx">
 338 # http://www.mena.org.eg/index.aspx
 339 # </a>
 340 # also reports "Egypt starts winter time on August 21"
 341 # today in article numbered "71, 11/08/2009 12:25 GMT."
 342 # Only the title above is available without a subscription to their service,
 343 # and can be found by searching for "winter" in their search engine
 344 # (at least today).
 345 
 346 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-07-20):
 347 # According to News from Egypt -  Al-Masry Al-Youm Egypt's cabinet has
 348 # decided that Daylight Saving Time will not be used in Egypt during
 349 # Ramadan.
 350 #
 351 # Arabic translation:
 352 # "Clocks to go back during Ramadan--and then forward again"
 353 # <a href="http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/news/clocks-go-back-during-ramadan-and-then-forward-again">
 354 # http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/news/clocks-go-back-during-ramadan-and-then-forward-again
 355 # </a>
 356 # or
 357 # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_egypt02.html">
 358 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_egypt02.html
 359 # </a>
 360 
 361 Rule    Egypt   2008    only    -       Aug     lastThu 23:00s  0       -
 362 Rule    Egypt   2009    only    -       Aug     20      23:00s  0       -
 363 Rule    Egypt   2010    only    -       Aug     11      0:00    0       -
 364 Rule    Egypt   2010    only    -       Sep     10      0:00    1:00    S
 365 Rule    Egypt   2010    only    -       Sep     lastThu 23:00s  0       -
 366 
 367 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 368 Zone    Africa/Cairo    2:05:09 -       LMT     1900 Oct
 369                         2:00    Egypt   EE%sT
 370 
 371 # Equatorial Guinea
 372 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 373 Zone    Africa/Malabo   0:35:08 -       LMT     1912
 374                         0:00    -       GMT     1963 Dec 15
 375                         1:00    -       WAT
 376 
 377 # Eritrea
 378 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 379 Zone    Africa/Asmara   2:35:32 -       LMT     1870
 380                         2:35:32 -       AMT     1890          # Asmara Mean Time
 381                         2:35:20 -       ADMT    1936 May 5    # Adis Dera MT
 382                         3:00    -       EAT
 383 
 384 # Ethiopia
 385 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
 386 # Shanks & Pottenger write that Ethiopia had six narrowly-spaced time zones
 387 # between 1870 and 1890, and that they merged to 38E50 (2:35:20) in 1890.
 388 # We'll guess that 38E50 is for Adis Dera.
 389 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 390 Zone Africa/Addis_Ababa 2:34:48 -       LMT     1870
 391                         2:35:20 -       ADMT    1936 May 5    # Adis Dera MT
 392                         3:00    -       EAT
 393 
 394 # Gabon
 395 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 396 Zone Africa/Libreville  0:37:48 -       LMT     1912
 397                         1:00    -       WAT
 398 
 399 # Gambia
 400 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 401 Zone    Africa/Banjul   -1:06:36 -      LMT     1912
 402                         -1:06:36 -      BMT     1935    # Banjul Mean Time
 403                         -1:00   -       WAT     1964
 404                          0:00   -       GMT
 405 
 406 # Ghana
 407 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 408 # Whitman says DST was observed from 1931 to ``the present'';
 409 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
 410 Rule    Ghana   1936    1942    -       Sep      1      0:00    0:20    GHST
 411 Rule    Ghana   1936    1942    -       Dec     31      0:00    0       GMT
 412 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 413 Zone    Africa/Accra    -0:00:52 -      LMT     1918
 414                          0:00   Ghana   %s
 415 
 416 # Guinea
 417 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 418 Zone    Africa/Conakry  -0:54:52 -      LMT     1912
 419                          0:00   -       GMT     1934 Feb 26
 420                         -1:00   -       WAT     1960
 421                          0:00   -       GMT
 422 
 423 # Guinea-Bissau
 424 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 425 Zone    Africa/Bissau   -1:02:20 -      LMT     1911 May 26
 426                         -1:00   -       WAT     1975
 427                          0:00   -       GMT
 428 
 429 # Kenya
 430 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 431 Zone    Africa/Nairobi  2:27:16 -       LMT     1928 Jul
 432                         3:00    -       EAT     1930
 433                         2:30    -       BEAT    1940
 434                         2:45    -       BEAUT   1960
 435                         3:00    -       EAT
 436 
 437 # Lesotho
 438 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 439 Zone    Africa/Maseru   1:50:00 -       LMT     1903 Mar
 440                         2:00    -       SAST    1943 Sep 19 2:00
 441                         2:00    1:00    SAST    1944 Mar 19 2:00
 442                         2:00    -       SAST
 443 
 444 # Liberia
 445 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
 446 # In 1972 Liberia was the last country to switch
 447 # from a UTC offset that was not a multiple of 15 or 20 minutes.
 448 # Howse reports that it was in honor of their president's birthday.
 449 # Shank & Pottenger report the date as May 1, whereas Howse reports Jan;
 450 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
 451 # For Liberia before 1972, Shanks & Pottenger report -0:44, whereas Howse and
 452 # Whitman each report -0:44:30; go with the more precise figure.
 453 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 454 Zone    Africa/Monrovia -0:43:08 -      LMT     1882
 455                         -0:43:08 -      MMT     1919 Mar # Monrovia Mean Time
 456                         -0:44:30 -      LRT     1972 May # Liberia Time
 457                          0:00   -       GMT
 458 
 459 ###############################################################################
 460 
 461 # Libya
 462 
 463 # From Even Scharning (2012-11-10):
 464 # Libya set their time one hour back at 02:00 on Saturday November 10.
 465 # http://www.libyaherald.com/2012/11/04/clocks-to-go-back-an-hour-on-saturday/
 466 # Here is an official source [in Arabic]: http://ls.ly/fb6Yc
 467 #
 468 # Steffen Thorsen forwarded a translation (2012-11-10) in
 469 # http://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2012-November/018451.html
 470 #
 471 # From Tim Parenti (2012-11-11):
 472 # Treat the 2012-11-10 change as a zone change from UTC+2 to UTC+1.
 473 # The DST rules planned for 2013 and onward roughly mirror those of Europe
 474 # (either two days before them or five days after them, so as to fall on
 475 # lastFri instead of lastSun).
 476 
 477 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 478 Rule    Libya   1951    only    -       Oct     14      2:00    1:00    S
 479 Rule    Libya   1952    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    0       -
 480 Rule    Libya   1953    only    -       Oct      9      2:00    1:00    S
 481 Rule    Libya   1954    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    0       -
 482 Rule    Libya   1955    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    1:00    S
 483 Rule    Libya   1956    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    0       -
 484 Rule    Libya   1982    1984    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
 485 Rule    Libya   1982    1985    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
 486 Rule    Libya   1985    only    -       Apr      6      0:00    1:00    S
 487 Rule    Libya   1986    only    -       Apr      4      0:00    1:00    S
 488 Rule    Libya   1986    only    -       Oct      3      0:00    0       -
 489 Rule    Libya   1987    1989    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
 490 Rule    Libya   1987    1989    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
 491 Rule    Libya   1997    only    -       Apr      4      0:00    1:00    S
 492 Rule    Libya   1997    only    -       Oct      4      0:00    0       -
 493 Rule    Libya   2013    max     -       Mar     lastFri 1:00    1:00    S
 494 Rule    Libya   2013    max     -       Oct     lastFri 2:00    0       -
 495 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 496 Zone    Africa/Tripoli  0:52:44 -       LMT     1920
 497                         1:00    Libya   CE%sT   1959
 498                         2:00    -       EET     1982
 499                         1:00    Libya   CE%sT   1990 May  4
 500 # The 1996 and 1997 entries are from Shanks & Pottenger;
 501 # the IATA SSIM data contain some obvious errors.
 502                         2:00    -       EET     1996 Sep 30
 503                         1:00    Libya   CE%sT   1997 Oct  4
 504                         2:00    -       EET     2012 Nov 10 2:00
 505                         1:00    Libya   CE%sT
 506 
 507 # Madagascar
 508 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 509 Zone Indian/Antananarivo 3:10:04 -      LMT     1911 Jul
 510                         3:00    -       EAT     1954 Feb 27 23:00s
 511                         3:00    1:00    EAST    1954 May 29 23:00s
 512                         3:00    -       EAT
 513 
 514 # Malawi
 515 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 516 Zone    Africa/Blantyre 2:20:00 -       LMT     1903 Mar
 517                         2:00    -       CAT
 518 
 519 # Mali
 520 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 521 Zone    Africa/Bamako   -0:32:00 -      LMT     1912
 522                          0:00   -       GMT     1934 Feb 26
 523                         -1:00   -       WAT     1960 Jun 20
 524                          0:00   -       GMT
 525 
 526 # Mauritania
 527 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 528 Zone Africa/Nouakchott  -1:03:48 -      LMT     1912
 529                          0:00   -       GMT     1934 Feb 26
 530                         -1:00   -       WAT     1960 Nov 28
 531                          0:00   -       GMT
 532 
 533 # Mauritius
 534 
 535 # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-06-25):
 536 # Mauritius plans to observe DST from 2008-11-01 to 2009-03-31 on a trial
 537 # basis....
 538 # It seems that Mauritius observed daylight saving time from 1982-10-10 to
 539 # 1983-03-20 as well, but that was not successful....
 540 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/mauritius-daylight-saving-time.html
 541 
 542 # From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-06-25):
 543 # http://economicdevelopment.gov.mu/portal/site/Mainhomepage/menuitem.a42b24128104d9845dabddd154508a0c/?content_id=0a7cee8b5d69a110VgnVCM1000000a04a8c0RCRD
 544 
 545 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-06-30):
 546 # The www.timeanddate.com article cited by Steffen Thorsen notes that "A
 547 # final decision has yet to be made on the times that daylight saving
 548 # would begin and end on these dates." As a place holder, use midnight.
 549 
 550 # From Paul Eggert (2008-06-30):
 551 # Follow Thorsen on DST in 1982/1983, instead of Shanks & Pottenger.
 552 
 553 # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-07-10):
 554 # According to
 555 # <a href="http://www.lexpress.mu/display_article.php?news_id=111216">
 556 # http://www.lexpress.mu/display_article.php?news_id=111216
 557 # </a>
 558 # (in French), Mauritius will start and end their DST a few days earlier
 559 # than previously announced (2008-11-01 to 2009-03-31).  The new start
 560 # date is 2008-10-26 at 02:00 and the new end date is 2009-03-27 (no time
 561 # given, but it is probably at either 2 or 3 wall clock time).
 562 #
 563 # A little strange though, since the article says that they moved the date
 564 # to align itself with Europe and USA which also change time on that date,
 565 # but that means they have not paid attention to what happened in
 566 # USA/Canada last year (DST ends first Sunday in November). I also wonder
 567 # why that they end on a Friday, instead of aligning with Europe which
 568 # changes two days later.
 569 
 570 # From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-07-11):
 571 # Seems that English language article "The revival of daylight saving
 572 # time:  Energy conservation?"-# No. 16578 (07/11/2008) was originally
 573 # published on Monday, June 30, 2008...
 574 #
 575 # I guess that article in French "Le gouvernement avance l'introduction
 576 # de l'heure d'ete" stating that DST in Mauritius starting on October 26
 577 # and ending on March 27, 2009 is the most recent one.
 578 # ...
 579 # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_mauritius02.html">
 580 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_mauritius02.html
 581 # </a>
 582 
 583 # From Riad M. Hossen Ally (2008-08-03):
 584 # The Government of Mauritius weblink
 585 # <a href="http://www.gov.mu/portal/site/pmosite/menuitem.4ca0efdee47462e7440a600248a521ca/?content_id=4728ca68b2a5b110VgnVCM1000000a04a8c0RCRD">
 586 # http://www.gov.mu/portal/site/pmosite/menuitem.4ca0efdee47462e7440a600248a521ca/?content_id=4728ca68b2a5b110VgnVCM1000000a04a8c0RCRD
 587 # </a>
 588 # Cabinet Decision of July 18th, 2008 states as follows:
 589 #
 590 # 4. ...Cabinet has agreed to the introduction into the National Assembly
 591 # of the Time Bill which provides for the introduction of summer time in
 592 # Mauritius. The summer time period which will be of one hour ahead of
 593 # the standard time, will be aligned with that in Europe and the United
 594 # States of America. It will start at two o'clock in the morning on the
 595 # last Sunday of October and will end at two o'clock in the morning on
 596 # the last Sunday of March the following year. The summer time for the
 597 # year 2008 - 2009 will, therefore, be effective as from 26 October 2008
 598 # and end on 29 March 2009.
 599 
 600 # From Ed Maste (2008-10-07):
 601 # THE TIME BILL (No. XXVII of 2008) Explanatory Memorandum states the
 602 # beginning / ending of summer time is 2 o'clock standard time in the
 603 # morning of the last Sunday of October / last Sunday of March.
 604 # <a href="http://www.gov.mu/portal/goc/assemblysite/file/bill2708.pdf">
 605 # http://www.gov.mu/portal/goc/assemblysite/file/bill2708.pdf
 606 # </a>
 607 
 608 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-06-05):
 609 # According to several sources, Mauritius will not continue to observe
 610 # DST the coming summer...
 611 #
 612 # Some sources, in French:
 613 # <a href="http://www.defimedia.info/news/946/Rashid-Beebeejaun-:-%C2%AB-L%E2%80%99heure-d%E2%80%99%C3%A9t%C3%A9-ne-sera-pas-appliqu%C3%A9e-cette-ann%C3%A9e-%C2%BB">
 614 # http://www.defimedia.info/news/946/Rashid-Beebeejaun-:-%C2%AB-L%E2%80%99heure-d%E2%80%99%C3%A9t%C3%A9-ne-sera-pas-appliqu%C3%A9e-cette-ann%C3%A9e-%C2%BB
 615 # </a>
 616 # <a href="http://lexpress.mu/Story/3398~Beebeejaun---Les-objectifs-d-%C3%A9conomie-d-%C3%A9nergie-de-l-heure-d-%C3%A9t%C3%A9-ont-%C3%A9t%C3%A9-atteints-">
 617 # http://lexpress.mu/Story/3398~Beebeejaun---Les-objectifs-d-%C3%A9conomie-d-%C3%A9nergie-de-l-heure-d-%C3%A9t%C3%A9-ont-%C3%A9t%C3%A9-atteints-
 618 # </a>
 619 #
 620 # Our wrap-up:
 621 # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/mauritius-dst-will-not-repeat.html">
 622 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/mauritius-dst-will-not-repeat.html
 623 # </a>
 624 
 625 # From Arthur David Olson (2009-07-11):
 626 # The "mauritius-dst-will-not-repeat" wrapup includes this:
 627 # "The trial ended on March 29, 2009, when the clocks moved back by one hour
 628 # at 2am (or 02:00) local time..."
 629 
 630 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 631 Rule Mauritius  1982    only    -       Oct     10      0:00    1:00    S
 632 Rule Mauritius  1983    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    0       -
 633 Rule Mauritius  2008    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    S
 634 Rule Mauritius  2009    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    0       -
 635 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 636 Zone Indian/Mauritius   3:50:00 -       LMT     1907            # Port Louis
 637                         4:00 Mauritius  MU%sT   # Mauritius Time
 638 # Agalega Is, Rodriguez
 639 # no information; probably like Indian/Mauritius
 640 
 641 # Mayotte
 642 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 643 Zone    Indian/Mayotte  3:00:56 -       LMT     1911 Jul        # Mamoutzou
 644                         3:00    -       EAT
 645 
 646 # Morocco
 647 # See the `europe' file for Spanish Morocco (Africa/Ceuta).
 648 
 649 # From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-05-09):
 650 # Here is an article that Morocco plan to introduce Daylight Saving Time between
 651 # 1 June, 2008 and 27 September, 2008.
 652 #
 653 # "... Morocco is to save energy by adjusting its clock during summer so it will
 654 # be one hour ahead of GMT between 1 June and 27 September, according to
 655 # Communication Minister and Gov ernment Spokesman, Khalid Naciri...."
 656 #
 657 # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.net/dst_news/dst_news_morocco01.html">
 658 # http://www.worldtimezone.net/dst_news/dst_news_morocco01.html
 659 # </a>
 660 # OR
 661 # <a href="http://en.afrik.com/news11892.html">
 662 # http://en.afrik.com/news11892.html
 663 # </a>
 664 
 665 # From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-05-09):
 666 # The Morocco time change can be confirmed on Morocco web site Maghreb Arabe Presse:
 667 # <a href="http://www.map.ma/eng/sections/box3/morocco_shifts_to_da/view">
 668 # http://www.map.ma/eng/sections/box3/morocco_shifts_to_da/view
 669 # </a>
 670 #
 671 # Morocco shifts to daylight time on June 1st through September 27, Govt.
 672 # spokesman.
 673 
 674 # From Patrice Scattolin (2008-05-09):
 675 # According to this article:
 676 # <a href="http://www.avmaroc.com/actualite/heure-dete-comment-a127896.html">
 677 # http://www.avmaroc.com/actualite/heure-dete-comment-a127896.html
 678 # </a>
 679 # (and republished here:
 680 # <a href="http://www.actu.ma/heure-dete-comment_i127896_0.html">
 681 # http://www.actu.ma/heure-dete-comment_i127896_0.html
 682 # </a>
 683 # )
 684 # the changes occurs at midnight:
 685 #
 686 # saturday night may 31st at midnight (which in french is to be
 687 # intrepreted as the night between saturday and sunday)
 688 # sunday night the 28th  at midnight
 689 #
 690 # Seeing that the 28th is monday, I am guessing that she intends to say
 691 # the midnight of the 28th which is the midnight between sunday and
 692 # monday, which jives with other sources that say that it's inclusive
 693 # june1st to sept 27th.
 694 #
 695 # The decision was taken by decree *2-08-224 *but I can't find the decree
 696 # published on the web.
 697 #
 698 # It's also confirmed here:
 699 # <a href="http://www.maroc.ma/NR/exeres/FACF141F-D910-44B0-B7FA-6E03733425D1.htm">
 700 # http://www.maroc.ma/NR/exeres/FACF141F-D910-44B0-B7FA-6E03733425D1.htm
 701 # </a>
 702 # on a government portal as being  between june 1st and sept 27th (not yet
 703 # posted in english).
 704 #
 705 # The following google query will generate many relevant hits:
 706 # <a href="http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Conseil+de+gouvernement+maroc+heure+avance&btnG=Search">
 707 # http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Conseil+de+gouvernement+maroc+heure+avance&btnG=Search
 708 # </a>
 709 
 710 # From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-05-09):
 711 # Is Western Sahara (part which administrated by Morocco) going to follow
 712 # Morocco DST changes?  Any information?  What about other part of
 713 # Western Sahara - under administration of POLISARIO Front (also named
 714 # SADR Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic)?
 715 
 716 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-05-09):
 717 # XXX--guess that it is only Morocco for now; guess only 2008 for now.
 718 
 719 # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-08-27):
 720 # Morocco will change the clocks back on the midnight between August 31
 721 # and September 1. They originally planned to observe DST to near the end
 722 # of September:
 723 #
 724 # One article about it (in French):
 725 # <a href="http://www.menara.ma/fr/Actualites/Maroc/Societe/ci.retour_a_l_heure_gmt_a_partir_du_dimanche_31_aout_a_minuit_officiel_.default">
 726 # http://www.menara.ma/fr/Actualites/Maroc/Societe/ci.retour_a_l_heure_gmt_a_partir_du_dimanche_31_aout_a_minuit_officiel_.default
 727 # </a>
 728 #
 729 # We have some further details posted here:
 730 # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-ends-dst-early-2008.html">
 731 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-ends-dst-early-2008.html
 732 # </a>
 733 
 734 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-03-17):
 735 # Morocco will observe DST from 2009-06-01 00:00 to 2009-08-21 00:00 according
 736 # to many sources, such as
 737 # <a href="http://news.marweb.com/morocco/entertainment/morocco-daylight-saving.html">
 738 # http://news.marweb.com/morocco/entertainment/morocco-daylight-saving.html
 739 # </a>
 740 # <a href="http://www.medi1sat.ma/fr/depeche.aspx?idp=2312">
 741 # http://www.medi1sat.ma/fr/depeche.aspx?idp=2312
 742 # </a>
 743 # (French)
 744 #
 745 # Our summary:
 746 # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-starts-dst-2009.html">
 747 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-starts-dst-2009.html
 748 # </a>
 749 
 750 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-17):
 751 # Here is a link to official document from Royaume du Maroc Premier Ministre,
 752 # Ministere de la Modernisation des Secteurs Publics
 753 #
 754 # Under Article 1 of Royal Decree No. 455-67 of Act 23 safar 1387 (2 june 1967)
 755 # concerning the amendment of the legal time, the Ministry of Modernization of
 756 # Public Sectors announced that the official time in the Kingdom will be
 757 # advanced 60 minutes from Sunday 31 May 2009 at midnight.
 758 #
 759 # <a href="http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/francais/Actualites_fr/PDF_Actualites_Fr/HeureEte_FR.pdf">
 760 # http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/francais/Actualites_fr/PDF_Actualites_Fr/HeureEte_FR.pdf
 761 # </a>
 762 #
 763 # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_morocco03.html">
 764 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_morocco03.html
 765 # </a>
 766 
 767 # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-04-13):
 768 # Several news media in Morocco report that the Ministry of Modernization
 769 # of Public Sectors has announced that Morocco will have DST from
 770 # 2010-05-02 to 2010-08-08.
 771 #
 772 # Example:
 773 # <a href="http://www.lavieeco.com/actualites/4099-le-maroc-passera-a-l-heure-d-ete-gmt1-le-2-mai.html">
 774 # http://www.lavieeco.com/actualites/4099-le-maroc-passera-a-l-heure-d-ete-gmt1-le-2-mai.html
 775 # </a>
 776 # (French)
 777 # Our page:
 778 # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-starts-dst-2010.html">
 779 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-starts-dst-2010.html
 780 # </a>
 781 
 782 # From Dan Abitol (2011-03-30):
 783 # ...Rules for Africa/Casablanca are the following (24h format)
 784 # The 3rd april 2011 at 00:00:00, [it] will be 3rd april 1:00:00
 785 # The 31th july 2011 at 00:59:59,  [it] will be 31th July 00:00:00
 786 # ...Official links of change in morocco
 787 # The change was broadcast on the FM Radio
 788 # I ve called ANRT (telecom regulations in Morocco) at
 789 # +212.537.71.84.00
 790 # <a href="http://www.anrt.net.ma/fr/">
 791 # http://www.anrt.net.ma/fr/
 792 # </a>
 793 # They said that
 794 # <a href="http://www.map.ma/fr/sections/accueil/l_heure_legale_au_ma/view">
 795 # http://www.map.ma/fr/sections/accueil/l_heure_legale_au_ma/view
 796 # </a>
 797 # is the official publication to look at.
 798 # They said that the decision was already taken.
 799 #
 800 # More articles in the press
 801 # <a href="http://www.yabiladi.com/articles/details/5058/secret-l-heure-d-ete-maroc-lev">
 802 # http://www.yabiladi.com/articles/details/5058/secret-l-heure-d-ete-maroc-lev
 803 # </a>
 804 # e.html
 805 # <a href="http://www.lematin.ma/Actualite/Express/Article.asp?id=148923">
 806 # http://www.lematin.ma/Actualite/Express/Article.asp?id=148923
 807 # </a>
 808 # <a href="http://www.lavieeco.com/actualite/Le-Maroc-passe-sur-GMT%2B1-a-partir-de-dim">
 809 # http://www.lavieeco.com/actualite/Le-Maroc-passe-sur-GMT%2B1-a-partir-de-dim
 810 # anche-prochain-5538.html
 811 # </a>
 812 
 813 # From Petr Machata (2011-03-30):
 814 # They have it written in English here:
 815 # <a href="http://www.map.ma/eng/sections/home/morocco_to_spring_fo/view">
 816 # http://www.map.ma/eng/sections/home/morocco_to_spring_fo/view
 817 # </a>
 818 #
 819 # It says there that "Morocco will resume its standard time on July 31,
 820 # 2011 at midnight." Now they don't say whether they mean midnight of
 821 # wall clock time (i.e. 11pm UTC), but that's what I would assume. It has
 822 # also been like that in the past.
 823 
 824 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2012-03-09):
 825 # According to Infom&eacute;diaire web site from Morocco (infomediaire.ma),
 826 # on March 9, 2012, (in French) Heure l&eacute;gale:
 827 # Le Maroc adopte officiellement l'heure d'&eacute;t&eacute;
 828 # <a href="http://www.infomediaire.ma/news/maroc/heure-l%C3%A9gale-le-maroc-adopte-officiellement-lheure-d%C3%A9t%C3%A9">
 829 # http://www.infomediaire.ma/news/maroc/heure-l%C3%A9gale-le-maroc-adopte-officiellement-lheure-d%C3%A9t%C3%A9
 830 # </a>
 831 # Governing Council adopted draft decree, that Morocco DST starts on
 832 # the last Sunday of March (March 25, 2012) and ends on
 833 # last Sunday of September (September 30, 2012)
 834 # except the month of Ramadan.
 835 # or (brief)
 836 # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_morocco06.html">
 837 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_morocco06.html
 838 # </a>
 839 
 840 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-10):
 841 # The infomediaire.ma source indicates that the system is to be in
 842 # effect every year. It gives 03H00 as the "fall back" time of day;
 843 # it lacks a "spring forward" time of day; assume 2:00 XXX.
 844 # Wait on specifying the Ramadan exception for details about
 845 # start date, start time of day, end date, and end time of day XXX.
 846 
 847 # From Christophe Tropamer (2012-03-16):
 848 # Seen Morocco change again:
 849 # <a href="http://www.le2uminutes.com/actualite.php">
 850 # http://www.le2uminutes.com/actualite.php
 851 # </a>
 852 # "...&agrave; partir du dernier dimance d'avril et non fins mars,
 853 # comme annonc&eacute; pr&eacute;c&eacute;demment."
 854 
 855 # From Milamber Space Network (2012-07-17):
 856 # The official return to GMT is announced by the Moroccan government:
 857 # <a href="http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/fr/actualites.aspx?id=288">
 858 # http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/fr/actualites.aspx?id=288 [in French]
 859 # </a>
 860 #
 861 # Google translation, lightly edited:
 862 # Back to the standard time of the Kingdom (GMT)
 863 # Pursuant to Decree No. 2-12-126 issued on 26 Jumada (I) 1433 (April 18,
 864 # 2012) and in accordance with the order of Mr. President of the
 865 # Government No. 3-47-12 issued on 24 Sha'ban (11 July 2012), the Ministry
 866 # of Public Service and Administration Modernization announces the return
 867 # of the legal time of the Kingdom (GMT) from Friday, July 20, 2012 until
 868 # Monday, August 20, 2012.  So the time will be delayed by 60 minutes from
 869 # 3:00 am Friday, July 20, 2012 and will again be advanced by 60 minutes
 870 # August 20, 2012 from 2:00 am.
 871 
 872 # From Paul Eggert (2013-03-06):
 873 # Morocco's daylight-saving transitions due to Ramadan seem to be
 874 # announced a bit in advance.  On 2012-07-11 the Moroccan government
 875 # announced that year's Ramadan daylight-saving transitions would be
 876 # 2012-07-20 and 2012-08-20; see
 877 # <http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/fr/actualites.aspx?id=288>.
 878 #
 879 # To estimate what the Moroccan government will do in future years,
 880 # transition dates for 2013 through 2021 were determined by running
 881 # the following program under GNU Emacs 24.3:
 882 #
 883 # (let ((islamic-year 1434))
 884 #   (while (< islamic-year 1444)
 885 #     (let ((a
 886 #            (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute
 887 #             (calendar-islamic-to-absolute (list 9 1 islamic-year))))
 888 #           (b
 889 #            (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute
 890 #             (calendar-islamic-to-absolute (list 10 1 islamic-year)))))
 891 #       (insert
 892 #        (format
 893 #         (concat "Rule\tMorocco\t%d\tonly\t-\t%s\t %2d\t 3:00\t0\t-\n"
 894 #                 "Rule\tMorocco\t%d\tonly\t-\t%s\t %2d\t 2:00\t1:00\tS\n")
 895 #         (car (cdr (cdr a))) (calendar-month-name (car a) t) (car (cdr a))
 896 #         (car (cdr (cdr b))) (calendar-month-name (car b) t) (car (cdr b)))))
 897 #     (setq islamic-year (+ 1 islamic-year))))
 898 #
 899 # with the results hand-edited for 2020-2022, when the normal spring-forward
 900 # date falls during the estimated Ramadan.
 901 #
 902 # From 2023 through 2038 Ramadan is not predicted to overlap with
 903 # daylight saving time.  Starting in 2039 there will be overlap again,
 904 # but 32-bit time_t values roll around in 2038 so for now do not worry
 905 # about dates after 2038.
 906 
 907 # RULE  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 908 
 909 Rule    Morocco 1939    only    -       Sep     12       0:00   1:00    S
 910 Rule    Morocco 1939    only    -       Nov     19       0:00   0       -
 911 Rule    Morocco 1940    only    -       Feb     25       0:00   1:00    S
 912 Rule    Morocco 1945    only    -       Nov     18       0:00   0       -
 913 Rule    Morocco 1950    only    -       Jun     11       0:00   1:00    S
 914 Rule    Morocco 1950    only    -       Oct     29       0:00   0       -
 915 Rule    Morocco 1967    only    -       Jun      3      12:00   1:00    S
 916 Rule    Morocco 1967    only    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       -
 917 Rule    Morocco 1974    only    -       Jun     24       0:00   1:00    S
 918 Rule    Morocco 1974    only    -       Sep      1       0:00   0       -
 919 Rule    Morocco 1976    1977    -       May      1       0:00   1:00    S
 920 Rule    Morocco 1976    only    -       Aug      1       0:00   0       -
 921 Rule    Morocco 1977    only    -       Sep     28       0:00   0       -
 922 Rule    Morocco 1978    only    -       Jun      1       0:00   1:00    S
 923 Rule    Morocco 1978    only    -       Aug      4       0:00   0       -
 924 Rule    Morocco 2008    only    -       Jun      1       0:00   1:00    S
 925 Rule    Morocco 2008    only    -       Sep      1       0:00   0       -
 926 Rule    Morocco 2009    only    -       Jun      1       0:00   1:00    S
 927 Rule    Morocco 2009    only    -       Aug      21      0:00   0       -
 928 Rule    Morocco 2010    only    -       May      2       0:00   1:00    S
 929 Rule    Morocco 2010    only    -       Aug      8       0:00   0       -
 930 Rule    Morocco 2011    only    -       Apr      3       0:00   1:00    S
 931 Rule    Morocco 2011    only    -       Jul      31      0      0       -
 932 Rule    Morocco 2012    2019    -       Apr      lastSun 2:00   1:00    S
 933 Rule    Morocco 2012    max     -       Sep      lastSun 3:00   0       -
 934 Rule    Morocco 2012    only    -       Jul      20      3:00   0       -
 935 Rule    Morocco 2012    only    -       Aug      20      2:00   1:00    S
 936 Rule    Morocco 2013    only    -       Jul       9      3:00   0       -
 937 Rule    Morocco 2013    only    -       Aug       8      2:00   1:00    S
 938 Rule    Morocco 2014    only    -       Jun      29      3:00   0       -
 939 Rule    Morocco 2014    only    -       Jul      29      2:00   1:00    S
 940 Rule    Morocco 2015    only    -       Jun      18      3:00   0       -
 941 Rule    Morocco 2015    only    -       Jul      18      2:00   1:00    S
 942 Rule    Morocco 2016    only    -       Jun       7      3:00   0       -
 943 Rule    Morocco 2016    only    -       Jul       7      2:00   1:00    S
 944 Rule    Morocco 2017    only    -       May      27      3:00   0       -
 945 Rule    Morocco 2017    only    -       Jun      26      2:00   1:00    S
 946 Rule    Morocco 2018    only    -       May      16      3:00   0       -
 947 Rule    Morocco 2018    only    -       Jun      15      2:00   1:00    S
 948 Rule    Morocco 2019    only    -       May       6      3:00   0       -
 949 Rule    Morocco 2019    only    -       Jun       5      2:00   1:00    S
 950 Rule    Morocco 2020    only    -       May      24      2:00   1:00    S
 951 Rule    Morocco 2021    only    -       May      13      2:00   1:00    S
 952 Rule    Morocco 2022    only    -       May       3      2:00   1:00    S
 953 Rule    Morocco 2023    max     -       Apr      lastSun 2:00   1:00    S
 954 
 955 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 956 Zone Africa/Casablanca  -0:30:20 -      LMT     1913 Oct 26
 957                          0:00   Morocco WE%sT   1984 Mar 16
 958                          1:00   -       CET     1986
 959                          0:00   Morocco WE%sT
 960 # Western Sahara
 961 Zone Africa/El_Aaiun    -0:52:48 -      LMT     1934 Jan
 962                         -1:00   -       WAT     1976 Apr 14
 963                          0:00   -       WET
 964 
 965 # Mozambique
 966 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 967 Zone    Africa/Maputo   2:10:20 -       LMT     1903 Mar
 968                         2:00    -       CAT
 969 
 970 # Namibia
 971 # The 1994-04-03 transition is from Shanks & Pottenger.
 972 # Shanks & Pottenger report no DST after 1998-04; go with IATA.
 973 
 974 # From Petronella Sibeene (2007-03-30) in
 975 # <http://allafrica.com/stories/200703300178.html>:
 976 # While the entire country changes its time, Katima Mulilo and other
 977 # settlements in Caprivi unofficially will not because the sun there
 978 # rises and sets earlier compared to other regions.  Chief of
 979 # Forecasting Riaan van Zyl explained that the far eastern parts of
 980 # the country are close to 40 minutes earlier in sunrise than the rest
 981 # of the country.
 982 #
 983 # From Paul Eggert (2007-03-31):
 984 # Apparently the Caprivi Strip informally observes Botswana time, but
 985 # we have no details.  In the meantime people there can use Africa/Gaborone.
 986 
 987 # RULE  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 988 Rule    Namibia 1994    max     -       Sep     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    S
 989 Rule    Namibia 1995    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    0       -
 990 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 991 Zone    Africa/Windhoek 1:08:24 -       LMT     1892 Feb 8
 992                         1:30    -       SWAT    1903 Mar        # SW Africa Time
 993                         2:00    -       SAST    1942 Sep 20 2:00
 994                         2:00    1:00    SAST    1943 Mar 21 2:00
 995                         2:00    -       SAST    1990 Mar 21 # independence
 996                         2:00    -       CAT     1994 Apr  3
 997                         1:00    Namibia WA%sT
 998 
 999 # Niger
1000 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1001 Zone    Africa/Niamey    0:08:28 -      LMT     1912
1002                         -1:00   -       WAT     1934 Feb 26
1003                          0:00   -       GMT     1960
1004                          1:00   -       WAT
1005 
1006 # Nigeria
1007 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1008 Zone    Africa/Lagos    0:13:36 -       LMT     1919 Sep
1009                         1:00    -       WAT
1010 
1011 # Reunion
1012 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1013 Zone    Indian/Reunion  3:41:52 -       LMT     1911 Jun        # Saint-Denis
1014                         4:00    -       RET     # Reunion Time
1015 #
1016 # Scattered Islands (Iles Eparses) administered from Reunion are as follows.
1017 # The following information about them is taken from
1018 # Iles Eparses (www.outre-mer.gouv.fr/domtom/ile.htm, 1997-07-22, in French;
1019 # no longer available as of 1999-08-17).
1020 # We have no info about their time zone histories.
1021 #
1022 # Bassas da India - uninhabited
1023 # Europa Island - inhabited from 1905 to 1910 by two families
1024 # Glorioso Is - inhabited until at least 1958
1025 # Juan de Nova - uninhabited
1026 # Tromelin - inhabited until at least 1958
1027 
1028 # Rwanda
1029 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1030 Zone    Africa/Kigali   2:00:16 -       LMT     1935 Jun
1031                         2:00    -       CAT
1032 
1033 # St Helena
1034 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1035 Zone Atlantic/St_Helena -0:22:48 -      LMT     1890            # Jamestown
1036                         -0:22:48 -      JMT     1951    # Jamestown Mean Time
1037                          0:00   -       GMT
1038 # The other parts of the St Helena territory are similar:
1039 #       Tristan da Cunha: on GMT, say Whitman and the CIA
1040 #       Ascension: on GMT, says usno1995 and the CIA
1041 #       Gough (scientific station since 1955; sealers wintered previously):
1042 #               on GMT, says the CIA
1043 #       Inaccessible, Nightingale: no information, but probably GMT
1044 
1045 # Sao Tome and Principe
1046 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1047 Zone    Africa/Sao_Tome  0:26:56 -      LMT     1884
1048                         -0:36:32 -      LMT     1912    # Lisbon Mean Time
1049                          0:00   -       GMT
1050 
1051 # Senegal
1052 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1053 Zone    Africa/Dakar    -1:09:44 -      LMT     1912
1054                         -1:00   -       WAT     1941 Jun
1055                          0:00   -       GMT
1056 
1057 # Seychelles
1058 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1059 Zone    Indian/Mahe     3:41:48 -       LMT     1906 Jun        # Victoria
1060                         4:00    -       SCT     # Seychelles Time
1061 # From Paul Eggert (2001-05-30):
1062 # Aldabra, Farquhar, and Desroches, originally dependencies of the
1063 # Seychelles, were transferred to the British Indian Ocean Territory
1064 # in 1965 and returned to Seychelles control in 1976.  We don't know
1065 # whether this affected their time zone, so omit this for now.
1066 # Possibly the islands were uninhabited.
1067 
1068 # Sierra Leone
1069 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1070 # Whitman gives Mar 31 - Aug 31 for 1931 on; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1071 Rule    SL      1935    1942    -       Jun      1      0:00    0:40    SLST
1072 Rule    SL      1935    1942    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       WAT
1073 Rule    SL      1957    1962    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    SLST
1074 Rule    SL      1957    1962    -       Sep      1      0:00    0       GMT
1075 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1076 Zone    Africa/Freetown -0:53:00 -      LMT     1882
1077                         -0:53:00 -      FMT     1913 Jun # Freetown Mean Time
1078                         -1:00   SL      %s      1957
1079                          0:00   SL      %s
1080 
1081 # Somalia
1082 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1083 Zone Africa/Mogadishu   3:01:28 -       LMT     1893 Nov
1084                         3:00    -       EAT     1931
1085                         2:30    -       BEAT    1957
1086                         3:00    -       EAT
1087 
1088 # South Africa
1089 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1090 Rule    SA      1942    1943    -       Sep     Sun>=15      2:00    1:00    -
1091 Rule    SA      1943    1944    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00    0       -
1092 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1093 Zone Africa/Johannesburg 1:52:00 -      LMT     1892 Feb 8
1094                         1:30    -       SAST    1903 Mar
1095                         2:00    SA      SAST
1096 # Marion and Prince Edward Is
1097 # scientific station since 1947
1098 # no information
1099 
1100 # Sudan
1101 #
1102 # From <a href="http://www.sunanews.net/sn13jane.html">
1103 # Sudan News Agency (2000-01-13)
1104 # </a>, also reported by Michael De Beukelaer-Dossche via Steffen Thorsen:
1105 # Clocks will be moved ahead for 60 minutes all over the Sudan as of noon
1106 # Saturday....  This was announced Thursday by Caretaker State Minister for
1107 # Manpower Abdul-Rahman Nur-Eddin.
1108 #
1109 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1110 Rule    Sudan   1970    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S
1111 Rule    Sudan   1970    1985    -       Oct     15      0:00    0       -
1112 Rule    Sudan   1971    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    S
1113 Rule    Sudan   1972    1985    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    1:00    S
1114 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1115 Zone    Africa/Khartoum 2:10:08 -       LMT     1931
1116                         2:00    Sudan   CA%sT   2000 Jan 15 12:00
1117                         3:00    -       EAT
1118 
1119 # South Sudan
1120 Zone    Africa/Juba     2:06:24 -       LMT     1931
1121                         2:00    Sudan   CA%sT   2000 Jan 15 12:00
1122                         3:00    -       EAT
1123 
1124 # Swaziland
1125 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1126 Zone    Africa/Mbabane  2:04:24 -       LMT     1903 Mar
1127                         2:00    -       SAST
1128 
1129 # Tanzania
1130 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1131 Zone Africa/Dar_es_Salaam 2:37:08 -     LMT     1931
1132                         3:00    -       EAT     1948
1133                         2:45    -       BEAUT   1961
1134                         3:00    -       EAT
1135 
1136 # Togo
1137 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1138 Zone    Africa/Lome     0:04:52 -       LMT     1893
1139                         0:00    -       GMT
1140 
1141 # Tunisia
1142 
1143 # From Gwillim Law (2005-04-30):
1144 # My correspondent, Risto Nykanen, has alerted me to another adoption of DST,
1145 # this time in Tunisia.  According to Yahoo France News
1146 # <http://fr.news.yahoo.com/050426/5/4dumk.html>, in a story attributed to AP
1147 # and dated 2005-04-26, "Tunisia has decided to advance its official time by
1148 # one hour, starting on Sunday, May 1.  Henceforth, Tunisian time will be
1149 # UTC+2 instead of UTC+1.  The change will take place at 23:00 UTC next
1150 # Saturday."  (My translation)
1151 #
1152 # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-05-02):
1153 # LaPresse, the first national daily newspaper ...
1154 # <http://www.lapresse.tn/archives/archives280405/actualites/lheure.html>
1155 # ... DST for 2005: on: Sun May 1 0h standard time, off: Fri Sept. 30,
1156 # 1h standard time.
1157 #
1158 # From Atef Loukil (2006-03-28):
1159 # The daylight saving time will be the same each year:
1160 # Beginning      : the last Sunday of March at 02:00
1161 # Ending         : the last Sunday of October at 03:00 ...
1162 # http://www.tap.info.tn/en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1188&Itemid=50
1163 
1164 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-03-16):
1165 # According to several news sources, Tunisia will not observe DST this year.
1166 # (Arabic)
1167 # <a href="http://www.elbashayer.com/?page=viewn&nid=42546">
1168 # http://www.elbashayer.com/?page=viewn&nid=42546
1169 # </a>
1170 # <a href="http://www.babnet.net/kiwidetail-15295.asp">
1171 # http://www.babnet.net/kiwidetail-15295.asp
1172 # </a>
1173 #
1174 # We have also confirmed this with the US embassy in Tunisia.
1175 # We have a wrap-up about this on the following page:
1176 # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/tunisia-cancels-dst-2009.html">
1177 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/tunisia-cancels-dst-2009.html
1178 # </a>
1179 
1180 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-17):
1181 # Here is a link to Tunis Afrique Presse News Agency
1182 #
1183 # Standard time to be kept the whole year long (tap.info.tn):
1184 #
1185 # (in English)
1186 # <a href="http://www.tap.info.tn/en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=26813&Itemid=157">
1187 # http://www.tap.info.tn/en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=26813&Itemid=157
1188 # </a>
1189 #
1190 # (in Arabic)
1191 # <a href="http://www.tap.info.tn/ar/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=61240&Itemid=1">
1192 # http://www.tap.info.tn/ar/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=61240&Itemid=1
1193 # </a>
1194 
1195 # From Arthur David Olson (2009--3-18):
1196 # The Tunis Afrique Presse News Agency notice contains this: "This measure is due to the fact
1197 # that the fasting month of ramadan coincides with the period concerned by summer time.
1198 # Therefore, the standard time will be kept unchanged the whole year long."
1199 # So foregoing DST seems to be an exception (albeit one that may be repeated in the  future).
1200 
1201 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-27):
1202 # According to some news reports Tunis confirmed not to use DST in 2010
1203 #
1204 # (translation):
1205 # "The Tunisian government has decided to abandon DST, which was scheduled on
1206 # Sunday...
1207 # Tunisian authorities had suspended the DST for the first time last year also
1208 # coincided with the month of Ramadan..."
1209 #
1210 # (in Arabic)
1211 # <a href="http://www.moheet.com/show_news.aspx?nid=358861&pg=1">
1212 # http://www.moheet.com/show_news.aspx?nid=358861&pg=1
1213 # <a href="http://www.almadenahnews.com/newss/news.php?c=118&id=38036">
1214 # http://www.almadenahnews.com/newss/news.php?c=118&id=38036
1215 # or
1216 # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_tunis02.html">
1217 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_tunis02.html
1218 
1219 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1220 Rule    Tunisia 1939    only    -       Apr     15      23:00s  1:00    S
1221 Rule    Tunisia 1939    only    -       Nov     18      23:00s  0       -
1222 Rule    Tunisia 1940    only    -       Feb     25      23:00s  1:00    S
1223 Rule    Tunisia 1941    only    -       Oct      6       0:00   0       -
1224 Rule    Tunisia 1942    only    -       Mar      9       0:00   1:00    S
1225 Rule    Tunisia 1942    only    -       Nov      2       3:00   0       -
1226 Rule    Tunisia 1943    only    -       Mar     29       2:00   1:00    S
1227 Rule    Tunisia 1943    only    -       Apr     17       2:00   0       -
1228 Rule    Tunisia 1943    only    -       Apr     25       2:00   1:00    S
1229 Rule    Tunisia 1943    only    -       Oct      4       2:00   0       -
1230 Rule    Tunisia 1944    1945    -       Apr     Mon>=1        2:00   1:00    S
1231 Rule    Tunisia 1944    only    -       Oct      8       0:00   0       -
1232 Rule    Tunisia 1945    only    -       Sep     16       0:00   0       -
1233 Rule    Tunisia 1977    only    -       Apr     30       0:00s  1:00    S
1234 Rule    Tunisia 1977    only    -       Sep     24       0:00s  0       -
1235 Rule    Tunisia 1978    only    -       May      1       0:00s  1:00    S
1236 Rule    Tunisia 1978    only    -       Oct      1       0:00s  0       -
1237 Rule    Tunisia 1988    only    -       Jun      1       0:00s  1:00    S
1238 Rule    Tunisia 1988    1990    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       -
1239 Rule    Tunisia 1989    only    -       Mar     26       0:00s  1:00    S
1240 Rule    Tunisia 1990    only    -       May      1       0:00s  1:00    S
1241 Rule    Tunisia 2005    only    -       May      1       0:00s  1:00    S
1242 Rule    Tunisia 2005    only    -       Sep     30       1:00s  0       -
1243 Rule    Tunisia 2006    2008    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
1244 Rule    Tunisia 2006    2008    -       Oct     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
1245 
1246 # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's
1247 # more precise 0:09:21.
1248 # Shanks & Pottenger say the 1911 switch was on Mar 9; go with Howse's Mar 11.
1249 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1250 Zone    Africa/Tunis    0:40:44 -       LMT     1881 May 12
1251                         0:09:21 -       PMT     1911 Mar 11    # Paris Mean Time
1252                         1:00    Tunisia CE%sT
1253 
1254 # Uganda
1255 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1256 Zone    Africa/Kampala  2:09:40 -       LMT     1928 Jul
1257                         3:00    -       EAT     1930
1258                         2:30    -       BEAT    1948
1259                         2:45    -       BEAUT   1957
1260                         3:00    -       EAT
1261 
1262 # Zambia
1263 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1264 Zone    Africa/Lusaka   1:53:08 -       LMT     1903 Mar
1265                         2:00    -       CAT
1266 
1267 # Zimbabwe
1268 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1269 Zone    Africa/Harare   2:04:12 -       LMT     1903 Mar
1270                         2:00    -       CAT
--- EOF ---