1 #
   2 # DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
   3 #  
   4 # This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   5 # under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
   6 # published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
   7 # particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
   8 # by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
   9 #  
  10 # This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  11 # ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  12 # FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  13 # version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  14 # accompanied this code).
  15 #  
  16 # You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  17 # 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  18 # Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  19 #  
  20 # Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  21 # or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  22 # questions.
  23 #
  24 # <pre>
  25 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
  26 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
  27 
  28 # This file also includes Pacific islands.
  29 
  30 # Notes are at the end of this file
  31 
  32 ###############################################################################
  33 
  34 # Australia
  35 
  36 # Please see the notes below for the controversy about "EST" versus "AEST" etc.
  37 
  38 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
  39 Rule    Aus     1917    only    -       Jan      1      0:01    1:00    -
  40 Rule    Aus     1917    only    -       Mar     25      2:00    0       -
  41 Rule    Aus     1942    only    -       Jan      1      2:00    1:00    -
  42 Rule    Aus     1942    only    -       Mar     29      2:00    0       -
  43 Rule    Aus     1942    only    -       Sep     27      2:00    1:00    -
  44 Rule    Aus     1943    1944    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    0       -
  45 Rule    Aus     1943    only    -       Oct      3      2:00    1:00    -
  46 # Go with Whitman and the Australian National Standards Commission, which
  47 # says W Australia didn't use DST in 1943/1944.  Ignore Whitman's claim that
  48 # 1944/1945 was just like 1943/1944.
  49 
  50 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
  51 # Northern Territory
  52 Zone Australia/Darwin    8:43:20 -      LMT     1895 Feb
  53                          9:00   -       CST     1899 May
  54                          9:30   Aus     CST
  55 # Western Australia
  56 #
  57 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
  58 Rule    AW      1974    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
  59 Rule    AW      1975    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
  60 Rule    AW      1983    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
  61 Rule    AW      1984    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
  62 Rule    AW      1991    only    -       Nov     17      2:00s   1:00    -
  63 Rule    AW      1992    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
  64 Rule    AW      2006    only    -       Dec      3      2:00s   1:00    -
  65 Rule    AW      2007    2009    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
  66 Rule    AW      2007    2008    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
  67 Zone Australia/Perth     7:43:24 -      LMT     1895 Dec
  68                          8:00   Aus     WST     1943 Jul
  69                          8:00   AW      WST
  70 Zone Australia/Eucla     8:35:28 -      LMT     1895 Dec
  71                          8:45   Aus     CWST    1943 Jul
  72                          8:45   AW      CWST
  73 
  74 # Queensland
  75 #
  76 # From Alex Livingston (1996-11-01):
  77 # I have heard or read more than once that some resort islands off the coast
  78 # of Queensland chose to keep observing daylight-saving time even after
  79 # Queensland ceased to.
  80 #
  81 # From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
  82 # IATA SSIM (1993-02/1994-09) say that the Holiday Islands (Hayman, Lindeman,
  83 # Hamilton) observed DST for two years after the rest of Queensland stopped.
  84 # Hamilton is the largest, but there is also a Hamilton in Victoria,
  85 # so use Lindeman.
  86 #
  87 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
  88 Rule    AQ      1971    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
  89 Rule    AQ      1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
  90 Rule    AQ      1989    1991    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
  91 Rule    AQ      1990    1992    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
  92 Rule    Holiday 1992    1993    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
  93 Rule    Holiday 1993    1994    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
  94 Zone Australia/Brisbane 10:12:08 -      LMT     1895
  95                         10:00   Aus     EST     1971
  96                         10:00   AQ      EST
  97 Zone Australia/Lindeman  9:55:56 -      LMT     1895
  98                         10:00   Aus     EST     1971
  99                         10:00   AQ      EST     1992 Jul
 100                         10:00   Holiday EST
 101 
 102 # South Australia
 103 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 104 Rule    AS      1971    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
 105 Rule    AS      1986    only    -       Oct     19      2:00s   1:00    -
 106 Rule    AS      1987    2007    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
 107 Rule    AS      1972    only    -       Feb     27      2:00s   0       -
 108 Rule    AS      1973    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 109 Rule    AS      1986    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       -
 110 Rule    AS      1991    only    -       Mar     3       2:00s   0       -
 111 Rule    AS      1992    only    -       Mar     22      2:00s   0       -
 112 Rule    AS      1993    only    -       Mar     7       2:00s   0       -
 113 Rule    AS      1994    only    -       Mar     20      2:00s   0       -
 114 Rule    AS      1995    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
 115 Rule    AS      2006    only    -       Apr     2       2:00s   0       -
 116 Rule    AS      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
 117 Rule    AS      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 118 Rule    AS      2008    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    -
 119 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 120 Zone Australia/Adelaide 9:14:20 -       LMT     1895 Feb
 121                         9:00    -       CST     1899 May
 122                         9:30    Aus     CST     1971
 123                         9:30    AS      CST
 124 
 125 # Tasmania
 126 #
 127 # From Paul Eggert (2005-08-16):
 128 # <http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml>
 129 # says King Island didn't observe DST from WWII until late 1971.
 130 #
 131 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 132 Rule    AT      1967    only    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    -
 133 Rule    AT      1968    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
 134 Rule    AT      1968    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
 135 Rule    AT      1969    1971    -       Mar     Sun>=8       2:00s   0       -
 136 Rule    AT      1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
 137 Rule    AT      1973    1981    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 138 Rule    AT      1982    1983    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
 139 Rule    AT      1984    1986    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 140 Rule    AT      1986    only    -       Oct     Sun>=15      2:00s   1:00    -
 141 Rule    AT      1987    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       -
 142 Rule    AT      1987    only    -       Oct     Sun>=22      2:00s   1:00    -
 143 Rule    AT      1988    1990    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
 144 Rule    AT      1991    1999    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    -
 145 Rule    AT      1991    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
 146 Rule    AT      2000    only    -       Aug     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
 147 Rule    AT      2001    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    -
 148 Rule    AT      2006    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 149 Rule    AT      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
 150 Rule    AT      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 151 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 152 Zone Australia/Hobart   9:49:16 -       LMT     1895 Sep
 153                         10:00   -       EST     1916 Oct 1 2:00
 154                         10:00   1:00    EST     1917 Feb
 155                         10:00   Aus     EST     1967
 156                         10:00   AT      EST
 157 Zone Australia/Currie   9:35:28 -       LMT     1895 Sep
 158                         10:00   -       EST     1916 Oct 1 2:00
 159                         10:00   1:00    EST     1917 Feb
 160                         10:00   Aus     EST     1971 Jul
 161                         10:00   AT      EST
 162 
 163 # Victoria
 164 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 165 Rule    AV      1971    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
 166 Rule    AV      1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
 167 Rule    AV      1973    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 168 Rule    AV      1986    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       -
 169 Rule    AV      1986    1987    -       Oct     Sun>=15      2:00s   1:00    -
 170 Rule    AV      1988    1999    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
 171 Rule    AV      1991    1994    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 172 Rule    AV      1995    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
 173 Rule    AV      2000    only    -       Aug     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
 174 Rule    AV      2001    2007    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
 175 Rule    AV      2006    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 176 Rule    AV      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
 177 Rule    AV      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 178 Rule    AV      2008    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    -
 179 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 180 Zone Australia/Melbourne 9:39:52 -      LMT     1895 Feb
 181                         10:00   Aus     EST     1971
 182                         10:00   AV      EST
 183 
 184 # New South Wales
 185 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 186 Rule    AN      1971    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
 187 Rule    AN      1972    only    -       Feb     27      2:00s   0       -
 188 Rule    AN      1973    1981    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 189 Rule    AN      1982    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 190 Rule    AN      1983    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 191 Rule    AN      1986    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       -
 192 Rule    AN      1986    only    -       Oct     19      2:00s   1:00    -
 193 Rule    AN      1987    1999    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
 194 Rule    AN      1990    1995    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 195 Rule    AN      1996    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
 196 Rule    AN      2000    only    -       Aug     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
 197 Rule    AN      2001    2007    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
 198 Rule    AN      2006    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 199 Rule    AN      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
 200 Rule    AN      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 201 Rule    AN      2008    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    -
 202 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 203 Zone Australia/Sydney   10:04:52 -      LMT     1895 Feb
 204                         10:00   Aus     EST     1971
 205                         10:00   AN      EST
 206 Zone Australia/Broken_Hill 9:25:48 -    LMT     1895 Feb
 207                         10:00   -       EST     1896 Aug 23
 208                         9:00    -       CST     1899 May
 209                         9:30    Aus     CST     1971
 210                         9:30    AN      CST     2000
 211                         9:30    AS      CST
 212 
 213 # Lord Howe Island
 214 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 215 Rule    LH      1981    1984    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    -
 216 Rule    LH      1982    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00    0       -
 217 Rule    LH      1985    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0:30    -
 218 Rule    LH      1986    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00    0       -
 219 Rule    LH      1986    only    -       Oct     19      2:00    0:30    -
 220 Rule    LH      1987    1999    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0:30    -
 221 Rule    LH      1990    1995    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00    0       -
 222 Rule    LH      1996    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    0       -
 223 Rule    LH      2000    only    -       Aug     lastSun 2:00    0:30    -
 224 Rule    LH      2001    2007    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0:30    -
 225 Rule    LH      2006    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    0       -
 226 Rule    LH      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    0       -
 227 Rule    LH      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    0       -
 228 Rule    LH      2008    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00    0:30    -
 229 Zone Australia/Lord_Howe 10:36:20 -     LMT     1895 Feb
 230                         10:00   -       EST     1981 Mar
 231                         10:30   LH      LHST
 232 
 233 # Australian miscellany
 234 #
 235 # Ashmore Is, Cartier
 236 # no indigenous inhabitants; only seasonal caretakers
 237 # no times are set
 238 #
 239 # Coral Sea Is
 240 # no indigenous inhabitants; only meteorologists
 241 # no times are set
 242 #
 243 # Macquarie
 244 # permanent occupation (scientific station) since 1948;
 245 # sealing and penguin oil station operated 1888/1917
 246 # like Australia/Hobart

















 247 
 248 # Christmas
 249 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 250 Zone Indian/Christmas   7:02:52 -       LMT     1895 Feb
 251                         7:00    -       CXT     # Christmas Island Time
 252 
 253 # Cook Is
 254 # From Shanks & Pottenger:
 255 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 256 Rule    Cook    1978    only    -       Nov     12      0:00    0:30    HS
 257 Rule    Cook    1979    1991    -       Mar     Sun>=1       0:00    0       -
 258 Rule    Cook    1979    1990    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0:30    HS
 259 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 260 Zone Pacific/Rarotonga  -10:39:04 -     LMT     1901            # Avarua
 261                         -10:30  -       CKT     1978 Nov 12     # Cook Is Time
 262                         -10:00  Cook    CK%sT
 263 
 264 # Cocos
 265 # These islands were ruled by the Ross family from about 1830 to 1978.
 266 # We don't know when standard time was introduced; for now, we guess 1900.
 267 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 268 Zone    Indian/Cocos    6:27:40 -       LMT     1900
 269                         6:30    -       CCT     # Cocos Islands Time
 270 
 271 # Fiji



 272 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-11-10):
 273 # According to Fiji Broadcasting Corporation,  Fiji plans to re-introduce DST
 274 # from November 29th 2009  to April 25th 2010.
 275 #
 276 # "Daylight savings to commence this month"
 277 # <a href="http://www.radiofiji.com.fj/fullstory.php?id=23719">
 278 # http://www.radiofiji.com.fj/fullstory.php?id=23719
 279 # </a>
 280 # or
 281 # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji01.html">
 282 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji01.html
 283 # </a>
 284 
 285 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-11-10):
 286 # The Fiji Government has posted some more details about the approved
 287 # amendments:
 288 # <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/publish/page_16198.shtml">
 289 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/publish/page_16198.shtml
 290 # </a>
 291 
 292 # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-03):
 293 # The Cabinet in Fiji has decided to end DST about a month early, on
 294 # 2010-03-28 at 03:00.
 295 # The plan is to observe DST again, from 2010-10-24 to sometime in March
 296 # 2011 (last Sunday a good guess?).
 297 #
 298 # Official source:
 299 # <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1096:3310-cabinet-approves-change-in-daylight-savings-dates&catid=49:cabinet-releases&Itemid=166">
 300 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1096:3310-cabinet-approves-change-in-daylight-savings-dates&catid=49:cabinet-releases&Itemid=166
 301 # </a>
 302 #
 303 # A bit more background info here:
 304 # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/fiji-dst-ends-march-2010.html">
 305 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/fiji-dst-ends-march-2010.html
 306 # </a>
 307 
 308 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-10-24):
 309 # According to Radio Fiji and Fiji Times online, Fiji will end DST 3
 310 # weeks earlier than expected - on March 6, 2011, not March 27, 2011...
 311 # Here is confirmation from Government of the Republic of the Fiji Islands,
 312 # Ministry of Information (fiji.gov.fj) web site:
 313 # <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2608:daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155">
 314 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2608:daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155
 315 # </a>
 316 # or
 317 # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji04.html">
 318 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji04.html
 319 # </a>
 320 
 321 # From Steffen Thorsen (2011-10-03):
 322 # Now the dates have been confirmed, and at least our start date
 323 # assumption was correct (end date was one week wrong).
 324 #
 325 # <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4966:daylight-saving-starts-in-fiji&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155">
 326 # www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4966:daylight-saving-starts-in-fiji&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155
 327 # </a>
 328 # which says
 329 # Members of the public are reminded to change their time to one hour in
 330 # advance at 2am to 3am on October 23, 2011 and one hour back at 3am to
 331 # 2am on February 26 next year.
 332 
 333 # From Ken Rylander (2011-10-24)
 334 # Another change to the Fiji DST end date. In the TZ database the end date for
 335 # Fiji DST 2012, is currently Feb 26. This has been changed to Jan 22.
 336 #
 337 # <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5017:amendments-to-daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155">
 338 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5017:amendments-to-daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155
 339 # </a>
 340 # states:
 341 #
 342 # The end of daylight saving scheduled initially for the 26th of February 2012
 343 # has been brought forward to the 22nd of January 2012.
 344 # The commencement of daylight saving will remain unchanged and start
 345 # on the  23rd of October, 2011.
 346 
 347 # From the Fiji Government Online Portal (2012-08-21) via Steffen Thorsen:
 348 # The Minister for Labour, Industrial Relations and Employment Mr Jone Usamate
 349 # today confirmed that Fiji will start daylight savings at 2 am on Sunday 21st
 350 # October 2012 and end at 3 am on Sunday 20th January 2013.
 351 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=6702&catid=71&Itemid=155
 352 #
 353 # From Paul Eggert (2012-08-31):
 354 # For now, guess a pattern of the penultimate Sundays in October and January.
 355 
 356 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 357 Rule    Fiji    1998    1999    -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    S
 358 Rule    Fiji    1999    2000    -       Feb     lastSun 3:00    0       -
 359 Rule    Fiji    2009    only    -       Nov     29      2:00    1:00    S
 360 Rule    Fiji    2010    only    -       Mar     lastSun 3:00    0       -
 361 Rule    Fiji    2010    max     -       Oct     Sun>=18      2:00    1:00    S
 362 Rule    Fiji    2011    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       -
 363 Rule    Fiji    2012    max     -       Jan     Sun>=18      3:00    0       -
 364 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 365 Zone    Pacific/Fiji    11:53:40 -      LMT     1915 Oct 26     # Suva
 366                         12:00   Fiji    FJ%sT   # Fiji Time
 367 
 368 # French Polynesia
 369 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 370 Zone    Pacific/Gambier  -8:59:48 -     LMT     1912 Oct        # Rikitea
 371                          -9:00  -       GAMT    # Gambier Time
 372 Zone    Pacific/Marquesas -9:18:00 -    LMT     1912 Oct
 373                          -9:30  -       MART    # Marquesas Time
 374 Zone    Pacific/Tahiti   -9:58:16 -     LMT     1912 Oct        # Papeete
 375                         -10:00  -       TAHT    # Tahiti Time
 376 # Clipperton (near North America) is administered from French Polynesia;
 377 # it is uninhabited.
 378 
 379 # Guam
 380 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 381 Zone    Pacific/Guam    -14:21:00 -     LMT     1844 Dec 31
 382                          9:39:00 -      LMT     1901            # Agana
 383                         10:00   -       GST     2000 Dec 23     # Guam
 384                         10:00   -       ChST    # Chamorro Standard Time
 385 
 386 # Kiribati
 387 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 388 Zone Pacific/Tarawa      11:32:04 -     LMT     1901            # Bairiki
 389                          12:00  -       GILT             # Gilbert Is Time
 390 Zone Pacific/Enderbury  -11:24:20 -     LMT     1901
 391                         -12:00  -       PHOT    1979 Oct # Phoenix Is Time
 392                         -11:00  -       PHOT    1995
 393                          13:00  -       PHOT
 394 Zone Pacific/Kiritimati -10:29:20 -     LMT     1901
 395                         -10:40  -       LINT    1979 Oct # Line Is Time
 396                         -10:00  -       LINT    1995
 397                          14:00  -       LINT
 398 
 399 # N Mariana Is
 400 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 401 Zone Pacific/Saipan     -14:17:00 -     LMT     1844 Dec 31
 402                          9:43:00 -      LMT     1901
 403                          9:00   -       MPT     1969 Oct # N Mariana Is Time
 404                         10:00   -       MPT     2000 Dec 23
 405                         10:00   -       ChST    # Chamorro Standard Time
 406 
 407 # Marshall Is
 408 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 409 Zone Pacific/Majuro     11:24:48 -      LMT     1901
 410                         11:00   -       MHT     1969 Oct # Marshall Islands Time
 411                         12:00   -       MHT
 412 Zone Pacific/Kwajalein  11:09:20 -      LMT     1901
 413                         11:00   -       MHT     1969 Oct
 414                         -12:00  -       KWAT    1993 Aug 20     # Kwajalein Time
 415                         12:00   -       MHT
 416 
 417 # Micronesia
 418 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 419 Zone Pacific/Chuuk      10:07:08 -      LMT     1901
 420                         10:00   -       CHUT                    # Chuuk Time
 421 Zone Pacific/Pohnpei    10:32:52 -      LMT     1901            # Kolonia
 422                         11:00   -       PONT                    # Pohnpei Time
 423 Zone Pacific/Kosrae     10:51:56 -      LMT     1901
 424                         11:00   -       KOST    1969 Oct        # Kosrae Time
 425                         12:00   -       KOST    1999
 426                         11:00   -       KOST
 427 
 428 # Nauru
 429 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 430 Zone    Pacific/Nauru   11:07:40 -      LMT     1921 Jan 15     # Uaobe
 431                         11:30   -       NRT     1942 Mar 15     # Nauru Time
 432                         9:00    -       JST     1944 Aug 15
 433                         11:30   -       NRT     1979 May
 434                         12:00   -       NRT
 435 
 436 # New Caledonia
 437 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 438 Rule    NC      1977    1978    -       Dec     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    S
 439 Rule    NC      1978    1979    -       Feb     27      0:00    0       -
 440 Rule    NC      1996    only    -       Dec      1      2:00s   1:00    S
 441 # Shanks & Pottenger say the following was at 2:00; go with IATA.
 442 Rule    NC      1997    only    -       Mar      2      2:00s   0       -
 443 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 444 Zone    Pacific/Noumea  11:05:48 -      LMT     1912 Jan 13
 445                         11:00   NC      NC%sT
 446 
 447 
 448 ###############################################################################
 449 
 450 # New Zealand
 451 
 452 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 453 Rule    NZ      1927    only    -       Nov      6      2:00    1:00    S
 454 Rule    NZ      1928    only    -       Mar      4      2:00    0       M
 455 Rule    NZ      1928    1933    -       Oct     Sun>=8       2:00    0:30    S
 456 Rule    NZ      1929    1933    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00    0       M
 457 Rule    NZ      1934    1940    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    0       M
 458 Rule    NZ      1934    1940    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0:30    S
 459 Rule    NZ      1946    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    0       S
 460 # Since 1957 Chatham has been 45 minutes ahead of NZ, but there's no
 461 # convenient notation for this so we must duplicate the Rule lines.
 462 Rule    NZ      1974    only    -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 463 Rule    Chatham 1974    only    -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:45s   1:00    D
 464 Rule    NZ      1975    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 465 Rule    Chatham 1975    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:45s   0       S
 466 Rule    NZ      1975    1988    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 467 Rule    Chatham 1975    1988    -       Oct     lastSun 2:45s   1:00    D
 468 Rule    NZ      1976    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 469 Rule    Chatham 1976    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:45s   0       S
 470 Rule    NZ      1989    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8       2:00s   1:00    D
 471 Rule    Chatham 1989    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8       2:45s   1:00    D
 472 Rule    NZ      1990    2006    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 473 Rule    Chatham 1990    2006    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:45s   1:00    D
 474 Rule    NZ      1990    2007    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       S
 475 Rule    Chatham 1990    2007    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:45s   0       S
 476 Rule    NZ      2007    max     -       Sep     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 477 Rule    Chatham 2007    max     -       Sep     lastSun 2:45s   1:00    D
 478 Rule    NZ      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 479 Rule    Chatham 2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:45s   0       S
 480 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 481 Zone Pacific/Auckland   11:39:04 -      LMT     1868 Nov  2
 482                         11:30   NZ      NZ%sT   1946 Jan  1
 483                         12:00   NZ      NZ%sT
 484 Zone Pacific/Chatham    12:13:48 -      LMT     1957 Jan  1
 485                         12:45   Chatham CHA%sT
 486 
 487 
 488 # Auckland Is
 489 # uninhabited; Maori and Moriori, colonial settlers, pastoralists, sealers,
 490 # and scientific personnel have wintered
 491 
 492 # Campbell I
 493 # minor whaling stations operated 1909/1914
 494 # scientific station operated 1941/1995;
 495 # previously whalers, sealers, pastoralists, and scientific personnel wintered
 496 # was probably like Pacific/Auckland
 497 
 498 ###############################################################################
 499 
 500 
 501 # Niue
 502 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 503 Zone    Pacific/Niue    -11:19:40 -     LMT     1901            # Alofi
 504                         -11:20  -       NUT     1951    # Niue Time
 505                         -11:30  -       NUT     1978 Oct 1
 506                         -11:00  -       NUT
 507 
 508 # Norfolk
 509 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 510 Zone    Pacific/Norfolk 11:11:52 -      LMT     1901            # Kingston
 511                         11:12   -       NMT     1951    # Norfolk Mean Time
 512                         11:30   -       NFT             # Norfolk Time
 513 
 514 # Palau (Belau)
 515 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 516 Zone Pacific/Palau      8:57:56 -       LMT     1901            # Koror
 517                         9:00    -       PWT     # Palau Time
 518 
 519 # Papua New Guinea
 520 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 521 Zone Pacific/Port_Moresby 9:48:40 -     LMT     1880
 522                         9:48:32 -       PMMT    1895    # Port Moresby Mean Time
 523                         10:00   -       PGT             # Papua New Guinea Time
 524 
 525 # Pitcairn
 526 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 527 Zone Pacific/Pitcairn   -8:40:20 -      LMT     1901            # Adamstown
 528                         -8:30   -       PNT     1998 Apr 27 00:00
 529                         -8:00   -       PST     # Pitcairn Standard Time
 530 
 531 # American Samoa
 532 Zone Pacific/Pago_Pago   12:37:12 -     LMT     1879 Jul  5
 533                         -11:22:48 -     LMT     1911
 534                         -11:30  -       SAMT    1950            # Samoa Time
 535                         -11:00  -       NST     1967 Apr        # N=Nome
 536                         -11:00  -       BST     1983 Nov 30     # B=Bering
 537                         -11:00  -       SST                     # S=Samoa
 538 
 539 # Samoa
 540 
 541 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-16):
 542 # We have been in contact with the government of Samoa again, and received
 543 # the following info:
 544 #
 545 # "Cabinet has now approved Daylight Saving to be effected next year
 546 # commencing from the last Sunday of September 2010 and conclude first
 547 # Sunday of April 2011."
 548 #
 549 # Background info:
 550 # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/samoa-dst-plan-2009.html">
 551 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/samoa-dst-plan-2009.html
 552 # </a>
 553 #
 554 # Samoa's Daylight Saving Time Act 2009 is available here, but does not
 555 # contain any dates:
 556 # <a href="http://www.parliament.gov.ws/documents/acts/Daylight%20Saving%20Act%20%202009%20%28English%29%20-%20Final%207-7-091.pdf">
 557 # http://www.parliament.gov.ws/documents/acts/Daylight%20Saving%20Act%20%202009%20%28English%29%20-%20Final%207-7-091.pdf
 558 # </a>
 559 
 560 # From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2010-10-07):
 561 # Please see
 562 # <a href="http://www.mcil.gov.ws">
 563 # http://www.mcil.gov.ws
 564 # </a>,
 565 # the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Labour (sideframe) "Last Sunday
 566 # September 2010 (26/09/10) - adjust clocks forward from 12:00 midnight
 567 # to 01:00am and First Sunday April 2011 (03/04/11) - adjust clocks
 568 # backwards from 1:00am to 12:00am"
 569 
 570 # From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2011-03-07):
 571 # I believe this will be posted shortly on the website
 572 # <a href="http://www.mcil.gov.ws">
 573 # www.mcil.gov.ws
 574 # </a>
 575 #
 576 # PUBLIC NOTICE ON DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME
 577 #
 578 # Pursuant to the Daylight Saving Act 2009 and Cabinets decision,
 579 # businesses and the general public are hereby advised that daylight
 580 # saving time is on the first Saturday of April 2011 (02/04/11).
 581 #
 582 # The public is therefore advised that when the standard time strikes
 583 # the hour of four oclock (4.00am or 0400 Hours) on the 2nd April 2011,
 584 # then all instruments used to measure standard time are to be
 585 # adjusted/changed to three oclock (3:00am or 0300Hrs).
 586 #
 587 # Margaret Fruean ACTING CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER MINISTRY OF COMMERCE,
 588 # INDUSTRY AND LABOUR 28th February 2011
 589 
 590 # From David Zuelke (2011-05-09):
 591 # Subject: Samoa to move timezone from east to west of international date line
 592 #
 593 # <a href="http://www.morningstar.co.uk/uk/markets/newsfeeditem.aspx?id=138501958347963">
 594 # http://www.morningstar.co.uk/uk/markets/newsfeeditem.aspx?id=138501958347963
 595 # </a>
 596 
 597 # From Mark Sim-Smith (2011-08-17):
 598 # I have been in contact with Leilani Tuala Warren from the Samoa Law
 599 # Reform Commission, and she has sent me a copy of the Bill that she
 600 # confirmed has been passed...Most of the sections are about maps rather
 601 # than the time zone change, but I'll paste the relevant bits below. But
 602 # the essence is that at midnight 29 Dec (UTC-11 I suppose), Samoa
 603 # changes from UTC-11 to UTC+13:
 604 #
 605 # International Date Line Bill 2011
 606 #
 607 # AN ACT to provide for the change to standard time in Samoa and to make
 608 # consequential amendments to the position of the International Date
 609 # Line, and for related purposes.
 610 #
 611 # BE IT ENACTED by the Legislative Assembly of Samoa in Parliament
 612 # assembled as follows:
 613 #
 614 # 1. Short title and commencement-(1) This Act may be cited as the
 615 # International Date Line Act 2011. (2) Except for section 5(3) this Act
 616 # commences at 12 o'clock midnight, on Thursday 29th December 2011. (3)
 617 # Section 5(3) commences on the date of assent by the Head of State.
 618 #
 619 # [snip]
 620 #
 621 # 3. Interpretation - [snip] "Samoa standard time" in this Act and any
 622 # other statute of Samoa which refers to 'Samoa standard time' means the
 623 # time 13 hours in advance of Co-ordinated Universal Time.
 624 #
 625 # 4. Samoa standard time - (1) Upon the commencement of this Act, Samoa
 626 # standard time shall be set at 13 hours in advance of Co-ordinated
 627 # Universal Time for the whole of Samoa. (2) All references to Samoa's
 628 # time zone and to Samoa standard time in Samoa in all legislation and
 629 # instruments after the commencement of this Act shall be references to
 630 # Samoa standard time as provided for in this Act. (3) Nothing in this
 631 # Act affects the provisions of the Daylight Saving Act 2009, except that
 632 # it defines Samoa standard time....
 633 
 634 # From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2011-09-02):
 635 # <a href="http://www.mcil.gov.ws/mcil_publications.html">
 636 # http://www.mcil.gov.ws/mcil_publications.html
 637 # </a>
 638 #
 639 # here is the official website publication for Samoa DST and dateline change
 640 #
 641 # DST
 642 # Year  End     Time    Start   Time
 643 # 2011  - - -   - - -   24 September    3:00am to 4:00am
 644 # 2012  01 April        4:00am to 3:00am        - - -   - - -
 645 #
 646 # Dateline Change skip Friday 30th Dec 2011
 647 # Thursday 29th December 2011   23:59:59 Hours
 648 # Saturday 31st December 2011   00:00:00 Hours
 649 #
 650 # Clarification by Tim Parenti (2012-01-03):
 651 # Although Samoa has used Daylight Saving Time in the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012
 652 # seasons, there is not yet any indication that this trend will continue on
 653 # a regular basis. For now, we have explicitly listed the transitions below.
 654 #
 655 # From Nicky (2012-09-10):
 656 # Daylight Saving Time commences on Sunday 30th September 2012 and
 657 # ends on Sunday 7th of April 2013.
 658 #
 659 # Please find link below for more information.
 660 # http://www.mcil.gov.ws/mcil_publications.html
 661 #
 662 # That publication also includes dates for Summer of 2013/4 as well
 663 # which give the impression of a pattern in selecting dates for the
 664 # future, so for now, we will guess this will continue.
 665 
 666 # Western Samoa
 667 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 668 Rule    WS      2012    max     -       Sep     lastSun 3:00    1       D
 669 Rule    WS      2012    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       4:00    0       -
 670 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 671 Zone Pacific/Apia        12:33:04 -     LMT     1879 Jul  5
 672                         -11:26:56 -     LMT     1911
 673                         -11:30  -       SAMT    1950            # Samoa Time
 674                         -11:00  -       WST     2010 Sep 26
 675                         -11:00  1:00    WSDT    2011 Apr 2 4:00
 676                         -11:00  -       WST     2011 Sep 24 3:00
 677                         -11:00  1:00    WSDT    2011 Dec 30
 678                          13:00  1:00    WSDT    2012 Apr Sun>=1 4:00
 679                          13:00  WS      WS%sT
 680 
 681 # Solomon Is
 682 # excludes Bougainville, for which see Papua New Guinea
 683 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 684 Zone Pacific/Guadalcanal 10:39:48 -     LMT     1912 Oct        # Honiara
 685                         11:00   -       SBT     # Solomon Is Time
 686 
 687 # Tokelau Is
 688 #
 689 # From Gwillim Law (2011-12-29)
 690 # A correspondent informed me that Tokelau, like Samoa, will be skipping
 691 # December 31 this year ...
 692 #
 693 # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-07-25)
 694 # ... we double checked by calling hotels and offices based in Tokelau asking
 695 # about the time there, and they all told a time that agrees with UTC+13....
 696 # Shanks says UTC-10 from 1901 [but] ... there is a good chance the change
 697 # actually was to UTC-11 back then.
 698 #
 699 # From Paul Eggert (2012-07-25)
 700 # A Google Books snippet of Appendix to the Journals of the House of
 701 # Representatives of New Zealand, Session 1948,
 702 # <http://books.google.com/books?id=ZaVCAQAAIAAJ>, page 65, says Tokelau
 703 # was "11 hours slow on G.M.T."  Go with Thorsen and assume Shanks & Pottenger
 704 # are off by an hour starting in 1901.
 705 
 706 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 707 Zone    Pacific/Fakaofo -11:24:56 -     LMT     1901
 708                         -11:00  -       TKT 2011 Dec 30 # Tokelau Time
 709                         13:00   -       TKT
 710 
 711 # Tonga
 712 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 713 Rule    Tonga   1999    only    -       Oct      7      2:00s   1:00    S
 714 Rule    Tonga   2000    only    -       Mar     19      2:00s   0       -
 715 Rule    Tonga   2000    2001    -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    S
 716 Rule    Tonga   2001    2002    -       Jan     lastSun 2:00    0       -
 717 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 718 Zone Pacific/Tongatapu  12:19:20 -      LMT     1901
 719                         12:20   -       TOT     1941 # Tonga Time
 720                         13:00   -       TOT     1999
 721                         13:00   Tonga   TO%sT
 722 
 723 # Tuvalu
 724 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 725 Zone Pacific/Funafuti   11:56:52 -      LMT     1901
 726                         12:00   -       TVT     # Tuvalu Time
 727 
 728 
 729 # US minor outlying islands
 730 
 731 # Howland, Baker
 732 # Howland was mined for guano by American companies 1857-1878 and British
 733 # 1886-1891; Baker was similar but exact dates are not known.
 734 # Inhabited by civilians 1935-1942; U.S. military bases 1943-1944;
 735 # uninhabited thereafter.
 736 # Howland observed Hawaii Standard Time (UTC-10:30) in 1937;
 737 # see page 206 of Elgen M. Long and Marie K. Long,
 738 # Amelia Earhart: the Mystery Solved, Simon & Schuster (2000).
 739 # So most likely Howland and Baker observed Hawaii Time from 1935
 740 # until they were abandoned after the war.
 741 
 742 # Jarvis
 743 # Mined for guano by American companies 1857-1879 and British 1883?-1891?.
 744 # Inhabited by civilians 1935-1942; IGY scientific base 1957-1958;
 745 # uninhabited thereafter.
 746 # no information; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati
 747 
 748 # Johnston
 749 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 750 Zone Pacific/Johnston   -10:00  -       HST
 751 
 752 # Kingman
 753 # uninhabited
 754 
 755 # Midway
 756 #
 757 # From Mark Brader (2005-01-23):
 758 # [Fallacies and Fantasies of Air Transport History, by R.E.G. Davies,
 759 # published 1994 by Paladwr Press, McLean, VA, USA; ISBN 0-9626483-5-3]
 760 # reproduced a Pan American Airways timeables from 1936, for their weekly
 761 # "Orient Express" flights between San Francisco and Manila, and connecting
 762 # flights to Chicago and the US East Coast.  As it uses some time zone
 763 # designations that I've never seen before:....
 764 # Fri. 6:30A Lv. HONOLOLU (Pearl Harbor), H.I.   H.L.T. Ar. 5:30P Sun.
 765 #  "   3:00P Ar. MIDWAY ISLAND . . . . . . . . . M.L.T. Lv. 6:00A  "
 766 #
 767 Zone Pacific/Midway     -11:49:28 -     LMT     1901
 768                         -11:00  -       NST     1956 Jun  3
 769                         -11:00  1:00    NDT     1956 Sep  2
 770                         -11:00  -       NST     1967 Apr        # N=Nome
 771                         -11:00  -       BST     1983 Nov 30     # B=Bering
 772                         -11:00  -       SST                     # S=Samoa
 773 
 774 # Palmyra
 775 # uninhabited since World War II; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati
 776 
 777 # Wake
 778 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 779 Zone    Pacific/Wake    11:06:28 -      LMT     1901
 780                         12:00   -       WAKT    # Wake Time
 781 
 782 
 783 # Vanuatu
 784 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 785 Rule    Vanuatu 1983    only    -       Sep     25      0:00    1:00    S
 786 Rule    Vanuatu 1984    1991    -       Mar     Sun>=23      0:00    0       -
 787 Rule    Vanuatu 1984    only    -       Oct     23      0:00    1:00    S
 788 Rule    Vanuatu 1985    1991    -       Sep     Sun>=23      0:00    1:00    S
 789 Rule    Vanuatu 1992    1993    -       Jan     Sun>=23      0:00    0       -
 790 Rule    Vanuatu 1992    only    -       Oct     Sun>=23      0:00    1:00    S
 791 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 792 Zone    Pacific/Efate   11:13:16 -      LMT     1912 Jan 13             # Vila
 793                         11:00   Vanuatu VU%sT   # Vanuatu Time
 794 
 795 # Wallis and Futuna
 796 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 797 Zone    Pacific/Wallis  12:15:20 -      LMT     1901
 798                         12:00   -       WFT     # Wallis & Futuna Time
 799 
 800 ###############################################################################
 801 
 802 # NOTES
 803 
 804 # This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
 805 # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
 806 # tz@elsie.nci.nih.gov for general use in the future).
 807 
 808 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
 809 # A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is
 810 # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
 811 # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
 812 #
 813 # Gwillim Law writes that a good source
 814 # for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
 815 # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
 816 # published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
 817 # of the IATA's data after 1990.
 818 #
 819 # Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for
 820 # entries through 1990, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.
 821 #
 822 # Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
 823 # Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which
 824 # I found in the UCLA library.
 825 #




 826 # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
 827 # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
 828 #
 829 # I invented the abbreviations marked `*' in the following table;
 830 # the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.
 831 # Corrections are welcome!
 832 #               std dst
 833 #               LMT     Local Mean Time
 834 #         8:00  WST WST Western Australia
 835 #         8:45  CWST CWST Central Western Australia*
 836 #         9:00  JST     Japan
 837 #         9:30  CST CST Central Australia
 838 #        10:00  EST EST Eastern Australia
 839 #        10:00  ChST    Chamorro
 840 #        10:30  LHST LHST Lord Howe*
 841 #        11:30  NZMT NZST New Zealand through 1945
 842 #        12:00  NZST NZDT New Zealand 1946-present
 843 #        12:45  CHAST CHADT Chatham*
 844 #       -11:00  SST     Samoa
 845 #       -10:00  HST     Hawaii
 846 #       - 8:00  PST     Pitcairn*
 847 #
 848 # See the `northamerica' file for Hawaii.
 849 # See the `southamerica' file for Easter I and the Galapagos Is.
 850 
 851 ###############################################################################
 852 
 853 # Australia
 854 
 855 # From Paul Eggert (2005-12-08):
 856 # <a href="http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml">
 857 # Implementation Dates of Daylight Saving Time within Australia
 858 # </a> summarizes daylight saving issues in Australia.
 859 
 860 # From Arthur David Olson (2005-12-12):
 861 # <a href="http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lawlink/Corporate/ll_agdinfo.nsf/pages/community_relations_daylight_saving">
 862 # Lawlink NSW:Daylight Saving in New South Wales
 863 # </a> covers New South Wales in particular.
 864 
 865 # From John Mackin (1991-03-06):
 866 # We in Australia have _never_ referred to DST as `daylight' time.
 867 # It is called `summer' time.  Now by a happy coincidence, `summer'
 868 # and `standard' happen to start with the same letter; hence, the
 869 # abbreviation does _not_ change...
 870 # The legislation does not actually define abbreviations, at least
 871 # in this State, but the abbreviation is just commonly taken to be the
 872 # initials of the phrase, and the legislation here uniformly uses
 873 # the phrase `summer time' and does not use the phrase `daylight
 874 # time'.
 875 # Announcers on the Commonwealth radio network, the ABC (for Australian
 876 # Broadcasting Commission), use the phrases `Eastern Standard Time'
 877 # or `Eastern Summer Time'.  (Note, though, that as I say in the
 878 # current australasia file, there is really no such thing.)  Announcers
 879 # on its overseas service, Radio Australia, use the same phrases
 880 # prefixed by the word `Australian' when referring to local times;
 881 # time announcements on that service, naturally enough, are made in UTC.
 882 
 883 # From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
 884 # Given the above, what's chosen for year-round use is:
 885 #       CST     for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 9:30
 886 #       WST     for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 8:00
 887 #       EST     for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 10:00
 888 
 889 # From Chuck Soper (2006-06-01):
 890 # I recently found this Australian government web page on time zones:
 891 # <http://www.australia.gov.au/about-australia-13time>
 892 # And this government web page lists time zone names and abbreviations:
 893 # <http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/daysavtm.shtml>
 894 
 895 # From Paul Eggert (2001-04-05), summarizing a long discussion about "EST"
 896 # versus "AEST" etc.:
 897 #
 898 # I see the following points of dispute:
 899 #
 900 # * How important are unique time zone abbreviations?
 901 #
 902 #   Here I tend to agree with the point (most recently made by Chris
 903 #   Newman) that unique abbreviations should not be essential for proper
 904 #   operation of software.  We have other instances of ambiguity
 905 #   (e.g. "IST" denoting both "Israel Standard Time" and "Indian
 906 #   Standard Time"), and they are not likely to go away any time soon.
 907 #   In the old days, some software mistakenly relied on unique
 908 #   abbreviations, but this is becoming less true with time, and I don't
 909 #   think it's that important to cater to such software these days.
 910 #
 911 #   On the other hand, there is another motivation for unambiguous
 912 #   abbreviations: it cuts down on human confusion.  This is
 913 #   particularly true for Australia, where "EST" can mean one thing for
 914 #   time T and a different thing for time T plus 1 second.
 915 #
 916 # * Does the relevant legislation indicate which abbreviations should be used?
 917 #
 918 #   Here I tend to think that things are a mess, just as they are in
 919 #   many other countries.  We Americans are currently disagreeing about
 920 #   which abbreviation to use for the newly legislated Chamorro Standard
 921 #   Time, for example.
 922 #
 923 #   Personally, I would prefer to use common practice; I would like to
 924 #   refer to legislation only for examples of common practice, or as a
 925 #   tiebreaker.
 926 #
 927 # * Do Australians more often use "Eastern Daylight Time" or "Eastern
 928 #   Summer Time"?  Do they typically prefix the time zone names with
 929 #   the word "Australian"?
 930 #
 931 #   My own impression is that both "Daylight Time" and "Summer Time" are
 932 #   common and are widely understood, but that "Summer Time" is more
 933 #   popular; and that the leading "A" is also common but is omitted more
 934 #   often than not.  I just used AltaVista advanced search and got the
 935 #   following count of page hits:
 936 #
 937 #     1,103 "Eastern Summer Time" AND domain:au
 938 #       971 "Australian Eastern Summer Time" AND domain:au
 939 #       613 "Eastern Daylight Time" AND domain:au
 940 #       127 "Australian Eastern Daylight Time" AND domain:au
 941 #
 942 #   Here "Summer" seems quite a bit more popular than "Daylight",
 943 #   particularly when we know the time zone is Australian and not US,
 944 #   say.  The "Australian" prefix seems to be popular for Eastern Summer
 945 #   Time, but unpopular for Eastern Daylight Time.
 946 #
 947 #   For abbreviations, tools like AltaVista are less useful because of
 948 #   ambiguity.  Many hits are not really time zones, unfortunately, and
 949 #   many hits denote US time zones and not Australian ones.  But here
 950 #   are the hit counts anyway:
 951 #
 952 #     161,304 "EST" and domain:au
 953 #      25,156 "EDT" and domain:au
 954 #      18,263 "AEST" and domain:au
 955 #      10,416 "AEDT" and domain:au
 956 #
 957 #      14,538 "CST" and domain:au
 958 #       5,728 "CDT" and domain:au
 959 #         176 "ACST" and domain:au
 960 #          29 "ACDT" and domain:au
 961 #
 962 #       7,539 "WST" and domain:au
 963 #          68 "AWST" and domain:au
 964 #
 965 #   This data suggest that Australians tend to omit the "A" prefix in
 966 #   practice.  The situation for "ST" versus "DT" is less clear, given
 967 #   the ambiguities involved.
 968 #
 969 # * How do Australians feel about the abbreviations in the tz database?
 970 #
 971 #   If you just count Australians on this list, I count 2 in favor and 3
 972 #   against.  One of the "against" votes (David Keegel) counseled delay,
 973 #   saying that both AEST/AEDT and EST/EST are widely used and
 974 #   understood in Australia.
 975 
 976 # From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19):
 977 # Shanks & Pottenger report 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and NZ.
 978 # Mark Prior writes that his newspaper
 979 # reports that NSW's fall 1995 change will occur at 2:00,
 980 # but Robert Elz says it's been 3:00 in Victoria since 1970
 981 # and perhaps the newspaper's `2:00' is referring to standard time.
 982 # For now we'll continue to assume 2:00s for changes since 1960.
 983 
 984 # From Eric Ulevik (1998-01-05):
 985 #
 986 # Here are some URLs to Australian time legislation. These URLs are stable,
 987 # and should probably be included in the data file. There are probably more
 988 # relevant entries in this database.
 989 #
 990 # NSW (including LHI and Broken Hill):
 991 # <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/consol_act/sta1987137/index.html">
 992 # Standard Time Act 1987 (updated 1995-04-04)
 993 # </a>
 994 # ACT
 995 # <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/act/consol_act/stasta1972279/index.html">
 996 # Standard Time and Summer Time Act 1972
 997 # </a>
 998 # SA
 999 # <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/sa/consol_act/sta1898137/index.html">
1000 # Standard Time Act, 1898
1001 # </a>
1002 
1003 # From David Grosz (2005-06-13):
1004 # It was announced last week that Daylight Saving would be extended by
1005 # one week next year to allow for the 2006 Commonwealth Games.
1006 # Daylight Saving is now to end for next year only on the first Sunday
1007 # in April instead of the last Sunday in March.
1008 #
1009 # From Gwillim Law (2005-06-14):
1010 # I did some Googling and found that all of those states (and territory) plan
1011 # to extend DST together in 2006.
1012 # ACT: http://www.cmd.act.gov.au/mediareleases/fileread.cfm?file=86.txt
1013 # New South Wales: http://www.thecouriermail.news.com.au/common/story_page/0,5936,15538869%255E1702,00.html
1014 # South Australia: http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,15555031-1246,00.html
1015 # Tasmania: http://www.media.tas.gov.au/release.php?id=14772
1016 # Victoria: I wasn't able to find anything separate, but the other articles
1017 # allude to it.
1018 # But not Queensland
1019 # http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,15564030-1248,00.html.
1020 
1021 # Northern Territory
1022 
1023 # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1024 # # The NORTHERN TERRITORY..  [ Courtesy N.T. Dept of the Chief Minister ]
1025 # #                                     [ Nov 1990 ]
1026 # #     N.T. have never utilised any DST due to sub-tropical/tropical location.
1027 # ...
1028 # Zone        Australia/North         9:30    -       CST
1029 
1030 # From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
1031 # A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
1032 # the Northern Territory do[es] not have daylight saving.
1033 
1034 # Western Australia
1035 
1036 # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1037 # #  The state of WESTERN AUSTRALIA..  [ Courtesy W.A. dept Premier+Cabinet ]
1038 # #                                             [ Nov 1990 ]
1039 # #     W.A. suffers from a great deal of public and political opposition to
1040 # #     DST in principle. A bill is brought before parliament in most years, but
1041 # #     usually defeated either in the upper house, or in party caucus
1042 # #     before reaching parliament.
1043 # ...
1044 # Zone  Australia/West          8:00    AW      %sST
1045 # ...
1046 # Rule  AW      1974    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1047 # Rule  AW      1975    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       W
1048 # Rule  AW      1983    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1049 # Rule  AW      1984    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       W
1050 
1051 # From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
1052 # A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
1053 # Western Australia...do[es] not have daylight saving.
1054 
1055 # From John D. Newman via Bradley White (1991-11-02):
1056 # Western Australia is still on "winter time". Some DH in Sydney
1057 # rang me at home a few days ago at 6.00am. (He had just arrived at
1058 # work at 9.00am.)
1059 # W.A. is switching to Summer Time on Nov 17th just to confuse
1060 # everybody again.
1061 
1062 # From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
1063 # The 1992 ending date used in the rules is a best guess;
1064 # it matches what was used in the past.
1065 
1066 # <a href="http://www.bom.gov.au/faq/faqgen.htm">
1067 # The Australian Bureau of Meteorology FAQ
1068 # </a> (1999-09-27) writes that Giles Meteorological Station uses
1069 # South Australian time even though it's located in Western Australia.
1070 
1071 # Queensland
1072 # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1073 # #   The state of QUEENSLAND.. [ Courtesy Qld. Dept Premier Econ&Trade Devel ]
1074 # #                                             [ Dec 1990 ]
1075 # ...
1076 # Zone  Australia/Queensland    10:00   AQ      %sST
1077 # ...
1078 # Rule  AQ      1971    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1079 # Rule  AQ      1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 3:00    0       E
1080 # Rule  AQ      1989    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1081 # Rule  AQ      1990    max     -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       E
1082 
1083 # From Bradley White (1989-12-24):
1084 # "Australia/Queensland" now observes daylight time (i.e. from
1085 # October 1989).
1086 
1087 # From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
1088 # A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
1089 # ...Queensland...[has] agreed to end daylight saving
1090 # at 3am tomorrow (March 3)...
1091 
1092 # From John Mackin (1991-03-06):
1093 # I can certainly confirm for my part that Daylight Saving in NSW did in fact
1094 # end on Sunday, 3 March.  I don't know at what hour, though.  (It surprised
1095 # me.)
1096 
1097 # From Bradley White (1992-03-08):
1098 # ...there was recently a referendum in Queensland which resulted
1099 # in the experimental daylight saving system being abandoned. So, ...
1100 # ...
1101 # Rule  QLD     1989    1991    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1102 # Rule  QLD     1990    1992    -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       S
1103 # ...
1104 
1105 # From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
1106 # The chosen rules the union of the 1971/1972 change and the 1989-1992 changes.
1107 
1108 # From Christopher Hunt (2006-11-21), after an advance warning
1109 # from Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-11-01):
1110 # WA are trialing DST for three years.
1111 # <http://www.parliament.wa.gov.au/parliament/bills.nsf/9A1B183144403DA54825721200088DF1/$File/Bill175-1B.pdf>
1112 
1113 # From Rives McDow (2002-04-09):
1114 # The most interesting region I have found consists of three towns on the
1115 # southern coast....  South Australia observes daylight saving time; Western
1116 # Australia does not.  The two states are one and a half hours apart.  The
1117 # residents decided to forget about this nonsense of changing the clock so
1118 # much and set the local time 20 hours and 45 minutes from the
1119 # international date line, or right in the middle of the time of South
1120 # Australia and Western Australia....
1121 #
1122 # From Paul Eggert (2002-04-09):
1123 # This is confirmed by the section entitled
1124 # "What's the deal with time zones???" in
1125 # <http://www.earthsci.unimelb.edu.au/~awatkins/null.html>.
1126 #
1127 # From Alex Livingston (2006-12-07):
1128 # ... it was just on four years ago that I drove along the Eyre Highway,
1129 # which passes through eastern Western Australia close to the southern
1130 # coast of the continent.
1131 #
1132 # I paid particular attention to the time kept there. There can be no
1133 # dispute that UTC+08:45 was considered "the time" from the border
1134 # village just inside the border with South Australia to as far west
1135 # as just east of Caiguna. There can also be no dispute that Eucla is
1136 # the largest population centre in this zone....
1137 #
1138 # Now that Western Australia is observing daylight saving, the
1139 # question arose whether this part of the state would follow suit. I
1140 # just called the border village and confirmed that indeed they have,
1141 # meaning that they are now observing UTC+09:45.
1142 #
1143 # (2006-12-09):
1144 # I personally doubt that either experimentation with daylight saving
1145 # in WA or its introduction in SA had anything to do with the genesis
1146 # of this time zone.  My hunch is that it's been around since well
1147 # before 1975.  I remember seeing it noted on road maps decades ago.
1148 
1149 # From Paul Eggert (2006-12-15):
1150 # For lack of better info, assume the tradition dates back to the
1151 # introduction of standard time in 1895.
1152 
1153 
1154 # southeast Australia
1155 #
1156 # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1157 # Starting autumn 2008 Victoria, NSW, South Australia, Tasmania and the ACT
1158 # end DST the first Sunday in April and start DST the first Sunday in October.
1159 # http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/daylight-savings-to-span-six-months/2007/06/27/1182623966703.html
1160 
1161 
1162 # South Australia
1163 
1164 # From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
1165 # A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
1166 # ...South Australia...[has] agreed to end daylight saving
1167 # at 3am tomorrow (March 3)...
1168 
1169 # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1170 # #   The state of SOUTH AUSTRALIA....[ Courtesy of S.A. Dept of Labour ]
1171 # #                                             [ Nov 1990 ]
1172 # ...
1173 # Zone  Australia/South         9:30    AS      %sST
1174 # ...
1175 # Rule   AS     1971    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1176 # Rule   AS     1972    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       C
1177 # Rule   AS     1986    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=15      3:00    0       C
1178 # Rule   AS     1991    max     -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       C
1179 
1180 # From Bradley White (1992-03-11):
1181 # Recent correspondence with a friend in Adelaide
1182 # contained the following exchange:  "Due to the Adelaide Festival,
1183 # South Australia delays setting back our clocks for a few weeks."
1184 
1185 # From Robert Elz (1992-03-13):
1186 # I heard that apparently (or at least, it appears that)
1187 # South Aus will have an extra 3 weeks daylight saving every even
1188 # numbered year (from 1990).  That's when the Adelaide Festival
1189 # is on...
1190 
1191 # From Robert Elz (1992-03-16, 00:57:07 +1000):
1192 # DST didn't end in Adelaide today (yesterday)....
1193 # But whether it's "4th Sunday" or "2nd last Sunday" I have no idea whatever...
1194 # (it's just as likely to be "the Sunday we pick for this year"...).
1195 
1196 # From Bradley White (1994-04-11):
1197 # If Sun, 15 March, 1992 was at +1030 as kre asserts, but yet Sun, 20 March,
1198 # 1994 was at +0930 as John Connolly's customer seems to assert, then I can
1199 # only conclude that the actual rule is more complicated....
1200 
1201 # From John Warburton (1994-10-07):
1202 # The new Daylight Savings dates for South Australia ...
1203 # was gazetted in the Government Hansard on Sep 26 1994....
1204 # start on last Sunday in October and end in last sunday in March.
1205 
1206 # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1207 # See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1208 
1209 # Tasmania
1210 
1211 # The rules for 1967 through 1991 were reported by George Shepherd
1212 # via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1213 # #  The state of TASMANIA.. [Courtesy Tasmanian Dept of Premier + Cabinet ]
1214 # #                                     [ Nov 1990 ]
1215 
1216 # From Bill Hart via Guy Harris (1991-10-10):
1217 # Oh yes, the new daylight savings rules are uniquely tasmanian, we have
1218 # 6 weeks a year now when we are out of sync with the rest of Australia
1219 # (but nothing new about that).
1220 
1221 # From Alex Livingston (1999-10-04):
1222 # I heard on the ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) radio news on the
1223 # (long) weekend that Tasmania, which usually goes its own way in this regard,
1224 # has decided to join with most of NSW, the ACT, and most of Victoria
1225 # (Australia) and start daylight saving on the last Sunday in August in 2000
1226 # instead of the first Sunday in October.
1227 
1228 # Sim Alam (2000-07-03) reported a legal citation for the 2000/2001 rules:
1229 # http://www.thelaw.tas.gov.au/fragview/42++1968+GS3A@EN+2000070300
1230 
1231 # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1232 # See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1233 
1234 # Victoria
1235 
1236 # The rules for 1971 through 1991 were reported by George Shepherd
1237 # via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1238 # #   The state of VICTORIA.. [ Courtesy of Vic. Dept of Premier + Cabinet ]
1239 # #                                             [ Nov 1990 ]
1240 
1241 # From Scott Harrington (2001-08-29):
1242 # On KQED's "City Arts and Lectures" program last night I heard an
1243 # interesting story about daylight savings time.  Dr. John Heilbron was
1244 # discussing his book "The Sun in the Church: Cathedrals as Solar
1245 # Observatories"[1], and in particular the Shrine of Remembrance[2] located
1246 # in Melbourne, Australia.
1247 #
1248 # Apparently the shrine's main purpose is a beam of sunlight which
1249 # illuminates a special spot on the floor at the 11th hour of the 11th day
1250 # of the 11th month (Remembrance Day) every year in memory of Australia's
1251 # fallen WWI soldiers.  And if you go there on Nov. 11, at 11am local time,
1252 # you will indeed see the sunbeam illuminate the special spot at the
1253 # expected time.
1254 #
1255 # However, that is only because of some special mirror contraption that had
1256 # to be employed, since due to daylight savings time, the true solar time of
1257 # the remembrance moment occurs one hour later (or earlier?).  Perhaps
1258 # someone with more information on this jury-rig can tell us more.
1259 #
1260 # [1] http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog/HEISUN.html
1261 # [2] http://www.shrine.org.au
1262 
1263 # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1264 # See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1265 
1266 # New South Wales
1267 
1268 # From Arthur David Olson:
1269 # New South Wales and subjurisdictions have their own ideas of a fun time.
1270 # Based on law library research by John Mackin,
1271 # who notes:
1272 #       In Australia, time is not legislated federally, but rather by the
1273 #       individual states.  Thus, while such terms as ``Eastern Standard Time''
1274 #       [I mean, of course, Australian EST, not any other kind] are in common
1275 #       use, _they have NO REAL MEANING_, as they are not defined in the
1276 #       legislation.  This is very important to understand.
1277 #       I have researched New South Wales time only...
1278 
1279 # From Eric Ulevik (1999-05-26):
1280 # DST will start in NSW on the last Sunday of August, rather than the usual
1281 # October in 2000.  [See: Matthew Moore,
1282 # <a href="http://www.smh.com.au/news/9905/26/pageone/pageone4.html">
1283 # Two months more daylight saving
1284 # </a>
1285 # Sydney Morning Herald (1999-05-26).]
1286 
1287 # From Paul Eggert (1999-09-27):
1288 # See the following official NSW source:
1289 # <a href="http://dir.gis.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/genobject/document/other/daylightsaving/tigGmZ">
1290 # Daylight Saving in New South Wales.
1291 # </a>
1292 #
1293 # Narrabri Shire (NSW) council has announced it will ignore the extension of
1294 # daylight saving next year.  See:
1295 # <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/neweng/monthly/regeng-22jul1999-1.htm">
1296 # Narrabri Council to ignore daylight saving
1297 # </a> (1999-07-22).  For now, we'll wait to see if this really happens.
1298 #
1299 # Victoria will following NSW.  See:
1300 # <a href="http://abc.net.au/local/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990728112314_1.htm">
1301 # Vic to extend daylight saving
1302 # </a> (1999-07-28).
1303 #
1304 # However, South Australia rejected the DST request.  See:
1305 # <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990719151754_1.htm">
1306 # South Australia rejects Olympics daylight savings request
1307 # </a> (1999-07-19).
1308 #
1309 # Queensland also will not observe DST for the Olympics.  See:
1310 # <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/06/item19990601114608_1.htm">
1311 # Qld says no to daylight savings for Olympics
1312 # </a> (1999-06-01), which quotes Queensland Premier Peter Beattie as saying
1313 # ``Look you've got to remember in my family when this came up last time
1314 # I voted for it, my wife voted against it and she said to me it's all very
1315 # well for you, you don't have to worry about getting the children out of
1316 # bed, getting them to school, getting them to sleep at night.
1317 # I've been through all this argument domestically...my wife rules.''
1318 #
1319 # Broken Hill will stick with South Australian time in 2000.  See:
1320 # <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/brokenh/monthly/regbrok-21jul1999-6.htm">
1321 # Broken Hill to be behind the times
1322 # </a> (1999-07-21).
1323 
1324 # IATA SSIM (1998-09) says that the spring 2000 change for Australian
1325 # Capital Territory, New South Wales except Lord Howe Island and Broken
1326 # Hill, and Victoria will be August 27, presumably due to the Sydney Olympics.
1327 
1328 # From Eric Ulevik, referring to Sydney's Sun Herald (2000-08-13), page 29:
1329 # The Queensland Premier Peter Beattie is encouraging northern NSW
1330 # towns to use Queensland time.
1331 
1332 # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1333 # See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1334 
1335 # Yancowinna
1336 
1337 # From John Mackin (1989-01-04):
1338 # `Broken Hill' means the County of Yancowinna.
1339 
1340 # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1341 # # YANCOWINNA..  [ Confirmation courtesy of Broken Hill Postmaster ]
1342 # #                                     [ Dec 1990 ]
1343 # ...
1344 # # Yancowinna uses Central Standard Time, despite [its] location on the
1345 # # New South Wales side of the S.A. border. Most business and social dealings
1346 # # are with CST zones, therefore CST is legislated by local government
1347 # # although the switch to Summer Time occurs in line with N.S.W. There have
1348 # # been years when this did not apply, but the historical data is not
1349 # # presently available.
1350 # Zone  Australia/Yancowinna    9:30     AY     %sST
1351 # ...
1352 # Rule   AY     1971    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1353 # Rule   AY     1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 3:00    0       C
1354 # [followed by other Rules]
1355 
1356 # Lord Howe Island
1357 
1358 # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1359 # LHI...                [ Courtesy of Pauline Van Winsen ]
1360 #                                       [ Dec 1990 ]
1361 # Lord Howe Island is located off the New South Wales coast, and is half an
1362 # hour ahead of NSW time.
1363 
1364 # From James Lonergan, Secretary, Lord Howe Island Board (2000-01-27):
1365 # Lord Howe Island summer time in 2000/2001 will commence on the same
1366 # date as the rest of NSW (i.e. 2000-08-27).  For your information the
1367 # Lord Howe Island Board (controlling authority for the Island) is
1368 # seeking the community's views on various options for summer time
1369 # arrangements on the Island, e.g. advance clocks by 1 full hour
1370 # instead of only 30 minutes.  [Dependent] on the wishes of residents
1371 # the Board may approach the NSW government to change the existing
1372 # arrangements.  The starting date for summer time on the Island will
1373 # however always coincide with the rest of NSW.
1374 
1375 # From James Lonergan, Secretary, Lord Howe Island Board (2000-10-25):
1376 # Lord Howe Island advances clocks by 30 minutes during DST in NSW and retards
1377 # clocks by 30 minutes when DST finishes. Since DST was most recently
1378 # introduced in NSW, the "changeover" time on the Island has been 02:00 as
1379 # shown on clocks on LHI. I guess this means that for 30 minutes at the start
1380 # of DST, LHI is actually 1 hour ahead of the rest of NSW.
1381 
1382 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1383 # For Lord Howe dates we use Shanks & Pottenger through 1989, and
1384 # Lonergan thereafter.  For times we use Lonergan.
1385 
1386 # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1387 # See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1388 
1389 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-04-28):
1390 # According to the official press release, South Australia's extended daylight
1391 # saving period will continue with the same rules as used during the 2008-2009
1392 # summer (southern hemisphere).
1393 #
1394 # From
1395 # <a href="http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/uploaded_files/DaylightDatesSet.pdf">
1396 # http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/uploaded_files/DaylightDatesSet.pdf
1397 # </a>
1398 # The extended daylight saving period that South Australia has been trialling
1399 # for over the last year is now set to be ongoing.
1400 # Daylight saving will continue to start on the first Sunday in October each
1401 # year and finish on the first Sunday in April the following year.
1402 # Industrial Relations Minister, Paul Caica, says this provides South Australia
1403 # with a consistent half hour time difference with NSW, Victoria, Tasmania and
1404 # the ACT for all 52 weeks of the year...
1405 #
1406 # We have a wrap-up here:
1407 # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/south-australia-extends-dst.html">
1408 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/south-australia-extends-dst.html
1409 # </a>
1410 ###############################################################################
1411 
1412 # New Zealand
1413 
1414 # From Mark Davies (1990-10-03):
1415 # the 1989/90 year was a trial of an extended "daylight saving" period.
1416 # This trial was deemed successful and the extended period adopted for
1417 # subsequent years (with the addition of a further week at the start).
1418 # source -- phone call to Ministry of Internal Affairs Head Office.
1419 
1420 # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1421 # # The Country of New Zealand   (Australia's east island -) Gee they hate that!
1422 # #                                or is Australia the west island of N.Z.
1423 # #     [ courtesy of Geoff Tribble.. Auckland N.Z. ]
1424 # #                             [ Nov 1990 ]
1425 # ...
1426 # Rule  NZ      1974    1988    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1427 # Rule  NZ      1989    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
1428 # Rule  NZ      1975    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       S
1429 # Rule  NZ      1990    max     -       Mar     lastSun 3:00    0       S
1430 # ...
1431 # Zone  NZ                      12:00   NZ              NZ%sT   # New Zealand
1432 # Zone  NZ-CHAT                 12:45   -               NZ-CHAT # Chatham Island
1433 
1434 # From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
1435 # The chosen rules use the Davies October 8 values for the start of DST in 1989
1436 # rather than the October 1 value.
1437 
1438 # From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19);
1439 # Shank & Pottenger report 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and NZ.
1440 # Robert Uzgalis writes that the New Zealand Daylight
1441 # Savings Time Order in Council dated 1990-06-18 specifies 2:00 standard
1442 # time on both the first Sunday in October and the third Sunday in March.
1443 # As with Australia, we'll assume the tradition is 2:00s, not 2:00.
1444 #
1445 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1446 # The Department of Internal Affairs (DIA) maintains a brief history,
1447 # as does Carol Squires; see tz-link.htm for the full references.
1448 # Use these sources in preference to Shanks & Pottenger.
1449 #
1450 # For Chatham, IATA SSIM (1991/1999) gives the NZ rules but with
1451 # transitions at 2:45 local standard time; this confirms that Chatham
1452 # is always exactly 45 minutes ahead of Auckland.
1453 
1454 # From Colin Sharples (2007-04-30):
1455 # DST will now start on the last Sunday in September, and end on the
1456 # first Sunday in April.  The changes take effect this year, meaning
1457 # that DST will begin on 2007-09-30 2008-04-06.
1458 # http://www.dia.govt.nz/diawebsite.nsf/wpg_URL/Services-Daylight-Saving-Daylight-saving-to-be-extended
1459 
1460 ###############################################################################
1461 
1462 
1463 # Fiji
1464 
1465 # Howse writes (p 153) that in 1879 the British governor of Fiji
1466 # enacted an ordinance standardizing the islands on Antipodean Time
1467 # instead of the American system (which was one day behind).
1468 
1469 # From Rives McDow (1998-10-08):
1470 # Fiji will introduce DST effective 0200 local time, 1998-11-01
1471 # until 0300 local time 1999-02-28.  Each year the DST period will
1472 # be from the first Sunday in November until the last Sunday in February.
1473 
1474 # From Paul Eggert (2000-01-08):
1475 # IATA SSIM (1999-09) says DST ends 0100 local time.  Go with McDow.
1476 
1477 # From the BBC World Service (1998-10-31 11:32 UTC):
1478 # The Fijiian government says the main reasons for the time change is to
1479 # improve productivity and reduce road accidents.  But correspondents say it
1480 # also hopes the move will boost Fiji's ability to compete with other pacific
1481 # islands in the effort to attract tourists to witness the dawning of the new
1482 # millenium.
1483 
1484 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/press/2000_09/2000_09_13-05.shtml (2000-09-13)
1485 # reports that Fiji has discontinued DST.
1486 
1487 # Johnston
1488 
1489 # Johnston data is from usno1995.
1490 
1491 
1492 # Kiribati
1493 
1494 # From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22):
1495 # Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (page 1) reports that Kiribati
1496 # ``declared it the same day [throughout] the country as of Jan. 1, 1995''
1497 # as part of the competition to be first into the 21st century.
1498 
1499 
1500 # Kwajalein
1501 
1502 # In comp.risks 14.87 (26 August 1993), Peter Neumann writes:
1503 # I wonder what happened in Kwajalein, where there was NO Friday,
1504 # 1993-08-20.  Thursday night at midnight Kwajalein switched sides with
1505 # respect to the International Date Line, to rejoin its fellow islands,
1506 # going from 11:59 p.m. Thursday to 12:00 m. Saturday in a blink.
1507 
1508 
1509 # N Mariana Is, Guam
1510 
1511 # Howse writes (p 153) ``The Spaniards, on the other hand, reached the
1512 # Philippines and the Ladrones from America,'' and implies that the Ladrones
1513 # (now called the Marianas) kept American date for quite some time.
1514 # For now, we assume the Ladrones switched at the same time as the Philippines;
1515 # see Asia/Manila.
1516 
1517 # US Public Law 106-564 (2000-12-23) made UTC+10 the official standard time,
1518 # under the name "Chamorro Standard Time".  There is no official abbreviation,
1519 # but Congressman Robert A. Underwood, author of the bill that became law,
1520 # wrote in a press release (2000-12-27) that he will seek the use of "ChST".
1521 
1522 
1523 # Micronesia
1524 
1525 # Alan Eugene Davis writes (1996-03-16),
1526 # ``I am certain, having lived there for the past decade, that "Truk"
1527 # (now properly known as Chuuk) ... is in the time zone GMT+10.''
1528 #
1529 # Shanks & Pottenger write that Truk switched from UTC+10 to UTC+11
1530 # on 1978-10-01; ignore this for now.
1531 
1532 # From Paul Eggert (1999-10-29):
1533 # The Federated States of Micronesia Visitors Board writes in
1534 # <a href="http://www.fsmgov.org/info/clocks.html">
1535 # The Federated States of Micronesia - Visitor Information
1536 # </a> (1999-01-26)
1537 # that Truk and Yap are UTC+10, and Ponape and Kosrae are UTC+11.
1538 # We don't know when Kosrae switched from UTC+12; assume January 1 for now.
1539 
1540 
1541 # Midway
1542 
1543 # From Charles T O'Connor, KMTH DJ (1956),
1544 # quoted in the KTMH section of the Radio Heritage Collection
1545 # <http://radiodx.com/spdxr/KMTH.htm> (2002-12-31):
1546 # For the past two months we've been on what is known as Daylight
1547 # Saving Time.  This time has put us on air at 5am in the morning,
1548 # your time down there in New Zealand.  Starting September 2, 1956
1549 # we'll again go back to Standard Time.  This'll mean that we'll go to
1550 # air at 6am your time.
1551 #
1552 # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23):
1553 # We don't know the date of that quote, but we'll guess they
1554 # started DST on June 3.  Possibly DST was observed other years
1555 # in Midway, but we have no record of it.
1556 
1557 
1558 # Pitcairn
1559 
1560 # From Rives McDow (1999-11-08):
1561 # A Proclamation was signed by the Governor of Pitcairn on the 27th March 1998
1562 # with regard to Pitcairn Standard Time.  The Proclamation is as follows.
1563 #
1564 #       The local time for general purposes in the Islands shall be
1565 #       Co-ordinated Universal time minus 8 hours and shall be known
1566 #       as Pitcairn Standard Time.
1567 #
1568 # ... I have also seen Pitcairn listed as UTC minus 9 hours in several
1569 # references, and can only assume that this was an error in interpretation
1570 # somehow in light of this proclamation.
1571 
1572 # From Rives McDow (1999-11-09):
1573 # The Proclamation regarding Pitcairn time came into effect on 27 April 1998
1574 # ... at midnight.
1575 
1576 # From Howie Phelps (1999-11-10), who talked to a Pitcairner via shortwave:
1577 # Betty Christian told me yesterday that their local time is the same as
1578 # Pacific Standard Time. They used to be 1/2 hour different from us here in
1579 # Sacramento but it was changed a couple of years ago.
1580 
1581 
1582 # Samoa
1583 
1584 # Howse writes (p 153, citing p 10 of the 1883-11-18 New York Herald)
1585 # that in 1879 the King of Samoa decided to change
1586 # ``the date in his kingdom from the Antipodean to the American system,
1587 # ordaining -- by a masterpiece of diplomatic flattery -- that
1588 # the Fourth of July should be celebrated twice in that year.''
1589 
1590 
1591 # Tonga
1592 
1593 # From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22):
1594 # Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (p 1) reports that ``Tonga has been plotting
1595 # to sneak ahead of [New Zealanders] by introducing daylight-saving time.''
1596 # Since Kiribati has moved the Date Line it's not clear what Tonga will do.
1597 
1598 # Don Mundell writes in the 1997-02-20 Tonga Chronicle
1599 # <a href="http://www.tongatapu.net.to/tonga/homeland/timebegins.htm">
1600 # How Tonga became `The Land where Time Begins'
1601 # </a>:
1602 
1603 # Until 1941 Tonga maintained a standard time 50 minutes ahead of NZST
1604 # 12 hours and 20 minutes ahead of GMT.  When New Zealand adjusted its
1605 # standard time in 1940s, Tonga had the choice of subtracting from its
1606 # local time to come on the same standard time as New Zealand or of
1607 # advancing its time to maintain the differential of 13 degrees
1608 # (approximately 50 minutes ahead of New Zealand time).
1609 #
1610 # Because His Majesty King Taufa'ahau Tupou IV, then Crown Prince
1611 # Tungi, preferred to ensure Tonga's title as the land where time
1612 # begins, the Legislative Assembly approved the latter change.
1613 #
1614 # But some of the older, more conservative members from the outer
1615 # islands objected. "If at midnight on Dec. 31, we move ahead 40
1616 # minutes, as your Royal Highness wishes, what becomes of the 40
1617 # minutes we have lost?"
1618 #
1619 # The Crown Prince, presented an unanswerable argument: "Remember that
1620 # on the World Day of Prayer, you would be the first people on Earth
1621 # to say your prayers in the morning."
1622 
1623 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1624 # Shanks & Pottenger say the transition was on 1968-10-01; go with Mundell.
1625 
1626 # From Eric Ulevik (1999-05-03):
1627 # Tonga's director of tourism, who is also secretary of the National Millenium
1628 # Committee, has a plan to get Tonga back in front.
1629 # He has proposed a one-off move to tropical daylight saving for Tonga from
1630 # October to March, which has won approval in principle from the Tongan
1631 # Government.
1632 
1633 # From Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
1634 # * Tonga will introduce DST in November
1635 #
1636 # I was given this link by John Letts:
1637 # <a href="http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_424000/424764.stm">
1638 # http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_424000/424764.stm
1639 # </a>
1640 #
1641 # I have not been able to find exact dates for the transition in November
1642 # yet. By reading this article it seems like Fiji will be 14 hours ahead
1643 # of UTC as well, but as far as I know Fiji will only be 13 hours ahead
1644 # (12 + 1 hour DST).
1645 
1646 # From Arthur David Olson (1999-09-20):
1647 # According to <a href="http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html">
1648 # http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html
1649 # </a>:
1650 # "Daylight Savings Time will take effect on Oct. 2 through April 15, 2000
1651 # and annually thereafter from the first Saturday in October through the
1652 # third Saturday of April.  Under the system approved by Privy Council on
1653 # Sept. 10, clocks must be turned ahead one hour on the opening day and
1654 # set back an hour on the closing date."
1655 # Alas, no indication of the time of day.
1656 
1657 # From Rives McDow (1999-10-06):
1658 # Tonga started its Daylight Saving on Saturday morning October 2nd at 0200am.
1659 # Daylight Saving ends on April 16 at 0300am which is Sunday morning.
1660 
1661 # From Steffen Thorsen (2000-10-31):
1662 # Back in March I found a notice on the website http://www.tongaonline.com
1663 # that Tonga changed back to standard time one month early, on March 19
1664 # instead of the original reported date April 16. Unfortunately, the article
1665 # is no longer available on the site, and I did not make a copy of the
1666 # text, and I have forgotten to report it here.
1667 # (Original URL was: http://www.tongaonline.com/news/march162000.htm )
1668 
1669 # From Rives McDow (2000-12-01):
1670 # Tonga is observing DST as of 2000-11-04 and will stop on 2001-01-27.
1671 
1672 # From Sione Moala-Mafi (2001-09-20) via Rives McDow:
1673 # At 2:00am on the first Sunday of November, the standard time in the Kingdom
1674 # shall be moved forward by one hour to 3:00am.  At 2:00am on the last Sunday
1675 # of January the standard time in the Kingdom shall be moved backward by one
1676 # hour to 1:00am.
1677 
1678 # From Pulu 'Anau (2002-11-05):
1679 # The law was for 3 years, supposedly to get renewed.  It wasn't.
1680 
1681 
1682 # Wake
1683 
1684 # From Vernice Anderson, Personal Secretary to Philip Jessup,
1685 # US Ambassador At Large (oral history interview, 1971-02-02):
1686 #
1687 # Saturday, the 14th [of October, 1950] -- ...  The time was all the
1688 # more confusing at that point, because we had crossed the
1689 # International Date Line, thus getting two Sundays.  Furthermore, we
1690 # discovered that Wake Island had two hours of daylight saving time
1691 # making calculation of time in Washington difficult if not almost
1692 # impossible.
1693 #
1694 # http://www.trumanlibrary.org/wake/meeting.htm
1695 
1696 # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23):
1697 # We have no other report of DST in Wake Island, so omit this info for now.
1698 
1699 ###############################################################################
1700 
1701 # The International Date Line
1702 
1703 # From Gwillim Law (2000-01-03):
1704 #
1705 # The International Date Line is not defined by any international standard,
1706 # convention, or treaty.  Mapmakers are free to draw it as they please.
1707 # Reputable mapmakers will simply ensure that every point of land appears on
1708 # the correct side of the IDL, according to the date legally observed there.
1709 #
1710 # When Kiribati adopted a uniform date in 1995, thereby moving the Phoenix and
1711 # Line Islands to the west side of the IDL (or, if you prefer, moving the IDL
1712 # to the east side of the Phoenix and Line Islands), I suppose that most
1713 # mapmakers redrew the IDL following the boundary of Kiribati.  Even that line
1714 # has a rather arbitrary nature.  The straight-line boundaries between Pacific
1715 # island nations that are shown on many maps are based on an international
1716 # convention, but are not legally binding national borders.... The date is
1717 # governed by the IDL; therefore, even on the high seas, there may be some
1718 # places as late as fourteen hours later than UTC.  And, since the IDL is not
1719 # an international standard, there are some places on the high seas where the
1720 # correct date is ambiguous.
1721 
1722 # From Wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_zone> (2005-08-31):
1723 # Before 1920, all ships kept local apparent time on the high seas by setting
1724 # their clocks at night or at the morning sight so that, given the ship's
1725 # speed and direction, it would be 12 o'clock when the Sun crossed the ship's
1726 # meridian (12 o'clock = local apparent noon).  During 1917, at the
1727 # Anglo-French Conference on Time-keeping at Sea, it was recommended that all
1728 # ships, both military and civilian, should adopt hourly standard time zones
1729 # on the high seas.  Whenever a ship was within the territorial waters of any
1730 # nation it would use that nation's standard time.  The captain was permitted
1731 # to change his ship's clocks at a time of his choice following his ship's
1732 # entry into another zone time--he often chose midnight.  These zones were
1733 # adopted by all major fleets between 1920 and 1925 but not by many
1734 # independent merchant ships until World War II.
1735 
1736 # From Paul Eggert, using references suggested by Oscar van Vlijmen
1737 # (2005-03-20):
1738 #
1739 # The American Practical Navigator (2002)
1740 # <http://pollux.nss.nima.mil/pubs/pubs_j_apn_sections.html?rid=187>
1741 # talks only about the 180-degree meridian with respect to ships in
1742 # international waters; it ignores the international date line.
--- EOF ---