1 #
   2 # DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
   3 #  
   4 # This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   5 # under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
   6 # published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
   7 # particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
   8 # by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
   9 #  
  10 # This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  11 # ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  12 # FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  13 # version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  14 # accompanied this code).
  15 #  
  16 # You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  17 # 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  18 # Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  19 #  
  20 # Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  21 # or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  22 # questions.
  23 #
  24 # <pre>
  25 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
  26 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
  27 
  28 # This file also includes Pacific islands.
  29 
  30 # Notes are at the end of this file
  31 
  32 ###############################################################################
  33 
  34 # Australia
  35 
  36 # Please see the notes below for the controversy about "EST" versus "AEST" etc.
  37 
  38 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
  39 Rule    Aus     1917    only    -       Jan      1      0:01    1:00    -
  40 Rule    Aus     1917    only    -       Mar     25      2:00    0       -
  41 Rule    Aus     1942    only    -       Jan      1      2:00    1:00    -
  42 Rule    Aus     1942    only    -       Mar     29      2:00    0       -
  43 Rule    Aus     1942    only    -       Sep     27      2:00    1:00    -
  44 Rule    Aus     1943    1944    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    0       -
  45 Rule    Aus     1943    only    -       Oct      3      2:00    1:00    -
  46 # Go with Whitman and the Australian National Standards Commission, which
  47 # says W Australia didn't use DST in 1943/1944.  Ignore Whitman's claim that
  48 # 1944/1945 was just like 1943/1944.
  49 
  50 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
  51 # Northern Territory
  52 Zone Australia/Darwin    8:43:20 -      LMT     1895 Feb
  53                          9:00   -       CST     1899 May
  54                          9:30   Aus     CST
  55 # Western Australia
  56 #
  57 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
  58 Rule    AW      1974    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
  59 Rule    AW      1975    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
  60 Rule    AW      1983    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
  61 Rule    AW      1984    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
  62 Rule    AW      1991    only    -       Nov     17      2:00s   1:00    -
  63 Rule    AW      1992    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
  64 Rule    AW      2006    only    -       Dec      3      2:00s   1:00    -
  65 Rule    AW      2007    2009    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
  66 Rule    AW      2007    2008    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
  67 Zone Australia/Perth     7:43:24 -      LMT     1895 Dec
  68                          8:00   Aus     WST     1943 Jul
  69                          8:00   AW      WST
  70 Zone Australia/Eucla     8:35:28 -      LMT     1895 Dec
  71                          8:45   Aus     CWST    1943 Jul
  72                          8:45   AW      CWST
  73 
  74 # Queensland
  75 #
  76 # From Alex Livingston (1996-11-01):
  77 # I have heard or read more than once that some resort islands off the coast
  78 # of Queensland chose to keep observing daylight-saving time even after
  79 # Queensland ceased to.
  80 #
  81 # From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
  82 # IATA SSIM (1993-02/1994-09) say that the Holiday Islands (Hayman, Lindeman,
  83 # Hamilton) observed DST for two years after the rest of Queensland stopped.
  84 # Hamilton is the largest, but there is also a Hamilton in Victoria,
  85 # so use Lindeman.
  86 #
  87 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
  88 Rule    AQ      1971    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
  89 Rule    AQ      1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
  90 Rule    AQ      1989    1991    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
  91 Rule    AQ      1990    1992    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
  92 Rule    Holiday 1992    1993    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
  93 Rule    Holiday 1993    1994    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
  94 Zone Australia/Brisbane 10:12:08 -      LMT     1895
  95                         10:00   Aus     EST     1971
  96                         10:00   AQ      EST
  97 Zone Australia/Lindeman  9:55:56 -      LMT     1895
  98                         10:00   Aus     EST     1971
  99                         10:00   AQ      EST     1992 Jul
 100                         10:00   Holiday EST
 101 
 102 # South Australia
 103 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 104 Rule    AS      1971    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
 105 Rule    AS      1986    only    -       Oct     19      2:00s   1:00    -
 106 Rule    AS      1987    2007    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
 107 Rule    AS      1972    only    -       Feb     27      2:00s   0       -
 108 Rule    AS      1973    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 109 Rule    AS      1986    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       -
 110 Rule    AS      1991    only    -       Mar     3       2:00s   0       -
 111 Rule    AS      1992    only    -       Mar     22      2:00s   0       -
 112 Rule    AS      1993    only    -       Mar     7       2:00s   0       -
 113 Rule    AS      1994    only    -       Mar     20      2:00s   0       -
 114 Rule    AS      1995    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
 115 Rule    AS      2006    only    -       Apr     2       2:00s   0       -
 116 Rule    AS      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
 117 Rule    AS      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 118 Rule    AS      2008    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    -
 119 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 120 Zone Australia/Adelaide 9:14:20 -       LMT     1895 Feb
 121                         9:00    -       CST     1899 May
 122                         9:30    Aus     CST     1971
 123                         9:30    AS      CST
 124 
 125 # Tasmania
 126 #
 127 # From Paul Eggert (2005-08-16):
 128 # <http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml>
 129 # says King Island didn't observe DST from WWII until late 1971.
 130 #
 131 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 132 Rule    AT      1967    only    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    -
 133 Rule    AT      1968    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
 134 Rule    AT      1968    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
 135 Rule    AT      1969    1971    -       Mar     Sun>=8       2:00s   0       -
 136 Rule    AT      1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
 137 Rule    AT      1973    1981    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 138 Rule    AT      1982    1983    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
 139 Rule    AT      1984    1986    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 140 Rule    AT      1986    only    -       Oct     Sun>=15      2:00s   1:00    -
 141 Rule    AT      1987    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       -
 142 Rule    AT      1987    only    -       Oct     Sun>=22      2:00s   1:00    -
 143 Rule    AT      1988    1990    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
 144 Rule    AT      1991    1999    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    -
 145 Rule    AT      1991    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
 146 Rule    AT      2000    only    -       Aug     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
 147 Rule    AT      2001    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    -
 148 Rule    AT      2006    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 149 Rule    AT      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
 150 Rule    AT      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 151 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 152 Zone Australia/Hobart   9:49:16 -       LMT     1895 Sep
 153                         10:00   -       EST     1916 Oct 1 2:00
 154                         10:00   1:00    EST     1917 Feb
 155                         10:00   Aus     EST     1967
 156                         10:00   AT      EST
 157 Zone Australia/Currie   9:35:28 -       LMT     1895 Sep
 158                         10:00   -       EST     1916 Oct 1 2:00
 159                         10:00   1:00    EST     1917 Feb
 160                         10:00   Aus     EST     1971 Jul
 161                         10:00   AT      EST
 162 
 163 # Victoria
 164 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 165 Rule    AV      1971    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
 166 Rule    AV      1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
 167 Rule    AV      1973    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 168 Rule    AV      1986    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       -
 169 Rule    AV      1986    1987    -       Oct     Sun>=15      2:00s   1:00    -
 170 Rule    AV      1988    1999    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
 171 Rule    AV      1991    1994    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 172 Rule    AV      1995    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
 173 Rule    AV      2000    only    -       Aug     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
 174 Rule    AV      2001    2007    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
 175 Rule    AV      2006    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 176 Rule    AV      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
 177 Rule    AV      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 178 Rule    AV      2008    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    -
 179 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 180 Zone Australia/Melbourne 9:39:52 -      LMT     1895 Feb
 181                         10:00   Aus     EST     1971
 182                         10:00   AV      EST
 183 
 184 # New South Wales
 185 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 186 Rule    AN      1971    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
 187 Rule    AN      1972    only    -       Feb     27      2:00s   0       -
 188 Rule    AN      1973    1981    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 189 Rule    AN      1982    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 190 Rule    AN      1983    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 191 Rule    AN      1986    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       -
 192 Rule    AN      1986    only    -       Oct     19      2:00s   1:00    -
 193 Rule    AN      1987    1999    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
 194 Rule    AN      1990    1995    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 195 Rule    AN      1996    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
 196 Rule    AN      2000    only    -       Aug     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
 197 Rule    AN      2001    2007    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    -
 198 Rule    AN      2006    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 199 Rule    AN      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       -
 200 Rule    AN      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 201 Rule    AN      2008    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    -
 202 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 203 Zone Australia/Sydney   10:04:52 -      LMT     1895 Feb
 204                         10:00   Aus     EST     1971
 205                         10:00   AN      EST
 206 Zone Australia/Broken_Hill 9:25:48 -    LMT     1895 Feb
 207                         10:00   -       EST     1896 Aug 23
 208                         9:00    -       CST     1899 May
 209                         9:30    Aus     CST     1971
 210                         9:30    AN      CST     2000
 211                         9:30    AS      CST
 212 
 213 # Lord Howe Island
 214 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 215 Rule    LH      1981    1984    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    -
 216 Rule    LH      1982    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00    0       -
 217 Rule    LH      1985    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0:30    -
 218 Rule    LH      1986    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00    0       -
 219 Rule    LH      1986    only    -       Oct     19      2:00    0:30    -
 220 Rule    LH      1987    1999    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0:30    -
 221 Rule    LH      1990    1995    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00    0       -
 222 Rule    LH      1996    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    0       -
 223 Rule    LH      2000    only    -       Aug     lastSun 2:00    0:30    -
 224 Rule    LH      2001    2007    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0:30    -
 225 Rule    LH      2006    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    0       -
 226 Rule    LH      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    0       -
 227 Rule    LH      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    0       -
 228 Rule    LH      2008    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00    0:30    -
 229 Zone Australia/Lord_Howe 10:36:20 -     LMT     1895 Feb
 230                         10:00   -       EST     1981 Mar
 231                         10:30   LH      LHST
 232 
 233 # Australian miscellany
 234 #
 235 # Ashmore Is, Cartier
 236 # no indigenous inhabitants; only seasonal caretakers
 237 # no times are set
 238 #
 239 # Coral Sea Is
 240 # no indigenous inhabitants; only meteorologists
 241 # no times are set
 242 #
 243 # Macquarie
 244 # Permanent occupation (scientific station) 1911-1915 and since 25 March 1948;
 245 # sealing and penguin oil station operated Nov 1899 to Apr 1919.  See the
 246 # Tasmania Parks & Wildlife Service history of sealing at Macquarie Island
 247 # <http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/index.aspx?base=1828>
 248 # <http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/index.aspx?base=1831>.
 249 # Guess that it was like Australia/Hobart while inhabited before 2010.
 250 #
 251 # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-10):
 252 # We got these changes from the Australian Antarctic Division:
 253 # - Macquarie Island will stay on UTC+11 for winter and therefore not
 254 # switch back from daylight savings time when other parts of Australia do
 255 # on 4 April.
 256 Zone Antarctica/Macquarie 0     -       zzz     1899 Nov
 257                         10:00   -       EST     1916 Oct 1 2:00
 258                         10:00   1:00    EST     1917 Feb
 259                         10:00   Aus     EST     1919 Apr
 260                         0       -       zzz     1948 Mar 25
 261                         10:00   Aus     EST     1967
 262                         10:00   AT      EST     2010 Apr 4 3:00
 263                         11:00   -       MIST    # Macquarie I Standard Time
 264 
 265 # Christmas
 266 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 267 Zone Indian/Christmas   7:02:52 -       LMT     1895 Feb
 268                         7:00    -       CXT     # Christmas Island Time
 269 
 270 # Cook Is
 271 # From Shanks & Pottenger:
 272 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 273 Rule    Cook    1978    only    -       Nov     12      0:00    0:30    HS
 274 Rule    Cook    1979    1991    -       Mar     Sun>=1       0:00    0       -
 275 Rule    Cook    1979    1990    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0:30    HS
 276 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 277 Zone Pacific/Rarotonga  -10:39:04 -     LMT     1901            # Avarua
 278                         -10:30  -       CKT     1978 Nov 12     # Cook Is Time
 279                         -10:00  Cook    CK%sT
 280 
 281 # Cocos
 282 # These islands were ruled by the Ross family from about 1830 to 1978.
 283 # We don't know when standard time was introduced; for now, we guess 1900.
 284 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 285 Zone    Indian/Cocos    6:27:40 -       LMT     1900
 286                         6:30    -       CCT     # Cocos Islands Time
 287 
 288 # Fiji
 289 
 290 # Milne gives 11:55:44 for Suva.
 291 
 292 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-11-10):
 293 # According to Fiji Broadcasting Corporation,  Fiji plans to re-introduce DST
 294 # from November 29th 2009  to April 25th 2010.
 295 #
 296 # "Daylight savings to commence this month"
 297 # <a href="http://www.radiofiji.com.fj/fullstory.php?id=23719">
 298 # http://www.radiofiji.com.fj/fullstory.php?id=23719
 299 # </a>
 300 # or
 301 # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji01.html">
 302 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji01.html
 303 # </a>
 304 
 305 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-11-10):
 306 # The Fiji Government has posted some more details about the approved
 307 # amendments:
 308 # <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/publish/page_16198.shtml">
 309 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/publish/page_16198.shtml
 310 # </a>
 311 
 312 # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-03):
 313 # The Cabinet in Fiji has decided to end DST about a month early, on
 314 # 2010-03-28 at 03:00.
 315 # The plan is to observe DST again, from 2010-10-24 to sometime in March
 316 # 2011 (last Sunday a good guess?).
 317 #
 318 # Official source:
 319 # <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1096:3310-cabinet-approves-change-in-daylight-savings-dates&catid=49:cabinet-releases&Itemid=166">
 320 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1096:3310-cabinet-approves-change-in-daylight-savings-dates&catid=49:cabinet-releases&Itemid=166
 321 # </a>
 322 #
 323 # A bit more background info here:
 324 # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/fiji-dst-ends-march-2010.html">
 325 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/fiji-dst-ends-march-2010.html
 326 # </a>
 327 
 328 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-10-24):
 329 # According to Radio Fiji and Fiji Times online, Fiji will end DST 3
 330 # weeks earlier than expected - on March 6, 2011, not March 27, 2011...
 331 # Here is confirmation from Government of the Republic of the Fiji Islands,
 332 # Ministry of Information (fiji.gov.fj) web site:
 333 # <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2608:daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155">
 334 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2608:daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155
 335 # </a>
 336 # or
 337 # <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji04.html">
 338 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji04.html
 339 # </a>
 340 
 341 # From Steffen Thorsen (2011-10-03):
 342 # Now the dates have been confirmed, and at least our start date
 343 # assumption was correct (end date was one week wrong).
 344 #
 345 # <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4966:daylight-saving-starts-in-fiji&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155">
 346 # www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4966:daylight-saving-starts-in-fiji&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155
 347 # </a>
 348 # which says
 349 # Members of the public are reminded to change their time to one hour in
 350 # advance at 2am to 3am on October 23, 2011 and one hour back at 3am to
 351 # 2am on February 26 next year.
 352 
 353 # From Ken Rylander (2011-10-24)
 354 # Another change to the Fiji DST end date. In the TZ database the end date for
 355 # Fiji DST 2012, is currently Feb 26. This has been changed to Jan 22.
 356 #
 357 # <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5017:amendments-to-daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155">
 358 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5017:amendments-to-daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155
 359 # </a>
 360 # states:
 361 #
 362 # The end of daylight saving scheduled initially for the 26th of February 2012
 363 # has been brought forward to the 22nd of January 2012.
 364 # The commencement of daylight saving will remain unchanged and start
 365 # on the  23rd of October, 2011.
 366 
 367 # From the Fiji Government Online Portal (2012-08-21) via Steffen Thorsen:
 368 # The Minister for Labour, Industrial Relations and Employment Mr Jone Usamate
 369 # today confirmed that Fiji will start daylight savings at 2 am on Sunday 21st
 370 # October 2012 and end at 3 am on Sunday 20th January 2013.
 371 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=6702&catid=71&Itemid=155
 372 #
 373 # From Paul Eggert (2012-08-31):
 374 # For now, guess a pattern of the penultimate Sundays in October and January.
 375 
 376 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 377 Rule    Fiji    1998    1999    -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    S
 378 Rule    Fiji    1999    2000    -       Feb     lastSun 3:00    0       -
 379 Rule    Fiji    2009    only    -       Nov     29      2:00    1:00    S
 380 Rule    Fiji    2010    only    -       Mar     lastSun 3:00    0       -
 381 Rule    Fiji    2010    max     -       Oct     Sun>=18      2:00    1:00    S
 382 Rule    Fiji    2011    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       -
 383 Rule    Fiji    2012    max     -       Jan     Sun>=18      3:00    0       -
 384 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 385 Zone    Pacific/Fiji    11:55:44 -      LMT     1915 Oct 26     # Suva
 386                         12:00   Fiji    FJ%sT   # Fiji Time
 387 
 388 # French Polynesia
 389 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 390 Zone    Pacific/Gambier  -8:59:48 -     LMT     1912 Oct        # Rikitea
 391                          -9:00  -       GAMT    # Gambier Time
 392 Zone    Pacific/Marquesas -9:18:00 -    LMT     1912 Oct
 393                          -9:30  -       MART    # Marquesas Time
 394 Zone    Pacific/Tahiti   -9:58:16 -     LMT     1912 Oct        # Papeete
 395                         -10:00  -       TAHT    # Tahiti Time
 396 # Clipperton (near North America) is administered from French Polynesia;
 397 # it is uninhabited.
 398 
 399 # Guam
 400 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 401 Zone    Pacific/Guam    -14:21:00 -     LMT     1844 Dec 31
 402                          9:39:00 -      LMT     1901            # Agana
 403                         10:00   -       GST     2000 Dec 23     # Guam
 404                         10:00   -       ChST    # Chamorro Standard Time
 405 
 406 # Kiribati
 407 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 408 Zone Pacific/Tarawa      11:32:04 -     LMT     1901            # Bairiki
 409                          12:00  -       GILT             # Gilbert Is Time
 410 Zone Pacific/Enderbury  -11:24:20 -     LMT     1901
 411                         -12:00  -       PHOT    1979 Oct # Phoenix Is Time
 412                         -11:00  -       PHOT    1995
 413                          13:00  -       PHOT
 414 Zone Pacific/Kiritimati -10:29:20 -     LMT     1901
 415                         -10:40  -       LINT    1979 Oct # Line Is Time
 416                         -10:00  -       LINT    1995
 417                          14:00  -       LINT
 418 
 419 # N Mariana Is
 420 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 421 Zone Pacific/Saipan     -14:17:00 -     LMT     1844 Dec 31
 422                          9:43:00 -      LMT     1901
 423                          9:00   -       MPT     1969 Oct # N Mariana Is Time
 424                         10:00   -       MPT     2000 Dec 23
 425                         10:00   -       ChST    # Chamorro Standard Time
 426 
 427 # Marshall Is
 428 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 429 Zone Pacific/Majuro     11:24:48 -      LMT     1901
 430                         11:00   -       MHT     1969 Oct # Marshall Islands Time
 431                         12:00   -       MHT
 432 Zone Pacific/Kwajalein  11:09:20 -      LMT     1901
 433                         11:00   -       MHT     1969 Oct
 434                         -12:00  -       KWAT    1993 Aug 20     # Kwajalein Time
 435                         12:00   -       MHT
 436 
 437 # Micronesia
 438 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 439 Zone Pacific/Chuuk      10:07:08 -      LMT     1901
 440                         10:00   -       CHUT                    # Chuuk Time
 441 Zone Pacific/Pohnpei    10:32:52 -      LMT     1901            # Kolonia
 442                         11:00   -       PONT                    # Pohnpei Time
 443 Zone Pacific/Kosrae     10:51:56 -      LMT     1901
 444                         11:00   -       KOST    1969 Oct        # Kosrae Time
 445                         12:00   -       KOST    1999
 446                         11:00   -       KOST
 447 
 448 # Nauru
 449 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 450 Zone    Pacific/Nauru   11:07:40 -      LMT     1921 Jan 15     # Uaobe
 451                         11:30   -       NRT     1942 Mar 15     # Nauru Time
 452                         9:00    -       JST     1944 Aug 15
 453                         11:30   -       NRT     1979 May
 454                         12:00   -       NRT
 455 
 456 # New Caledonia
 457 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 458 Rule    NC      1977    1978    -       Dec     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    S
 459 Rule    NC      1978    1979    -       Feb     27      0:00    0       -
 460 Rule    NC      1996    only    -       Dec      1      2:00s   1:00    S
 461 # Shanks & Pottenger say the following was at 2:00; go with IATA.
 462 Rule    NC      1997    only    -       Mar      2      2:00s   0       -
 463 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 464 Zone    Pacific/Noumea  11:05:48 -      LMT     1912 Jan 13
 465                         11:00   NC      NC%sT
 466 
 467 
 468 ###############################################################################
 469 
 470 # New Zealand
 471 
 472 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 473 Rule    NZ      1927    only    -       Nov      6      2:00    1:00    S
 474 Rule    NZ      1928    only    -       Mar      4      2:00    0       M
 475 Rule    NZ      1928    1933    -       Oct     Sun>=8       2:00    0:30    S
 476 Rule    NZ      1929    1933    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00    0       M
 477 Rule    NZ      1934    1940    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    0       M
 478 Rule    NZ      1934    1940    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0:30    S
 479 Rule    NZ      1946    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    0       S
 480 # Since 1957 Chatham has been 45 minutes ahead of NZ, but there's no
 481 # convenient notation for this so we must duplicate the Rule lines.
 482 Rule    NZ      1974    only    -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 483 Rule    Chatham 1974    only    -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:45s   1:00    D
 484 Rule    NZ      1975    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 485 Rule    Chatham 1975    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:45s   0       S
 486 Rule    NZ      1975    1988    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 487 Rule    Chatham 1975    1988    -       Oct     lastSun 2:45s   1:00    D
 488 Rule    NZ      1976    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 489 Rule    Chatham 1976    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:45s   0       S
 490 Rule    NZ      1989    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8       2:00s   1:00    D
 491 Rule    Chatham 1989    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8       2:45s   1:00    D
 492 Rule    NZ      1990    2006    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 493 Rule    Chatham 1990    2006    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:45s   1:00    D
 494 Rule    NZ      1990    2007    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       S
 495 Rule    Chatham 1990    2007    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:45s   0       S
 496 Rule    NZ      2007    max     -       Sep     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 497 Rule    Chatham 2007    max     -       Sep     lastSun 2:45s   1:00    D
 498 Rule    NZ      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 499 Rule    Chatham 2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:45s   0       S
 500 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 501 Zone Pacific/Auckland   11:39:04 -      LMT     1868 Nov  2
 502                         11:30   NZ      NZ%sT   1946 Jan  1
 503                         12:00   NZ      NZ%sT
 504 Zone Pacific/Chatham    12:13:48 -      LMT     1957 Jan  1
 505                         12:45   Chatham CHA%sT
 506 
 507 
 508 # Auckland Is
 509 # uninhabited; Maori and Moriori, colonial settlers, pastoralists, sealers,
 510 # and scientific personnel have wintered
 511 
 512 # Campbell I
 513 # minor whaling stations operated 1909/1914
 514 # scientific station operated 1941/1995;
 515 # previously whalers, sealers, pastoralists, and scientific personnel wintered
 516 # was probably like Pacific/Auckland
 517 
 518 ###############################################################################
 519 
 520 
 521 # Niue
 522 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 523 Zone    Pacific/Niue    -11:19:40 -     LMT     1901            # Alofi
 524                         -11:20  -       NUT     1951    # Niue Time
 525                         -11:30  -       NUT     1978 Oct 1
 526                         -11:00  -       NUT
 527 
 528 # Norfolk
 529 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 530 Zone    Pacific/Norfolk 11:11:52 -      LMT     1901            # Kingston
 531                         11:12   -       NMT     1951    # Norfolk Mean Time
 532                         11:30   -       NFT             # Norfolk Time
 533 
 534 # Palau (Belau)
 535 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 536 Zone Pacific/Palau      8:57:56 -       LMT     1901            # Koror
 537                         9:00    -       PWT     # Palau Time
 538 
 539 # Papua New Guinea
 540 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 541 Zone Pacific/Port_Moresby 9:48:40 -     LMT     1880
 542                         9:48:32 -       PMMT    1895    # Port Moresby Mean Time
 543                         10:00   -       PGT             # Papua New Guinea Time
 544 
 545 # Pitcairn
 546 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 547 Zone Pacific/Pitcairn   -8:40:20 -      LMT     1901            # Adamstown
 548                         -8:30   -       PNT     1998 Apr 27 00:00
 549                         -8:00   -       PST     # Pitcairn Standard Time
 550 
 551 # American Samoa
 552 Zone Pacific/Pago_Pago   12:37:12 -     LMT     1879 Jul  5
 553                         -11:22:48 -     LMT     1911
 554                         -11:30  -       SAMT    1950            # Samoa Time
 555                         -11:00  -       NST     1967 Apr        # N=Nome
 556                         -11:00  -       BST     1983 Nov 30     # B=Bering
 557                         -11:00  -       SST                     # S=Samoa
 558 
 559 # Samoa
 560 
 561 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-16):
 562 # We have been in contact with the government of Samoa again, and received
 563 # the following info:
 564 #
 565 # "Cabinet has now approved Daylight Saving to be effected next year
 566 # commencing from the last Sunday of September 2010 and conclude first
 567 # Sunday of April 2011."
 568 #
 569 # Background info:
 570 # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/samoa-dst-plan-2009.html">
 571 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/samoa-dst-plan-2009.html
 572 # </a>
 573 #
 574 # Samoa's Daylight Saving Time Act 2009 is available here, but does not
 575 # contain any dates:
 576 # <a href="http://www.parliament.gov.ws/documents/acts/Daylight%20Saving%20Act%20%202009%20%28English%29%20-%20Final%207-7-091.pdf">
 577 # http://www.parliament.gov.ws/documents/acts/Daylight%20Saving%20Act%20%202009%20%28English%29%20-%20Final%207-7-091.pdf
 578 # </a>
 579 
 580 # From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2010-10-07):
 581 # Please see
 582 # <a href="http://www.mcil.gov.ws">
 583 # http://www.mcil.gov.ws
 584 # </a>,
 585 # the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Labour (sideframe) "Last Sunday
 586 # September 2010 (26/09/10) - adjust clocks forward from 12:00 midnight
 587 # to 01:00am and First Sunday April 2011 (03/04/11) - adjust clocks
 588 # backwards from 1:00am to 12:00am"
 589 
 590 # From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2011-03-07):
 591 # I believe this will be posted shortly on the website
 592 # <a href="http://www.mcil.gov.ws">
 593 # www.mcil.gov.ws
 594 # </a>
 595 #
 596 # PUBLIC NOTICE ON DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME
 597 #
 598 # Pursuant to the Daylight Saving Act 2009 and Cabinets decision,
 599 # businesses and the general public are hereby advised that daylight
 600 # saving time is on the first Saturday of April 2011 (02/04/11).
 601 #
 602 # The public is therefore advised that when the standard time strikes
 603 # the hour of four oclock (4.00am or 0400 Hours) on the 2nd April 2011,
 604 # then all instruments used to measure standard time are to be
 605 # adjusted/changed to three oclock (3:00am or 0300Hrs).
 606 #
 607 # Margaret Fruean ACTING CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER MINISTRY OF COMMERCE,
 608 # INDUSTRY AND LABOUR 28th February 2011
 609 
 610 # From David Zuelke (2011-05-09):
 611 # Subject: Samoa to move timezone from east to west of international date line
 612 #
 613 # <a href="http://www.morningstar.co.uk/uk/markets/newsfeeditem.aspx?id=138501958347963">
 614 # http://www.morningstar.co.uk/uk/markets/newsfeeditem.aspx?id=138501958347963
 615 # </a>
 616 
 617 # From Mark Sim-Smith (2011-08-17):
 618 # I have been in contact with Leilani Tuala Warren from the Samoa Law
 619 # Reform Commission, and she has sent me a copy of the Bill that she
 620 # confirmed has been passed...Most of the sections are about maps rather
 621 # than the time zone change, but I'll paste the relevant bits below. But
 622 # the essence is that at midnight 29 Dec (UTC-11 I suppose), Samoa
 623 # changes from UTC-11 to UTC+13:
 624 #
 625 # International Date Line Bill 2011
 626 #
 627 # AN ACT to provide for the change to standard time in Samoa and to make
 628 # consequential amendments to the position of the International Date
 629 # Line, and for related purposes.
 630 #
 631 # BE IT ENACTED by the Legislative Assembly of Samoa in Parliament
 632 # assembled as follows:
 633 #
 634 # 1. Short title and commencement-(1) This Act may be cited as the
 635 # International Date Line Act 2011. (2) Except for section 5(3) this Act
 636 # commences at 12 o'clock midnight, on Thursday 29th December 2011. (3)
 637 # Section 5(3) commences on the date of assent by the Head of State.
 638 #
 639 # [snip]
 640 #
 641 # 3. Interpretation - [snip] "Samoa standard time" in this Act and any
 642 # other statute of Samoa which refers to 'Samoa standard time' means the
 643 # time 13 hours in advance of Co-ordinated Universal Time.
 644 #
 645 # 4. Samoa standard time - (1) Upon the commencement of this Act, Samoa
 646 # standard time shall be set at 13 hours in advance of Co-ordinated
 647 # Universal Time for the whole of Samoa. (2) All references to Samoa's
 648 # time zone and to Samoa standard time in Samoa in all legislation and
 649 # instruments after the commencement of this Act shall be references to
 650 # Samoa standard time as provided for in this Act. (3) Nothing in this
 651 # Act affects the provisions of the Daylight Saving Act 2009, except that
 652 # it defines Samoa standard time....
 653 
 654 # From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2011-09-02):
 655 # <a href="http://www.mcil.gov.ws/mcil_publications.html">
 656 # http://www.mcil.gov.ws/mcil_publications.html
 657 # </a>
 658 #
 659 # here is the official website publication for Samoa DST and dateline change
 660 #
 661 # DST
 662 # Year  End     Time    Start   Time
 663 # 2011  - - -   - - -   24 September    3:00am to 4:00am
 664 # 2012  01 April        4:00am to 3:00am        - - -   - - -
 665 #
 666 # Dateline Change skip Friday 30th Dec 2011
 667 # Thursday 29th December 2011   23:59:59 Hours
 668 # Saturday 31st December 2011   00:00:00 Hours
 669 #
 670 # Clarification by Tim Parenti (2012-01-03):
 671 # Although Samoa has used Daylight Saving Time in the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012
 672 # seasons, there is not yet any indication that this trend will continue on
 673 # a regular basis. For now, we have explicitly listed the transitions below.
 674 #
 675 # From Nicky (2012-09-10):
 676 # Daylight Saving Time commences on Sunday 30th September 2012 and
 677 # ends on Sunday 7th of April 2013.
 678 #
 679 # Please find link below for more information.
 680 # http://www.mcil.gov.ws/mcil_publications.html
 681 #
 682 # That publication also includes dates for Summer of 2013/4 as well
 683 # which give the impression of a pattern in selecting dates for the
 684 # future, so for now, we will guess this will continue.
 685 
 686 # Western Samoa
 687 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 688 Rule    WS      2012    max     -       Sep     lastSun 3:00    1       D
 689 Rule    WS      2012    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       4:00    0       -
 690 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 691 Zone Pacific/Apia        12:33:04 -     LMT     1879 Jul  5
 692                         -11:26:56 -     LMT     1911
 693                         -11:30  -       SAMT    1950            # Samoa Time
 694                         -11:00  -       WST     2010 Sep 26
 695                         -11:00  1:00    WSDT    2011 Apr 2 4:00
 696                         -11:00  -       WST     2011 Sep 24 3:00
 697                         -11:00  1:00    WSDT    2011 Dec 30
 698                          13:00  1:00    WSDT    2012 Apr Sun>=1 4:00
 699                          13:00  WS      WS%sT
 700 
 701 # Solomon Is
 702 # excludes Bougainville, for which see Papua New Guinea
 703 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 704 Zone Pacific/Guadalcanal 10:39:48 -     LMT     1912 Oct        # Honiara
 705                         11:00   -       SBT     # Solomon Is Time
 706 
 707 # Tokelau Is
 708 #
 709 # From Gwillim Law (2011-12-29)
 710 # A correspondent informed me that Tokelau, like Samoa, will be skipping
 711 # December 31 this year ...
 712 #
 713 # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-07-25)
 714 # ... we double checked by calling hotels and offices based in Tokelau asking
 715 # about the time there, and they all told a time that agrees with UTC+13....
 716 # Shanks says UTC-10 from 1901 [but] ... there is a good chance the change
 717 # actually was to UTC-11 back then.
 718 #
 719 # From Paul Eggert (2012-07-25)
 720 # A Google Books snippet of Appendix to the Journals of the House of
 721 # Representatives of New Zealand, Session 1948,
 722 # <http://books.google.com/books?id=ZaVCAQAAIAAJ>, page 65, says Tokelau
 723 # was "11 hours slow on G.M.T."  Go with Thorsen and assume Shanks & Pottenger
 724 # are off by an hour starting in 1901.
 725 
 726 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 727 Zone    Pacific/Fakaofo -11:24:56 -     LMT     1901
 728                         -11:00  -       TKT 2011 Dec 30 # Tokelau Time
 729                         13:00   -       TKT
 730 
 731 # Tonga
 732 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 733 Rule    Tonga   1999    only    -       Oct      7      2:00s   1:00    S
 734 Rule    Tonga   2000    only    -       Mar     19      2:00s   0       -
 735 Rule    Tonga   2000    2001    -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    S
 736 Rule    Tonga   2001    2002    -       Jan     lastSun 2:00    0       -
 737 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 738 Zone Pacific/Tongatapu  12:19:20 -      LMT     1901
 739                         12:20   -       TOT     1941 # Tonga Time
 740                         13:00   -       TOT     1999
 741                         13:00   Tonga   TO%sT
 742 
 743 # Tuvalu
 744 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 745 Zone Pacific/Funafuti   11:56:52 -      LMT     1901
 746                         12:00   -       TVT     # Tuvalu Time
 747 
 748 
 749 # US minor outlying islands
 750 
 751 # Howland, Baker
 752 # Howland was mined for guano by American companies 1857-1878 and British
 753 # 1886-1891; Baker was similar but exact dates are not known.
 754 # Inhabited by civilians 1935-1942; U.S. military bases 1943-1944;
 755 # uninhabited thereafter.
 756 # Howland observed Hawaii Standard Time (UTC-10:30) in 1937;
 757 # see page 206 of Elgen M. Long and Marie K. Long,
 758 # Amelia Earhart: the Mystery Solved, Simon & Schuster (2000).
 759 # So most likely Howland and Baker observed Hawaii Time from 1935
 760 # until they were abandoned after the war.
 761 
 762 # Jarvis
 763 # Mined for guano by American companies 1857-1879 and British 1883?-1891?.
 764 # Inhabited by civilians 1935-1942; IGY scientific base 1957-1958;
 765 # uninhabited thereafter.
 766 # no information; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati
 767 
 768 # Johnston
 769 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 770 Zone Pacific/Johnston   -10:00  -       HST
 771 
 772 # Kingman
 773 # uninhabited
 774 
 775 # Midway
 776 #
 777 # From Mark Brader (2005-01-23):
 778 # [Fallacies and Fantasies of Air Transport History, by R.E.G. Davies,
 779 # published 1994 by Paladwr Press, McLean, VA, USA; ISBN 0-9626483-5-3]
 780 # reproduced a Pan American Airways timeables from 1936, for their weekly
 781 # "Orient Express" flights between San Francisco and Manila, and connecting
 782 # flights to Chicago and the US East Coast.  As it uses some time zone
 783 # designations that I've never seen before:....
 784 # Fri. 6:30A Lv. HONOLOLU (Pearl Harbor), H.I.   H.L.T. Ar. 5:30P Sun.
 785 #  "   3:00P Ar. MIDWAY ISLAND . . . . . . . . . M.L.T. Lv. 6:00A  "
 786 #
 787 Zone Pacific/Midway     -11:49:28 -     LMT     1901
 788                         -11:00  -       NST     1956 Jun  3
 789                         -11:00  1:00    NDT     1956 Sep  2
 790                         -11:00  -       NST     1967 Apr        # N=Nome
 791                         -11:00  -       BST     1983 Nov 30     # B=Bering
 792                         -11:00  -       SST                     # S=Samoa
 793 
 794 # Palmyra
 795 # uninhabited since World War II; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati
 796 
 797 # Wake
 798 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 799 Zone    Pacific/Wake    11:06:28 -      LMT     1901
 800                         12:00   -       WAKT    # Wake Time
 801 
 802 
 803 # Vanuatu
 804 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 805 Rule    Vanuatu 1983    only    -       Sep     25      0:00    1:00    S
 806 Rule    Vanuatu 1984    1991    -       Mar     Sun>=23      0:00    0       -
 807 Rule    Vanuatu 1984    only    -       Oct     23      0:00    1:00    S
 808 Rule    Vanuatu 1985    1991    -       Sep     Sun>=23      0:00    1:00    S
 809 Rule    Vanuatu 1992    1993    -       Jan     Sun>=23      0:00    0       -
 810 Rule    Vanuatu 1992    only    -       Oct     Sun>=23      0:00    1:00    S
 811 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 812 Zone    Pacific/Efate   11:13:16 -      LMT     1912 Jan 13             # Vila
 813                         11:00   Vanuatu VU%sT   # Vanuatu Time
 814 
 815 # Wallis and Futuna
 816 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 817 Zone    Pacific/Wallis  12:15:20 -      LMT     1901
 818                         12:00   -       WFT     # Wallis & Futuna Time
 819 
 820 ###############################################################################
 821 
 822 # NOTES
 823 
 824 # This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
 825 # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
 826 # tz@iana.org for general use in the future).
 827 
 828 # From Paul Eggert (2013-02-21):
 829 # A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is
 830 # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
 831 # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
 832 #
 833 # Gwillim Law writes that a good source
 834 # for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
 835 # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
 836 # published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
 837 # of the IATA's data after 1990.
 838 #
 839 # Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for
 840 # entries through 1990, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.
 841 #
 842 # Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
 843 # Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which
 844 # I found in the UCLA library.
 845 #
 846 # For data circa 1899, a common source is:
 847 # Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94
 848 # <http://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359>.
 849 #
 850 # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
 851 # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
 852 #
 853 # I invented the abbreviations marked `*' in the following table;
 854 # the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.
 855 # Corrections are welcome!
 856 #               std dst
 857 #               LMT     Local Mean Time
 858 #         8:00  WST WST Western Australia
 859 #         8:45  CWST CWST Central Western Australia*
 860 #         9:00  JST     Japan
 861 #         9:30  CST CST Central Australia
 862 #        10:00  EST EST Eastern Australia
 863 #        10:00  ChST    Chamorro
 864 #        10:30  LHST LHST Lord Howe*
 865 #        11:30  NZMT NZST New Zealand through 1945
 866 #        12:00  NZST NZDT New Zealand 1946-present
 867 #        12:45  CHAST CHADT Chatham*
 868 #       -11:00  SST     Samoa
 869 #       -10:00  HST     Hawaii
 870 #       - 8:00  PST     Pitcairn*
 871 #
 872 # See the `northamerica' file for Hawaii.
 873 # See the `southamerica' file for Easter I and the Galapagos Is.
 874 
 875 ###############################################################################
 876 
 877 # Australia
 878 
 879 # From Paul Eggert (2005-12-08):
 880 # <a href="http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml">
 881 # Implementation Dates of Daylight Saving Time within Australia
 882 # </a> summarizes daylight saving issues in Australia.
 883 
 884 # From Arthur David Olson (2005-12-12):
 885 # <a href="http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lawlink/Corporate/ll_agdinfo.nsf/pages/community_relations_daylight_saving">
 886 # Lawlink NSW:Daylight Saving in New South Wales
 887 # </a> covers New South Wales in particular.
 888 
 889 # From John Mackin (1991-03-06):
 890 # We in Australia have _never_ referred to DST as `daylight' time.
 891 # It is called `summer' time.  Now by a happy coincidence, `summer'
 892 # and `standard' happen to start with the same letter; hence, the
 893 # abbreviation does _not_ change...
 894 # The legislation does not actually define abbreviations, at least
 895 # in this State, but the abbreviation is just commonly taken to be the
 896 # initials of the phrase, and the legislation here uniformly uses
 897 # the phrase `summer time' and does not use the phrase `daylight
 898 # time'.
 899 # Announcers on the Commonwealth radio network, the ABC (for Australian
 900 # Broadcasting Commission), use the phrases `Eastern Standard Time'
 901 # or `Eastern Summer Time'.  (Note, though, that as I say in the
 902 # current australasia file, there is really no such thing.)  Announcers
 903 # on its overseas service, Radio Australia, use the same phrases
 904 # prefixed by the word `Australian' when referring to local times;
 905 # time announcements on that service, naturally enough, are made in UTC.
 906 
 907 # From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
 908 # Given the above, what's chosen for year-round use is:
 909 #       CST     for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 9:30
 910 #       WST     for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 8:00
 911 #       EST     for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 10:00
 912 
 913 # From Chuck Soper (2006-06-01):
 914 # I recently found this Australian government web page on time zones:
 915 # <http://www.australia.gov.au/about-australia-13time>
 916 # And this government web page lists time zone names and abbreviations:
 917 # <http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/daysavtm.shtml>
 918 
 919 # From Paul Eggert (2001-04-05), summarizing a long discussion about "EST"
 920 # versus "AEST" etc.:
 921 #
 922 # I see the following points of dispute:
 923 #
 924 # * How important are unique time zone abbreviations?
 925 #
 926 #   Here I tend to agree with the point (most recently made by Chris
 927 #   Newman) that unique abbreviations should not be essential for proper
 928 #   operation of software.  We have other instances of ambiguity
 929 #   (e.g. "IST" denoting both "Israel Standard Time" and "Indian
 930 #   Standard Time"), and they are not likely to go away any time soon.
 931 #   In the old days, some software mistakenly relied on unique
 932 #   abbreviations, but this is becoming less true with time, and I don't
 933 #   think it's that important to cater to such software these days.
 934 #
 935 #   On the other hand, there is another motivation for unambiguous
 936 #   abbreviations: it cuts down on human confusion.  This is
 937 #   particularly true for Australia, where "EST" can mean one thing for
 938 #   time T and a different thing for time T plus 1 second.
 939 #
 940 # * Does the relevant legislation indicate which abbreviations should be used?
 941 #
 942 #   Here I tend to think that things are a mess, just as they are in
 943 #   many other countries.  We Americans are currently disagreeing about
 944 #   which abbreviation to use for the newly legislated Chamorro Standard
 945 #   Time, for example.
 946 #
 947 #   Personally, I would prefer to use common practice; I would like to
 948 #   refer to legislation only for examples of common practice, or as a
 949 #   tiebreaker.
 950 #
 951 # * Do Australians more often use "Eastern Daylight Time" or "Eastern
 952 #   Summer Time"?  Do they typically prefix the time zone names with
 953 #   the word "Australian"?
 954 #
 955 #   My own impression is that both "Daylight Time" and "Summer Time" are
 956 #   common and are widely understood, but that "Summer Time" is more
 957 #   popular; and that the leading "A" is also common but is omitted more
 958 #   often than not.  I just used AltaVista advanced search and got the
 959 #   following count of page hits:
 960 #
 961 #     1,103 "Eastern Summer Time" AND domain:au
 962 #       971 "Australian Eastern Summer Time" AND domain:au
 963 #       613 "Eastern Daylight Time" AND domain:au
 964 #       127 "Australian Eastern Daylight Time" AND domain:au
 965 #
 966 #   Here "Summer" seems quite a bit more popular than "Daylight",
 967 #   particularly when we know the time zone is Australian and not US,
 968 #   say.  The "Australian" prefix seems to be popular for Eastern Summer
 969 #   Time, but unpopular for Eastern Daylight Time.
 970 #
 971 #   For abbreviations, tools like AltaVista are less useful because of
 972 #   ambiguity.  Many hits are not really time zones, unfortunately, and
 973 #   many hits denote US time zones and not Australian ones.  But here
 974 #   are the hit counts anyway:
 975 #
 976 #     161,304 "EST" and domain:au
 977 #      25,156 "EDT" and domain:au
 978 #      18,263 "AEST" and domain:au
 979 #      10,416 "AEDT" and domain:au
 980 #
 981 #      14,538 "CST" and domain:au
 982 #       5,728 "CDT" and domain:au
 983 #         176 "ACST" and domain:au
 984 #          29 "ACDT" and domain:au
 985 #
 986 #       7,539 "WST" and domain:au
 987 #          68 "AWST" and domain:au
 988 #
 989 #   This data suggest that Australians tend to omit the "A" prefix in
 990 #   practice.  The situation for "ST" versus "DT" is less clear, given
 991 #   the ambiguities involved.
 992 #
 993 # * How do Australians feel about the abbreviations in the tz database?
 994 #
 995 #   If you just count Australians on this list, I count 2 in favor and 3
 996 #   against.  One of the "against" votes (David Keegel) counseled delay,
 997 #   saying that both AEST/AEDT and EST/EST are widely used and
 998 #   understood in Australia.
 999 
1000 # From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19):
1001 # Shanks & Pottenger report 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and NZ.
1002 # Mark Prior writes that his newspaper
1003 # reports that NSW's fall 1995 change will occur at 2:00,
1004 # but Robert Elz says it's been 3:00 in Victoria since 1970
1005 # and perhaps the newspaper's `2:00' is referring to standard time.
1006 # For now we'll continue to assume 2:00s for changes since 1960.
1007 
1008 # From Eric Ulevik (1998-01-05):
1009 #
1010 # Here are some URLs to Australian time legislation. These URLs are stable,
1011 # and should probably be included in the data file. There are probably more
1012 # relevant entries in this database.
1013 #
1014 # NSW (including LHI and Broken Hill):
1015 # <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/consol_act/sta1987137/index.html">
1016 # Standard Time Act 1987 (updated 1995-04-04)
1017 # </a>
1018 # ACT
1019 # <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/act/consol_act/stasta1972279/index.html">
1020 # Standard Time and Summer Time Act 1972
1021 # </a>
1022 # SA
1023 # <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/sa/consol_act/sta1898137/index.html">
1024 # Standard Time Act, 1898
1025 # </a>
1026 
1027 # From David Grosz (2005-06-13):
1028 # It was announced last week that Daylight Saving would be extended by
1029 # one week next year to allow for the 2006 Commonwealth Games.
1030 # Daylight Saving is now to end for next year only on the first Sunday
1031 # in April instead of the last Sunday in March.
1032 #
1033 # From Gwillim Law (2005-06-14):
1034 # I did some Googling and found that all of those states (and territory) plan
1035 # to extend DST together in 2006.
1036 # ACT: http://www.cmd.act.gov.au/mediareleases/fileread.cfm?file=86.txt
1037 # New South Wales: http://www.thecouriermail.news.com.au/common/story_page/0,5936,15538869%255E1702,00.html
1038 # South Australia: http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,15555031-1246,00.html
1039 # Tasmania: http://www.media.tas.gov.au/release.php?id=14772
1040 # Victoria: I wasn't able to find anything separate, but the other articles
1041 # allude to it.
1042 # But not Queensland
1043 # http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,15564030-1248,00.html.
1044 
1045 # Northern Territory
1046 
1047 # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1048 # # The NORTHERN TERRITORY..  [ Courtesy N.T. Dept of the Chief Minister ]
1049 # #                                     [ Nov 1990 ]
1050 # #     N.T. have never utilised any DST due to sub-tropical/tropical location.
1051 # ...
1052 # Zone        Australia/North         9:30    -       CST
1053 
1054 # From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
1055 # A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
1056 # the Northern Territory do[es] not have daylight saving.
1057 
1058 # Western Australia
1059 
1060 # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1061 # #  The state of WESTERN AUSTRALIA..  [ Courtesy W.A. dept Premier+Cabinet ]
1062 # #                                             [ Nov 1990 ]
1063 # #     W.A. suffers from a great deal of public and political opposition to
1064 # #     DST in principle. A bill is brought before parliament in most years, but
1065 # #     usually defeated either in the upper house, or in party caucus
1066 # #     before reaching parliament.
1067 # ...
1068 # Zone  Australia/West          8:00    AW      %sST
1069 # ...
1070 # Rule  AW      1974    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1071 # Rule  AW      1975    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       W
1072 # Rule  AW      1983    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1073 # Rule  AW      1984    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       W
1074 
1075 # From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
1076 # A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
1077 # Western Australia...do[es] not have daylight saving.
1078 
1079 # From John D. Newman via Bradley White (1991-11-02):
1080 # Western Australia is still on "winter time". Some DH in Sydney
1081 # rang me at home a few days ago at 6.00am. (He had just arrived at
1082 # work at 9.00am.)
1083 # W.A. is switching to Summer Time on Nov 17th just to confuse
1084 # everybody again.
1085 
1086 # From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
1087 # The 1992 ending date used in the rules is a best guess;
1088 # it matches what was used in the past.
1089 
1090 # <a href="http://www.bom.gov.au/faq/faqgen.htm">
1091 # The Australian Bureau of Meteorology FAQ
1092 # </a> (1999-09-27) writes that Giles Meteorological Station uses
1093 # South Australian time even though it's located in Western Australia.
1094 
1095 # Queensland
1096 # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1097 # #   The state of QUEENSLAND.. [ Courtesy Qld. Dept Premier Econ&Trade Devel ]
1098 # #                                             [ Dec 1990 ]
1099 # ...
1100 # Zone  Australia/Queensland    10:00   AQ      %sST
1101 # ...
1102 # Rule  AQ      1971    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1103 # Rule  AQ      1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 3:00    0       E
1104 # Rule  AQ      1989    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1105 # Rule  AQ      1990    max     -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       E
1106 
1107 # From Bradley White (1989-12-24):
1108 # "Australia/Queensland" now observes daylight time (i.e. from
1109 # October 1989).
1110 
1111 # From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
1112 # A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
1113 # ...Queensland...[has] agreed to end daylight saving
1114 # at 3am tomorrow (March 3)...
1115 
1116 # From John Mackin (1991-03-06):
1117 # I can certainly confirm for my part that Daylight Saving in NSW did in fact
1118 # end on Sunday, 3 March.  I don't know at what hour, though.  (It surprised
1119 # me.)
1120 
1121 # From Bradley White (1992-03-08):
1122 # ...there was recently a referendum in Queensland which resulted
1123 # in the experimental daylight saving system being abandoned. So, ...
1124 # ...
1125 # Rule  QLD     1989    1991    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1126 # Rule  QLD     1990    1992    -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       S
1127 # ...
1128 
1129 # From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
1130 # The chosen rules the union of the 1971/1972 change and the 1989-1992 changes.
1131 
1132 # From Christopher Hunt (2006-11-21), after an advance warning
1133 # from Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-11-01):
1134 # WA are trialing DST for three years.
1135 # <http://www.parliament.wa.gov.au/parliament/bills.nsf/9A1B183144403DA54825721200088DF1/$File/Bill175-1B.pdf>
1136 
1137 # From Rives McDow (2002-04-09):
1138 # The most interesting region I have found consists of three towns on the
1139 # southern coast....  South Australia observes daylight saving time; Western
1140 # Australia does not.  The two states are one and a half hours apart.  The
1141 # residents decided to forget about this nonsense of changing the clock so
1142 # much and set the local time 20 hours and 45 minutes from the
1143 # international date line, or right in the middle of the time of South
1144 # Australia and Western Australia....
1145 #
1146 # From Paul Eggert (2002-04-09):
1147 # This is confirmed by the section entitled
1148 # "What's the deal with time zones???" in
1149 # <http://www.earthsci.unimelb.edu.au/~awatkins/null.html>.
1150 #
1151 # From Alex Livingston (2006-12-07):
1152 # ... it was just on four years ago that I drove along the Eyre Highway,
1153 # which passes through eastern Western Australia close to the southern
1154 # coast of the continent.
1155 #
1156 # I paid particular attention to the time kept there. There can be no
1157 # dispute that UTC+08:45 was considered "the time" from the border
1158 # village just inside the border with South Australia to as far west
1159 # as just east of Caiguna. There can also be no dispute that Eucla is
1160 # the largest population centre in this zone....
1161 #
1162 # Now that Western Australia is observing daylight saving, the
1163 # question arose whether this part of the state would follow suit. I
1164 # just called the border village and confirmed that indeed they have,
1165 # meaning that they are now observing UTC+09:45.
1166 #
1167 # (2006-12-09):
1168 # I personally doubt that either experimentation with daylight saving
1169 # in WA or its introduction in SA had anything to do with the genesis
1170 # of this time zone.  My hunch is that it's been around since well
1171 # before 1975.  I remember seeing it noted on road maps decades ago.
1172 
1173 # From Paul Eggert (2006-12-15):
1174 # For lack of better info, assume the tradition dates back to the
1175 # introduction of standard time in 1895.
1176 
1177 
1178 # southeast Australia
1179 #
1180 # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1181 # Starting autumn 2008 Victoria, NSW, South Australia, Tasmania and the ACT
1182 # end DST the first Sunday in April and start DST the first Sunday in October.
1183 # http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/daylight-savings-to-span-six-months/2007/06/27/1182623966703.html
1184 
1185 
1186 # South Australia
1187 
1188 # From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
1189 # A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
1190 # ...South Australia...[has] agreed to end daylight saving
1191 # at 3am tomorrow (March 3)...
1192 
1193 # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1194 # #   The state of SOUTH AUSTRALIA....[ Courtesy of S.A. Dept of Labour ]
1195 # #                                             [ Nov 1990 ]
1196 # ...
1197 # Zone  Australia/South         9:30    AS      %sST
1198 # ...
1199 # Rule   AS     1971    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1200 # Rule   AS     1972    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       C
1201 # Rule   AS     1986    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=15      3:00    0       C
1202 # Rule   AS     1991    max     -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       C
1203 
1204 # From Bradley White (1992-03-11):
1205 # Recent correspondence with a friend in Adelaide
1206 # contained the following exchange:  "Due to the Adelaide Festival,
1207 # South Australia delays setting back our clocks for a few weeks."
1208 
1209 # From Robert Elz (1992-03-13):
1210 # I heard that apparently (or at least, it appears that)
1211 # South Aus will have an extra 3 weeks daylight saving every even
1212 # numbered year (from 1990).  That's when the Adelaide Festival
1213 # is on...
1214 
1215 # From Robert Elz (1992-03-16, 00:57:07 +1000):
1216 # DST didn't end in Adelaide today (yesterday)....
1217 # But whether it's "4th Sunday" or "2nd last Sunday" I have no idea whatever...
1218 # (it's just as likely to be "the Sunday we pick for this year"...).
1219 
1220 # From Bradley White (1994-04-11):
1221 # If Sun, 15 March, 1992 was at +1030 as kre asserts, but yet Sun, 20 March,
1222 # 1994 was at +0930 as John Connolly's customer seems to assert, then I can
1223 # only conclude that the actual rule is more complicated....
1224 
1225 # From John Warburton (1994-10-07):
1226 # The new Daylight Savings dates for South Australia ...
1227 # was gazetted in the Government Hansard on Sep 26 1994....
1228 # start on last Sunday in October and end in last sunday in March.
1229 
1230 # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1231 # See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1232 
1233 # Tasmania
1234 
1235 # The rules for 1967 through 1991 were reported by George Shepherd
1236 # via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1237 # #  The state of TASMANIA.. [Courtesy Tasmanian Dept of Premier + Cabinet ]
1238 # #                                     [ Nov 1990 ]
1239 
1240 # From Bill Hart via Guy Harris (1991-10-10):
1241 # Oh yes, the new daylight savings rules are uniquely tasmanian, we have
1242 # 6 weeks a year now when we are out of sync with the rest of Australia
1243 # (but nothing new about that).
1244 
1245 # From Alex Livingston (1999-10-04):
1246 # I heard on the ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) radio news on the
1247 # (long) weekend that Tasmania, which usually goes its own way in this regard,
1248 # has decided to join with most of NSW, the ACT, and most of Victoria
1249 # (Australia) and start daylight saving on the last Sunday in August in 2000
1250 # instead of the first Sunday in October.
1251 
1252 # Sim Alam (2000-07-03) reported a legal citation for the 2000/2001 rules:
1253 # http://www.thelaw.tas.gov.au/fragview/42++1968+GS3A@EN+2000070300
1254 
1255 # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1256 # See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1257 
1258 # Victoria
1259 
1260 # The rules for 1971 through 1991 were reported by George Shepherd
1261 # via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1262 # #   The state of VICTORIA.. [ Courtesy of Vic. Dept of Premier + Cabinet ]
1263 # #                                             [ Nov 1990 ]
1264 
1265 # From Scott Harrington (2001-08-29):
1266 # On KQED's "City Arts and Lectures" program last night I heard an
1267 # interesting story about daylight savings time.  Dr. John Heilbron was
1268 # discussing his book "The Sun in the Church: Cathedrals as Solar
1269 # Observatories"[1], and in particular the Shrine of Remembrance[2] located
1270 # in Melbourne, Australia.
1271 #
1272 # Apparently the shrine's main purpose is a beam of sunlight which
1273 # illuminates a special spot on the floor at the 11th hour of the 11th day
1274 # of the 11th month (Remembrance Day) every year in memory of Australia's
1275 # fallen WWI soldiers.  And if you go there on Nov. 11, at 11am local time,
1276 # you will indeed see the sunbeam illuminate the special spot at the
1277 # expected time.
1278 #
1279 # However, that is only because of some special mirror contraption that had
1280 # to be employed, since due to daylight savings time, the true solar time of
1281 # the remembrance moment occurs one hour later (or earlier?).  Perhaps
1282 # someone with more information on this jury-rig can tell us more.
1283 #
1284 # [1] http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog/HEISUN.html
1285 # [2] http://www.shrine.org.au
1286 
1287 # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1288 # See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1289 
1290 # New South Wales
1291 
1292 # From Arthur David Olson:
1293 # New South Wales and subjurisdictions have their own ideas of a fun time.
1294 # Based on law library research by John Mackin,
1295 # who notes:
1296 #       In Australia, time is not legislated federally, but rather by the
1297 #       individual states.  Thus, while such terms as ``Eastern Standard Time''
1298 #       [I mean, of course, Australian EST, not any other kind] are in common
1299 #       use, _they have NO REAL MEANING_, as they are not defined in the
1300 #       legislation.  This is very important to understand.
1301 #       I have researched New South Wales time only...
1302 
1303 # From Eric Ulevik (1999-05-26):
1304 # DST will start in NSW on the last Sunday of August, rather than the usual
1305 # October in 2000.  [See: Matthew Moore,
1306 # <a href="http://www.smh.com.au/news/9905/26/pageone/pageone4.html">
1307 # Two months more daylight saving
1308 # </a>
1309 # Sydney Morning Herald (1999-05-26).]
1310 
1311 # From Paul Eggert (1999-09-27):
1312 # See the following official NSW source:
1313 # <a href="http://dir.gis.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/genobject/document/other/daylightsaving/tigGmZ">
1314 # Daylight Saving in New South Wales.
1315 # </a>
1316 #
1317 # Narrabri Shire (NSW) council has announced it will ignore the extension of
1318 # daylight saving next year.  See:
1319 # <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/neweng/monthly/regeng-22jul1999-1.htm">
1320 # Narrabri Council to ignore daylight saving
1321 # </a> (1999-07-22).  For now, we'll wait to see if this really happens.
1322 #
1323 # Victoria will following NSW.  See:
1324 # <a href="http://abc.net.au/local/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990728112314_1.htm">
1325 # Vic to extend daylight saving
1326 # </a> (1999-07-28).
1327 #
1328 # However, South Australia rejected the DST request.  See:
1329 # <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990719151754_1.htm">
1330 # South Australia rejects Olympics daylight savings request
1331 # </a> (1999-07-19).
1332 #
1333 # Queensland also will not observe DST for the Olympics.  See:
1334 # <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/06/item19990601114608_1.htm">
1335 # Qld says no to daylight savings for Olympics
1336 # </a> (1999-06-01), which quotes Queensland Premier Peter Beattie as saying
1337 # ``Look you've got to remember in my family when this came up last time
1338 # I voted for it, my wife voted against it and she said to me it's all very
1339 # well for you, you don't have to worry about getting the children out of
1340 # bed, getting them to school, getting them to sleep at night.
1341 # I've been through all this argument domestically...my wife rules.''
1342 #
1343 # Broken Hill will stick with South Australian time in 2000.  See:
1344 # <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/brokenh/monthly/regbrok-21jul1999-6.htm">
1345 # Broken Hill to be behind the times
1346 # </a> (1999-07-21).
1347 
1348 # IATA SSIM (1998-09) says that the spring 2000 change for Australian
1349 # Capital Territory, New South Wales except Lord Howe Island and Broken
1350 # Hill, and Victoria will be August 27, presumably due to the Sydney Olympics.
1351 
1352 # From Eric Ulevik, referring to Sydney's Sun Herald (2000-08-13), page 29:
1353 # The Queensland Premier Peter Beattie is encouraging northern NSW
1354 # towns to use Queensland time.
1355 
1356 # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1357 # See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1358 
1359 # Yancowinna
1360 
1361 # From John Mackin (1989-01-04):
1362 # `Broken Hill' means the County of Yancowinna.
1363 
1364 # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1365 # # YANCOWINNA..  [ Confirmation courtesy of Broken Hill Postmaster ]
1366 # #                                     [ Dec 1990 ]
1367 # ...
1368 # # Yancowinna uses Central Standard Time, despite [its] location on the
1369 # # New South Wales side of the S.A. border. Most business and social dealings
1370 # # are with CST zones, therefore CST is legislated by local government
1371 # # although the switch to Summer Time occurs in line with N.S.W. There have
1372 # # been years when this did not apply, but the historical data is not
1373 # # presently available.
1374 # Zone  Australia/Yancowinna    9:30     AY     %sST
1375 # ...
1376 # Rule   AY     1971    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1377 # Rule   AY     1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 3:00    0       C
1378 # [followed by other Rules]
1379 
1380 # Lord Howe Island
1381 
1382 # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1383 # LHI...                [ Courtesy of Pauline Van Winsen ]
1384 #                                       [ Dec 1990 ]
1385 # Lord Howe Island is located off the New South Wales coast, and is half an
1386 # hour ahead of NSW time.
1387 
1388 # From James Lonergan, Secretary, Lord Howe Island Board (2000-01-27):
1389 # Lord Howe Island summer time in 2000/2001 will commence on the same
1390 # date as the rest of NSW (i.e. 2000-08-27).  For your information the
1391 # Lord Howe Island Board (controlling authority for the Island) is
1392 # seeking the community's views on various options for summer time
1393 # arrangements on the Island, e.g. advance clocks by 1 full hour
1394 # instead of only 30 minutes.  [Dependent] on the wishes of residents
1395 # the Board may approach the NSW government to change the existing
1396 # arrangements.  The starting date for summer time on the Island will
1397 # however always coincide with the rest of NSW.
1398 
1399 # From James Lonergan, Secretary, Lord Howe Island Board (2000-10-25):
1400 # Lord Howe Island advances clocks by 30 minutes during DST in NSW and retards
1401 # clocks by 30 minutes when DST finishes. Since DST was most recently
1402 # introduced in NSW, the "changeover" time on the Island has been 02:00 as
1403 # shown on clocks on LHI. I guess this means that for 30 minutes at the start
1404 # of DST, LHI is actually 1 hour ahead of the rest of NSW.
1405 
1406 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1407 # For Lord Howe dates we use Shanks & Pottenger through 1989, and
1408 # Lonergan thereafter.  For times we use Lonergan.
1409 
1410 # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1411 # See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1412 
1413 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-04-28):
1414 # According to the official press release, South Australia's extended daylight
1415 # saving period will continue with the same rules as used during the 2008-2009
1416 # summer (southern hemisphere).
1417 #
1418 # From
1419 # <a href="http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/uploaded_files/DaylightDatesSet.pdf">
1420 # http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/uploaded_files/DaylightDatesSet.pdf
1421 # </a>
1422 # The extended daylight saving period that South Australia has been trialling
1423 # for over the last year is now set to be ongoing.
1424 # Daylight saving will continue to start on the first Sunday in October each
1425 # year and finish on the first Sunday in April the following year.
1426 # Industrial Relations Minister, Paul Caica, says this provides South Australia
1427 # with a consistent half hour time difference with NSW, Victoria, Tasmania and
1428 # the ACT for all 52 weeks of the year...
1429 #
1430 # We have a wrap-up here:
1431 # <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/south-australia-extends-dst.html">
1432 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/south-australia-extends-dst.html
1433 # </a>
1434 ###############################################################################
1435 
1436 # New Zealand
1437 
1438 # From Mark Davies (1990-10-03):
1439 # the 1989/90 year was a trial of an extended "daylight saving" period.
1440 # This trial was deemed successful and the extended period adopted for
1441 # subsequent years (with the addition of a further week at the start).
1442 # source -- phone call to Ministry of Internal Affairs Head Office.
1443 
1444 # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1445 # # The Country of New Zealand   (Australia's east island -) Gee they hate that!
1446 # #                                or is Australia the west island of N.Z.
1447 # #     [ courtesy of Geoff Tribble.. Auckland N.Z. ]
1448 # #                             [ Nov 1990 ]
1449 # ...
1450 # Rule  NZ      1974    1988    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1451 # Rule  NZ      1989    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
1452 # Rule  NZ      1975    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       S
1453 # Rule  NZ      1990    max     -       Mar     lastSun 3:00    0       S
1454 # ...
1455 # Zone  NZ                      12:00   NZ              NZ%sT   # New Zealand
1456 # Zone  NZ-CHAT                 12:45   -               NZ-CHAT # Chatham Island
1457 
1458 # From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
1459 # The chosen rules use the Davies October 8 values for the start of DST in 1989
1460 # rather than the October 1 value.
1461 
1462 # From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19);
1463 # Shank & Pottenger report 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and NZ.
1464 # Robert Uzgalis writes that the New Zealand Daylight
1465 # Savings Time Order in Council dated 1990-06-18 specifies 2:00 standard
1466 # time on both the first Sunday in October and the third Sunday in March.
1467 # As with Australia, we'll assume the tradition is 2:00s, not 2:00.
1468 #
1469 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1470 # The Department of Internal Affairs (DIA) maintains a brief history,
1471 # as does Carol Squires; see tz-link.htm for the full references.
1472 # Use these sources in preference to Shanks & Pottenger.
1473 #
1474 # For Chatham, IATA SSIM (1991/1999) gives the NZ rules but with
1475 # transitions at 2:45 local standard time; this confirms that Chatham
1476 # is always exactly 45 minutes ahead of Auckland.
1477 
1478 # From Colin Sharples (2007-04-30):
1479 # DST will now start on the last Sunday in September, and end on the
1480 # first Sunday in April.  The changes take effect this year, meaning
1481 # that DST will begin on 2007-09-30 2008-04-06.
1482 # http://www.dia.govt.nz/diawebsite.nsf/wpg_URL/Services-Daylight-Saving-Daylight-saving-to-be-extended
1483 
1484 ###############################################################################
1485 
1486 
1487 # Fiji
1488 
1489 # Howse writes (p 153) that in 1879 the British governor of Fiji
1490 # enacted an ordinance standardizing the islands on Antipodean Time
1491 # instead of the American system (which was one day behind).
1492 
1493 # From Rives McDow (1998-10-08):
1494 # Fiji will introduce DST effective 0200 local time, 1998-11-01
1495 # until 0300 local time 1999-02-28.  Each year the DST period will
1496 # be from the first Sunday in November until the last Sunday in February.
1497 
1498 # From Paul Eggert (2000-01-08):
1499 # IATA SSIM (1999-09) says DST ends 0100 local time.  Go with McDow.
1500 
1501 # From the BBC World Service (1998-10-31 11:32 UTC):
1502 # The Fijiian government says the main reasons for the time change is to
1503 # improve productivity and reduce road accidents.  But correspondents say it
1504 # also hopes the move will boost Fiji's ability to compete with other pacific
1505 # islands in the effort to attract tourists to witness the dawning of the new
1506 # millenium.
1507 
1508 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/press/2000_09/2000_09_13-05.shtml (2000-09-13)
1509 # reports that Fiji has discontinued DST.
1510 
1511 # Johnston
1512 
1513 # Johnston data is from usno1995.
1514 
1515 
1516 # Kiribati
1517 
1518 # From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22):
1519 # Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (page 1) reports that Kiribati
1520 # ``declared it the same day [throughout] the country as of Jan. 1, 1995''
1521 # as part of the competition to be first into the 21st century.
1522 
1523 
1524 # Kwajalein
1525 
1526 # In comp.risks 14.87 (26 August 1993), Peter Neumann writes:
1527 # I wonder what happened in Kwajalein, where there was NO Friday,
1528 # 1993-08-20.  Thursday night at midnight Kwajalein switched sides with
1529 # respect to the International Date Line, to rejoin its fellow islands,
1530 # going from 11:59 p.m. Thursday to 12:00 m. Saturday in a blink.
1531 
1532 
1533 # N Mariana Is, Guam
1534 
1535 # Howse writes (p 153) ``The Spaniards, on the other hand, reached the
1536 # Philippines and the Ladrones from America,'' and implies that the Ladrones
1537 # (now called the Marianas) kept American date for quite some time.
1538 # For now, we assume the Ladrones switched at the same time as the Philippines;
1539 # see Asia/Manila.
1540 
1541 # US Public Law 106-564 (2000-12-23) made UTC+10 the official standard time,
1542 # under the name "Chamorro Standard Time".  There is no official abbreviation,
1543 # but Congressman Robert A. Underwood, author of the bill that became law,
1544 # wrote in a press release (2000-12-27) that he will seek the use of "ChST".
1545 
1546 
1547 # Micronesia
1548 
1549 # Alan Eugene Davis writes (1996-03-16),
1550 # ``I am certain, having lived there for the past decade, that "Truk"
1551 # (now properly known as Chuuk) ... is in the time zone GMT+10.''
1552 #
1553 # Shanks & Pottenger write that Truk switched from UTC+10 to UTC+11
1554 # on 1978-10-01; ignore this for now.
1555 
1556 # From Paul Eggert (1999-10-29):
1557 # The Federated States of Micronesia Visitors Board writes in
1558 # <a href="http://www.fsmgov.org/info/clocks.html">
1559 # The Federated States of Micronesia - Visitor Information
1560 # </a> (1999-01-26)
1561 # that Truk and Yap are UTC+10, and Ponape and Kosrae are UTC+11.
1562 # We don't know when Kosrae switched from UTC+12; assume January 1 for now.
1563 
1564 
1565 # Midway
1566 
1567 # From Charles T O'Connor, KMTH DJ (1956),
1568 # quoted in the KTMH section of the Radio Heritage Collection
1569 # <http://radiodx.com/spdxr/KMTH.htm> (2002-12-31):
1570 # For the past two months we've been on what is known as Daylight
1571 # Saving Time.  This time has put us on air at 5am in the morning,
1572 # your time down there in New Zealand.  Starting September 2, 1956
1573 # we'll again go back to Standard Time.  This'll mean that we'll go to
1574 # air at 6am your time.
1575 #
1576 # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23):
1577 # We don't know the date of that quote, but we'll guess they
1578 # started DST on June 3.  Possibly DST was observed other years
1579 # in Midway, but we have no record of it.
1580 
1581 
1582 # Pitcairn
1583 
1584 # From Rives McDow (1999-11-08):
1585 # A Proclamation was signed by the Governor of Pitcairn on the 27th March 1998
1586 # with regard to Pitcairn Standard Time.  The Proclamation is as follows.
1587 #
1588 #       The local time for general purposes in the Islands shall be
1589 #       Co-ordinated Universal time minus 8 hours and shall be known
1590 #       as Pitcairn Standard Time.
1591 #
1592 # ... I have also seen Pitcairn listed as UTC minus 9 hours in several
1593 # references, and can only assume that this was an error in interpretation
1594 # somehow in light of this proclamation.
1595 
1596 # From Rives McDow (1999-11-09):
1597 # The Proclamation regarding Pitcairn time came into effect on 27 April 1998
1598 # ... at midnight.
1599 
1600 # From Howie Phelps (1999-11-10), who talked to a Pitcairner via shortwave:
1601 # Betty Christian told me yesterday that their local time is the same as
1602 # Pacific Standard Time. They used to be 1/2 hour different from us here in
1603 # Sacramento but it was changed a couple of years ago.
1604 
1605 
1606 # Samoa
1607 
1608 # Howse writes (p 153, citing p 10 of the 1883-11-18 New York Herald)
1609 # that in 1879 the King of Samoa decided to change
1610 # ``the date in his kingdom from the Antipodean to the American system,
1611 # ordaining -- by a masterpiece of diplomatic flattery -- that
1612 # the Fourth of July should be celebrated twice in that year.''
1613 
1614 
1615 # Tonga
1616 
1617 # From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22):
1618 # Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (p 1) reports that ``Tonga has been plotting
1619 # to sneak ahead of [New Zealanders] by introducing daylight-saving time.''
1620 # Since Kiribati has moved the Date Line it's not clear what Tonga will do.
1621 
1622 # Don Mundell writes in the 1997-02-20 Tonga Chronicle
1623 # <a href="http://www.tongatapu.net.to/tonga/homeland/timebegins.htm">
1624 # How Tonga became `The Land where Time Begins'
1625 # </a>:
1626 
1627 # Until 1941 Tonga maintained a standard time 50 minutes ahead of NZST
1628 # 12 hours and 20 minutes ahead of GMT.  When New Zealand adjusted its
1629 # standard time in 1940s, Tonga had the choice of subtracting from its
1630 # local time to come on the same standard time as New Zealand or of
1631 # advancing its time to maintain the differential of 13 degrees
1632 # (approximately 50 minutes ahead of New Zealand time).
1633 #
1634 # Because His Majesty King Taufa'ahau Tupou IV, then Crown Prince
1635 # Tungi, preferred to ensure Tonga's title as the land where time
1636 # begins, the Legislative Assembly approved the latter change.
1637 #
1638 # But some of the older, more conservative members from the outer
1639 # islands objected. "If at midnight on Dec. 31, we move ahead 40
1640 # minutes, as your Royal Highness wishes, what becomes of the 40
1641 # minutes we have lost?"
1642 #
1643 # The Crown Prince, presented an unanswerable argument: "Remember that
1644 # on the World Day of Prayer, you would be the first people on Earth
1645 # to say your prayers in the morning."
1646 
1647 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1648 # Shanks & Pottenger say the transition was on 1968-10-01; go with Mundell.
1649 
1650 # From Eric Ulevik (1999-05-03):
1651 # Tonga's director of tourism, who is also secretary of the National Millenium
1652 # Committee, has a plan to get Tonga back in front.
1653 # He has proposed a one-off move to tropical daylight saving for Tonga from
1654 # October to March, which has won approval in principle from the Tongan
1655 # Government.
1656 
1657 # From Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
1658 # * Tonga will introduce DST in November
1659 #
1660 # I was given this link by John Letts:
1661 # <a href="http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_424000/424764.stm">
1662 # http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_424000/424764.stm
1663 # </a>
1664 #
1665 # I have not been able to find exact dates for the transition in November
1666 # yet. By reading this article it seems like Fiji will be 14 hours ahead
1667 # of UTC as well, but as far as I know Fiji will only be 13 hours ahead
1668 # (12 + 1 hour DST).
1669 
1670 # From Arthur David Olson (1999-09-20):
1671 # According to <a href="http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html">
1672 # http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html
1673 # </a>:
1674 # "Daylight Savings Time will take effect on Oct. 2 through April 15, 2000
1675 # and annually thereafter from the first Saturday in October through the
1676 # third Saturday of April.  Under the system approved by Privy Council on
1677 # Sept. 10, clocks must be turned ahead one hour on the opening day and
1678 # set back an hour on the closing date."
1679 # Alas, no indication of the time of day.
1680 
1681 # From Rives McDow (1999-10-06):
1682 # Tonga started its Daylight Saving on Saturday morning October 2nd at 0200am.
1683 # Daylight Saving ends on April 16 at 0300am which is Sunday morning.
1684 
1685 # From Steffen Thorsen (2000-10-31):
1686 # Back in March I found a notice on the website http://www.tongaonline.com
1687 # that Tonga changed back to standard time one month early, on March 19
1688 # instead of the original reported date April 16. Unfortunately, the article
1689 # is no longer available on the site, and I did not make a copy of the
1690 # text, and I have forgotten to report it here.
1691 # (Original URL was: http://www.tongaonline.com/news/march162000.htm )
1692 
1693 # From Rives McDow (2000-12-01):
1694 # Tonga is observing DST as of 2000-11-04 and will stop on 2001-01-27.
1695 
1696 # From Sione Moala-Mafi (2001-09-20) via Rives McDow:
1697 # At 2:00am on the first Sunday of November, the standard time in the Kingdom
1698 # shall be moved forward by one hour to 3:00am.  At 2:00am on the last Sunday
1699 # of January the standard time in the Kingdom shall be moved backward by one
1700 # hour to 1:00am.
1701 
1702 # From Pulu 'Anau (2002-11-05):
1703 # The law was for 3 years, supposedly to get renewed.  It wasn't.
1704 
1705 
1706 # Wake
1707 
1708 # From Vernice Anderson, Personal Secretary to Philip Jessup,
1709 # US Ambassador At Large (oral history interview, 1971-02-02):
1710 #
1711 # Saturday, the 14th [of October, 1950] -- ...  The time was all the
1712 # more confusing at that point, because we had crossed the
1713 # International Date Line, thus getting two Sundays.  Furthermore, we
1714 # discovered that Wake Island had two hours of daylight saving time
1715 # making calculation of time in Washington difficult if not almost
1716 # impossible.
1717 #
1718 # http://www.trumanlibrary.org/wake/meeting.htm
1719 
1720 # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23):
1721 # We have no other report of DST in Wake Island, so omit this info for now.
1722 
1723 ###############################################################################
1724 
1725 # The International Date Line
1726 
1727 # From Gwillim Law (2000-01-03):
1728 #
1729 # The International Date Line is not defined by any international standard,
1730 # convention, or treaty.  Mapmakers are free to draw it as they please.
1731 # Reputable mapmakers will simply ensure that every point of land appears on
1732 # the correct side of the IDL, according to the date legally observed there.
1733 #
1734 # When Kiribati adopted a uniform date in 1995, thereby moving the Phoenix and
1735 # Line Islands to the west side of the IDL (or, if you prefer, moving the IDL
1736 # to the east side of the Phoenix and Line Islands), I suppose that most
1737 # mapmakers redrew the IDL following the boundary of Kiribati.  Even that line
1738 # has a rather arbitrary nature.  The straight-line boundaries between Pacific
1739 # island nations that are shown on many maps are based on an international
1740 # convention, but are not legally binding national borders.... The date is
1741 # governed by the IDL; therefore, even on the high seas, there may be some
1742 # places as late as fourteen hours later than UTC.  And, since the IDL is not
1743 # an international standard, there are some places on the high seas where the
1744 # correct date is ambiguous.
1745 
1746 # From Wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_zone> (2005-08-31):
1747 # Before 1920, all ships kept local apparent time on the high seas by setting
1748 # their clocks at night or at the morning sight so that, given the ship's
1749 # speed and direction, it would be 12 o'clock when the Sun crossed the ship's
1750 # meridian (12 o'clock = local apparent noon).  During 1917, at the
1751 # Anglo-French Conference on Time-keeping at Sea, it was recommended that all
1752 # ships, both military and civilian, should adopt hourly standard time zones
1753 # on the high seas.  Whenever a ship was within the territorial waters of any
1754 # nation it would use that nation's standard time.  The captain was permitted
1755 # to change his ship's clocks at a time of his choice following his ship's
1756 # entry into another zone time--he often chose midnight.  These zones were
1757 # adopted by all major fleets between 1920 and 1925 but not by many
1758 # independent merchant ships until World War II.
1759 
1760 # From Paul Eggert, using references suggested by Oscar van Vlijmen
1761 # (2005-03-20):
1762 #
1763 # The American Practical Navigator (2002)
1764 # <http://pollux.nss.nima.mil/pubs/pubs_j_apn_sections.html?rid=187>
1765 # talks only about the 180-degree meridian with respect to ships in
1766 # international waters; it ignores the international date line.
--- EOF ---